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Sample records for random preloaded subsets

  1. Effect of consuming salad and yogurt as preload on body weight management and cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakht, Leila; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Karimi, Golgis; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    Few investigations reported the reductive effect of preload consuming on energy intake. The objective of the study was to compare the effects of consuming a mix of low glycaemic index foods such as vegetable salad, yogurt and water before or with meal on anthropometric measures and cardio vascular diseases (CVD) risks. In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 25 men and 35 women were recruited to consume similar amounts of macronutrients within a hypocaloric diet for 3 months. Although subjects in the preload group consumed preload 15 min before the main meal, subjects in the control group consumed them with meal. The results showed that body weight, waist circumference, triglyceride, total cholesterol and systolic blood pressure decreased in more amount in the preload group ( - 7.8 ± 0.5%, - 2.7 ± 0.2%, - 5.7 ± 1.1%, - 3.1 ± 0.53% and - 4.4 ± 0.4%, respectively; p cholesterol decreased significantly only in the preload group. Consuming vegetable salad, yogurt and water as preload leads to greater changes in anthropometric measures and CVD risks.

  2. Comparison between colloid preload and crystalloid co-load in cesarean section under spinal anesthesia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, M M; Hayes, S M; Jacoub, F Y; Badran, B A; Gohar, F M; Shabana, A M; Abdelkhalek, M; Emara, M M

    2014-11-01

    Hypotension is a common problem during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Intravenous fluid loading is used to correct preoperative dehydration and reduce the incidence and severity of hypotension. Different fluid regimens have been studied but colloid preload and crystalloid co-load have not been compared. In this randomized double-blind study, 210 patients scheduled for elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated to receive either 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 500 mL before spinal anesthesia (colloid preload) or Ringer's acetate solution 1000 mL administered rapidly starting with intrathecal injection (crystalloid co-load). Maternal hypotension (systolic blood pressure colloid preload group and 102 in the crystalloid co-load group. There were no significant differences in the incidence of hypotension (52.4% vs. 42.2%; P=0.18) or severe hypotension (15.5% vs. 9.8%; P=0.31) between colloid preload and crystalloid co-load groups, respectively. The median [range] ephedrine dose was 5 [0-45]mg in the colloid preload group and 0 [0-35]mg in the crystalloid co-load group (P=0.065). There were no significant differences in maternal nausea or vomiting or neonatal outcomes between groups. The use of 1000 mL crystalloid co-load has similar effect to 500 mL colloid preload in reducing the incidence of hypotension after spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery. Neither technique can totally prevent hypotension and should be combined with vasopressor use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Combined use of crystalloid preload and low dose spinal anesthesia for preventing hypotension in spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerghi, Sonia; Bougacha, Mohamed A; Frikha, Nabil; Mestiri, Taher; Ben Ammar, Mohamed S; Mebazaa, Mhamed S

    2010-06-01

    Spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section is commonly associated with hypotension and crystalloid preload is widely recommended. Low-dose spinal appears to cause less hypotension. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the combined use of crystalloid preload and low dose spinal anaesthesia might further reduce the rates of hypotension. Sixty-two patients were randomly assigned to two groups: crystalloid preload anaesthesia (P): received a rapid infusion of 20 mL/kg lactated Ringer's solution (LR), and no preload anaesthesia (N). The incidence of hypotension and the amount of ephedrine used to treat it were compared. Spinal anaesthesia was performed with 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine 7.5 mg and fentanyl 10 microg and morphine 100 microg. The incidence of hypotension was similar in the P and N groups. Same doses of ephedrine were required to treat hypotension in the two groups. Crystalloid preload combined with low-dose spinal anaesthesia do not reduce the incidence of hypotension nor its severity.

  4. Preloaded Motorway Embankments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfelt, Jørgen S.; Jørgensen, Mogens B.; Jørgensen, P.O.

    Road construction, particularly involving soft soil replacement, draws very heavily on the scarce resources of sand and gravel. One environmentally appealing alternative to complete soft soil replacement is pre-loading where the sand/gravel materials may be re-used along the road alignment....... The paper describes the first application of the method for motorways in connection with the completion of the Danish motorway infrastructure. To validate the feasibility of pre-loading an instrumented test embankment was constructed in the alignment. In the paper the extensive site characterisation...

  5. Preloaded Motorway Embankments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfelt, J. S.; Jørgensen, Mogens B.; Jørgensen, P. O.

    1999-01-01

    Road construction, particularly involving soft soil replacement, draws very heavily on the scarce resources of sand and gravel. One environmentally appealing alternative to complete soft soil replacement is preloading where the sand/gravel materials may be re-used along the road alignment....... The paper describes the first application of the method for motorways in connection with the completion of the Danish motorway infrastructure. To validate the feasibility of preloading an instrumented test embankment was constructed in the alignment. In the paper the extensive site characterisation...

  6. Random-subset fitting of digital holograms for fast three-dimensional particle tracking [invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimiduk, Thomas G; Perry, Rebecca W; Fung, Jerome; Manoharan, Vinothan N

    2014-09-20

    Fitting scattering solutions to time series of digital holograms is a precise way to measure three-dimensional dynamics of microscale objects such as colloidal particles. However, this inverse-problem approach is computationally expensive. We show that the computational time can be reduced by an order of magnitude or more by fitting to a random subset of the pixels in a hologram. We demonstrate our algorithm on experimentally measured holograms of micrometer-scale colloidal particles, and we show that 20-fold increases in speed, relative to fitting full frames, can be attained while introducing errors in the particle positions of 10 nm or less. The method is straightforward to implement and works for any scattering model. It also enables a parallelization strategy wherein random-subset fitting is used to quickly determine initial guesses that are subsequently used to fit full frames in parallel. This approach may prove particularly useful for studying rare events, such as nucleation, that can only be captured with high frame rates over long times.

  7. DLC screw preload. Loosening prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Aparecida de Mattias Sartori

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The screw loosening is a reason to prosthetic rehabilitation failure. However, the DLC (Diamond-like carbon screw treatment lead thefriction decrease and sliding between the components, which increases the screw preload benefit and decreases the chance of looseningoccurrence. This case shows a clinical indication of the association of the correct preload applied and the DLC screw, which can be considered an optimized protocol to solve screw loosening recidivate of unitary prosthesis in anterior maxillary site.

  8. Effects of polydextrose with breakfast or with a midmorning preload on food intake and other appetite-related parameters in healthy normal-weight and overweight females: An acute, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Alvin; Olli, Kaisa; Pasman, Wilrike; Hendriks, Henk; Alhoniemi, Esa; Raza, Ghulam Shere; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Tiihonen, Kirsti

    2017-03-01

    Polydextrose (PDX) reduces subsequent energy intake (EI) when administered at midmorning in single-blind trials of primarily normal-weight men. However, it is unclear if this effect also occurs when PDX is given at breakfast time. Furthermore, for ecological validity, it is desirable to study a female population, including those at risk for obesity. We studied the effects of PDX, served as part of a breakfast or midmorning preload, on subsequent EI and other appetite-related parameters in healthy normal-weight and overweight females. Per earlier studies, the primary outcome was defined as the difference in subsequent EI when PDX was consumed at midmorning versus placebo. Thirty-two volunteers were enrolled in this acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, and crossover trial to examine the effects of 12.5 g of PDX, administered as part of a breakfast or midmorning preload, on subsequent EI, subjective feelings of appetite, well-being, and mood. Gastric emptying rates and the blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, cholecystokinin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine were measured in the group that received PDX as part of their breakfast. There were no differences in EI between volunteers who were fed PDX and placebo. PDX intake with breakfast tended to elevate blood glucose (P = 0.06) during the postabsorptive phase, significantly lowered insulin by 15.7% (P = 0.04), and increased GLP-1 by 39.9% (P = 0.02); no other effects on blood parameters or gastric emptying rates were observed. PDX intake at midmorning reduced hunger by 31.4% during the satiation period (P = 0.02); all other subjective feelings of appetite were unaffected. Volunteers had a uniform mood profile during the study. PDX was well tolerated, causing one mild adverse event throughout the trial. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Laparoscopic versus open appendectomy for the obese patient: a subset analysis from a prospective, randomized, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Tatyan; Katkhouda, Namir; Mason, Rodney J; Cheng, Bon C; Olasky, Jaisa; Sohn, Helen J; Moazzez, Ashkan; Algra, Jeffrey; Chaghouri, Eric; Berne, Thomas V

    2011-04-01

    The clinical outcomes for patients randomized to either open or laparoscopic appendectomy are comparable. However, it is not known whether this is true in the subset of the adult population with higher body mass indexes (BMIs). This study aimed to compare the outcomes of open versus laparoscopic appendectomy in the obese population. A subgroup analysis of a randomized, prospective, double-blind study was conducted at a county academic medical center. Of the 217 randomized patients, 37 had a BMI of 30 kg/m(2) or higher. Open surgery was performed for 14 and laparoscopic surgery for 23 of these patients. The primary outcome measures were the postoperative complication rates. The secondary outcomes were operative time, length of hospital stay, time to resumption of diet, narcotic requirements, and Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 (SF-36) quality-of-life data. No differences in complications between the open and laparoscopic groups were found. Also, no significant differences were seen in any of the secondary outcomes except for a longer operative time among the obese patients. In this study, laparoscopic appendectomy did not show a benefit over the open approach for obese patients with appendicitis.

  10. SORAFENIB FOR OLDER PATIENTS WITH RENAL CELL CARCINOMA: SUBSET ANALYSIS FROM A RANDOMIZED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Eisen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The perception that older cancer patients may be at higher risk than younger patients of toxic effects from cancer therapy but may obtain less clinical benefit from it may be based on the underrepresentation of older patients in clinical trials and the known toxic effects of cytotoxic chemotherapy. It is not known how older patients respond to targeted therapy.Methods.  This retrospective subgroup analysis of data from the phase 3, randomized Treatment Approach in Renal Cancer Global Evaluation Trial examined the safety and efficacy of sorafenib in older (age ≥ 70 years, n = 115 and younger patients (age <70 years, n = 787 who received treatment for advanced renal cell carcinoma. Patient demographics and progression-free survival were recorded. Best tumor response, clinical benefit rate (defined as complete response plus partial response plus stable disease, time to self-reported health status deterioration, and toxic effects were assessed by descriptive statistics. Health-related quality of life was assessed with a Cox proportion- al hazards model. Kaplan - Meier analyses were used to summarize time-to-event data.Results. Median progression-free survival was similar in sorafenib-treated younger patients (23.9 weeks; hazard ratio [HR] for progression compared with placebo = 0.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.47 to 0.66 and older patients (26.3 weeks; HR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.26 to 0.69. Clinical benefit rates among younger and older sorafenib-treated patients were also similar (83.5% and 84.3%, respectively and were superior to those of younger and older placebo-treated patients (53.8% and 62.2%, respectively. Adverse events were predictable and manageable regardless of age. Sorafenib treatment delayed the time to self-reported health status deterioration among both older patients (121 days with sorafenib vs 85 days with placebo; HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.43 to 1.03 and younger patients (90 days with sorafenib vs 52 days with placebo

  11. SORAFENIB FOR OLDER PATIENTS WITH RENAL CELL CARCINOMA: SUBSET ANALYSIS FROM A RANDOMIZED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Eisen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The perception that older cancer patients may be at higher risk than younger patients of toxic effects from cancer therapy but may obtain less clinical benefit from it may be based on the underrepresentation of older patients in clinical trials and the known toxic effects of cytotoxic chemotherapy. It is not known how older patients respond to targeted therapy.Methods.  This retrospective subgroup analysis of data from the phase 3, randomized Treatment Approach in Renal Cancer Global Evaluation Trial examined the safety and efficacy of sorafenib in older (age ≥ 70 years, n = 115 and younger patients (age <70 years, n = 787 who received treatment for advanced renal cell carcinoma. Patient demographics and progression-free survival were recorded. Best tumor response, clinical benefit rate (defined as complete response plus partial response plus stable disease, time to self-reported health status deterioration, and toxic effects were assessed by descriptive statistics. Health-related quality of life was assessed with a Cox proportion- al hazards model. Kaplan - Meier analyses were used to summarize time-to-event data.Results. Median progression-free survival was similar in sorafenib-treated younger patients (23.9 weeks; hazard ratio [HR] for progression compared with placebo = 0.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.47 to 0.66 and older patients (26.3 weeks; HR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.26 to 0.69. Clinical benefit rates among younger and older sorafenib-treated patients were also similar (83.5% and 84.3%, respectively and were superior to those of younger and older placebo-treated patients (53.8% and 62.2%, respectively. Adverse events were predictable and manageable regardless of age. Sorafenib treatment delayed the time to self-reported health status deterioration among both older patients (121 days with sorafenib vs 85 days with placebo; HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.43 to 1.03 and younger patients (90 days with sorafenib vs 52 days with placebo

  12. Probability distribution of von Mises stress in the presence of pre-load.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Field, Richard V.,; Reese, Garth M.

    2013-04-01

    Random vibration under preload is important in multiple endeavors, including those involving launch and re-entry. There are some methods in the literature to begin to address this problem, but there is nothing that accommodates the existence of preloads and the necessity of making probabilistic statements about the stress levels likely to be encountered. An approach to achieve to this goal is presented along with several simple illustrations.

  13. Optimal Subset Selection of Time-Series MODIS Images and Sample Data Transfer with Random Forests for Supervised Classification Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqun Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, various time-series Earth Observation data with multiple bands are freely available, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS datasets including 8-day composites from NASA, and 10-day composites from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS. It is challenging to efficiently use these time-series MODIS datasets for long-term environmental monitoring due to their vast volume and information redundancy. This challenge will be greater when Sentinel 2–3 data become available. Another challenge that researchers face is the lack of in-situ data for supervised modelling, especially for time-series data analysis. In this study, we attempt to tackle the two important issues with a case study of land cover mapping using CCRS 10-day MODIS composites with the help of Random Forests’ features: variable importance, outlier identification. The variable importance feature is used to analyze and select optimal subsets of time-series MODIS imagery for efficient land cover mapping, and the outlier identification feature is utilized for transferring sample data available from one year to an adjacent year for supervised classification modelling. The results of the case study of agricultural land cover classification at a regional scale show that using only about a half of the variables we can achieve land cover classification accuracy close to that generated using the full dataset. The proposed simple but effective solution of sample transferring could make supervised modelling possible for applications lacking sample data.

  14. Optimal Subset Selection of Time-Series MODIS Images and Sample Data Transfer with Random Forests for Supervised Classification Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fuqun; Zhang, Aining

    2016-10-25

    Nowadays, various time-series Earth Observation data with multiple bands are freely available, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) datasets including 8-day composites from NASA, and 10-day composites from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS). It is challenging to efficiently use these time-series MODIS datasets for long-term environmental monitoring due to their vast volume and information redundancy. This challenge will be greater when Sentinel 2-3 data become available. Another challenge that researchers face is the lack of in-situ data for supervised modelling, especially for time-series data analysis. In this study, we attempt to tackle the two important issues with a case study of land cover mapping using CCRS 10-day MODIS composites with the help of Random Forests' features: variable importance, outlier identification. The variable importance feature is used to analyze and select optimal subsets of time-series MODIS imagery for efficient land cover mapping, and the outlier identification feature is utilized for transferring sample data available from one year to an adjacent year for supervised classification modelling. The results of the case study of agricultural land cover classification at a regional scale show that using only about a half of the variables we can achieve land cover classification accuracy close to that generated using the full dataset. The proposed simple but effective solution of sample transferring could make supervised modelling possible for applications lacking sample data.

  15. Preload Sensitivity in Cardiac Assist Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Shiose, Akira; Massiello, Alex; Horvath, David J.; Golding, Leonard A. R.; Lee, Sangjin; Starling, Randall C.

    2013-01-01

    With implantable cardiac assist devices increasingly proving their effectiveness as therapeutic options for end-stage heart failure, it is important for clinicians to understand the unique physiology of device-assisted circulation. Preload sensitivity as it relates to cardiac assist devices is derived from the Frank-Starling relationship between human ventricular filling pressures and ventricular stroke volume. In this review, we stratify the preload sensitivity of 17 implantable cardiac assist devices relative to the native heart and discuss the effect of preload sensitivity on left ventricular volume unloading, levels of cardiac support, and the future development of continuous-flow total artificial heart technology. PMID:23272869

  16. Effects of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination at birth on T and B lymphocyte subsets: Results from a clinical randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birk, N.M.; Nissen, T.N.; Kjaergaard, J.; Hartling, H.J.; Thostesen, L.M.; Kofoed, P.E.; Stensballe, L.G.; Andersen, A.; Pryds, O.; Netea, M.G.; Benn, C.S.; Nielsen, S.D.; Jeppesen, D.L.

    2017-01-01

    The Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine (BCG) has been associated with beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs) on infant health. Within a randomized trial on the effect of neonatal BCG on overall health, we investigated the possible immunological impact of neonatal BCG vaccination on lymphocyte subsets,

  17. Effects of polydextrose with breakfast or with a midmorning preload on food intake and other appetite-related parameters in healthy normal-weight and overweight females: An acute, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and crossover study

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra, Alvin; Olli, Kaisa; Pasman, Wilrike; Hendriks, Henk; Alhoniemi, Esa; Raza, Ghulam Shere; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Tiihonen, Kirsti

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Polydextrose (PDX) reduces subsequent energy intake (EI) when administered at midmorning in single-blind trials of primarily normal-weight men. However, it is unclear if this effect also occurs when PDX is given at breakfast time. Furthermore, for ecological validity, it is desirable to study a female population, including those at risk for obesity. We studied the effects of PDX, served as part of a breakfast or midmorning preload, on subsequent EI and other appetite-related param...

  18. Effects of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on T and B lymphocyte subsets: Results from a clinical randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Kjærgaard, Jesper; Hartling, Hans Jacob; Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Andersen, Andreas; Pryds, Ole; Netea, Mihai G; Benn, Christine Stabell; Nielsen, Susanne Dam; Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth

    2017-09-29

    The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) has been associated with beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs) on infant health. Within a randomized trial on the effect of neonatal BCG on overall health, we investigated the possible immunological impact of neonatal BCG vaccination on lymphocyte subsets, determined by flow cytometry. In 118 infants blood samples were obtained 4 (±2) days post randomization to BCG vaccination or no intervention, and at 3 and 13 months of age. No effects of BCG were found at 4 days. However, BCG increased proportions of effector memory cells at 3 months (Geometric mean ratio (GMR) 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.20-2.21), p = 0.002 for CD4 + T cells and GMR 1.69, 95% CI (1.06-2.70), p = 0.03 for CD8 + T cells), and reduced proportions of late differentiated CD4 + T cells (GMR = 0.62, 95% CI (0.38-1.00), p = 0.05) and apoptotic CD4 + T cells at 13 months (GMR = 0.55, 95% CI (0.32-0.92), p = 0.03). In conclusion, limited overall impact of neonatal BCG vaccination on lymphocyte subsets was found in healthy Danish infants within the first 13 months of life. This is in line with the limited clinical effects of BCG observed in our setting.

  19. Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niswender Kevin D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing dietary energy density has proven to be an effective strategy to reduce energy intakes and promote weight control. This effect appears most robust when a low energy dense preload is consumed before meals. Yet, much discussion continues regarding the optimal form of a preload. The purpose of the present study was to compare effects of a solid (grapefruit, liquid (grapefruit juice and water preload consumed prior to breakfast, lunch and dinner in the context of caloric restriction. Methods Eighty-five obese adults (BMI 30-39.9 were randomly assigned to (127 g grapefruit (GF, grapefruit juice (GFJ or water preload for 12 weeks after completing a 2-week caloric restriction phase. Preloads were matched for weight, calories, water content, and energy density. Weekly measures included blood pressure, weight, anthropometry and 24-hour dietary intakes. Resting energy expenditure, body composition, physical performance and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were assessed. Results The total amount (grams of food consumed did not change over time. Yet, after preloads were combined with caloric restriction, average dietary energy density and total energy intakes decreased by 20-29% from baseline values. Subjects experienced 7.1% weight loss overall, with significant decreases in percentage body, trunk, android and gynoid fat, as well as waist circumferences (-4.5 cm. However, differences were not statistically significant among groups. Nevertheless, the amount and direction of change in serum HDL-cholesterol levels in GF (+6.2% and GFJ (+8.2% preload groups was significantly greater than water preload group (-3.7%. Conclusions These data indicate that incorporating consumption of a low energy dense dietary preload in a caloric restricted diet is a highly effective weight loss strategy. But, the form of the preload did not have differential effects on energy balance, weight loss or body composition. It is notable that subjects in GF

  20. Impact of body habitus on single-site laparoscopic appendectomy for nonperforated appendicitis: subset analysis from a prospective, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, E Marty; Gasior, Alessandra C; Holcomb, George W; Ostlie, Daniel J; St Peter, Shawn D

    2012-05-01

    There have been several series documenting the utility of single-site laparoscopic appendectomy. However, there are no data to support patient selection based on their physical characteristics. We recently completed a large prospective, randomized trial comparing single-site laparoscopic appendectomy with standard three-port laparoscopic appendectomy for nonperforated appendicitis. This dataset was used to examine the relative impact of body habitus on operative approach. We performed an analysis of the dataset collected in a prospective, randomized trial of 360 appendectomy patients who presented with nonperforated appendicitis. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and plotted on a growth chart to obtain BMI percentile according to gender and age. Standard definitions for overweight (BMI 85-95%) and obesity (BMI >95%) were used. In the single-site group there were 26 overweight and 19 obese patients. In the three-port group there were 25 overweight and 16 obese patients. There were no significant differences between overweight and normal with either approach. However, with the single-site approach there was longer mean operative time, more doses of postoperative narcotics given, longer length of stay, and greater hospital charges in obese patients. In the three-port group, there were no differences between normal and obese patients. When using the single-site approach for appendectomy, obesity in children creates longer operative times, more doses of postoperative analgesics, longer length of stay, and greater charges. However, obesity has no impact on three-port appendectomy.

  1. Sustained effects of a protein and lipid preload on glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricò, D; Filice, E; Baldi, S; Frascerra, S; Mari, A; Natali, A

    2016-09-01

    Small amounts of nutrients given as a 'preload' can reduce post-meal hyperglycaemic peaks in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients by activating a number of mechanisms involved in glucose homoeostasis. This study was undertaken to ascertain whether this positive effect extends to the late absorptive phase and to identify the main mechanisms involved. Eight well-controlled T2D patients, aged 40-70 years, were randomized to consume a 'preload' of either water or non-glucidic nutrients (50g of Parmesan cheese, one boiled egg) 30min before a 300-min oral glucose tolerance test. After the nutrient preload, significant reductions were observed in peak glucose (-49%; P<0.02), total plasma glucose (iAUC: -28%; P<0.03), exogenous glucose (iAUC: -30%; P<0.03) and insulin clearance (-28%; P<0.04), with enhancement of insulin secretion (iAUC: +22%; P<0.003). These effects were associated with higher plasma levels of GLP-1 (iAUC: +463%; P<0.002), GIP (iAUC: +152%; P<0.0003) and glucagon (iAUC: +144%; P<0.0002). In T2D patients, a protein and lipid preload improves glucose tolerance throughout the whole post-absorptive phase mainly by reducing the appearance of oral glucose, and improving both beta-cell function and insulin bioavailability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization of Preload in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Shujaat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In sepsis both under- and overresuscitation are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Moreover, sepsis can be complicated by myocardial dysfunction, and only half of the critically ill patients exhibit preload responsiveness. It is of paramount importance to accurately, safely, and rapidly determine and optimize preload during resuscitation. Traditional methods of determining preload based on measurement of pressure in a heart chamber or volume of a heart chamber (“static” parameters are inaccurate and should be abandoned in favor of determining preload responsiveness by using one of the “dynamic parameters” based on respiratory variation in the venous or arterial circulation or based on change in stroke volume in response to an endogenous or exogenous volume challenge. The recent development and validation of a number of noninvasive technologies now allow us to optimize preload in an accurate, safe, rapid and, cost-effective manner.

  3. Laser bending process of preloaded sheet metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Lang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser bending process of preloaded sheet metal was reviewed on theoretical researches, forming experiments, numerical simulations and material performance studies of formed sheets. Considering the pre-bending platforms that used in the forming experiments can only work on few simple pre-bending types and small sized sheet metals, a large and flexible pre-bending platform was developed by authors. Experiments were done on this platform. The results of experiments showed that different pre-bending types lead to bending sheet metals into different curved shapes and large sized structure components of flight vehicles can be formed using this process. Based on the current research status, further developments and challenges of this process are discussed.

  4. [Preloading with 500 ml of Hartmann's solution lessens the incidence and severity of hypotension and reduces the need for ephedrine after epidural anesthesia in ambulatory patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama-Maceiras, P; Aymerich, H; Pensado, A; Figueira, A; Rodríguez-Valladares, M; Cobian-Llamas, J M

    1999-01-01

    Fluid preloading to prevent hypotension after epidural anesthesia has been widely questioned, although few studies have been performed in outpatients. To evaluate the incidence and severity of hypotension, and the need for vasoactive agents after epidural anesthesia in outpatients who did or did not receive fluid preloading. Forty patients under 55 years of age (ASA I and II) undergoing general surgery on an outpatient basis were assigned randomly to two groups of 20 according to whether they were to receive loading with Hartmann's solution or not before epidural anesthesia. All received a similar epidural dose of 2% mepivacaine. Hypotension was defined as a decrease of 20% in systolic or mean blood pressure in comparison with baseline, or absolute pressures of < 90 and 60 mmHg, respectively. Hypotension was treated with 5 mg boluses of ephedrine. Fourteen patients in the non-preloading group and 5 in the preloading group developed hypotension (p < 0.05). Hypotensive episodes were fewer in patients receiving preloading fluids (0.5 +/- 1.2 versus 2.0 +/- 2.4; p < 0.05). The ephedrine dose required was higher in non-preloaded patients than in preloaded ones (10.0 +/- 12.2 versus 2.6 +/- 6.3 mg; p < 0.05). Time until presentation of hypotension was longer for non-preloaded patients. For patients undergoing outpatient surgery, fluid preloading with 500 ml of Hartman's solution decreases both the incidence and severity of hypotension, as well as the need for vasoactive drugs after epidural anesthesia.

  5. Comparison of colloid preload versus coload under low dose spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Rohit; Jain, Gaurav

    2013-01-01

    Although fluid bolus is considered as a conventional prophylactic measure to prevent spinal-induced hypotension; vasopressors are nevertheless required. Low dose spinal anesthetics could markedly reduce such episodes of hypotension, by minimizing sympathetic blockade. We chose to compare the relative efficacy of colloid preload versus coload under low dose spinal anesthesia, for elective cesarean delivery. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. In total, 42 parturients were randomized to receive a preload (Group P) of hydroxyl ethyl starch (10 ml/kg) over 20 min before initiation of low dose spinal anesthesia (hyperbaric bupivacaine 5.5 mg with fentanyl 25 μg) or coload (Group C) of an identical fluid over 5 min, starting at the time of identification of cerebrospinal fluid. Our primary outcome included hemodynamic parameters and the incidence of hypotension. The neonatal outcome and side-effects were also monitored. Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher's exact/Chi-square test, whichever appropriate. A P advantage over the coload strategy, in reducing hypotensive episodes under low dose spinal anesthesia. Preload is better under large hemodynamic fluctuations while coload is preferable for emergency scenarios.

  6. Subsets of configurations and canonical partition functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, J.; Bruckmann, F.; Kieburg, M.

    2013-01-01

    We explain the physical nature of the subset solution to the sign problem in chiral random matrix theory: the subset sum over configurations is shown to project out the canonical determinant with zero quark charge from a given configuration. As the grand canonical chiral random matrix partition...

  7. Influence of the timing of administration of crystalloid on maternal hypotension during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery: preload versus coload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ah-Young; Hwang, Jung-Won; Song, In-Ae; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Ryu, Jung-Hee; Park, Hee-Pyoung; Jeon, Yeong-Tae; Do, Sang-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Prophylactic fluid preloading before spinal anesthesia has been a routine procedure to prevent maternal hypotension during cesarean delivery. Unlike colloid, timing of infusion of crystalloid may be important because of its short stay in intravascular space. We hypothesized that crystalloid loading just after intrathecal injection compared to preload would be more effective in preventing maternal hypotension. In this prospective controlled study, sixty parturients were randomized to receive 15 ml/kg of crystalloid before (preload group) or after (coload group) intrathecal drug injection for spinal anesthesia. Hypotension was defined if systolic arterial pressure decreased below 80% of baseline and ephedrine was administered to treat hypotension. The incidence of hypotension and the total dose of ephedrine were checked. Blood pressure, heart rate and nausea before childbirth were assessed. Neonatal outcomes were evaluated with Apgar scores and umbilical blood gas analysis. The incidence of hypotension was lower in the coload group compared to the preload group (53% vs. 83%, P = 0.026). The blood pressure showed the bigger drop during spinal anesthesia in the preload group (34 ± 13 vs. 25 ± 10 mmHg, P = 0.002) and smaller dose of ephedrine was required in the coload group (7.5 [0-30] vs. 15 [0-40] mg, P = 0.015). The incidence of nausea was also lower in the coload group (27% vs. 60%, P = 0.019). Neonatal outcome measures were comparable between two groups. In case of using crystalloids for cesarean delivery, coload is more effective than preload for the prevention of maternal hypotension after spinal anesthesia. Clinical Research Information Service KCT0000324 (Jan 12(th), 2012).

  8. Ultrasonic Method for Deployment Mechanism Bolt Element Preload Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric C.; Kim, Yong M.; Morris, Fred A.; Mitchell, Joel; Pan, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Deployment mechanisms play a pivotal role in mission success. These mechanisms often incorporate bolt elements for which a preload within a specified range is essential for proper operation. A common practice is to torque these bolt elements to a specified value during installation. The resulting preload, however, can vary significantly with applied torque for a number of reasons. The goal of this effort was to investigate ultrasonic methods as an alternative for bolt preload verification in such deployment mechanisms. A family of non-explosive release mechanisms widely used by satellite manufacturers was chosen for the work. A willing contractor permitted measurements on a sampling of bolt elements for these release mechanisms that were installed by a technician following a standard practice. A variation of approximately 50% (+/- 25%) in the resultant preloads was observed. An alternative ultrasonic method to set the preloads was then developed and calibration data was accumulated. The method was demonstrated on bolt elements installed in a fixture instrumented with a calibrated load cell and designed to mimic production practice. The ultrasonic method yielded results within +/- 3% of the load cell reading. The contractor has since adopted the alternative method for its future production. Introduction

  9. Preloaded freeplay wide-bandwidth low-frequency piezoelectric harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpes, N.; Abdelkefi, A.; Hajj, M. R.; Heo, J.; Cho, K.-H.; Priya, S.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a technique for increasing the bandwidth of resonant low-frequency (<100 Hz) piezoelectric energy harvesters based on the modification of the clamped boundary condition of cantilevers, termed here as preloaded freeplay boundary condition. The effects of the preloaded freeplay boundary condition are quantified in terms of the fundamental frequency, frequency response, and power output for two beam configurations, namely, classical cantilevered bimorph piezoelectric energy harvester and zigzag unimorph piezoelectric energy harvester. A comparative analysis was performed between both the harvesters to empirically establish the advantages of the preloaded freeplay boundary condition. Using this approach, we demonstrate that the coupled degree-of-freedom dynamics results in an approximate 4-7 times increase in half-power bandwidth over the fixed boundary condition case.

  10. Post Preloading Creep Properties of Highly Compressible Harbor Marine Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciscus Xaverius Toha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experimental research in creep behavior of soft clay marine sediments was done to investigate creep strain under reloading. A total of 52 oedometer tests were carried out with 16 slurry sediment samples subjected to cycles of unloading at preload removal pressure and reloading to higher design pressures. Common practice as well as more recent advanced methods of creep deformation analysis were used to refine the predictions. The study indicates that although preloading substantially reduces post construction creep, the analysis is very sensitive to creep indices at slight overconsolidation and the resulting creep may not be negligible at previously established limits of primary to secondary compression ratios.

  11. Efficacy of water preloading before main meals as a strategy for weight loss in primary care patients with obesity: RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parretti, Helen M; Aveyard, Paul; Blannin, Andrew; Clifford, Susan J; Coleman, Sarah J; Roalfe, Andrea; Daley, Amanda J

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the efficacy of water preloading before meals as a weight loss strategy for adults with obesity. A two-group randomized controlled trial was conducted in Birmingham, England. Eighty-four adults with obesity were recruited from general practices. All participants were given a face-to-face weight management consultation at baseline (30 min) and a follow-up telephone consultation at 2 weeks (10 min). At baseline, participants were randomized to either drinking 500 ml of water 30 min before their main meals or an attention control group where participants were asked to imagine their stomach was full before meals. The primary outcome was weight change at 12-week follow-up. Several measures of adherence were also used, including 24 h total urine collections. 41 participants were randomized to the intervention group and 43 to the comparator group. The water preloading group lost -1.3 kg (95% CI -2.4 to -0.1, P = 0.028) more than comparators at follow up. Adjusting for ethnicity, deprivation, age, and gender resulted in the intervention group losing -1.2 kg (95% CI -2.4 to 0.07, P = 0.063) more than the comparator. There is preliminary evidence that water preloading before main meals leads to a moderate weight loss at follow up. ISRCTN33238158. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  12. Factoring groups into subsets

    CERN Document Server

    Szabo, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Decomposing an abelian group into a direct sum of its subsets leads to results that can be applied to a variety of areas, such as number theory, geometry of tilings, coding theory, cryptography, graph theory, and Fourier analysis. Focusing mainly on cyclic groups, Factoring Groups into Subsets explores the factorization theory of abelian groups. The book first shows how to construct new factorizations from old ones. The authors then discuss nonperiodic and periodic factorizations, quasiperiodicity, and the factoring of periodic subsets. They also examine how tiling plays an important role in n

  13. Unsupervised Feature Subset Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndberg-Madsen, Nicolaj; Thomsen, C.; Pena, Jose

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies filter and hybrid filter-wrapper feature subset selection for unsupervised learning (data clustering). We constrain the search for the best feature subset by scoring the dependence of every feature on the rest of the features, conjecturing that these scores discriminate some ir...... irrelevant features. We report experimental results on artificial and real data for unsupervised learning of naive Bayes models. Both the filter and hybrid approaches perform satisfactorily....

  14. Comparison of pentastarch and Hartmann's solution for volume preloading in spinal anaesthesia for elective caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, G W; White, J B; Howell, S J; Popat, M

    1999-09-01

    We studied 160 patients undergoing elective Caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia who received a preloading volume of 15 ml kg-1 of 10% pentastarch in 0.9% saline, or Hartmann's solution, in a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. We compared the incidence of spinal-induced hypotension in each group. Hypotension was defined as a decrease in systolic arterial pressure to less than 70% of baseline values or < or = 90 mm Hg, whichever was the greater. The groups were comparable in physical characteristics and there was no serious morbidity. Fetal outcome was similar in both groups. Significantly more patients in the Hartmann's group (n = 38, 47.5%) developed hypotension than in the pentastarch group (n = 10, 12.5%) (P < 0.0001). Linear regression analysis showed that the only significant variable was type of fluid used. Blood glucose concentrations were not related to the presence of hypotension. We conclude that starches may be suitable for preloading in Caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia and provide an alternative to the aggressive use of vasoconstrictors.

  15. Boronophenylalanine uptake in C6 glioma model is dramatically increased by L-DOPA preloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capuani, S. [CNR-INFM SOFT, Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Enrico Fermi Center, Compendio Viminale, Rome (Italy)], E-mail: silvia.capuani@roma1.infn.it; Gili, T. [CNR-INFM SOFT, Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Enrico Fermi Center, Compendio Viminale, Rome (Italy); Bozzali, M. [Neuroimaging Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, Via Ardeatina 306, Rome (Italy); Russo, S. [Victor Horsley Department of Neurosurgery, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London (United Kingdom); Porcari, P. [CNR-INFM SOFT, Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Cametti, C. [CNR-INFM SOFT, Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Muolo, M. [Department of Biological Science, University ' Rome III' , Viale G. Marconi 446, Rome (Italy); D' Amore, E. [Serv. Qual./Sicurezza Sperim. Anim., Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Maraviglia, B. [Enrico Fermi Center, Compendio Viminale, Rome (Italy); Neuroimaging Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, Via Ardeatina 306, Rome (Italy); Lazzarino, G. [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, Catania (Italy); Pastore, F.S. [Department of Neuroscience, Institute of Neurosurgery, University ' Tor Vergata' , Via Montpellier 1, Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    One of the main limitations for BNCT effectiveness is the insufficient intake of {sup 10}B nuclei within tumour cells. This work was aimed at investigating the use of L-DOPA as enhancer for boronophenylalanine (BPA) uptake in the C6 glioma model. The investigation was first performed in vitro, and then extended in vivo to the animal model. BPA accumulation in C6 glioma cells was assessed, using radiowave dielectric spectroscopy (RDS), with and without L-DOPA preloading. C6 glioma cells were also implanted in the brain of 25 rats, randomly assigned to two experimental branches: (1) intra-carotid BPA infusion; (2) intra-carotid BPA infusion after pre-treatment with L-DOPA, administrated 24 h before BPA infusion. All animals were sacrificed, and assessment of BPA concentrations in tumour tissue, normal brain, and blood samples was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). L-DOPA preloading induced a massive increase of BPA concentration either in vitro on C6 glioma cells or in vivo in the animal model tumour. Moreover, no significant difference was found in the normal brain and blood samples between the two animal groups. This study suggests the potential use of L-DOPA as enhancer for BPA accumulation in malignant gliomas eligible for BNCT.

  16. Subset selection in regression

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Originally published in 1990, the first edition of Subset Selection in Regression filled a significant gap in the literature, and its critical and popular success has continued for more than a decade. Thoroughly revised to reflect progress in theory, methods, and computing power, the second edition promises to continue that tradition. The author has thoroughly updated each chapter, incorporated new material on recent developments, and included more examples and references. New in the Second Edition:A separate chapter on Bayesian methodsComplete revision of the chapter on estimationA major example from the field of near infrared spectroscopyMore emphasis on cross-validationGreater focus on bootstrappingStochastic algorithms for finding good subsets from large numbers of predictors when an exhaustive search is not feasible Software available on the Internet for implementing many of the algorithms presentedMore examplesSubset Selection in Regression, Second Edition remains dedicated to the techniques for fitting...

  17. Impact of preloading either dairy or soy milk on postprandial glycemia, insulinemia and gastric emptying in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijuan; Tan, Kevin Wei Jie; Han, Cathy Mok Sook; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2017-02-01

    Milk protein ingestion reduces post-meal glycemia when consumed either before or together with carbohydrate foods. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of dairy and soy milk consumed either before (preload) or together with (co-ingestion) a carbohydrate (bread), on postprandial blood glucose, insulin and gastric emptying in healthy participants. Twelve healthy Chinese male participants were studied on five separate occasions using a randomized crossover design. White wheat bread consumed with water was used as a reference meal. Capillary and venous bloods were sampled pretest and 3.5 h post-test meal for glucose and insulin measurement. Gastric emptying was measured using real-time ultrasonography. Co-ingestion of dairy milk or soy milk with bread lowered postprandial blood glucose response and glycemic index. Co-ingesting soy milk with bread increased insulin response and insulinemic index significantly compared to co-ingestion of dairy milk and preload treatments. Preloads (30 min prior to bread) significantly lowered postprandial glycemia and insulinemia compared to co-ingestion. Gastric emptying was slower after co-ingesting dairy milk with bread than after reference meal. Preloading either soy milk or dairy milk results in greater reduction in glycemic response compared to co-ingestion alone. This dietary practice may have therapeutic advantage in communities consuming high GI diets. Optimal glucose control may have the potential for increasing the time of transition from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes in Asian communities. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT 02151188.

  18. Associations among left ventricular systolic function, tachycardia, and cardiac preload in septic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanspa, Michael J; Shahul, Sajid; Hersh, Andrew; Wilson, Emily L; Olsen, Troy D; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Grissom, Colin K; Brown, Samuel M

    2017-12-01

    In sepsis, tachycardia may indicate low preload, adrenergic stimulation, or both. Adrenergic overstimulation is associated with septic cardiomyopathy. We sought to determine whether tachycardia was associated with left ventricular longitudinal strain, a measure of cardiac dysfunction. We hypothesized an association would primarily exist in patients with high preload. We prospectively observed septic patients admitted to three study ICUs, who underwent early transthoracic echocardiography. We measured longitudinal strain using speckle tracking echocardiography and estimated preload status with an echocardiographic surrogate (E/e'). We assessed correlation between strain and heart rate in patients with low preload (E/e' intermediate preload (E/e' 8-14), and high preload (E/e' > 14), adjusting for disease severity and vasopressor dependence. We studied 452 patients, of whom 298 had both measurable strain and preload. Abnormal strain (defined as >-17%) was present in 54%. Patients with abnormal strain had higher heart rates (100 vs. 93 beat/min, p = 0.001). After adjusting for vasopressor dependence, disease severity, and cardiac preload, we observed an association between heart rate and longitudinal strain (β = 0.05, p = 0.003). This association persisted among patients with high preload (β = 0.07, p = 0.016) and in patients with shock (β = 0.07, p = 0.01), but was absent in patients with low or intermediate preload and those not in shock. Tachycardia is associated with abnormal left ventricular strain in septic patients with high preload. This association was not apparent in patients with low or intermediate preload.

  19. Perbandingan Pemberian Cairan Ringerfundin Saat Anestesi Spinal (Coload Dengan Cairan HES Sebelum Anestesi Spinal (Preload Terhadap Hemodinamik Ibu Dan Skor APGAR BayiPada Seksio Sesarea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Efendi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypotension is the most common complication inspinal anesthesia in cesarean sections performed. One of the prevention neffort is made by way of a coloading crystalloid fluid administration or by preloading colloid fluid. This study aims to determine the effect of fluid types and techniques of which the most excellent in maintaining hemodynamic effects on mother and baby. The research was conducted with a single-blind randomized experimental design included 42 pregnant women ASAII, who underwent cesarean section surgery with spinal anesthesia. After randomization in blocks of permutations, subjects are grouped into two, 21 subjects included in the control group received. 6% HES preloading by 7.5 cc/kg and 21 subjects included in the treatment group received coloading Ringerfund in as much as 20 cc/kg. Blood pressure and pulse rate examined everyone minute until 15 minutes after spinal anesthesia. After it examined every 3 minutes until the operation is complete. After the baby is born an assessment of Apgar score 1 minute and 5 minutes. Data were analyzed with the results of statistical tests that test, Mann Whitney test and Kolmogorov – Smirnov test, where pvalues0.05. There were no significant differences between the two treatment group sof1-minute Apgarscore (p =0.309 and 5 minutes (p=0.154. There is a significant difference to the amount of ephedrine usage between the two groups (p =0.047. The conclusions of this study is the provision of coloading ringer fundin can prevent hypotension after spinal anesthesia as well as HES 6% preloading. No difference between the Apgar scores of 6% HES preloading with coloading ringer fundin. There is a difference between the amount of ephedrine administration preloading HES 6% and coloading ringer fundin.

  20. Comparison of Preloaded Bougie versus Standard Bougie Technique for Endotracheal Intubation in a Cadaveric Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jay B; Maskell, Kevin F; Matlock, Aaron G; Walsh, Ryan M; Skinner, Carl G

    2015-07-01

    We compared intubating with a preloaded bougie (PB) against standard bougie technique in terms of success rates, time to successful intubation and provider preference on a cadaveric airway model. In this prospective, crossover study, healthcare providers intubated a cadaver using the PB technique and the standard bougie technique. Participants were randomly assigned to start with either technique. Following standardized training and practice, procedural success and time for each technique was recorded for each participant. Subsequently, participants were asked to rate their perceived ease of intubation on a visual analogue scale of 1 to 10 (1=difficult and 10=easy) and to select which technique they preferred. 47 participants with variable experience intubating were enrolled at an emergency medicine intern airway course. The success rate of all groups for both techniques was equal (95.7%). The range of times to completion for the standard bougie technique was 16.0-70.2 seconds, with a mean time of 29.7 seconds. The range of times to completion for the PB technique was 15.7-110.9 seconds, with a mean time of 29.4 seconds. There was a non-significant difference of 0.3 seconds (95% confidence interval -2.8 to 3.4 seconds) between the two techniques. Participants rated the relative ease of intubation as 7.3/10 for the standard technique and 7.6/10 for the preloaded technique (p=0.53, 95% confidence interval of the difference -0.97 to 0.50). Thirty of 47 participants subjectively preferred the PB technique (p=0.039). There was no significant difference in success or time to intubation between standard bougie and PB techniques. The majority of participants in this study preferred the PB technique. Until a clear and clinically significant difference is found between these techniques, emergency airway operators should feel confident in using the technique with which they are most comfortable.

  1. The influence of isometric preload on power expressed during bench press in strength-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomei, Sandro; Fukuda, David H; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Merni, Franco

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the power expressed during the bench press exercise in resistance-trained men following different pre-activation conditions. Twenty-two trained men (age 24.1 ± 1.7 years, height 178.6 ± 6.1 cm, body mass 81.1 ± 10.6 kg) completed a maximal effort bench press (1-RM) test (100.0 kg ± 8.1 kg). In a subsequent assessment, each participant performed concentric bench press movements with loads of 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of their 1-RM preceded by either a concentric contraction (CC), a low isometric preload (LIP; 70% 1-RM) or a high isometric preload (HIP; 100% 1-RM) conditions. All movements were performed in a Smith machine with a settable quick-release device. Participants performed all three conditions in randomized fashion. Results indicated that power outputs during the bench press exercise following HIP were significantly (p < 0.05) greater than CC at 20% 1-RM (+9%), 30% 1-RM (+16%) and 40% 1-RM (+14%), and LIP at 20% 1-RM (+4%), 30% 1-RM (+20%) and 40% 1-RM (+15%). No differences were found between conditions at 50% 1-RM. Area under the force-power curve with HIP was greater (p < 0.05) than with CC and LIP. In conclusion, results of this study indicate that the use of a HIP (100% 1-RM) in trained participants results in significantly greater power output during the concentric phase of a multi-joint exercise when compared to standard concentric movement.

  2. Impedance based bolt pre-load monitoring using piezoceramic smart washer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Linsheng; Chen, Dongdong; Liang, Yabin; Li, Hongnan; Feng, Xin; Song, Gangbing

    2017-05-01

    Bolted connection is widely used in mechanical and civil engineering; however, in some cases, bolt looseness may cause catastrophic consequences. Bolt pre-load monitoring in real time can help to ensure the safety of component connections and durability of the entire steel structure. Previous research has demonstrated that a ‘smart washer (SW)’ fabricated by embedding a piezoceramic transducer into two flat metal rings could effectively detect the pre-load looseness of a bolted connection. The active sensing method, in which two SWs are necessary, was used in the previous research. In this research, an electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) method enabled by one ‘SW’ was developed to investigate the pre-load condition of a bolted connection. Since the installed SW is directly subjected to the same axial pre-load as that on the bolt, the piezoceramic SW with the EMI technique is uniquely suited for pre-load monitoring of a bolted connection. The pre-load reduction is directly reflected by the EMI of the piezoceramic SW. In particular, a decrease of the pre-load on a bolt connect results in the reduced of its resonant frequency, which can be revealed by the real part of the impedance. In addition, the root mean square deviation (RMSD) of the impedance signals was employed as an index to evaluate the bolt looseness degree. For the experimental study, a bolted connectional specimen with a piezoceramic SW was fabricated and investigated. In the experiment, eleven cases of different pre-loads on the bolt were studied. Experimental results clearly show that with the decrease of the bolt pre-load, the resonant frequency of the bolt joint also decreased, as reflected by the impedance of piezoceramic SW. In addition, experimental results demonstrated that the SW with the EMI based RMSD index can monitor bolt pre-load.

  3. Determinants of left ventricular preload-adjusted maximal power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Patrick; Tchana-Sato, Vincent; Leather, H Alex; Lambermont, Bernard; Ghuysen, Alexandre; Dogne, Jean-Michel; Benoit, Patricia; Morimont, Philippe; Wouters, Patrick F; Verdonck, Pascal; Kolh, Philippe

    2003-06-01

    Maximal left ventricular (LV) hydraulic power output (PWR(max)), corrected for preload as PWR(max)/(V(ed))(beta) (where V(ed) is the end-diastolic volume and beta is a constant coefficient), is an index of LV contractility. Whereas preload-adjusted maximal power (PAMP) is usually calculated with beta = 2, there is uncertainty about the optimal value of beta (beta = 1 for the normal LV and 2 for the dilated LV). The aim of this work is to study the determining factors of beta. The data set consisted of 245 recordings (steady state and vena cava occlusion) in 10 animals in an ischemic heart pig model. The occlusion data yielded the slope (E(es); 2.01 +/- 0.77 mmHg/ml, range 0.71-4.16 mmHg/ml) and intercept (V(0); -11.9 +/- 22.6 ml; range -76 to 39 ml) of the end-systolic pressure-volume relation, and the optimal beta-factor (assessed by fitting an exponential curve through the V(ed)-PWR(max) relation) was 1.94 +/- 0.88 (range 0.29-4.73). The relation of beta with V(ed) was weak [beta = 0.60 + 0.02(V(ed)); r(2) = 0.20]. In contrast, we found an excellent exponential relation between V(0) and beta [beta = 2.16e(0.0189(V(0))), r(2) = 0.70]. PAMP, calculated from the steady-state data, was 0.64 +/- 0.40 mW/ml(2) (range 0.14-2.83 mW/ml(2)) with a poor correlation with E(es) (r = 0.30, P adjustment of maximal LV power requires incorporation of V(0) and thus of data measured under altered loading conditions.

  4. Gasification of Nickel-Preloaded Oil Palm Biomass with Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shatir A. Syed-Hassan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study experimentally investigates the gasification of nickel-preloaded oil palm biomass as an alternative catalytic approach to produce clean syngas. To eliminate the use of catalyst support, nickel was added directly to the oil palm mesocarp fiber via ion-exchange using an aqueous solution of nickel nitrate. Nickel species was found to disperse very well on the biomass at a nano-scale dispersion. The presence of the finely dispersed nickels on biomass enhanced syngas production and reduced tar content in the producer gas during the air gasification of biomass. It is believed that nickel particles attached on the biomass and its char promote the catalytic cracking of tar on their surface and supply free radicals to the gas phase to enhance the radical-driven gas-phase reactions for the reforming of high molecular weight hydrocarbons. The unconsumed nickel-containing char shows great potential to be re-utilised as a catalyst to further enhance the destruction of tar components in the secondary tar reduction process. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 12nd September 2015; Revised: 10th January 2016; Accepted:16th January 2016 How to Cite: Syed-Hassan, S.S.A., Nor-Azemi, S. (2016. Gasification of Nickel-Preloaded Oil Palm Biomass with Air. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (3: 262-272 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.3.566.262-272 Permalink/DOI: http://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.3.566.262-272

  5. Prediction based on mean subset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Brown, P. J.; Madsen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    , it is found that the proposed mean subset method has superior prediction performance than prediction based on the best subset method, and in some settings also better than the ridge regression and lasso methods. The conclusions drawn from the Monte Carlo study is corroborated in an example in which prediction......Shrinkage methods have traditionally been applied in prediction problems. In this article we develop a shrinkage method (mean subset) that forms an average of regression coefficients from individual subsets of the explanatory variables. A Bayesian approach is taken to derive an expression of how...... the coefficient vectors from each subset should be weighted. It is not computationally feasible to calculate the mean subset coefficient vector for larger problems, and thus we suggest an algorithm to find an approximation to the mean subset coefficient vector. In a comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation study...

  6. Influence of cyclic torsional preloading on cyclic fatigue resistance of nickel - titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedullà, E; Lo Savio, F; Boninelli, S; Plotino, G; Grande, N M; Rapisarda, E; La Rosa, G

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of different torsional preloads on cyclic fatigue resistance of endodontic rotary instruments constructed from conventional nickel-titanium (NiTi), M-Wire or CM-Wire. Eighty new size 25, 0.06 taper Mtwo instruments (Sweden & Martina), size 25, 0.06 taper HyFlex CM (Coltene/Whaledent, Inc) and X2 ProTaper Next (Dentsply Maillefer) were used. The Torque and distortion angles at failure of new instruments (n = 10) were measured, and 0% (n = 10), 25%, 50% and 75% (n = 20) of the mean ultimate torsional strength as preloading condition were applied according to ISO 3630-1 for each brand. The twenty files tested for every extent of preload were subjected to 20 or 40 torsional cycles (n = 10). After torsional preloading, the number of cycles to failure was evaluated in a simulated canal with 60° angle of curvature and 5 mm of radius of curvature. Data were analysed using two-way analysis of variance. The fracture surface of each fragment was examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Data were analysed by two-way analyses of variance. Preload repetitions did not influence the cyclic fatigue of the three brands; however, the 25%, 50% and 75% torsional preloading significantly reduced the fatigue resistance of all instruments tested (P HyFlex CM preloaded with 25% of the maximum torsional strength (P > 0.05). Torsional preloads reduced the cyclic fatigue resistance of conventional and treated (M-wire and CM-wire) NiTi rotary instruments except for size 25, 0.06 taper HyFlex CM instruments with a 25% of torsional preloading. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Experimental and numerical investigation on laser-assisted bending of pre-loaded metal plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Zdzisław; Nowak, Marcin; Widłaszewski, Jacek; Kurp, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    The laser forming technique has an important disadvantage, which is the limitation of plastic deformation generated by a single laser beam pass. To increase the plastic deformation it is possible to apply external forces in the laser forming process. In this paper, we investigate the influence of external pre-loads on the laser bending of steel plate. The pre-loads investigated generate bending towards the laser beam. The thermal, elastic-plastic analysis is performed using the commercial nonlinear finite element analysis package ABAQUS. The focus of the paper is to identify how this pattern of the pre-load influence the final bend angle of the plate.

  8. AIRS/Aqua Level 1B Calibration subset V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level-1B calibration subset including clear cases, special calibration sites, random nadir spots, and high clouds. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)...

  9. Preloading of the thrust phase in cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komi, P V; Norman, R W

    1987-03-01

    Based on the assumption that the stretch-shortening cycle is a natural way of muscle function, the occurrence of such a cycle was investigated in a diagonal technique of cross-country skiing. Cinematographic, special force platform, and telemetered EMG techniques were employed. The four subjects studied were all elite international level cross-country skiers, and the measurements were taken either under world championship conditions (cinematography) or during special test situations outdoors (EMG, force platform, and cinematography). The skiing was performed on the fixed uphill course (competition) and on the variable uphill tracks (2.5 degrees-11 degrees). The latter condition allowed mounting of a special long force platform system under the track. The results indicated that the leg kick phase is preceded by a typical unweighting phase, which is followed by braking and propulsion phases. Angular velocity curves of the hip, knee, and ankle joints revealed indirectly the segmental occurrence of the stretch-shortening cycle. Similar phenomena could be identified for the elbow joint during the pole plant and thrust phases. On a steep uphill track, the muscle activation pattern and the ground reaction forces resembled in many instances those of slow level running. Based on the results, a model was suggested to describe how the preloading of the leg thrust phase takes place as a sequential flow from one joint to another.

  10. Effect of preload alternations on a new Doppler echocardiographic index of combined systolic and diastolic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, J E; Poulsen, S H; Egstrup, K

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effect of preload alternations on a nongeometric Doppler index of combined systolic and diastolic myocardial performance (MPI). Doppler echocardiography was performed during Valsalva maneuver, passive leg lifting, and after sublingual administration...

  11. A pilot investigation to optimise methods for a future satiety preload study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobden, Mark R; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Commane, Daniel M; Rowland, Ian; Gibson, Glenn R; Kennedy, Orla B

    2017-01-01

    Preload studies are used to investigate the satiating effects of foods and food ingredients. However, the design of preload studies is complex, with many methodological considerations influencing appetite responses. The aim of this pilot investigation was to determine acceptability, and optimise methods, for a future satiety preload study. Specifically, we investigated the effects of altering (i) energy intake at a standardised breakfast (gender-specific or non-gender specific), and (ii) the duration between mid-morning preload and ad libitum lunch meal, on morning appetite scores and energy intake at lunch. Participants attended a single study visit. Female participants consumed a 214-kcal breakfast (n = 10) or 266-kcal breakfast (n = 10), equivalent to 10% of recommended daily energy intakes for females and males, respectively. Male participants (n = 20) consumed a 266-kcal breakfast. All participants received a 250-ml orange juice preload 2 h after breakfast. The impact of different study timings was evaluated in male participants, with 10 males following one protocol (protocol 1) and 10 males following another (protocol 2). The duration between preload and ad libitum lunch meal was 2 h (protocol 1) or 2.5 h (protocol 2), with the ad libitum lunch meal provided at 12.00 or 13.00, respectively. All female participants followed protocol 2. Visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaires were used to assess appetite responses and food/drink palatability. Correlation between male and female appetite scores was higher with the provision of a gender-specific breakfast, compared to non-gender-specific breakfast (Pearson correlation of 0.747 and 0.479, respectively). No differences in subjective appetite or ad libitum energy intake were found between protocols 1 and 2. VAS mean ratings of liking, enjoyment, and palatability were all > 66 out of 100 mm for breakfast, preload, and lunch meals. The findings of this pilot study confirm the acceptability of this

  12. Monitoring of Pre-Load on Rock Bolt Using Piezoceramic-Transducer Enabled Time Reversal Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Linsheng; Wang, Bo; Chen, Dongdong; Song, Gangbing

    2017-10-27

    Rock bolts ensure structural stability for tunnels and many other underground structures. The pre-load on a rock bolt plays an important role in the structural reinforcement and it is vital to monitor the pre-load status of rock bolts. In this paper, a rock bolt pre-load monitoring method based on the piezoceramic enabled time reversal method is proposed. A lead zirconate titanate (PZT) patch transducer, which works as an actuator to generate stress waves, is bonded onto the anchor plate of the rock bolt. A smart washer, which is fabricated by sandwiching a PZT patch between two metal rings, is installed between the hex nut and the anchor plate along the rock bolt. The smart washer functions as a sensor to detect the stress wave. With the increase of the pre-load values on the rock bolt, the effective contact surface area between the smart washer and the anchor plate, benefiting the stress wave propagation crossing the contact surface. With the help of time reversal technique, experimental results reveal that the magnitude of focused signal clearly increases with the increase of the pre-load on a rock bolt before the saturation which happens beyond a relatively high value of the pre-load. The proposed method provides an innovative and real time means to monitor the pre-load level of a rock bolt. By employing this method, the pre-load degradation process on a rock bolt can be clearly monitored. Please note that, currently, the proposed method applies to only new rock bolts, on which it is possible to install the PZT smart washer.

  13. A Protein Preload Enhances the Glucose-Lowering Efficacy of Vildagliptin in Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, T; Little, TL; Bound, MJ

    2016-01-01

    with metformin were studiedon four occasions, receiving either 50 mg vildagliptin (VILD) or placebo (PLBO) onboth the evening before and the morning of each study day. The latter dose wasfollowed after 60 min by a preload drink containing either 25 gwhey protein (WHEY)or control flavoring (CTRL), and after...... intact GLP-1 and GIP, slower gastric emptying, and lowerpostprandial glycemia (P protein preload has the capacity to enhancethe efficacy of vildagliptin to slow gastric emptying, increase plasma intactincretins, and reduce postprandial...

  14. Simulations and Experiments on Vibration Control of Aerospace Thin-Walled Parts via Preload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin-walled parts primarily comprise the entire piece of rough machining, and the material removal rate can surpass 95%. Numerous components with thin-walled structures are preferred in the aerospace industry for their light weight, high strength, and other advantages. In aerospace thin-walled workpiece machining processes and practical applications, they are excited by the vibration. The preload changing the modal stiffness of the part is found and this change causes continuous changes in the natural frequency. Researching on the influence of pretightening force on dynamic characteristics of thin-walled components is highly significant for controlling vibration. In this study, the typical aviation thin-walled part is the research object. Finite element numerical simulation and experimental verification are employed to analyze the dynamic characteristics of 7075 aluminum alloy thin-walled plates under different preloads for exploring the relationship between natural frequency and preload. The relationship is validated by comparative results. Both the simulation and experimental results show that the natural frequencies of plates increase following the augmentation of the preload. Thus, this research introduces the method where vibration of aerospace thin-walled parts is reduced by preload. For practical engineering application, a program showing the relationship between natural frequency and preload is written using Visual Basic language.

  15. The effect of a pre-load experiment on subsequent food consumption. Caloric and macronutrient intake in the days following a pre-load manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, C Alix; Juarascio, Adrienne; Chowansky, Amy

    2012-04-01

    The current study was designed to test potential caloric and macronutrient counter-regulation or compensation amongst 76 participants who participated in a milkshake preload experiment. Participants completed food diaries for 2 days before and 2 days after participating in the pre-load experiment. It was hypothesized that dieters and restrained eaters might respond to the pre-load by compensating or counter-regulating food consumption during the rest of the day following the experiment, and on the 2 days post-experiment. Results indicated that there were no significant differences in caloric or macronutrient consumption between the experimental and control groups on the days after the experiment. There were also no interactions between restraint and dieting status and the experimental condition. However, there was a main effect of caloric intake across dieting status, with those dieting to lose weight showing lower caloric intake than those not dieting and those dieting to maintain weight. The results of this study suggests that disinhibitory food stimuli may be less powerful than once thought or relatively short acting, as long-term counter-regulation or compensation did not occur for most people. Overall, the current study provides additional insight into potential long term caloric counter-regulation or compensation in participants who participated in a preload experiment, but additional research is needed to better understand this phenomenon. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Torsional and Fatigue Preloading on HyFlex EDM Files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya; Tra, Charles; Hieawy, Ahmed; Wang, Zhejun; Haapasalo, Markus

    2018-01-12

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a low amount of torsional preloading on the fatigue life and different degrees of cyclic fatigue on torsional failure of HyFlex EDM (EDM; Coltene-Whaledent, Allstetten, Switzerland) and HyFlex CM (CM; Coltene-Whaledent) instruments. EDM and CM files were used. The fatigue resistance was examined in a 5-mm radius and 60° single curve, and the mean number of cycles to failure (Nf) was recorded. The torque and rotation angles at failure of the instruments were measured according to ISO 3630-1. New files were precycled to 0%, 50%, and 75% of the Nf, and torsional tests were then performed. Other new files were preloaded at 5%, 15%, 25%, and 50% of the mean rotation angles before the fatigue test. The fracture surfaces of the fragments were examined under a scanning electron microscope. The fatigue resistance of EDM instruments was higher than that of CM instruments (P < .05). The torque and angle of rotation at fracture of the files were similar. Torsional preloading lowered the Nf of EDM at 15% preloading (P < .05) and the Nf of CM at 50% preloading (P < .05). However, the Nf of EDM files even with 50% torsional preloading was significantly higher than unused CM files (P < .05). Fatigue prestressing even at 75% had no negative effect on the torque and rotation angle of the EDM files. Moderate precycling (50%) of EDM files increased their torsional resistance. The fractographic patterns corresponded to the pattern defined by the last stage test. A low amount (15%) of torsional preloading reduced the fatigue resistance of EDM files, whereas even extensive (75%) precyclic fatigue was not detrimental to their torsional resistance. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of hypersonic engine seals: Flow effects of preload and engine pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhong; Mutharasan, Rajakkannu; Ko, Frank K.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    1993-01-01

    A new type of engine seal is being developed to meet the needs of advanced hypersonic engines. A seal braided of emerging high temperature ceramic fibers comprised of a sheath-core construction was selected for study based on its low leakage rates. Flexible, low-leakage, high temperature seals are required to seal the movable engine panels of advanced ramjet-scramjet engines either preventing potentially dangerous leakage into backside engine cavities or limiting the purge coolant flow rates through the seals. To predict the leakage through these flexible, porous seal structures as a function of preload and engine pressures, new analytical flow models are required. An empirical leakage resistance/preload model is proposed to characterize the observed decrease in leakage with increasing preload. Empirically determined compression modulus and preload factor are used to correlate experimental leakage data for a wide range of seal architectures. Good agreement between measured and predicted values are observed over a range of engine pressures and seal preloads.

  18. Development of hypersonic engine seals - Flow effects of preload and engine pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhong; Mutharasan, Rajakkannu; Ko, Frank K.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    1993-01-01

    A new type of engine seal is being developed to meet the needs of advanced hypersonic engines. A seal braided of emerging high temperature ceramic fibers comprised of a sheath-core construction has been selected for study based on its low leakage rates. Flexible, low-leakage, high-temperature seals are required to seal the movable engine panels of advanced ramjet-scramjet engines either preventing potentially dangerous leakage into backside engine cavities or limiting the purge coolant flow rates through the seals. To predict the leakage through these flexible, porous seal structures as a function of preload and engine pressures, new analytical flow models are required. An empirical leakage resistance/preload model is proposed to characterize the observed decrease in leakage with increasing preload. Empirically determined compression modulus and preload factor are used to correlate experimental leakage data for a wide range of seal architectures. Good agreement between measured and predicted values are observed over a range of engine pressures and seal preload.

  19. The Influence of Preload on the Work of Angular Contact Ball Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczor Jarosław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Optimum values of preload can be achieved in well-tried constructions and then applied in similar structures. For new structures, it is recommended to calculate the preload force and to test the correctness of calculation by means of experiments. In practice it may be necessary to introduce corrections, because not all real work parameters can be precisely known. Credibility of calculations depends, first of all, on the consistence between the assumptions concerning temperature conditions during work and elastic deformations of cooperating elements – first of all of a holder – and the real work conditions. The aim of the study is to determine how preload influences the work of a system of angular ball bearings, in relation to durability of bearing, moment of friction and rigidity of the bearing.

  20. A Study of the Preload Force in Metal-Elastomer Torsion Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikora Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neidhart type suspension units composed of metal-elastomer torsion springs can be a good alternative to steel helical springs in applications such as vibration absorbers or vehicle suspension systems. Assembling this type of spring requires initial preload of the elastomeric working elements, which determines their operating properties. The results of experimental tests and numerical simulations concerning the preload of elastomeric working elements in Neidhart type suspension units are presented in the paper. The performed research made it possible to propose a new calculation model for determining the preload force value acting on the elastomeric cylindrical elements applied in this type of suspension unit. The results obtained using the proposed model exhibit good convergence with FEM simulation results within the range of the tested geometrical and material properties.

  1. Does fasting influence preload responsiveness in ASA 1 and 2 volunteers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Daniel Rodrigues; Ribeiras, Regina

    Preoperative fasting was long regarded as an important cause of fluid depletion, leading to hemodynamic instability during surgery should replenishment is not promptly instituted. Lately, this traditional point of view has been progressively challenged, and a growing number of authors now propose a more restrictive approach to fluid management, although doubt remains as to the true hemodynamic influence of preoperative fasting. We designed an observational, analytic, prospective, longitudinal study in which 31 ASA 1 and ASA 2 volunteers underwent an echocardiographic examination both before and after a fasting period of at least 6hours (h). Data from both static and dynamic preload indices were obtained on both periods, and subsequently compared. Static preload indices exhibited a markedly variable behaviour with fasting. Dynamic indices, however, were far more consistent with one another, all pointing in the same direction, i.e., evidencing no statistically significant change with the fasting period. We also analysed the reliability of dynamic indices to respond to known, intentional preload changes. Aortic velocity time integral (VTI) variation with the passive leg raise manoeuvre was the only variable that proved to be sensitive enough to consistently signal the presence of preload variation. Fasting does not appear to cause a change in preload of conscious volunteers nor does it significantly alter their position in the Frank-Starling curve, even with longer fasting times than usually recommended. Transaortic VTI variation with the passive leg raise manoeuvre is the most robust dynamic index (of those studied) to evaluate preload responsiveness in spontaneously breathing patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficient subset simulation for evaluating the modes of improbable slope failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Eijnden, A.P.; Hicks, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    For analyzing low probability slope failures, a modified version of subset simulation, based on performance-based subset selection rather than the usual probability-based subset selection, is combined with the random finite element method. The application to an idealized slope is used to study

  3. Effects of a Macro-nutrient Preload on Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jun eLi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Macro-nutrient preloads given 30 minutes before regular meals may improve metabolism. The aim was to investigate how type 2 diabetic patients react to a preload consisting of a blend of macro-nutrients with a low glycemic index (Inzone Preload ®. Methods: In a before-after study design, 30 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM were enrolled in a 12-week program. All subjects were given Inzone Preload (43 % proteins, 29% carbohydrates, 10 % lipids and 9 % fibers,71 kcal, 30 min before each meal during 12 weeks. Fasting glucose, postprandial 2h glucose were monitored every second week. Body weight (BW and waist circumference were measured each month. Fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, serum lipids, fasting insulin, C-reactive protein and homeostasis model assessment were evaluated before and after the intervention. Subjective appetite was monitored using visual analogue scales after the Inzone Preload. Results: The dietary intervention significantly influenced several metabolic parameters compared to base line. Inzone Preload treatment reduced mean postprandial plasma glucose levels (12.2 ± 1.2 mmol/L vs 10.5 ± 2.0 mmol/L, HbA1c (7.4 ± 0.3 % vs 7.1 ± 0.2 %, mean total cholesterol (4.8 ± 0.9 mmol/L vs 4.3 ± 0.8 mmol/L, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (2.8 ± 0.6 mmol/L vs 2.5 ± 0.4 mmol/L and CRP (1.5 ± 1.4 mg/L vs 0.7 ± 0.7 mg/L BW loss of more than 3% was seen in 13 participants (43%. Feelings of satiety were significantly higher after Inzone Preload than after habitual breakfast (p < 0.05. No significant changes in fasting blood glucose, high-density lipoprotein and total triacylglycerol, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-β were observed. Conclusions: A macro-nutrient preload treatment reduces postprandial glucose, inflammatory markers and serum lipids in patients with T2DM. Approximately half of the study group also displayed reduced body weight.

  4. Stimulation of Methanol Degradation in UASB Reactors: In Situ Versus Pre-Loading Cobalt on Anaerobic Granular Sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort, M.H.; Gieteling, J.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of pre-loading and in situ loading of cobalt onto a cobalt-limited granular sludge on the performance of methanol fed bioreactors was investigated. One upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor was inoculated with cobalt pre-loaded sludge (24h; 30degreesC; 1 mM CoCl2) and a second UASB

  5. Global end-diastolic volume an emerging preload marker vis-a-vis other markers - Have we reached our goal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P M Kapoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliable estimation of cardiac preload is helpful in the management of severe circulatory dysfunction. The estimation of cardiac preload has evolved from nuclear angiography, pulmonary artery catheterization to echocardiography, and transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD. Global end-diastolic volume (GEDV is the combined end-diastolic volumes of all the four cardiac chambers. GEDV has been demonstrated to be a reliable preload marker in comparison with traditionally used pulmonary artery catheter-derived pressure preload parameters. Recently, a new TPTD system called EV1000™ has been developed and introduced into the expanding field of advanced hemodynamic monitoring. GEDV has emerged as a better preload marker than its previous conventional counterparts. The advantage of it being measured by minimum invasive methods such as PiCCO™ and newly developed EV1000™ system makes it a promising bedside advanced hemodynamic parameter.

  6. Preload-responsive adhesion: effects of aspect ratio, tip shape and alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paretkar, D.; Kamperman, M.M.G.; Martina, D.; Zhao, J.; Creton, C.; Lindner, A.; Jagota, A.; McMeeking, R.; Arzt, E.

    2013-01-01

    We tested the adhesive response of polymer surfaces structured with arrays of cylindrical fibrils having diameters of 10–20 µm and aspect ratios 1–2.4. Fibrils had two different tip shapes of end-flaps and round edges. A preload-induced mechanical buckling instability of the fibrils was used to

  7. Early experience with a modified preloaded system for fenestrated endovascular aortic repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurel, Blandine; Resch, Tim; Spear, Rafaelle; Roeder, Blayne; Bracale, Umberto M; Haulon, Stephan; Mastracci, Tara M

    2017-04-01

    Preloaded endovascular delivery systems expand the anatomic eligibility for complex aortic repair by requiring only one iliac access vessel and providing a stable platform for guiding sheaths into challenging target vessels. This article reports the lessons learned and early clinical outcomes using a modified preloaded delivery system for fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) in three aortic centers in Europe. From October 2015 to March 2016, consecutive patients presenting with extensive aortic aneurysm treated with a modified preloaded FEVAR were prospectively enrolled from three high volume European aortic centers. The new design is a modification of previous designs of preloaded fenestrated stent grafts and of the p-branch device platform. The technical details of implantation are described and perioperative outcomes, including the learning curve, are collected and reported. All patients (30 patients; 80% men; 70.2 years old) presented for nonurgent repair of either a type Ia endoleak (3/30; 10%), a type I-II-III thoracoabdominal (8/30; 27%), or a type IV thoracoabdominal or pararenal (19/30; 63.%) aneurysm repair of a mean size of 64 ± 13 mm using a custom made device. Primary technical success was achieved in 28 of 30 patients (93%) and assisted primary technical success in 29 of 30 patients (97%). The two technical failures included open conversion to repair a ruptured iliac artery and restenting of a dissected superior mesenteric artery which was recognized hours after the index procedure had finished. The mean procedure time was 277 ± 153 minutes, fluoroscopy time 79 ± 36 minutes, dose area product 112 ± 90 Gy cm2, and contrast volume 87 ± 46 mL. All renal fenestrations were successfully stented without type III endoleak on completion angiogram; the preloaded guiding sheaths were used for 53 of 58 renal arteries (91%). Challenges related to learning to the use of the modified preloaded system were experienced early and had no

  8. Laboratory model study of newly deposited dredger fills using improved multiple-vacuum preloading technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjin Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Problems continue to be encountered concerning the traditional vacuum preloading method in field during the treatment of newly deposited dredger fills. In this paper, an improved multiple-vacuum preloading method was developed to consolidate newly dredger fills that are hydraulically placed in seawater for land reclamation in Lingang Industrial Zone of Tianjin City, China. With this multiple-vacuum preloading method, the newly deposited dredger fills could be treated effectively by adopting a novel moisture separator and a rapid improvement technique without sand cushion. A series of model tests was conducted in the laboratory for comparing the results from the multiple-vacuum preloading method and the traditional one. Ten piezometers and settlement plates were installed to measure the variations in excess pore water pressures and moisture content, and vane shear strength was measured at different positions. The testing results indicate that water discharge–time curves obtained by the traditional vacuum preloading method can be divided into three phases: rapid growth phase, slow growth phase, and steady phase. According to the process of fluid flow concentrated along tiny ripples and building of larger channels inside soils during the whole vacuum loading process, the fluctuations of pore water pressure during each loading step are divided into three phases: steady phase, rapid dissipation phase, and slow dissipation phase. An optimal loading pattern which could have a best treatment effect was proposed for calculating the water discharge and pore water pressure of soil using the improved multiple-vacuum preloading method. For the newly deposited dredger fills at Lingang Industrial Zone of Tianjin City, the best loading step was 20 kPa and the loading of 40–50 kPa produced the highest drainage consolidation. The measured moisture content and vane shear strength were discussed in terms of the effect of reinforcement, both of which indicate

  9. The impact of a preloaded intraocular lens delivery system on operating room efficiency in routine cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason J; Chu, Jeffrey; Graham, Jacob; Zaluski, Serge; Rocha, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the operational impact of using preloaded intraocular lens (IOL) delivery systems compared with manually loaded IOL delivery processes during routine cataract surgeries. Time and motion data, staff and surgery schedules, and cost accounting reports were collected across three sites located in the US, France, and Canada. Time and motion data were collected for manually loaded IOL processes and preloaded IOL delivery systems over four surgery days. Staff and surgery schedules and cost accounting reports were collected during the 2 months prior and after introduction of the preloaded IOL delivery system. The study included a total of 154 routine cataract surgeries across all three sites. Of these, 77 surgeries were performed using a preloaded IOL delivery system, and the remaining 77 surgeries were performed using a manual IOL delivery process. Across all three sites, use of the preloaded IOL delivery system significantly decreased mean total case time by 6.2%-12.0% (Psystem also decreased surgeon lens time, surgeon delays, and eliminated lens touches during IOL preparation. Compared to a manual IOL delivery process, use of a preloaded IOL delivery system for cataract surgery reduced total case time, total surgeon lens time, surgeon delays, and eliminated IOL touches. The time savings provided by the preloaded IOL delivery system provide an opportunity for sites to improve routine cataract surgery throughput without impacting surgeon or staff capacity.

  10. THESAURUS. Thesaurus Building or Subsetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulk, J.W. [DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1992-02-12

    THESAURUS allows the user to build a thesaurus or to subset into highly-specialized `mini-thesauri` the Energy Data Base (EDB) Subject Thesaurus, which contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) for the building and maintenance of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) energy information databases. Thesaurus terms and their relationships including broader terms, narrower terms, related terms, use for and see also relationships, definitions, and scope notes may be entered. Entire word blocks may be copied from the OSTI primary Energy Thesaurus, from another mini-thesaurus, or both, and subsequently modified through the addition of new terms, the deletion of existing terms, and changes to the internal relationships among the word blocks within the mini-thesaurus to create a new, special-purpose thesaurus. THESAURUS also provides the ability to copy the entire Thesaurus allowing one to examine the effects of major changes to the thesaurus structure without having to modify the primary Thesaurus. It also supports creating sub-sets of the primary thesaurus, based on subject areas or other criteria. An interactive user with access to the TeX and PostScript proprietary software can produce the thesaurus in publication format. Once the thesaurus has been published, periodic supplements may be generated based on date of entry or change maintained by the Thesaurus software.

  11. Automatic control of the preload in adaptive friction drives of chemical production machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakin, P. D.

    2017-08-01

    Being based on the principle of providing the systems with adaptation property to the real parameters and operational condition, the energy effective mechanical system constructed on the base of friction gear with automated preload is offered and this allows keeping mechanical efficiency value adequate transforming drive path to in the terms of multimode operation. This is achieved by integrated control loop, operating on the basis of the laws of motion with the energy of the main power flow by changing automatically the kinematic dimension of the section and, hence, the value of preload in the friction contact. The given ratios of forces and deformations in the control loop are required at the stage of conceptual design to determine design dimensions of power transmission elements with new properties.

  12. Potential Risk Analysis of Tailings Dam under Preloading Condition and Its Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuren Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is very important for mine production safety to ensure the stability of the tailings dam. Taking a flatland tailings pond as the background, a threedimensional computational model was built based on a tailings dam under mullock heap preloading condition. Considering the current operating water level conditions, a liquid-solid coupling analysis of the model was conducted.The deformation characteristics of the tailings dam were revealed during successive preloading at the front of the dam. The safety factor and the potential slide face of the tailings dam were calculated under different conditions using the strength reduction method. The results show that the tailings dam in its current condition is basically stable, but if the mullock heap continues to be heightened, the tailings dam will become unstable. Therefore, in order to limit the height of the mullock heap, establishing a monitor and early warning mechanism are put forward to ensure mine production safety.

  13. Deconstructing alcohol use on a night out in England: promotions, preloading and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchley, Kirstie; Shorter, Gillian W; Chalmers, Jenny

    2014-07-01

    To examine alcohol consumed during a drinking event (a single drinking occasion) by those attending public house/on-trade establishments on nights with standard pricing and nights with promotional prices. Data (n = 425) were collected in an ecological momentary assessment over eight nights in two locations (Midlands and London) on both promotional and standard (Saturday) nights. Multiple regression was used to predict event alcohol consumption by sex, age, type of night, alcohol preloading behaviour, marital and employment status, education, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test alcohol consumption questions separately or total AUDIT-C and social group size. Mean (UK) units consumed were 11.8 (London) and 14.4 (Midlands). In London, consumption was similar on promotional and standard nights, but in the Midlands, standard night consumption was three units higher. Preloading was reported by 30%; more common on standard nights. Regression analyses revealed being male, preloading and past-year total AUDIT-C were associated with higher event consumption. However, when AUDIT-C questions were added separately, being a standard night was associated with increased event consumption and different AUDIT-C questions were significantly associated with event consumption in each location. Event consumption reflected heavy episodic drinking and was influenced by price. Promotional night consumption either matched standard Saturday night consumption or was slightly lower. In London, there was a significant preference for drinking at least one promotional beverage on promotional nights. On standard nights, consumption was over a wider range of venues, and preloading with off-trade alcohol was more likely. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  14. Mechanisms through which a small protein and lipid preload improves glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricò, Domenico; Baldi, Simona; Tulipani, Alberto; Frascerra, Silvia; Macedo, Maria Paula; Mari, Andrea; Ferrannini, Ele; Natali, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Small protein or lipid preloads are able to improve glucose tolerance to a different extent and through different and poorly defined mechanisms. We aimed at quantifying the effect of a mixed protein and lipid preload and at evaluating the underlying mechanisms. Volunteers with normal (NGT, n = 12) or impaired (IGT, n = 13) glucose tolerance and patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 10) underwent two OGTTs coupled to the double glucose tracer protocol, preceded by either 50 g of parmesan cheese, a boiled egg and 300 ml of water, or 500 ml of water. We measured plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), NEFA and glucose tracers, and calculated glucose fluxes, beta cell function variables, insulin sensitivity and clearance. After the nutrient preload, the OGTT-induced rise of plasma glucose was lower than after water alone in each study group. This reduction—more pronounced across classes of glucose tolerance (NGT -32%, IGT -37%, type 2 diabetes -49%; p < 0.002)—was the result of different combinations of slower exogenous glucose rate of appearance, improved beta cell function and reduced insulin clearance, in this order of relevance, which were associated with an only mild stimulation of GIP and GLP-1. After a non-glucidic nutrient preload, glucose tolerance improved in proportion to the degree of its baseline deterioration through mechanisms that appear particularly effective in type 2 diabetes. Exploiting the physiological responses to nutrient ingestion might reveal, at least in the first stages of the diabetic disease, a potent tool to improve daily life glycaemic control. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02342834 FUNDING: This work was supported by grants from the University of Pisa (Fondi di Ateneo) and by FCT grant (PIC/IC/82956/2007).

  15. Electromechanical characterization of piezoelectric actuators subjected to a variable pre-loading force at cryogenic temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouaidy, M.; Saki, M.; Hammoudi, N.; Simonet, L. [IPN, CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay (France)

    2007-07-01

    A dedicated apparatus was designed and constructed for studying the electromechanical behavior of prototype piezoelectric actuators subjected to a variable pre-loading force at cryogenic temperatures. This device was successfully used for testing a piezoelectric actuator of PICMA type from PI{sup TM}, for T in the range 2 K-300 K. The dielectric properties as well as dynamic properties were measured including the actuator characteristics when used as force sensor. The corresponding data are reported and discussed. (authors)

  16. Loading and pre-loading processes generate a distinct siRNA population in Tetrahymena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochizuki, Kazufumi, E-mail: kazufumi.mochizuki@imba.oeaw.ac.at; Kurth, Henriette M.

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •The Tetrahymena Argonaute protein Twi1p binds to ∼28–30-nt siRNAs called scnRNAs. •The size of scnRNAs is determined during a pre-loading process. •The 5′ uracil bias of scnRNAs is attributed to pre-loading and loading processes. •The thermodynamic asymmetry of scnRNA duplex doesnot affect the guide strand decision. •scnRNAs may be produced non-sequentially from dsRNA substrates by Dicer. -- Abstract: The various properties of small RNAs, such as length, terminal nucleotide, thermodynamic asymmetry and duplex mismatches, can impact their sorting into different Argonaute proteins in diverse eukaryotes. The developmentally regulated 26- to 32-nt siRNAs (scnRNAs) are loaded to the Argonaute protein Twi1p and display a strong bias for uracil at the 5′ end. In this study, we used deep sequencing to analyze loaded and unloaded populations of scnRNAs. We show that the size of the scnRNA is determined during a pre-loading process, whereas their 5′ uracil bias is attributed to both pre-loading and loading processes. We also demonstrate that scnRNAs have a strong bias for adenine at the third base from the 3′ terminus, suggesting that most scnRNAs are direct Dicer products. Furthermore, we show that the thermodynamic asymmetry of the scnRNA duplex does not affect the guide and passenger strand decision. Finally, we show that scnRNAs frequently have templated uracil at the last base without a strong bias for adenine at the second base indicating non-sequential production of scnRNAs from substrates. These findings provide a biochemical basis for the varying attributes of scnRNAs, which should help improve our understanding of the production and turnover of scnRNAs in vivo.

  17. The impact of a preloaded intraocular lens delivery system on operating room efficiency in routine cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones JJ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jason J Jones,1 Jeffrey Chu,2 Jacob Graham,2 Serge Zaluski,3 Guillermo Rocha4 1Jones Eye Clinic, Sioux City, IA, 2Quorum Consulting Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA; 3VISIS, Perpignan, France; 4Ocular Microsurgery & Laser Centre, Brandon, MB, Canada Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the operational impact of using preloaded intraocular lens (IOL delivery systems compared with manually loaded IOL delivery processes during routine cataract surgeries. Methods: Time and motion data, staff and surgery schedules, and cost accounting reports were collected across three sites located in the US, France, and Canada. Time and motion data were collected for manually loaded IOL processes and preloaded IOL delivery systems over four surgery days. Staff and surgery schedules and cost accounting reports were collected during the 2 months prior and after introduction of the preloaded IOL delivery system. Results: The study included a total of 154 routine cataract surgeries across all three sites. Of these, 77 surgeries were performed using a preloaded IOL delivery system, and the remaining 77 surgeries were performed using a manual IOL delivery process. Across all three sites, use of the preloaded IOL delivery system significantly decreased mean total case time by 6.2%–12.0% (P<0.001 for data from Canada and the US and P<0.05 for data from France. Use of the preloaded delivery system also decreased surgeon lens time, surgeon delays, and eliminated lens touches during IOL preparation. Conclusion: Compared to a manual IOL delivery process, use of a preloaded IOL delivery system for cataract surgery reduced total case time, total surgeon lens time, surgeon delays, and eliminated IOL touches. The time savings provided by the preloaded IOL delivery system provide an opportunity for sites to improve routine cataract surgery throughput without impacting surgeon or staff capacity. Keywords: time and motion, provider impact, surgical throughput, IOL

  18. The effect of preload/meal energy density on energy intake in a subsequent meal: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Surkan, Pamela J; Azadbakht, Leila

    2017-08-01

    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of preload/meal energy density on energy intake in a subsequent meal(s). Multiple databases were searched for studies published through December 2016 on the effects of preload/meal energy density on energy intake in a subsequent meal(s). We extracted information on mean energy intake in a subsequent meal(s) and on variables that could contribute to between-subject heterogeneity. Forty and Thirty nine eligible studies were identified for our systematic review and meta-analysis, respectively. The meta-analysis showed that preload/meal energy density did not affect energy intake in a subsequent meal(s) (95% CI:-21.21, 21.29). As heterogeneity was remarkable among studies, we stratified the studies by intervention type into "meal" or "preload" classifications. In the "preload" subgroup, studies used either fixed energy or fixed weight preloads. The results reveal that in comparison to a high energy-dense (HED) preload, consuming a low energy-dense (LED) preload with same weight resulted in higher energy intake in a subsequent meal (95% CI: 9.72, 56.19). On the other hand, decreased energy intake was observed after consuming an LED preload compared to after consumption of an HED preload with same energy content (95% CI: -138.71, -57.33). In the "meal" subgroup, studies were categorized by different subsequent meal (i.e., "afternoon or evening", "lunch" and "dinner or post-dinner"). Meta-analysis showed that an LED meal resulted in more energy intake only in afternoon or evening meals (95% CI: 14.82, 31.22). In summary, the current analysis revealed that we can restrict the energy intake by consuming an LED preload. Moreover, consuming an LED preload could favorably affect preload+meal energy intake. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. CUDA Enabled Graph Subset Examiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-22

    Finding Godsil-McKay switching sets in graphs is one way to demonstrate that a specific graph is not determined by its spectrum--the eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix. An important area of active research in pure mathematics is determining which graphs are determined by their spectra, i.e. when the spectrum of the adjacency matrix uniquely determines the underlying graph. We are interested in exploring the spectra of graphs in the Johnson scheme and specifically seek to determine which of these graphs are determined by their spectra. Given a graph G, a Godsil-McKay switching set is an induced subgraph H on 2k vertices with the following properties: I) H is regular, ii) every vertex in G/H is adjacent to either 0, k, or 2k vertices of H, and iii) at least one vertex in G/H is adjacent to k vertices in H. The software package examines each subset of a user specified size to determine whether or not it satisfies those 3 conditions. The software makes use of the massive parallel processing power of CUDA enabled GPUs. It also exploits the vertex transitivity of graphs in the Johnson scheme by reasoning that if G has a Godsil-McKay switching set, then it has a switching set which includes vertex 1. While the code (in its current state) is tuned to this specific problem, the method of examining each induced subgraph of G can be easily re-written to check for any user specified conditions on the subgraphs and can therefore be used much more broadly.

  20. On the effect of preload and pre-stretch on hemodynamic simulations: an integrative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Pablo J; Ares, Gonzalo D; Urquiza, Santiago A; Feijóo, Raúl A

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we address the simulation of three-dimensional arterial blood flow and its effect on the stress state of arterial walls. The novel contribution is the unprecedented combination of several modeling techniques to account for (1) the fact that known configurations for the arterial wall are in a preloaded state, (2) the compliance of the vessel segments, (3) proper boundary data over the non-physical interfaces resulting from the isolation of an arterial district from the rest of the arterial tree, (4) the presence of surrounding tissues in which the vessel is embedded and (5) residual stress state due to pre-stretch. Firstly, we formulate both the forward mechanical problem when the reference (zero-load) configuration is assumed to be known and, the preload problem arising when the known domain is a configuration at equilibrium with a certain load state (typically due to internal pressure and tethering forces). Then, two additional complexities are faced: the fluid-structure interaction problem that follows when the compliant vessels are coupled with the blood flow, and the introduction of non-physical boundaries coming from the artificial isolation of the arterial district from the original vessel. This, in turn, posses the problem of coupling dimensionally heterogeneous models to incorporate the effect of upstream and downstream systemic impedances. Additionally, a viscoelastic support on the external surface of the vessel is also incorporated. Two examples are presented to quantify in a physiologically consistent scenario the differences in simulation results when either considering or not the preload state of arterial walls. These computational simulations shed light on the validity of simplifying hypotheses in most hemodynamic models.

  1. Reproducibility of endurance performance on a treadmill using a preloaded time trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Ryan D; Redmann, Stephen M; Ravussin, Eric; Hunter, Gary R; Larson-Meyer, D Enette

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a highly reproducible test to measure endurance performance in runners. We evaluated the reproducibility of endurance performance during a 10-km time trial performed on a treadmill after a 90-min preload run at 65% of maximal oxygen uptake VO2max). After screening and a practice test, eight endurance runners (4 men, 4 women, 33.4 +/- 10.1 yr, VO2max = 60.3 +/- 6.3 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1) in men and 51.8 +/- 2.2 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1) in women, mean +/- SD) completed two preloaded time trial tests spaced 3-4 wk apart in men and one menstrual cycle apart in women. A high-carbohydrate diet (15% protein, 10% fat, 75% carbohydrate) was provided the day before both tests. Runners completed time trial 1 and time trial 2 in 45:41 +/- 4:45 and 45:24 +/- 5:03 min:s, respectively (43:29 +/- 5:02 and 43:12 +/- 5:14 min:s for men and 47:53 +/- 3:47 and 47:35 +/- 4:23 min:s for women, trials 1 and 2, respectively). The within-subject coefficient of variation for 10-km time was 1.00% +/- 0.25% (point estimate +/- estimated standard error) (0.54% +/- 0.19% for men and 1.26% +/- 0.45% for women). These results suggest that performance measured as time to complete a 10-km time trial on a treadmill after a 90-min preload is extremely reliable and may be useful for future research assessing the effect of diet, ergogenic substances, or training methods on endurance running performance.

  2. MRE11-deficiency associated with improved long-term disease free survival and overall survival in a subset of stage III colon cancer patients in randomized CALGB 89803 trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pavelitz

    Full Text Available Colon cancers deficient in mismatch repair (MMR may exhibit diminished expression of the DNA repair gene, MRE11, as a consequence of contraction of a T11 mononucleotide tract. This study investigated MRE11 status and its association with prognosis, survival and drug response in patients with stage III colon cancer.Cancer and Leukemia Group B 89803 (Alliance randomly assigned 1,264 patients with stage III colon cancer to postoperative weekly adjuvant bolus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (FU/LV or irinotecan+FU/LV (IFL, with 8 year follow-up. Tumors from these patients were analyzed to determine stability of a T11 tract in the MRE11 gene. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS, and a secondary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS. Non-proportional hazards were addressed using time-dependent covariates in Cox analyses.Of 625 tumor cases examined, 70 (11.2% exhibited contraction at the T11 tract in one or both MRE11 alleles and were thus predicted to be deficient in MRE11 (dMRE11. In pooled treatment analyses, dMRE11 patients showed initially reduced DFS and OS but improved long-term DFS and OS compared with patients with an intact MRE11 T11 tract. In the subgroup of dMRE11 patients treated with IFL, an unexplained early increase in mortality but better long-term DFS than IFL-treated pMRE11 patients was observed.Analysis of this relatively small number of patients and events showed that the dMRE11 marker predicts better prognosis independent of treatment in the long-term. In subgroup analyses, dMRE11 patients treated with irinotecan exhibited unexplained short-term mortality. MRE11 status is readily assayed and may therefore prove to be a useful prognostic marker, provided that the results reported here for a relatively small number of patients can be generalized in independent analyses of larger numbers of samples.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00003835.

  3. Arterial Pressure Variation as a Biomarker of Preload Dependency in Spontaneously Breathing Subjects - A Proof of Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronzwaer, Anne-Sophie G T; Ouweneel, Dagmar M; Stok, Wim J; Westerhof, Berend E; van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2015-01-01

    Pulse (PPV) and systolic pressure variation (SPV) quantify variations in arterial pressure related to heart-lung interactions and have been introduced as biomarkers of preload dependency to guide fluid treatment in mechanically ventilated patients. However, respiratory intra-thoracic pressure changes during spontaneous breathing are considered too small to affect preload and stroke volume sufficiently for the detection by PPV and/or SPV. This study addressed the effects of paced breathing and/or an external respiratory resistance on PPV and SPV in detecting preload dependency in spontaneously breathing subjects. In 10 healthy subjects, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were evaluated during progressive central hypovolemia (head-up tilt). Breathing conditions were varied by manipulating breathing frequency and respiratory resistance. Subjects responding with a reduction in stroke volume index ≥15% were classified as having developed preload dependency. The ability for PPV and SPV to predict preload dependency was expressed by the area under the ROC curve (AUC). A breathing frequency at 6/min increased the PPV (16±5% vs. 10±3%, pvariations in non-ventilated subjects.

  4. Development of a synchronous subset of AADL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filali, Mamoun; Lawall, Julia

    2010-01-01

    We study the definition and the mapping of an AADL subset: the so called synchronous subset. We show that the data port protocol used for delayed and immediate connections between periodic threads can be interpreted in a  synchronous way. In this paper, we formalize this interpretation and study ...

  5. The functional plasticity of T cell subsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestone, Jeffrey A.; Mackay, Charles R.; O’Shea, John J.; Stockinger, Brigitta

    2010-01-01

    In 1986, Robert Coffman and Timothy Mossman first described the division of CD4+ T cells into functional subsets, termed T helper 1 (TH1) and TH2, based on cytokine production, and in doing so unwittingly opened a Pandora’s box of complexity and controversy. Although the mechanisms that regulate TH1 and TH2 cells are now well known, recent descriptions of other CD4+ T cell subsets — such as regulatory T cells, T follicular helper cells, TH17, TH22 and most recently TH9 and TH22 cells — have questioned how we think of T cell subsets and what commitment to a functional T cell subset means. Here, Nature Reviews Immunology asks four leaders in the field their thoughts on the functional plasticity of T cell subsets. PMID:19809471

  6. Early results of all-inside meniscal repairs using a pre-loaded suture anchor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, August W M; Yau, W P

    2013-04-01

    To report the clinical and radiological results of all-inside meniscal repairs using a pre-loaded suture anchor. Case series. Regional hospital, Hong Kong. From January 2008 to June 2010, 51 patients with a mean age of 26 (range, 15-48) years with 57 meniscal tears underwent meniscal repair utilising the all-inside meniscal repair technique entailing a pre-loaded suture anchor. All tears were located at red-red or red-white zones. Concurrent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was performed in 37 (73%) of the patients. Patients were evaluated postoperatively based on the International Knee Documentation Committee score, clinical examination, and magnetic resonance imaging. Presence of locking, joint-line tenderness, effusion, and positive McMurray test were considered to indicate clinical failure. The mean follow-up was 19 (range, 12-39) months. An average of 2 (range, 1 to 4) suture devices was used per patient. The mean tear size was 20 (range, 10-40) mm. In all, 10 (18%) of the tears had failed clinically and 11 (19%) appeared unhealed on postoperative imaging. The mean International Knee Documentation Committee score improved significantly from 62 preoperatively to 81 postoperatively (Psuture anchor is safe and effective, and yielded an 83% clinical and 81% radiological success rate.

  7. Dynamic Measurement of Hemodynamic Parameters and Cardiac Preload in Adults with Dengue: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipa Thanachartwet

    Full Text Available Few previous studies have monitored hemodynamic parameters to determine the physiological process of dengue or examined inferior vena cava (IVC parameters to assess cardiac preload during the clinical phase of dengue. From January 2013 to July 2015, we prospectively studied 162 hospitalized adults with confirmed dengue viral infection using non-invasive cardiac output monitoring and bedside ultrasonography to determine changes in hemodynamic and IVC parameters and identify the types of circulatory shock that occur in patients with dengue. Of 162 patients with dengue, 17 (10.5% experienced dengue shock and 145 (89.5% did not. In patients with shock, the mean arterial pressure was significantly lower on day 6 after fever onset (P = 0.045 and the pulse pressure was significantly lower between days 4 and 7 (P50% between days 4 and 5 (P<0.05. Hypovolemic shock was observed in 9 (52.9% patients and cardiogenic shock in 8 (47.1%, with a median (interquartile range time to shock onset of 6.0 (5.0-6.5 days after fever onset, which was the median day of defervescence. Intravascular hypovolemia occurred before defervescence, whereas myocardial dysfunction occurred on the day of defervescence until 2 weeks after fever onset. Hypovolemic shock and cardiogenic shock each occurred in approximately half of the patients with dengue shock. Therefore, dynamic measures to estimate changes in hemodynamic parameters and preload should be monitored to ensure adequate fluid therapy among patients with dengue, particularly patients with dengue shock.

  8. Assessing cardiac preload by the Initial Systolic Time Interval obtained from impedance cardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H Meijer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Initial Systolic Time Interval (ISTI, obtained from the electrocardiogram (ECG and impedance cardiogram (ICG, is considered to be a measure for the time delay between the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and reflects an early active period of the cardiac cycle. The clinical relevance of this time interval is subject of study. This paper presents preliminary results of a pilot study investigating the use of ISTI in evaluating and predicting the circulatory response to fluid administration in patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery, by comparing ISTI with cardiac output (CO responsiveness. Also the use of the pulse transit time (PTT, earlier recommended for this purpose, is investigated. The results show an inverse relationship between ISTI and CO at all moments of fluid administration and also an inverse relationship between the changes ΔISTI and ΔCO before and after full fluid administration. No relationships between PTT and CO or ΔPTT and ΔCO were found. It is concluded that ISTI is dependent upon preload, and that ISTI has the potential to be used as a clinical parameter assessing preload.

  9. Doing the counter-regulation shuffle: The importance of flexibility and hunger for predicting food consumption following a preload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Jaclyn; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Dennerstein, Michelle; Greenwood, Jesse; Hancock, Naomi; Thavapalan, Nithyyaa; White, Melissa

    This study utilised the preload paradigm to evaluate whether trait-like dieting attitudes and behaviours (dietary restraint and flexibility in dieting rules) and context-specific factors (negative mood and hunger) predict food consumption among male and female participants. Following a high calorie preload, 79 participants aged 18-40 completed a deceptive taste test in which they were encouraged to eat as much of the taste test foods as desired, and this ad libitum intake was measured. Although each predictor (except negative mood) predicted consumption when tested individually, regression analyses revealed that dieting flexibility and current hunger were the strongest unique predictors of intake. Mood failed to directly predict food consumption, nor did it moderate the relationship between restraint and food intake. Collectively, findings suggest that emphasis on dietary restraint in preload studies may be misplaced, as other proximal and stable factors may better predict food consumption. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Arterial Pressure Variation as a Biomarker of Preload Dependency in Spontaneously Breathing Subjects - A Proof of Principle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie G T Bronzwaer

    Full Text Available Pulse (PPV and systolic pressure variation (SPV quantify variations in arterial pressure related to heart-lung interactions and have been introduced as biomarkers of preload dependency to guide fluid treatment in mechanically ventilated patients. However, respiratory intra-thoracic pressure changes during spontaneous breathing are considered too small to affect preload and stroke volume sufficiently for the detection by PPV and/or SPV. This study addressed the effects of paced breathing and/or an external respiratory resistance on PPV and SPV in detecting preload dependency in spontaneously breathing subjects.In 10 healthy subjects, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were evaluated during progressive central hypovolemia (head-up tilt. Breathing conditions were varied by manipulating breathing frequency and respiratory resistance. Subjects responding with a reduction in stroke volume index ≥15% were classified as having developed preload dependency. The ability for PPV and SPV to predict preload dependency was expressed by the area under the ROC curve (AUC.A breathing frequency at 6/min increased the PPV (16±5% vs. 10±3%, p<0.001 and SPV (9±3% vs. 5±2%, p<0.001 which was further enhanced by an expiratory resistance (PPV: 19±3%, p = 0.025 and SPV: 10±2%, p = 0.047. These respiratory modifications, compared to free breathing, enhanced the predictive value of PPV with higher accuracy (AUC: 0.92 vs. 0.46.Under conditions of progressive central hypovolemia, the application of an external respiratory resistance at a breathing frequency of 6/min enhanced PPV and SPV and is worth further study for detection of preload dependency from arterial pressure variations in non-ventilated subjects.

  11. Subset Selection by Local Convex Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Sadegh, Payman; Madsen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    least squares criterion. We propose an optimization technique for the posed probelm based on a modified version of the Newton-Raphson iterations, combined with a backward elimination type algorithm. THe Newton-Raphson modification concerns iterative approximations to the non-convex cost function......This paper concerns selection of the optimal subset of variables in a lenear regression setting. The posed problem is combinatiorial and the globally best subset can only be found in exponential time. We define a cost function for the subset selection problem by adding the penalty term to the usual...

  12. Mechanical behavior and failure analysis of prosthetic retaining screws after long-term use in vivo. Part 3: Preload and tensile fracture load testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jabbari, Youssef S; Fournelle, Raymond; Ziebert, Gerald; Toth, Jeffrey; Iacopino, Anthony M

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the preload and tensile fracture load values of prosthetic retaining screws after long-term use in vivo compared to unused screws (controls). Additionally, the investigation addressed whether the preload and fracture load values of prosthetic retaining screws reported by the manufacturer become altered after long-term use in vivo. For preload testing, 10 new screws (controls) from Nobel Biocare (NB) and 73 used retaining screws [58 from NB and 15 from Sterngold (SG)] were subjected to preload testing. For tensile testing, eight controls from NB and 58 used retaining screws (46 from NB and 12 from SG) were subjected to tensile testing. Used screws for both tests were in service for 18-120 months. A custom load frame, load cell, and torque wrench setup were used for preload testing. All 83 prosthetic screws were torqued once to 10 Ncm, and the produced preload value was recorded (N) using an X-Y plotter. Tensile testing was performed on a universal testing machine and the resulting tensile fracture load value was recorded (N). Preload and tensile fracture load values were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests. There was a significant difference between preload values for screws from NB and screws from SG (p time. The reduction of the fracture load value may be related to the increase of in-service time; however, the actual determination of this relationship is not possible from this study alone.

  13. Variable and subset selection in PLS regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some useful methods for introductory analysis of variables and subsets in relation to PLS regression. We present here methods that are efficient in finding the appropriate variables or subset to use in the PLS regression. The general conclusion is that vari...... obtained by different methods. We also present an approach to orthogonal scatter correction. The procedures and comparisons are applied to industrial data. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. The Guidelines for Modelling the Preloading Bolts in the Structural Connection Using Finite Element Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Krolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the development of the two different numerical techniques for the preloading of bolts by the finite element method using the software Abaqus Standard. Furthermore, this paper gave detailed guidelines for modelling contact, method for solving the numerical error problems such as numerical singularity error and negative eigenvalues due to rigid body motion or the problem of the extensive elongation of bolts after pretension which is occurring during the analysis. The behaviour of bolted joints depending on the two different approaches of pretension was shown on the example of an extended end-plate bolted beam-to-column connection under the monotonic loading. The behaviour of beam-to-column connection was shown in the form and moment-rotation (M-ϕ curves and validated by experimental test. Advantages and disadvantages of pretension techniques, as well as the speed of numerical models, were also presented in this paper.

  15. Echocardiographic Measures of Diastolic Function Are Preload Dependent during Triggered Positive Pressure Ventilation: A Controlled Crossover Study in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Juhl-Olsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of echocardiography in intensive care settings impacts decision making. A prerequisite for the use of echocardiography is relative resistance to changes in volume status and levels of positive pressure ventilation (PPV. Studies on indices of diastolic function report conflicting results with regard to dependence on volume status. Evidence is scarce on PPV. Methods. Ten healthy subjects were exposed to 6 levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP and pressure support (PS following a baseline reading. All ventilator settings were performed at three positions: horizontal, reverse-Trendelenburg, and Trendelenburg. Echocardiography was performed throughout. Results. During spontaneous breathing, early diastolic transmitral velocity ( changed with positioning (, whereas early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus ( was independent (. With PPV, and proved preload dependent (. Increases in PEEP, PS, or a combination influenced and in reverse-Trendelenburg- and horizontal positions, but not in the Trendelenburg position. Discussion. The change towards preload dependency of with PPV suggests that PPV increases myocardial preload sensitivity. The susceptibility of and to preload changes during PPV discourages their use in settings of volume shifts or during changes in ventilator settings. Conclusion. Positioning and PPV affect and .

  16. Preload dependence of color M-mode Doppler flow propagation velocity in controls and in patients with left ventricular dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, J E; Poulsen, S H; Søndergaard, E

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of preload alterations on color M-mode flow propagation velocity (Vp) in volunteers with normal left ventricular (LV) function and in patients with depressed LV function. Color M-mode Doppler echocardiography was performed during Valsalva maneuver...

  17. Effect of humic acid preloading on phosphate adsorption onto zirconium-modified zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianwei; Zhang, Zhe; Zhan, Yanhui

    2017-05-01

    A zirconium-modified zeolite (ZrMZ) was prepared, and then, humic acid (HA) was immobilized on the ZrMZ surface to prepare HA-loaded ZrMZ (HA-ZrMZ). The obtained ZrMZ and HA-ZrMZ were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, elemental analyzer, N 2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, pH at the point of zero charge, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adsorption characteristics of phosphate on ZrMZ and HA-ZrMZ were comparatively investigated in batch mode. The adsorption mechanism of phosphate on ZrMZ and HA-ZrMZ was investigated by ionic strength effect and 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance. The mechanism for phosphate adsorption onto ZrMZ was the formation of inner-sphere phosphate complexes at the solid/solution interface. The preloading of HA on ZrMZ reduced the phosphate adsorption capacity, and the more the HA loading amount, the lower the phosphate adsorption capacity. However, the preloading of HA on ZrMZ did not change the phosphate adsorption mechanism; i.e., the formation of inner-sphere phosphate surface complexes was still responsible for the adsorption of phosphate on HA-ZrMZ. The decreased phosphate adsorption capacity for ZrMZ after HA coating could be attributed to the fact that the coating of HA on ZrMZ reduced the amount of binding active sites available for phosphate adsorption, changed the adsorbent surface charges, and reduced the specific surface areas and pore volumes of ZrMZ.

  18. Effects of Consuming Preloads with Different Energy Density and Taste Quality on Energy Intake and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ling Tey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of reduced energy dense foods and drink has the potential to reduce energy intake and postprandial blood glucose concentrations. In addition, the taste quality of a meal (e.g., sweet or savoury may play a role in satiation and food intake. The objective of this randomised crossover study was to examine whether energy density and taste quality has an impact on energy intake and postprandial blood glucose response. Using a preload design, participants were asked to consume a sweet (“Cheng Teng” or a savoury (broth preload soup in high energy density (HED; around 0.50 kcal/g; 250 kcal or low energy density (LED; around 0.12 kcal/g; 50 kcal in mid-morning and an ad libitum lunch was provided an hour after the preload. Participants recorded their food intake for the rest of the day after they left the study site. Energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response were measured in 32 healthy lean males (mean age = 28.9 years, mean BMI = 22.1 kg/m2. There was a significant difference in ad libitum lunch intake between treatments (p = 0.012, with higher intake in sweet LED and savoury LED compared to sweet HED and savoury HED. Energy intake at subsequent meals and total daily energy intake did not differ between the four treatments (both p ≥ 0.214. Consumption of HED preloads resulted in a larger spike in postprandial blood glucose response compared with LED preloads, irrespective of taste quality (p < 0.001. Energy density rather than taste quality plays an important role in energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response. This suggests that regular consumption of low energy-dense foods has the potential to reduce overall energy intake and to improve glycemic control.

  19. On order bounded subsets of locally solid Riesz spaces | Hong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a topological Riesz space there are two types of bounded subsets: order bounded subsets and topologically bounded subsets. It is natural to ask (1) whether an order bounded subset is topologically bounded and (2) whether a topologically bounded subset is order bounded. A classical result gives a partial answer to (1) ...

  20. Subset specification of central serotonergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten P Smidt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The last decade the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT system has received enormous attention due to its role in regulation of behavior, exemplified by the discovery that increased 5-HT tone in the central nervous system is able to alleviate affective disorders. Here, we review the developmental processes, with a special emphasis on subset specification, leading to the formation of the 5-HT system in the brain. Molecular classification of 5-HT neuronal groups leads to the definition of two independent rostral groups positioned in rhombomere 1 and 2/3 and a caudal group in rhombomere 5-8. In addition, more disperse refinement of these subsets is present as shown by the selective expression of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor, indicating functional diversity between 5-HT subsets. The functional significance of the molecular coding differences is not well known and the molecular basis of described specific connectivity patterns remain to be elucidated. Recent developments in genetic lineage tracing models will provide these data and form a major step-up towards the full understanding of the importance of developmental programming and function of 5-HT neuronal subsets.

  1. Effects of a Protein Preload on Gastric Emptying, Glycemia, and Gut Hormones After a Carbohydrate Meal in Diet-Controlled Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Jing; Stevens, Julie E.; Cukier, Kimberly; Maddox, Anne F.; Wishart, Judith M.; Jones, Karen L.; Clifton, Peter M.; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We evaluated whether a whey preload could slow gastric emptying, stimulate incretin hormones, and attenuate postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eight type 2 diabetic patients ingested 350 ml beef soup 30 min before a potato meal; 55 g whey was added to either the soup (whey preload) or potato (whey in meal) or no whey was given. RESULTS Gastric emptying was slowest after the whey preload (P < 0.0005). The incremental area under the blood glucose cur...

  2. Fluid loading and norepinephrine infusion mask the left ventricular preload decrease induced by pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemmelund, Kristian Borup; Ringgård, Viktor Kromann; Vistisen, Simon Tilma; Hyldebrandt, Janus Adler; Sloth, Erik; Juhl-Olsen, Peter

    2017-09-11

    Pleural effusion (PLE) may lead to low blood pressure and reduced cardiac output. Low blood pressure and reduced cardiac output are often treated with fluid loading and vasopressors. This study aimed to determine the impact of fluid loading and norepinephrine infusion on physiologic determinants of cardiac function obtained by ultrasonography during PLE. In this randomised, blinded, controlled laboratory study, 30 piglets (21.9 ± 1.3 kg) had bilateral PLE (75 mL/kg) induced. Subsequently, the piglets were randomised to intervention as follows: fluid loading (80 mL/kg/h for 1.5 h, n = 12), norepinephrine infusion (0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 μg/kg/min (15 min each, n = 12)) or control (n = 6). Main outcome was left ventricular preload measured as left ventricular end-diastolic area. Secondary endpoints included contractility and afterload as well as global measures of circulation. All endpoints were assessed with echocardiography and invasive pressure-flow measurements. PLE decreased left ventricular end-diastolic area, mean arterial pressure and cardiac output (p values  0.05) to baseline. Left ventricular contractility increased with norepinephrine infusion (p = 0.002), but was not affected by fluid loading (p = 0.903). Afterload increased in both active groups (p values > 0.001). Overall, inferior vena cava distensibility remained unchanged during intervention (p values ≥ 0.085). Evacuation of PLE caused numerical increases in left ventricular end-diastolic area, but only significantly so in controls (p = 0.006). PLE significantly reduced left ventricular preload. Both fluid and norepinephrine treatment reverted this effect and normalised global haemodynamic parameters. Inferior vena cava distensibility remained unchanged. The haemodynamic significance of PLE may be underestimated during fluid or norepinephrine administration, potentially masking the presence of PLE.

  3. Impact of Nonlinearity of The Contact Layer Between Elements Joined in a Multi-Bolted System on Its Preload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzejda, R.

    2017-12-01

    The paper deals with modelling and calculations of asymmetrical multi-bolted joints at the assembly stage. The physical model of the joint is based on a system composed of four subsystems, which are: a couple of joined elements, a contact layer between the elements, and a set of bolts. The contact layer is assumed as the Winkler model, which can be treated as a nonlinear or linear model. In contrast, the set of bolts are modelled using simplified beam models, known as spider bolt models. The theorem according to which nonlinearity of the contact layer has a negligible impact on the final preload of the joint in the case of its sequential tightening has been verified. Results of sample calculations for the selected multi-bolted system, in the form of diagrams of preloads in the bolts as well as normal contact pressure between the joined elements during the assembly process and at its end, are presented.

  4. Effect of Misfit on Preload Maintenance of Retention Screws of Implant-Supported Prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves; Dos Santos, Paulo Henrique; Delben, Juliana Aparecida; Gomes, Érica Alves; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Tabata, Lucas Fernando

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of unilateral misfit at different levels on a crown-implant-retention screw system of implant-supported crowns. Hexagon castable UCLA abutments were cast in Co-Cr alloy to fabricate 48 metallic crowns divided into four groups ( n = 12). Group A: crowns did not present misfit; Groups B, C and D: crowns were fabricated with unilateral misfit of 50, 100, and 200 μm, respectively. The crowns were attached by titanium retention screw with 30 N/cm to external hexagonal osseointegrated implants embedded in acrylic resin. After 2 min, the retention screw of each replica was submitted to detorque evaluation by an analogic torque gauge. Three retention screws were used to perform detorque evaluation at each replica and the procedure was repeated twice with each screw. Each group was submitted to 72 detorque measurements. Data were evaluated by ANOVA and Tukey test ( P 0.05). Crowns with unilateral misfit presented higher preload decrease than crowns completely fitted to osseointegrated implants.

  5. Exploring molecular sieve capabilities of activated carbon fibers to reduce the impact of NOM preloading on trichloroethylene adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanfil, Tanju; Dastgheib, Seyed A; Mauldin, Dina

    2006-02-15

    Adsorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) by two activated carbon fibers (ACFs) and two granular activated carbons (GACs) preloaded with hydrophobic and transphilic fractions of natural organic matter (NOM) was examined. ACF10, the most microporous activated carbon used in this study, had over 90% of its pore volume in pores smaller than 10 A. It also had the highest volume in pores 5-8 A, which is the optimum pore size region for TCE adsorption, among the four activated carbons. Adsorption of NOM fractions by ACF10 was, in general, negligible. Therefore, ACF10, functioning as a molecular sieve during preloading, exhibited the least NOM uptake for each fraction, and subsequently the highest TCE adsorption. The other three sorbents had wider pore size distributions, including high volumes in pores larger than 10 A, where NOM molecules can adsorb. As a result, they showed a higher degree of uptake for all NOM fractions, and subsequently lower adsorption capacities for TCE, as compared to ACF10. The results obtained in this study showed that understanding the interplay between the optimum pore size region for the adsorption of target synthetic organic contaminant (SOC) and the pore size region for the adsorption of NOM molecules is important for controlling NOM-SOC competitions. Experiments with different NOM fractions indicated that the degree of NOM loading is important in terms of preloading effects; however the waythatthe carbon pores are filled and loaded by different NOM fractions can be different and may create an additional negative impact on TCE adsorption.

  6. The effect of altering loading distance on skeleton start performance: Is higher pre-load velocity always beneficial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colyer, Steffi L; Stokes, Keith A; Bilzon, James L J; Holdcroft, Danny; Salo, Aki I T

    2018-01-16

    Athletes initiating skeleton runs differ in the number of steps taken before loading the sled. We aimed to understand how experimentally modifying loading distance influenced sled velocity and overall start performance. Ten athletes (five elite, five talent; 67% of all national athletes) underwent two to four sessions, consisting of two dry-land push-starts in each of three conditions (preferred, long and short loading distances). A magnet encoder on the sled wheel provided velocity profiles and the overall performance measure (sled acceleration index). Longer pre-load distances (12% average increase from preferred to long distances) were related to higher pre-load velocity (r = 0.94), but lower load effectiveness (r = -0.75; average reduction 29%). Performance evaluations across conditions revealed that elite athletes' preferred distance push-starts were typically superior to the other conditions. Short loading distances were generally detrimental, whereas pushing the sled further improved some talent-squad athletes' performance. Thus, an important trade-off between generating high pre-load velocity and loading effectively was revealed, which coaches should consider when encouraging athletes to load later. This novel intervention study conducted within a real-world training setting has demonstrated the scope to enhance push-start performance by altering loading distance, particularly in developing athletes with less extensive training experience.

  7. An analytical solution for two-dimensional vacuum preloading combined with electro-osmosis consolidation using EKG electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang; Qiu, Chenchen; Li, Yande; Shi, Wen; Rui, Xiaoxi

    2017-01-01

    China is a country with vast territory, but economic development and population growth have reduced the usable land resources in recent years. Therefore, reclamation by pumping and filling is carried out in eastern coastal regions of China in order to meet the needs of urbanization. However, large areas of reclaimed land need rapid drainage consolidation treatment. Based on past researches on how to improve the treatment efficiency of soft clay using vacuum preloading combined with electro-osmosis, a two-dimensional drainage plane model was proposed according to the Terzaghi and Esrig consolidation theory. However, the analytical solution using two-dimensional plane model was never involved. Current analytical solutions can't have a thorough theoretical analysis of practical engineering and give relevant guidance. Considering the smearing effect and the rectangle arrangement pattern, an analytical solution is derived to describe the behavior of pore-water and the consolidation process by using EKG (electro-kinetic geo synthetics) materials. The functions of EKG materials include drainage, electric conduction and corrosion resistance. Comparison with test results is carried out to verify the analytical solution. It is found that the measured value is larger than the applied vacuum degree because of the stacking effect of the vacuum preloading and electro-osmosis. The trends of the mean measured value and the mean analytical value processes are comparable. Therefore, the consolidation model can accurately assess the change in pore-water pressure and the consolidation process during vacuum preloading combined with electro-osmosis.

  8. Rotordynamic Evaluation of Full Scale Rotor on Tilting Pad Bearings with 0.1 and 0.3 Preload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A system identification method for rotating machinery stability evaluation is investigated based on sine sweep excitation testing with electromagnetic actuator. The traditional MIMO FRF is transformed into dFRF from real number field to complex field with a transformation matrix, eliminating the influence of forward and backward modal overlap and providing higher accuracy to identify rotor’s first forward modal parameters using the rational polynomial method. The modal parameters are acquired for stability estimation. Furthermore, two sets of bearing with preloads of 0.1 and 0.3 under both load-on-pad (LOP and load-between-pad (LBP conditions are investigated. The effects of oil inlet pressure (1.0 bar–1.75 bar and temperature (43°C–51°C on the stability of rotor are investigated in detail. Results indicate that the stability of rotor will be improved by increasing the oil inlet temperature and pressure. It is found that the rotor is more stable on bearing with 0.1 preload than that of 0.3 preload. Load-on-pad provides more damping to rotor than load-between-pad. The method and outcomes of this paper can provide both theory basis and technology foundation for improving the rotor stability of centrifugal compressors.

  9. An analytical solution for two-dimensional vacuum preloading combined with electro-osmosis consolidation using EKG electrodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shen

    Full Text Available China is a country with vast territory, but economic development and population growth have reduced the usable land resources in recent years. Therefore, reclamation by pumping and filling is carried out in eastern coastal regions of China in order to meet the needs of urbanization. However, large areas of reclaimed land need rapid drainage consolidation treatment. Based on past researches on how to improve the treatment efficiency of soft clay using vacuum preloading combined with electro-osmosis, a two-dimensional drainage plane model was proposed according to the Terzaghi and Esrig consolidation theory. However, the analytical solution using two-dimensional plane model was never involved. Current analytical solutions can't have a thorough theoretical analysis of practical engineering and give relevant guidance. Considering the smearing effect and the rectangle arrangement pattern, an analytical solution is derived to describe the behavior of pore-water and the consolidation process by using EKG (electro-kinetic geo synthetics materials. The functions of EKG materials include drainage, electric conduction and corrosion resistance. Comparison with test results is carried out to verify the analytical solution. It is found that the measured value is larger than the applied vacuum degree because of the stacking effect of the vacuum preloading and electro-osmosis. The trends of the mean measured value and the mean analytical value processes are comparable. Therefore, the consolidation model can accurately assess the change in pore-water pressure and the consolidation process during vacuum preloading combined with electro-osmosis.

  10. An analytical solution for two-dimensional vacuum preloading combined with electro-osmosis consolidation using EKG electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chenchen; Li, Yande

    2017-01-01

    China is a country with vast territory, but economic development and population growth have reduced the usable land resources in recent years. Therefore, reclamation by pumping and filling is carried out in eastern coastal regions of China in order to meet the needs of urbanization. However, large areas of reclaimed land need rapid drainage consolidation treatment. Based on past researches on how to improve the treatment efficiency of soft clay using vacuum preloading combined with electro-osmosis, a two-dimensional drainage plane model was proposed according to the Terzaghi and Esrig consolidation theory. However, the analytical solution using two-dimensional plane model was never involved. Current analytical solutions can’t have a thorough theoretical analysis of practical engineering and give relevant guidance. Considering the smearing effect and the rectangle arrangement pattern, an analytical solution is derived to describe the behavior of pore-water and the consolidation process by using EKG (electro-kinetic geo synthetics) materials. The functions of EKG materials include drainage, electric conduction and corrosion resistance. Comparison with test results is carried out to verify the analytical solution. It is found that the measured value is larger than the applied vacuum degree because of the stacking effect of the vacuum preloading and electro-osmosis. The trends of the mean measured value and the mean analytical value processes are comparable. Therefore, the consolidation model can accurately assess the change in pore-water pressure and the consolidation process during vacuum preloading combined with electro-osmosis. PMID:28771496

  11. Column subset selection is NP-complete

    OpenAIRE

    Shitov, Yaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Let $M$ be a real $r\\times c$ matrix and let $k$ be a positive integer. In the column subset selection problem (CSSP), we need to minimize the quantity $\\|M-SA\\|$, where $A$ can be an arbitrary $k\\times c$ matrix, and $S$ runs over all $r\\times k$ submatrices of $M$. This problem and its applications in numerical linear algebra are being discussed for several decades, but its algorithmic complexity remained an open issue. We show that CSSP is NP-complete.

  12. The CD8+ dendritic cell subset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortman, Ken; Heath, William R

    2010-03-01

    Mouse lymphoid tissues contain a subset of dendritic cells (DCs) expressing CD8 alpha together with a pattern of other surface molecules that distinguishes them from other DCs. These molecules include particular Toll-like receptor and C-type lectin pattern recognition receptors. A similar DC subset, although lacking CD8 expression, exists in humans. The mouse CD8(+) DCs are non-migrating resident DCs derived from a precursor, distinct from monocytes, that continuously seeds the lymphoid organs from bone marrow. They differ in several key functions from their CD8(-) DC neighbors. They efficiently cross-present exogenous cell-bound and soluble antigens on major histocompatibility complex class I. On activation, they are major producers of interleukin-12 and stimulate inflammatory responses. In steady state, they have immune regulatory properties and help maintain tolerance to self-tissues. During infection with intracellular pathogens, they become major presenters of pathogen antigens, promoting CD8(+) T-cell responses to the invading pathogens. Targeting vaccine antigens to the CD8(+) DCs has proved an effective way to induce cytotoxic T lymphocytes and antibody responses.

  13. Familial inheritance of osteoarthritis: documented family subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, John

    2004-10-01

    Identifying susceptibility genes for a common complex disease is complicated by heterogeneity at several levels including allelic, locus, clinical, and population. The latter two can be alleviated by focusing on particular subsets of families that have well-defined disease. For osteoarthritis it was commonly thought that a generalized disease approach was the wisest ascertainment because this would target a systemic disease that had to have a major genetic component. However, this intuitive idea has not yet provided the breakthroughs many expected and it has become apparent that a joint-specific and gender-specific approach may be more fruitful. Large collections of osteoarthritis cohorts have been assembled either as part of prospective studies or more directly. Some of these collections have targeted specific joints, others have not. The latter are, however, amenable to stratification. Many collectors included the acquisition of DNA as a core study aim. A variety of osteoarthritis subsets are therefore available for genetic analysis. Open accessibility is another matter. Although many collections were funded partly or wholly by public or charitable organizations, they can be jealously guarded or have arcane access rights. Open access, with necessary safeguards, is something the osteoarthritis research community should strive for if progress toward susceptibility gene identification is to be swift.

  14. Human blood dendritic cell subsets exhibit discriminative pattern recognition receptor profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Kristina; Rydnert, Frida; Greiff, Lennart; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) operate as the link between innate and adaptive immunity. Their expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), enables antigen recognition and mediates appropriate immune responses. Distinct subsets of human DCs have been identified; however their expression of PRRs is not fully clarified. Expressions of CLRs by DC subpopulations, in particular, remain elusive. This study aimed to identify and compare PRR expressions on human blood DC subsets, including CD1c+, CD141+ and CD16+ myeloid DCs and CD123+ plasmacytoid DCs, in order to understand their capacity to recognize different antigens as well as their responsiveness to PRR-directed targeting. Whole blood was obtained from 13 allergic and six non-allergic individuals. Mononuclear cells were purified and multi-colour flow cytometry was used to assess the expression of 10 CLRs and two TLRs on distinct DC subsets. PRR expression levels were shown to differ between DC subsets for each PRR assessed. Furthermore, principal component analysis and random forest test demonstrated that the PRR profiles were discriminative between DC subsets. Interestingly, CLEC9A was expressed at lower levels by CD141+ DCs from allergic compared with non-allergic donors. The subset-specific PRR expression profiles suggests individual responsiveness to PRR-targeting and supports functional specialization. PMID:24444310

  15. Sensor Placement for Modal Parameter Subset Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Bernal, Dionisio; Damkilde, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The present paper proposes an approach for deciding on sensor placements in the context of modal parameter estimation from vibration measurements. The approach is based on placing sensors, of which the amount is determined a priori, such that the minimum Fisher information that the frequency...... responses carry on the selected modal parameter subset is, in some sense, maximized. The approach is validated in the context of a simple 10-DOF mass-spring-damper system by computing the variance of a set of identified modal parameters in a Monte Carlo setting for a set of sensor configurations, whose...... anticipated effectiveness are ranked according to the noted criterion. It is contended that the examined max-min criterion satisfies the objective of optimizing the accuracy of an identification setup more effectively than the more commonly used trace or determinant of the Fisher information matrix (FIM...

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF 6% HYDROXYETHYL STARCH (450/0 . 7) AND RINGER’S LACTATE AS PRELOADING FLUID FOR PREVENTION OF HYPOTENSION DURING SPINAL ANESTHESIA IN ELECTIVE CESAREAN DELIVERY

    OpenAIRE

    Javid; Shafa; Yasir; Feroze; Owasis; Hamid,; Aamir; Ihsanulla

    2015-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of volume preloading with Ringer’s Lactate and Hydroxyethyl starch (HEAS) 6% 450/0 . 7 on the onset and incidence of spinal - induced hypotension in elective cesarean delivery . 60 healthy parturients scheduled for elective cesarean se ction under spinal anesthesia were selected for the study . Group A was preloaded with 1000ml of RL while as group B preloaded with 500ml of 6% HEAS (450/0 ...

  17. Predicting steady-state temperature, life, skid, and film thickness in a greased preloaded hybrid ball bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poplawski, J.V. [J.V. Poplawski and Associates, Bethlehem, PA (United States); Atwell, D.R.; Lubas, M.J.; Odessky, V. [General Dynamics Corp., Groton, CT (United States)]|[General Dynamics Corp., Avenel, NJ (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the use of the SHABERTH computer program supplemented with experimental temperature and skid data to quantify steady-state bearing operation. Parametric studies on ball diameter and number, contact angle, curvature, grease type, and preload are presented with their influence on contact stress, fatigue life, skid load, film thickness, and inner and outer race temperatures. These results are compared for a steel versus hybrid bearing set in a DB and DFSL mounting. The method presented can be applied to the design of other steel and hybrid ball thrust bearing systems.

  18. Dimethyl fumarate–induced lymphopenia in MS due to differential T-cell subset apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiri, Mahtab; Rezk, Ayman; Li, Rui; Evans, Ashley; Luessi, Felix; Zipp, Frauke; Giacomini, Paul S.; Antel, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine the mechanism underlying the preferential CD8+ vs CD4+ T-cell lymphopenia induced by dimethyl fumarate (DMF) treatment of MS. Methods: Total lymphocyte counts and comprehensive T-cell subset analyses were performed in high-quality samples obtained from patients with MS prior to and serially following DMF treatment initiation. Random coefficient mixed-effects analysis was used to model the trajectory of T-cell subset losses in vivo. Survival and apoptosis of distinct T-cell subsets were assessed following in vitro exposure to DMF. Results: Best-fit modeling indicated that the DMF-induced preferential reductions in CD8+ vs CD4+ T-cell counts nonetheless followed similar depletion kinetics, suggesting a similar rather than distinct mechanism involved in losses of both the CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. In vitro, DMF exposure resulted in dose-dependent reductions in T-cell survival, which were found to reflect apoptotic cell death. This DMF-induced apoptosis was greater for CD8+ vs CD4+, as well as for memory vs naive, and conventional vs regulatory T-cell subsets, a pattern which mirrored preferential T-cell subset losses that we observed during in vivo treatment of patients. Conclusions: Differential apoptosis mediated by DMF may underlie the preferential lymphopenia of distinct T-cell subsets, including CD8+ and memory T-cell subsets, seen in treated patients with MS. This differential susceptibility of distinct T-cell subsets to DMF-induced apoptosis may contribute to both the safety and efficacy profiles of DMF in patients with MS. PMID:28377940

  19. Dimethyl fumarate-induced lymphopenia in MS due to differential T-cell subset apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiri, Mahtab; Rezk, Ayman; Li, Rui; Evans, Ashley; Luessi, Felix; Zipp, Frauke; Giacomini, Paul S; Antel, Jack; Bar-Or, Amit

    2017-05-01

    To examine the mechanism underlying the preferential CD8 + vs CD4 + T-cell lymphopenia induced by dimethyl fumarate (DMF) treatment of MS. Total lymphocyte counts and comprehensive T-cell subset analyses were performed in high-quality samples obtained from patients with MS prior to and serially following DMF treatment initiation. Random coefficient mixed-effects analysis was used to model the trajectory of T-cell subset losses in vivo. Survival and apoptosis of distinct T-cell subsets were assessed following in vitro exposure to DMF. Best-fit modeling indicated that the DMF-induced preferential reductions in CD8 + vs CD4 + T-cell counts nonetheless followed similar depletion kinetics, suggesting a similar rather than distinct mechanism involved in losses of both the CD8 + and CD4 + T cells. In vitro, DMF exposure resulted in dose-dependent reductions in T-cell survival, which were found to reflect apoptotic cell death. This DMF-induced apoptosis was greater for CD8 + vs CD4 + , as well as for memory vs naive, and conventional vs regulatory T-cell subsets, a pattern which mirrored preferential T-cell subset losses that we observed during in vivo treatment of patients. Differential apoptosis mediated by DMF may underlie the preferential lymphopenia of distinct T-cell subsets, including CD8 + and memory T-cell subsets, seen in treated patients with MS. This differential susceptibility of distinct T-cell subsets to DMF-induced apoptosis may contribute to both the safety and efficacy profiles of DMF in patients with MS.

  20. Spaces in which every dense subset is a G δ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A topological space X is called a DG-space if every subset of X is a G-set in its closure. In this paper we study DG-spaces that contains subspaces in which every dense subset is open and spaces in which every subset is a G. We give some new results in these classes of topological spaces.

  1. Influence of abutment type and esthetic veneering on preload maintenance of abutment screw of implant-supported crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delben, Juliana Aparecida; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Dos Santos, Paulo Henrique; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves

    2014-02-01

    The effect of veneering materials on screw joint stability remains inconclusive. Thus, this study evaluated the preload maintenance of abutment screws of single crowns fabricated with different abutments and veneering materials. Sixty crowns were divided into five groups (n = 12): UCLA abutment in gold alloy with ceramic (group GC) and resin (group GR) veneering, UCLA abutment in titanium with ceramic (group TiC) and resin (group TiR) veneering, and zirconia abutment with ceramic veneering (group ZiC). Abutment screws made of gold were used with a 35 Ncm insertion torque. Detorque measurements were obtained initially and after mechanical cycling. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Fisher's exact test at a significance level of 5%. For the initial detorque means (in Ncm), group TiC (21.4 ± 1.78) exhibited statistically lower torque maintenance than groups GC (23.9 ± 0.91), GR (24.1 ± 1.34), and TiR (23.2 ± 1.33) (p veneering material. More irregular surfaces in the hexagon area of the castable abutments were observed. The superiority of any veneering material concerning preload maintenance was not established. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  2. Development of magnetically preloaded air bearings for a linear slide: active compensation of three degrees of freedom motion errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Seung-Kook; Kim, Soohyun; Kwak, Yoonkeun; Park, Chun-Hong

    2008-03-01

    This article describes a linear air-bearing stage that uses active control to compensate for its motion errors. The active control is based on preloads generated by magnetic actuators, which were designed to generate nominal preloads for the air bearings using permanent magnets to maintain the desired stiffness while changing the air-bearing clearance by varying the magnetic flux generated by the current in electromagnetic coils. A single-axis linear stage with a linear motor and 240 mm of travel range was built to verify this design concept and used to test its performance. The motion of the table in three directions was controlled with four magnetic actuators driven by current amplifiers and a DSP (Digital Signal Processor)-based digital controller. The motion errors were measured using a laser interferometer combined with a two-probe method, and had 0.085 microm of repeatability for the straightness error. As a result of feed-forward active compensation, the errors were reduced from 1.09 to 0.11 microm for the vertical motion, from 9.42 to 0.18 arcsec for the pitch motion, and from 2.42 to 0.18 arcsec for the roll motion.

  3. Studi Aplikasi Vacuum Preloading Sebagai Metode Alternatif Percepatan Proses Konsolidasi pada Tanah Lempung Lunak Jenuh Air: Trial GVS pada Perumahan Pantai Indah Kapuk, Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andryan Suhendra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum preloading is an alternative method to improve water-saturated soft clay by accelerating the consolidation process. A trial using GVS system was done at Pantai Indah Kapuk residence, Jakarta to investigate the system reliability. Monitoring equipments used include settlement plate to measure the consolidation decrease, piezometer to measure pore water tension, inklinometer to identify the soil direction and lateral movement during the vacuum preloading process, and manometer to measure the vacuum pump pressure. Analytical calculations to estimate the consolidation decrease is done using one-dimensional consolidation theory of Terzaghi. Besides, a numerical analysis is performed by element method up to Plaxis software application. Meanwhile, the monitoring results are achieved using Asaoka theory that estimates the achieved degree of reduction and consolidation. The monitoring results and theoretical analysis indicate that the GVS system included in the vacuum preloading method is quite reliable as an alternative method of consolidation acceleration of water-saturated soft clay. 

  4. Generalized Subset Designs in Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surowiec, Izabella; Vikström, Ludvig; Hector, Gustaf; Johansson, Erik; Vikström, Conny; Trygg, Johan

    2017-06-20

    Design of experiments (DOE) is an established methodology in research, development, manufacturing, and production for screening, optimization, and robustness testing. Two-level fractional factorial designs remain the preferred approach due to high information content while keeping the number of experiments low. These types of designs, however, have never been extended to a generalized multilevel reduced design type that would be capable to include both qualitative and quantitative factors. In this Article we describe a novel generalized fractional factorial design. In addition, it also provides complementary and balanced subdesigns analogous to a fold-over in two-level reduced factorial designs. We demonstrate how this design type can be applied with good results in three different applications in analytical chemistry including (a) multivariate calibration using microwave resonance spectroscopy for the determination of water in tablets, (b) stability study in drug product development, and (c) representative sample selection in clinical studies. This demonstrates the potential of generalized fractional factorial designs to be applied in many other areas of analytical chemistry where representative, balanced, and complementary subsets are required, especially when a combination of quantitative and qualitative factors at multiple levels exists.

  5. Adsorption of Estrogen Contaminants by Graphene Nanomaterials under Natural Organic Matter Preloading: Comparison to Carbon Nanotube, Biochar, and Activated Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Luhua; Liu, Yunguo; Liu, Shaobo; Zeng, Guangming; Hu, Xinjiang; Hu, Xi; Guo, Zhi; Tan, Xiaofei; Wang, Lele; Wu, Zhibin

    2017-06-06

    Adsorption of two estrogen contaminants (17β-estradiol and 17α-ethynyl estradiol) by graphene nanomaterials was investigated and compared to those of a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), two biochars, a powdered activated carbon (PAC), and a granular activate carbon (GAC) in ultrapure water and in the competition of natural organic matter (NOM). Graphene nanomaterials showed comparable or better adsorption ability than carbon nanotubes (CNTs), biochars (BCs), and activated carbon (ACs) under NOM preloading. The competition of NOM decreased the estrogen adsorption by all adsorbents. However, the impact of NOM on the estrogen adsorption was smaller on graphenes than CNTs, BCs, and ACs. Moreover, the hydrophobicity of estrogens also affected the uptake of estrogens. These results suggested that graphene nanomaterials could be used to removal estrogen contaminants from water as an alternative adsorbent. Nevertheless, if transferred to the environment, they would also adsorb estrogen contaminants, leading to great environmental hazards.

  6. [Tricaicium phosphate complex pre-loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 or platelet derived growth factor-BB for repairing critical-size cranial defects in SD rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rui-Xuan; Xiao, Jian-Bin; Song, Bing; Huang, Zhi-Hui; Zhao, Liang

    2016-03-01

    To observe the effect of a new biomaterial in promoting the bone regeneration for repairing critical-size cranial defects in SD rats. Critical-size cranial defects were induced in 3-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats and repaired with the implants of calcium phosphate from growth factor enhanced matrix 21 (CaPfromGEM21, control), CaPfromGEM21 preloaded with 10 ng bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), CaPfromGEM21 preloaded with 100 ng BMP-2, CaPfromGEM21 preloaded with 0.3 µg platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), or CaPfromGEM21 preloaded with 3 µg PDGF-BB. The defects were examined 6 weeks after the surgery with X-ray, micro-CT, HE staining and quantitative assessments. X-ray showed defect repair in all the groups. The fracture line became obscure, and the defects were almost fully repaired by the regenerated bone tissues in PDGF-BB group. Micro-CT demonstarted new bone formation in the defects. The new bone volume was significantly greater in PDGF-BB groups than in BMP-2 groups (PBB group than in the control group (PBB has good biocompatibility and can better promote bone regeneration for repairing bone defects.

  7. The effect of maintaining a constant preload or a constant degree of thumb abduction on the isometric twitch force of the thumb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, G; Wierda, JMKH

    Objective. To investigate the effects of maintaining a constant preload and of maintaining a constant degree of thumb abduction on the isometric twitch force during mechanomyography of the thumb, we monitored neuromuscular function in patients anaesthetized without the use of a neuromuscular

  8. Increase in twitch force of the adductor pollicis muscle with stabilized preload at constant thumb abduction before and after administration of muscle relaxant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, G; Wierda, JMKH; Fidler, [No Value

    Objective. To determine whether the twitch force of the adductor pollicis remains stable when 0.1 Hz single twitch stimulation is started after stabilization of the thumb preload at a constant degree of thumb abduction; also to study any possible increase in twitch force before the onset of and

  9. Determining equilibrium partition coefficients between lipid/protein and polydimethylsiloxane for highly hydrophobic organic contaminants using preloaded disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yuanyuan; Li, Huizhen; You, Jing

    2017-11-15

    Bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic contaminants is of great concern and understanding their partitioning to biological phases is crucial for estimating their bioaccumulation potential. The estimation, however, was of large uncertainty for highly hydrophobic organic contaminants (HHOCs) with log KOW>9 due to the challenge of quantifying their water concentrations. In the present study, partition coefficients between polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and storage lipid (KSL,PDMS), membrane lipid (KML,PDMS) and protein (Kpro,PDMS) were measured for 21 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 14 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dechlorane plus (DP) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), covering log KOW from 5.07 to 11.6, using a preloaded PDMS depletion method. The values of KSL,PDMS, KML,PDMS and Kpro,PDMS were in the ranges of 5.36-52.5, 0.286-11.8 and 0.067-2.62g/g, respectively, being relatively constant although their KOW values extend more than six orders of magnitude. The relative sorption capacity of the biological phases showed storage lipid was the dominant sorption phase in biota, followed by membrane lipid and protein was the lowest. The KPDMS,pro values of the compounds with log KOW<9 were similar (0.382-14.9g/g) regardless of the thickness of preloaded PDMS disks (58-209μm). For HHOCs, however, KPDMS,pro values dropped when thinner PDMS disks were used, as a result of slow diffusion of HHOCs in PDMS. The KPDMS,pro values of HHOCs measured by 58-μm PDMS disks ranged from 1.78 to 6.85g/g, which was consistent with compounds with log KOW<9. This validated that partition coefficients between PDMS and biological phases were independent of chemical hydrophobicity, showing the advantage of using PDMS-based methods to directly estimate bioaccumulation potential of HHOCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of preload and heart rate on the doppler and tissue doppler-derived myocardial performance index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Kurtuluş; Balci, Sibel; Duzenli, Mehmet Akif; Can, Ilknur; Yazici, Mehmet; Aygul, Nazif; Altunkeser, Bulent Behlul; Altintepe, Lutfullah; Turk, Suleyman

    2007-07-01

    Doppler-derived myocardial performance index (MPI) has been described as a noninvasive measurement of LV function. Our aim was to investigate the effect of hemodialysis related volume reduction and heart rate changes on the Doppler-derived LV MPI, and Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) derived left and right ventricular MPI. The study group comprised 32 consecutive patients (mean age: 43 +/- 18 yrs) undergoing hemodialysis. Patients underwent echocardiography before and immediately after hemodialysis session. Left and right ventricular MPI derived from conventional pulsed-wave Doppler and DTI was calculated. The difference in MPI, heart rate and body weight was calculated before and after hemodialysis. Doppler-derived LV MPI, and right ventricular MPI obtained by DTI were increased (p = 0.05) but the LV MPI obtained by DTI was unchanged after hemodialysis. There is a significant positive correlation between the Doppler-derived LV MPI difference and volume reduction (r = 0.38, p = 0.032). The heart rate difference was correlated with Doppler-derived LV MPI difference, and DTI derived right ventricular MPI difference (r = 0.38, p = 0.034; r = 0.48, p = 0.006, respectively). Whereas, DTI derived LV MPI difference was not correlated with heart rate difference. By the multivariate analysis, there was no correlation between Doppler-derived LV MPI difference with heart rate difference, and volume reduction. Right ventricular MPI difference correlated with heart rate difference (r = 0.41, p = 0.021) but not with volume reduction. Doppler-derived MPI is partially influenced by preload and heart rate changes. However, DTI derived LV MPI is not influenced by preload and heart rate changes.

  11. Indirect Positive Evidence in the Acquisition of a Subset Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Misha; Goad, Heather

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes that second language learners can use indirect positive evidence (IPE) to acquire a phonological grammar that is a subset of their L1 grammar. IPE is evidence from errors in the learner's L1 made by native speakers of the learner's L2. It has been assumed that subset grammars may be acquired using direct or indirect negative…

  12. Prevention of post-spinal hypotension using crystalloid, colloid and ephedrine with three different combinations: A double blind randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Jabalameli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The benefit of prophylactic combination therapy using crystalloid and colloid preload with ephedrine has not been cleared to prevent maternal hypotension after spinal anesthesia at cesarean delivery. This study evaluated the efficacy of three combinational methods to prevent hypotension following spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: In this prospective double blind trial, 150 candidates of elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated to three treatment groups; 1---Ringer′s Lactate (RL solution (15 ml/kg plus Hemaxel (7 ml/kg preload, 2---RL solution (15 ml/kg preload plus ephedrine (15 mg, IV, bolus, 3---Hemaxel (7 ml/kg preload plus ephedrine (15 mg, IV, bolus. Maternal hemodynamic changes during 60 min after spinal injection, nausea/vomiting, and neonatal condition were compared among the groups. Results: The cumulative incidence of hypotension was 44%, 40%, and 46% in groups 1 to 3, respectively. There were not significant differences in supplementary ephedrine requirement among groups which received or among groups which did not receive prophylactic ephedrine. Groups were not different in the incidence of hypertension and nausea or vomiting. There were no significant differences among groups in Apgar scores at 1 or 5 min and umbilical artery PH. Conclusion: Combination of preventive methods decreased the occurrence of hypotension following spinal anesthesia to an acceptable level. Overall, the most effective method was a combination of crystalloid preload with ephedrine.

  13. Sample Subset Optimization Techniques for Imbalanced and Ensemble Learning Problems in Bioinformatics Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pengyi; Yoo, Paul D; Fernando, Juanita; Zhou, Bing B; Zhang, Zili; Zomaya, Albert Y

    2014-03-01

    Data sampling is a widely used technique in a broad range of machine learning problems. Traditional sampling approaches generally rely on random resampling from a given dataset. However, these approaches do not take into consideration additional information, such as sample quality and usefulness. We recently proposed a data sampling technique, called sample subset optimization (SSO). The SSO technique relies on a cross-validation procedure for identifying and selecting the most useful samples as subsets. In this paper, we describe the application of SSO techniques to imbalanced and ensemble learning problems, respectively. For imbalanced learning, the SSO technique is employed as an under-sampling technique for identifying a subset of highly discriminative samples in the majority class. In ensemble learning, the SSO technique is utilized as a generic ensemble technique where multiple optimized subsets of samples from each class are selected for building an ensemble classifier. We demonstrate the utilities and advantages of the proposed techniques on a variety of bioinformatics applications where class imbalance, small sample size, and noisy data are prevalent.

  14. Feature Subset Selection for Cancer Classification Using Weight Local Modularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guodong; Wu, Yan

    2016-10-05

    Microarray is recently becoming an important tool for profiling the global gene expression patterns of tissues. Gene selection is a popular technology for cancer classification that aims to identify a small number of informative genes from thousands of genes that may contribute to the occurrence of cancers to obtain a high predictive accuracy. This technique has been extensively studied in recent years. This study develops a novel feature selection (FS) method for gene subset selection by utilizing the Weight Local Modularity (WLM) in a complex network, called the WLMGS. In the proposed method, the discriminative power of gene subset is evaluated by using the weight local modularity of a weighted sample graph in the gene subset where the intra-class distance is small and the inter-class distance is large. A higher local modularity of the gene subset corresponds to a greater discriminative of the gene subset. With the use of forward search strategy, a more informative gene subset as a group can be selected for the classification process. Computational experiments show that the proposed algorithm can select a small subset of the predictive gene as a group while preserving classification accuracy.

  15. On Maximal Non-Disjoint Families of Subsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zuev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies maximal non-disjoint families of subsets of a finite set. Non-disjointness means that any two subsets of a family have a nonempty intersection. The maximality is expressed by the fact that adding a new subset to the family cannot increase its power without violating a non-disjointness condition. Studying the properties of such families is an important section of the extreme theory of sets. Along with purely combinatorial interest, the problems considered here play an important role in informatics, anti-noise coding, and cryptography.In 1961 this problem saw the light of day in the Erdos, Ko and Rado paper, which established a maximum power of the non-disjoint family of subsets of equal power. In 1974 the Erdos and Claytman publication estimated the number of maximal non-disjoint families of subsets without involving the equality of their power. These authors failed to establish an asymptotics of the logarithm of the number of such families when the power of a basic finite set tends to infinity. However, they suggested such an asymptotics as a hypothesis. A.D. Korshunov in two publications in 2003 and 2005 established the asymptotics for the number of non-disjoint families of the subsets of arbitrary powers without maximality condition of these families.The basis for the approach used in the paper to study the families of subsets is their description in the language of Boolean functions. A one-to-one correspondence between a family of subsets and a Boolean function is established by the fact that the characteristic vectors of subsets of a family are considered to be the unit sets of a Boolean function. The main theoretical result of the paper is that the maximal non-disjoint families are in one-to-one correspondence with the monotonic self-dual Boolean functions. When estimating the number of maximal non-disjoint families, this allowed us to use the result of A.A. Sapozhenko, who established the asymptotics of the number of the

  16. Kernelization of the Subset General Position problem in Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Boissonnat, Jean-Daniel; Dutta, Kunal; Ghosh, Arijit; Kolay, Sudeshna

    2017-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we consider variants of the Geometric Subset General Position problem. In defining this problem, a geometric subsystem is specified, like a subsystem of lines, hyperplanes or spheres. The input of the problem is a set of n points in R d and a positive integer k. The objective is to find a subset of at least k input points such that this subset is in general position with respect to the specified subsystem. For example, a set of points is in general posit...

  17. T-lymphocyte subsets in recurrent aphthous ulceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A; Klausen, B; Hougen, H P

    1989-01-01

    Peripheral T-lymphocyte subsets: T-helper (OKT4) and T-suppressor (OKT8) cells were studied quantitatively in 20 patients with recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU) in ulcerative, as well as inactive, stages of the disease. The figures were compared with T-lymphocyte subsets from matched control...... in either stage compared with controls. The study support the hypothesis of recurrent aphthous ulceration being a disorder of immunodeficiency....

  18. Endothelin-1 stimulates the release of preloaded ( sup 3 H)D-aspartate from cultured cerebellar granule cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, W.W.; Lee, C.Y.; Chuang, D.M. (NIMH Neuroscience Center, Washington, DC (USA))

    1990-03-16

    We have recently reported that endothelin-1 (ET) induces phosphoinositide hydrolysis in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells. Here we found that ET in a dose-dependent manner (1-30 nM) stimulated the release of preloaded ({sup 3}H)D-aspartate from granule cells. The ET-induced aspartate release was completely blocked in the absence of extracellular Ca{sup 2+}, but was unaffected by 1 mM Co{sup 2+} or 1 microM dihydropyridine derivatives (nisoldipine and nimodipine). At higher concentration (10 microM) of nisoldipine and nimodipine, the release was partially inhibited. Short-term pretreatment of cells with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) potentiated the ET-induced aspartate release, while long-term pretreatment with PDBu attenuated the release. Long-term exposure of cells to pertussis toxin (PTX), on the other hand, potentiated the ET-induced effects. Our results suggest that ET has a neuromodulatory function in the central nervous system.

  19. Novel, single-beat approach for determining both end-systolic pressure–dimension relationship and preload recruitable stroke work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inuzuka, Ryo; Kass, David A; Senzaki, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Objective The end-systolic pressure–dimension relationship (ESPDR) and the preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW) relationship are load-insensitive measures of contractility, but their clinical application has been limited by the need to record multiple beats over a wide volume range. In this study, we therefore sought to validate a new method to concomitantly determine the ESPDR and the PRSW relationship from a single beat. Methods Pressure–dimension loops were recorded in 14 conscious dogs under various haemodynamic and pathological conditions. Multiple-beat PRSW relationship was determined for its slope (Mw) and for a dimension-axis intercept (Dw). The ESPDR represented by the formula , was estimated from a steady-state, single-beat late-systolic pressure–dimension relationship. The single-beat Mw was determined as an end-systolic pressure when the end-systolic dimension was equal to Dw. Results A strong correlation was observed between multiple-beat and single-beat ESPDRs (zero-stress dimension; r=0.98, pdimension is equal to Dw. By using the non-linear ESPDR, accurate single-beat estimation of the ESPDR and Mw is possible even without information on wall thickness. These results should enhance the applicability of pressure–volume framework to clinical medicine. PMID:27347424

  20. Novel, single-beat approach for determining both end-systolic pressure-dimension relationship and preload recruitable stroke work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inuzuka, Ryo; Kass, David A; Senzaki, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    The end-systolic pressure-dimension relationship (ESPDR) and the preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW) relationship are load-insensitive measures of contractility, but their clinical application has been limited by the need to record multiple beats over a wide volume range. In this study, we therefore sought to validate a new method to concomitantly determine the ESPDR and the PRSW relationship from a single beat. Pressure-dimension loops were recorded in 14 conscious dogs under various haemodynamic and pathological conditions. Multiple-beat PRSW relationship was determined for its slope (Mw) and for a dimension-axis intercept (Dw). The ESPDR represented by the formula [Formula: see text], was estimated from a steady-state, single-beat late-systolic pressure-dimension relationship. The single-beat Mw was determined as an end-systolic pressure when the end-systolic dimension was equal to Dw. A strong correlation was observed between multiple-beat and single-beat ESPDRs (zero-stress dimension; r=0.98, pdimension is equal to Dw. By using the non-linear ESPDR, accurate single-beat estimation of the ESPDR and Mw is possible even without information on wall thickness. These results should enhance the applicability of pressure-volume framework to clinical medicine.

  1. Sucrose preload reduces snacking after mild mental stress in healthy participants as a function of 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter gene promoter polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, C Rob; Jonkman, Lisa M; Capello, Aimee; Leinders, Sacha; Hüsch, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) dysfunction is considered to promote food intake and eating-related disturbances, especially under stress or negative mood. Vulnerability for 5-HT disturbances is considered to be genetically determined, including a short (S) allele polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) that is associated with lower serotonin function. Since 5-HT function may be slightly increased by carbohydrate consumption, S-allele 5-HTTLPR carriers in particular may benefit from a sugar-preload due to their enhanced 5-HT vulnerability. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a sugar-containing preload may reduce appetite and energy intake after exposure to stress to induce negative mood, depending on genetic 5-HT vulnerability. From a population of 771 healthy young male and female genotyped college students 31 S/S carriers (8 males, 23 females) and 26 long allele (L/L) carriers (9 males, 17 females) (mean ± S.D. 22 ± 1.6 years; body mass index, BMI, 18-33 kg/m(2)) were monitored for changes in appetite and snacking behavior after stress exposure. Results revealed an increased energy intake after mild mental stress (negative mood) mainly for high-fat sweet foods, which was significantly greater in S/S carriers, and only in these genotypes this intake was significantly reduced by a sucrose-containing preload. Although alternative explanations are possible, it is suggested that S/S participants may have enhanced brain (hypothalamic) 5-HT responsiveness to food that makes them more susceptible to the beneficial satiation effects of a sucrose-preload as well as to the negative effects of mild mental stress on weight gain.

  2. Comparison of 4% Succinylated Gelatin with 6% Hydroxyethyl Starch 130/0.4 for Preloading Prior to Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, Amit; Dave, Sona; Gujjar, Pinakin

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objective: The present study was carried out with an objective to compare 4% succinylated gelatin with 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 for preloading prior to cardiopulmonary bypass in coronary artery bypass grafting patients with respect to haemodynamics status, blood loss, transfusion requirement, ICU stay and complication. Methods: The study enrolling 60 patients of either sex, aged between 30-70 years undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting. These patients were randoml...

  3. The Effect of Ringer versus Haemaccel Preload on Incidence of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ghafourifard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV is the most common and unpleasant postoperative complication. There is much controversy on preoperative fluid therapy. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of crystalloid fluid (Ringer solution versus colloid (Haemaccel solution on the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients receiving spinal anesthesia. Methods: In this double-blinded clinical trial, 46 patients were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients were randomly allocated to one of two groups. The crystalloid group received Ringer solution at a volume of 7 ml/kg and colloid group received 7ml/kg of 3% Modified Gelatin (Haemaccel as a preoperative intravenous bolus. We used a Verbal Rating Scale (VRS for assessing the nausea and vomiting occurrence. Data were analyzed using SPSS software ver.13 and x2 test and independent t-test. Results: The result showed that the incidence of PONV was less frequent in both Ringer and Haemaccel groups, but the incidence of vomiting and the intensity of nausea was not significantly different in any time point after anesthesia. Conclusion: We conclude that preoperative fluid administration decreases the incidence of PONV, and both Crystalloids (Ringer and colloids (haemaccel solution were found to be equivalent in prevention of PONV. Therefore using of either Ringer or haemaccel solution is recommended for prevention of PONV.

  4. Efficient preloading of the ventricles by a properly timed atrial contraction underlies stroke work improvement in the acute response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuxuan; Gurev, Viatcheslav; Constantino, Jason; Trayanova, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Background The acute response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to be due to three mechanisms: resynchronization of ventricular contraction, efficient preloading of the ventricles by a properly timed atrial contraction, and mitral regurgitation reduction. However, the contribution of each of the three mechanisms to the acute response of CRT, specifically stroke work improvement, has not been quantified. Objective The goal of this study was to use an MRI-based anatomically accurate 3D model of failing canine ventricular electromechanics to quantify the contribution of each of the three mechanisms to stroke work improvement and identify the predominant mechanisms. Methods An MRI-based electromechanical model of the failing canine ventricles assembled previously by our group was further developed and modified. Three different protocols were used to dissect the contribution of each of the three mechanisms to stroke work improvement. Results Resynchronization of ventricular contraction did not lead to significant stroke work improvement. Efficient preloading of the ventricles by a properly timed atrial contraction was the predominant mechanism underlying stroke work improvement. Stroke work improvement peaked at an intermediate AV delay, as it allowed ventricular filling by atrial contraction to occur at a low diastolic LV pressure but also provided adequate time for ventricular filling before ventricular contraction. Diminution of mitral regurgitation by CRT led to stroke work worsening instead of improvement. Conclusion Efficient preloading of the ventricles by a properly timed atrial contraction is responsible for significant stroke work improvement in the acute CRT response. PMID:23928177

  5. In vivo release by vagal stimulation of L-/sup 3/Hglutamic acid in the nucleus tractus solitarius preloaded with L-/sup 3/Hglutamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granata, A.R.; Sved, A.F.; Reis, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    In anesthetized and paralyzed rats, using a push-pull perfusion technique, we examined the effect of bilateral vagal stimulation on the release of L-/sup 3/Hglutamic acid (L-/sup 3/HGlu) from the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), after preloading the tissue either with L-/sup 3/HGlu or L-/sup 3/Hglutamine (L-/sup 3/HGln). Vagal stimulation sufficient to produce a maximum fall of arterial pressure (AP) evoked release of L-/sup 3/HGlu from the NTS when the tissue was preloaded with either /sup 3/H-Glu or /sup 3/H-Gln, and of D-/sup 3/Haspartic acid (D-/sup 3/HAsp) when this stable Glu analogue was used to preloaded with either /sup 3/H-Glu or /sup 3/H-Gln, and of D-/sup 3/H precursor L-Gln is a good marker of the releasable pool of L-Glu in vivo and are consistent with the hypothesis that L-/sup 3/HGlu is a neurotransmitter in the NTS, mediating the vasodepressor response from cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors.

  6. Effects of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on T and B lymphocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Kjærgaard, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) has been associated with beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs) on infant health. Within a randomized trial on the effect of neonatal BCG on overall health, we investigated the possible immunological impact of neonatal BCG vaccination on lymphocyte subsets.......55, 95% CI (0.32-0.92), p = 0.03). In conclusion, limited overall impact of neonatal BCG vaccination on lymphocyte subsets was found in healthy Danish infants within the first 13 months of life. This is in line with the limited clinical effects of BCG observed in our setting....

  7. Differential expression of tetraspanin superfamily members in dendritic cell subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidscherwoude, Malou; Worah, Kuntal; van der Schaaf, Alie; Buschow, Sonja I; van Spriel, Annemiek B

    2017-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs), which are essential for initiating immune responses, are comprised of different subsets. Tetraspanins organize dendritic cell membranes by facilitating protein-protein interactions within the so called tetraspanin web. In this study we analyzed expression of the complete tetraspanin superfamily in primary murine (CD4+, CD8+, pDC) and human DC subsets (CD1c+, CD141+, pDC) at the transcriptome and proteome level. Different RNA and protein expression profiles for the tetraspanin genes across human and murine DC subsets were identified. Although RNA expression levels of CD37 and CD82 were not significantly different between human DC subsets, CD9 RNA was highly expressed in pDCs, while CD9 protein expression was lower. This indicates that relative RNA and protein expression levels are not always in agreement. Both murine CD8α+ DCs and its regarded human counterpart, CD141+ DCs, displayed relatively high protein levels of CD81. CD53 protein was highly expressed on human pDCs in contrast to the relatively low protein expression of most other tetraspanins. This study demonstrates that tetraspanins are differentially expressed by human and murine DC subsets which provides a valuable resource that will aid the understanding of tetraspanin function in DC biology.

  8. Differential expression of tetraspanin superfamily members in dendritic cell subsets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malou Zuidscherwoude

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs, which are essential for initiating immune responses, are comprised of different subsets. Tetraspanins organize dendritic cell membranes by facilitating protein-protein interactions within the so called tetraspanin web. In this study we analyzed expression of the complete tetraspanin superfamily in primary murine (CD4+, CD8+, pDC and human DC subsets (CD1c+, CD141+, pDC at the transcriptome and proteome level. Different RNA and protein expression profiles for the tetraspanin genes across human and murine DC subsets were identified. Although RNA expression levels of CD37 and CD82 were not significantly different between human DC subsets, CD9 RNA was highly expressed in pDCs, while CD9 protein expression was lower. This indicates that relative RNA and protein expression levels are not always in agreement. Both murine CD8α+ DCs and its regarded human counterpart, CD141+ DCs, displayed relatively high protein levels of CD81. CD53 protein was highly expressed on human pDCs in contrast to the relatively low protein expression of most other tetraspanins. This study demonstrates that tetraspanins are differentially expressed by human and murine DC subsets which provides a valuable resource that will aid the understanding of tetraspanin function in DC biology.

  9. Computed tomography to estimate cardiac preload and extravascular lung water. A retrospective analysis in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Roland M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In critically ill patients intravascular volume status and pulmonary edema need to be quantified as soon as possible. Many critically ill patients undergo a computed tomography (CT-scan of the thorax after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU. This study investigates whether CT-based estimation of cardiac preload and pulmonary hydration can accurately assess volume status and can contribute to an early estimation of hemodynamics. Methods Thirty medical ICU patients. Global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI and extravascular lung water index (EVLWI were assessed using transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD serving as reference method (with established GEDVI/EVLWI normal values. Central venous pressure (CVP was determined. CT-based estimation of GEDVI/EVLWI/CVP by two different radiologists (R1, R2 without analyzing software. Primary endpoint: predictive capabilities of CT-based estimation of GEDVI/EVLWI/CVP compared to TPTD and measured CVP. Secondary endpoint: interobserver correlation and agreement between R1 and R2. Results Accuracy of CT-estimation of GEDVI ( 800 mL/m2 was 33%(R1/27%(R2. For R1 and R2 sensitivity for diagnosis of low GEDVI (2 was 0% (specificity 100%. Sensitivity for prediction of elevated GEDVI (> 800 mL/m2 was 86%(R1/57%(R2 with a specificity of 57%(R1/39%(R2 (positive predictive value 38%(R1/22%(R2; negative predictive value 93%(R1/75%(R2. Estimated CT-GEDVI and TPTD-GEDVI were significantly different showing an overestimation of GEDVI by the radiologists (R1: mean difference ± standard error (SE: 191 ± 30 mL/m2, p 2, p 10 mL/kg was 30% for R1 and 40% for R2. CT-EVLWI and TPTD-EVLWI were significantly different (R1: mean difference ± SE: 3.3 ± 1.2 mL/kg, p = 0.013; R2: mean difference ± SE: 2.8 ± 1.1 mL/kg, p = 0.021. Again ccc was low with -0.02 (R1; 95% CI: -0.20 to +0.13, BCF = 0.44 and +0.14 (R2; 95% CI: -0.05 to +0.32, BCF = 0.53. GEDVI, EVLWI and CVP estimations of R1 and R2 showed a poor

  10. Investigating evolutionary conservation of dendritic cell subset identity and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien-Phong eVu Manh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC were initially defined as mononuclear phagocytes with a dendritic morphology and an exquisite efficiency for naïve T cell activation. DC encompass several subsets initially identified by their expression of specific cell surface molecules and later shown to excel in distinct functions and to develop under the instruction of different transcription factors or cytokines. Very few cell surface molecules are expressed in a specific manner on any immune cell type. Hence, to identify cell types, the sole use of a small number of cell surface markers in classical flow cytometry can be deceiving. Moreover, the markers currently used to define mononuclear phagocyte subsets vary depending on the tissue and animal species studied and even between laboratories. This has led to confusion in the definition of DC subset identity and in their attribution of specific functions. There is a strong need to identify a rigorous and consensus way to define mononuclear phagocyte subsets, with precise guidelines potentially applicable throughout tissues and species. We will discuss the advantages, drawbacks and complementarities of different methodologies: cell surface phenotyping, ontogeny, functional characterization and molecular profiling. We will advocate that gene expression profiling is a very rigorous, largely unbiased and accessible method to define the identity of mononuclear phagocyte subsets, which strengthens and refines surface phenotyping. It is uniquely powerful to yield new, experimentally testable, hypotheses on the ontogeny or functions of mononuclear phagocyte subsets, their molecular regulation and their evolutionary conservation. We propose defining cell populations based on a combination of cell surface phenotyping, expression analysis of hallmark genes and robust functional assays, in order to reach a consensus and integrate faster the huge but scattered knowledge accumulated by different laboratories on different cell types

  11. Comparative study of NMP-preloaded and dip-loaded membranes for guided bone regeneration of rabbit cranial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karfeld-Sulzer, Lindsay S; Ghayor, Chafik; Siegenthaler, Barbara; Gjoksi, Bebeka; Pohjonen, Timo H; Weber, Franz E

    2017-02-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) has been utilized for several decades for the healing of cranio-maxillofacial bone defects and, particularly in the dental field, by creating space with a barrier membrane to exclude soft tissue and encourage bone growth in the membrane-protected volume. Although the first membranes were non-resorbable, a new generation of GBR membranes aims to biodegrade and provide bioactivity for better overall results. The Inion GTR™ poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) membrane is not only resorbable but also bioactive, since it includes N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), which has been shown to promote bone regeneration. In this study, the effects of loading different amounts of NMP onto the membrane through chemical vapour deposition or dipping have been explored. In vitro release demonstrated that lower levels of NMP led to lower NMP concentrations and slower release, based on total NMP loaded in the membrane. The dipped membrane released almost all of the NMP within 15 min, leading to a high NMP concentration. For the in vivo studies in rabbits, 6 mm calvarial defects were created and left untreated or covered with an ePTFE membrane or PLGA membranes dipped in, or preloaded with, NMP. Evaluation of the bony regeneration revealed that the barrier membranes improved bony healing and that a decrease in NMP content improved the performance. Overall, we have demonstrated the potential of these PLGA membranes with a more favourable NMP release profile and the significance of exploring the effect of NMP on these PLGA membranes with regard to bone ingrowth. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The effect of screw preload and framework material on the success of cementable fixed partial prostheses: A finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Istabrak; Keilig, Ludger; Bourauel, Christoph; Lückerath, Walter

    2015-05-01

    The rigidity of framework materials and overload of the implant system directly affect the final transferred load of the bone around implants. The aim of the present study has been to analyse the influence of framework materials on the transferred load to the implant system and the surrounding bone. A finite element model of a long-span cementable implant-supported fixed prosthesis was created with two coping layers (gold and hybrid composite) to optimise the fitting of the prosthesis to the abutments. Three framework materials were analysed: titanium, gold alloy, and zirconia. The connection screws were first preloaded with 200 N. The framework was then loaded with 500 N vertically and at 30° to the framework long axis. Two loading conditions were considered: at the mesial and distal boundaries of the framework and at the centre of the framework. The stresses and strains within the framework materials and bone bed around the supporting implants were analysed. The region and angle of load applications showed an obvious effect on the values of the stresses and strains within the framework itself and, consequently, their distribution in the implant system and surrounding bone. A correlation of the framework material and stresses of the coping materials was observed as well. The gold framework showed acceptable values of stress within the cortical bone (92 MPa and 89 MPa with 30° loading at two points and at the centre, respectively) in comparison to titanium (92 MPa and 113 MPa) and zirconia (88 MPa and 115 MPa). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. On the size of the subset partial order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim

    2012-01-01

    Given a family of k sets with cardinalities S 1,S 2,⋯, S k and N=Σ k i=1S i, we show that the size of the partial order graph induced by the subset relation (called the subset graph) is O(Σ si≤B 2si+N/lgN·Σ si>Blg(s i/B)), 2 where B=lg(N/lg 2N). This implies a simpler proof to the O(N 2/lg 2N...

  14. Tumour targeting and radiation dose of radioimmunotherapy with {sup 90}Y-rituximab in CD20+ B-cell lymphoma as predicted by {sup 89}Zr-rituximab immuno-PET: impact of preloading with unlabelled rituximab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muylle, Kristoff [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, MIMA Research Group, Brussels (Belgium); Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Jules Bordet Institute, Brussels (Belgium); Flamen, Patrick; Guiot, Thomas; Ghanem, Ghanem; Meuleman, Nathalie; Bourgeois, Pierre; Vanderlinden, Bruno; Vaes, Melanie; Bron, Dominique [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Jules Bordet Institute, Brussels (Belgium); Vugts, Danielle J.; Dongen, Guus A.M.S. van [VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Everaert, Hendrik [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Vrije Universiteit Brussel, MIMA Research Group, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-07-15

    To compare using immuno-PET/CT the distribution of {sup 89}Zr-labelled rituximab without and with a preload of unlabelled rituximab to assess the impact of preloading with unlabelled rituximab on tumour targeting and radiation dose of subsequent radioimmunotherapy with {sup 90}Y-labelled rituximab in CD20+ B-cell lymphoma. Five patients with CD20+ B-cell lymphoma and progressive disease were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent three study phases: initial dosimetric phase with baseline {sup 89}Zr-rituximab PET/CT imaging without a cold preload, followed 3 weeks later by a second dosimetric phase with administration of a standard preload (250 mg/m{sup 2}) of unlabelled rituximab followed by injection of {sup 89}Zr-rituximab, and a therapeutic phase 1 week later with administration of unlabelled rituximab followed by {sup 90}Y-rituximab. PET/CT imaging and tracer uptake by organs and lesions were assessed. With a cold rituximab preload, the calculated whole-body dose of {sup 90}Y-rituximab was similar (mean 0.87 mSv/MBq, range 0.82-0.99 mSv/MBq) in all patients. Without a preload, an increase in whole-body dose of 59 % and 87 % was noted in two patients with preserved circulating CD20+ B cells. This increase in radiation dose was primarily due to a 12.4-fold to 15-fold higher dose to the spleen without a preload. No significant change in whole-body dose was noted in the three other patients with B-cell depletion. Without a preload, consistently higher tumour uptake was noticed in patients with B-cell depletion. Administration of the standard preload of unlabelled rituximab impairs radioconjugate tumour targeting in the majority of patients eligible for radioimmunotherapy, that is patients previously treated with rituximab-containing therapeutic regimens. This common practice may need to be reconsidered and further evaluated as the rationale for this high preload has its origin in the ''prerituximab era''. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of subset-based local and FE-based global digital image correlation: Theoretical error analysis and validation

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, B.

    2016-03-22

    Subset-based local and finite-element-based (FE-based) global digital image correlation (DIC) approaches are the two primary image matching algorithms widely used for full-field displacement mapping. Very recently, the performances of these different DIC approaches have been experimentally investigated using numerical and real-world experimental tests. The results have shown that in typical cases, where the subset (element) size is no less than a few pixels and the local deformation within a subset (element) can be well approximated by the adopted shape functions, the subset-based local DIC outperforms FE-based global DIC approaches because the former provides slightly smaller root-mean-square errors and offers much higher computation efficiency. Here we investigate the theoretical origin and lay a solid theoretical basis for the previous comparison. We assume that systematic errors due to imperfect intensity interpolation and undermatched shape functions are negligibly small, and perform a theoretical analysis of the random errors or standard deviation (SD) errors in the displacements measured by two local DIC approaches (i.e., a subset-based local DIC and an element-based local DIC) and two FE-based global DIC approaches (i.e., Q4-DIC and Q8-DIC). The equations that govern the random errors in the displacements measured by these local and global DIC approaches are theoretically derived. The correctness of the theoretically predicted SD errors is validated through numerical translation tests under various noise levels. We demonstrate that the SD errors induced by the Q4-element-based local DIC, the global Q4-DIC and the global Q8-DIC are 4, 1.8-2.2 and 1.2-1.6 times greater, respectively, than that associated with the subset-based local DIC, which is consistent with our conclusions from previous work. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of Novel Human NK Cell Progenitor Subsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Sathe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the pathways and regulation of human haematopoiesis, in particular, lymphopoiesis, is vital to manipulation of these processes for therapeutic purposes. However, although haematopoiesis has been extensively characterised in mice, translation of these findings to human biology remains rudimentary. Here, we describe the isolation of three progenitor subsets from human foetal bone marrow that represent differential stages of commitment to the natural killer (NK cell lineage based on IL-15 responsiveness. We identify CD7 as a marker of IL-15 responsive progenitors in human bone marrow and find that this expression is maintained throughout commitment and maturation. Within the CD7+ fraction, we focussed on the lineage potential of three subsets based on CD127 and CD117 expression and observed restricted lymphoid and biased NK cell potential amongst subsets. We further demonstrate the presence of subsets similar in both phenotype and function in umbilical cord blood and the bone marrow of humanised mice, validating these as appropriate sources of progenitors for the investigation of human haematopoiesis. Overall, we describe several stages in the process of lymphopoiesis that will form the basis of investigating the regulators of this process in humans.

  17. Neutrophil subset responses in infants with severe viral respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortjens, Bart; Ingelse, Sarah A; Calis, Job C; Vlaar, Alexander P; Koenderman, Leo; Bem, Reinout A; van Woensel, Job B

    2017-03-01

    Neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cells recruited to the respiratory tract as part of the innate immune response to viral infections. Recent reports indicate the existence of distinct functional neutrophil subsets in the circulatory compartment of adults, following severe inflammatory conditions. Here, we evaluated the occurrence of neutrophil subsets in blood and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid during severe viral respiratory infection in infants based on CD16/CD62L expression. We show that during the course of severe respiratory infection infants may develop four heterogeneous neutrophil subsets in blood (mature, immature, progenitor, and suppressive neutrophils), each with distinct activation states. However, while isolated viral respiratory infection was characterized by a relative absence of suppressive neutrophils in both blood and lungs, only patients with bacterial co-infection were shown to produce suppressive neutrophils. These data suggest the occurrence of distinct and unique neutrophil subset responses during severe viral and (secondary) bacterial respiratory infection in infants. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. T lymphocyte subsets in prostate cancer subjects in south eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humoral and cellular mechanisms play roles in immune response to foreign antigens. The present study was designed to determine the T lymphocyte subsets (CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells and CD4/CD8 ratio) in the prostate cancer subjects and control subjects. CD4 + T cells (`l/count) and CD8 + T cells (`l/count) were ...

  19. Individual discriminative face recognition models based on subsets of features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Gomez, David Delgado; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2007-01-01

    person from another using only subsets of features will both decrease the computational cost and increase the generalization capacity of the face recognition algorithm. Moreover, identifying which are the features that better discriminate between persons will also provide a deeper understanding...

  20. The Role of Microglial Subsets in Regulating Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    subset frequencies present in the brain fol- lowing TBI, single-cell suspensions from TBI and sham-injured brain contralateral and ipsilateral...mm circular craniec- tomy. TBI was inflicted by a 2 mm circular, flat pneumatic piston traveling at 3 m/s, penetrating 1.5 mm, for 150 ms (Amscien

  1. T-lymphocyte subsets, thymic size and breastfeeding in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Hasselbalch, Helle; Lisse, Ida M

    2004-01-01

    We followed the changes in concentration of T-lymphocyte subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ cells) in peripheral blood and thymus size during infancy. Previous studies have found increased thymus size in breastfed infants. The present study analyzed the association between breastfeeding and the number of CD4...

  2. Effects of a Simulated Tennis Match on Lymphocyte Subset Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Mark; Kell, Holly; Navalta, James; Tibana, Ramires; Lyons, Scott; Arnett, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Tennis is an activity requiring both endurance and anaerobic components, which could have immunosuppressive effects postexercise. Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of a simulated tennis match on apoptotic and migratory markers on lymphocyte subsets. Method: Male high school (n = 5) and college (n = 3) tennis…

  3. Coisotropic Displacement and Small Subsets of a Symplectic Manifold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziltener, Fabian; Swoboda, J.

    2012-01-01

    We prove a coisotropic intersection result and deduce the following: Lower bounds on the displacement energy of a subset of a symplectic manifold, in particular a sharp stable energy-Gromov-width inequality. A stable non-squeezing result for neighborhoods of products of unit spheres. Existence of a

  4. Differential expression of tetraspanin superfamily members in dendritic cell subsets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zuidscherwoude (Malou); K. Worah (Kuntal); A. Van Der Schaaf (Alie); S.I. Buschow (Sonja I.); A.B. Spriel (Annemiek )

    2017-01-01

    textabstractDendritic cells (DCs), which are essential for initiating immune responses, are comprised of different subsets. Tetraspanins organize dendritic cell membranes by facilitating protein-protein interactions within the so called tetraspanin web. In this study we analyzed expression of the

  5. Differential expression of tetraspanin superfamily members in dendritic cell subsets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidscherwoude, M.C.; Worah, K.; Schaaf, A. van der; Buschow, S.I.; Spriel, A.B. van

    2017-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs), which are essential for initiating immune responses, are comprised of different subsets. Tetraspanins organize dendritic cell membranes by facilitating protein-protein interactions within the so called tetraspanin web. In this study we analyzed expression of the complete

  6. Sensitivity of ad libitum meals to detect changes in hunger. Restricted-item or multi-item testmeals in the design of preload appetite studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiessing, Katy R; Xin, Liping; McGill, Anne-Thea; Budgett, Stephanie C; Strik, Caroline M; Poppitt, Sally D

    2012-06-01

    The aims of the study were to determine whether restricted single-item or multi-item testmeals are better able to detect prior changes in hunger and fullness when assessing ad libitum eating behaviour. Thirty male participants were given a low- (L(E), 0.5 MJ) or high-energy (H(E), 4.0 MJ) breakfast preload designed to induce or suppress hunger, followed 3h later by a restricted-item (R(I)) or multi-item (M(I)) testmeal. The R(I) testmeal comprised pasta+meat sauce, whilst the M(I) testmeal comprised pasta+meat sauce plus bread, chicken, ham, cheese, salad, cake and fruit. The four conditions were (i) L(E)/R(I); (ii) L(E)/M(I); (iii) H(E)/R(I); (iv) H(E)/M(I). Visual analogue scales (VAS) were used to rate appetite sensations and EI was measured at the lunch testmeal. As expected, increasing the energy content of the preload significantly altered VAS ratings and decreased EI at the testmeal. Following both L(E) and H(E) breakfasts, EI was lower at the R(I) (L(E)=4566 kJ, H(E)=3583 kJ) compared with the M(I) (L(E)=6142 kJ, H(E)=5149 kJ) testmeal. However, the compensatory decrease in EI in response to the H(E) breakfast was not significantly greater at the R(I) testmeal (R(I): -983 kJ, 28.1% compensation; M(I): -993 kJ, 28.4% compensation). In preload studies measuring EI, increasing the variety of an ad lib testmeal may not decrease the sensitivity to detect changes in hunger and fullness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Composition-property relationships for radiopaque composite materials: pre-loaded drug-eluting beads for transarterial chemoembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcup, Nancy; Tonkopi, Elena; Abraham, Robert J; Boyd, Daniel; Kehoe, Sharon

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize and optimize intrinsically radiopaque composite embolic microspheres for sustained release of doxorubicin in drug-eluting bead transarterial chemoembolization. Using a design of experiments approach, 12 radiopaque composites composed of polylactic-co-glycolic acid and a radiopaque glass (ORP5) were screened over a range of compositions and examined for radiopacity (computed tomography) and density. In vitro cell viability was determined using an extract assay derived from each composition against the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG2. Mathematical models based on a D-Optimal response surface methodology were used to determine the preferred radiopaque composite. The resulting radiopaque composite was validated and subsequently loaded with doxorubicin between 0 and 1.4% (wt% of polylactic-co-glycolic acid) to yield radiopaque composite drug-eluting beads. Thereafter, the radiopaque composite drug-eluting beads were subjected to an elution study (up to 168 h) to determine doxorubicin release profiles (UV-Vis spectroscopy) and in vitro cell viability. Radiopaque composites evaluated for screening purposes had densities between 1.28 and 1.67 g.cm(-3), radiopacity ranged between 211 and 1450HU and cell viabilities between 91 and 106% were observed. The optimized radiopaque composite comprised 23 wt% polylactic-co-glycolic acid and 60 wt% ORP5 with a corresponding density of 1.63 ± 0.001 g.cm(-3), radiopacity at 1930 ± 44HU and cell viability of 89 ± 7.6%. Radiopaque composite drug-eluting beads provided sustained doxorubicin release over 168 h. In conclusion, the mathematical models allowed for the identification and synthesis of a unique radiopaque composite. The optimized radiopaque composite had similar density and cell viability to commercially available embolic microspheres. It was possible to preload doxorubicin into radiopaque composite drug-eluting beads, such that sustained release

  8. Effects of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on T and B lymphocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Kjærgaard, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) has been associated with beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs) on infant health. Within a randomized trial on the effect of neonatal BCG on overall health, we investigated the possible immunological impact of neonatal BCG vaccination on lymphocyte subsets......, determined by flow cytometry. In 118 infants blood samples were obtained 4 (±2) days post randomization to BCG vaccination or no intervention, and at 3 and 13 months of age. No effects of BCG were found at 4 days. However, BCG increased proportions of effector memory cells at 3 months (Geometric mean ratio......% CI (0.32-0.92), p = 0.03). In conclusion, limited overall impact of neonatal BCG vaccination on lymphocyte subsets was found in healthy Danish infants within the first 13 months of life. This is in line with the limited clinical effects of BCG observed in our setting....

  9. Effects of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on T and B lymphocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Kjærgaard, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) has been associated with beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs) on infant health. Within a randomized trial on the effect of neonatal BCG on overall health, we investigated the possible immunological impact of neonatal BCG vaccination on lymphocyte subsets......, determined by flow cytometry. In 118 infants blood samples were obtained 4 (±2) days post randomization to BCG vaccination or no intervention, and at 3 and 13 months of age. No effects of BCG were found at 4 days. However, BCG increased proportions of effector memory cells at 3 months (Geometric mean ratio.......55, 95% CI (0.32-0.92), p = 0.03). In conclusion, limited overall impact of neonatal BCG vaccination on lymphocyte subsets was found in healthy Danish infants within the first 13 months of life. This is in line with the limited clinical effects of BCG observed in our setting....

  10. Lymphocyte subset reference intervals in blood donors from northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEX J.L. TORRES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The reference intervals for leukocytes and lymphocytes currently used by most clinical laboratories present limitations as they are primarily derived from individuals of North American and European origin. The objective this study was to determine reference values for peripheral blood B lymphocytes, T lymphocyte subsets (CD4+, CD8+, naïve, memory, regulatory, TCRαβ and TCRγδ+ and NK cells from blood donors in Salvador-Bahia, Brazil. Results: The proportion of included male subjects was 73.7% and the median ages of males (34 and females (35 were found to be similar. Absolute counts total lymphocytes subsets to both gender was 1,956 (1,060-4,186 cells and relative values 34%. The T CD4+ and T CD8+ lymphocytes relative values was 51% (20-62 and 24% (9-28, respectively. The most statistically significant finding observed was a higher percentage of B lymphocytes (p=0.03 in females. Commonly cited subset reference intervals were found to be consistent with values in several populations from different geographic areas.

  11. On the Security of Millimeter Wave Vehicular Communication Systems Using Random Antenna Subsets

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.

    2017-03-20

    Millimeter wave (mmWave) vehicular communication systems have the potential to improve traffic efficiency and safety. Lack of secure communication links, however, may lead to a formidable set of abuses and attacks. To secure communication links, a physical layer precoding technique for mmWave vehicular communication systems is proposed in this paper. The proposed technique exploits the large dimensional antenna arrays available at mmWave systems to produce direction dependent transmission. This results in coherent transmission to the legitimate receiver and artificial noise that jams eavesdroppers with sensitive receivers. Theoretical and numerical results demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed technique and show that the proposed technique provides high secrecy throughput when compared to conventional array and switched array transmission techniques.

  12. Cytokine profile and lymphocyte subsets in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D is a metabolic disease with inflammation as an important pathogenic background. However, the pattern of immune cell subsets and the cytokine profile associated with development of T2D are unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate different components of the immune system in T2D patients' peripheral blood by quantifying the frequency of lymphocyte subsets and intracellular pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production by T cells. Clinical data and blood samples were collected from 22 men (51.6±6.3 years old with T2D and 20 nonsmoking men (49.4±7.6 years old who were matched for age and sex as control subjects. Glycated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and the lipid profile were measured by a commercially available automated system. Frequencies of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood and intracellular production of interleukin (IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ cytokines by CD3+ T cells were assessed by flow cytometry. No differences were observed in the frequency of CD19+ B cells, CD3+CD8+ and CD3+CD4+ T cells, CD16+56+ NK cells, and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells in patients with T2D compared with controls. The numbers of IL-10- and IL-17-producing CD3+ T cells were significantly higher in patients with T2D than in controls (P<0.05. The frequency of interferon-γ-producing CD3+ T cells was positively correlated with body mass index (r=0.59; P=0.01. In conclusion, this study shows increased numbers of circulating IL-10- and IL-17-producing CD3+ T cells in patients with T2D, suggesting that these cytokines are involved in the immune pathology of this disease.

  13. Profiling leucocyte subsets in tuberculosis-diabetes co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Moideen, Kadar; Dhakshinraj, Sharmila D; Banurekha, Vaithilingam V; Nair, Dina; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Babu, Subash

    2015-10-01

    The immune system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis-type 2 diabetes mellitus (PTB-DM) co-morbidity. However, the phenotypic profile of leucocyte subsets at homeostasis in individuals with active or latent tuberculosis (LTB) with coincident diabetes is not known. To characterize the influence of diabetes on leucocyte phenotypes in PTB or LTB, we examined the frequency (Fo ) of leucocyte subsets in individuals with TB with (PTB-DM) or without (PTB) diabetes; individuals with latent TB with (LTB-DM) or without (LTB) diabetes and non-TB-infected individuals with (NTB-DM) or without (NTB) diabetes. Coincident DM is characterized by significantly lower Fo of effector memory CD4(+) T cells in LTB individuals. In contrast, DM is characterized by significantly lower Fo of effector memory CD8(+) T cells and significantly higher Fo of central memory CD8(+) T cells in PTB individuals. Coincident DM resulted in significantly higher Fo of classical memory B cells in PTB and significantly higher Fo of activated memory and atypical B cells in LTB individuals. Coincident DM resulted in significantly lower Fo of classical and intermediate monocytes in PTB, LTB and NTB individuals. Finally, DM resulted in significantly lower Fo of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in PTB, LTB and NTB individuals. Our data reveal that coincident diabetes alters the cellular subset distribution of T cells, B cells, dendritic cells and monocytes in both individuals with active TB and those with latent TB, thus potentially impacting the pathogenesis of this co-morbid condition. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. T lymphocyte subset imbalances in patients contribute to ankylosing spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, CHENGGONG; LIAO, QIANDE; HU, YIHE; ZHONG, DA

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease, which is characterized by inflammation of the spine and the sacroiliac joints. To date, the disease etiology remains unclear. In the present study, the correlation of T lymphocyte subset changes with the progression of ankylosing spondylitis was investigated. A total of 55 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (22 severe and 23 mild cases) and 20 healthy individuals were selected. Firstly, the punctured cells in the lesions and the serum were collected, and the lymphocytes and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells were prepared. Secondly, quantitative PCR, ELISA and flow cytometry analyses were carried out to detect the levels of a series of immunoglobulins, complements, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, regulatory cells and cytokines. The expression levels of α-globulin, γ-globulin, immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, IgM, serum complement C3, and complement C4 were found to be significantly increased in ankylosing spondylitis patients. In addition, the percentage of Th1 and Th17 cells was found to be significantly higher in the ankylosing spondylitis groups (mild and severe) compared with the healthy individuals. As a result, the Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg ratios were significantly higher in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. In addition, T lymphocyte subset ratio imbalances contributed to an increased expression of immune mediators, including interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-17A. The mRNA and protein expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-17A were found to be higher in the ankylosing spondylitis groups compared with the control group. The present study provided further evidence on the function and underlying mechanism of T lymphocyte subsets, which may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. PMID:25452811

  15. Selecting a climate model subset to optimise key ensemble properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Herger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available End users studying impacts and risks caused by human-induced climate change are often presented with large multi-model ensembles of climate projections whose composition and size are arbitrarily determined. An efficient and versatile method that finds a subset which maintains certain key properties from the full ensemble is needed, but very little work has been done in this area. Therefore, users typically make their own somewhat subjective subset choices and commonly use the equally weighted model mean as a best estimate. However, different climate model simulations cannot necessarily be regarded as independent estimates due to the presence of duplicated code and shared development history. Here, we present an efficient and flexible tool that makes better use of the ensemble as a whole by finding a subset with improved mean performance compared to the multi-model mean while at the same time maintaining the spread and addressing the problem of model interdependence. Out-of-sample skill and reliability are demonstrated using model-as-truth experiments. This approach is illustrated with one set of optimisation criteria but we also highlight the flexibility of cost functions, depending on the focus of different users. The technique is useful for a range of applications that, for example, minimise present-day bias to obtain an accurate ensemble mean, reduce dependence in ensemble spread, maximise future spread, ensure good performance of individual models in an ensemble, reduce the ensemble size while maintaining important ensemble characteristics, or optimise several of these at the same time. As in any calibration exercise, the final ensemble is sensitive to the metric, observational product, and pre-processing steps used.

  16. New Derivatives on the Fractal Subset of Real-Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khalili Golmankhaneh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript we introduced the generalized fractional Riemann-Liouville and Caputo like derivative for functions defined on fractal sets. The Gamma, Mittag-Leffler and Beta functions were defined on the fractal sets. The non-local Laplace transformation is given and applied for solving linear and non-linear fractal equations. The advantage of using these new nonlocal derivatives on the fractals subset of real-line lies in the fact that they are better at modeling processes with memory effect.

  17. Polynomial Approximation on Unbounded Subsets and the Markov Moment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octav Olteanu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We start this review paper by recalling some known and relatively recent results in polynomial approximation on unbounded subsets. These results allow approximation of nonnegative continuous functions with compact support contained in the first quadrant by sums of tensor products of positive polynomials in each separate variable, on the positive semiaxes. Consequently, we characterize the existence of solution of a two dimensional Markov moment problem in terms of products of quadratic forms. Secondly, one proves some applications of abstract results on the extension of linear operators with two constraints to the Markov moment problem. Two applications related to this last part are considered.

  18. CD163 positive subsets of blood dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maniecki, Maciej Bogdan; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2006-01-01

    expression in dendritic cells (DCs) was investigated using multicolor flow cytometry in peripheral blood from 31 healthy donors and 15 HIV-1 patients in addition to umbilical cord blood from 5 newborn infants. Total RNA was isolated from MACS purified DCs and CD163 mRNA was determined with real-time reverse...... transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The effect of glucocorticoid and phorbol ester stimulation on monocyte and dendritic cell CD163 and CD91 expression was investigated in cell culture of mononuclear cells using multicolor flow cytometry. We identified two CD163+ subsets in human blood with dendritic cell...

  19. Estimation of Discriminative Feature Subset Using Community Modularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guodong; Liu, Sanming

    2016-04-28

    Feature selection (FS) is an important preprocessing step in machine learning and data mining. In this paper, a new feature subset evaluation method is proposed by constructing a sample graph (SG) in different k-features and applying community modularity to select highly informative features as a group. However, these features may not be relevant as an individual. Furthermore, relevant in-dependency rather than irrelevant redundancy among the selected features is effectively measured with the community modularity Q value of the sample graph in the k-features. An efficient FS method called k-features sample graph feature selection is presented. A key property of this approach is that the discriminative cues of a feature subset with the maximum relevant in-dependency among features can be accurately determined. This community modularity-based method is then verified with the theory of k-means cluster. Compared with other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed approach is more effective, as verified by the results of several experiments.

  20. T-cell subsets in the germinal center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiscal, Roybel R; Vinuesa, Carola G

    2013-03-01

    T cells are known to migrate to B-cell-enriched follicles and germinal centers within secondary lymphoid organs to provide help to B cells. Cognate T:B interactions that take place at the T:B border and subsequently within germinal centers are essential for B-cell priming, differentiation into germinal center B cells, and selection of mutated cells into memory B cells or memory plasma cells. In recent years, different stages of maturation within B-cell helper T cells, collectively known as B-follicular helper T (Tfh) cells, as well as heterogeneity amid germinal center T cells are becoming clear. Indeed, germinal centers support not only bona fide Tfh cells but also CD4(+) and CD8(+) follicular regulatory T (Tfr) cells that act to suppress germinal center responses and B-cell helper natural killer T cells. There is a growing need for more precise phenotypic and functional distinction of these specialized T-cell subsets. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the ontogeny, molecular identity, and functional relevance of the various subsets of germinal center T cells. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Peripheral blood and milk leukocytes subsets of lactating Sarda ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Bonelli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Leukocytes subpopulations in blood and milk of lactating Sarda ewes were investigated. Animals characterized by a SSC level <500×103cells/mL and a negative bacteriological examination were sampled in early, mid and late lactation. Milk differential cell count evidenced that macrophage represented the main population (42.8%±3.5 followed by lymphocytes (40.2%±3.4 and neutrophils (8,6%±2.1. Flow cytometry analysis showed that lymphocytes subsets in milk were quite different from blood. High CD8+ and low CD4+ lymphocytes percentages determined a CD4/CD8 ratio inversion in milk compared to blood (0.3%±0.03 vs 1.8%±0.08. CD8+ decreased while, conversely, CD4+ increased in late lactation. γδ T cells were more represented in milk (12.6%±1.3 than in blood (6.8%±0.3 and their proportions appeared similar throughout lactation in both compartments. IL-2 receptor was mainly expressed in milk on T cytotoxic lymphocytes. Data obtained in uninfected mammary glands could allow an early discrimination between physiological and pathological changes occurring in ewe milk. Further phenotypical and functional studies on milk leukocytes subsets might help to understand defense mechanisms of the ovine mammary gland against IMI.

  2. Niacin-respondent subset of schizophrenia – a therapeutic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X J; Jiang, G S

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that niacin deficiency manifests with several psychiatric manifestations. Also historically evidence has accumulated that niacin augmentation can be used for treatment of schizophrenia. However, the etiopathological associations between niacin deficiency and schizophrenia as well as the mechanism of action of niacin in its treatment. More importantly, the subgroups of schizophrenia which will respond to niacin augmentation has never been highlighted in the literature. In this article, we review three of the mechanisms in which niacin deficiency could lead to schizophrenic symptoms: (1) Niacin deficiency neurodegeneration (2) Membrane phospholipid deficiency hypothesis and (3) Adrenochrome hypothesis. We will further move towards the clinical as well as treatment related associations as reviewed from the literature. Here, we propose a model that a subset of schizophrenia can respond to niacin augmentation therapy better than other subsets because these patients have contributions in their psychotic manifestations from the neural degeneration resulting from niacin deficiency. We present a short description of our case report which showed rapid improvement in schizophrenic psychotic symptoms subsequent to administration of niacin as an augmentation therapy. We, thus, propose that niacin deficiency is a contributory factor in schizophrenia development in some patients and symptom alleviation in these patients will benefit from niacin augmentation, especially in some particular psychotic features.

  3. Mast cell subsets and neuropeptides in leprosy reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Sérgio Luiz Gomes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunohistochemical identification of neuropeptides (calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, substance P, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone quantification of mast cells and their subsets (tryptase/chymase-immunoreactive mast cells = TCMC and tryptase-immunoreactive mast cells = TMC were determined in biopsies of six patients with leprosy reactions (three patients with type I reaction and three with type II. Biopsies were compared with those taken from the same body site in the remission stage of the same patient. We found a relative increase of TMC in the inflammatory infiltrate of the reactional biopsies compared to the post-reactional biopsy. Also, the total number of mast cells and the TMC/TCMC ratio in the inflammatory infiltrate was significantly higher than in the intervening dermis of the biopsies of both periods. No significant difference was found regarding neuroptide expression in the reactional and post-reactional biopsies. The relative increase of TMC in the reactional infiltrates could implicate this mast cell subset in the reported increase of the immune response in leprosy reactions.

  4. Endothelial progenitor cell subsets and preeclampsia: Findings and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Attar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular remodeling is an essential component of gestation. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs play an important role in the regulation of vascular homeostasis. The results of studies measuring the number of EPCs in normal pregnancies and in preeclampsia have been highly controversial or even contradictory because of some variations in technical issues and different methodologies enumerating three distinct subsets of EPCs: circulating angiogenic cells (CAC, colony forming unit endothelial cells (CFU-ECs, and endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs. In general, most studies have shown an increase in the number of CACs in the maternal circulation with a progression in the gestational age in normal pregnancies, while functional capacities measured by CFU-ECs and ECFCs remain intact. In the case of preeclampsia, mobilization of CACs and ECFCs occurs in the peripheral blood of pregnant women, but the functional capacities shown by culture of the derived colony-forming assays (CFU-EC and ECFC assays are altered. Furthermore, the number of all EPC subsets will be reduced in umbilical cord blood in the case of preeclampsia. As EPCs play an important role in the homeostasis of vascular networks, the difference in their frequency and functionality in normal pregnancies and those with preeclampsia can be expected. In this review, there was an attempt to provide a justification for these controversies.

  5. Monocyte Subsets in Schistosomiasis Patients with Periportal Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamille Souza Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major issue with Schistosoma mansoni infection is the development of periportal fibrosis, which is predominantly caused by the host immune response to egg antigens. Experimental studies have pointed to the participation of monocytes in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the subsets of monocytes in individuals with different degrees of periportal fibrosis secondary to schistosomiasis. Monocytes were classified into classical (CD14++CD16−, intermediate (CD14++CD16+, and nonclassical (CD14+CD16++. The expressions of monocyte markers and cytokines were assessed using flow cytometry. The frequency of classical monocytes was higher than the other subsets. The expression of HLA-DR, IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β was higher in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis as compared to other groups. Although no differences were observed in receptors expression (IL-4R and IL-10R between groups of patients, the expression of IL-12 was lower in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis, suggesting a protective role of this cytokine in the development of fibrosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the three different monocyte populations participate in the immunopathogenesis of periportal fibrosis, since they express high levels of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines and low levels of regulatory markers.

  6. Characterization of Dendritic Cell Subsets Through Gene Expression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu Manh, Thien-Phong; Dalod, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are immune sentinels of the body and play a key role in the orchestration of the communication between the innate and the adaptive immune systems. DCs can polarize innate and adaptive immunity toward a variety of functions, sometimes with opposite roles in the overall control of immune responses (e.g., tolerance or immunosuppression versus immunity) or in the balance between various defense mechanisms promoting the control of different types of pathogens (e.g., antiviral versus antibacterial versus anti-worm immunity). These multiple DC functions result both from the plasticity of individual DC to exert different activities and from the existence of various DC subsets specialized in distinct functions. Functional genomics represents a powerful, unbiased, approach to better characterize these two levels of DC plasticity and to decipher its molecular regulation. Indeed, more and more experimental immunologists are generating high-throughput data in order to better characterize different states of DC based, for example, on their belonging to a specific subpopulation and/or on their exposure to specific stimuli and/or on their ability to exert a specific function. However, the interpretation of this wealth of data is severely hampered by the bottleneck of their bioinformatics analysis. Indeed, most experimental immunologists lack advanced computational or bioinformatics expertise and do not know how to translate raw gene expression data into potential biological meaning. Moreover, subcontracting such analyses is generally disappointing or financially not sustainable, since companies generally propose canonical analysis pipelines that are often unadapted for the structure of the data to analyze or for the precise type of questions asked. Hence, there is an important need of democratization of the bioinformatics analyses of gene expression profiling studies, in order to accelerate interpretation of the results by the researchers at the origin of the

  7. Seronegative necrolytic acral erythema: A distinct clinical subset?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient was referred to us with asymptomatic, erythematous, nonitchy, scaly lesions present bilaterally on the dorsa of his feet and toes since the last 2 months. Both the legs had pitting edema as well. There were hyperkeratosis, focal parakeratosis, acanthosis and scattered spongiosis in the epidermis, and proliferation of capillaries with perivascular infiltration of lymphomononuclear cells in the dermis. There was no serological evidence of hepatitis C virus. Laboratory investigations revealed hypoalbuminemia and low-normal serum zinc. On clinicopathological correlation, we made a diagnosis of necrolytic acral erythema (NAE. The lesions responded dramatically to oral zinc sulfate and topical clobetasol propionate within 3 weeks with disappearance of edema and scaling and only a minimal residual erythema. This is the first reported case of NAE from Eastern India. NAE with negative serology for hepatitis C may be viewed as a distinct subset of the condition that had been originally described.

  8. REST represses a subset of the pancreatic endocrine differentiation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, David; Kim, Yung-Hae; Sever, Dror

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to devise successful beta-cell differentiation strategies for the cure of Type 1 diabetes we sought to uncover barriers that restrict endocrine fate acquisition by studying the role of the transcriptional repressor REST in the developing pancreas. Rest expression is prevented...... in neurons and in endocrine cells, which is necessary for their normal function. During development, REST represses a subset of genes in the neuronal differentiation program and Rest is down-regulated as neurons differentiate. Here, we investigate the role of REST in the differentiation of pancreatic...... endocrine cells, which are molecularly close to neurons. We show that Rest is widely expressed in pancreas progenitors and that it is down-regulated in differentiated endocrine cells. Sustained expression of REST in Pdx1(+) progenitors impairs the differentiation of endocrine-committed Neurog3...

  9. T-lymphocyte subsets, thymic size and breastfeeding in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Hasselbalch, Helle; Lisse, Ida M

    2004-01-01

    We followed the changes in concentration of T-lymphocyte subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ cells) in peripheral blood and thymus size during infancy. Previous studies have found increased thymus size in breastfed infants. The present study analyzed the association between breastfeeding and the number of CD4......+ and CD8+ cells. Two different populations of infants between birth and 1 year of age were examined. Study Group I: infants with a variable duration of breastfeeding. Study Group II: long-term breastfed infants. In both groups a correlation was found between CD8+ cells and the thymic index at 10 months...... to 10 months of age; and a positive correlation between the number of breastfeedings per day at 8 months of age, and an increase in CD4+ cells from 8 to 10 months of age (p Breastfeeding might have both a current and long...

  10. Urofacial syndrome: A subset of neurogenic bladder dysfunction syndromes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K N Stamatiou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The urofacial syndrome is probably a subset of neurogenic bladder dysfunction syndromes characterized by detrusor-sphincter discoordination along with a characteristic inversion of facial expression with laughing. This characteristic facial expression can facilitate early detection of this disorder, which leads to poor bladder emptying with high residual urine, hydro-nephrosis with vesico-ureteral reflux and potentially renal failure if left untreated. The etiology of the urofacial syndrome is unknown. In our case, a 12-year-old boy of Middle-Eastern origin presented to the Outpatient Department of our hospital with left pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis and bladder dilatation. Voiding cystourethrography performed 15 days later revealed left vesicoureteral reflux. Cystoscopy revealed bladder trabeculation however an anatomic urethral obstruction was not noticed. Both, neurological examination and radiography of the lumbosacral spine were normal. Urodynamic evaluation revealed the typical findings of detrusor-sphincter discoordination.

  11. The semigroup of nonempty finite subsets of rationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Spake

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Let Q be the additive group of rational numbers and let ℛ be the additive semigroup of all nonempty finite subsets of Q. For X∈ℛ, define AX to be the basis of 〈X−min(X〉 and BX the basis of 〈max(X−X〉. In the greatest semilattice decomposition of ℛ, let (X denote the archimedean component containing X. In this paper we examine the structure of ℛ and determine its greatest semilattice decomposition. In particular, we show that for X,Y∈ℛ, (X=(Y if and only if AX=AY and BX=BY. Furthermore, if X is a non-singleton, then the idempotent-free (X is isomorphic to the direct product of a power joined subsemigroup and the group Q.

  12. Codes with Parity Conditions on Subsets of Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, E. C.; Reichstein, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Binary codes with the constraint that the codes restricted to certain subsets of columns must be contained in particular codes of the shorter lengths are considered. In particular, codes of even length 2k, and of minimum distance approximately greater than d, where in the code obtained by restricting to the first k positions has even weight and at the same time the code obtained by restricting to the last k positions also has even weight are considered. If k = 2n, n odd, and d = 2n, it is proved that the code has at most 8n - 4 codewords, and 8n - 4 is attainable for n = 3. This permits a file-transfer protocol control function assignment for personal computers to be chosen for 20 control functions using essentially just pairs of upper-case alphabetic ASCII characters where the Hamming distance between the binary forms of every two different control functions is at least six.

  13. Short-term effects of a low glycemic index carob-containing snack on energy intake, satiety, and glycemic response in normal-weight, healthy adults: Results from two randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Emilia; Orfanakos, Nickolaos; Farajian, Paul; Kapetanakou, Anastasia E; Makariti, Ifigenia P; Grivokostopoulos, Nikolaos; Ha, Marie-Ann; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2017-10-01

    The potential positive health effects of carob-containing snacks are largely unknown. Therefore, the aims of these studies were to determine the glycemic index (GI) of a carob snack compared with chocolate cookie containing equal amounts of available carbohydrates and to compare the effects of a carob versus chocolate cookie preload consumed as snack before a meal on (a) short-term satiety response measured by subsequent ad libitum meal intake, (b) subjective satiety as assessed by visual analog scales and (c) postprandial glycemic response. Ten healthy, normal-weight volunteers participated in GI investigation. Then, 50 healthy, normal-weight individuals consumed, crossover, in random order, the preloads as snack, with 1-wk washout period. Ad libitum meal (lunch and dessert) was offered. Capillary blood glucose samples were collected at baseline, 2 h after breakfast, just before preload consumption, 2 h after preload, 3 h after preload, just before meal (lunch and dessert), 1 h after meal, and 2 h after meal consumption. The carob snack was a low GI food, whereas the chocolate cookie was a high GI food (40 versus 78, respectively, on glucose scale). Consumption of the carob preload decreased the glycemic response to a following meal and to the individual's feelings of hunger, desire to eat, preoccupation with food, and thirst between snack and meal, as assessed with the use of visual analog scales. Subsequently, participants consumed less amounts of food (g) and had lower total energy intake at mealtimes. The carob snack led to increased satiety, lower energy intake at meal, and decreased postmeal glycemic response possibly due to its low GI value. Identifying foods that promote satiety and decrease glycemic response without increasing the overall energy intake may offer advantages to body weight and glycemic control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tachykinins Stimulate a Subset of Mouse Taste Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    The tachykinins substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) are present in nociceptive sensory fibers expressing transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1). These fibers are found extensively in and around the taste buds of several species. Tachykinins are released from nociceptive fibers by irritants such as capsaicin, the active compound found in chili peppers commonly associated with the sensation of spiciness. Using real-time Ca2+-imaging on isolated taste cells, it was observed that SP induces Ca2+ -responses in a subset of taste cells at concentrations in the low nanomolar range. These responses were reversibly inhibited by blocking the SP receptor NK-1R. NKA also induced Ca2+-responses in a subset of taste cells, but only at concentrations in the high nanomolar range. These responses were only partially inhibited by blocking the NKA receptor NK-2R, and were also inhibited by blocking NK-1R indicating that NKA is only active in taste cells at concentrations that activate both receptors. In addition, it was determined that tachykinin signaling in taste cells requires Ca2+-release from endoplasmic reticulum stores. RT-PCR analysis further confirmed that mouse taste buds express NK-1R and NK-2R. Using Ca2+-imaging and single cell RT-PCR, it was determined that the majority of tachykinin-responsive taste cells were Type I (Glial-like) and umami-responsive Type II (Receptor) cells. Importantly, stimulating NK-1R had an additive effect on Ca2+ responses evoked by umami stimuli in Type II (Receptor) cells. This data indicates that tachykinin release from nociceptive sensory fibers in and around taste buds may enhance umami and other taste modalities, providing a possible mechanism for the increased palatability of spicy foods. PMID:22363709

  15. Tachykinins stimulate a subset of mouse taste cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Grant

    Full Text Available The tachykinins substance P (SP and neurokinin A (NKA are present in nociceptive sensory fibers expressing transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1. These fibers are found extensively in and around the taste buds of several species. Tachykinins are released from nociceptive fibers by irritants such as capsaicin, the active compound found in chili peppers commonly associated with the sensation of spiciness. Using real-time Ca(2+-imaging on isolated taste cells, it was observed that SP induces Ca(2+ -responses in a subset of taste cells at concentrations in the low nanomolar range. These responses were reversibly inhibited by blocking the SP receptor NK-1R. NKA also induced Ca(2+-responses in a subset of taste cells, but only at concentrations in the high nanomolar range. These responses were only partially inhibited by blocking the NKA receptor NK-2R, and were also inhibited by blocking NK-1R indicating that NKA is only active in taste cells at concentrations that activate both receptors. In addition, it was determined that tachykinin signaling in taste cells requires Ca(2+-release from endoplasmic reticulum stores. RT-PCR analysis further confirmed that mouse taste buds express NK-1R and NK-2R. Using Ca(2+-imaging and single cell RT-PCR, it was determined that the majority of tachykinin-responsive taste cells were Type I (Glial-like and umami-responsive Type II (Receptor cells. Importantly, stimulating NK-1R had an additive effect on Ca(2+ responses evoked by umami stimuli in Type II (Receptor cells. This data indicates that tachykinin release from nociceptive sensory fibers in and around taste buds may enhance umami and other taste modalities, providing a possible mechanism for the increased palatability of spicy foods.

  16. Bifidobacterium infantis attenuates colitis by regulating T cell subset responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Li; Yuan, Kai-Tao; Yu, Li; Meng, Qing-Hong; Chung, Peter Chee-Keung; Yang, Ding-Hua

    2014-01-01

    AIM: to investigate the effect of Bifidobacterium infantis (B. infantis) on the T cell subsets and in attenuating the severity of experimental colitis in mice. METHODS: Normal BALB/c mice were fed different doses of B. infantis for 3 wk, and T cell subsets and related cytokine profiles in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) were detected by flow cytometry and real-time RT-PCR. Colitis was induced by administration of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in mice. Before colitis induction, mice were fed high dose B. infantis for 3 wk. Cytokine profiles in MLNs and histological changes of colonic tissue were examined 6 d after colitis induction. RESULTS: No significant change in cytokine profiles was observed in normal mice fed low dose B. infantis. However, Th1-related cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-12p40), Th17-related transcription factor and cytokines (RORγt, IL-21, IL-23), regulatory T cell (Treg)-related transcription factor and cytokines (Foxp3, IL-10) were increased in normal mice fed high dose B. infantis. Furthermore, flow cytometry assay showed B. infantis increased the numbers of CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs and Th17 cells in MLNs. Colitis was successfully induced by TNBS in mice, characterized by colonic inflammation and aberrant Th1 and Th17 responses. Feeding high dose B. infantis for 3 wk before colitis induction decreased the inflammatory cell infiltration and goblet cell depletion and restored the intestinal epithelium. In addition, B. infantis feeding reduced Th1-related cytokines (T-bet, IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th17-related cytokines (IL-12p40, RORγt, IL-17A, IL-21 and IL-23), and increased Treg-related molecules (Foxp3, IL-10 and TGF-β) in colitis mice. CONCLUSION: B. infantis effectively attenuates TNBS-induced colitis by decreasing Th1 and Th17 responses and increasing Foxp3+ Treg response in the colonic mucosa. PMID:25561798

  17. A recurrent neural network for nonlinear continuously differentiable optimization over a compact convex subset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X B

    2001-01-01

    We propose a general recurrent neural-network (RNN) model for nonlinear optimization over a nonempty compact convex subset which includes the bound subset and spheroid subset as special cases. It is shown that the compact convex subset is a positive invariant and attractive set of the RNN system and that all the network trajectories starting from the compact convex subset converge to the equilibrium set of the RNN system. The above equilibrium set of the RNN system coincides with the optimum set of the minimization problem over the compact convex subset when the objective function is convex. The analysis of these qualitative properties for the RNN model is conducted by employing the properties of the projection operator of Euclidean space onto the general nonempty closed convex subset. A numerical simulation example is also given to illustrate the qualitative properties of the proposed general RNN model for solving an optimization problem over various compact convex subsets.

  18. Study on subset size selection in digital image correlation for speckle patterns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bing Pan; Huimin Xie; Zhaoyang Wang; Kemao Qian; Zhiyong Wang

    2008-01-01

    Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is a flexible and effective technique to measure the displacements on specimen surfaces by matching the reference subsets in the undeformed image with the target subsets in the deformed image...

  19. Pregnancy and preeclampsia affect monocyte subsets in humans and rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbro N Melgert

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Both nonclassical and intermediate monocytes have been implicated in different inflammatory conditions. We hypothesized that these monocytes would increase during pregnancy, a condition associated with generalized activation of inflammatory responses and that they would increase even more during preeclampsia, in which inflammatory responses are further stimulated. In the present study we investigated changes in monocyte subsets during healthy pregnancy and preeclampsia in humans and rats. METHODS: Blood monocyte subsets of nonpregnant, preeclamptic and healthy pregnant women were identified with CD14 and CD16. In nonpregnant and pregnant rats, blood monocytes were identified with CD172a and CD43, as well as in rats infused with adenosine triphosphate (ATP, a pro-inflammatory stimulus known to induce preeclampsia-like symptoms. Total and CD206-positive macrophages were quantified in placentas of these animals. RESULTS: Lower percentages of classical monocytes were found in pregnant women (91%-[83-98%] compared to nonpregnant women (94%-[90-98%] and even less in preeclamptic patients (90%-[61-92%]. In contrast, the percentage of combined nonclassical/intermediate monocytes was higher in pregnant women (8.5%-[2.3-16.6%] vs. 5.6%-[1.9-9.5%] and even higher in preeclamptic patients (9.9%-[7.8-38.7%], which was caused by a selective increase of intermediate monocytes. In rats, we also found lower percentages of classical monocytes and higher percentages of nonclassical monocytes in pregnant versus nonpregnant rats. ATP infusion increased the percentage of nonclassical monocytes in pregnant rats even further but not in nonpregnant rats. These nonclassical monocytes showed a more activated phenotype in pregnant ATP-infused rats only. Mesometrial triangles of ATP-infused rats had less CD206-positive macrophages as compared to those of saline-infused rats. CONCLUSION: The higher percentage of nonclassical/intermediate monocytes found in

  20. Regulatory T cells subsets in filarial infection and their function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eMetenou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Filarial infections in humans are chronic infections that cause significant morbidity. The chronic nature of these infections with continuous antigen release is associated with a parasite-specific T cell hypo-responsiveness that may over time also affect the immune responses to bystander antigens. Previous studies have shown the filarial parasite antigen-specific T cells hypo-responsiveness is mediated by regulatory cytokines -- IL-10 and TGF-β in particular. Recent studies have suggested that the modulated/regulated T cell responses associated with patent filarial infection may reflect an expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs that include both Tregs induced in peripheral circulation or pTregs and the thymus-derived Tregs or tTregs. Although much is known about the phenotype of these regulatory populations, the mechanisms underlying their expansion and their mode of action in filarial and other infections remain unclear. Nevertheless there are data to suggest that while many of these regulatory cells are activated in an antigen-specific manner the ensuing effectors of this activation are relatively non-specific and may affect a broad range of immune cells. This review will focus on the subsets and function of regulatory T cells in filarial infection.

  1. Leukocyte subsets and neutrophil function after short-term spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C. F.; Mehta, S. K.; Kaur, I.; Jones, M. L.; Feeback, D. L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in leukocyte subpopulations and function after spaceflight have been observed but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not well defined. This study investigated the effects of short-term spaceflight (8-15 days) on circulating leukocyte subsets, stress hormones, immunoglobulin levels, and neutrophil function. At landing, a 1.5-fold increase in neutrophils was observed compared with preflight values; lymphocytes were slightly decreased, whereas the results were variable for monocytes. No significant changes were observed in plasma levels of immunoglobulins, cortisol, or adrenocorticotropic hormone. In contrast, urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol were significantly elevated at landing. Band neutrophils were observed in 9 of 16 astronauts. Neutrophil chemotactic assays showed a 10-fold decrease in the optimal dose response after landing. Neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells was increased both before and after spaceflight. At landing, the expression of MAC-1 was significantly decreased while L-selectin was significantly increased. These functional alterations may be of clinical significance on long-duration space missions.

  2. Bayesian Subset Modeling for High-Dimensional Generalized Linear Models

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Faming

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a new prior setting for high-dimensional generalized linear models, which leads to a Bayesian subset regression (BSR) with the maximum a posteriori model approximately equivalent to the minimum extended Bayesian information criterion model. The consistency of the resulting posterior is established under mild conditions. Further, a variable screening procedure is proposed based on the marginal inclusion probability, which shares the same properties of sure screening and consistency with the existing sure independence screening (SIS) and iterative sure independence screening (ISIS) procedures. However, since the proposed procedure makes use of joint information from all predictors, it generally outperforms SIS and ISIS in real applications. This article also makes extensive comparisons of BSR with the popular penalized likelihood methods, including Lasso, elastic net, SIS, and ISIS. The numerical results indicate that BSR can generally outperform the penalized likelihood methods. The models selected by BSR tend to be sparser and, more importantly, of higher prediction ability. In addition, the performance of the penalized likelihood methods tends to deteriorate as the number of predictors increases, while this is not significant for BSR. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical Association.

  3. Ordered-subset Split-Bregman algorithm for interior tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Huihua; Liu, Rui; Yu, Hengyong

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the Compressed Sensing (CS) theory, it has been proved that the interior problem of computed tomography (CT) can be accurately and stably solved if a region-of-interest (ROI) is piecewise constant or polynomial, resulting in the CS-based interior tomography. The key is to minimize the total variation (TV) of the ROI under the constraint of the truncated projections. Coincidentally, the Split-Bregman (SB) method has attracted a major attention to solve the TV minimization problem for CT image reconstruction. In this paper, we apply the SB approach to reconstruct an ROI for the CS-based interior tomography assuming a piecewise constant imaging model. Furthermore, the ordered subsets (OS) technique is used to accelerate the convergence of SB algorithm, leading to a new OS-SB algorithm for interior tomography. The conventional OS simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (OS-SART) and soft-threshold filtering (STF) based OS-SART are also implemented as references to evaluate the performance of the proposed OS-SB algorithm for interior tomography. Both numerical simulations and clinical applications are performed and the results confirm the advantages of the proposed OS-SB method.

  4. Optimal Features Subset Selection and Classification for Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabir Bhattacharya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The selection of the optimal features subset and the classification have become an important issue in the field of iris recognition. We propose a feature selection scheme based on the multiobjectives genetic algorithm (MOGA to improve the recognition accuracy and asymmetrical support vector machine for the classification of iris patterns. We also suggest a segmentation scheme based on the collarette area localization. The deterministic feature sequence is extracted from the iris images using the 1D log-Gabor wavelet technique, and the extracted feature sequence is used to train the support vector machine (SVM. The MOGA is applied to optimize the features sequence and to increase the overall performance based on the matching accuracy of the SVM. The parameters of SVM are optimized to improve the overall generalization performance, and the traditional SVM is modified to an asymmetrical SVM to treat the false accept and false reject cases differently and to handle the unbalanced data of a specific class with respect to the other classes. Our experimental results indicate that the performance of SVM as a classifier is better than the performance of the classifiers based on the feedforward neural network, the k-nearest neighbor, and the Hamming and the Mahalanobis distances. The proposed technique is computationally effective with recognition rates of 99.81% and 96.43% on CASIA and ICE datasets, respectively.

  5. NK cell subset redistribution during the course of viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico eLugli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are important effectors of innate immunity that play a critical role in the control of human viral infections. Indeed, given their capability to directly recognize virally infected cells without the need of specific antigen presentation, NK cells are on the first line of defense against these invading pathogens. By establishing cellular networks with a variety of cell types such as dendritic cells, NK cells can also amplify anti-viral adaptive immune responses. In turn, viruses evolved and developed several mechanisms to evade NK cell-mediated immune activity. It has been reported that certain viral diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 as well as cytomegalovirus (CMV infections, are associated with a pathologic redistribution of NK cell subsets in the peripheral blood. In particular, it has been observed the expansion of unconventional CD56neg NK cells, whose effector functions are significantly impaired as compared to that of conventional CD56pos NK cells. In this review, we address the impact of chronic viral infections on the functional and phenotypic perturbations of human NK cell compartment.

  6. The semigroup of nonempty finite subsets of integers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Spake

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Let Z be the additive group of integers and g the semigroup consisting of all nonempty finite subsets of Z with respect to the operation defined byA+B={a+b:a∈A,   b∈B},   A,B∈g.For X∈g, define AX to be the basis of 〈X−min(X〉 and BX the basis of 〈max(X−X〉. In the greatest semilattice decomposition of g, let α(X denote the archimedean component containing X and define α0(X={Y∈α(X:min(Y=0}. In this paper we examine the structure of g and determine its greatest semilattice decomposition. In particular, we show that for X,Y∈g, α(X=α(Y if and only if AX=AY and BX=BY. Furthermore, if X∈g is a non-singleton, then the idempotent-free α(X is isomorphic to the direct product of the (idempotent-free power joined subsemigroup α0(X and the group Z.

  7. [Effect of oral scorpio and scolopendra powder on T-cell subsets in peripheral blood and intestine from rats with collagen induced arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shaomin; Zhao, Haimei; Zuo, Zhiqin; Wang, Yanhui; Wang, Yuesheng; Liu, Duanyong

    2011-03-01

    To observe effect of oral scorpio and scolopendra powder on T-cell subsets in peripheral blood and intestine from rats with collagen induced arthritis (CIA). 60 rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: normal control group, model control group, low-dose scorpio and scolopendra group, middle-dose scorpio and scolopendra group, high-dose scorpio and scolopendra group, and type II collagen group. Rat's rheumatoid arthritis was induced by collagen II (C II). Level of T-cell subsets from peripheral blood and intestine was measured by flow cytometry. CD4+ T cellular level was obviously increased (P scolopendra could treat rat's rheumatoid arthritis may be regulating balance of T-lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood and intestine.

  8. Molecular subsets in the gene expression signatures of scleroderma skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausra Milano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scleroderma is a clinically heterogeneous disease with a complex phenotype. The disease is characterized by vascular dysfunction, tissue fibrosis, internal organ dysfunction, and immune dysfunction resulting in autoantibody production. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We analyzed the genome-wide patterns of gene expression with DNA microarrays in skin biopsies from distinct scleroderma subsets including 17 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc with diffuse scleroderma (dSSc, 7 patients with SSc with limited scleroderma (lSSc, 3 patients with morphea, and 6 healthy controls. 61 skin biopsies were analyzed in a total of 75 microarray hybridizations. Analysis by hierarchical clustering demonstrates nearly identical patterns of gene expression in 17 out of 22 of the forearm and back skin pairs of SSc patients. Using this property of the gene expression, we selected a set of 'intrinsic' genes and analyzed the inherent data-driven groupings. Distinct patterns of gene expression separate patients with dSSc from those with lSSc and both are easily distinguished from normal controls. Our data show three distinct patient groups among the patients with dSSc and two groups among patients with lSSc. Each group can be distinguished by unique gene expression signatures indicative of proliferating cells, immune infiltrates and a fibrotic program. The intrinsic groups are statistically significant (p<0.001 and each has been mapped to clinical covariates of modified Rodnan skin score, interstitial lung disease, gastrointestinal involvement, digital ulcers, Raynaud's phenomenon and disease duration. We report a 177-gene signature that is associated with severity of skin disease in dSSc. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Genome-wide gene expression profiling of skin biopsies demonstrates that the heterogeneity in scleroderma can be measured quantitatively with DNA microarrays. The diversity in gene expression demonstrates multiple distinct gene expression programs

  9. Changes in the host lymphocyte subsets during chemical carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodt, P.; Lala, P.K.

    1983-09-01

    Changes in small lymphocyte subsets in the lymphoid organs of young C3H mice were studied following i.m. injection of a carcinogenic dose of 3-methylcholanthrene (mc). Using monoclonal anti-Lyt antibodies and a sandwich radiolabeling method with /sup 125/I-labeled rabbit anti-mouse Immunoglobulin, the lymphocyte subpopulations in the thymus, spleen, and draining lymph node were examined by radioautography. During the fifth week following the administration of the carcinogen a sharp decrease in the level of Ly-1,2+ small lymphocyte population in the thymus was noted which coincided with a considerable increase (10-fold) in the Ly-2+. During the same period, a similar increase in the Ly-2+ population was also observed in the draining. The high levels of Ly-2+ cells lasted for more than 4 weeks in the thymus while, in the draining node, they lasted for 2 weeks and dropped to normal levels (0 to 2%) simultaneously with the appearance of tumor cells identified in histological preparations. These systemic increases coincided with the appearance of macroscopic tumor nodules. The mixed lymphocyte reaction response of the draining node cells, but not of the spleen, was suppressed during the period of increased level of Ly-2+ cells. Furthermore, during this period, s.c. transplantation of a syngeneic mammary tumor in the same leg resulted in enhanced local growth as well as metastatic spread of the tumor to the lungs in mc treated mice. These findings suggest that a localized immunosuppression associated with the rise in the Ly-2+ cells may be of functional significance during carcinogen-induced tumor development.

  10. Applications of Hilbert Curves to the Selection of Subsets of Spatially Inhomogeneous Observational Data for Cross-validation and to the Construction of Super- observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pondeca, M. S.; Park, S.; Purser, R.; Dimego, G.

    2006-12-01

    Cross-validation techniques provide robust methods for estimating the optimal parameters defining the covariance models employed by statistical variational assimilation schemes based on the given observational data. Provided the effective errors of the measurement data are statistically independent, the mean-square difference between a subset of these measurements and the collocated values of the analysis performed with these selected data withheld, which is the cross-validation statistic associated with this subset, can be used as an objective criterion for the tuning of covariance parameters. The use of multiple disjoint validation subsets to produce an aggregate validation statistic improves the reliability and robustness of the cross-validation method by reducing the random scatter that comes from the inevitable sampling effects. It is desirable that each validation subset contains representative data from all the geographical regions observed, but without the redundancy implied by selections that lead to close pairs or tight clusters in the validation subset, even if such clustering exists in the complete data set. We show that an application of a continuous space-filling Hilbert curve, to which all the data are mapped and sorted in the order of the curve's single real parameter, offers simple strategies for simultaneously constructing multiple disjoint validation subsets tending to possess the desired properties of representativeness and non-redundancy. We further show that a variant of this construction very naturally leads to an efficient partition of the data into subsets suitable for combination into super-observations that enable an effective reduction of the size of the measurement data sets with only minimal loss of actual information. The application of these ideas is illustrated in the context of NCEP's Real-Time Mesoscale Analysis (RTMA) system for North American surface data.

  11. The Effect of Upper Body Anaerobic Pre-Loading on 2000-m Ergometer-Rowing Performance in College Level Male Rowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purge, Priit; Hofmann, Peter; Merisaar, Rait; Mueller, Alexander; Tschakert, Gerhard; Mäestu, Jarek; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2017-01-01

    Elevated blood lactate has been shown to influence subsequent anaerobic exercise due to an inhibition of glycolysis. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the influence of a short and high-intensity anaerobic arm crank pre-load exercise (HIE) added to a low-intensity warm-up on cardio-respiratory and metabolic responses on a subsequent all out rowing exercise. Nine well-trained college level male rowers (24.6 ± 7.1 yrs; 1.87 ± 0.07 m; 88.9 ± 9.8 kg; 18.5 ± 3.7% body fat) volunteered to participate in the study. The subjects performed a maximal 2000-m rowing ergometer performance tests (MPT) twice. One MPT was preceded by a normal low intensity warm-up (MPTlow), while another one was performed with the additional inclusion of the HIE protocol (MPThigh). Overall rowing performance in the MPTlow was significantly faster (p = 0.004) by 3.7 ± 2.8 sec compared to the MPThigh condition (401.7 ± 23.0 s v. 405.4 ± 23.3 s) but the reduction in speed was found only for the first 1000-m (p = 0.017). Net La increase from rest to the end of the MPTlow was 11.9 ± 2.3 mmol·l-1 which was significantly higher (p = 0.0001) compared to the MPThigh condition (6.3 ± 1.8 mmol·l-1). Carbon dioxide output was significantly lower in the second (p = 0.041), third (p = 0.009), fourth (p = 0.036) and fifth (p = 0.028) 250-m split in the MPThigh compared to the MPTlow test. In conclusion, HIE upper-body anaerobic pre-load added to a standard low intensity warm-up protocol decreased anaerobic performance only in the early stages of the MPThigh but the latter part was unaffected. The inhibition of glycolysis in the first minute of the workout might allow a different race strategy, which needs to be investigated in further studies. Key points As blood lactate production can be inhibited to some extent, oxidative metabolism is favored which might be beneficial in some specific training sessions aiming to improve aerobic power. Despite a reduced performance in the 2000

  12. Comparative analysis of international standards for the fatigue testing of posterior spinal fixation systems: the importance of preload in ISO 12189.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Barbera, Luigi; Ottardi, Claudia; Villa, Tomaso

    2015-10-01

    compared with the previous model where the precompression was not considered. Neglecting the initial preload due to the assembly of the overall construct according to ISO 12189 standard could lead to an overestimation of the stress on the rods up to 50%. To correctly describe the state of stress on the posterior spinal fixator, tested according to the ISO procedure, it is important to take into account the initial preload due to the assembly of the overall construct. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of Upper Body Anaerobic Pre-Loading on 2000-m Ergometer-Rowing Performance in College Level Male Rowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Purge, Peter Hofmann, Rait Merisaar, Alexander Mueller, Gerhard Tschakert, Jarek Mäestu, Jaak Jürimäe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Elevated blood lactate has been shown to influence subsequent anaerobic exercise due to an inhibition of glycolysis. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the influence of a short and high-intensity anaerobic arm crank pre-load exercise (HIE added to a low-intensity warm-up on cardio-respiratory and metabolic responses on a subsequent all out rowing exercise. Nine well-trained college level male rowers (24.6 ± 7.1 yrs; 1.87 ± 0.07 m; 88.9 ± 9.8 kg; 18.5 ± 3.7% body fat volunteered to participate in the study. The subjects performed a maximal 2000-m rowing ergometer performance tests (MPT twice. One MPT was preceded by a normal low intensity warm-up (MPTlow, while another one was performed with the additional inclusion of the HIE protocol (MPThigh. Overall rowing performance in the MPTlow was significantly faster (p = 0.004 by 3.7 ± 2.8 sec compared to the MPThigh condition (401.7 ± 23.0 s v. 405.4 ± 23.3 s but the reduction in speed was found only for the first 1000-m (p = 0.017. Net La increase from rest to the end of the MPTlow was 11.9 ± 2.3 mmol·l-1 which was significantly higher (p = 0.0001 compared to the MPThigh condition (6.3 ± 1.8 mmol·l-1. Carbon dioxide output was significantly lower in the second (p = 0.041, third (p = 0.009, fourth (p = 0.036 and fifth (p = 0.028 250-m split in the MPThigh compared to the MPTlow test. In conclusion, HIE upper-body anaerobic pre-load added to a standard low intensity warm-up protocol decreased anaerobic performance only in the early stages of the MPThigh but the latter part was unaffected. The inhibition of glycolysis in the first minute of the workout might allow a different race strategy, which needs to be investigated in further studies.

  14. The Effect of Upper Body Anaerobic Pre-Loading on 2000-m Ergometer-Rowing Performance in College Level Male Rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purge, Priit; Hofmann, Peter; Merisaar, Rait; Mueller, Alexander; Tschakert, Gerhard; Mäestu, Jarek; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2017-06-01

    Elevated blood lactate has been shown to influence subsequent anaerobic exercise due to an inhibition of glycolysis. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the influence of a short and high-intensity anaerobic arm crank pre-load exercise (HIE) added to a low-intensity warm-up on cardio-respiratory and metabolic responses on a subsequent all out rowing exercise. Nine well-trained college level male rowers (24.6 ± 7.1 yrs; 1.87 ± 0.07 m; 88.9 ± 9.8 kg; 18.5 ± 3.7% body fat) volunteered to participate in the study. The subjects performed a maximal 2000-m rowing ergometer performance tests (MPT) twice. One MPT was preceded by a normal low intensity warm-up (MPTlow), while another one was performed with the additional inclusion of the HIE protocol (MPThigh). Overall rowing performance in the MPTlow was significantly faster (p = 0.004) by 3.7 ± 2.8 sec compared to the MPThigh condition (401.7 ± 23.0 s v. 405.4 ± 23.3 s) but the reduction in speed was found only for the first 1000-m (p = 0.017). Net La increase from rest to the end of the MPTlow was 11.9 ± 2.3 mmol·l-1 which was significantly higher (p = 0.0001) compared to the MPThigh condition (6.3 ± 1.8 mmol·l-1). Carbon dioxide output was significantly lower in the second (p = 0.041), third (p = 0.009), fourth (p = 0.036) and fifth (p = 0.028) 250-m split in the MPThigh compared to the MPTlow test. In conclusion, HIE upper-body anaerobic pre-load added to a standard low intensity warm-up protocol decreased anaerobic performance only in the early stages of the MPThigh but the latter part was unaffected. The inhibition of glycolysis in the first minute of the workout might allow a different race strategy, which needs to be investigated in further studies.

  15. Long-term results of breast conserving surgery vs. mastectomy for early stage invasive breast cancer: 20-year follow-up of the Danish randomized DBCG-82TM protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichert-Toft, M.; Nielsen, M.; During, M.

    2008-01-01

    outcome with BCS, and no evidence of disseminated disease. The patients accrued were grouped into three subsets: correctly randomized, suspicion of randomization error, and declining randomization. The main analyses focus on the subgroup of 793 correctly randomized patients representing 70...

  16. D-methionine pre-loading reduces both noise-induced permanent threshold shift and outer hair cell loss in the chinchilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, Alexander D; Fox, Daniel J; Yu, Xin C; Meech, Robert P; Verhulst, Steven J; Hargrove, Tim L; Campbell, Kathleen C M

    2013-12-01

    This study tested multiple dosing epochs of pre-loaded D-methionine (D-met) for otoprotection from noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds were measured at baseline, 1 day, and 21 days following a 6-hour 105 dB sound pressure level (SPL) octave band noise (OBN) exposure. Outer hair cell (OHC) counts were measured after day 21 sacrifice. Three groups of five Chinchillas laniger each were given a 2-day regimen comprising five doses of D-met (200 mg/kg/dose) intraperitoneally (IP) starting 2, 2.5, or 3 days prior to noise exposure. A control group (n = 5) received five doses of equivalent volume saline IP starting 2.5 days prior to noise exposure. ABR threshold shifts from baseline to day-21 post-noise exposure were reduced in all D-met groups versus controls, reaching significance (p noise exposure, reaching significance (p noise-exposure, without further administration, significantly protects from noise-induced ABR threshold shift and OHC loss.

  17. A strategy that iteratively retains informative variables for selecting optimal variable subset in multivariate calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yong-Huan; Wang, Wei-Ting; Tan, Min-Li; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Li, Hong-Dong; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Lu, Hong-Mei; Xu, Qing-Song

    2014-01-07

    Nowadays, with a high dimensionality of dataset, it faces a great challenge in the creation of effective methods which can select an optimal variables subset. In this study, a strategy that considers the possible interaction effect among variables through random combinations was proposed, called iteratively retaining informative variables (IRIV). Moreover, the variables are classified into four categories as strongly informative, weakly informative, uninformative and interfering variables. On this basis, IRIV retains both the strongly and weakly informative variables in every iterative round until no uninformative and interfering variables exist. Three datasets were employed to investigate the performance of IRIV coupled with partial least squares (PLS). The results show that IRIV is a good alternative for variable selection strategy when compared with three outstanding and frequently used variable selection methods such as genetic algorithm-PLS, Monte Carlo uninformative variable elimination by PLS (MC-UVE-PLS) and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS). The MATLAB source code of IRIV can be freely downloaded for academy research at the website: http://code.google.com/p/multivariate-calibration/downloads/list. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Susceptibility and response of human blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Loon Wong

    Full Text Available Human blood monocytes play a central role in dengue infections and form the majority of virus infected cells in the blood. Human blood monocytes are heterogeneous and divided into CD16(- and CD16(+ subsets. Monocyte subsets play distinct roles during disease, but it is not currently known if monocyte subsets differentially contribute to dengue protection and pathogenesis. Here, we compared the susceptibility and response of the human CD16(- and CD16(+ blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue virus in vitro. We found that both monocyte subsets were equally susceptible to dengue virus (DENV2 NGC, and capable of supporting the initial production of new infective virus particles. Both monocyte subsets produced anti-viral factors, including IFN-α, CXCL10 and TRAIL. However, CD16(+ monocytes were the major producers of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to dengue virus, including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, 3 and 4. The susceptibility of both monocyte subsets to infection was increased after IL-4 treatment, but this increase was more profound for the CD16(+ monocyte subset, particularly at early time points after virus exposure. These findings reveal the differential role that monocyte subsets might play during dengue disease.

  19. Subset-row inequalities applied to the vehicle routing problem with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Petersen, Bjørn; Spoorendonk, Simon

    2008-01-01

    constraints as the pricing problem. We introduce the subset-row inequalities, which are Chvatal-Gomory rank-1 cuts based on a subset of the constraints in the master problem. Applying a subset-row inequality in the master problem increases the complexity of the label-setting algorithm used to solve...... on the Solomon benchmarks where we were able to close several instances. The results show that applying subset-row inequalities in the master problem significantly improves the lower bound and, in many cases, makes it possible to prove optimality in the root node.   Subject classifications: transportation...

  20. T-lymphocyte subsets in West African children: impact of age, sex, and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H

    1997-01-01

    determinants of T-lymphocyte subset levels. METHODS: A total of 803 healthy West African children younger than 6 years were included in the three community studies of T-lymphocyte subsets among twins and singletons, after measles infection and after measles immunization. We used the immunoalkaline phosphatase...... is particularly high in Africa....

  1. T-lymphocyte subsets in West African children: impact of age, sex, and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There has been no reference material for T-lymphocyte subsets for normal children in developing countries. We therefore used T-lymphocyte subset determinations among children in three different studies in Guinea-Bissau to construct age-related reference material and to examine possible...

  2. Monocyte subset dynamics in human atherosclerosis can be profiled with magnetic nano-sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Wildgruber

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Monocytes are circulating macrophage and dendritic cell precursors that populate healthy and diseased tissue. In humans, monocytes consist of at least two subsets whose proportions in the blood fluctuate in response to coronary artery disease, sepsis, and viral infection. Animal studies have shown that specific shifts in the monocyte subset repertoire either exacerbate or attenuate disease, suggesting a role for monocyte subsets as biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Assays are therefore needed that can selectively and rapidly enumerate monocytes and their subsets. This study shows that two major human monocyte subsets express similar levels of the receptor for macrophage colony stimulating factor (MCSFR but differ in their phagocytic capacity. We exploit these properties and custom-engineer magnetic nanoparticles for ex vivo sensing of monocytes and their subsets. We present a two-dimensional enumerative mathematical model that simultaneously reports number and proportion of monocyte subsets in a small volume of human blood. Using a recently described diagnostic magnetic resonance (DMR chip with 1 microl sample size and high throughput capabilities, we then show that application of the model accurately quantifies subset fluctuations that occur in patients with atherosclerosis.

  3. A Genetic Algorithm for Selection of Fixed-Size Subsets with Application to Design Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Wolters

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The R function kofnGA conducts a genetic algorithm search for the best subset of k items from a set of n alternatives, given an objective function that measures the quality of a subset. The function fills a gap in the presently available subset selection software, which typically searches over a range of subset sizes, restricts the types of objective functions considered, or does not include freely available code. The new function is demonstrated on two types of problem where a fixed-size subset search is desirable: design of environmental monitoring networks, and D-optimal design of experiments. Additionally, the performance is evaluated on a class of constructed test problems with a novel design that is interesting in its own right.

  4. Licensing delineates helper and effector NK cell subsets during viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Anthony E; Aguilar, Ethan G; Sungur, Can M; Khuat, Lam T; Dunai, Cordelia; Lochhead, G Raymond; Du, Juan; Pomeroy, Claire; Blazar, Bruce R; Longo, Dan L; Venstrom, Jeffrey M; Baumgarth, Nicole; Murphy, William J

    2017-05-18

    Natural killer (NK) cells can be divided into phenotypic subsets based on expression of receptors that bind self-MHC-I molecules, a concept termed licensing or education. Here we show NK cell subsets with different migratory, effector, and immunoregulatory functions in dendritic cell and antigen (ag)-specific CD8+ T cell responses during influenza and murine cytomegalovirus infections. Shortly after infection, unlicensed NK cells localized in draining lymph nodes and produced GM-CSF, which correlated with the expansion and activation of dendritic cells, and resulted in greater and sustained ag-specific T cell responses. In contrast, licensed NK cells preferentially migrated to infected tissues and produced IFN-γ. Importantly, human NK cell subsets exhibited similar phenotypic characteristics. Collectively, our studies demonstrate a critical demarcation between the functions of licensed and unlicensed NK cell subsets, with the former functioning as the classical effector subset and the latter as the stimulator of adaptive immunity helping to prime immune responses.

  5. Multi-Objective Feature Subset Selection using Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm based technique to solve multi-objective feature subset selection problem. The data used for classification contains large number of features called attributes. Some of these attributes are not relevant and needs to be eliminated. In classification procedure, each feature has an effect on the accuracy, cost and learning time of the classifier. So, there is a strong requirement to select a subset of the features before building the classifier. This proposed technique treats feature subset selection as multi-objective optimization problem. This research uses one of the latest multi-objective genetic algorithms (NSGA - II. The fitness value of a particular feature subset is measured by using ID3. The testing accuracy acquired is then assigned to the fitness value. This technique is tested on several datasets taken from the UCI machine repository. The experiments demonstrate the feasibility of using NSGA-II for feature subset selection.

  6. An Efficient Large-Scale Retroviral Transduction Method Involving Preloading the Vector into a RetroNectin-Coated Bag with Low-Temperature Shaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodo, Katsuyuki; Chono, Hideto; Saito, Naoki; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Tahara, Kenichi; Nukaya, Ikuei; Mineno, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    In retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer, transduction efficiency can be hampered by inhibitory molecules derived from the culture fluid of virus producer cell lines. To remove these inhibitory molecules to enable better gene transduction, we had previously developed a transduction method using a fibronectin fragment-coated vessel (i.e., the RetroNectin-bound virus transduction method). In the present study, we developed a method that combined RetroNectin-bound virus transduction with low-temperature shaking and applied this method in manufacturing autologous retroviral-engineered T cells for adoptive transfer gene therapy in a large-scale closed system. Retroviral vector was preloaded into a RetroNectin-coated bag and incubated at 4°C for 16 h on a reciprocating shaker at 50 rounds per minute. After the supernatant was removed, activated T cells were added to the bag. The bag transduction method has the advantage of increasing transduction efficiency, as simply flipping over the bag during gene transduction facilitates more efficient utilization of the retroviral vector adsorbed on the top and bottom surfaces of the bag. Finally, we performed validation runs of endoribonuclease MazF-modified CD4+ T cell manufacturing for HIV-1 gene therapy and T cell receptor-modified T cell manufacturing for MAGE-A4 antigen-expressing cancer gene therapy and achieved over 200-fold (≥1010) and 100-fold (≥5×109) expansion, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the large-scale closed transduction system is highly efficient for retroviral vector-based T cell manufacturing for adoptive transfer gene therapy, and this technology is expected to be amenable to automation and improve current clinical gene therapy protocols. PMID:24454964

  7. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  8. [The effects of acrylonitrile on T lymphocyte subsets and expression of toll-like receptor 4 in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caizhen; Huang, Jianshu; Wang, Peng; Li, Xiuju; Fan, Wei; Shi, Jimin; Li, Bing; Zhang, Jihong; Zhou, Yuanling

    2014-07-01

    To explore the effects of acrylonitrile on T lymphocyte subsets, expression of toll-like receptor 4 and related cytokines in rats. Sixty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 female groups and 4 male groups, and there were 8 rats in each group. Rats in each group were respectively given a single dose of 0, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg acrylonitrile by gavage, once a day, 5 days a week, for 13 weeks. Blood and spleen T lymphocyte subsets was detected by flow cytometry, the mRNA expression of TLR4, IL-1β and TNF-α was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR, the protein expression of TLR4 was evaluated by Western blot. Compared with control group, the percentages of blood CD3, CD4 T cells in 20 mg/kg female group and CD4/CD8 ratio in 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg female groups was significantly decreased, CD8 T cells in 20 mg/kg group was significantly increased (P Acrylonitrile may lead to the changes of CD3, CD4, CD8 T lymphocyte percentages and CD4/CD8 ratio in rat blood and spleen, and also significantly effected the expression level of TLR4 mRNA and protein together with the secretion of IL-1β, TNF-α. This may cause effects on the cellular immune function.

  9. Estimating skin blood saturation by selecting a subset of hyperspectral imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewerlöf, Maria; Salerud, E. Göran; Strömberg, Tomas; Larsson, Marcus

    2015-03-01

    Skin blood haemoglobin saturation (?b) can be estimated with hyperspectral imaging using the wavelength (λ) range of 450-700 nm where haemoglobin absorption displays distinct spectral characteristics. Depending on the image size and photon transport algorithm, computations may be demanding. Therefore, this work aims to evaluate subsets with a reduced number of wavelengths for ?b estimation. White Monte Carlo simulations are performed using a two-layered tissue model with discrete values for epidermal thickness (?epi) and the reduced scattering coefficient (μ's ), mimicking an imaging setup. A detected intensity look-up table is calculated for a range of model parameter values relevant to human skin, adding absorption effects in the post-processing. Skin model parameters, including absorbers, are; μ's (λ), ?epi, haemoglobin saturation (?b), tissue fraction blood (?b) and tissue fraction melanin (?mel). The skin model paired with the look-up table allow spectra to be calculated swiftly. Three inverse models with varying number of free parameters are evaluated: A(?b, ?b), B(?b, ?b, ?mel) and C(all parameters free). Fourteen wavelength candidates are selected by analysing the maximal spectral sensitivity to ?b and minimizing the sensitivity to ?b. All possible combinations of these candidates with three, four and 14 wavelengths, as well as the full spectral range, are evaluated for estimating ?b for 1000 randomly generated evaluation spectra. The results show that the simplified models A and B estimated ?b accurately using four wavelengths (mean error 2.2% for model B). If the number of wavelengths increased, the model complexity needed to be increased to avoid poor estimations.

  10. Influence of DC-CIK in advanced colorectal cancer patients on T lymphocyte subsets and cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effects of dendritic cells (DC-cytokine induced killer cells (CIK treatment on T lymphocyte subsets and cytokines in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Methods: A total of 84 cases patients with advanced colorectal cancer were divided into two groups according to random number table method, each 42 cases, both two groups were given FOLFOX scheme chemotherapy, on the basis, the observation group were given supplementary DC-CIK treatment, compared the T lymphocy te subgroup: CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, Th1 cytokines, interleukin-2 (IL-2 and interferon gamma-γ (FN-γ, Th2 cytokines: interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 4 (IL-4 of the two groups before and after treatment. Results: Compared with before treatment, the CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ in observation group were significantly higher than after treatment , the CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ in control group were significantly lower than after treatment, and the differences were all statistically significant; The CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ in observation group after treatment were significantly higher than those in control group after treatment with statistical difference; CD8+, Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-6 in two groups had no statistical significance before and after treatment. Conclusion: Chemotherapy can cause the immune function restrained in patients with advanced colorectal cancer, and DC-CIK supplementary therapy can significantly improve the immune function, enhance the anti tumor immune responses.

  11. Composite Reliability Enhancement via Preloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    1140 I HPU T P2 sub routine which plots the data on the 1150 1 =1 screen and on the thermal printer. 11 0 GCLE iR 11 C GPAF’H I10 LIF’ 0 S1𔃺 A ~L E...CA 4A D I SP "I HSERT nAT TFIPE" 3 050 I SF "ENTEF FILE NAME" C: 0-5: I HPU T N$ , 70 C-LEAR i I’-’p "REA DING DATA" 3 0 C .’- I G-N# t T 1-l t-4

  12. The performance of tests on endogeneity of subsets of explanatory variables scanned by simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiviet, J.F.; Pleus, M.

    2011-01-01

    Tests for classification as endogenous or predetermined of arbitrary subsets of regressors are formulated as significance tests in auxiliary IV regressions and their relationships with various more classic test procedures are examined. Simulation experiments are designed by solving the data

  13. Comprehensive Ocean - Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) LMRF Arctic Subset, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Comprehensive Ocean - Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) Long Marine Reports Fixed-Length (LMRF) Arctic subset contains marine surface weather reports for regions north...

  14. Cholangiocarcinoma stem-like subset shapes tumor-initiating niche by educating associated macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raggi, Chiara; Correnti, Margherita; Sica, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Therapeutically challenging subset, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) clinical severity. Presence of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) has prognostic significance in CCA and other malignancies. Thus, we hypothesized that CSCs may a...

  15. Which leukocyte subsets predict cardiovascular mortality? From the LUdwigshafen RIsk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ó Hartaigh, B.; Bosch, J.A.; Thomas, G.N.; Lord, J.M.; Pilz, S.; Loerbroks, A.; Kleber, M.E.; Grammer, T.B.; Fischer, J.E.; Boehm, B.O.; März, W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: White blood cells are known to predict cardiovascular mortality, but form a highly heterogeneous population. It is therefore possible that specific subtypes disproportionally contribute to the prediction of cardiovascular outcomes. Therefore, we compared leukocyte subsets alone and in

  16. SEDIMENT ANALYSIS NETWORK FOR DECISION SUPPORT (SANDS) MODIS GULF SUBSETTED V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sediment Analysis Network for Decision Support (SANDS) MODIS Gulf Subsetted -- The Sediment Analysis Network for Decision Support (SANDS) analyzes GeoTIFF images to...

  17. T-Cell Subsets Predict Mortality in Malnourished Zambian Adults Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chisenga, Caroline C; Filteau, Suzanne; Siame, Joshua; Chisenga, Molly; Prendergast, Andrew J; Kelly, Paul

    2015-01-01

    ...), and to assess the impact of a nutritional intervention on T-cell subsets. This was a sub-study of a randomised clinical trial of a nutritional intervention for malnourished adults initiating ART...

  18. T-Cell Subsets Predict Mortality in Malnourished Zambian Adults Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy: e0129928

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caroline C Chisenga; Suzanne Filteau; Joshua Siame; Molly Chisenga; Andrew J Prendergast; Paul Kelly

    2015-01-01

    ...), and to assess the impact of a nutritional intervention on T-cell subsets. Methods This was a sub-study of a randomised clinical trial of a nutritional intervention for malnourished adults initiating ART...

  19. Tailored immune responses: novel effector helper T cell subsets in protective immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Ervin E; Comerford, Iain; Fenix, Kevin A; Bastow, Cameron R; Gregor, Carly E; McKenzie, Duncan R; McColl, Shaun R

    2014-02-01

    Differentiation of naïve CD4⁺ cells into functionally distinct effector helper T cell subsets, characterised by distinct "cytokine signatures," is a cardinal strategy employed by the mammalian immune system to efficiently deal with the rapidly evolving array of pathogenic microorganisms encountered by the host. Since the T(H)1/T(H)2 paradigm was first described by Mosmann and Coffman, research in the field of helper T cell biology has grown exponentially with seven functionally unique subsets having now been described. In this review, recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern differentiation and function of effector helper T cell subsets will be discussed in the context of microbial infections, with a focus on how these different helper T cell subsets orchestrate immune responses tailored to combat the nature of the pathogenic threat encountered.

  20. Tailored immune responses: novel effector helper T cell subsets in protective immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervin E Kara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Differentiation of naïve CD4⁺ cells into functionally distinct effector helper T cell subsets, characterised by distinct "cytokine signatures," is a cardinal strategy employed by the mammalian immune system to efficiently deal with the rapidly evolving array of pathogenic microorganisms encountered by the host. Since the T(H1/T(H2 paradigm was first described by Mosmann and Coffman, research in the field of helper T cell biology has grown exponentially with seven functionally unique subsets having now been described. In this review, recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern differentiation and function of effector helper T cell subsets will be discussed in the context of microbial infections, with a focus on how these different helper T cell subsets orchestrate immune responses tailored to combat the nature of the pathogenic threat encountered.

  1. Predicting abundance-body size relationships in functional and taxonomic subsets of food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, T A D; Jennings, S

    2006-11-01

    Abundance-body size relationships are widely observed macroecological patterns in complete food webs and in taxonomically or functionally defined subsets of those webs. Observed abundance-body size relationships have frequently been compared with predictions based on the energetic equivalence hypothesis and, more recently, with predictions based on energy availability to different body size classes. Here, we consider the ways in which working with taxonomically or functionally defined subsets of food webs affected the relationship between the predicted and observed scaling of biomass and body mass in sediment dwelling benthic invertebrate communities at three sites in the North Sea. At each site, the energy available to body size classes in the "whole" community (community defined as all animals of 0.03125-32.0 g shell-free wet weight) and in three subsets was predicted from estimates of trophic level based on nitrogen stable isotope analysis. The observed and predicted scalings of biomass and body size were not significantly different for the whole community, and reflected an increase in energy availability with body size. However, the results for subsets showed that energy availability could increase or decrease with body size, and that individuals in the subsets were likely to be competing with individuals outside the subsets for energy. We conclude that the study of abundance-body mass relationships in functionally or taxonomically defined subsets of food webs is unlikely to provide an adequate test of the energetic equivalence hypothesis or other relationships between energy availability and scaling. To consistently and reliably interpret the results of these tests, it is necessary to know about energy availability as a function of body size both within and outside the subset considered.

  2. Short communication: Inhibitory effects of dietary aflatoxin B1 on cytokines expression and T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is the most toxic form among the mycotoxins. Cytokines are important mediators of the immune system. T-cell subsets play a crucial role in cell-mediated immunity. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of dietary AFB1 on the cytokines expression and T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens throughout a 21-day experimental period. One hundred and fifty six one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into control group (0 mg AFB1/kg feed and AFB1 group (0.6 mg pure AFB1/kg feed. At 7, 14 and 21 days of age, the levels of seven cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α mRNA expression as well as the proportions of T-cell subsets (CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry methods were assessed in the cecal tonsils. The levels of the seven cytokines mRNA expression and the percentages of T-cell subsets significantly decreased at 14 and 21 days of age in the AFB1 group compared with the control group. However, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was not significantly changed. These results demonstrate that 0.6 mg/kg AFB1 dietary exposure reduced the levels of cytokines mRNA expression and the percentages of T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsils of broiler chickens, suggesting that the cell-mediated immunity of cecal tonsils might be impaired in broilers.

  3. Short communication: Inhibitory effects of dietary aflatoxin B1 on cytokines expression and T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.; Jiang, M.; Fang, J.; Peng, X.; Cui, H.

    2016-11-01

    Afatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most toxic form among the mycotoxins. Cytokines are important mediators of the immune system. T-cell subsets play a crucial role in cell-mediated immunity. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of dietary AFB1 on the cytokines expression and T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens throughout a 21-day experimental period. One hundred and fifty six one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into control group (0 mg AFB1/kg feed) and AFB1 group (0.6 mg pure AFB1/kg feed). At 7, 14 and 21 days of age, the levels of seven cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α) mRNA expression as well as the proportions of T-cell subsets (CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+) by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry methods were assessed in the cecal tonsils. The levels of the seven cytokines mRNA expression and the percentages of T-cell subsets significantly decreased at 14 and 21 days of age in the AFB1 group compared with the control group. However, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was not significantly changed. These results demonstrate that 0.6 mg/kg AFB1 dietary exposure reduced the levels of cytokines mRNA expression and the percentages of T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsils of broiler chickens, suggesting that the cell-mediated immunity of cecal tonsils might be impaired in broilers. (Author)

  4. The correlation of lymphocyte subsets, natural killer cell, and Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sen; Gao, Hua; Luo, Qin; Wang, Pengfei; Yang, Xinling

    2017-08-01

    The correlation between immunity and Parkinson's disease was presented in many papers, which also discussed lymphocyte and natural killer cell. But these studies have yielded inconsistent results. To systematically review the relationship between the lymphocyte subsets/natural killer cell and the risk of Parkinson's disease, we electronically searched the SpringerLink, Web of Science, Ebsco-medline with full text, Pubmed, Elsevier-ScienceDirect, Ovid-lww-oup, Wanfang Data for case-control trials on comparing the number of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets and natural killer cell in Parkinson's patients and healthy controls. According to the Cochrane methods, the reviewers selected literature, extracted data, and assessed the quality. Then, a meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2. Finally, 21 case-control trials including 943 cases of Parkinson's disease were fit into our data analysis. Meta-analysis showed that the decreased numbers of CD3+, CD4+ lymphocyte subsets and the increased number of natural killer cell were found in Parkinson's disease patients. In the intermediate and late stage of PD, CD8+ lymphocyte subsets had a significant decrement. However, the number of B lymphocyte subsets had no significant association with Parkinson's disease. The lymphocyte subsets and NK cell may be associated with the risk of Parkinson's disease.

  5. Role of distinct CD4(+) T helper subset in pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Dunfang; Han, Qi; Zhao, Xin; Zeng, Xin; Xu, Yi; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Qianming

    2016-07-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory oral mucosal diseases with T-cell-mediated immune pathogenesis. In subepithelial and lamina propria of OLP local lesions, the presence of CD4(+) T helper (CD4(+) Th) cells appeared as the major lymphocytes. These CD4(+) T lymphocytes can differentiate into distinct Th cell types such as Th1, Th2, Treg, Th17, Th22, Th9, and Tfh within the context of certain cytokines environment. Growing evidence indicated that Th1/Th2 imbalance may greatly participate into the cytokine network of OLP immunopathology. In addition, Th1/Th2 imbalance can be regulated by the Treg subset and also greatly influenced by the emerging novel CD4(+) Th subset Th17. Furthermore, the presence of novel subsets Th22, Th9 and Tfh in OLP patients is yet to be clarified. All these Th subsets and their specific cytokines may play a critical role in determining the character, extent and duration of immune responses in OLP pathogenesis. Therefore, we review the roles of distinct CD4(+) Th subsets and their signature cytokines in determining disease severity and susceptibility of OLP and also reveal the novel therapeutic strategies based on T lymphocytes subsets in OLP treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. T cell subsets and their signature cytokines in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Itay; Nalawade, Saisha; Eagar, Todd N; Forsthuber, Thomas G

    2015-07-01

    CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells are critical for proper immune cell homeostasis and host defense, but are also major contributors to pathology of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Since the discovery of the Th1/Th2 dichotomy, many additional Th subsets were discovered, each with a unique cytokine profile, functional properties, and presumed role in autoimmune tissue pathology. This includes Th1, Th2, Th17, Th22, Th9, and Treg cells which are characterized by specific cytokine profiles. Cytokines produced by these Th subsets play a critical role in immune cell differentiation, effector subset commitment, and in directing the effector response. Cytokines are often categorized into proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and linked to Th subsets expressing them. This article reviews the different Th subsets in terms of cytokine profiles, how these cytokines influence and shape the immune response, and their relative roles in promoting pathology in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Furthermore, we will discuss whether Th cell pathogenicity can be defined solely based on their cytokine profiles and whether rigid definition of a Th cell subset by its cytokine profile is helpful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. MERRA IAU 2d surface and TOA radiation fluxes subsetted along CloudSat track V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the MERRA IAU 2d surface and TOA radiation fluxes subset, collocated with the CloudSat track. The subset is processed at the Modeling and Assimilation Data...

  8. MERRA IAU 3d assimilated state on pressure subsetted along CloudSat track V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the MERRA IAU 3d assimilated state on pressure subset, collocated with the CloudSat track. The subset is processed at the Modeling and Assimilation Data and...

  9. MERRA IAU 2d atmospheric single-level diagnostics subsetted along CloudSat track V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the MERRA IAU 2d atmospheric single-level diagnostics subset, collocated with the CloudSat track. The subset is processed at the Modeling and Assimilation...

  10. MERRA IAU 3d cloud diagnostics subsetted along CloudSat track V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the MERRA IAU 3d cloud diagnostics subset, collocated with the CloudSat track. The subset is processed at the Modeling and Assimilation Data and Information...

  11. Circulating TFH subset distribution is strongly affected in lupus patients with an active disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Le Coz

    Full Text Available Follicular helper T cells (TFH represent a distinct subset of CD4(+ T cells specialized in providing help to B lymphocytes, which may play a central role in autoimmune diseases having a major B cell component such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Recently, TFH subsets that share common phenotypic and functional characteristics with TFH cells from germinal centers, have been described in the peripheral blood from healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of such populations in lupus patients. Circulating TFH cell subsets were defined by multicolor flow cytometry as TFH17 (CXCR3(-CCR6(+, TFH1 (CXCR3 (+ CCR6(- or TFH2 (CXCR3(-CCR6(- cells among CXCR5 (+ CD45RA(-CD4(+ T cells in the peripheral blood of 23 SLE patients and 23 sex and age-matched healthy controls. IL-21 receptor expression by B cells was analyzed by flow cytometry and the serum levels of IL-21 and Igs were determined by ELISA tests. We found that the TFH2 cell subset frequency is strongly and significantly increased in lupus patients with an active disease (SLEDAI score>8, while the TFH1 cell subset percentage is greatly decreased. The TFH2 and TFH1 cell subset frequency alteration is associated with the presence of high Ig levels and autoantibodies in patient's sera. Moreover, the TFH2 cell subset enhancement correlates with an increased frequency of double negative memory B cells (CD27(-IgD(-CD19(+ cells expressing the IL-21R. Finally, we found that IgE levels in lupus patients' sera correlate with disease activity and seem to be associated with high TFH2 cell subset frequency. In conclusion, our study describes for the first time the distribution of circulating TFH cell subsets in lupus patients. Interestingly, we found an increased frequency of TFH2 cells, which correlates with disease activity. Our results suggest that this subset might play a key role in lupus pathogenesis.

  12. Differential in vivo activation of monocyte subsets during low-grade inflammation through experimental endotoxemia in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Thaler, B.; Hohensinner, P.J.; Krychtiuk, K. A.; Matzneller, P.; Koller, L.; M. Brekalo; Maurer, G.; Huber, K.; Zeitlinger, M.; Jilma, B.; Wojta, J; Speidl, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    Human monocytes are a heterogeneous cell population, which can be divided into a classical (CD14++CD16?), a non-classical (CD14+CD16+), and an intermediate (CD14++CD16+) subset. We hypothesized that low-grade inflammation may differentially affect monocyte subsets. We used a human lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion model to mimic low-grade inflammation to identify, which monocyte subsets are preferentially activated under these conditions. Monocyte subsets were identified by staining for CD14 ...

  13. Comparison of Subset-Based Local and Finite Element-Based Global Digital Image Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Bing

    2015-02-12

    Digital image correlation (DIC) techniques require an image matching algorithm to register the same physical points represented in different images. Subset-based local DIC and finite element-based (FE-based) global DIC are the two primary image matching methods that have been extensively investigated and regularly used in the field of experimental mechanics. Due to its straightforward implementation and high efficiency, subset-based local DIC has been used in almost all commercial DIC packages. However, it is argued by some researchers that FE-based global DIC offers better accuracy because of the enforced continuity between element nodes. We propose a detailed performance comparison between these different DIC algorithms both in terms of measurement accuracy and computational efficiency. Then, by measuring displacements of the same calculation points using the same calculation algorithms (e.g., correlation criterion, initial guess estimation, subpixel interpolation, optimization algorithm and convergence conditions) and identical calculation parameters (e.g., subset or element size), the performances of subset-based local DIC and two FE-based global DIC approaches are carefully compared in terms of measurement error and computational efficiency using both numerical tests and real experiments. A detailed examination of the experimental results reveals that, when subset (element) size is not very small and the local deformation within a subset (element) can be well approximated by the shape function used, standard subset-based local DIC approach not only provides better results in measured displacements, but also demonstrates much higher computation efficiency. However, several special merits of FE-based global DIC approaches are indicated.

  14. Non-suppressive regulatory T cell subset expansion in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Yoshiharu; Dohi, Yoshihiro; Uga, Sayuri; Higashi, Akifumi; Kinoshita, Hiroki; Kihara, Yasuki

    2016-08-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been reported to play a pivotal role in the vascular remodeling of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Recent studies have revealed that Tregs are heterogeneous and can be characterized by three phenotypically and functionally different subsets. In this study, we investigated the roles of Treg subsets in the pathogenesis of PAH in eight patients with PAH and 14 healthy controls. Tregs and their subsets in peripheral blood samples were analyzed by flow cytometry. Treg subsets were defined as CD4(+)CD45RA(+)FoxP3(low) resting Tregs (rTregs), CD4(+)CD45RA(-)FoxP3(high) activated Tregs (aTregs), and CD4(+)CD45RA(-)FoxP3(low) non-suppressive Tregs (non-Tregs). The proportion of Tregs among CD4(+) T cells was significantly higher in PAH patients than in controls (6.54 ± 1.10 vs. 3.81 ± 0.28 %, p < 0.05). Of the three subsets, the proportion of non-Tregs was significantly elevated in PAH patients compared with controls (4.06 ± 0.40 vs. 2.79 ± 0.14 %, p < 0.01), whereas those of rTregs and aTregs were not different between the two groups. Moreover, the expression levels of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4, a functional cell surface molecule, in aTregs (p < 0.05) and non-Tregs (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in PAH patients compared with controls. These results suggested the non-Treg subset was expanded and functionally activated in peripheral lymphocytes obtained from IPAH patients. We hypothesize that immunoreactions involving the specific activation of the non-Treg subset might play a role in the vascular remodeling of PAH.

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF 6% HYDROXYETHYL STARCH (450/0 . 7 AND RINGER’S LACTATE AS PRELOADING FLUID FOR PREVENTION OF HYPOTENSION DURING SPINAL ANESTHESIA IN ELECTIVE CESAREAN DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We compared the efficacy of volume preloading with Ringer’s Lactate and Hydroxyethyl starch (HEAS 6% 450/0 . 7 on the onset and incidence of spinal - induced hypotension in elective cesarean delivery . 60 healthy parturients scheduled for elective cesarean se ction under spinal anesthesia were selected for the study . Group A was preloaded with 1000ml of RL while as group B preloaded with 500ml of 6% HEAS (450/0 . 7 over a period of 10 minutes just prior to the administration of spinal anaesthesia . Immediately af ter the preloading period, subarachnoid block was instituted with 2 . 5ml of Bupivacaine 0 . 5% (heavy at L3 - L4 or L4 - L5 interspace using 26 Gauge Quinke’s spinal needle in sitting position . The patient were then positioned supine with left lateral tilt . Ade quate block was obtained and height of block was tested by pinprick method using blunt needle . Hypotension following spinal anaesthesia was treated with 6 mg bolus doses of Ephedrine and additional rapid infusion of Ringer’s lactate solution . All were admi nistered supplemental oxygen 5L/min by venturi mask throughout the period of surgery . Intraoperatively, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were monitored every 2 minutes for the first 20 minutes and eve ry 5 minutes thereafter till the end of surgery . Spo2 and ECG were monitored continuously throughout the period of surgery . In addition, height of the block, amount of blood loss, amount of vasopressor required, and amount of i . v fluids used intraoperative ly and any allergic reactions to i . v fluids were noted . All parturients received 10 IU of oxytocin i . v infusion after delivery of baby . These observations were analyzed to get information on the onset and incidence of hypotension, intraoperative requiremen ts of Ephedrine, and i . v fluids, and incidence of adverse effects like nausea and / or vomiting . The incidence of hypotension in group A was 60

  16. Increased Peripheral Proinflammatory T Helper Subsets Contribute to Cardiovascular Complications in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-xing Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (CHD is one of the major concerns in type 2 diabetes (T2D. The systemic chronic inflammation has been postulated to bridge the increased risk of cardiovascular disease and T2D. We formulated that increased peripheral proinflammatory T helper subsets contributed to the development of cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients. Methods. The frequencies of peripheral total CD4+ T helper cells, proinflammatory Th1, Th17, and Th22 subsets were determined by flow cytometry in diabetic patients with or without CHD (n=42 and 67, resp.. Results. Both peripheral frequencies and total numbers of Th1, Th17, and Th22 cells were further increased in diabetic patients with CHD. Logistic regression and categorical cross-table analysis further confirmed that increased proinflammatory Th subsets, especially Th22, were independent risk factors of cardiovascular complication in diabetes. Elevated Th subsets also correlated with increased CRP levels and the atherogenic index of plasma. Moreover, Th1 frequency and Th22 numbers demonstrated remarkable potential in predicting CHD in diabetes. Conclusions. Increased peripheral proinflammatory T helper subsets act in concert and contribute to the increased prevalence of diabetic cardiovasculopathy. The recently identified Th22 cells might play an independent role in CHD and represent a novel proxy for cardiovascular risks in diabetes.

  17. Comparative genomics as a tool to reveal functional equivalences between human and mouse dendritic cell subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozat, Karine; Guiton, Rachel; Guilliams, Martin; Henri, Sandrine; Baranek, Thomas; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Malissen, Bernard; Dalod, Marc

    2010-03-01

    During evolution, vertebrates have developed an adaptive immune system able to cope with a variety of pathogens. Dendritic cells (DCs) are central to this process. DCs integrate information derived from pathogens or endogenous danger signals and convey them to T lymphocytes. Most of the present knowledge on DCs was generated in mice or by using human DCs differentiated in vitro from monocytes. In both species, several DC subsets have been identified in vivo based on differences in their phenotypes, anatomical locations or functions. In mice, protective immunity against intracellular pathogens or tumors can be induced most efficiently by targeting antigens to the CD8 alpha(+) DCs, a subset of DCs which resides in lymphoid tissues and is especially efficient at cross-presenting exogenous antigens to CD8(+) T lymphocytes. In contrary, harnessing human DC subsets for medical purposes is currently hampered by insufficient knowledge about these cells. To overcome this cognitive gap, we are using comparative genomics as a tool for designing hypotheses and experiments to further characterize DC subset functions and their molecular control, including the investigation of the functional equivalences that might exist between human and mouse DC subsets.

  18. Correction of abnormal B-cell subset distribution by interleukin-6 receptor blockade in polymyalgia rheumatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal Alegria, Guillermo; Devauchelle-Pensec, Valérie; Renaudineau, Yves; Saraux, Alain; Pers, Jacques-Olivier; Cornec, Divi

    2017-08-01

    The aim was to study lymphocyte subsets and circulating cytokines at diagnosis of PMR and after tocilizumab monotherapy. Eighteen untreated patients with PMR were included in a prospective study and received 3-monthly tocilizumab infusions without glucocorticoids. Lymphocyte subset distribution was assessed by flow cytometry and serum cytokines were assayed by a 34-cytokine array and ELISA, at baseline and during follow-up. Baseline data were also compared with age- and sex-matched controls. At baseline, total lymphocytes, T-cell subsets and NK cell counts were similar in patients and controls, but patients had significantly lower B-cell counts attributable to lower transitional, naïve and post-switch memory B-cell subsets. Circulating B-cell counts were positively correlated with the PMR activity score (PMR-AS) in untreated active patients at baseline, but subsequently increased to normal values while disease activity was controlled after tocilizumab therapy. Among serum cytokines, IL-6 showed the largest concentration difference between patients and controls, and the serum IL-6 concentration was correlated with baseline PMR-AS. The effects of tocilizumab on serum IL-6 concentration were heterogeneous, and the patients whose serum IL-6 decreased after tocilizumab therapy exhibited a significant increase in circulating B-cell counts. In patients with PMR, B-cell lymphopenia and abnormal B-cell subset distribution are associated with disease activity and IL-6 concentration, and both are corrected by the IL-6 antagonist tocilizumab.

  19. Sounder PEATE MetOp-A IASI Random Calibration Subset Observations V10 (SPCSMA4D) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CalSub product files are constructed from calibrated radiance files (infrared and microwave) from either the SNPP, Aqua or MetOP-A/B. Nominally one logical file is...

  20. Effect of edaravone on T lymphocyte subsets and oxidative stress level in patients with cardiogenic cerebral embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of edaravone on T lymphocyte subsets and oxidative stress level in patients with cardiogenic cerebral embolism. Methods: A total of 100 patients with cardiogenic cerebral embolism who were admitted in our hospital from June, 2013 to June, 2015 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group. The patients in the observation group were given edaravone, while the patients in the control group were given the conventional treatments. CD4, CD8, GSH-Px, and ROS levels, the occurrence of adverse reactions, and the clinical efficacy after treatment in the two groups were observed and compared. Results: The comparison of CD4 and CD8 levels before treatment between the two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05. After treatment, CD4 level was significantly elevated, while CD8 level was significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P0.05. After treatment, GSH-Px level was significantly elevated, while ROS level was significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P<0.05. The improvement of GSH-Px and ROS levels after treatment in the observation group was significantly superior to that in the control group (P<0.05. The occurrence rate of adverse reactions in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group, while the treatment effective rate was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Edaravone in the treatment of cardiogenic cerebral embolism can effectively correct the imbalance of T lymphocyte subsets, and reduce the oxidative stress level, with less adverse reactions and significant therapeutic effect.

  1. Effect of continuous blood purification on T lymphocyte subsets and inflammatory response in patients with severe sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of continuous blood purification (CBP on T lymphocyte subsets and inflammatory response in patients with severe sepsis, and to provide scientific evidence for the treatment of severe sepsis patients. Methods: 96 cases of severe sepsis patients from June 2013 to June 2016 in Yulin First People's Hospital were as the research subjects, randomly divided into observation group and control group, 48 cases in each group. The control group received routine treatment of sepsis, while the observation group adopted CBP therapy on the basis of the control group, fasting venous blood was collected 7 d before and after treatment respectively, and the change of IL-6, TNF-α, CRP levels, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ lymphocyte percentage and ratio of CD4+/CD8+ in two groups were compared before and after treatment in two groups. Results: Before treatment, there were no significant differences in IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP levels between the two groups (P>0.05. After treatment, the IL-6 and TNF-α levels of observation group and the control group were significantly decreased, CRP level in the observation group decreased significantly, and the IL-6, TNF-α and CRP levels were significantly lower in the observation group than in the control group (P<0.05. Before treatment, there was no statistical difference in the percentage of T cell subsets between the two groups (P<0.05. After treatment, the two groups of patients with CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+/CD8+ were significantly elevated (P<0.05. After treatment, the CD3+, CD4+ and CD4+/ CD8+ were significantly higher in the observation group than in the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: CBP therapy can effectively reduce the level of inflammatory factors in patients with severe sepsis, reduce the inflammatory response, and can effectively improve the immune function of patients, and the effect is significant.

  2. A search engine to access PubMed monolingual subsets: proof of concept and evaluation in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffon, Nicolas; Schuers, Matthieu; Soualmia, Lina Fatima; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse; Darmoni, Stéfan Jacques

    2014-12-01

    PubMed contains numerous articles in languages other than English. However, existing solutions to access these articles in the language in which they were written remain unconvincing. The aim of this study was to propose a practical search engine, called Multilingual PubMed, which will permit access to a PubMed subset in 1 language and to evaluate the precision and coverage for the French version (Multilingual PubMed-French). To create this tool, translations of MeSH were enriched (eg, adding synonyms and translations in French) and integrated into a terminology portal. PubMed subsets in several European languages were also added to our database using a dedicated parser. The response time for the generic semantic search engine was evaluated for simple queries. BabelMeSH, Multilingual PubMed-French, and 3 different PubMed strategies were compared by searching for literature in French. Precision and coverage were measured for 20 randomly selected queries. The results were evaluated as relevant to title and abstract, the evaluator being blind to search strategy. More than 650,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into the Multilingual PubMed-French information system. The response times were all below the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). Two search strategies (Multilingual PubMed-French and 1 PubMed strategy) showed high precision (0.93 and 0.97, respectively), but coverage was 4 times higher for Multilingual PubMed-French. It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature using a practical search tool in French. This tool will be of particular interest for health professionals and other end users who do not read or query sufficiently in English. The information system is theoretically well suited to expand the approach to other European languages, such as German, Spanish, Norwegian, and Portuguese.

  3. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum capsules on T lymphocyte subsets in football players on "living high-training low".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Lin, Z; Hu, Y; Wang, F

    2008-10-01

    G lucidum is a popular Chinese herb with an impressive array of reputed health benefits. The purpose of this study was to provide information related to the modulating effect of G lucidum capsules on T lymphocyte subsets in football players during a 28-day "living high-training low "(LHTL) trial and their possible mechanism of action. Forty male football players were randomly assigned to four groups: control (living at sea level), LHTL1, LHTL2 and LHTL3. The three LHTL groups had stayed in normobaric hypoxic rooms for 28 days. The four groups trained together at sea level. LHTL1, LHTL2 and LHTL3 groups were provided with placebo, G lucidum 10 capsules/day and G lucidum 20 capsules/day, respectively, for 6 weeks (2 weeks baseline supplementation followed by 28 days of the treatment protocol). Lymphocyte subsets were quantitated using flow cytometry. In the LHTL1 group, when the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was expressed as relative changes from the baseline, a significant decrease was seen following the 28-day trial compared to the baseline. Furthermore, a significant decrease was observed between LHTL1 and control groups at 21 days. In the LHTL2 group, the relative change of CD4+/CD8+ ratio from the baseline was significantly lower at 28 days compared with the pretrial baseline. Generally, in the LHTL3 group there was a trend for the per cent changes of the CD4+/CD8+ ratio from thebaseline to be higher than the values for the LHTL1 andLHTL2 groups, but this was not significant. LHTL could affect T lymphocyte subsets significantly as a result of the two simultaneous stimuli of physical activity and exposure to hypoxia. The ingestion of G lucidum in the LHTL3 group could help to ameliorate the variation of the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in LHTL training, and polysaccharides from G lucidum might be the main active components for the cell-mediated immune function.

  4. Antigen cross-presentation by dendritic cell subsets: one general or all sergeants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierkens, Stefan; Tel, Jurjen; Janssen, Edith; Adema, Gosse J.

    2015-01-01

    Antigen cross-presentation describes the process through which dendritic cells (DCs) acquire exogenous antigens for presentation on MHC class I molecules. The ability to cross-present has been thought of as a feature of specialized DC subsets. Emerging data, however, suggest that the cross-presenting ability of each DC subset is tuned by and dependent on several factors, such as DC location and activation status, and the type of antigen and inflammatory signals. Thus, we argue that capacity of cross-presentation is not an exclusive trait of one or several distinct DC subtypes, but rather a common feature of the DC family in both mice and humans. Understanding DC subset activation and antigen-presentation pathways might yield improved tools and targets to exploit the unique cross-presenting capacity of DCs in immunotherapy. PMID:23540650

  5. Crossing the Vascular Wall: Common and Unique Mechanisms Exploited by Different Leukocyte Subsets during Extravasation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schnoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte extravasation is one of the essential and first steps during the initiation of inflammation. Therefore, a better understanding of the key molecules that regulate this process may help to develop novel therapeutics for treatment of inflammation-based diseases such as atherosclerosis or rheumatoid arthritis. The endothelial adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are known as the central mediators of leukocyte adhesion to and transmigration across the endothelium. Engagement of these molecules by their leukocyte integrin receptors initiates the activation of several signaling pathways within both leukocytes and endothelium. Several of such events have been described to occur during transendothelial migration of all leukocyte subsets, whereas other mechanisms are known only for a single leukocyte subset. Here, we summarize current knowledge on regulatory mechanisms of leukocyte extravasation from a leukocyte and endothelial point of view, respectively. Specifically, we will focus on highlighting common and unique mechanisms that specific leukocyte subsets exploit to succeed in crossing endothelial monolayers.

  6. Stress-Induced In Vivo Recruitment of Human Cytotoxic Natural Killer Cells Favors Subsets with Distinct Receptor Profiles and Associates with Increased Epinephrine Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc B Bigler

    Full Text Available Acute stress drives a 'high-alert' response in the immune system. Psychoactive drugs induce distinct stress hormone profiles, offering a sought-after opportunity to dissect the in vivo immunological effects of acute stress in humans.3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, methylphenidate (MPH, or both, were administered to healthy volunteers in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover-study. Lymphocyte subset frequencies, natural killer (NK cell immune-phenotypes, and changes in effector function were assessed, and linked to stress hormone levels and expression of CD62L, CX3CR1, CD18, and stress hormone receptors on NK cells.MDMA/MPH > MDMA > MPH robustly induced an epinephrine-dominant stress response. Immunologically, rapid redistribution of peripheral blood lymphocyte-subsets towards phenotypically mature NK cells occurred. NK cytotoxicity was unaltered, but they expressed slightly reduced levels of the activating receptor NKG2D. Preferential circulation of mature NK cells was associated with high epinephrine receptor expression among this subset, as well as expression of integrin ligands previously linked to epinephrine-induced endothelial detachment.The acute epinephrine-induced stress response was characterized by rapid accumulation of mature and functional NK cells in the peripheral circulation. This is in line with studies using other acute stressors and supports the role of the acute stress response in rapidly mobilizing the innate immune system to counteract incoming threats.

  7. Serial study of lymph node cell subsets using fine needle aspiration in pigtail macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yin; Fernandez, Caroline; Alcantara, Sheilajen; Bailey, Michelle; De Rose, Robert; Kelleher, Anthony D; Zaunders, John; Kent, Stephen J

    2013-08-30

    Lymphoid tissues are of intense interest for studies of the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in macaques but are relatively difficult to sample non-invasively. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, conventionally a diagnostic procedure for lymphadenopathy, can be used for longitudinal study of tissue cell subsets during HIV/SIV infection. In this study, we serially sampled lymph node (LN) FNA from pigtail macaques and studied cell subsets in the aspect of absolute count, frequency, and functionality by flow cytometry. The median recovered lymphocyte count from FNA samples was 2.01×10(5) (3.0×10(3) to 2.25×10(6), n=38) and median CD4+ T cell subset recovered was 5.94×10(4) (277 to 6.17×10(5), n=38). Although we observed a relatively large variation in the frequencies of cell subsets of FNA samples taken from different time points, the cell subset composition of FNA samples, in particular T cell and CD4+ T cell frequencies, was broadly comparable to whole excised LNs (n=6) and distinct from peripheral blood. A subset of CD4+ T cells that is located almost exclusively in secondary lymphoid tissues, T follicular helper (TFH) cells, was readily identifiable in LN FNAs and the TFH cell frequencies were strongly correlated with B cell frequencies. In vitro functionality of FNA lymphocytes was demonstrated using polyclonal SEB stimulation, resulting in a median 6% of responding CD4+ T cells, comparable to circulating CD4+ T lymphocytes. We conclude that serial sampling of macaque LNs using FNA is a potentially useful method to study the immunopathogenesis of SIV infection and may be extended to HIV infection. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Monocyte subset distribution is associated with mortality in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krychtiuk, Konstantin A; Lenz, Max; Koller, Lorenz; Honeder, Maria C; Wutzlhofer, Lisa; Zhang, Chao; Chi, Lijian; Maurer, Gerald; Niessner, Alexander; Huber, Kurt; Wojta, Johann; Heinz, Gottfried; Speidl, Walter S

    2016-10-28

    Although patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) suffer from various pathologies, many develop a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). As key regulators of innate immunity, monocytes may be crucially involved in SIRS development. Monocytes can be distinguished into three subsets: Classical monocytes (CD14++CD16-; CM), non-classical monocytes (CD14+CD16++CCR2-; NCM) and intermediate monocytes (CD14++CD16+CCR2+; IM). The aim of this prospective, observational study was to analyse whether monocyte subset distribution is associated with 30-day survival in critically ill patients. A total of 195 consecutive patients admitted to a cardiac ICU at a tertiary-care centre were enrolled, blood was taken at admission and after 72 hours and monocyte subset distribution was analysed. Mean APACHE II score was 19.5 ± 8.1 and 30-day mortality was 25.4 %. At admission, NCM were significantly lower in non-survivors as compared to survivors [2.7 (0.4-5.5) vs 4.2 (1.6-7.5)%; p=0.012] whereas CM and IM did not differ according to 30-day survival. In contrast, 72 hours after admission, monocyte subset distribution shifted towards an increased proportion of IM [8.2 (3.9-13.2) vs 4.2 (2.3-7.9)%; p=0.003] with a concomitant decrease of CM [86.9 (78.6-89.2) vs 89.6 (84.9-93.1)%; p=0.02] in non-survivors vs survivors, respectively. NCM at day 3 were not associated with death at 30 days. These results were independent from age, gender, CRP, APACHE II score and primary diagnosis. In conclusion, circulating monocyte subsets are associated with 30-day mortality in critically ill patients. The innate immune system as reflected by monocyte subset distribution may play a major role in ICU outcome despite varying admittance pathologies.

  9. Lymphocyte subsets in healthy Malawians: implications for immunologic assessment of HIV infection in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Wilson L; MacLennan, Jenny M; Gondwe, Esther N; Ward, Steven A; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Calman A

    2010-01-01

    CD4(+)T lymphocyte measurements are the most important indicator of mortality in HIV-infected individuals in resource-limited settings. There is currently a lack of comprehensive immunophenotyping data from African populations to guide the immunologic assessment of HIV infection. To quantify variation in absolute and relative lymphocyte subsets with age in healthy Malawians. Lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood of 539 healthy HIV-uninfected Malawians stratified by age were enumerated by flow cytometry. B and T-lymphocyte and T-lymphocyte subset absolute concentrations peaked in early childhood then decreased to adult levels, whereas lymphocyte subset proportions demonstrated much less variation with age. Adult lymphocyte subsets were similar to those in developed countries. In contrast, high B-lymphocyte and CD8(+)T-lymphocyte levels among children under 2 years, relative to those in developed countries, resulted in low CD4(+)T-lymphocyte percentages that varied little between 0 and 5 years (35% to 39%). The CD4(+)T-lymphocyte percentages in 35% of healthy children under 1 year and 18% of children age 1 to 3 years were below the World Health Organization threshold defining immunodeficiency in HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings. Thirteen percent of healthy children under 18 months old had a CD4:CD8T-lymphocyte ratio <1.0, which is commonly associated with HIV infection. All immunologic parameters except absolute natural killer lymphocyte concentration varied significantly with age, and percentage and overall absolute CD4(+)T-lymphocyte counts were higher in females than males. Although lymphocyte subsets in Malawian adults are similar to those from developed countries, CD4(+)T-lymphocyte percentages in young children are comparatively low. These findings need to be considered when assessing the severity of HIV-related immunodeficiency in African children under 3 years. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by

  10. Hierarchical modeling for rare event detection and cell subset alignment across flow cytometry samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Cron

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is the prototypical assay for multi-parameter single cell analysis, and is essential in vaccine and biomarker research for the enumeration of antigen-specific lymphocytes that are often found in extremely low frequencies (0.1% or less. Standard analysis of flow cytometry data relies on visual identification of cell subsets by experts, a process that is subjective and often difficult to reproduce. An alternative and more objective approach is the use of statistical models to identify cell subsets of interest in an automated fashion. Two specific challenges for automated analysis are to detect extremely low frequency event subsets without biasing the estimate by pre-processing enrichment, and the ability to align cell subsets across multiple data samples for comparative analysis. In this manuscript, we develop hierarchical modeling extensions to the Dirichlet Process Gaussian Mixture Model (DPGMM approach we have previously described for cell subset identification, and show that the hierarchical DPGMM (HDPGMM naturally generates an aligned data model that captures both commonalities and variations across multiple samples. HDPGMM also increases the sensitivity to extremely low frequency events by sharing information across multiple samples analyzed simultaneously. We validate the accuracy and reproducibility of HDPGMM estimates of antigen-specific T cells on clinically relevant reference peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC samples with known frequencies of antigen-specific T cells. These cell samples take advantage of retrovirally TCR-transduced T cells spiked into autologous PBMC samples to give a defined number of antigen-specific T cells detectable by HLA-peptide multimer binding. We provide open source software that can take advantage of both multiple processors and GPU-acceleration to perform the numerically-demanding computations. We show that hierarchical modeling is a useful probabilistic approach that can provide a

  11. [Variation of subsets of myeloid derived suppressor cells and their ratio in septic mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhao, Qingyu; Huang, Zhaofeng; Zhao, Mei; Xu, Xiaoxie

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the dynamic variation of subsets of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and their ratio in septic mice, and to discuss their role in the development of sepsis. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into sepsis model group and sham group according to random number table. Polymicrobial sepsis was induced by using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), while mice in sham group only underwent laparotomy and laparorrhaphy without CLP. Thirty mice in each group were used to observe living condition, and the 20-day survival rate was compared between the two groups. In addition, subsets of MDSC in peripheral blood, spleen and bone marrow were analyzed with flow cytometry for other 60 mice (12 mice at each time point, as 0, 3, 7, 12 and 20 days). Spleens were harvested at 7 days for weighing, and single cell suspension of spleen tissue was prepared for splenocyte counting. Histopathologic changes in spleen tissue and liver tissue were observed under light microscope after hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stain. (1) No mice died in sham group within 20 days after the operation. On the other hand, 10 mice in model group died within 20 days, and the difference in survival rate between the two groups was statistically significant (100.0% vs. 66.7%, χ(2) = 11.861, P = 0.001). (2) The spleens in model group showed obvious enlargement and significantly outweighed as compared with those in sham group (mg: 413.33±41.63 vs. 111.67±17.56, t = 11.564, P = 0.000), and the total count of splenocytes was significantly higher than that in sham group (×10(9)/L: 21.20±2.43 vs. 1.87±0.06, t = 13.578, P = 0.005). (3) Pathological sections with HE staining showed that the liver tissue and spleen tissue remained normal in sham group. In model group, the hepatic tissue showed acute inflammatory reaction, including tissue disruption, capillary congestion, infiltration of neutrophils, marked edema of hepatocytes and focal hepatocellular necrosis. Abnormalities were also found in

  12. How to create order in large closed subsets of WordNet-type dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahti Lohk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new two-step method to handle and study large closed subsets of WordNet-type dictionaries with the goal of finding possible structural inconsistencies. The notion of closed subset is explained using a WordNet tree. A novel and very fast method to order large relational systems is described and compared with some other fast methods. All the presented methods have been tested using Estonian1 and Princeton WordNet2 largest closed sets.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa9.10

  13. Effects of Aflatoxin B1 on T-Cell Subsets and mRNA Expression of Cytokines in the Intestine of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 on T-cell subsets and mRNA expression of cytokines in the small intestine of broilers. One hundred and fifty-six one-day-old healthy Cobb broilers were randomly divided into control group (0 mg/kg AFB1 and AFB1 group (0.6 mg/kg AFB1 with three replicates per group and 26 birds per replicate for 21 days, respectively. At 7, 14, and 21 days of age, the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were sampled for analyzing T cell subsets (CD3+, CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ by flow cytometry as well as IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α mRNA expression by qRT-PCR. The percentages of T-cells in the intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IELs and lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs of duodenum, jejunum and ileum in the AFB1 group showed a decreased tendency in comparison to the control group. The mRNA expression of cytokines in the three intestinal segments in the AFB1 group presented a general decline compared with the control groups. Our data demonstrated that 0.6 mg/kg AFB1 in the broilers diet could reduce the percentages of T-cell subsets and the expression level of cytokine mRNA in the small intestine, implying that the immune function of the intestinal mucosa might be affected. The reduction of cytokines mRNA expression may be closely associated with the decreased proportions of T cells subsets induced by AFB1.

  14. Some Observations on the Subset Simulation Related to the Wind Turbine Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2012-01-01

    The subset simulation method is considered to be one of the most powerful methods among the variance reduction Monte Carlo techniques. Potential shortcomings of the method are the bias in its estimations and potential challenges in finding important directions in high dimensional nonlinear problems...

  15. On human dendritic cell subsets harnessing cytotoxic T-cell responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we explore the function of different dendritic cell (DC)-derived molecules in the induction of CTL responses. In chapter two we compare the capacity of two major human skin DC subsets to induce CTL responses, and we study which T-cell differentiating molecules are critical. In chapter

  16. T cell subset profile in healthy Zambian adults at the University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were collected from healthy donor volunteers from hospital health care staff, between February and March 2015. Immunopheno typing was undertaken to characterize Tcell subsets using the markers CD3, CD4, CD8, α4β7, Ki67, CD25, CCR7, CD54RA, CD57, CD28, CD27 and HLA-DR. Results: Among 51 ...

  17. A subset of AID-dependent B-1a cells initiates hypersensitivity and pneumococcal pneumonia resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Askenase, Phillip W; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Paliwal, Vipin; Redegeld, Frank; Groot Kormelink, Thomas; Kerfoot, Steven; Hutchinson, Andrew T; van Loveren, Henk; Campos, Regis; Itakura, Atsuko; Majewska-Szczepanik, Monika; Yamamoto, Natsuo; Nazimek, Katarzyn; Szczepanik, Marian; Ptak, Wold

    2015-01-01

    We propose that there is a special B-1a B cell subset ("sB-1a" cells) that mediates linked processes very early after immunization to initiate cutaneous contact sensitivity (CS), delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and immune resistance to pneumococcal pneumonia. Our published data indicate that in

  18. Tracking a Subset of Skeleton Joints: An Effective Approach towards Complex Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Latif Anjum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a robust algorithm for complex human activity recognition for natural human-robot interaction. The algorithm is based on tracking the position of selected joints in human skeleton. For any given activity, only a few skeleton joints are involved in performing the activity, so a subset of joints contributing the most towards the activity is selected. Our approach of tracking a subset of skeleton joints (instead of tracking the whole skeleton is computationally efficient and provides better recognition accuracy. We have developed both manual and automatic approaches for the selection of these joints. The position of the selected joints is tracked for the duration of the activity and is used to construct feature vectors for each activity. Once the feature vectors have been constructed, we use a Support Vector Machines (SVM multiclass classifier for training and testing the algorithm. The algorithm has been tested on a purposely built dataset of depth videos recorded using Kinect camera. The dataset consists of 250 videos of 10 different activities being performed by different users. Experimental results show classification accuracy of 83% when tracking all skeleton joints, 95% when using manual selection of subset joints, and 89% when using automatic selection of subset joints.

  19. The who's who of T-cell differentiation: human memory T-cell subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnke, Yolanda D; Brodie, Tess M; Sallusto, Federica; Roederer, Mario; Lugli, Enrico

    2013-11-01

    Following antigen encounter and subsequent resolution of the immune response, a single naïve T cell is able to generate multiple subsets of memory T cells with different phenotypic and functional properties and gene expression profiles. Single-cell technologies, first and foremost flow cytometry, have revealed the complex heterogeneity of the memory T-cell compartment and its organization into subsets. However, a consensus has still to be reached, both at the semantic (nomenclature) and phenotypic level, regarding the identification of these subsets. Here, we review recent developments in the characterization of the heterogeneity of the memory T-cell compartment, and propose a unified classification of both human and nonhuman primate T cells on the basis of phenotypic traits and in vivo properties. Given that vaccine studies and adoptive cell transfer immunotherapy protocols are influenced by these recent findings, it is important to use uniform methods for identifying and discussing functionally distinct subsets of T cells. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The ICPC coding system in pharmacy : developing a subset, ICPC-Ph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mil, JWF; Brenninkmeijer, R; Tromp, TFJ

    The ICPC system is a coding system developed for general medical practice, to be able to code the GP-patient encounters and other actions. Some of the codes can be easily used by community pharmacists to code complaints and diseases in pharmaceutical care practice. We developed a subset of the ICPC

  1. Parameter subset selection for the dynamic calibration of activated sludge models (ASMs): experience versus systems analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruano, MV; Ribes, J; de Pauw, DJW

    2007-01-01

    In this work we address the issue of parameter subset selection within the scope of activated sludge model calibration. To this end, we evaluate two approaches: (i) systems analysis and (ii) experience-based approach. The evaluation has been carried out using a dynamic model (ASM2d) calibrated...

  2. T Cell Subsets in HIV Infected Patients after Successful Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönsholt, Frederikke F; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Katzenstein, Terese Lea

    2012-01-01

    Immune activation is decreased by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but residual activation remains and has been proposed as a cause of premature aging and death, but data are lacking. We analyzed the relationship between T......-cell subsets after 18 months of cART and overall survival during 12 years of follow up....

  3. Mis-parametrization subsets for a penalized least squares model selection

    OpenAIRE

    Guyon, Xavier; Hardouin, Cécile

    2011-01-01

    When identifying a model by a penalized minimum contrast procedure, we give a description of the over and under fitting parametrization subsets for a least squares contrast. This allows to determine an accurate sequence of penalization rates ensuring good identification. We present applications for the identification of the covariance for a general time series, and for the variogram identification of a geostatistical model.

  4. Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Golubovskaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This review is focused on different subsets of T cells: CD4 and CD8, memory and effector functions, and their role in CAR-T therapy––a cellular adoptive immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor. The CAR-T cells recognize tumor antigens and induce cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. Recently, differences in T cell functions and the role of memory and effector T cells were shown to be important in CAR-T cell immunotherapy. The CD4+ subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Treg, and Tfh and CD8+ memory and effector subsets differ in extra-cellular (CD25, CD45RO, CD45RA, CCR-7, L-Selectin [CD62L], etc.; intracellular markers (FOXP3; epigenetic and genetic programs; and metabolic pathways (catabolic or anabolic; and these differences can be modulated to improve CAR-T therapy. In addition, CD4+ Treg cells suppress the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy, and different approaches to overcome this suppression are discussed in this review. Thus, next-generation CAR-T immunotherapy can be improved, based on our knowledge of T cell subsets functions, differentiation, proliferation, and signaling pathways to generate more active CAR-T cells against tumors.

  5. Two Distinct Myeloid Subsets at the Term Human Fetal–Maternal Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Costa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, immune cells infiltrate the placenta at different stages of fetal development. NK cells and macrophages are the most predominant cell types. These immune cells play pleiotropic roles, as they control spiral artery remodeling to ensure appropriate blood supply and maintain long-term tolerance to a true allograft; yet, they must be able to mount appropriate immune defenses to pathogens that may threaten the fetus. Whether the same cell type accomplishes all these tasks or if there are dedicated subsets remains controversial. Here, we identify and characterize two distinct subsets of myeloid cells that differ in their pro-inflammatory/regulatory capacity. While one subset predominantly produces the immune-modulating cytokine IL-10, the second subset has superior capacity to secrete pro-inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1β and IL-6. The putative regulatory myeloid cells also express high levels of inhibitory receptors and their ligands, including programmed cell death 1 (PD1 ligands. Importantly, a large fraction of CD8 and CD4 cells in normal term human placenta are PD1 positive, suggesting that the PD1/PD1 ligands axis might be critical to maintain tolerance during pregnancy.

  6. T cell subsets in human airways prior to and following endobronchial administration of endotoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Plovsing, Ronni R; Gaardbo, Julie C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bronchial instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provides a reversible model of lung inflammation that may resemble early stages of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We investigated the distributions of T-cell subsets in the human airways and sought to deter...

  7. Distinct patterns of novel gene mutations in poor-prognostic stereotyped subsets of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strefford, J C; Sutton, L-A; Baliakas, P

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed recurrent mutations of the NOTCH1, SF3B1 and BIRC3 genes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), especially among aggressive, chemorefractory cases. Nevertheless, it is currently unknown whether their presence may differ in subsets of patients carrying stereotyped B...

  8. Testing over-representation of observations in subsets of a DEA technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Olesen, Ole Bent

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a test for whether data are over-represented in a given production zone, i.e. a subset of a production possibility set which has been estimated using the non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach. A binomial test is used that relates the number of observations...

  9. Reference values of T lymphocyte subsets among health adults in Inner Mongolia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Wu, Yumei; Li, Haoxue; Gao, Yongming; Qu, Lin; Yang, Jingyuan; Tao, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of T-lymphocyte subsets continues to be an important aspect for monitoring HIV disease progression and response to antiretroviral therapy. Most of the diagnostic laboratories often rely on studies from western for CD4+T-lymphocyte reference values, which could, often be unreliable for usage in local settings. To establish the normal reference values of T lymphocyte subsets from healthy people of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, flow cytometry was performed to determine the reference ranges for lymphocyte subsets (CD3 and CD4 cells) in 400 healthy multiracial adult population from 12 League Cities in Inner Mongolia Region, China. The basic information including age, gender, nationality and history was collected. There were significant differences in the absolute counting, percentage of CD3+T lymphocytes, and CD4+T lymphocyte percentage counting among different age groups. There were significant differences in CD3+, CD4+T lymphocyte percentage in the groups with different genders. There were significant differences in CD3+T lymphocyte percentage count, absolute count of CD4+T lymphocytes and CD4+T lymphocyte percentage counting in the group with ages of 16-20. There were dramatic differences in CD3+T lymphocyte percentage count and CD4+T lymphocyte percentage counting in the group with ages of 31-40. There were significant differences in CD4+T lymphocyte percentage counting. By this study, age, gender and ethnic specific lymphocyte subset reference ranges have been locally established in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

  10. Methamphetamine administration targets multiple immune subsets and induces phenotypic alterations suggestive of immunosuppression.

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    Robert Harms

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (Meth is a widely abused stimulant and its users are at increased risk for multiple infectious diseases. To determine the impact of meth on the immune system, we utilized a murine model that simulates the process of meth consumption in a typical addict. Our phenotypic analysis of leukocytes from this dose escalation model revealed that meth affected key immune subsets. Meth administration led to a decrease in abundance of natural killer (NK cells and the remaining NK cells possessed a phenotype suggesting reduced responsiveness. Dendritic cells (DCs and Gr-1(high monocytes/macrophages were also decreased in abundance while Gr-1(low monocytes/macrophages appear to show signs of perturbation. CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets were affected by methamphetamine, both showing a reduction in antigen-experienced subsets. CD4 T cells also exhibited signs of activation, with increased expression of CD150 on CD226-expressing cells and an expansion of KLRG1(+, FoxP3(- cells. These results exhibit that meth has the ability to disrupt immune homeostasis and impact key subsets of leukocytes which may leave users more vulnerable to pathogens.

  11. Involvement of Monocyte Subsets in the Immunopathology of Giant Cell Arteritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sleen, Yannick; Wang, Qi; van der Geest, Kornelis S. M.; Westra, Johanna; Abdulahad, Wayel H.; Heeringa, Peter; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Brouwer, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Monocytes/macrophages are critical in systemic and local inflammation in giant cell arteritis (GCA) and possibly in clinically overlapping polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Therefore, we aimed to understand the contribution of monocyte subsets and the CX3CR1-CX3CL1 and CCR2-CCL2 migratory pathways, to

  12. Periodically integrated subset autoregressions for Dutch industrial production and money stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe univariate quarterly Dutch series of industrial production and money stock are both modelled with a periodically integrated subset autoregression (PISA). This model for a non-stationary series allows the lag orders, the values of the parameters and the cyclical patterns to vary over

  13. T cell subsets: an integral component in pathogenesis of rheumatic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Devinder; Sharma, Neha

    2018-02-01

    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a consequence of pharyngeal infection of group A streptococcal (GAS) infection. Carditis is the most common manifestation of ARF which occurs in 30-45% of the susceptible individuals. Overlooked ARF cases might further progress towards rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in susceptible individuals, which ultimately leads to permanent heart valve damage. Molecular mimicry between streptococcal antigens and human proteins is the most widely accepted theory to describe the pathogenesis of RHD. In the recent past, various subsets of T cells have been reported to play an imperative role in the pathogenesis of RHD. Alterations in various T cell subsets, viz. Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells, and their signature cytokines influence the immune responses and are associated with pathogenesis of RHD. Association of other T cell subsets (Th3, Th9, Th22, and T FH ) is not defined in context of RHD. Several investigations have confirmed the up-regulation of adhesion molecules and thus infiltration of T cells into the heart tissues. T cells secrete both Th type 1 and type 2 cytokines and these auto-reactive T cells play a key role in progression of heart valve damage. In this review, we are going to discuss about the role of T cell subsets and their corresponding cytokines in the pathogenesis of RHD.

  14. Effect of Native and Minimally Modified Low-density Lipoprotein on the Activation of Monocyte Subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Favela, Francisco; Espinosa-Luna, José Esteban; Chávez-Rueda, Adriana Karina; Madrid-Miller, Alejandra; Chávez-Sánchez, Luis

    2017-07-01

    In atherosclerosis, monocytes are essential and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Human CD14++CD16-, CD14++CD16+ and CD14+CD16++ monocytes produce different cytokines. The objective of this research was to determine the number of monocyte subsets positives to cytokines in response to native (nLDL) and minimally modified LDL (mmLDL). Human monocytes from healthy individuals were purified by negative selection and were stimulated with nLDL, mmLDL or LPS. Subsequently, human total monocytes were incubated with monoclonal antibodies specific for CD14 or both CD14 and CD16 to characterize total monocytes and monocyte subsets and with antibodies specific to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, anti-interleukin (IL)-6 and anti-IL-10. The number of cells positive for cytokines was determined and cells cultured with nLDL, mmLDL and LPS were compared with cells cultured only with culture medium. We found that nLDL does not induce in the total monocyte population or in the three monocyte subsets positives to cytokines. MmLDL induced in total monocytes positives to TNF-α and IL-6 as well as in both CD14++CD16+ and CD14+CD16++ and in CD14++CD16+ monocytes, respectively. Moreover, total monocytes and the three monocyte subsets expressed few amounts of cells positives to IL-10 in response to mmLDL. Our study demonstrated that nLDL did not induce cells positives to cytokines and that the CD14++CD16+ and CD14+CD16++ monocyte subsets could be the main sources of TNF-α and IL-6, respectively, in response to mmLDL, which promotes the development and progression of atherosclerotic plaque. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Phenotypic, ultra-structural, and functional characterization of bovine peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets.

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    Janet J Sei

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC are multi-functional cells that bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immune systems. In bovine, significant information is lacking on the precise identity and role of peripheral blood DC subsets. In this study, we identify and characterize bovine peripheral blood DC subsets directly ex vivo, without further in vitro manipulation. Multi-color flow cytometric analysis revealed that three DC subsets could be identified. Bovine plasmacytoid DC were phenotypically identified by a unique pattern of cell surface protein expression including CD4, exhibited an extensive endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, efficiently internalized and degraded exogenous antigen, and were the only peripheral blood cells specialized in the production of type I IFN following activation with Toll-like receptor (TLR agonists. Conventional DC were identified by expression of a different pattern of cell surface proteins including CD11c, MHC class II, and CD80, among others, the display of extensive dendritic protrusions on their plasma membrane, expression of very high levels of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules, efficient internalization and degradation of exogenous antigen, and ready production of detectable levels of TNF-alpha in response to TLR activation. Our investigations also revealed a third novel DC subset that may be a precursor of conventional DC that were MHC class II+ and CD11c-. These cells exhibited a smooth plasma membrane with a rounded nucleus, produced TNF-alpha in response to TLR-activation (albeit lower than CD11c+ DC, and were the least efficient in internalization/degradation of exogenous antigen. These studies define three bovine blood DC subsets with distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics which can be analyzed during immune responses to pathogens and vaccinations of cattle.

  16. Three distinct subsets of thymic epithelial cells in rats and mice defined by novel antibodies.

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    Yasushi Sawanobori

    Full Text Available Thymic epithelial cells (TECs are thought to play an essential role in T cell development and have been detected mainly in mice using lectin binding and antibodies to keratins. Our aim in the present study was to create a precise map of rat TECs using antibodies to putative markers and novel monoclonal antibodies (i.e., ED 18/19/21 and anti-CD205 antibodies and compare it with a map from mouse counterparts and that of rat thymic dendritic cells.Rat TECs were subdivided on the basis of phenotype into three subsets; ED18+ED19+/-keratin 5 (K5+K8+CD205+ class II MHC (MHCII+ cortical TECs (cTECs, ED18+ED21-K5-K8+Ulex europaeus lectin 1 (UEA-1+CD205- medullary TECs (mTEC1s, and ED18+ED21+K5+K8dullUEA-1-CD205- medullary TECs (mTEC2s. Thymic nurse cells were defined in cytosmears as an ED18+ED19+/-K5+K8+ subset of cTECs. mTEC1s preferentially expressed MHCII, claudin-3, claudin-4, and autoimmune regulator (AIRE. Use of ED18 and ED21 antibodies revealed three subsets of TECs in mice as well. We also detected two distinct TEC-free areas in the subcapsular cortex and in the medulla. Rat dendritic cells in the cortex were MHCII+CD103+ but negative for TEC markers, including CD205. Those in the medulla were MHCII+CD103+ and CD205+ cells were found only in the TEC-free area.Both rats and mice have three TEC subsets with similar phenotypes that can be identified using known markers and new monoclonal antibodies. These findings will facilitate further analysis of TEC subsets and DCs and help to define their roles in thymic selection and in pathological states such as autoimmune disorders.

  17. SPECIFICITIES OF THE SUBSET PROFILE OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD IN PATIENTS WITH GLIOBLASTOMA: PATHOGENETIC AND CLINICAL ASSESSMENTS

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    V. A. Chumakov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In glioblastoma (GB, it is necessary to take into consideration GB-associated secondary immunodeficiency (SID, so-called syndrome of tumor-associated SID (STASID. Cell subsets having effector and regulatory functions, play an important role in developing STASID, and their proportions in patients with different forms of GB can be of pathogenetic importance and have clinical value for treatment and rehabilitation scheduling as well. The most pathogenically and clinically important features of cell subsets profile of peripheral blood were analyzed in patients with different clinical and morphological types of GB. The patients were divided into three groups, i.e., groups I and II were formed by patients with STASID (marked and slightly marked SID, accordingly; group III – patients with SIDTAS (tumor-associated autoimmune syndrome, associated with SID. Marked suppression of cell immunity is typical of group I - imbalance in T-lymphocytes, in a number of specific subsets, and in subsets clusters, as well as disproportions in the immunoregulatory indexes. In group II, the subset profiles of blood were slightly different from the norm. In patients with SIDTAS, activation of cell immunity was evident, forming SID with signs of autoimmune syndrome, affecting effector and regulatory chains of immunity, and influencing the severity and forecast of the disease. Specific features of the immune status in patients with GB identified can be resulted from different clinicalmorphological types of the tumor; the latter are to be considered in differential diagnostics of clinical course of GB and in scheduling of clinical-immunological efficient anti-tumor pharmacotherapy in pre- and postoperative periods.

  18. Lymphocyte subset contents in cerebrospinal fluid of children with viral encephalitis

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    An-Ran Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the lymphocyte subset contents in cerebrospinal fluid of children with viral encephalitis and their correlation with disease. Methods: Children with viral encephalitis were selected as VE group, children excluded of central nervous system infection by lumbar puncture or children without central nervous system diseases but receiving surgery with spinal anesthesia were selected as control group, and then cerebrospinal fluid and serum were collected to detect lymphocyte subset contents, nerve injury molecule contents as well as inflammatory response indicators and oxidative stress response indicators. Results: CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD4/CD8 and CD16+CD56+ in cerebrospinal fluid of VE group were lower than those of control group, and both CD3+CD8+ and CD19+ were higher than those of control group; CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD4/CD8 and CD16+CD56+ in cerebrospinal fluid of children with abnormal MRI were lower than those of children with normal MRI, and both CD3+CD8+ and CD19+ were higher than those of children with normal MRI; NSE, MBP, S-100 and NPT contents in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of VE group were significantly higher than those of control group and had good correlation with lymphocyte subset contents; MMP9, TNF-α and IL-6 contents in cerebrospinal fluid of VE group were significantly higher than those of control group, and SOD and GSH-Px contents were significantly lower than those of control group and had good correlation with lymphocyte subset contents. Conclusions: CD4+/CD8+T lymphocyte ratio and NK cell content decrease, and B lymphocyte content increases in cerebrospinal fluid of children with viral encephalitis, and lymphocyte subset contents have inhibitory effect on MRI manifestation, degree of inflammatory response and oxidative stress response.

  19. Porphyromonas gingivalis-stimulated macrophage subsets exhibit differential induction and responsiveness to interleukin-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foey, Andrew D; Habil, Neama; Al-Shaghdali, Khalid; Crean, StJohn

    2017-01-01

    Oral mucosal macrophages (Mϕs) determine immune responses; maintaining tolerance whilst retaining the capacity to activate defences against pathogens. Mϕ responses are determined by two distinct subsets; pro-inflammatory M1- and anti-inflammatory/regulatory M2-Mϕs. Tolerance induction is driven by M2 Mϕs, whereas M1-like Mϕs predominate in inflammation, such as that exhibited in chronic Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG) periodontal infection. Mϕ responses can be suppressed to benefit either the host or the pathogen. Chronic stimulation by pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as LPS, is well established to induce tolerance. The aim of this study was to investigate the P. gingivalis-driven induction of and responsiveness to the suppressive, anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, by Mϕ subsets. M1- and M2-like Mϕs were generated in vitro from the THP-1 monocyte cell line by differentiation with PMA and Vitamin D 3 , respectively. Mϕ subsets were stimulated by PG-LPS in the presence or absence of IL-10. PG-LPS differentially induced IL-10 secretion and endogenous IL-10 activity in M1- and M2-like subsets. In addition, these subsets exhibited differential sensitivity to IL-10-mediated suppression of TNFα, where M2 Mϕs where sensitive to IL-10 and M1 Mϕs were refractory to suppression. In addition, this differential responsiveness to IL-10 was independent of IL-10-binding and expression of the IL-10 receptor signal transducing subunit, IL-10Rβ, but was in fact dependent on activation of STAT-3. P.gingivalis selectively tolerises regulatory M2 Mϕs with little effect on pro-inflammatory M1 Mϕs; differential suppression facilitating immunopathology at the expense of immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characteristics of CD8+ T cell subsets in Chinese patients with chronic HIV infection during initial ART

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    Zhang Hongwei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD8+ T cells may play an important role in protecting against HIV. However, the changes of CD8+ T cell subsets during early period of ART have not been fully studied. Methods Twenty-one asymptomatic treatment-naive HIV-infected patients with CD4 T+ cells less than 350 cells/μl were enrolled in the study. Naïve, central memory(CM, effective memory(EM and terminally differentiated effector (EMRA CD8+ cell subsets and their activation and proliferation subsets were evaluated in blood samples collected at base line, and week 2, 4, 8 and 12 of ART. Results The total CD8+ T cells declined and the Naïve and CM subsets had a tendency of increase. Activation levels of all CD8+ T cell subsets except EMRA subset decreased after ART. However, proliferation levels of total CD8+ T cells, EMRA, EM and CM subsets increased at the first 4 weeks of ART, then decreased. Proliferation level of the naïve cells decreased after ART. Conclusion The changes of CD8+ T cell subsets during initial ART are complex. Our results display a complete phenotypical picture of CD8+ cell subsets during initial ART and provide insights for understanding of immune status during ART.

  1. Accuracy of direct genomic values in Holstein bulls and cows using subsets of SNP markers

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    Khatkar Mehar S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At the current price, the use of high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP genotyping assays in genomic selection of dairy cattle is limited to applications involving elite sires and dams. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of low-density assays to predict direct genomic value (DGV on five milk production traits, an overall conformation trait, a survival index, and two profit index traits (APR, ASI. Methods Dense SNP genotypes were available for 42,576 SNP for 2,114 Holstein bulls and 510 cows. A subset of 1,847 bulls born between 1955 and 2004 was used as a training set to fit models with various sets of pre-selected SNP. A group of 297 bulls born between 2001 and 2004 and all cows born between 1992 and 2004 were used to evaluate the accuracy of DGV prediction. Ridge regression (RR and partial least squares regression (PLSR were used to derive prediction equations and to rank SNP based on the absolute value of the regression coefficients. Four alternative strategies were applied to select subset of SNP, namely: subsets of the highest ranked SNP for each individual trait, or a single subset of evenly spaced SNP, where SNP were selected based on their rank for ASI, APR or minor allele frequency within intervals of approximately equal length. Results RR and PLSR performed very similarly to predict DGV, with PLSR performing better for low-density assays and RR for higher-density SNP sets. When using all SNP, DGV predictions for production traits, which have a higher heritability, were more accurate (0.52-0.64 than for survival (0.19-0.20, which has a low heritability. The gain in accuracy using subsets that included the highest ranked SNP for each trait was marginal (5-6% over a common set of evenly spaced SNP when at least 3,000 SNP were used. Subsets containing 3,000 SNP provided more than 90% of the accuracy that could be achieved with a high-density assay for cows, and 80% of the high-density assay

  2. Two-stage atlas subset selection in multi-atlas based image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tingting; Ruan, Dan

    2015-06-01

    Fast growing access to large databases and cloud stored data presents a unique opportunity for multi-atlas based image segmentation and also presents challenges in heterogeneous atlas quality and computation burden. This work aims to develop a novel two-stage method tailored to the special needs in the face of large atlas collection with varied quality, so that high-accuracy segmentation can be achieved with low computational cost. An atlas subset selection scheme is proposed to substitute a significant portion of the computationally expensive full-fledged registration in the conventional scheme with a low-cost alternative. More specifically, the authors introduce a two-stage atlas subset selection method. In the first stage, an augmented subset is obtained based on a low-cost registration configuration and a preliminary relevance metric; in the second stage, the subset is further narrowed down to a fusion set of desired size, based on full-fledged registration and a refined relevance metric. An inference model is developed to characterize the relationship between the preliminary and refined relevance metrics, and a proper augmented subset size is derived to ensure that the desired atlases survive the preliminary selection with high probability. The performance of the proposed scheme has been assessed with cross validation based on two clinical datasets consisting of manually segmented prostate and brain magnetic resonance images, respectively. The proposed scheme demonstrates comparable end-to-end segmentation performance as the conventional single-stage selection method, but with significant computation reduction. Compared with the alternative computation reduction method, their scheme improves the mean and medium Dice similarity coefficient value from (0.74, 0.78) to (0.83, 0.85) and from (0.82, 0.84) to (0.95, 0.95) for prostate and corpus callosum segmentation, respectively, with statistical significance. The authors have developed a novel two-stage atlas

  3. Intraoperative monitoring of stroke volume variation versus central venous pressure in laparoscopic liver surgery: a randomized prospective comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratti, Francesca; Cipriani, Federica; Reineke, Raffaella; Catena, Marco; Paganelli, Michele; Comotti, Laura; Beretta, Luigi; Aldrighetti, Luca

    2016-02-01

    Central venous pressure (CVP) is used as a marker of cardiac preload to control intraoperative blood loss in open hepatectomies, while its reliability in laparoscopy is less certain. The aim of this randomized prospective trial was to evaluate the outcome of laparoscopic resections performed with stroke volume variation (SVV) or CVP monitoring. All candidates for laparoscopic liver resection were assigned randomly to SVV or to CVP groups. Outcome was evaluated included conversion rate, cause of conversion, intraoperative blood loss, need for transfusions, length of surgery and postoperative results. Ninety consecutive patients were enrolled: both SVV and CVP groups included 45 patients each and were comparable in terms of patient and disease characteristics. A reduced rate of conversion was recorded in the SVV compared to the CVP group (6.7% and 17.8% respectively, p = 0.02). Blood loss was lower in the SVV group (150 mL), compared to the CVP group (300 mL, p = 0.04). Morbidity, mortality, length of stay and functional recovery were comparable. On multivariate analysis, lesion location, extent of hepatectomy and type of cardiac preload monitoring were associated significantly to risk of conversion. SVV monitoring in laparoscopic liver surgery improves intraoperative outcome, thus enhancing the benefits of the minimally-invasive approach and fast-track protocols. Copyright © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Random point sets and their diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baake, Michael; Kösters, Holger

    2011-07-01

    The diffraction of various random subsets of the integer lattice ℤ d , such as the coin tossing and related systems, are well understood. Here, we go one important step beyond and consider random point sets in ℝ d . We present several systems with an effective stochastic interaction that still allow for explicit calculations of the autocorrelation and the diffraction measure. We concentrate on one-dimensional examples for illustrative purposes, and briefly indicate possible generalisations to higher dimensions. In particular, we discuss the stationary Poisson process in ℝ d and the renewal process on the line. The latter permits a unified approach to a rather large class of one-dimensional structures, including random tilings. Moreover, we present some stationary point processes that are derived from the classical random matrix ensembles as introduced in the pioneering work of Dyson and Ginibre. Their reconsideration from the diffraction point of view improves the intuition on systems with randomness and mixed spectra.

  5. Differential Aspartate Usage Identifies a Subset of Cancer Cells Particularly Dependent on OGDH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Eric L; Ulanet, Danielle B; Pirman, David; Mahoney, Christopher E; Coco, John; Si, Yaguang; Chen, Ying; Huang, Lingling; Ren, Jinmin; Choe, Sung; Clasquin, Michelle F; Artin, Erin; Fan, Zi Peng; Cianchetta, Giovanni; Murtie, Joshua; Dorsch, Marion; Jin, Shengfang; Smolen, Gromoslaw A

    2016-10-11

    Although aberrant metabolism in tumors has been well described, the identification of cancer subsets with particular metabolic vulnerabilities has remained challenging. Here, we conducted an siRNA screen focusing on enzymes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and uncovered a striking range of cancer cell dependencies on OGDH, the E1 subunit of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Using an integrative metabolomics approach, we identified differential aspartate utilization, via the malate-aspartate shuttle, as a predictor of whether OGDH is required for proliferation in 3D culture assays and for the growth of xenograft tumors. These findings highlight an anaplerotic role of aspartate and, more broadly, suggest that differential nutrient utilization patterns can identify subsets of cancers with distinct metabolic dependencies for potential pharmacological intervention. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential Aspartate Usage Identifies a Subset of Cancer Cells Particularly Dependent on OGDH

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    Eric L. Allen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although aberrant metabolism in tumors has been well described, the identification of cancer subsets with particular metabolic vulnerabilities has remained challenging. Here, we conducted an siRNA screen focusing on enzymes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and uncovered a striking range of cancer cell dependencies on OGDH, the E1 subunit of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Using an integrative metabolomics approach, we identified differential aspartate utilization, via the malate-aspartate shuttle, as a predictor of whether OGDH is required for proliferation in 3D culture assays and for the growth of xenograft tumors. These findings highlight an anaplerotic role of aspartate and, more broadly, suggest that differential nutrient utilization patterns can identify subsets of cancers with distinct metabolic dependencies for potential pharmacological intervention.

  7. A method for high purity sorting of rare cell subsets applied to TDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuka, Mirela; Ashwell, Jonathan D

    2013-12-31

    T(DC) are a recently described subset of polyclonal αβ T-cells with dendritic cell properties. Because of their low number in peripheral immune compartments, isolation and characterization of T(DC) with existing purification methods are technically challenging. Here we describe a customized gating strategy and a flow cytometry-based cell sorting protocol for isolation of T(DC). The protocol was developed because, despite very conservative gating for dead-cell and doublet exclusion, cells obtained with normal sorting procedures were enriched for T(DC) but not pure. Re-sorting the output of the first round of sorting results in highly pure T(DC). Cells obtained with this method are viable and can be used for in vitro characterization. Moreover, this double-round sorting strategy can be universally applied to the isolation of other rare cell subsets. © 2013.

  8. Interpretation of Fuzzy Attribute Subsets in Generalized One-Sided Concept Lattices

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    Peter Butka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe possible interpretation and reduction of fuzzy attributes in GeneralizedOne-sided Concept Lattices (GOSCL. This type of concept lattices represent generalization ofFormal Concept Analysis (FCA suitable for analysis of datatables with different types of attributes. FCA as well as generalized one-sided concept lattices represent conceptual data miningmethods. With growing number of attributes the interpretation of fuzzy subsets may become unclear, hence another interpretation of this fuzzy attribute subsets can be valuable. The originalityof the presented method is based on the usage of one-sided concept lattices derived from submodels of former object-attribute model by grouping attributes with the same truth value structure.This leads to new method for attribute reduction in GOSCL environment.

  9. Long term impact of high titer Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine on T lymphocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Knudsen, K

    1994-01-01

    conducted in Guinea-Bissau. To test for possible long term impact on the immune system, an investigation of T cell subsets was conducted among all children still residing in the community at 3 to 5 years of age. No differences were found between recipients of medium titer vaccine and controls. In the second......Several trials of high titer measles vaccine (> 10(4.7) plaque-forming unit) have found female recipients of Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) vaccine to have lower survival than female recipients of standard measles vaccine. Two trials with medium and high titer EZ vaccine from the age of 4 months were...... unlikely to explain the reduced survival which has been associated with high titer EZ measles vaccination. In the 2 years after the investigation of T cell subsets, there was no increased mortality for recipients of EZ vaccine. Hence it is unlikely that high titer vaccine has an persistent adverse effect...

  10. Ordered-subset analysis of savant skills in autism for 15q11-q13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, D Q; Jaworski, J; Menold, M M; Donnelly, S; Abramson, R K; Wright, H H; Delong, G R; Gilbert, J R; Pericak-Vance, M A; Cuccaro, Michael L

    2005-05-05

    Autism is a complex disorder characterized by genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Analysis of phenotypically homogeneous subtypes has been used to both confirm and narrow potential autism linkage regions such as the chromosomal region 15q11-q13. Increased evidence for linkage in this region had been found in a subgroup of 21 autism families (total families = 94) stratified based on a savant skill factor (SSF) from the Autism Diagnostic Interview, Revised (ADI-R). We examined the savant phenotypic finding in our sample of 91 multiplex autism families. Using two-point parametric analysis in stratification with a cutoff point of a savant skill score of 0.16, our families failed to demonstrate linkage to 15q11-q13. In addition, ordered subset analysis (OSA) using SSF as a covariate also failed to show evidence for linkage. Our findings do not support savant skills as an informative phenotypic subset for linkage in our sample. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Neurotensin Receptor-1 Identifies a Subset of Ventral Tegmental Dopamine Neurons that Coordinates Energy Balance

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    Hillary L. Woodworth

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA are heterogeneous and differentially regulate ingestive and locomotor behaviors that affect energy balance. Identification of which VTA DA neurons mediate behaviors that limit weight gain has been hindered, however, by the lack of molecular markers to distinguish VTA DA populations. Here, we identified a specific subset of VTA DA neurons that express neurotensin receptor-1 (NtsR1 and preferentially comprise mesolimbic, but not mesocortical, DA neurons. Genetically targeted ablation of VTA NtsR1 neurons uncouples motivated feeding and physical activity, biasing behavior toward energy expenditure and protecting mice from age-related and diet-induced weight gain. VTA NtsR1 neurons thus represent a molecularly defined subset of DA neurons that are essential for the coordination of energy balance. Modulation of VTA NtsR1 neurons may therefore be useful to promote behaviors that prevent the development of obesity.

  12. Altered Cytokine Production By Specific Human Peripheral Blood Cell Subsets Immediately Following Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Cubbage, Michael L.; Sams, Clarence F.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we have attempted to combine standard immunological assays with the cellular resolving power of the flow cytometer to positively identify the specific cell types involved in spaceflight-induced immune alterations. We have obtained whole blood samples from 27 astronauts collected at three timepoints (L-10, R+0 and R+3) surrounding four recent space shuttle missions. The duration of these missions ranged from 10 to 18 days. Assays performed included serum/urine cortisol, comprehensive subset phenotyping, assessment of cellular activation markers and intracellular cytokine production following mitogenic stimulation. Absolute levels of peripheral granulocytes were significantly elevated following spaceflight, but the levels of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes were unchanged. Lymphocyte subset analysis demonstrated trends towards a decreased percentage of T cells and an increased percentage of B cells. Nearly all of the astronauts exhibited an increased CD4:CD8 ratio, which was dramatic in some individuals. Assessment of memory (CD45RA+) vs. naive (CD45RO+) CD4+ T cell subsets was more ambiguous, with subjects tending to group more as a flight crew. All subjects from one mission demonstrated an increased CD45RA:CD45RO ratio, while all subjects from another Mission demonstrated a decreased ratio. While no significant trend was seen in the monocyte population as defined by scatter, a decreased percentage of the CD14+ CD16+ monocyte subset was seen following spaceflight in all subjects tested. In general, most of the cellular changes described above which were assessed at R+O and compared to L-10 trended to pre-flight levels by R+3. Although no significant differences were seen in the expression of the cellular activation markers CD69 and CD25 following exposure to microgravity, significant alterations were seen in cytokine production in response to mitogenic activation for specific subsets. T cell (CD3+) production of IL-2 was significantly decreased

  13. Selecting a Subset of Stimulus-Response Pairs with Maximal Transmitted Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    computer that was initially used (an Intel 80386 -based 33MHz personal computer with math coprocessor). A more powerful Intel 80486-based personal computer...anticipated that this program would use an inordinate amount of CPU time making it impractical for routine use. This was not the case. The...subset sizes on an Intel 80386 -based machine running at 33 MHz equipped with math coprocessor. Unfortunately, the attempt to solve the Moore data set was

  14. Differential Aspartate Usage Identifies a Subset of Cancer Cells Particularly Dependent on OGDH

    OpenAIRE

    Eric L. Allen; Danielle B. Ulanet; David Pirman; Christopher E. Mahoney; John Coco; Yaguang Si; Ying Chen; Lingling Huang; Jinmin Ren; Sung Choe; Michelle F. Clasquin; Erin Artin; Zi Peng Fan; Giovanni Cianchetta; Joshua Murtie

    2016-01-01

    Although aberrant metabolism in tumors has been well described, the identification of cancer subsets with particular metabolic vulnerabilities has remained challenging. Here, we conducted an siRNA screen focusing on enzymes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and uncovered a striking range of cancer cell dependencies on OGDH, the E1 subunit of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Using an integrative metabolomics approach, we identified differential aspartate utilization,...

  15. Influence of age, gender and lifestyle in lymphocyte subsets: report from the Spanish Gait-2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Dabrio, María Concepción; Pujol-Moix, Núria; Martinez-Perez, Angel; Fontcuberta, Jordi; Souto, Joan Carles; Soria, José Manuel; Nomdedéu, Josep F

    2012-01-01

    Flow cytometry analysis of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood is a common technique in diagnostic laboratories. Abnormal values have been identified in prevalent infections, autoimmune disorders and neoplastic diseases. Reference ranges for lymphocyte subsets of a healthy population from Spain are scarce. The study was performed on 319 healthy subjects, aged 4-88 years, from 709 individuals enrolled in the GAIT-2 Project (Genetic Analysis of Idiopathic Thrombophilia). Health status, age, sex, fertility, BMI and lifestyle (physical activity, cigarette smoking and ethanol intake) were assessed using standardized criteria. The percentage of lymphocyte subsets was determined using flow cytometry (Lymphogram™). Percentages of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, CD3-CD56+, CD3+CD4-CD8- double-negative (DN) T cells, CD3+CD4+CD8+ double-positive T cells and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio were recorded for each case. Children had a significantly higher percentage of CD19+ and DN cells than adults. Women had a significantly higher percentage of CD3+ and CD4+ and a lower percentage of natural killer cells than men. Increases in BMI were inversely associated with the percentage of DN cells. Physical activity increased the percentage of lymphocytes and DN cells. Alcohol consumers had a lower percentage of CD19+ and DN cells, and a higher percentage of CD4+. This study provides reference ranges for lymphocyte subsets of healthy children and adults in a Mediterranean population (Spain) and determines the influence of lifestyle factors on these values. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Defining mononuclear phagocyte subset homology across several distant warm-blooded vertebrates through comparative transcriptomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien eVu Manh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mononuclear phagocytes are organized in a complex system of ontogenically and functionally-distinct subsets, that has been best described in mouse and to some extent in human. Identification of homologous mononuclear phagocyte subsets in other vertebrate species of biomedical, economic and environmental interest is needed to improve our knowledge in physiologic and physio-pathologic processes, and to design intervention strategies against a variety of diseases, including zoonotic infections.We developed a streamlined approach combining refined cell sorting and integrated comparative transcriptomics analyses which revealed conservation of the mononuclear phagocyte organization across human, mouse, sheep, pigs and, in some respect, chicken. This strategy should help democratizing the use of omics analyses for the identification and study of cell types across tissues and species. Moreover we identified conserved gene signatures that enable robust identification and universal definition of these cell types. We identified new evolutionarily conserved gene candidates and gene interaction networks for the molecular regulation of the development or functions of these cell types, as well as conserved surface candidates for refined subset phenotyping throughout species. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that orthologous genes of the conserved signatures exist in teleost fishes and apparently not in Lamprey, indicating conservation of the genetic support for mononuclear phagocyte organization throughout jawed vertebrates but likely not in agnathans. Altogether this work provides molecular clues to the definition and functions of mononuclear phagocyte subsets across vertebrates which shall be useful to rigorously identify these cells and to design universal strategies to manipulate them in many target species towards the goal to reach and maintain global health.

  17. Proteome profiling of human neutrophil granule subsets, secretory vesicles, and cell membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvig, Sara; Østergaard, Ole; Heegaard, Niels Henrik Helweg

    2013-01-01

    granules, SVs, and plasma membrane has been performed before. Here, we performed subcellular fractionation on freshly isolated human neutrophils by nitrogen cavitation and density centrifugation on a four-layer Percoll gradient. Granule subsets were pooled and subjected to SDS-PAGE, and gel pieces were in...... subcellular proteome profiles presented here may be used as a database in combination with the mRNA array database to predict and test the presence and localization of proteins in neutrophil granules and membranes....

  18. Genetic heterogeneity in Finnish hereditary prostate cancer using ordered subset analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Claire L; Cropp, Cheryl D; Wahlfors, Tiina; George, Asha; Jones, Marypat S; Harper, Ursula; Ponciano-Jackson, Damaris; Tammela, Teuvo; Schleutker, Johanna; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E

    2013-04-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most common male cancer in developed countries and the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. We recently reported a genome-wide linkage scan in 69 Finnish hereditary PrCa (HPC) families, which replicated the HPC9 locus on 17q21-q22 and identified a locus on 2q37. The aim of this study was to identify and to detect other loci linked to HPC. Here we used ordered subset analysis (OSA), conditioned on nonparametric linkage to these loci to detect other loci linked to HPC in subsets of families, but not the overall sample. We analyzed the families based on their evidence for linkage to chromosome 2, chromosome 17 and a maximum score using the strongest evidence of linkage from either of the two loci. Significant linkage to a 5-cM linkage interval with a peak OSA nonparametric allele-sharing LOD score of 4.876 on Xq26.3-q27 (ΔLOD=3.193, empirical P=0.009) was observed in a subset of 41 families weakly linked to 2q37, overlapping the HPCX1 locus. Two peaks that were novel to the analysis combining linkage evidence from both primary loci were identified; 18q12.1-q12.2 (OSA LOD=2.541, ΔLOD=1.651, P=0.03) and 22q11.1-q11.21 (OSA LOD=2.395, ΔLOD=2.36, P=0.006), which is close to HPC6. Using OSA allows us to find additional loci linked to HPC in subsets of families, and underlines the complex genetic heterogeneity of HPC even in highly aggregated families.

  19. Statistical Image Properties in Large Subsets of Traditional Art, Bad Art, and Abstract Art

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Redies; Anselm Brachmann

    2017-01-01

    Several statistical image properties have been associated with large subsets of traditional visual artworks. Here, we investigate some of these properties in three categories of art that differ in artistic claim and prestige: (1) Traditional art of different cultural origin from established museums and art collections (oil paintings and graphic art of Western provenance, Islamic book illustration and Chinese paintings), (2) Bad Art from two museums that collect contemporary artworks of lesser...

  20. [Effect of Chinese Herbs Used in Treating Multiple Sclerosis on T Subsets Using Association Rules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Tao; Xu, Yong-gang; Yang, Xiao-hong

    2016-04-01

    To analyze the effect of Chinese herbs used by Prof. LI Tao on peripheral blood T subsets in treating multiple sclerosis (MS) by using association rules and statistical methods, thereby providing evidence for optimizing prescriptions. Data of MS inpatients and outpatients recorded by data collecting system, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences were resorted. The relationship between Chinese herbs and T cell subsets were analyzed using SPSS17.0 and Aprior module in SPSS Clementine 12.0. Radix bupleuri, Radix Paeoniae alba, Fructus Aurantii, Atractylodes, and Radix Glycyrrhizae were most commonly used herbal combinations.Radix Aconiti lateralis preparata and Rhizoma Smilacis glabrae were often added. Radix Aconiti lateralis preparata was associated with decreased Th1 cells (confidence level 83.78%, supportive level 36.26%). Decreased Th1 cell was associated with Radix Aconiti lateralis preparata (confidence level 71.26%, supportive level 36.26%).Radix Aconiti lateralis preparata was obviously associated with decreased Th1 cells. Radix Bupleuri, Radix Paeoniae alba, bitter orange, Atractylodes , Radix glycyrrhizae, and Radix Aconiti lateralis preparata could reduce peripheral blood Th1 subsets of MS patients and elevate Th2 subsets (all P < 0.01). The herbal combination of Radix Bupleuri, Radix Paeoniae alba, Fructus Aurantii, Atractylodes, Radix Glycyrrhizae, Rhizoma Smilacis glabrae, and Radix Aconiti lateralis preparata could lower peripheral blood Th1 cells and elevate Th2 cells, and prevent the relapse of MS possibly by reducing Th1 cells and elevating Th2 cells. Especially Radix Aconiti lateralis preparata played important roles in aforesaid changes of Th1 and Th2.

  1. Chemokine-mediated distribution of dendritic cell subsets in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Werner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC represents one of the most immunoresponsive cancers. Antigen-specific vaccination with dendritic cells (DCs in patients with metastatic RCC has been shown to induce cytotoxic T-cell responses associated with objective clinical responses. Thus, clinical trials utilizing DCs for immunotherapy of advanced RCCs appear to be promising; however, detailed analyses concerning the distribution and function of DC subsets in RCCs are lacking. Methods We characterized the distribution of the different immature and mature myeloid DC subsets in RCC tumour tissue and the corresponding normal kidney tissues. In further analyses, the expression of various chemokines and chemokine receptors controlling the migration of DC subsets was investigated. Results The highest numbers of immature CD1a+ DCs were found within RCC tumour tissue. In contrast, the accumulation of mature CD83+/DC-LAMP+ DCs were restricted to the invasive margin of the RCCs. The mature DCs formed clusters with proliferating T-cells. Furthermore, a close association was observed between MIP-3α-producing tumour cells and immature CCR6+ DC recruitment to the tumour bed. Conversely, MIP-3β and SLC expression was only detected at the tumour border, where CCR7-expressing T-cells and mature DCs formed clusters. Conclusion Increased numbers of immature DCs were observed within the tumour tissue of RCCs, whereas mature DCs were found in increased numbers at the tumour margin. Our results strongly implicate that the distribution of DC subsets is controlled by local lymphoid chemokine expression. Thus, increased expression of MIP-3α favours recruitment of immature DCs to the tumour bed, whereas de novo local expression of SLC and MIP-3β induces accumulation of mature DCs at the tumour margin forming clusters with proliferating T-cells reflecting a local anti-tumour immune response.

  2. Localization of neural efficiency of the mathematically gifted brain through a feature subset selection method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Li; Gan, John Q.; Wang, Haixian

    2015-01-01

    Based on the neural efficiency hypothesis and task-induced EEG gamma-band response (GBR), this study investigated the brain regions where neural resource could be most efficiently recruited by the math-gifted adolescents in response to varying cognitive demands. In this experiment, various GBR-based mental states were generated with three factors (level of mathematical ability, task complexity, and short-term learning) modulating the level of neural activation. A feature subset selection meth...

  3. Changes of peripheral lymphocyte subsets and cytokine environment during aging and deteriorating gastrointestinal tract health status

    OpenAIRE

    Wang,Jing; Yang, Guodong; Wang, Dongfang; Liu, Kuiliang; Ma, Yongchao; Liu, Hong; Wu, Jing; Fang, Min

    2017-01-01

    Human immune senescence accompanies with the physical and physiological frailty. The functional change and shift of NK, NKT and T cell subsets by aging have been widely studied. However, it remains largely unclear how the aging and disease conditions affect the distribution of lymphocytes. In the present study, 233 subjects with age range from 20 to 87 year old, including healthy people, people with chronic gastrointestinal tract disease or cancers were investigated. We found that the proport...

  4. Transiently antigen primed B cells can generate multiple subsets of memory cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson S Turner

    Full Text Available Memory B cells are long-lived cells that generate a more vigorous response upon recognition of antigen (Ag and T cell help than naïve B cells and ensure maintenance of durable humoral immunity. Functionally distinct subsets of murine memory B cells have been identified based on isotype switching of BCRs and surface expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD80 and co-inhibitory molecule PD-L2. Memory B cells in a subpopulation with low surface expression of CD80 and PD-L2 are predominantly non-isotype switched and can be efficiently recruited into germinal centers (GCs in secondary responses. In contrast, a CD80 and PD-L2 positive subset arises predominantly from GCs and can quickly differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells (PCs. Here we demonstrate that single transient acquisition of Ag by B cells may be sufficient for their long-term participation in GC responses and for development of various memory B cell subsets including CD80 and PD-L2 positive effector-like memory cells that rapidly differentiate into class-switched PCs during recall responses.

  5. Targetable subsets of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Malawi define therapeutic opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Elizabeth A; Sweeney, M Patrick; Tomoka, Tamiwe; Kopp, Nadja; Gusenleitner, Daniel; Redd, Robert A; Carey, Christopher D; Masamba, Leo; Kamiza, Steve; Pinkus, Geraldine S; Neuberg, Donna S; Rodig, Scott J; Milner, Danny A; Weinstock, David M

    2016-11-29

    Diagnostics and supportive care for patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are lacking. We hypothesized that high-throughput transcription-based diagnostics could classify NHL specimens from Malawi amenable to targeted therapeutics. We established tissue microarrays and classified 328 cases diagnosed by hematoxylin and eosin as NHL at University of Malawi College of Medicine using immunohistochemistry (IHC) for conventional markers and therapeutic targets. A subset was analyzed using NanoString-based expression profiling with parsimonious transcriptional classifiers. Overall, 72% of lymphomas were high-grade B-cell tumors, subsets of which were enriched for expression of MYC, BCL2, and/or PD-L1. A 21-gene transcriptional classifier, previously validated in Western cohorts, divided 96% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) with 100% of B-cell lymphomas, unclassifiable, into 1 cluster and 88% of Burkitt lymphomas into a separate cluster. Cell-of-origin categorization of 36 DLBCLs by NanoString lymphoma subtyping test (LST) revealed 69% concordance with IHC. All discordant cases were classified as germinal center B cell-like (GCB) by LST but non-GCB by IHC. In summary, utilization of advanced diagnostics facilitates objective assessment and segregation of biologically defined subsets of NHL from an LMIC without expert review, thereby establishing a basis for the implementation of effective and less toxic targeted agents.

  6. A subset multicanonical Monte Carlo method for simulating rare failure events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinjuan; Li, Jinglai

    2017-09-01

    Estimating failure probabilities of engineering systems is an important problem in many engineering fields. In this work we consider such problems where the failure probability is extremely small (e.g. ≤10-10). In this case, standard Monte Carlo methods are not feasible due to the extraordinarily large number of samples required. To address these problems, we propose an algorithm that combines the main ideas of two very powerful failure probability estimation approaches: the subset simulation (SS) and the multicanonical Monte Carlo (MMC) methods. Unlike the standard MMC which samples in the entire domain of the input parameter in each iteration, the proposed subset MMC algorithm adaptively performs MMC simulations in a subset of the state space, which improves the sampling efficiency. With numerical examples we demonstrate that the proposed method is significantly more efficient than both of the SS and the MMC methods. Moreover, like the standard MMC, the proposed algorithm can reconstruct the complete distribution function of the parameter of interest and thus can provide more information than just the failure probabilities of the systems.

  7. Age-dependent alterations of monocyte subsets and monocyte-related chemokine pathways in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trautwein Christian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent experimental approaches have unraveled essential migratory and functional differences of monocyte subpopulations in mice. In order to possibly translate these findings into human physiology and pathophysiology, human monocyte subsets need to be carefully revisited in health and disease. In analogy to murine studies, we hypothesized that human monocyte subsets dynamically change during ageing, potentially influencing their functionality and contributing to immunosenescence. Results Circulating monocyte subsets, surface marker and chemokine receptor expression were analyzed in 181 healthy volunteers (median age 42, range 18-88. Unlike the unaffected total leukocyte or total monocyte counts, non-classical CD14+CD16+ monocytes significantly increased with age, but displayed reduced HLA-DR and CX3CR1 surface expression in the elderly. Classical CD14++CD16- monocyte counts did not vary dependent on age. Serum MCP-1 (CCL2, but not MIP1α (CCL3, MIP1β (CCL4 or fractalkine (CX3CL1 concentrations increased with age. Monocyte-derived macrophages from old or young individuals did not differ with respect to cytokine release in vitro at steady state or upon LPS stimulation. Conclusions Our study demonstrates dynamic changes of circulating monocytes during ageing in humans. The expansion of the non-classical CD14+CD16+ subtype, alterations of surface protein and chemokine receptor expression as well as circulating monocyte-related chemokines possibly contribute to the preserved functionality of the monocyte pool throughout adulthood.

  8. Choosing non-redundant representative subsets of protein sequence data sets using submodular optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbrecht, Maxwell W; Bilmes, Jeffrey A; Noble, William Stafford

    2018-01-18

    Selecting a non-redundant representative subset of sequences is a common step in many bioinformatics workflows, such as the creation of non-redundant training sets for sequence and structural models or selection of "operational taxonomic units" from metagenomics data. Previous methods for this task, such as CD-HIT, PISCES, and UCLUST, apply a heuristic threshold-based algorithm that has no theoretical guarantees. We propose a new approach based on submodular optimization. Submodular optimization, a discrete analogue to continuous convex optimization, has been used with great success for other representative set selection problems. We demonstrate that the submodular optimization approach results in representative protein sequence subsets with greater structural diversity than sets chosen by existing methods, using as a gold standard the SCOPe library of protein domain structures. In this setting, submodular optimization consistently yields protein sequence subsets that include more SCOPe domain families than sets of the same size selected by competing approaches. We also show how the optimization framework allows us to design a mixture objective function that performs well for both large and small representative sets. The framework we describe is the best possible in polynomial time (under some assumptions), and it is flexible and intuitive because it applies a suite of generic methods to optimize one of a variety of objective functions. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Revealing functionally coherent subsets using a spectral clustering and an information integration approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Adam J; Schwacke, John H; Rohrer, Bärbel; Cowart, L Ashley; Lu, Xinghua

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary high-throughput analyses often produce lengthy lists of genes or proteins. It is desirable to divide the genes into functionally coherent subsets for further investigation, by integrating heterogeneous information regarding the genes. Here we report a principled approach for managing and integrating multiple data sources within the framework of graph-spectrum analysis in order to identify coherent gene subsets. We investigated several approaches to integrate information derived from different sources that reflect distinct aspects of gene functional relationships including: functional annotations of genes in the form of the Gene Ontology, co-mentioning of genes in the literature, and shared transcription factor binding sites among genes. Given a list of genes, we construct a graph containing the genes in each information space; then the graphs were kernel transformed so they could be integrated; finally functionally coherent subsets were identified using a spectral clustering algorithm. In a series of simulation experiments, known functionally coherent gene sets were mixed and recovered using our approach. The results indicate that spectral clustering approaches are capable of recovering coherent gene modules even under noisy conditions, and that information integration serves to further enhance this capability. When applied to a real-world data set, our methods revealed biologically sensible modules, and highlighted the importance of information integration. The implementation of the statistical model is provided under the GNU general public license, as an installable Python module, at: http://code.google.com/p/spectralmix.

  10. Characterization and Quantification of Innate Lymphoid Cell Subsets in Human Lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien C De Grove

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILC are a new family of innate immune cells that have emerged as important regulators of tissue homeostasis and inflammation. However, limited data are available concerning the relative abundance and characteristics of ILC in the human lung.The aim of this study was to characterize and enumerate the different ILC subsets in human lung by multi-color flow cytometry.Within the CD45+ Lin- CD127+ pulmonary ILC population, we identified group 1 (ILC1, group 2 (ILC2 and group 3 (ILC3 innate lymphoid cells using specific surface markers (i.e. IL12Rβ2, CRTH2 and CD117 respectively and key transcription factors (i.e. T-bet, GATA-3 and RORγT respectively. Based on the presence of NKp44, ILC3 were further subdivided in natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR+ and NCR- ILC3. In addition, we demonstrated the production of signature cytokines IFN-γ, IL-5, IL-17A, IL-22 and GM-CSF in the pulmonary ILC population. Interestingly, we observed a tendency to a higher frequency of NCR- ILC3 in lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD compared with controls.We show that the three main ILC subsets are present in human lung. Importantly, the relative abundance of ILC subsets tended to change in COPD patients in comparison to control individuals.

  11. VisFlow - Web-based Visualization Framework for Tabular Data with a Subset Flow Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bowen; Silva, Claudio T

    2017-01-01

    Data flow systems allow the user to design a flow diagram that specifies the relations between system components which process, filter or visually present the data. Visualization systems may benefit from user-defined data flows as an analysis typically consists of rendering multiple plots on demand and performing different types of interactive queries across coordinated views. In this paper, we propose VisFlow, a web-based visualization framework for tabular data that employs a specific type of data flow model called the subset flow model. VisFlow focuses on interactive queries within the data flow, overcoming the limitation of interactivity from past computational data flow systems. In particular, VisFlow applies embedded visualizations and supports interactive selections, brushing and linking within a visualization-oriented data flow. The model requires all data transmitted by the flow to be a data item subset (i.e. groups of table rows) of some original input table, so that rendering properties can be assigned to the subset unambiguously for tracking and comparison. VisFlow features the analysis flexibility of a flow diagram, and at the same time reduces the diagram complexity and improves usability. We demonstrate the capability of VisFlow on two case studies with domain experts on real-world datasets showing that VisFlow is capable of accomplishing a considerable set of visualization and analysis tasks. The VisFlow system is available as open source on GitHub.

  12. T-cell Subsets in Peripheral Blood and Tumors of Patients Treated With Oncolytic Adenoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristian, Taipale; Ilkka, Liikanen; Juuso, Juhila; Aila, Karioja-Kallio; Minna, Oksanen; Riku, Turkki; Nina, Linder; Johan, Lundin; Ari, Ristimäki; Anna, Kanerva; Anniina, Koski; Timo, Joensuu; Markus, Vähä-Koskela; Akseli, Hemminki

    2015-01-01

    The quality of the antitumor immune response is decisive when developing new immunotherapies for cancer. Oncolytic adenoviruses cause a potent immunogenic stimulus and arming them with costimulatory molecules reshapes the immune response further. We evaluated peripheral blood T-cell subsets of 50 patients with refractory solid tumors undergoing treatment with oncolytic adenovirus. These data were compared to changes in antiviral and antitumor T cells, treatment efficacy, overall survival, and T-cell subsets in pre- and post-treatment tumor biopsies. Treatment caused a significant (P < 0.0001) shift in T-cell subsets in blood, characterized by a proportional increase of CD8+ cells, and decrease of CD4+ cells. Concomitant treatment with cyclophosphamide and temozolomide resulted in less CD4+ decrease (P = 0.041) than cyclophosphamide only. Interestingly, we saw a correlation between T-cell changes in peripheral blood and the tumor site. This correlation was positive for CD8+ and inverse for CD4+ cells. These findings give insight to the interconnections between peripheral blood and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) populations regarding oncolytic virotherapy. In particular, our data suggest that induction of T-cell response is not sufficient for clinical response in the context of immunosuppressive tumors, and that peripheral blood T cells have a complicated and potentially misleading relationship with TILs. PMID:25655312

  13. Towards Qualifiable Code Generation from a Clocked Synchronous Subset of Modelica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Thiele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available So far no qualifiable automatic code generators (ACGs are available for Modelica. Hence, digital control applications can be modeled and simulated in Modelica, but require tedious additional efforts (e.g., manual reprogramming to produce qualifiable target system production code. In order to more fully leverage the potential of a model-based development (MBD process in Modelica, a qualifiable automatic code generator is needed. Typical Modelica code generation is a fairly complex process which imposes a huge development burden to any efforts of tool qualification. This work aims at mapping a Modelica subset for digital control function development to a well-understood synchronous data-flow kernel language. This kernel language allows to resort to established compilation techniques for data-flow languages which are understood enough to be accepted by certification authorities. The mapping is established by providing a translational semantics from the Modelica subset to the synchronous data-flow kernel language. However, this translation turned out to be more intricate than initially expected and has given rise to several interesting issues that require suitable design decisions regarding the mapping and the language subset.

  14. Leukocyte counts and lymphocyte subsets in relation to pregnancy and HIV infection in Malawian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Wilson L; Gondwe, Esther N; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Jenny M; MacLennan, Calman A

    2017-09-01

    We investigated leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets in HIV-infected or HIV-uninfected, pregnant or non-pregnant Malawian women to explore whether HIV infection and pregnancy may act synergistically to impair cellular immunity. We recruited 54 pregnant and 48 non-pregnant HIV-uninfected women and 24 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant HIV-infected Malawian women. We compared peripheral blood leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets between women in the four groups. Parturient HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women had more neutrophils (each P<.0001), but fewer lymphocytes (P<.0001; P=.0014) than non-pregnant women. Both groups had fewer total T cells (P<.0001; P=.002) and CD8+ T cells (P<.0001; P=.014) than non-pregnant women. HIV-uninfected parturient women had fewer CD4+ and γδ T cells, B and NK cells (each P<.0001) than non-pregnant women. Lymphocyte subset percentages were not affected by pregnancy. Malawian women at parturition have an increased total white cell count due to neutrophilia and an HIV-unrelated pan-lymphopenia. © 2017 The Author. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. An Efficient Feature Subset Selection Algorithm for Classification of Multidimensional Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Senthilkumar; Paulraj, S

    2015-01-01

    Multidimensional medical data classification has recently received increased attention by researchers working on machine learning and data mining. In multidimensional dataset (MDD) each instance is associated with multiple class values. Due to its complex nature, feature selection and classifier built from the MDD are typically more expensive or time-consuming. Therefore, we need a robust feature selection technique for selecting the optimum single subset of the features of the MDD for further analysis or to design a classifier. In this paper, an efficient feature selection algorithm is proposed for the classification of MDD. The proposed multidimensional feature subset selection (MFSS) algorithm yields a unique feature subset for further analysis or to build a classifier and there is a computational advantage on MDD compared with the existing feature selection algorithms. The proposed work is applied to benchmark multidimensional datasets. The number of features was reduced to 3% minimum and 30% maximum by using the proposed MFSS. In conclusion, the study results show that MFSS is an efficient feature selection algorithm without affecting the classification accuracy even for the reduced number of features. Also the proposed MFSS algorithm is suitable for both problem transformation and algorithm adaptation and it has great potentials in those applications generating multidimensional datasets.

  16. Lymphocyte subsets in human immunodeficiency virus-unexposed Brazilian individuals from birth to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel de Moraes-Pinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic origin, genetics, gender and environmental factors have been shown to influence some immunologic indices, so that development of reference values for populations of different backgrounds may be necessary. We have determined the distribution of lymphocyte subsets in healthy Brazilian individuals from birth to adulthood. Lymphocyte subsets were determined using four-colour cytometry in a cross-sectional study of 463 human immunodeficiency virus-unexposed children and adults from birth through 49 years of age. Lymphocyte subsets varied according to age, as previously observed in other studies. However, total CD4+ T cell numbers were lower than what was described in the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group P1009 (PACTG P1009, which assessed an American population of predominantly African and Hispanic backgrounds until the 12-18 year age range, when values were comparable. Naïve percentages and absolute values of CD8+ T cells, as assessed by CD45RA expression, were also lower than the PACTG P1009 data for all analysed age ranges. CD38 expression on both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was lower than the PACTG P1009 values, with a widening gap between the two studies at older age ranges. Different patterns of cell differentiation seem to occur in different settings and may have characteristic expression within each population.

  17. PV-1 expression could distinguish the subset of caveolae-presenting telocytes that are endothelial progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrapciu, Alexandra Diana; Rusu, Mugurel Constantin

    2017-01-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are stromal cells with characteristic long, thin and moniliform prolongations termed telopodes. They were formerly termed interstitial Cajal-like cells. A characteristic set of markers to identify TCs in light microscopy has not been established until now. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a better tool for identifying TCs. Telocytes display caveolae and can express caveolin-1. On the other hand, endothelial cells (ECs) as well as endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have caveolae. Recent evidence suggests that a subset of TCs are in fact EPCs. The distinction of this progenitor subset of TCs can be easily made by a specific set of ultrastructure markers, as follows. Caveolae of endothelial cells present stomatal diaphragms (SDs). The plasmalemma vesicle-associated protein-1 (PV-1), which is identical with the Pathologische Anatomie Leiden endothelium (PAL-E), is specifically identifying the ECs SDs of caveolae. We therefore raise the reasonable hypothesis that the EPCs subset of caveolae-presenting TCs could be accurately identified, without exploration in TEM, by the positive expression of PV-1 or PAL-E in the SDs.

  18. The lower bound on complexity of parallel branch-and-bound algorithm for subset sum problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpakov, Roman; Posypkin, Mikhail

    2016-10-01

    The subset sum problem is a particular case of the Boolean knapsack problem where each item has the price equal to its weight. This problem can be informally stated as searching for most dense packing of a set of items into a box with limited capacity. Recently, coarse-grain parallelization approaches to Branch-and-Bound (B&B) method attracted some attention due to the growing popularity of weakly-connected distributed computing platforms. In this paper we consider one of such approaches for solving the subset sum problem. One of the processors (manager) performs some number of B&B steps on the first stage with generating some subproblems. On the second stage, the generated subproblems are sent to other processors, one subproblem per processor. The processors solve completely the received subproblems, the manager collects all the obtained solutions and chooses the optimal one. For this algorithm we formally define the parallel execution model (frontal scheme of parallelization) and the notion of the frontal scheme complexity. We study the frontal scheme complexity for a series of subset sum problems.

  19. Impact of iron deficiency anaemia on T lymphocytes & their subsets in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullick, Shalini; Rusia, Usha; Sikka, Meera; Faridi, M A

    2006-12-01

    While there is evidence of an altered immune profile in iron deficiency, the precise immunoregulatory role of iron is not known. Information particular in children who are vulnerable to iron deficiency and infection, is lacking. We undertook this study with the aim of documenting the changes in T cell subsets in children in the age group of 1 to 5 yr with iron deficiency. The levels of T lymphocytes, their CD4+ and CD8+ subsets and the CD4 : CD8 ratio were evaluated in 40 iron deficient and 30 healthy children. The impact of oral iron supplementation for three months on the same parameters was also noted in 30 children. Significantly lower levels of T lymphocytes as well as CD4+ cells was observed in the iron deficient children (P<0.01 and 0.002 respectively). The CD4 : CD8 ratio was also significantly lower in this group (P<0.05). Iron supplementation improved the CD4 counts significantly. Our study demonstrated quantitatively altered T cell subsets in iron deficiency in children, and a relationship between the severity of haematological and immunological compromise. The clinical and epidemiological implications of this relationship have topical relevance since ID is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide.

  20. PKH26 staining defines distinct subsets of normal human colon epithelial cells at different maturation stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pastò

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Colon crypts are characterized by a hierarchy of cells distributed along the crypt axis. Aim of this paper was to develop an in vitro system for separation of epithelial cell subsets in different maturation stages from normal human colon. METHODOLOGY AND MAJOR FINDINGS: Dissociated colonic epithelial cells were stained with PKH26, which allows identification of distinct populations based on their proliferation rate, and cultured in vitro in the absence of serum. The cytofluorimetric expression of CK20, Msi-1 and Lgr5 was studied. The mRNA levels of several stemness-associated genes were also compared in cultured cell populations and in three colon crypt populations isolated by microdissection. A PKH(pos population survived in culture and formed spheroids; this population included subsets with slow (PKH(high and rapid (PKH(low replicative rates. Molecular analysis revealed higher mRNA levels of both Msi-1 and Lgr-5 in PKH(high cells; by cytofluorimetric analysis, Msi-1(+/Lgr5(+ cells were only found within PKH(high cells, whereas Msi-1(+/Lgr5(- cells were also observed in the PKH(low population. As judged by qRT-PCR analysis, the expression of several stemness-associated markers (Bmi-1, EphB2, EpCAM, ALDH1 was highly enriched in Msi-1(+/Lgr5(+ cells. While CK20 expression was mainly found in PKH(low and PKH(neg cells, a small PKH(high subset co-expressed both CK20 and Msi-1, but not Lgr5; cells with these properties also expressed Mucin, and could be identified in vivo in colon crypts. These results mirrored those found in cells isolated from different crypt portions by microdissection, and based on proliferation rates and marker expression they allowed to define several subsets at different maturation stages: PKH(high/Lgr5(+/Msi-1(+/CK20(-, PKH(high/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(+/CK20(+, PKH(low/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(+/Ck20(-, and PKH(low/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(-/CK20(+ cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show the possibility of deriving in vitro, without any

  1. Human CD56dimCD16dim Cells As an Individualized Natural Killer Cell Subset

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    Mathieu Amand

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human natural killer (NK cells can be subdivided in several subpopulations on the basis of the relative expression of the adhesion molecule CD56 and the activating receptor CD16. Whereas blood CD56brightCD16dim/− NK cells are classically viewed as immature precursors and cytokine producers, the larger CD56dimCD16bright subset is considered as the most cytotoxic one. In peripheral blood of healthy donors, we noticed the existence of a population of CD56dimCD16dim NK cells that was frequently higher in number than the CD56bright subsets and even expanded in occasional control donors but also in transporter associated with antigen processing-deficient patients, two familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type II patients, and several common variable immunodeficiency patients. This population was detected but globally reduced in a longitudinal cohort of 18 HIV-1-infected individuals. Phenotypically, the new subset contained a high percentage of relatively immature cells, as reflected by a significantly stronger representation of NKG2A+ and CD57− cells compared to their CD56dimCD16bright counterparts. The phenotype of the CD56dimCD16dim population was differentially affected by HIV-1 infection as compared to the other NK cell subsets and only partly restored to normal by antiretroviral therapy. From the functional point of view, sorted CD56dimCD16dim cells degranulated more than CD56dimCD16bright cells but less than CD56dimCD16− NK cells. The population was also identified in various organs of immunodeficient mice with a human immune system (“humanized” mice reconstituted from human cord blood stem cells. In conclusion, the CD56dimCD16dim NK cell subpopulation displays distinct phenotypic and functional features. It remains to be clarified if these cells are the immediate precursors of the CD56dimCD16bright subset or placed somewhere else in the NK cell differentiation and maturation pathway.

  2. Methotrexate preferentially affects Tc1 and Tc17 subset of CD8 T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Amit; Ahmad, Shabeer; Kaur, Prabhdeep; Bhatnagar, Archana; Dhawan, Veena; Dhir, Varun

    2018-02-20

    Rheumatoid arthritis is considered a T-lymphocyte-mediated disease. However, studies have focussed on CD4 T-lymphocytes, ignoring CD8 T-lymphocytes despite the latter being found abundantly in the synovium. Specifically, there is little data of the effect of methotrexate, the gold-standard DMARD, on various CD8 cytokine T-lymphocyte subsets and conflicting data on CD4 subsets. In this prospective study, patients with active rheumatoid arthritis, who were 18 to 65 years of age, were treated with methotrexate (up to 25 mg per week) for 24 weeks. At baseline and 24 weeks, frequencies of CD8 + IFNγ + , CD8 + IL17 + , CD8 + IL4 + , corresponding CD4 subsets and plasma levels of IFNγ, IL-12, IL-10, IL-4 and IL-17 were determined by flow cytometry. These are summarised as median (IQR = interquartile range, 25th-75th percentile) and paired data compared using Wilcoxon signed rank test. This study included 67 patients (F/M = 4:1) with rheumatoid arthritis, 57 (85%) being RF positive and 20 receiving prednisolone at baseline. Mean (± SD) dose of methotrexate at 24 weeks was 22.9 ± 3.0 mg per week. On treatment with methotrexate, there was a significant (p = 0.04) decline in CD8 + IFNγ + cells from 37.2 (IQR 19.4-60.2) to 22.7% (IQR 8.5-49.7) and a marginal increase in CD8 + IL17 + cells from 0.3 (IQR 0.1-0.6) to 0.4 (IQR 0.2-1.2), p = 0.006. There was no significant change in the other subsets. There was also a significant decline in circulating levels of IL-12, IL-10 and IL-17 and marginal increase in IL-4. On evaluating by response, non-responders but not responders had a significant increase in CD8 + IL17 + (p = 0.01). There is a significant decline of CD8 + IFNγ + T cells and marginal increase in CD8 + IL17 + T cells after methotrexate. Change in Tc1 subset may be mediated through reduction in IL-12 levels.

  3. Transposed-Letter Priming Effects with Masked Subset Primes: A Re-Examination of the "Relative Position Priming Constraint"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Eric J.; Lupker, Stephen J.; Davis, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments are reported investigating the role of letter order in orthographic subset priming (e.g., "grdn"-GARDEN) using both the conventional masked priming technique as well as the sandwich priming technique in a lexical decision task. In all three experiments, subset primes produced priming with the effect being considerably…

  4. AMSR-E Rainfall Subset, collocated with the CloudSat track, in HDF-EOS format V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a subset of AMSR-E rain rat eproduct along CloudSat field of view track. The goal of the subset is to select and return AMSR-E data that are within +-100 km...

  5. Random thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ajansen; kwhitefoot; panteltje1; edprochak; sudhakar, the

    2014-07-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “How to make a quantum random-number generator from a mobile phone” (16 May, http://ow.ly/xFiYc, see also p5), which describes a way of delivering random numbers by counting the number of photons that impinge on each of the individual pixels in the camera of a Nokia N9 smartphone.

  6. Differential in vivo activation of monocyte subsets during low-grade inflammation through experimental endotoxemia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, B; Hohensinner, P J; Krychtiuk, K A; Matzneller, P; Koller, L; Brekalo, M; Maurer, G; Huber, K; Zeitlinger, M; Jilma, B; Wojta, J; Speidl, W S

    2016-07-22

    Human monocytes are a heterogeneous cell population, which can be divided into a classical (CD14++CD16-), a non-classical (CD14+CD16+), and an intermediate (CD14++CD16+) subset. We hypothesized that low-grade inflammation may differentially affect monocyte subsets. We used a human lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion model to mimic low-grade inflammation to identify, which monocyte subsets are preferentially activated under these conditions. Monocyte subsets were identified by staining for CD14 and CD16, activation status of monocytes was analyzed by staining for CD11b and a novel in situ mRNA hybridization approach to detect IL-6 and IL-8 specific mRNA at the single-cell level by flow cytometry. After LPS challenge, cell numbers of monocyte subsets dropped after 2 h with cell numbers recovering after 6 h. Distribution of monocyte subsets was skewed dramatically towards the intermediate subset after 24 h. Furthermore, intermediate monocytes displayed the largest increase of CD11b expression after 2 h. Finally, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA levels increased in intermediate and non-classical monocytes after 6 h whereas these mRNA levels in classical monocytes changed only marginally. In conclusion, our data indicates that the main responding subset of monocytes to standardized low-grade inflammation induced by LPS in humans is the CD14++CD16+ intermediate subset followed by the CD14+CD16+ non-classical monocyte subset. Circulating classical monocytes showed comparably less reaction to LPS challenge in vivo.

  7. Effects of polydextrose with breakfast or with a midmorning preload on food intake and other appetite-related parameters in healthy normal-weight and overweight females: An acute, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and crossover study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibarra, A.; Olli, K.; Pasman, W.; Hendriks, H.; Alhoniemi, E.; Raza, G.S.; Herzig, K.H.; Tiihonen, K.

    2017-01-01

    Polydextrose (PDX) reduces subsequent energy intake (EI) when administered at midmorning in single-blind trials of primarily normal-weight men. However, it is unclear if this effect also occurs when PDX is given at breakfast time. Furthermore, for ecological validity, it is desirable to study a

  8. Comparative expression profiling of distinct T cell subsets undergoing oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Lichtenfels

    Full Text Available The clinical outcome of adoptive T cell transfer-based immunotherapies is often limited due to different escape mechanisms established by tumors in order to evade the hosts' immune system. The establishment of an immunosuppressive micromilieu by tumor cells along with distinct subsets of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is often associated with oxidative stress that can affect antigen-specific memory/effector cytotoxic T cells thereby substantially reducing their frequency and functional activation. Therefore, protection of tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes from oxidative stress may enhance the anti-tumor-directed immune response. In order to better define the key pathways/proteins involved in the response to oxidative stress a comparative 2-DE-based proteome analysis of naïve CD45RA(+ and their memory/effector CD45RO(+ T cell counterparts in the presence and absence of low dose hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 was performed in this pilot study. Based on the profiling data of these T cell subpopulations under the various conditions, a series of differentially expressed spots were defined, members thereof identified by mass spectrometry and subsequently classified according to their cellular function and localization. Representative targets responding to oxidative stress including proteins involved in signaling pathways, in regulating the cellular redox status as well as in shaping/maintaining the structural cell integrity were independently verified at the transcript and protein level under the same conditions in both T cell subsets. In conclusion the resulting profiling data describe complex, oxidative stress-induced, but not strictly concordant changes within the respective expression profiles of CD45RA(+ and CD45RO(+ T cells. Some of the differentially expressed genes/proteins might be further exploited as potential targets toward modulating the redox capacity of the distinct lymphocyte subsets thereby providing the basis for further studies

  9. Dimethyl fumarate treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis influences B-cell subsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Steven K.; Wu, Qi; Wang, Qin; Dowling, Catherine A.; Taitano, Sophina H.; Mao, Guangmei

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera, BG-12) affects B-cell subsets in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods: Peripheral blood B cells were compared for surface marker expression in patients with RRMS prior to initiation of treatment, after 4–6 months, and at more than 1 year of treatment with BG-12. Production of interleukin (IL)–10 by RRMS patient B cells was also analyzed. Results: Total numbers of peripheral blood B lymphocytes declined after 4–6 months of BG-12 treatment, due to losses in both the CD27+ memory B cells and CD27neg B-cell subsets. Some interpatient variability was observed. In contrast, circulating CD24highCD38high (T2-MZP) B cells increased in percentage in the majority of patients with RRMS after 4–6 months and were present in higher numbers in all of the patients after 12 months of treatment. The CD43+CD27+ B-1 B cells also increased at the later time point in most patients but were unchanged at 4–6 months compared to pretreatment levels. Purified B cells from 7 of the 9 patients with RRMS tested after 4–6 months of treatment were able to produce IL-10 following CD40 ligand stimulation, and the amount corresponded with the combined levels of T2-MZP and B-1 B cells in the sample. None of the patients with RRMS in this study have had a relapse while taking BG-12. Conclusions: These data suggest that BG-12 differentially affects B-cell subsets in patients with RRMS, resulting in increased numbers of circulating B lymphocytes with regulatory capacity. PMID:27006972

  10. Small high-density lipoprotein is associated with monocyte subsets in stable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krychtiuk, Konstantin A; Kastl, Stefan P; Pfaffenberger, Stefan; Pongratz, Thomas; Hofbauer, Sebastian L; Wonnerth, Anna; Katsaros, Katharina M; Goliasch, Georg; Gaspar, Ludovit; Huber, Kurt; Maurer, Gerald; Dostal, Elisabeth; Oravec, Stanislav; Wojta, Johann; Speidl, Walter S

    2014-12-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles are heterogeneous in structure and function and the role of HDL subfractions in atherogenesis is not well understood. It has been suggested that small HDL may be dysfunctional in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Monocytes are considered to play a key role in atherosclerotic diseases. Circulating monocytes can be divided into three subtypes according to their surface expression of CD14 and CD16. Our aim was to examine whether monocyte subsets are associated with HDL subfractions in patients with atherosclerosis. We included 90 patients with angiographically stable CAD. Monocyte subsets were defined as classical monocytes (CD14++CD16-; CM), intermediate monocytes (CD14++CD16+; IM) and non-classical monocytes (CD14+CD16++; NCM). HDL subfractions were measured by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel. Serum levels of small HDL correlated with circulating pro-inflammatory NCM and showed an inverse relationship to circulating CM independently from other lipid parameters, risk factors, inflammatory parameters or statin treatment regime, respectively. IM were not associated with small HDL. In particular, patients with small HDL levels in the highest tertile showed dramatically increased levels of NCM (14.7 ± 7% vs. 10.7 ± 5% and 10.8 ± 5%; p = 0.006) and a decreased proportion of CM (79.3 ± 7% vs. 83.7 ± 6% and 83.9 ± 6%; p = 0.004) compared to patients in the two lower tertiles. In contrast, intermediate HDL, large HDL and total HDL were not associated with monocyte subset distribution. Small HDL levels are associated with pro-inflammatory NCM and inversely correlated with CM. This may suggest that small HDL could have dysfunctional anti-inflammatory properties in patients with established CAD. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Features of Memory-Like and PD-1+ Human NK Cell Subsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Chiesa, Mariella; Pesce, Silvia; Muccio, Letizia; Carlomagno, Simona; Sivori, Simona; Moretta, Alessandro; Marcenaro, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Human NK cells are distinguished into CD56brightCD16− cells and CD56dimCD16+ cells. These two subsets are conventionally associated with differential functional outcomes and are heterogeneous with respect to the expression of KIR and CD94/NKG2 heterodimers that represent the two major types of HLA-class I-specific receptors. Recent studies indicated that immature CD56bright NK cells, homogeneously expressing the inhibitory CD94/NKG2A receptor, are precursors of CD56dim NK cells that, in turn, during their process of differentiation, lose expression of CD94/NKG2A and subsequentially acquire inhibitory KIRs and LIR-1. The terminally differentiated phenotype of CD56dim cells is marked by the expression of the CD57 molecule that is associated with poor responsiveness to cytokine stimulation, but retained cytolytic capacity. Remarkably, this NKG2A−KIR+LIR-1+CD57+CD56dim NK cell subset when derived from individuals previously exposed to pathogens, such as human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), may contain “memory-like” NK cells. These cells are generally characterized by an upregulation of the activating receptor CD94/NKG2C and a downregulation of the inhibitory receptor Siglec-7. The “memory-like” NK cells are persistent over time and display some hallmarks of adaptive immunity, i.e., clonal expansion, more effective antitumor and antiviral immune responses, longevity, as well as given epigenetic modifications. Interestingly, unknown cofactors associated with HCMV infection may induce the onset of a recently identified fully mature NK cell subset, characterized by marked downregulation of the activating receptors NKp30 and NKp46 and by the unexpected expression of the inhibitory PD-1 receptor. This phenotype correlates with an impaired antitumor NK cell activity that can be partially restored by antibody-mediated disruption of PD-1/PD-L interaction. PMID:27683578

  12. Features of memory-like and PD-1+ human NK cell subsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Della Chiesa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human NK cells are distinguished into CD56brightCD16- cells and CD56dimCD16+ cells. These two subsets are conventionally associated with differential functional outcomes and are heterogeneous with respect to the expression of KIR and CD94/NKG2 heterodimers that represent the two major types of HLA class I-specific receptors. Recent studies indicated that immature CD56bright NK cells, homogeneously expressing the inhibitory CD94/NKG2A receptor, are precursors of CD56dim NK cells that in turn during their process of differentiation lose expression of CD94/NKG2A, and subsequentially acquire inhibitory KIRs and LIR-1. The terminally differentiated phenotype of CD56dim cells is marked by the expression of the CD57 molecule that is associated with poor responsiveness to cytokine stimulation, but retained cytolytic capacity.Remarkably, this CD56dimNKG2A-KIR+LIR-1+CD57+ NK cell subset when derived from individuals previously exposed to pathogens, such as HCMV, may contain memory-like NK cells. These cells are generally characterized by an up-regulation of the activating receptor CD94/NKG2C and a down-regulation of the inhibitory receptor Siglec-7. The memory-like NK cells are persistent over-time and display some hallmarks of adaptive immunity, i.e. clonal expansion, more effective anti-tumor and anti-viral immune responses, longevity as well as given epigenetic modifications. Interestingly, unknown co-factors associated to HCMV infection may induce the onset of a recently identified fully mature NK cell subset, characterized by marked downregulation of the activating receptors NKp30 and NKp46 and by the unexpected expression of the inhibitory PD-1 receptor. This phenotype correlates with an impaired anti-tumor NK cell activity that can be partially restored by antibody-mediated disruption of PD-1/PD-L interaction.

  13. Curcumin, myrecen and cineol modulate the percentage of lymphocyte subsets altered by 2,3,7, 8-tetracholorodibenzo-p-dioxins (TCDD) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, Osman; Tanyildizi, Sadettin; Godekmerdan, Ahmet

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a persistent environmental pollutant, on the percentage of T-cell subsets and B-lymphocyte and effectiveness of curcumin, β-myrcene (myrcene) and 1,8-cineole (cineol) on this toxicity in rats. Rats (n = 112) were divided randomly into 8 equal groups. One group was kept as control and given corn oil as carrier. TCDD was orally administered at the dose of 2 µg/kg/week. Curcumin, myrcene and cineol were orally administered by gavages at the doses of 100, 200 and 100 mg/kg/day, respectively, dissolved in corn oil with and without TCDD. The blood samples were taken from half of the rats on day 30 and from the rest on day 60 for the determination of lymphocyte subsets (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), CD161(+), CD45RA, CD4(+)CD25(+) and total lymphocyte). The results indicated that although TCDD significantly (p cineol significantly decreased CD8(+) cells levels but increased CD3(+), CD4(+), CD161(+), CD45RA, CD4(+)CD25(+) and total lymphocyte cells populations. The beneficial effects of curcumin, myrcene and cineol and the toxic effects of TCDD were increased at day 60 compared to day 30. In conclusion, curcumin, myrcene and cineol showed immunomodulatory effects and eliminated TCDD-induced immune suppressive effects in rats.

  14. Ontogeny and characterization of blood leukocyte subsets and serum proteins in piglets before and after weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Madsen, H.R.; Jensen, K.H.; Nielsen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Existing knowledge about the development of the porcine immune system was extended by phenotypic characterization of leukocyte subsets and with assessment of Mannan-Binding Lectin (MBL) and immunoglobulin concentrations in peripheral blood of healthy piglets. Single-color and/or double-color flow...... parameters seem to be affected at the time of weaning which took place at 45 weeks of age. Using principal component analysis, all analyzed variables - except one were grouped into 8 factors with distinct developmental profiles. Several of these factors revealed an apparent suppression, a steady state...

  15. Differential expression of granulopoiesis related genes in neutrophil subsets distinguished by membrane expression of CD177

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Nan; Mora-Jensen, Helena; Theilgaard-Mønch, Kim

    2014-01-01

    quantitative-PCR. CD177 expression on neutrophil precursors in bone marrow was analyzed using quantitative PCR and flowcytometry. RESULTS: The proportion of CD177+ cells increased during neutrophil maturation in bone marrow. Fold change analysis of gene expression profile of sorted CD177+ and CD177......-genes was increased, possibly due to activation. CONCLUSION: The neutrophil population can be distinguished by membrane expression of CD177 into subsets that are different in expression of GP mRNA but not in GP protein production. GP gene expression is also elevated in AAV patients, which is not explained by skewed...

  16. Monocyte subset distribution in patients with stable atherosclerosis and elevated levels of lipoprotein(a).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krychtiuk, Konstantin A; Kastl, Stefan P; Hofbauer, Sebastian L; Wonnerth, Anna; Goliasch, Georg; Ozsvar-Kozma, Maria; Katsaros, Katharina M; Maurer, Gerald; Huber, Kurt; Dostal, Elisabeth; Binder, Christoph J; Pfaffenberger, Stefan; Oravec, Stanislav; Wojta, Johann; Speidl, Walter S

    2015-01-01

    Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a proatherogenic plasma lipoprotein currently established as an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic disease and as a predictor for acute thrombotic complications. In addition, Lp(a) is the major carrier of proinflammatory oxidized phospholipids (OxPL). Today, atherosclerosis is considered to be an inflammatory disease of the vessel wall in which monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages are crucially involved. Circulating monocytes can be divided according to their surface expression pattern of CD14 and CD16 into at least 3 subsets with distinct inflammatory and atherogenic potential. The aim of this study was to examine whether elevated levels of Lp(a) and OxPL on apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins (OxPL/apoB) are associated with changes in monocyte subset distribution. We included 90 patients with stable coronary artery disease. Lp(a) and OxPL/apoB were measured, and monocyte subsets were identified as classical monocytes (CMs; CD14++CD16-), intermediate monocytes (IMs; CD14++CD16+), and nonclassical monocytes (NCMs; CD14+CD16++) by flow cytometry. In patients with elevated levels of Lp(a) (>50 mg/dL), monocyte subset distribution was skewed toward an increase in the proportion of IM (7.0 ± 3.8% vs 5.2 ± 3.0%; P = .026), whereas CM (82.6 ± 6.5% vs 82.0 ± 6.8%; P = .73) and NCM (10.5 ± 5.3 vs 12.8 ± 6.0; P = .10) were not significantly different. This association was independent of clinical risk factors, choice of statin treatment regime, and inflammatory markers. In addition, OxPL/apoB was higher in patients with elevated Lp(a) and correlated with IM but not CM and NCM. In conclusion, we provide a potential link between elevated levels of Lp(a) and a proatherogenic distribution of monocyte subtypes in patients with stable atherosclerotic disease. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lymphocyte subsets, dendritic cells and cytokine profiles in mice with melanoma treated with Uncaria tomentosa

    OpenAIRE

    Lozada-Requena, Iván; Laboratorio de Inmunología. Departamento de Ciencias Celulares y Moleculares. Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. EMINDES SAC (empresa de investigación y desarrollo en cáncer). Lima, Perú.; Núñez, César; Laboratorio de Inmunología. Departamento de Ciencias Celulares y Moleculares. Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. EMINDES SAC (empresa de investigación y desarrollo en cáncer). Lima, Perú.; Alvárez, Yubell; Laboratorio de Inmunología. Departamento de Ciencias Celulares y Moleculares. Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Kahn, Laura; Laboratorio de Inmunología. Departamento de Ciencias Celulares y Moleculares. Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Aguilar, José; Laboratorio de Inmunología. Departamento de Ciencias Celulares y Moleculares. Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the immunomodulatory effect on lymphocyte subsets, dendritic cells (DC), Th1 / Th2 / Th17 and inflammatory cytokines on systemic level and/or in the tumor microenvironment of mice with or without melanoma. Materials and methods: Peripheral blood and/or primary tumors samples were obtained of mice with B16 melanoma treated or not with a hydroalcoholic extract of Uncaria tomentosa (UT) with 5.03% of pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (UT-POA) obtained from the bark of the pl...

  18. Association of HADHA expression with the risk of breast cancer: targeted subset analysis and meta-analysis of microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamtani Manju

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of n-3 fatty acids in prevention of breast cancer is well recognized, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. In view of the growing need for early detection of breast cancer, Graham et al. (2010 studied the microarray gene expression in histologically normal epithelium of subjects with or without breast cancer. We conducted a secondary analysis of this dataset with a focus on the genes (n = 47 involved in fat and lipid metabolism. We used stepwise multivariate logistic regression analyses, volcano plots and false discovery rates for association analyses. We also conducted meta-analyses of other microarray studies using random effects models for three outcomes--risk of breast cancer (380 breast cancer patients and 240 normal subjects, risk of metastasis (430 metastatic compared to 1104 non-metastatic breast cancers and risk of recurrence (484 recurring versus 890 non-recurring breast cancers. Results The HADHA gene [hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase/enoyl-CoA hydratase (trifunctional protein, alpha subunit] was significantly under-expressed in breast cancer; more so in those with estrogen receptor-negative status. Our meta-analysis showed an 18.4%-26% reduction in HADHA expression in breast cancer. Also, there was an inconclusive but consistent under-expression of HADHA in subjects with metastatic and recurring breast cancers. Conclusions Involvement of mitochondria and the mitochondrial trifunctional protein (encoded by HADHA gene in breast carcinogenesis is known. Our results lend additional support to the possibility of this involvement. Further, our results suggest that targeted subset analysis of large genome-based datasets can provide interesting association signals.

  19. Comparative analysis of cervical spine management in a subset of severe traumatic brain injury cases using computer simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimbroe J Carter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No randomized control trial to date has studied the use of cervical spine management strategies in cases of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI at risk for cervical spine instability solely due to damaged ligaments. A computer algorithm is used to decide between four cervical spine management strategies. A model assumption is that the emergency room evaluation shows no spinal deficit and a computerized tomogram of the cervical spine excludes the possibility of fracture of cervical vertebrae. The study's goal is to determine cervical spine management strategies that maximize brain injury functional survival while minimizing quadriplegia. METHODS/FINDINGS: The severity of TBI is categorized as unstable, high risk and stable based on intracranial hypertension, hypoxemia, hypotension, early ventilator associated pneumonia, admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS and age. Complications resulting from cervical spine management are simulated using three decision trees. Each case starts with an amount of primary and secondary brain injury and ends as a functional survivor, severely brain injured, quadriplegic or dead. Cervical spine instability is studied with one-way and two-way sensitivity analyses providing rankings of cervical spine management strategies for probabilities of management complications based on QALYs. Early collar removal received more QALYs than the alternative strategies in most arrangements of these comparisons. A limitation of the model is the absence of testing against an independent data set. CONCLUSIONS: When clinical logic and components of cervical spine management are systematically altered, changes that improve health outcomes are identified. In the absence of controlled clinical studies, the results of this comparative computer assessment show that early collar removal is preferred over a wide range of realistic inputs for this subset of traumatic brain injury. Future research is needed on identifying factors in

  20. Universal randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Viktor S [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-31

    In the last two decades, it has been established that a single universal probability distribution function, known as the Tracy-Widom (TW) distribution, in many cases provides a macroscopic-level description of the statistical properties of microscopically different systems, including both purely mathematical ones, such as increasing subsequences in random permutations, and quite physical ones, such as directed polymers in random media or polynuclear crystal growth. In the first part of this review, we use a number of models to examine this phenomenon at a simple qualitative level and then consider the exact solution for one-dimensional directed polymers in a random environment, showing that free energy fluctuations in such a system are described by the universal TW distribution. The second part provides detailed appendix material containing the necessary mathematical background for the first part. (reviews of topical problems)

  1. Inverse expression of olfactory cell adhesion molecule in a subset of olfactory axons and a subset of mitral/tufted cells in the developing rat main olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, Helen B; Gabeau, Darlene; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Mori, Kensaku; Greer, Charles A

    2003-04-14

    The projection of olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) axons from the olfactory epithelium (OE) to the olfactory bulb (OB) is highly organized but topographically complex. Evidence suggests that odorant receptor expression zones in the OE map to the OB about orthogonal axes. One candidate molecule for the formation of zone-specific targeting of OSN axon synapses onto the OB is the olfactory cell adhesion molecule (OCAM). OCAM(+) OSNs are restricted to three of the four zones in the OE and project their axons to the ventral OB where they form synapses with mitral/tufted (M/T) cells. To determine when this zonal connection is established, we have examined OCAM expression in rat olfactory system, during seminal periods of glomerular formation. OCAM(+) axons sort out in the ventral olfactory nerve layer of the OB before glomerular formation. Surprisingly, OCAM was also expressed transiently by subsets of M/T cell dendrites located in the dorsal OB. The expression of OCAM by OSN axons and M/T dendrites was asymmetrical; in the dorsal OB, OCAM(-) OSN axons synapsed on OCAM(+) M/T dendrites, whereas in the ventral OB, OCAM(+) OSN axons synapsed on OCAM(-) M/T dendrites. The restricted spatial map of OCAM(+) M/T cells appeared earlier in development than the zonal segregation of OCAM(+) OSN axons. Thus, OCAM on M/T cell dendrites may act in a spatiotemporal window to specify regions of the developing rat OB, thereby establishing a foundation for mapping of the OE zonal organization onto the OB. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Random triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Matula, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    The author summarizes some previous results concerning random triangles. He describes the Gaussian triangle and random triangles whose vertices lie in a unit n-dimensional ball, in a rectangle or in a general bounded convex set. In the second part, the author deals with an inscribed triangle in a triangle - let ABC be an equilateral triangle and let M, N, O be three points, each laying on one side of the ABC. We call MNO inscribed triangle (in an equi- laterral triangle). The median triangle ...

  3. Random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Madan Lal

    1990-01-01

    Since the publication of Random Matrices (Academic Press, 1967) so many new results have emerged both in theory and in applications, that this edition is almost completely revised to reflect the developments. For example, the theory of matrices with quaternion elements was developed to compute certain multiple integrals, and the inverse scattering theory was used to derive asymptotic results. The discovery of Selberg's 1944 paper on a multiple integral also gave rise to hundreds of recent publications. This book presents a coherent and detailed analytical treatment of random matrices, leading

  4. Optimal Exact Simulation of Max-Stable and Related Random Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhipeng; Blanchet, Jose H.; Dieker, A. B.; Mikosch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We consider the random field M(t)=\\sup_{n\\geq 1}\\big\\{-\\log A_{n}+X_{n}(t)\\big\\}\\,,\\qquad t\\in T\\, for a set $T\\subset \\mathbb{R}^{m}$, where $(X_{n})$ is an iid sequence of centered Gaussian random fields on $T$ and $0

  5. Multicentre evaluation of stable reference whole blood for enumeration of lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cherry; Belgrave, Danielle; Janossy, George; Bradley, Nicholas J; Stebbings, Richard; Gaines-Das, Rose; Thorpe, Robin; Sawle, Alex; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Brando, Bruno; Gratama, Jan Willem; Orfao de Matos, Alberto; Papa, Stephano; Papamichail, Michael; Lenkei, Rodica; Rothe, Gregor; Barnett, David

    2005-06-22

    BACKGROUND: Clinical indications for lymphocyte subset enumeration by flow cytometry include monitoring of disease progression and timing of therapeutic intervention in infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Until recently international standardisation has not been possible due to a lack of suitable stable reference material. METHODS: This study consisted of two trials of a stabilised whole blood preparation. Eleven participants were sent two standard protocols for staining plus gating strategy and asked to report absolute counts for lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: No significant difference was detected between the two methods when results from the two assays and all partners were pooled. Significant differences in results from the different partners were observed. However, representative mean counts were obtained for geometric means, geometric coefficient of variation, and 95% confidence interval for CD3 910 cells/mul, 9%, and 888 to 933, respectively), CD4 (495 cells/mul, 12%, and 483 to 507), and CD8 (408 cells/mul, 13%, and 393 to 422). CONCLUSION: We have introduced a stabilised blood preparation and a well-characterized biological standard. The availability of this reference material greatly simplifies the validation of new techniques for CD4(+) T-cell enumeration and the expansion of external quality assurance programmes for clinical laboratories, including those that operate in resource-restricted environments. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Changes in Circulating B Cell Subsets Associated with Aging and Acute SIV Infection in Rhesus Macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W L William Chang

    Full Text Available Aging and certain viral infections can negatively impact humoral responses in humans. To further develop the nonhuman primate (NHP model for investigating B cell dynamics in human aging and infectious disease, a flow cytometric panel was developed to characterize circulating rhesus B cell subsets. Significant differences between human and macaque B cells included the proportions of cells within IgD+ and switched memory populations and a prominent CD21-CD27+ unswitched memory population detected only in macaques. We then utilized the expanded panel to analyze B cell alterations associated with aging and acute simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV infection in the NHP model. In the aging study, distinct patterns of B cell subset frequencies were observed for macaques aged one to five years compared to those between ages 5 and 30 years. In the SIV infection study, B cell frequencies and absolute number were dramatically reduced following acute infection, but recovered within four weeks of infection. Thereafter, the frequencies of activated memory B cells progressively increased; these were significantly correlated with the magnitude of SIV-specific IgG responses, and coincided with impaired maturation of anti-SIV antibody avidity, as previously reported for HIV-1 infection. These observations further validate the NHP model for investigation of mechanisms responsible for B cells alterations associated with immunosenescence and infectious disease.

  7. Molecular mechanisms of differentiation of murine pro-inflammatory gamma-delta T cell subsets

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    Bruno eSilva-Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-delta (gd T cells are unconventional innate-like lymphocytes that actively participate in protective immunity against tumors and infectious organisms including bacteria, viruses and parasites. However, gd T cells are also involved in the development of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. gd T cells are functionally characterized by very rapid production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, while also impacting on (slower but long-lasting adaptive immune responses. This makes it crucial to understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate  T cell effector functions. Although they share many similarities with ab T cells, our knowledge of the molecular pathways that control effector functions in gd T cells still lags significantly behind. In this review, we focus on the segregation of interferon-gamma versus interleukin-17 production in murine thymic-derived gd T cell subsets defined by CD27 and CCR6 expression levels. We summarize the most recent studies that disclose the specific epigenetic and transcriptional mechanisms that govern the stability or plasticity of discrete pro-inflammatory gd T cell subsets, whose manipulation may be valuable for regulating (autoimmune responses.

  8. The distribution and function of human memory T cell subsets in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Si Yuan; Gu, Yong; Lu, Chuan Gang; Zou, Jian Yong; Hong, Hai; Wang, RongFu

    2017-06-01

    The distribution and function of T lymphocytes in human lung cancer remain limited. In this study, we investigated the properties of human T cell subsets in the blood of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We found a relatively normal level of CD4+ subsets in the blood of NSCLC patients, but CD8+ effector T cells increased and CD8+ effector memory cells declined compared to the healthy donors. To further analyze their properties, we stimulated the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of NSCLC patients by mitogens to examine cytokine production. Our data suggest that both CD4+ and CD8+ naïve cells in NSCLC patients significantly reduced IFN-γ and TNF-α production. Additionally, fewer CD8+ effector cells produced IFN-γ and TNF-α in NSCLC patients than in healthy subjects. Moreover, similar results were observed for CD4+ or CD8+ memory cells in NSCLC patients for the production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-17. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that the function of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in NSCLC patients is compromised or dysregulated. The development of vaccines and antitumor immunotherapy may be essential for the treatment of lung cancer patients.

  9. Human memory CCR4+CD8+ T cell subset has the ability to produce multiple cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Takaaki; Takiguchi, Masafumi

    2009-05-01

    The CC chemokine receptor (CCR)4 is associated with trafficking of specialized cutaneous memory type 2 T(h) cells in the skin. However, a CD8(+) T cell population expressing CCR4 still remains uncharacterized. In the present study, we investigated the expression and function of CCR4 on human CD8(+) T cells and characterized CCR4(+)CD8(+) human T cells. Multi-color flow cytometric analysis revealed that CCR4(+)CD8(+) T cells were predominantly found in the CD27(+)CD28(+)CD45RA(-) memory subset and expressed the CCR7(+/-)CCR5(-) phenotype. CCR4(+)CD8(+) T cells expressed neither perforin (Per) nor granzymes (Gra) A/B, suggesting that they were more immature memory T cells than the CCR6(+)CD8(+) early effector memory T cells that express GraA and Per. CCR4(+)CD8(+) T cells effectively produced IL-4, IFN-gamma, IL-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, indicating that they are memory T cells having the ability to secrete type 1 and type 2 cytokines. These cells also showed chemotaxic activity in response to CC chemokine receptor ligand (CCL)17/thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and CCL22/macrophage-derived chemokine. These results suggest that CCR4(+)CD8(+) T cells are in an immature memory T cell subset in the differentiation pathway of human CD8(+) T cells and that they migrate to inflammatory sites in the skin where they are involved in cutaneous immunity.

  10. The effect of ageing on human lymphocyte subsets: comparison of males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderson Robert D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is reported to be a decline in immune function and an alteration in the frequency of circulating lymphocytes with advancing age. There are also differences in ageing and lifespan between males and females. We performed this study to see if there were differences between males and females in the frequency of the different lymphocyte subsets with age. Results Using flow cytometry we have examined different populations of peripheral blood leukocytes purified from healthy subjects with age ranging from the third to the tenth decade. We used linear regression analysis to determine if there is a linear relationship between age and cell frequencies. For the whole group, we find that with age there is a significant decline in the percentage of naïve T cells and CD8+ T cells, and an increase in the percentage of effector memory cells, CD4+foxp3+ T cells and NK cells. For all cells where there was an effect of ageing, the slope of the curve was greater for men than for women and this was statistically significant for CD8+αβ+ T cells and CD3+CD45RA-CCR7- effector memory cells. There was also a difference for naïve cells but this was not significant. Conclusion The cause of the change in percentage of lymphocyte subsets with age, and the different effects on males and females is not fully understood but warrants further study.

  11. Gamma/delta T cell subsets in patients with active Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and tuberculin anergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szereday, L; Baliko, Z; Szekeres-Bartho, J

    2003-02-01

    Earlier data suggest that gamma/delta T cells may play an important role in the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of different gamma/delta subsets in peripheral blood of active tuberculosis patients with a positive or negative tuberculin reaction. Thirty-eight patients infected with M. tuberculosis and 22 healthy controls were included in the study. Venous blood was taken before starting antimycobacterial treatment. Lymphocytes were reacted with monoclonal antibodies specific for different gamma/delta V chains (Vdelta1, Vdelta2, Vgamma9 and Vgamma4). The results were analysed in the context of tuberculin reactivity and X-ray findings. Our results revealed a selective loss of Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T cells in the peripheral blood of tuberculin-negative patients with active tuberculosis compared to healthy controls, while the ratio of Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T cells in the peripheral blood of patients with a positive skin test did not differ from that of healthy controls. These findings demonstrate a relationship between the loss of the major M. tuberculosis-reactive subset of gammadelta T cells and the absence of tuberculin reactivity. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that gammadelta T cells play a role in the protective immune response to M. tuberculosis infection.

  12. γ/δ T cell subsets in patients with active Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and tuberculin anergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    SZEREDAY, L; BALIKO, Z; SZEKERES-BARTHO, J

    2003-01-01

    Earlier data suggest that γ/δ T cells may play an important role in the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of different γ/δ subsets in peripheral blood of active tuberculosis patients with a positive or negative tuberculin reaction. Thirty-eight patients infected with M. tuberculosis and 22 healthy controls were included in the study. Venous blood was taken before starting antimycobacterial treatment. Lymphocytes were reacted with monoclonal antibodies specific for different γ/δ V chains (Vδ1, Vδ2, Vγ9 and Vγ4). The results were analysed in the context of tuberculin reactivity and X-ray findings. Our results revealed a selective loss of Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells in the peripheral blood of tuberculin-negative patients with active tuberculosis compared to healthy controls, while the ratio of Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells in the peripheral blood of patients with a positive skin test did not differ from that of healthy controls. These findings demonstrate a relationship between the loss of the major M. tuberculosis-reactive subset of γδ T cells and the absence of tuberculin reactivity. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that γδ T cells play a role in the protective immune response to M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:12562390

  13. Effect of Smoking on Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subsets of Patients With Chronic Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düvenci Birben, Özlem; Akçay, Şule; Sezer, Siren; Şirvan, Şale; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    Smoking is known to suppress the immune system. It is also known that chronic renal failure affects the immune system. However, the number of studies investigating the effects of chronic renal failure and smoking together is limited. In our study, we examined whether smoking affects the diminished response of the immune system in patients with chronic renal failure. We compared peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in smoking and nonsmoking patients with chronic renal failure. We also used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to evaluate its correlation with the lymphocyte subset count in patients who are current smokers. Our study included 126 patients with chronic renal failure. According to their smoking habits, patients were divided into 2 groups: smokers and nonsmokers. The average age of patients who were smokers was 53.2 ± 1.5 years, with average age of nonsmokers being 59.2 ± 2.2 years. The average duration of smoking in smokers was 30.7 ± 2.7 packyears. We found that the percentage of cluster of differentiation 16-56 cells (natural killer cells) and lymphocyte percentage were significantly lower among smokers in our study (P renal failure, similar to that shown in healthy smokers. According to our findings, patients with chronic renal failure, where infection is the primary reason for mortality and morbidity, must be questioned for smoking and referred to smoking cessation clinics. Because of its immunosuppressive effects, smoking behaviors must be solved preoperatively in transplant candidates.

  14. Visualisation and subsets of the chemical universe database GDB-13 for virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Lorenz C; van Deursen, Ruud; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2011-07-01

    The chemical universe database GDB-13, which enumerates 977 million organic molecules up to 13 atoms of C, N, O, S and Cl following simple chemical stability and synthetic feasibility rules, represents a vast reservoir for new fragments. GDB-13 was classified using the MQN-system discussed in the preceding paper for the analysis of PubChem fragments. Two hundred and fifty-five subsets of GDB-13 were generated by the combinatorial use of eight restrictive criteria, including fragment-like ("rule of three") and scaffold-like (no acyclic carbon atoms) filters. Virtual screening for analogs of 15 commercial drugs of 13 non-hydrogen atoms or less shows that retrieving MQN-neighbors of a query molecule from GDB-13 or its subsets provides on average a 38-fold enrichment in structural analogs (Daylight-type substructure fingerprint Tanimoto T (SF) > 0.7), and a 75-fold enrichment in shape-similar analogs (ROCS TanimotoCombo score > 1.4). An MQN-searchable version of GDB-13 is provided at www.gdb.unibe.ch .

  15. Functional Specialization of Skin Dendritic Cell Subsets in Regulating T Cell Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Björn E.; Stoitzner, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are a heterogeneous family of professional antigen-presenting cells classically recognized as most potent inducers of adaptive immune responses. In this respect, Langerhans cells have long been considered to be prototypic immunogenic DC in the skin. More recently this view has considerably changed. The generation of in vivo cell ablation and lineage tracing models revealed the complexity of the skin DC network and, in particular, established the existence of a number of phenotypically distinct Langerin+ and negative DC populations in the dermis. Moreover, by now we appreciate that DC also exert important regulatory functions and are required for the maintenance of tolerance toward harmless foreign and self-antigens. This review summarizes our current understanding of the skin-resident DC system in the mouse and discusses emerging concepts on the functional specialization of the different skin DC subsets in regulating T cell responses. Special consideration is given to antigen cross-presentation as well as immune reactions toward contact sensitizers, cutaneous pathogens, and tumors. These studies form the basis for the manipulation of the human counterparts of the murine DC subsets to promote immunity or tolerance for the treatment of human disease. PMID:26557117

  16. A unique dermal dendritic cell subset that skews the immune response toward Th2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Murakami

    Full Text Available Dendritic cell (DC subsets in the skin and draining lymph nodes (LNs are likely to elicit distinct immune response types. In skin and skin-draining LNs, a dermal DC subset expressing macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin 2 (MGL2/CD301b was found distinct from migratory Langerhans cells (LCs or CD103(+ dermal DCs (dDCs. Lower expression levels of Th1-promoting and/or cross-presentation-related molecules were suggested by the transcriptome analysis and verified by the quantitative real-time PCR analysis in MGL2(+ dDCs than in CD103(+ dDCs. Transfer of MGL2(+ dDCs but not CD103(+ dDCs from FITC-sensitized mice induced a Th2-type immune response in vivo in a model of contact hypersensitivity. Targeting MGL2(+ dDCs with a rat monoclonal antibody against MGL2 efficiently induced a humoral immune response with Th2-type properties, as determined by the antibody subclass. We propose that the properties of MGL2(+ dDCs, are complementary to those of CD103(+ dDCs and skew the immune response toward a Th2-type response.

  17. Vitamin D modulates different IL-17-secreting T cell subsets in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Denise S M Medrado; Hygino, Joana; Ferreira, Thais B; Kasahara, Taissa M; Barros, Priscila O; Monteiro, Clarice; Oliveira, Aleida; Tavares, Felipe; Vasconcelos, Claudia Cristina; Alvarenga, Regina; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2016-10-15

    Vitamin D deficiency is an environmental risk factor for MS, a Th17 cell-mediated autoimmune disease that results in demyelination in the CNS. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the ability of in vitro 1,25(OH)2D in modulating different Th17 cell subsets in MS patients in remission phase. In the present study, the production of Th17-related cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22), as well as GM-CSF, was significantly higher in cell cultures from MS patients than in healthy subjects (HS). The 1,25(OH)2D reduced all pro-inflammatory cytokines essayed, mainly those released from HS cell cultures. The proportion of both IL-17+IFN-γ+ (CD4+ and CD8+) T cells and IL-17+IFN-γ-CD8+ T cells was positively related with neurological disorders, determined by EDSS score. The addition of 1,25(OH)2D reduced not only these pathogenic T cell subsets but elevated the percentage of IL-10-secreting conventional (FoxP3+CD25+CD127-CD4+) and non-conventional (IL-17+) regulatory-like T cells. Taken together, the results indicate that the active form of vitamin D should benefit MS patients by attenuating the percentage of pathogenic T cells. This effect could be direct and/or indirect, by enhancing classical and non-classical regulatory T cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Different subsets of natural killer T cells may vary in their roles in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vipin; Delovitch, Terry L

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer T cells (NKT) can regulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Type I and type II NKT cell subsets recognize different lipid antigens presented by CD1d, an MHC class-I-like molecule. Most type I NKT cells express a semi-invariant T-cell receptor (TCR), but a major subset of type II NKT cells reactive to a self antigen sulphatide use an oligoclonal TCR. Whereas TCR-α dominates CD1d-lipid recognition by type I NKT cells, TCR-α and TCR-β contribute equally to CD1d-lipid recognition by type II NKT cells. These variable modes of NKT cell recognition of lipid–CD1d complexes activate a host of cytokine-dependent responses that can either exacerbate or protect from disease. Recent studies of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases have led to a hypothesis that: (i) although type I NKT cells can promote pathogenic and regulatory responses, they are more frequently pathogenic, and (ii) type II NKT cells are predominantly inhibitory and protective from such responses and diseases. This review focuses on a further test of this hypothesis by the use of recently developed techniques, intravital imaging and mass cytometry, to analyse the molecular and cellular dynamics of type I and type II NKT cell antigen-presenting cell motility, interaction, activation and immunoregulation that promote immune responses leading to health versus disease outcomes. PMID:24428389

  19. Inducible costimulator protein (ICOS) controls T helper cell subset polarization after virus and parasite infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, M; Coyle, A J; Schmitz, N; Barner, M; Oxenius, A; Gallimore, A; Gutierrez-Ramos, J C; Bachmann, M F

    2000-07-03

    It has been shown that certain pathogens can trigger efficient T cell responses in the absence of CD28, a key costimulatory receptor expressed on resting T cells. Inducible costimulator protein (ICOS) is an inducible costimulator structurally and functionally related to CD28. Here, we show that in the absence of CD28 both T helper cell type 1 (Th1) and Th2 responses were impaired but not abrogated after infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Inhibition of ICOS in CD28-deficient mice further reduced Th1/Th2 polarization. Blocking of ICOS alone had a limited but significant capacity to downregulate Th subset development. In contrast, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, which are regulated to a minor and major extent by CD28 after LCMV and VSV infection, respectively, remained unaffected by blocking ICOS. Together, our results demonstrate that ICOS regulates both CD28-dependent and CD28-independent CD4(+) subset (Th1 and Th2) responses but not CTL responses in vivo.

  20. Influence of inhalational, neuroleptic and local anaesthesia on lymphocyte subset distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, M; Mariconti, P; Calvillo, L; Falchi, M; Tiengo, M; Ferrero, M E

    1995-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that anaesthetics affect leukocyte response by inhibiting lymphocyte capping and metabolism and the phagocytic activity of neutrophils in some experimental models. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the clinical use of three different types of anaesthesia on lymphocyte subset distribution and activity: inhalational anaesthesia (isoflurane), a neuroleptoanalgesia, or local anaesthesia was used in patients submitted to the same operation (hysterectomy). At time 0 (before administering the anaesthesia) and at 10 min and 48 h from the start of the operation, heparinized blood was obtained from each of the 30 patients studied; three lymphocyte subpopulations were isolated (CD4+, CD8+ and CD19+). Cell number was identified for each lymphocyte subset, and (as an indication of cellular function) the intracellular contents of ATP and cAMP were evaluated by luminescence methods. The relevant results for each of the 3 anaesthetic methods were as follows: i) treatment with isoflurane induced a significant reduction in the number and function of CD4+ cells at 10 min, which was reversed at 48 h; a functional but not reversible decrease of CD19+ cells was obtained, ii) treatment with neuroleptic drugs induced a significant progressive functional impairment of CD4+ and CD19+ cells, and iii) local anaesthesia caused a significant functional impairment of CD8+ cells at 48 h and a significant functional impairment of CD19+ cells at 10 min and 48 h.

  1. Epidemiological and clinical features of human coronavirus infections among different subsets of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeça, Tatiane K; Granato, Celso; Bellei, Nancy

    2013-11-01

    Epidemiological and clinical data of human coronaviruses (HCoVs) infections are restricted to span 1-3 years at most. We conducted a comprehensive 9-year study on HCoVs by analyzing 1137 respiratory samples from four subsets of patients (asymptomatic, general community, with comorbidities, and hospitalized) in São Paulo, Brazil. A pan-coronavirus RT-PCR screening assay was performed, followed by species-specific real-time RT-PCR monoplex assays. Human coronaviruses were detected in 88 of 1137 (7.7%) of the samples. The most frequently detected HCoV species were NL63 (50.0%) and OC43 (27.3%). Patients with comorbidities presented the highest risk of acquiring coronavirus infection (odds ratio=4.17; 95% confidence interval=1.9-9.3), and children with heart diseases revealed a significant HCoV infection presence. Dyspnea was more associated with HCoV-229E infections (66.6%), and cyanosis was reported only in HCoV-OC43 infections. There were interseasonal differences in the detection frequencies, with HCoV-229E being predominant in the year 2004 (61.5%) and HCoV-NL63 (70.8%) in 2008. Our data provide a novel insight into the epidemiology and clinical knowledge of HCoVs among different subsets of patients, revealing that these viruses may cause more than mild respiratory tract disease. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Human monocytes differentiate into dendritic cells subsets that induce anergic and regulatory T cells in sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Faivre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a multifactorial pathology with high susceptibility to secondary infections. Innate and adaptive immunity are affected in sepsis, including monocyte deactivation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand the effects of alterations in monocytes on the regulation of immune responses during sepsis, we analyzed their differentiation in dendritic cell (DC. Cells from septic patients differentiated overwhelmingly into CD1a-negative DC, a population that was only a minor subset in controls and that is so far poorly characterized. Analysis of T cell responses induced with purified CD1a-negative and CD1a+ DC indicated that (i CD1a-negative DC from both healthy individuals and septic patients fail to induce T cell proliferation, (ii TGFβ and IL-4 were strongly produced in mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR with control CD1a-negative DC; reduced levels were produced with patients DC together with a slight induction of IFNγ, (iii compared to controls, CD1a+ DC derived from septic patients induced 3-fold more Foxp3+ T cells. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate a strong shift in DC populations derived from septic patients' monocytes with expanded cell subsets that induce either T cell anergy or proliferation of T cells with regulatory potential. Lower regulatory cytokines induction on a per cell basis by CD1a-negative dendritic cells from patients points however to a down regulation of immune suppressive abilities in these cells.

  3. Localization of neural efficiency of the mathematically gifted brain through a feature subset selection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Gan, John Q; Wang, Haixian

    2015-10-01

    Based on the neural efficiency hypothesis and task-induced EEG gamma-band response (GBR), this study investigated the brain regions where neural resource could be most efficiently recruited by the math-gifted adolescents in response to varying cognitive demands. In this experiment, various GBR-based mental states were generated with three factors (level of mathematical ability, task complexity, and short-term learning) modulating the level of neural activation. A feature subset selection method based on the sequential forward floating search algorithm was used to identify an "optimal" combination of EEG channel locations, where the corresponding GBR feature subset could obtain the highest accuracy in discriminating pairwise mental states influenced by each experiment factor. The integrative results from multi-factor selections suggest that the right-lateral fronto-parietal system is highly involved in neural efficiency of the math-gifted brain, primarily including the bilateral superior frontal, right inferior frontal, right-lateral central and right temporal regions. By means of the localization method based on single-trial classification of mental states, new GBR features and EEG channel-based brain regions related to mathematical giftedness were identified, which could be useful for the brain function improvement of children/adolescents in mathematical learning through brain-computer interface systems.

  4. Multi-lingual search engine to access PubMed monolingual subsets: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmoni, Stéfan J; Soualmia, Lina F; Griffon, Nicolas; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse

    2013-01-01

    PubMed contains many articles in languages other than English but it is difficult to find them using the English version of the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Thesaurus. The aim of this work is to propose a tool allowing access to a PubMed subset in one language, and to evaluate its performance. Translations of MeSH were enriched and gathered in the information system. PubMed subsets in main European languages were also added in our database, using a dedicated parser. The CISMeF generic semantic search engine was evaluated on the response time for simple queries. MeSH descriptors are currently available in 11 languages in the information system. All the 654,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into CISMeF database. None of the response times exceed the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature in French using a tool in French; health professionals and lay people with a low English language may find it useful. It will be expended to several European languages: German, Spanish, Norwegian and Portuguese.

  5. A novel subset of helper T cells promotes immune responses by secreting GM-CSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Roberts, A I; Liu, C; Ren, G; Xu, G; Zhang, L; Devadas, S; Shi, Yufang

    2013-01-01

    Helper T cells are crucial for maintaining proper immune responses. Yet, they have an undefined relationship with one of the most potent immune stimulatory cytokines, granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). By depleting major cytokines during the differentiation of CD4+ T cells in vitro, we derived cells that were found to produce large amounts of GM-CSF, but little of the cytokines produced by other helper T subsets. By their secretion of GM-CSF, this novel subset of helper T cells (which we have termed ThGM cells) promoted the production of cytokines by other T-cell subtypes, including type 1 helper T cell (Th1), type 2 helper T cell (Th2), type 1 cytotoxic T cell (Tc1), type 2 cytotoxic T cell (Tc2), and naive T cells, as evidenced by the fact that antibody neutralization of GM-CSF abolished this effect. ThGM cells were found to be highly prone to activation-induced cell death (AICD). Inhibitors of TRAIL or granzymes could not block AICD in ThGM cells, whereas inhibition of FasL/Fas interaction partially rescued ThGM cells from AICD. Thus, ThGM cells are a novel subpopulation of T helper cells that produce abundant GM-CSF, exhibit exquisite susceptibility to apoptosis, and therefore play a pivotal role in the regulation of the early stages of immune responses. PMID:24076588

  6. Changes in Circulating B Cell Subsets Associated with Aging and Acute SIV Infection in Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W L William; Gonzalez, Denise F; Kieu, Hung T; Castillo, Luis D; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Shen, Xiaoying; Tomaras, Georgia D; Shacklett, Barbara L; Barry, Peter A; Sparger, Ellen E

    2017-01-01

    Aging and certain viral infections can negatively impact humoral responses in humans. To further develop the nonhuman primate (NHP) model for investigating B cell dynamics in human aging and infectious disease, a flow cytometric panel was developed to characterize circulating rhesus B cell subsets. Significant differences between human and macaque B cells included the proportions of cells within IgD+ and switched memory populations and a prominent CD21-CD27+ unswitched memory population detected only in macaques. We then utilized the expanded panel to analyze B cell alterations associated with aging and acute simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in the NHP model. In the aging study, distinct patterns of B cell subset frequencies were observed for macaques aged one to five years compared to those between ages 5 and 30 years. In the SIV infection study, B cell frequencies and absolute number were dramatically reduced following acute infection, but recovered within four weeks of infection. Thereafter, the frequencies of activated memory B cells progressively increased; these were significantly correlated with the magnitude of SIV-specific IgG responses, and coincided with impaired maturation of anti-SIV antibody avidity, as previously reported for HIV-1 infection. These observations further validate the NHP model for investigation of mechanisms responsible for B cells alterations associated with immunosenescence and infectious disease.

  7. Abortive lytic Epstein–Barr virus replication in tonsil-B lymphocytes in infectious mononucleosis and a subset of the chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerner AM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A Martin Lerner,1 Safedin Beqaj21Department of Medicine, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester, MI, USA; 2Pathology Inc, Torrance, CA, USAAbstract: A systematic 2001–2007 review of 142 chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS patients identified 106 CFS patients with elevated serum IgG antibodies to the herpesviruses Epstein–Barr virus (EBV, cytomegalovirus, or human herpesvirus (HHV 6 in single or multiple infections, with no other co-infections detected. We named these 106 patients group-A CFS. Eighty-six of these 106 group-A CFS patients (81% had elevated EBV early antibody, early antigen (diffuse, serum titers. A small group of six patients in the group-A EBV subset of CFS, additionally, had repetitive elevated-serum titers of antibody to the early lytic replication-encoded proteins, EBV dUTPase, and EBV DNA polymerase. The presence of these serum antibodies to EBV dUTPase and EBV DNA polymerase indicated EBV abortive lytic replication in these 6 CFS patients. None of 20 random control people (age- and sex-matched, with blood drawn at a commercial laboratory had elevated serum titers of antibody to EBV dUTPase or EBV DNA polymerase (P < 0.01. This finding needs verification in a larger group of EBV CFS subset patients, but if corroborated, it may represent a molecular marker for diagnosing the EBV subset of CFS. We review evidence that EBV abortive lytic replication with unassembled viral proteins in the blood may be the same in infectious mononucleosis (IM and a subset of CFS. EBV-abortive lytic replication in tonsil plasma cells is dominant in IM. No complete lytic virion is in the blood of IM or CFS patients. Complications of CFS and IM include cardiomyopathy and encephalopathy. Circulating abortive lytic-encoded EBV proteins (eg, EBV dUTPase, EBV DNA polymerase, and others may be common to IM and CFS. The intensity and duration of the circulating EBV-encoded proteins might differentiate the IM and EBV subsets of CFS

  8. Hemodynamic effects of digoxin in acute myocardial infarction in man: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionni, N; Pini, R; Vannucci, A; Conti, A; De Alfieri, W; Calamandrei, M; Di Bari, M; Ferrucci, L; Moschi, G; Lombardi, A

    1985-01-01

    Hemodynamic effects of digoxin in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have been acknowledged to depend on the basal cardiocirculatory state. In the present study, the effects of digoxin in patients with AMI were evaluated in four hemodynamic subsets, based on the relationship between mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP, in mm Hg) and left ventricular stroke work index (LVSWI, in g-m/m2): subset 1: normal (less than or equal to 15 mm Hg) PCWP and normal (greater than or equal to 35 g-m/m2) LVSWI; subset 2: elevated (greater than 15 mm Hg) PCWP and normal LVSWI; subset 3: reduced (less than 35 g-m/m2) LVSWI and normal PCWP; and subset 4: elevated PCWP and LVSWI moderately reduced to a range between 16 and 34 g-m/m2. Forty patients were admitted to the study and were randomly assigned to one of two groups in each subset: control group (19 patients) and treated group (21 patients). Five patients were randomized into each of the subsets 2, 3, and 4 in both the control and treated groups, while in subset 1 there were four control and six digoxin-treated patients. Control patients were administered a placebo saline solution and digoxin-treated patients received 0.50 mg of the drug intravenously in 20 minutes. The effects of the placebo and of the drug were evaluated at 30, 60, and 90 minutes from the end of the infusion. Hemodynamic data did not vary in the control group, and digoxin did not exert any relevant effect in subsets 1 and 2. After drug infusion, cardiac index (Cl, in L/min/m2) significantly increased in subset 3 patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Histological lesions, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and T cell subsets changes of spleen in chicken fed aflatoxin-contaminated corn

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peng, Xi; Zhang, Keying; Bai, Shiping; Ding, Xuemei; Zeng, Qiufeng; Yang, Jun; Fang, Jing; Chen, Kejie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B2 on pathological lesions, apoptosis, cell cycle phases and T lymphocyte subsets...

  10. An Empirical Study of Wrappers for Feature Subset Selection based on a Parallel Genetic Algorithm: The Multi-Wrapper Model

    KAUST Repository

    Soufan, Othman

    2012-09-01

    Feature selection is the first task of any learning approach that is applied in major fields of biomedical, bioinformatics, robotics, natural language processing and social networking. In feature subset selection problem, a search methodology with a proper criterion seeks to find the best subset of features describing data (relevance) and achieving better performance (optimality). Wrapper approaches are feature selection methods which are wrapped around a classification algorithm and use a performance measure to select the best subset of features. We analyze the proper design of the objective function for the wrapper approach and highlight an objective based on several classification algorithms. We compare the wrapper approaches to different feature selection methods based on distance and information based criteria. Significant improvement in performance, computational time, and selection of minimally sized feature subsets is achieved by combining different objectives for the wrapper model. In addition, considering various classification methods in the feature selection process could lead to a global solution of desirable characteristics.

  11. An entropy-based input variable selection approach to identify equally informative subsets for data-driven hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Gulsah; Taormina, Riccardo; Galelli, Stefano; Damla Ahipasaoglu, Selin

    2015-04-01

    Input Variable Selection (IVS) is an essential step in hydrological modelling problems, since it allows determining the optimal subset of input variables from a large set of candidates to characterize a preselected output. Interestingly, most of the existing IVS algorithms select a single subset, or, at most, one subset of input variables for each cardinality level, thus overlooking the fact that, for a given cardinality, there can be several subsets with similar information content. In this study, we develop a novel IVS approach specifically conceived to account for this issue. The approach is based on the formulation of a four-objective optimization problem that aims at minimizing the number of selected variables and maximizing the prediction accuracy of a data-driven model, while optimizing two entropy-based measures of relevance and redundancy. The redundancy measure ensures that the cross-dependence between the variables in a subset is minimized, while the relevance measure guarantees that the information content of each subset is maximized. In addition to the capability of selecting equally informative subsets, the approach is characterized by two other properties, namely 1) the capability of handling nonlinear interactions between the candidate input variables and preselected output, and 2) computational efficiency. These properties are guaranteed by the adoption of Extreme Learning Machine and Borg MOEA as data-driven model and heuristic optimization procedure, respectively. The approach is demonstrated on a long-term streamflow prediction problem, with the input dataset including both hydro-meteorological variables and climate indices representing dominant modes of climate variability. Results show that the availability of several equally informative subsets allows 1) determining the relative importance of each candidate input, thus supporting the understanding of the underlying physical processes, and 2) finding a better trade-off between multiple

  12. Different spectra of recurrent gene mutations in subsets of chronic lymphocytic leukemia harboring stereotyped B-cell receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sutton, Lesley-Ann; Young, Emma; Baliakas, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    We report on markedly different frequencies of genetic lesions within subsets of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients carrying mutated or unmutated stereotyped B-cell receptor immunoglobulins in the largest cohort (n=565) studied for this purpose. By combining data on recurrent gene mutations...... subsets implies that the mechanisms underlying clinical aggressiveness are not uniform, but rather support the existence of distinct genetic pathways of clonal evolution governed by a particular stereotyped B-cell receptor selecting a certain molecular lesion(s)....

  13. NFκB activation demarcates a subset of hepatocellular carcinoma patients for targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Vignesh; Selvarasu, Karthikeyan; Pandian, Jaishree; Myilsamy, Soundarajan; Shanmugasundaram, Chidambaranathan; Ganesan, Kumaresan

    2016-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. It is a heterogeneous disorder and >80 % of the tumors develop in patients with liver cirrhosis, resulting from chronic inflammation and/or fibrosis. Here, we set out to identify novel targets for HCC therapy and to define a subgroup of patients that might benefit most from it. Cellular pathway activation profiling of 45 transcription factors in a HCC-derived cell line (HEP3B), in vitro analysis of NFκB reporter activity in additional HCC-derived cell lines and pathway-focused integrative analyses of publicly available primary HCC-derived expression profiling data (GSE6764, GSE9843, E-TABM-36 and E-TABM-292) were employed to reveal a role of NFκB in HCC development. In order to identify potential targeting agents, a luciferase-based NFκB reporter screening assay was established in HEP3B cells. After screening of a drug library through this assay, a potent NFκB pathway inhibitor was identified and characterized using an array of additional in vitro assays. Using cellular pathway activation profiling, we found a high activation of NFκB-mediated signaling in HCC-derived cell lines and in primary HCC tumors. Through NFκB inhibitor screening we observed a highly efficacious NFκB pathway inhibitory potential of ornithogalum in HCC-derived HEP3B cells. Although its active component still remains to be defined, ornithogalum has been found to inhibit endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress responses. ER stress, oxidative stress and NFκB signaling were found to be enhanced in a subset of HCCs, as well as in (precancerous) liver cirrhosis tissues. From our data we conclude that NFκB signaling is activated in precancerous cirrhosis tissues and in a subset of HCCs. We found that ornithogalum exhibits NFκB targeting and stress relieving activities. NFκB inhibitors, including the active component of ornithogalum, may serve as putative

  14. Leucocytes in human milk and lymphocyte subsets in cow's milk-allergic infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Kirsi-Marjut; Suomalainen, Hanna

    2002-08-01

    The breast-fed infant ingests an average of 108 leucocytes per day, with breast-feeding often continuing for several months. The precise role of human milk leucocytes is still unresolved. Breast-feeding has been recommended for infants at high risk of allergy to prevent or delay the development of food allergies and atopic eczema. However, studies dealing with distinct immunologic factors in the mother's milk, and their effect on health status or development of allergies in the infant, are scarce. We evaluated the relationship between the cellular composition of human milk and the development of cow's milk allergy (CMA) in the breast-fed infant. Leucocyte subsets in the breast-fed infants were also measured. The study population comprised 61 breast-feeding mothers and their infants. Thirty-nine mothers each had a cow's milk-allergic infant, 10 had an infant with atopic dermatitis without CMA, and 12 mothers had a healthy infant. Leucocyte subsets in mothers' milk were counted using a light microscope and confirmed by flow cytometry. In infants, peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets were determined by flow cytometry and were correlated with the health status of the breast-fed infant and leucocyte composition of the mother's milk. Human milk was found to be a non-homogenous morphological entity. In the milk of mothers of infants with CMA, the proportion of macrophages was significantly smaller than in the mothers with infants without CMA (p = 0.036, t-test). Mothers with high proportions of neutrophils in their milk (> 20%) had significantly more often infants with CMA than did those with low proportions of neutrophils (p = 0.02; Fischer's exact test). Eosinophils comprising > 1% of milk cells were only detected in the mothers who had infants with CMA. Furthermore, the proportions of CD4+ T cells were positively correlated with the proportion of milk macrophages and negatively with the percentage of milk neutrophils and eosinophils. The proportions of total B cells and

  15. Embryonic mammary signature subsets are activated in Brca1-/- and basal-like breast cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cancer is often suggested to result from development gone awry. Links between normal embryonic development and cancer biology have been postulated, but no defined genetic basis has been established. We recently published the first transcriptomic analysis of embryonic mammary cell populations. Embryonic mammary epithelial cells are an immature progenitor cell population, lacking differentiation markers, which is reflected in their very distinct genetic profiles when compared with those of their postnatal descendents. Methods We defined an embryonic mammary epithelial signature that incorporates the most highly expressed genes from embryonic mammary epithelium when compared with the postnatal mammary epithelial cells. We looked for activation of the embryonic mammary epithelial signature in mouse mammary tumors that formed in mice in which Brca1 had been conditionally deleted from the mammary epithelium and in human breast cancers to determine whether any genetic links exist between embryonic mammary cells and breast cancers. Results Small subsets of the embryonic mammary epithelial signature were consistently activated in mouse Brca1-/- tumors and human basal-like breast cancers, which encoded predominantly transcriptional regulators, cell-cycle, and actin cytoskeleton components. Other embryonic gene subsets were found activated in non-basal-like tumor subtypes and repressed in basal-like tumors, including regulators of neuronal differentiation, transcription, and cell biosynthesis. Several embryonic genes showed significant upregulation in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and/or grade 3 breast cancers. Among them, the transcription factor, SOX11, a progenitor cell and lineage regulator of nonmammary cell types, is found highly expressed in some Brca1-/- mammary tumors. By using RNA interference to silence SOX11 expression in breast cancer cells, we found evidence that SOX11 regulates breast cancer cell

  16. The Role of Dendritic Cell Subsets and Innate Immunity in the Pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes and Other Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jeffrey D.; Tarbell, Kristin V.

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are key antigen-presenting cells that have an important role in autoimmune pathogenesis. DCs control both steady-state T cell tolerance and activation of pathogenic responses. The balance between these two outcomes depends on several factors, including genetic susceptibility, environmental signals that stimulate varied innate responses, and which DC subset is presenting antigen. Although the specific DC phenotype can diverge depending on the tissue location and context, there are four main subsets identified in both mouse and human: conventional cDC1 and cDC2, plasmacytoid DCs, and monocyte-derived DCs. In this review, we will discuss the role of these subsets in autoimmune pathogenesis and regulation, as well as the genetic and environmental signals that influence their function. Specific topics to be addressed include impact of susceptibility loci on DC subsets, alterations in DC subset development, the role of infection- and host-derived innate inflammatory signals, and the role of the intestinal microbiota on DC phenotype. The effects of these various signals on disease progression and the relative effects of DC subset composition and maturation level of DCs will be examined. These areas will be explored using examples from several autoimmune diseases but will focus mainly on type 1 diabetes. PMID:26124756

  17. Spectra of random operators with absolutely continuous integrated density of states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, Rafael del, E-mail: delrio@iimas.unam.mx, E-mail: delriomagia@gmail.com [Departamento de Fisica Matematica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Matemáticas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, C.P. 04510, México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-04-15

    The structure of the spectrum of random operators is studied. It is shown that if the density of states measure of some subsets of the spectrum is zero, then these subsets are empty. In particular follows that absolute continuity of the integrated density of states implies singular spectra of ergodic operators is either empty or of positive measure. Our results apply to Anderson and alloy type models, perturbed Landau Hamiltonians, almost periodic potentials, and models which are not ergodic.

  18. Distinct Functions of Specialized Dendritic Cell Subsets in Atherosclerosis and the Road Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Zernecke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic vascular disease is modulated by immune mechanisms. Dendritic cells (DCs and T cells are present within atherosclerotic lesions and function as central players in the initiation and modulation of adaptive immune responses. In previous years, we have studied the functional contribution of distinct DC subsets in disease development, namely, that of CCL17-expressing DCs as well as that of plasmacytoid DCs that play specialized roles in disease development. This review focuses on important findings gathered in these studies and dissects the multifaceted contribution of CCL17-expressing DCs and pDCs to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, an outlook on future challenges faced when studying DCs in this detrimental disease are provided, and hurdles that will need to be overcome in order to enable a better understanding of the contribution of DCs to atherogenesis are discussed, a prerequisite for their therapeutic targeting in atherosclerosis.

  19. The Vast Universe of T Cell Diversity: Subsets of Memory Cells and Their Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandus, Camilla; Usatorre, Amaia Martínez; Viganò, Selena; Zhang, Lianjun; Romero, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    The T cell receptor confers specificity for antigen recognition to T cells. By the first encounter with the cognate antigen, reactive T cells initiate a program of expansion and differentiation that will define not only the ultimate quantity of specific cells that will be generated, but more importantly their quality and functional heterogeneity. Recent achievements using mouse model infection systems have helped to shed light into the complex network of factors that dictate and sustain memory T cell differentiation, ranging from antigen load, TCR signal strength, metabolic fitness, transcriptional programs, and proliferative potential. The different models of memory T cell differentiation are discussed in this chapter, and key phenotypic and functional attributes of memory T cell subsets are presented, both for mouse and human cells. Therapeutic manipulation of memory T cell generation is expected to provide novel unique ways to optimize current immunotherapies, both in infection and cancer.

  20. Iterative CT reconstruction using coordinate descent with ordered subsets of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noo, F.; Hahn, K.; Schöndube, H.; Stierstorfer, K.

    2016-04-01

    Image reconstruction based on iterative minimization of a penalized weighted least-square criteria has become an important topic of research in X-ray computed tomography. This topic is motivated by increasing evidence that such a formalism may enable a significant reduction in dose imparted to the patient while maintaining or improving image quality. One important issue associated with this iterative image reconstruction concept is slow convergence and the associated computational effort. For this reason, there is interest in finding methods that produce approximate versions of the targeted image with a small number of iterations and an acceptable level of discrepancy. We introduce here a novel method to produce such approximations: ordered subsets in combination with iterative coordinate descent. Preliminary results demonstrate that this method can produce, within 10 iterations and using only a constant image as initial condition, satisfactory reconstructions that retain the noise properties of the targeted image.

  1. Truss Structure Optimization with Subset Simulation and Augmented Lagrangian Multiplier Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Du

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a global optimization method for structural design optimization, which integrates subset simulation optimization (SSO and the dynamic augmented Lagrangian multiplier method (DALMM. The proposed method formulates the structural design optimization as a series of unconstrained optimization sub-problems using DALMM and makes use of SSO to find the global optimum. The combined strategy guarantees that the proposed method can automatically detect active constraints and provide global optimal solutions with finite penalty parameters. The accuracy and robustness of the proposed method are demonstrated by four classical truss sizing problems. The results are compared with those reported in the literature, and show a remarkable statistical performance based on 30 independent runs.

  2. [Nested species subsets of amphibians and reptiles in Thousand Island Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Wang, Yan-Ping; Ding, Ping

    2012-10-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a main cause for the loss of biological diversity. Combining line-transect methods to survey the amphibians and reptiles on 23 islands on Thousand Island Lake in Zhejiang province, along with survey data on nearby plant species and habitat variables collected by GIS, we used the"BINMATNEST (binary matrix nestedness temperature calculator)" software and the Spearman rank correlation to examine whether amphibians and reptiles followed nested subsets and their influencing factors. The results showed that amphibians and reptiles were significantly nested, and that the island area and habitat type were significantly associated with their nested ranks. Therefore, to effectively protect amphibians and reptiles in the Thousand Islands Lake area we should pay prior attention to islands with larger areas and more habitat types.

  3. EWS and FUS bind a subset of transcribed genes encoding proteins enriched in RNA regulatory functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yonglun; Friis, Jenny Blechingberg; Fernandes, Ana Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background FUS (TLS) and EWS (EWSR1) belong to the FET-protein family of RNA and DNA binding proteins. FUS and EWS are structurally and functionally related and participate in transcriptional regulation and RNA processing. FUS and EWS are identified in translocation generated cancer fusion proteins...... at different levels. Gene Ontology analyses showed that FUS and EWS target genes preferentially encode proteins involved in regulatory processes at the RNA level. Conclusions The presented results yield new insights into gene interactions of EWS and FUS and have identified a set of FUS and EWS target genes......IP-seq). Our results show that FUS and EWS bind to a subset of actively transcribed genes, that binding often is downstream the poly(A)-signal, and that binding overlaps with RNA polymerase II. Functional examinations of selected target genes identified that FUS and EWS can regulate gene expression...

  4. Human Innate Lymphoid Cell Subsets Possess Tissue-Type Based Heterogeneity in Phenotype and Frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoni, Yannick; Fehlings, Michael; Kloverpris, Henrik N.

    2017-01-01

    Animal models have highlighted the importance of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in multiple immune responses. However, technical limitations have hampered adequate characterization of ILCs in humans. Here, we used mass cytometry including a broad range of surface markers and transcription factors...... to accurately identify and profile ILCs across healthy and inflamed tissue types. High dimensional analysis allowed for clear phenotypic delineation of ILC2 and ILC3 subsets. We were not able to detect ILC1 cells in any of the tissues assessed, however, we identified intra-epithelial (ie)ILC1-like cells...... that represent a broader category of NK cells in mucosal and non-mucosal pathological tissues. In addition, we have revealed the expression of phenotypic molecules that have not been previously described for ILCs. Our analysis shows that human ILCs are highly heterogeneous cell types between individuals...

  5. Lymphocyte subsets at different stages of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: a study with monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrosu, M G; Cianchetti, C; Ennas, M G

    1986-01-01

    Lymphocyte subsets in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood were studied using monoclonal antibodies, in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, eight of whom were at stage 2 and seven at stage 4. Eighteen subjects affected with non immunological diseases constituted the controls. Regardless of the stage, patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis had lower percentages of OKT3+ (pan-T) cells in both CSF and peripheral blood, with an increase of OKIa+ cells (B cells, macrophages and active T cells) in peripheral blood. A difference was found in the proportion of OKT4+ (helper-inducer) and OKT8+ (suppressor/cytotoxic) cells in relation to the stage, the most striking finding being a significant decrease of OKT8+ with an increase of T4/T8 ratio in peripheral blood at an early stage. PMID:2942644

  6. T lymphocyte subsets in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buschard, K; Röpke, C; Madsbad, S

    1983-01-01

    T lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood from 11 newly diagnosed Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients were studied prospectively at three time intervals: as soon as possible after diagnosis, 3 weeks and 5 months later. Lymphocytes were marked with monoclonal OKT antibodies and examined....../inducer T cells and/or the low percentage of suppressor/cytotoxic T cells at diagnosis favour immune reactions involved in the pathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes......./cytotoxic T cells (OKT8) was low at diagnosis but increased at 3 weeks (p less than 0.02) and 5 months (p less than 0.01). The ratio OKT4/OKT8 lymphocytes was 2.28 at diagnosis, decreasing to 1.77 at 3 weeks and 1.87 at 5 months, compared with 1.46 for 16 age-matched control subjects. There was no significant...

  7. The dynamic lives of macrophage and dendritic cell subsets in atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavie-Moghadam, Paresa L.; Butcher, Matthew J.; Galkina, Elena V.

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the major pathological process through which arterial plaques are formed, is a dynamic chronic inflammatory disease of large and medium sized arteries in which the vasculature, lipid metabolism, and the immune system all play integral roles. Both the innate and adaptive immune systems are involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis but myeloid cells represent the major component of the burgeoning atherosclerotic plaque. Various myeloid cells, including monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells can be found within the healthy and atherosclerotic arterial wall, where they can contribute to or regulate inflammation. However, the precise behaviors and functions of these cells in situ are still active areas of investigation that continue to yield exciting and surprising new data. Here, we review recent progress in understanding of the complex biology of macrophages and dendritic cells, focusing particularly on the dynamic regulation of these subsets in the arterial wall and novel, emerging functions of these cells during atherogenesis. PMID:24628328

  8. A small subset of fruitless subesophageal neurons modulate early courtship in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H Tran

    Full Text Available We show that a small subset of two to six subesophageal neurons, expressing the male products of the male courtship master regulator gene products fruitless Male (fru M, are required in the early stages of the Drosophila melanogaster male courtship behavioral program. Loss of fru M expression or inhibition of synaptic transmission in these fru M(+ neurons results in delayed courtship initiation and a failure to progress to copulation primarily under visually-deficient conditions. We identify a fru M-dependent sexually dimorphic arborization in the tritocerebrum made by two of these neurons. Furthermore, these SOG neurons extend descending projections to the thorax and abdominal ganglia. These anatomical and functional characteristics place these neurons in the position to integrate gustatory and higher-order signals in order to properly initiate and progress through early courtship.

  9. Rank of Submodule, Linear Transformations and Linearly Independent Subsets of Z-module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakasho Kazuhisa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we formalize some basic facts of Z-module. In the first section, we discuss the rank of submodule of Z-module and its properties. Especially, we formally prove that the rank of any Z-module is equal to or more than that of its submodules, and vice versa, and that there exists a submodule with any given rank that satisfies the above condition. In the next section, we mention basic facts of linear transformations between two Z-modules. In this section, we define homomorphism between two Z-modules and deal with kernel and image of homomorphism. In the last section, we formally prove some basic facts about linearly independent subsets and linear combinations. These formalizations are based on [9](p.191-242, [23](p.117-172 and [2](p.17-35.

  10. Integrative Analysis Identifies Four Molecular and Clinical Subsets in Uveal Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A Gordon; Shih, Juliann; Yau, Christina; Gibb, Ewan A; Oba, Junna; Mungall, Karen L; Hess, Julian M; Uzunangelov, Vladislav; Walter, Vonn; Danilova, Ludmila; Lichtenberg, Tara M; Kucherlapati, Melanie; Kimes, Patrick K; Tang, Ming; Penson, Alexander; Babur, Ozgun; Akbani, Rehan; Bristow, Christopher A; Hoadley, Katherine A; Iype, Lisa; Chang, Matthew T; Cherniack, Andrew D; Benz, Christopher; Mills, Gordon B; Verhaak, Roel G W; Griewank, Klaus G; Felau, Ina; Zenklusen, Jean C; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Schoenfield, Lynn; Lazar, Alexander J; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Stern, Marc-Henri; Cebulla, Colleen M; Williams, Michelle D; Jager, Martine J; Coupland, Sarah E; Esmaeli, Bita; Kandoth, Cyriac; Woodman, Scott E

    2017-08-14

    Comprehensive multiplatform analysis of 80 uveal melanomas (UM) identifies four molecularly distinct, clinically relevant subtypes: two associated with poor-prognosis monosomy 3 (M3) and two with better-prognosis disomy 3 (D3). We show that BAP1 loss follows M3 occurrence and correlates with a global DNA methylation state that is distinct from D3-UM. Poor-prognosis M3-UM divide into subsets with divergent genomic aberrations, transcriptional features, and clinical outcomes. We report change-of-function SRSF2 mutations. Within D3-UM, EIF1AX- and SRSF2/SF3B1-mutant tumors have distinct somatic copy number alterations and DNA methylation profiles, providing insight into the biology of these low- versus intermediate-risk clinical mutation subtypes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. T-lymphocyte subsets in patients with hookworm infection in Zaria, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyemelukwe, G C; Musa, B O

    2001-12-01

    Peripheral lymphocyte subsets CD3, CD4, CD8 were studied using monoclonal antibodies to determine the mechanism of immunosuppression observed in an earlier study with total T-cells using the sheep erythrocyte rosetting technique. The study was carried out in 37 Nigerian patients with hookworm infection (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale and 17 healthy Nigerians as controls. The leucocyte migration inhibition (LMI) test was also carried out to assess the functional integrity of the lymphocytes, while the hookworm status of the patients was assessed by the Stoll technique for measuring egg counts. The results of the T-cell studied showed that CD3 and CD4 cell percentages were significantly depressed in hookworm patients compared to controls (Pmigration inhibition response to purified protein derivative of M. tuberculosis (PPD) was significantly decreased in hookworm patients compared to controls, confirming that functionally cell mediated immunity is depressed in hookworm infection.

  12. Olfactomedin-4 Is a Candidate Marker for a Pathogenic Neutrophil Subset in Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Matthew N; Opoka, Amy M; Lahni, Patrick; Hildeman, David A; Wong, Hector R

    2017-04-01

    Heterogeneity in sepsis-related pathobiology presents a significant challenge. Resolving this heterogeneity presents an opportunity to understand pathobiology and improve patient care. Olfactomedin-4 is a neutrophil subset marker and may contribute to sepsis heterogeneity. Our objective was to evaluate the expression of olfactomedin-4 and characterize neutrophil heterogeneity in children with septic shock. Single-center, prospective cohort, as well as secondary analysis of existing transcriptomic and proteomic databases. Tertiary care PICU. Patients from 5 days to 18 years old with septic shock were enrolled. Data collected included the expression of olfactomedin-4 messenger RNA, serum protein concentrations, and percentage of neutrophils that express olfactomedin-4. None. Secondary analysis of existing transcriptomic data demonstrated that olfactomedin-4 is the most highly expressed gene in nonsurvivors of pediatric septic shock, compared with survivors. Secondary analysis of an existing proteomic database corroborated these observations. In a prospectively enrolled cohort, we quantified the percentage of olfactomedin-4+ neutrophils in patients with septic shock. Patients with a complicated course, defined as greater than or equal to two organ failures at day 7 of septic shock or 28-day mortality, had a higher percentage of olfactomedin-4+ neutrophils, compared with those without a complicated course. By logistic regression, the percentage of olfactomedin-4+ neutrophils was independently associated with increased risk of a complicated course (odds ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.17; p = 0.024). Olfactomedin-4 identifies a subpopulation of neutrophils in patients with septic shock, and those with a high percentage of olfactomedin-4+ neutrophils are at higher risk for greater organ failure burden and death. Olfactomedin-4 might serve as a marker of a pathogenic neutrophil subset in patients with septic shock.

  13. Classifier Subset Selection for the Stacked Generalization Method Applied to Emotion Recognition in Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Aitor; Sierra, Basilio; Arruti, Andoni; López-Gil, Juan-Miguel; Garay-Vitoria, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new supervised classification paradigm, called classifier subset selection for stacked generalization (CSS stacking), is presented to deal with speech emotion recognition. The new approach consists of an improvement of a bi-level multi-classifier system known as stacking generalization by means of an integration of an estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA) in the first layer to select the optimal subset from the standard base classifiers. The good performance of the proposed new paradigm was demonstrated over different configurations and datasets. First, several CSS stacking classifiers were constructed on the RekEmozio dataset, using some specific standard base classifiers and a total of 123 spectral, quality and prosodic features computed using in-house feature extraction algorithms. These initial CSS stacking classifiers were compared to other multi-classifier systems and the employed standard classifiers built on the same set of speech features. Then, new CSS stacking classifiers were built on RekEmozio using a different set of both acoustic parameters (extended version of the Geneva Minimalistic Acoustic Parameter Set (eGeMAPS)) and standard classifiers and employing the best meta-classifier of the initial experiments. The performance of these two CSS stacking classifiers was evaluated and compared. Finally, the new paradigm was tested on the well-known Berlin Emotional Speech database. We compared the performance of single, standard stacking and CSS stacking systems using the same parametrization of the second phase. All of the classifications were performed at the categorical level, including the six primary emotions plus the neutral one. PMID:26712757

  14. Improving the characterization of endothelial progenitor cell subsets by an optimized FACS protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Huizer

    Full Text Available The characterization of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs is fundamental to any study related to angiogenesis. Unfortunately, current literature lacks consistency in the definition of EPC subsets due to variations in isolation strategies and inconsistencies in the use of lineage markers. Here we address critical points in the identification of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs, circulating endothelial cells (CECs, and culture-generated outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs from blood samples of healthy adults (AB and umbilical cord (UCB. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were enriched using a Ficoll-based gradient followed by an optimized staining and gating strategy to enrich for the target cells. Sorted EPC populations were subjected to RT-PCR for tracing the expression of markers beyond the limits of cell surface-based immunophenotyping. Using CD34, CD133 and c-kit staining, combined with FSC and SSC, we succeeded in the accurate and reproducible identification of four HPC subgroups and found significant differences in the respective populations in AB vs. UCB. Co-expression analysis of endothelial markers on HPCs revealed a complex pattern characterized by various subpopulations. CECs were identified by using CD34, KDR, CD45, and additional endothelial markers, and were subdivided according to their apoptotic state and expression of c-kit. Comparison of UCB-CECs vs. AB-CECs revealed significant differences in CD34 and KDR levels. OECs were grown from PBMC-fractions We found that viable c-kit+ CECs are a candidate circulating precursor for CECs. RT-PCR to angiogenic factors and receptors revealed that all EPC subsets expressed angiogenesis-related molecules. Taken together, the improvements in immunophenotyping and gating strategies resulted in accurate identification and comparison of better defined cell populations in a single procedure.

  15. Widespread epidemic cholera caused by a restricted subset of Vibrio cholerae clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S; Thomson, N; Mutreja, A; Piarroux, R

    2014-05-01

    Since 1817, seven cholera pandemics have plagued humankind. As the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous in the aquatic ecosystem and some studies have revealed links between outbreaks and fluctuations in climatic and aquatic conditions, it has been widely assumed that cholera epidemics are triggered by environmental factors that promote the growth of local bacterial reservoirs. However, mounting epidemiological findings and genome sequence analysis of clinical isolates have indicated that epidemics are largely unassociated with most of the V. cholerae strains in aquatic ecosystems. Instead, only a specific subset of V. cholerae El Tor 'types' appears to be responsible for current epidemics. A recent report examining the evolution of a variety of V. cholerae strains indicates that the current pandemic is monophyletic and originated from a single ancestral clone that has spread globally in successive waves. In this review, we examine the clonal nature of the disease, with the example of the recent history of cholera in the Americas. Epidemiological data and genome sequence-based analysis of V. cholerae isolates demonstrate that the cholera epidemics of the 1990s in South America were triggered by the importation of a pathogenic V. cholerae strain that gradually spread throughout the region until local outbreaks ceased in 2001. Latin America remained almost unaffected by the disease until a new toxigenic V. cholerae clone was imported into Haiti in 2010. Overall, cholera appears to be largely caused by a subset of specific V. cholerae clones rather than by the vast diversity of V. cholerae strains in the environment. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  16. Pathway-based analysis using reduced gene subsets in genome-wide association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jianjun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP analysis only captures a small proportion of associated genetic variants in Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS partly due to small marginal effects. Pathway level analysis incorporating prior biological information offers another way to analyze GWAS's of complex diseases, and promises to reveal the mechanisms leading to complex diseases. Biologically defined pathways are typically comprised of numerous genes. If only a subset of genes in the pathways is associated with disease then a joint analysis including all individual genes would result in a loss of power. To address this issue, we propose a pathway-based method that allows us to test for joint effects by using a pre-selected gene subset. In the proposed approach, each gene is considered as the basic unit, which reduces the number of genetic variants considered and hence reduces the degrees of freedom in the joint analysis. The proposed approach also can be used to investigate the joint effect of several genes in a candidate gene study. Results We applied this new method to a published GWAS of psoriasis and identified 6 biologically plausible pathways, after adjustment for multiple testing. The pathways identified in our analysis overlap with those reported in previous studies. Further, using simulations across a range of gene numbers and effect sizes, we demonstrate that the proposed approach enjoys higher power than several other approaches to detect associated pathways. Conclusions The proposed method could increase the power to discover susceptibility pathways and to identify associated genes using GWAS. In our analysis of genome-wide psoriasis data, we have identified a number of relevant pathways for psoriasis.

  17. Classifier Subset Selection for the Stacked Generalization Method Applied to Emotion Recognition in Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Álvarez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new supervised classification paradigm, called classifier subset selection for stacked generalization (CSS stacking, is presented to deal with speech emotion recognition. The new approach consists of an improvement of a bi-level multi-classifier system known as stacking generalization by means of an integration of an estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA in the first layer to select the optimal subset from the standard base classifiers. The good performance of the proposed new paradigm was demonstrated over different configurations and datasets. First, several CSS stacking classifiers were constructed on the RekEmozio dataset, using some specific standard base classifiers and a total of 123 spectral, quality and prosodic features computed using in-house feature extraction algorithms. These initial CSS stacking classifiers were compared to other multi-classifier systems and the employed standard classifiers built on the same set of speech features. Then, new CSS stacking classifiers were built on RekEmozio using a different set of both acoustic parameters (extended version of the Geneva Minimalistic Acoustic Parameter Set (eGeMAPS and standard classifiers and employing the best meta-classifier of the initial experiments. The performance of these two CSS stacking classifiers was evaluated and compared. Finally, the new paradigm was tested on the well-known Berlin Emotional Speech database. We compared the performance of single, standard stacking and CSS stacking systems using the same parametrization of the second phase. All of the classifications were performed at the categorical level, including the six primary emotions plus the neutral one.

  18. Unstabilized DNA breaks in lymphocytes of patients with different subsets of systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majone, Franca; Cozzi, Franco; Tonello, Marta; Olivieri, Silvia; Montaldi, Anna; Favaro, Maria; Visentin, Serena; Luisetto, Roberto; Ruffatti, Amelia

    2007-06-01

    The clastogenic effects on DNA, proven by the presence of micronuclei (MN) and the protective cellular mechanisms normally used to stabilize DNA breaks were investigated in three subsets of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The frequency of MN found in cultures of peripheral lymphocytes in patients with anticentromere and antitopoisomerase I antibodies was significantly higher than that in the control group. The group with anticentromere antibody showed a significantly higher frequency of MN than did the subjects with antitopoisomerase antibody (4.22% versus 2.34%, P < 0.001). Patients with anti-RNA polymerase III, instead, had a low prevalence of typical micronucleated cells (0.98%), not significantly different from that of the healthy controls (0.82%). Moreover, when MN was characterized for the presence or absence of DNA fragments with free 3'-OH ends by digoxigenin-dUTP (DIG-dUTP) using terminal deoxynucleotidil transferase, its frequency was found to be increased in the groups with anticentromere and antitopoisomerase I antibodies with respect to that in the controls. The increase was significantly higher in the lymphocytes of the patients with anticentromere than in those with antitopoisomerase I antibody (35% versus 20.08%, P < 0.001). Nonetheless, the prevalence of unstable DNA fragments in patients with anti-RNA polymerase III antibody was low (2.05%) and not significantly different from that of the control group (1.18%). Our results indicate that there is a clastogenic effect on DNA and an interference in the protective cellular mechanisms normally stabilizing DNA breaks only in some subsets of SSc patients.

  19. Circulating Lymphocyte Subsets 
in Patients with Lung Cancer and Their Prognostic Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun LUO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the change of lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of lung cancer patients and the survival rate. Methods Flow cytometry was used to measure the percentages of lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, CD19+, CD25+, CD44+, and NK cells in peripheral blood obtained from 221 patients with primary lung cancer without any treatment and from 96 healthy blood donors as the control group. The result was combined with clinical and follow-up data and statistical analysis was conducted. Results The levels of CD3+ and CD8+ in the patient group are significantly lower compared with the control group, whereas the levels of CD4+/CD8+, CD19+, CD25+, CD44+, and NK cells are significantly higher (P<0.05. CD8+ is significantly higher in the small cell lung cancer (SCLC group compared with the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC group. However, CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ are lower in SCLC (P<0.05. There were no significant differences in different stages and differentiation (P>0.05 in the NSCLC group. The level of CD3+ was significantly higher compared with the pre-chemotherapy group, but NK cell, CD19+, and CD44+ were distinctly lower in the post-chemotherapy group (P<0.05. More survival opportunities will be obtained for patients with no increase in CD44+ after chemotherapy (P=0.021, but the other three indices have no obvious influence on survival. Conclusion Widespread changes of lymphocyte occur in the peripheral blood of patients with lung cancer. There is a significant correlation between the change of CD44+ and the prognosis after chemotherapy.

  20. Identification of Myeloid Cell Subsets in Murine Lungs Using Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Taylor P.; Kendall, Peggy L.; Segal, Brahm H.; Weller, Kevin P.; Tighe, Robert M.; Blackwell, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Although the antibody-based recognition of cell-surface markers has been widely used for the identification of immune cells, overlap in the expression of markers by different cell types and the inconsistent use of antibody panels have resulted in a lack of clearly defined signatures for myeloid cell subsets. We developed a 10-fluorochrome flow cytometry panel for the identification and quantitation of myeloid cells in the lungs, including pulmonary monocytes, myeloid dendritic cells, alveolar and interstitial macrophages, and neutrophils. After the initial sorting of viable CD45+ leukocytes, we detected three leukocyte subpopulations based on CD68 expression: CD68−, CD68low, and CD68hi. Further characterization of the CD68hi population revealed CD45+/CD68hi/F4/80+/CD11b−/CD11c+/Gr1− alveolar macrophages and CD45+/CD68hi/F4/80−/CD11c+/Gr1−/CD103+/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIhi dendritic cells. The CD68low population contained primarily CD45+/CD68low/F4/80+/CD11b+/CD11c+/Gr1−/CD14low interstitial macrophages and CD45+/CD68low/F4/80+/CD11b+/CD11c−/Gr1low/CD14hi monocytes, whereas the CD68− population contained neutrophils (CD45+/CD68−/F4/80−/CD11b+/Gr1hi). The validity of cellular signatures was confirmed by a morphological analysis of FACS-sorted cells, functional studies, and the depletion of specific macrophage subpopulations using liposomal clodronate. We believe our approach provides an accurate and reproducible method for the isolation, quantification, and characterization of myeloid cell subsets in the lungs, which may be useful for studying the roles of myeloid cells during various pathological processes. PMID:23492192

  1. POLDER/Parasol L2 Radiation Budget subset along CloudSat track V001 (PARASOLRB_CPR) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the POLDER/Parasol Level-2 Radiation Budget Subset, collocated with the CloudSat track. The subset is processed at the A-Train Data Depot of the GES DISC,...

  2. MODIS/Aqua Cld Mask Spect. Test Results 5-Min L2 Swath Subset along MLS V002 (MAM35S0) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the MODIS/Aqua subset along MLS field of view track. The goal of the subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within +-100 km across the MLS track....

  3. Manyfield inflation in random potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkmo, Theodor; Marsh, M. C. David

    2018-02-01

    We construct models of inflation with many randomly interacting fields and use these to study the generation of cosmological observables. We model the potentials as multi-dimensional Gaussian random fields (GRFs) and identify powerful algebraic simplifications that, for the first time, make it possible to access the manyfield limit of inflation in GRF potentials. Focussing on small-field, slow-roll, approximate saddle-point inflation in potentials with structure on sub-Planckian scales, we construct explicit examples involving up to 100 fields and generate statistical ensembles comprising of 164,000 models involving 5 to 50 fields. For the subset of these that support at least sixty e-folds of inflation, we use the 'transport method' and δ N formalism to determine the predictions for cosmological observables at the end of inflation, including the power spectrum and the local non-Gaussianities of the primordial perturbations. We find three key results: i) Planck compatibility is not rare, but future experiments may rule out this class of models; ii) In the manyfield limit, the predictions from these models agree well with, but are sharper than, previous results derived using potentials constructed through non-equilibrium Random Matrix Theory; iii) Despite substantial multifield effects, non-Gaussianities are typically very small: fNLloc ll 1. We conclude that many of the 'generic predictions' of single-field inflation can be emergent features of complex inflation models.

  4. Random walks in a random environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Random walks as well as diffusions in random media are considered. Methods are developed that allow one to establish large deviation results for both the 'quenched' and the 'averaged' case. Keywords. Large deviations; random walks in a random environment. 1. Introduction. A random walk on Zd is a stochastic ...

  5. Counts of bovine monocyte subsets prior to calving are predictive for postpartum occurrence of mastitis and metritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Brianna; Sipka, Anja; Hussen, Jamal; Eger, Melanie; Schukken, Ynte; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim

    2017-02-21

    The heightened susceptibility to infectious diseases in postpartum dairy cows is often attributed to immune dysfunction associated with the transition period. However, the cell populations involved in this immune dysfunction and the dynamics between those populations are not well defined. Monocytes play a crucial role in governing initial immune response in bacterial infections. Bovine monocytes are subdivided in classical (CD14+/CD16-), intermediate (CD14+/CD16+) and non-classical monocytes (CD14-/CD16+) with distinct phenotypic and functional differences. This study investigated the relationship of monocyte subsets counts in blood at 42 and 14 days prior to expected calving date to occurrence of metritis and mastitis within 2 weeks postpartum. In the enrolled prospective cohort of 27 German Holstein cows, housed at the Institute of Animal Nutrition of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute Braunschweig, Germany, n = 13 developed metritis and/or mastitis postpartum. A multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between prepartum cell counts of monocyte subsets and neutrophils with postpartum disease. Our model revealed that higher counts of the two CD14+ monocyte subsets were predictive of disease. In contrast, higher numbers of the CD14- monocyte subset were negatively associated with disease. Interestingly, the neutrophil count, a common hallmark for inflammatory response, was not associated with the outcome variable at either time point. The results indicate that the number and composition of monocyte subsets before calving are related to the susceptibility to infectious disease within 2 weeks postpartum. Furthermore the oppositional effect of CD14+ and CD14- subsets strengthens the hypothesis that these subsets have different functional roles in the inflammatory response in dairy cows.

  6. On the satisfiability of random regular signed SAT formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Laus, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Regular signed SAT is a variant of the well-known satisfiability problem in which the variables can take values in a fixed set V \\subset [0,1], and the `literals' have the form "x \\le a" or "x \\ge a". We answer some open question regarding random regular signed k-SAT formulas: the probability that a random formula is satisfiable increases with |V|; there is a constant upper bound on the ratio m/n of clauses m over variables n, beyond which a random formula is asypmtotically almost never satisfied; for k=2 and V=[0,1], there is a phase transition at m/n=2.

  7. Spontaneous and natural cytotoxicity receptor-mediated cytotoxicity are effector functions of distinct natural killer subsets in hepatitis C virus-infected chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E. Verstrepen (Babs); I.G. Nieuwenhuis; P. Mooij (Petra); W. Bogers (Willy); P.A. Boonstra (André); G. Koopman (Gerrit)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn humans, CD16 and CD56 are used to identify functionally distinct natural killer (NK) subsets. Due to ubiquitous CD56 expression, this marker cannot be used to distinguish between NK cell subsets in chimpanzees. Therefore, functional analysis of distinct NK subsets during hepatitis C

  8. Expansão volêmica em raquianestesia para cesariana: comparação entre cristalóide ou colóide Expansión volemica en raquianestesia para cesárea: comparación entre cristaloide y coloide Preload during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section: comparison between crystalloid and colloid solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Maria Siaulys Capel Cardoso

    2004-12-01

    media de tres valores sucesivos de presión arterial sistólica (PAS. La PS fue medida a cada minuto y se administró bolus de 0,2 mg de metaraminol, por vía venosa, para disminución de PS mayor que 10% y bolus de 0,4 mg para disminución de PS mayor que 20%. Al nacimiento se evaluó el índice de Apgar y se realizó gasometria de la arteria umbilical. El análisis estadístico fue hecho con los tests t de Student modificado y para igualdad de las variables (p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Maternal hypotension is the most common complication following spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. This study aimed at comparing the incidence of hypotension and the need for vasopressors in patients submitted to cesarean section under spinal anesthesia following preload with either crystalloid or colloid (modified fluid gelatin. METHODS: Participated in this prospective study 50 term pregnant patients, physical status ASA I, submitted to cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups receiving preload as follows: Crystalloid group, 10 mL.kg-1 lactated Ringer; Colloid group, 10 mL.kg-1 colloid (modified fluid gelatin. Control blood pressure was defined as the mean of three successive systolic blood pressure (SBP values. SBP was measured at 1-minute intervals and 0.2 mg intravenous bolus of metaraminol was administered for SBP decrease above 10% of control blood pressure, and 0.4 mg bolus of the same drug for SBP decrease above 20% of control. Apgar score was evaluated after delivery and umbilical artery blood was sent for analysis. Modified Student's t test was used for statistical analysis and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Hypotension 10% (100% and 100% of patients; hypotension 20% (72% and 72% of patients, nausea (4% and 8% of patients; vasopressor consumption (1.67± 0.89 mg and 1.88 ± 0.74 mg and umbilical artery pH (7.25 ± 0.04 and 7.26 ± 0.04, in Crystalloid and Colloid groups, respectively, were

  9. Random tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2017-01-01

    Written by the creator of the modern theory of random tensors, this book is the first self-contained introductory text to this rapidly developing theory. Starting from notions familiar to the average researcher or PhD student in mathematical or theoretical physics, the book presents in detail the theory and its applications to physics. The recent detections of the Higgs boson at the LHC and gravitational waves at LIGO mark new milestones in Physics confirming long standing predictions of Quantum Field Theory and General Relativity. These two experimental results only reinforce today the need to find an underlying common framework of the two: the elusive theory of Quantum Gravity. Over the past thirty years, several alternatives have been proposed as theories of Quantum Gravity, chief among them String Theory. While these theories are yet to be tested experimentally, key lessons have already been learned. Whatever the theory of Quantum Gravity may be, it must incorporate random geometry in one form or another....

  10. Random functions and turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Panchev, S

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 32: Random Functions and Turbulence focuses on the use of random functions as mathematical methods. The manuscript first offers information on the elements of the theory of random functions. Topics include determination of statistical moments by characteristic functions; functional transformations of random variables; multidimensional random variables with spherical symmetry; and random variables and distribution functions. The book then discusses random processes and random fields, including stationarity and ergodicity of random

  11. Pathogenesis of Renal Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus—The Role of Autoantibodies and Lymphocytes Subset Abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Y. H. Yap

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis (LN is a common and severe organ manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, and is associated with significant patient morbidity and mortality. Autoantibodies and aberrations in lymphocyte subsets have putative roles in the pathogenesis of SLE and LN, and might reflect disease activity and are amenable to immunosuppressive treatments. Anti-DNA is one of the well-studied autoantibodies, which correlates with disease activity and has direct nephritogenic effects on resident renal cells and various glomerular components. Other important autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of LN include anti-C1q, anti-α-actinin and anti-nucleosome antibodies. Changes in naive and memory B cells and plasma cells have been observed in SLE and LN patients. These B cell subsets exert diverse effects during pathogenesis of LN such as production of autoantibodies, secretion of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and presentation of auto-antigens to effector cells. Aberration of T lymphocytes, especially the T-helper subsets, is also highly pertinent in the development of LN. In this context, important T helper subsets include Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, TReg and follicular T-helper cells. The growing knowledge on these autoantibodies and lymphocyte subset abnormalities will enhance our understanding of SLE and LN, and hence help devise better strategies for disease monitoring and treatment.

  12. Serial changes in lymphocyte subsets in patients with newly diagnosed high grade astrocytomas treated with standard radiation and temozolomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campian, Jian L; Piotrowski, Anna F; Ye, Xiaobu; Hakim, Frances T; Rose, Jeremy; Yan, Xiao-Yi; Lu, Yao; Gress, Ronald; Grossman, Stuart A

    2017-11-01

    The immune system plays a significant role in cancer prevention and outcome. In high grade astrocytomas (HGA), severe lymphopenia is associated with shortened survival due to tumor progression. This study was performed to quantify serial changes in lymphocyte subsets in HGA following standard radiation (RT) and temozolomide (TMZ). Adults (KPS >60, HIV negative) with newly diagnosed HGA scheduled to receive concurrent RT and TMZ and adjuvant TMZ were eligible. Blood was collected before beginning concurrent RT/TMZ and at weeks 6, 10, 18, and 26, and 3 months after completing adjuvant TMZ. Lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. Twenty patients (70% glioblastoma, median age 53, 50% male, 80% Caucasian) who enrolled from January 2014 to August 2014 were followed until April 2016. Baseline dexamethasone dose was 0.5 mg/day and 15% had absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) <1000 cells/mm3 before starting RT/TMZ. However, 75% developed lymphopenia with ALC <1000 cells/mm3 after completion of RT/TMZ. NK cells, B cells and all T lymphocytes subsets dropped significantly after concurrent RT/TMZ and remained depressed for the 48 weeks of observation. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio was not affected significantly during follow-up. Severe lymphopenia involving all subsets occurred early in treatment and remained present for nearly 1 year. To our knowledge, this is the first report of serial trends in lymphocyte subsets following standard RT and TMZ for HGA.

  13. Characterization of Peripheral Immune Cell Subsets in Patients with Acute and Chronic Cerebrovascular Disease: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kraft

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Immune cells (IC play a crucial role in murine stroke pathophysiology. However, data are limited on the role of these cells in ischemic stroke in humans. We therefore aimed to characterize and compare peripheral IC subsets in patients with acute ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (AIS/TIA, chronic cerebrovascular disease (CCD and healthy volunteers (HV. We conducted a case-control study of patients with AIS/TIA (n = 116 or CCD (n = 117, and HV (n = 104 who were enrolled at the University Hospital Würzburg from 2010 to 2013. We determined the expression and quantity of IC subsets in the three study groups and performed correlation analyses with demographic and clinical parameters. The quantity of several IC subsets differed between the AIS/TIA, CCD, and HV groups. Several clinical and demographic variables independently predicted the quantity of IC subsets in patients with AIS/TIA. No significant changes in the quantity of IC subsets occurred within the first three days after AIS/TIA. Overall, these findings strengthen the evidence for a pathophysiologic role of IC in human ischemic stroke and the potential use of IC-based biomarkers for the prediction of stroke risk. A comprehensive description of IC kinetics is crucial to enable the design of targeted treatment strategies.

  14. Subset-directed antiviral treatment of 142 herpesvirus patients with chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Martin Lerner

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A Martin Lerner1, Safedin Beqaj2, James T Fitzgerald3, Ken Gill4, Carol Gill4, James Edington41Department of Medicine, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak; 2Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit; 3Department of Medical Education, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan; 4The Dr A Martin Lerner Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Foundation, Beverly Hills, Michigan, USAPurpose: We hypothesized that chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS may be caused by single or multiple Epstein–Barr virus (EBV, cytomegalovirus (HCMV, or human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6 infection. To determine if CFS life-altering fatigue and associated findings including muscle aches, tachycardia at rest, chest aches, left ventricular dysfunction, syncope, and elevated herpesvirus serum antibody titers are reversed by long-term subset-directed valacyclovir and/or valganciclovir.Patients and methods: Data were collected at physician visits every 4–6 weeks from 142 CFS patients at one clinic from 2001 to 2007. To be included in this study, patients had to be followed for at least six months. The data captured included over 7000 patient visits and over 35,000 fields of information. Severity of fatigue was monitored by a validated Energy Index Point Score® (EIPS®. Baseline and follow-up serum antibody titers to EBV, HCMV, and HHV6, as well as coinfections with Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophila, Babesia microti, and antistreptolysin O, 24-hour ECG Holter monitors, 2D echocardiograms, cardiac dynamic studies, symptoms, and toxicity were captured and monitored. International criteria for CFS plus a specifically designed CFS diagnostic panel were used.Results and conclusions: The Group A herpesvirus CFS patients (no coinfections returned to a near-normal to normal life (P = 0.0001. The long-term EIPS value increased (primary endpoint, P < 0.0001 with subset-directed long-term valacyclovir and/or valganciclovir therapy. Secondary endpoints (cardiac, immunologic

  15. Altered Distribution of Peripheral Blood Maturation-Associated B-Cell Subsets in Chronic Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Julia; Polvorosa, Maria Angeles; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Madruga, Ignacio; Marcos, Miguel; Pérez-Nieto, Maria Angeles; Hernandez-Cerceño, Maria Luisa; Orfao, Alberto; Laso, Francisco Javier

    2015-08-01

    Although decreased counts of peripheral blood (PB) B cells-associated with an apparently contradictory polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia-have been reported in chronic alcoholism, no information exists about the specific subsets of circulating B cells altered and their relationship with antibody production. Here, we analyzed for the first time the distribution of multiple maturation-associated subpopulations of PB B cells in alcoholism and its potential relationship with the onset of liver disease. PB samples from 35 male patients-20 had alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and 15 chronic alcoholism without liver disease (AWLD)-were studied, in parallel to 19 male healthy donors (controls). The distribution of PB B-cell subsets (immature/regulatory, naïve, CD27(-) and CD27(+) memory B lymphocytes, and circulating plasmablasts of distinct immunoglobulin-Ig-isotypes) was analyzed by flow cytometry. Patients with AH showed significantly decreased numbers of total PB B lymphocytes (vs. controls and AWLD), at the expense of immature, memory, and, to a lesser extent, also naïve B cells. AWLD showed reduced numbers of immature and naïve B cells (vs. controls), but higher PB counts of plasmablasts (vs. the other 2 groups). Although PB memory B cells were reduced among the patients, the percentage of surface (s)IgA(+) cells (particularly CD27(-) /sIgA(+) cells) was increased in AH, whereas both sIgG(+) and sIgA(+) memory B cells were significantly overrepresented in AWLD versus healthy donors. Regarding circulating plasmablasts, patients with AH only showed significantly reduced counts of sIgG(+) cells versus controls. In contrast, the proportion of both sIgA(+) and sIgG(+) plasmablasts-from all plasmablasts-was reduced in AH and increased in AWLD (vs. the other 2 groups). AH and AWLD patients display a significantly reduced PB B-cell count, at the expense of decreased numbers of recently produced immature/regulatory B cells and naïve B cells, together with an increase in Ig

  16. Association of small dense LDL serum levels and circulating monocyte subsets in stable coronary artery disease.

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    Konstantin A Krychtiuk

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is considered to be an inflammatory disease in which monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages play a key role. Circulating monocytes can be divided into three distinct subtypes, namely in classical monocytes (CM; CD14++CD16-, intermediate monocytes (IM; CD14++CD16+ and non-classical monocytes (NCM; CD14+CD16++. Low density lipoprotein particles are heterogeneous in size and density, with small, dense LDL (sdLDL crucially implicated in atherogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine whether monocyte subsets are associated with sdLDL serum levels.We included 90 patients with angiographically documented stable coronary artery disease and determined monocyte subtypes by flow cytometry. sdLDL was measured by an electrophoresis method on polyacrylamide gel.Patients with sdLDL levels in the highest tertile (sdLDL≥4mg/dL;T3 showed the highest levels of pro-inflammatory NCM (15.2±7% vs. 11.4±6% and 10.9±4%, respectively; p<0.01 when compared with patients in the middle (sdLDL=2-3mg/dL;T2 and lowest tertile (sdLDL=0-1mg/dL;T1. Furthermore, patients in the highest sdLDL tertile showed lower CM levels than patients in the middle and lowest tertile (79.2±8% vs. 83.9±7% and 82.7±5%; p<0.01 for T3 vs. T2+T1. Levels of IM were not related to sdLDL levels (5.6±4% vs. 4.6±3% vs. 6.4±3% for T3, T2 and T1, respectively. In contrast to monocyte subset distribution, levels of circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory markers were not associated with sdLDL levels.The atherogenic lipoprotein fraction sdLDL is associated with an increase of NCM and a decrease of CM. This could be a new link between lipid metabolism dysregulation, innate immunity and atherosclerosis.

  17. Association of small dense LDL serum levels and circulating monocyte subsets in stable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krychtiuk, Konstantin A; Kastl, Stefan P; Pfaffenberger, Stefan; Lenz, Max; Hofbauer, Sebastian L; Wonnerth, Anna; Koller, Lorenz; Katsaros, Katharina M; Pongratz, Thomas; Goliasch, Georg; Niessner, Alexander; Gaspar, Ludovit; Huber, Kurt; Maurer, Gerald; Dostal, Elisabeth; Wojta, Johann; Oravec, Stanislav; Speidl, Walter S

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is considered to be an inflammatory disease in which monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages play a key role. Circulating monocytes can be divided into three distinct subtypes, namely in classical monocytes (CM; CD14++CD16-), intermediate monocytes (IM; CD14++CD16+) and non-classical monocytes (NCM; CD14+CD16++). Low density lipoprotein particles are heterogeneous in size and density, with small, dense LDL (sdLDL) crucially implicated in atherogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine whether monocyte subsets are associated with sdLDL serum levels. We included 90 patients with angiographically documented stable coronary artery disease and determined monocyte subtypes by flow cytometry. sdLDL was measured by an electrophoresis method on polyacrylamide gel. Patients with sdLDL levels in the highest tertile (sdLDL≥4mg/dL;T3) showed the highest levels of pro-inflammatory NCM (15.2±7% vs. 11.4±6% and 10.9±4%, respectively; p<0.01) when compared with patients in the middle (sdLDL=2-3mg/dL;T2) and lowest tertile (sdLDL=0-1mg/dL;T1). Furthermore, patients in the highest sdLDL tertile showed lower CM levels than patients in the middle and lowest tertile (79.2±8% vs. 83.9±7% and 82.7±5%; p<0.01 for T3 vs. T2+T1). Levels of IM were not related to sdLDL levels (5.6±4% vs. 4.6±3% vs. 6.4±3% for T3, T2 and T1, respectively). In contrast to monocyte subset distribution, levels of circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory markers were not associated with sdLDL levels. The atherogenic lipoprotein fraction sdLDL is associated with an increase of NCM and a decrease of CM. This could be a new link between lipid metabolism dysregulation, innate immunity and atherosclerosis.

  18. Identification of swine influenza virus epitopes and analysis of multiple specificities expressed by cytotoxic T cell subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Riber, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Background: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I peptide binding and presentation are essential for antigen-specific activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and swine MHC class I molecules, also termed swine leukocyte antigens (SLA), thus play a crucial role in the process that leads...... to elimination of viruses such as swine influenza virus (SwIV). This study describes the identification of SLA-presented peptide epitopes that are targets for a swine CTL response, and further analyses multiple specificities expressed by SwIV activated CTL subsets. Findings: Four SwIV derived peptides were...... subsets indicating multiple specificities. Conclusions: This study describes a timely and cost-effective approach for viral epitope identification in livestock animals. Analysis of T cell subsets showed multiple specificities suggesting SLA-bound epitope recognition of different conformations....

  19. Evaluating the effect of spatial subsetting on subpixel unmixing methodology applied to ASTER over a hydrothermally altered terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoobi, Iman; Tangestani, Majid H.

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the effect of spatial subsets of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) L1B visible-near infrared and short wave-infrared (VNIR-SWIR) data on matched filtering results at the central part of Kerman magmatic arc, where abundant porphyry copper deposits exist. The matched filtering (MF) procedure was run separately at sites containing hydrothermal minerals such as sericite, kaolinite, chlorite, and jarosite to map the abundances of these minerals on spatial subsets containing 100, 75, 50, and 25 percent of the original scene. Results were evaluated by comparing the matched filtering scores with the mineral abundances obtained by semi-quantitative XRD analysis of corresponding field samples. It was concluded that MF method should be applied to the whole scene prior to any data subsetting.

  20. Holistic systems biology approaches to molecular mechanisms of human helper T cell differentiation to functionally distinct subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Lönnberg, T; Lahesmaa, R

    2013-08-01

    Current knowledge of helper T cell differentiation largely relies on data generated from mouse studies. To develop therapeutical strategies combating human diseases, understanding the molecular mechanisms how human naïve T cells differentiate to functionally distinct T helper (Th) subsets as well as studies on human differentiated Th cell subsets is particularly valuable. Systems biology approaches provide a holistic view of the processes of T helper differentiation, enable discovery of new factors and pathways involved and generation of new hypotheses to be tested to improve our understanding of human Th cell differentiation and immune-mediated diseases. Here, we summarize studies where high-throughput systems biology approaches have been exploited to human primary T cells. These studies reveal new factors and signalling pathways influencing T cell differentiation towards distinct subsets, important for immune regulation. Such information provides new insights into T cell biology and into targeting immune system for therapeutic interventions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Three subsets of sequence complexity and their relevance to biopolymeric information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevors Jack T

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic algorithms instruct sophisticated biological organization. Three qualitative kinds of sequence complexity exist: random (RSC, ordered (OSC, and functional (FSC. FSC alone provides algorithmic instruction. Random and Ordered Sequence Complexities lie at opposite ends of the same bi-directional sequence complexity vector. Randomness in sequence space is defined by a lack of Kolmogorov algorithmic compressibility. A sequence is compressible because it contains redundant order and patterns. Law-like cause-and-effect determinism produces highly compressible order. Such forced ordering precludes both information retention and freedom of selection so critical to algorithmic programming and control. Functional Sequence Complexity requires this added programming dimension of uncoerced selection at successive decision nodes in the string. Shannon information theory measures the relative degrees of RSC and OSC. Shannon information theory cannot measure FSC. FSC is invariably associated with all forms of complex biofunction, including biochemical pathways, cycles, positive and negative feedback regulation, and homeostatic metabolism. The algorithmic programming of FSC, not merely its aperiodicity, accounts for biological organization. No empirical evidence exists of either RSC of OSC ever having produced a single instance of sophisticated biological organization. Organization invariably manifests FSC rather than successive random events (RSC or low-informational self-ordering phenomena (OSC.

  2. Moderate physical activity of music aerobic exercise increases lymphocyte counts, specific subsets, and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shu-Hui; Lai, Hsiu-Ling; Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Lin, Li-Wei; Chuang, Yu-Kuan; Yang, Yu-Yeng; Yang, Kuender D

    2014-09-01

    Moderate physical activity has been shown to promote immunity. Different moderate physical activities may have different effects on immunity. This study investigated the impacts of a 12-week regular music aerobic exercise (MAE) program on leukocyte distribution, lymphocyte subsets, and lymphocyte polarization. The study used a case-control design with pretest and posttest. Forty-seven middle-age women were recruited for this study. Three participants dropped out, 22 completed the 12-week MAE program, and the other 22 participants who had heat-intolerance or limited schedule eligibility were enrolled as the control group without the MAE exercise. Results showed that the MAE exercise for 12 weeks didn't change red blood cells or total leukocytes but increased lymphocyte counts. The women in MAE group revealed significant increases (P ≤ 0.01) of CD3CD4, CD3CD8, and CD4CD25 cells, associated with Treg polarization showing enhanced FoxP3 but not T-bet, Gata-3, or RORγT expression (P physical activity of music aerobic exercise to enhance lymphocyte function of middle-aged women.

  3. Listeriolysin S, a novel peptide haemolysin associated with a subset of lineage I Listeria monocytogenes.

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    Paul D Cotter

    Full Text Available Streptolysin S (SLS is a bacteriocin-like haemolytic and cytotoxic virulence factor that plays a key role in the virulence of Group A Streptococcus (GAS, the causative agent of pharyngitis, impetigo, necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Although it has long been thought that SLS and related peptides are produced by GAS and related streptococci only, there is evidence to suggest that a number of the most notorious Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum and Staphylococcus aureus, produce related peptides. The distribution of the L. monocytogenes cluster is particularly noteworthy in that it is found exclusively among a subset of lineage I strains; i.e., those responsible for the majority of outbreaks of listeriosis. Expression of these genes results in the production of a haemolytic and cytotoxic factor, designated Listeriolysin S, which contributes to virulence of the pathogen as assessed by murine- and human polymorphonuclear neutrophil-based studies. Thus, in the process of establishing the existence of an extended family of SLS-like modified virulence peptides (MVPs, the genetic basis for the enhanced virulence of a proportion of lineage I L. monocytogenes may have been revealed.

  4. PIM kinases as potential therapeutic targets in a subset of peripheral T cell lymphoma cases.

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    Esperanza Martín-Sánchez

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no efficient therapy for patients with peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL. The Proviral Integration site of Moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM kinases are important mediators of cell survival. We aimed to determine the therapeutic value of PIM kinases because they are overexpressed in PTCL patients, T cell lines and primary tumoral T cells. PIM kinases were inhibited genetically (using small interfering and short hairpin RNAs and pharmacologically (mainly with the pan-PIM inhibitor (PIMi ETP-39010 in a panel of 8 PTCL cell lines. Effects on cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle, key proteins and gene expression were evaluated. Individual inhibition of each of the PIM genes did not affect PTCL cell survival, partially because of a compensatory mechanism among the three PIM genes. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of all PIM kinases strongly induced apoptosis in all PTCL cell lines, without cell cycle arrest, in part through the induction of DNA damage. Therefore, pan-PIMi synergized with Cisplatin. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of PIM reduced primary tumoral T cell viability without affecting normal T cells ex vivo. Since anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK+ ALCL cell lines were the most sensitive to the pan-PIMi, we tested the simultaneous inhibition of ALK and PIM kinases and found a strong synergistic effect in ALK+ ALCL cell lines. Our findings suggest that PIM kinase inhibition could be of therapeutic value in a subset of PTCL, especially when combined with ALK inhibitors, and might be clinically beneficial in ALK+ ALCL.

  5. Different Subsets of Enteric Bacteria Induce and Perpetuate Experimental Colitis in Rats and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Heiko C.; Schultz, Michael; Freitag, René; Dieleman, Levinus A.; Li, Fengling; Linde, Hans-Jörg; Schölmerich, Jürgen; Sartor, R. Balfour

    2001-01-01

    Resident bacteria are incriminated in the pathogenesis of experimental colitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. We investigated the relative roles of various enteric bacteria populations in the induction and perpetuation of experimental colitis. HLA-B27 transgenic rats received antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, or vancomycin-imipenem) in drinking water or water alone in either prevention or treatment protocols. Mice were treated similarly with metronidazole or vancomycin-imipenem before or after receiving 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Germfree transgenic rats were colonized with specific-pathogen-free enteric bacteria grown overnight either in anaerobic or aerobic atmospheres. Nontransgenic rats colonized with anaerobic bacteria served as negative controls. Although preventive metronidazole significantly attenuated colitis in transgenic rats and DSS-treated mice, it had no therapeutic benefit once colitis was established. Ciprofloxacin also partially prevented but did not treat colitis in B27 transgenic rats. In both animal models vancomycin-imipenem most effectively prevented and treated colitis. Germfree transgenic rats reconstituted with enteric bacteria grown under anaerobic conditions had more aggressive colitis than those associated with aerobic bacteria. These results suggest that a subset of resident luminal bacteria induces colitis, but that a complex interaction of commensal aerobic and anaerobic bacteria provides the constant antigenic drive for chronic immune-mediated colonic inflammation. PMID:11254584

  6. A small subset of protected areas are a highly significant source of carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Murray B.; Mitchard, Edward T. A.

    2017-02-01

    Protected areas (PAs) aim to protect multiple ecosystem services. However, not all are well protected. For the first time, using published carbon and forest loss maps, we estimate carbon emissions in large forest PAs in tropical countries (N = 2018). We found 36 ± 16 Pg C stored in PA trees, representing 14.5% of all tropical forest biomass carbon. However the PAs lost forest at a mean rate of 0.18% yr-1 from 2000-2012. Lower protection status areas experienced higher forest losses (e.g. 0.39% yr-1 in IUCN cat III), yet even highest status areas lost 0.13% yr-1 (IUCN Cat I). Emissions were not evenly distributed: 80% of emissions derived from 8.3% of PAs (112 ± 49.5 Tg CO2 yr-1 n = 171). Unsurprisingly the largest emissions derived from PAs that started with the greatest total forest area; accounting for starting forest area and relating that to carbon lost using a linear model (r2 = 0.41), we found 1.1% outlying PAs (residuals >2σ N = 23), representing 1.3% of the total PA forest area, yet causing 27.3% of all PA emissions. These results suggest PAs have been a successful means of protecting biomass carbon, yet a subset causing a disproportionately high share of emissions should be an urgent priority for management interventions.

  7. Fibrocytes represent a novel MDSC subset circulating in patients with metastatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Maric, Irena; DiPrima, Michael J; Khan, Javed; Orentas, Rimas J; Kaplan, Rosandra N; Mackall, Crystal L

    2013-08-15

    Fibrocytes are hematopoietic stem cell-derived fibroblast precursors that are implicated in chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and wound healing. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) expand in cancer-bearing hosts and contribute to tumor immune evasion. They are typically described as CD11b⁺HLA-DR⁻ in humans. We report abnormal expansions of CD11b⁺HLA-DR⁺ myeloid cells in peripheral blood mononuclear fractions of subjects with metastatic pediatric sarcomas. Like classical fibrocytes, they display cell surface α smooth muscle actin, collagen I/V, and mediate angiogenesis. However, classical fibrocytes serve as antigen presenters and augment immune reactivity, whereas fibrocytes from cancer subjects suppressed anti-CD3-mediated T-cell proliferation, primarily via indoleamine oxidase (IDO). The degree of fibrocyte expansion observed in individual subjects directly correlated with the frequency of circulating GATA3⁺CD4⁺ cells (R = 0.80) and monocytes from healthy donors cultured with IL-4 differentiated into fibrocytes with the same phenotypic profile and immunosuppressive properties as those observed in patients with cancer. We thus describe a novel subset of cancer-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which bear the phenotypic and functional hallmarks of fibrocytes but mediate immune suppression. These cells are likely expanded in response to Th2 immune deviation and may contribute to tumor progression via both immune evasion and angiogenesis.

  8. Sex-specific DoublesexM expression in subsets of Drosophila somatic gonad cells

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    Oliver Brian

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Drosophila melanogaster, a pre-mRNA splicing hierarchy controls sexual identity and ultimately leads to sex-specific Doublesex (DSX transcription factor isoforms. The male-specific DSXM represses genes involved in female development and activates genes involved in male development. Spatial and temporal control of dsx during embryogenesis is not well documented. Results Here we show that DSXM is specifically expressed in subsets of male somatic gonad cells during embryogenesis. Following testis formation, germ cells remain in contact with DSXM-expressing cells, including hub cells and premeiotic somatic cyst cells that surround germ cells during spermatogenesis in larval and adult testes. Conclusion We show that dsx is transcriptionally regulated in addition to being regulated at the pre-mRNA splicing level by the sex determination hierarchy. The dsx locus is spatially controlled by somatic gonad identity. The continuous expression of DSXM in cells contacting the germline suggests an ongoing short-range influence of the somatic sex determination pathway on germ cell development.

  9. Ensemble Classification for Anomalous Propagation Echo Detection with Clustering-Based Subset-Selection Method

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    Hansoo Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several types of non-precipitation echoes appear in radar images and disrupt the weather forecasting process. An anomalous propagation echo is an unwanted observation result similar to a precipitation echo. It occurs through radar-beam ducting because of the temperature, humidity distribution, and other complicated atmospheric conditions. Anomalous propagation echoes should be removed because they make weather forecasting difficult. In this paper, we suggest an ensemble classification method based on an artificial neural network and a clustering-based subset-selection method. This method allows us to implement an efficient classification method when a feature space has complicated distributions. By separating the input data into atomic and non-atomic clusters, each derived cluster will receive its own base classifier. In the experiments, we compared our method with a standalone artificial neural network classifier. The suggested ensemble classifier showed 84.14% performance, which was about 2% higher than that of the k-means clustering-based ensemble classifier and about 4% higher than the standalone artificial neural network classifier.

  10. Characteristic repartition of monocyte subsets as a diagnostic signature of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimoglu-Buet, Dorothée; Wagner-Ballon, Orianne; Saada, Véronique; Bardet, Valérie; Itzykson, Raphaël; Bencheikh, Laura; Morabito, Margot; Met, Elisabeth; Debord, Camille; Benayoun, Emmanuel; Nloga, Anne-Marie; Fenaux, Pierre; Braun, Thorsten; Willekens, Christophe; Quesnel, Bruno; Adès, Lionel; Fontenay, Michaela; Rameau, Philippe; Droin, Nathalie; Koscielny, Serge; Solary, Eric

    2015-06-04

    Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a myelodysplastic syndrome/ myeloproliferative neoplasm whose diagnosis is currently based on the elevation of peripheral blood monocytes to >1 × 10(9)/L, measured for ≥3 months. Diagnosis can be ambiguous; for example, with prefibrotic myelofibrosis or reactive monocytosis. We set up a multiparameter flow cytometry assay to distinguish CD14(+)/CD16(-) classical from CD14(+)/CD16(+) intermediate and CD14(low)/CD16(+) nonclassical monocyte subsets in peripheral blood mononucleated cells and in total blood samples. Compared with healthy donors and patients with reactive monocytosis or another hematologic malignancy, CMML patients demonstrate a characteristic increase in the fraction of CD14(+)/CD16(-) cells (cutoff value, 94.0%). The associated specificity and sensitivity values were 95.1% and 90.6% in the learning cohort (175 samples) and 94.1% and 91.9% in the validation cohort (307 samples), respectively. The accumulation of classical monocytes, which demonstrate a distinct gene expression pattern, is independent of the mutational background. Importantly, this increase disappears in patients who respond to hypomethylating agents. We conclude that an increase in the fraction of classical monocytes to >94.0% of total monocytes is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic marker that rapidly and accurately distinguishes CMML from confounding diagnoses. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  11. Statistical Image Properties in Large Subsets of Traditional Art, Bad Art, and Abstract Art

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    Christoph Redies

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several statistical image properties have been associated with large subsets of traditional visual artworks. Here, we investigate some of these properties in three categories of art that differ in artistic claim and prestige: (1 Traditional art of different cultural origin from established museums and art collections (oil paintings and graphic art of Western provenance, Islamic book illustration and Chinese paintings, (2 Bad Art from two museums that collect contemporary artworks of lesser importance (© Museum Of Bad Art [MOBA], Somerville, and Official Bad Art Museum of Art [OBAMA], Seattle, and (3 twentieth century abstract art of Western provenance from two prestigious museums (Tate Gallery and Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen. We measured the following four statistical image properties: the fractal dimension (a measure relating to subjective complexity; self-similarity (a measure of how much the sections of an image resemble the image as a whole, 1st-order entropy of edge orientations (a measure of how uniformly different orientations are represented in an image; and 2nd-order entropy of edge orientations (a measure of how independent edge orientations are across an image. As shown previously, traditional artworks of different styles share similar values for these measures. The values for Bad Art and twentieth century abstract art show a considerable overlap with those of traditional art, but we also identified numerous examples of Bad Art and abstract art that deviate from traditional art. By measuring statistical image properties, we quantify such differences in image composition for the first time.

  12. West Nile virus infection causes endocytosis of a specific subset of tight junction membrane proteins.

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    Zaikun Xu

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a blood-borne pathogen that causes systemic infections and serious neurological disease in human and animals. The most common route of infection is mosquito bites and therefore, the virus must cross a number of polarized cell layers to gain access to organ tissue and the central nervous system. Resistance to trans-cellular movement of macromolecules between epithelial and endothelial cells is mediated by tight junction complexes. While a number of recent studies have documented that WNV infection negatively impacts the barrier function of tight junctions, the intracellular mechanism by which this occurs is poorly understood. In the present study, we report that endocytosis of a subset of tight junction membrane proteins including claudin-1 and JAM-1 occurs in WNV infected epithelial and endothelial cells. This process, which ultimately results in lysosomal degradation of the proteins, is dependent on the GTPase dynamin and microtubule-based transport. Finally, infection of polarized cells with the related flavivirus, Dengue virus-2, did not result in significant loss of tight junction membrane proteins. These results suggest that neurotropic flaviviruses such as WNV modulate the host cell environment differently than hemorrhagic flaviviruses and thus may have implications for understanding the molecular basis for neuroinvasion.

  13. Statistical Image Properties in Large Subsets of Traditional Art, Bad Art, and Abstract Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redies, Christoph; Brachmann, Anselm

    2017-01-01

    Several statistical image properties have been associated with large subsets of traditional visual artworks. Here, we investigate some of these properties in three categories of art that differ in artistic claim and prestige: (1) Traditional art of different cultural origin from established museums and art collections (oil paintings and graphic art of Western provenance, Islamic book illustration and Chinese paintings), (2) Bad Art from two museums that collect contemporary artworks of lesser importance (© Museum Of Bad Art [MOBA], Somerville, and Official Bad Art Museum of Art [OBAMA], Seattle), and (3) twentieth century abstract art of Western provenance from two prestigious museums (Tate Gallery and Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen). We measured the following four statistical image properties: the fractal dimension (a measure relating to subjective complexity); self-similarity (a measure of how much the sections of an image resemble the image as a whole), 1st-order entropy of edge orientations (a measure of how uniformly different orientations are represented in an image); and 2nd-order entropy of edge orientations (a measure of how independent edge orientations are across an image). As shown previously, traditional artworks of different styles share similar values for these measures. The values for Bad Art and twentieth century abstract art show a considerable overlap with those of traditional art, but we also identified numerous examples of Bad Art and abstract art that deviate from traditional art. By measuring statistical image properties, we quantify such differences in image composition for the first time. PMID:29118692

  14. Statistical Image Properties in Large Subsets of Traditional Art, Bad Art, and Abstract Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redies, Christoph; Brachmann, Anselm

    2017-01-01

    Several statistical image properties have been associated with large subsets of traditional visual artworks. Here, we investigate some of these properties in three categories of art that differ in artistic claim and prestige: (1) Traditional art of different cultural origin from established museums and art collections (oil paintings and graphic art of Western provenance, Islamic book illustration and Chinese paintings), (2) Bad Art from two museums that collect contemporary artworks of lesser importance (© Museum Of Bad Art [MOBA], Somerville, and Official Bad Art Museum of Art [OBAMA], Seattle), and (3) twentieth century abstract art of Western provenance from two prestigious museums (Tate Gallery and Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen). We measured the following four statistical image properties: the fractal dimension (a measure relating to subjective complexity); self-similarity (a measure of how much the sections of an image resemble the image as a whole), 1st-order entropy of edge orientations (a measure of how uniformly different orientations are represented in an image); and 2nd-order entropy of edge orientations (a measure of how independent edge orientations are across an image). As shown previously, traditional artworks of different styles share similar values for these measures. The values for Bad Art and twentieth century abstract art show a considerable overlap with those of traditional art, but we also identified numerous examples of Bad Art and abstract art that deviate from traditional art. By measuring statistical image properties, we quantify such differences in image composition for the first time.

  15. SMAC is expressed de novo in a subset of cervical cancer tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maldonado Vilma A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smac/Diablo is a recently identified protein that is released from mitochondria after apoptotic stimuli. It binds IAPs, allowing caspase activation and cell death. In view of its activity it might participate in carcinogenesis. In the present study, we analyzed Smac expression in a panel of cervical cancer patients. Methods We performed semi quantitative RT-PCR on 41 cervical tumor and 6 normal tissue samples. The study included 8 stage I cases; 16 stage II; 17 stage III; and a control group of 6 samples of normal cervical squamous epithelial tissue. Results Smac mRNA expression was below the detection limit in the normal cervical tissue samples. In contrast, 13 (31.7% of the 41 cervical cancer biopsies showed detectable levels of this transcript. The samples expressing Smac were distributed equally among the stages (5 in stage I, 4 in stage II and 4 in stage III with similar expression levels. We found no correlation between the presence of Smac mRNA and histology, menopause, WHO stage or disease status. Conclusions Smac is expressed de novo in a subset of cervical cancer patients, reflecting a possible heterogeneity in the pathways leading to cervical cancer. There was no correlation with any clinical variable.

  16. CDCP1 identifies a CD146 negative subset of marrow fibroblasts involved with cytokine production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mineo Iwata

    Full Text Available In vitro expanded bone marrow stromal cells contain at least two populations of fibroblasts, a CD146/MCAM positive population, previously reported to be critical for establishing the stem cell niche and a CD146-negative population that expresses CUB domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1/CD318. Immunohistochemistry of marrow biopsies shows that clusters of CDCP1+ cells are present in discrete areas distinct from areas of fibroblasts expressing CD146. Using a stromal cell line, HS5, which approximates primary CDCP1+ stromal cells, we show that binding of an activating antibody against CDCP1 results in tyrosine-phosphorylation of CDCP1, paralleled by phosphorylation of Src Family Kinases (SFKs Protein Kinase C delta (PKC-δ. When CDCP1 expression is knocked-down by siRNA, the expression and secretion of myelopoietic cytokines is increased. These data suggest CDCP1 expression can be used to identify a subset of marrow fibroblasts functionally distinct from CD146+ fibroblasts. Furthermore the CDCP1 protein may contribute to the defining function of these cells by regulating cytokine expression.

  17. An Intrinsic Encoding of a Subset of C and its Application to TLS Network Packet Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynald Affeldt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available TLS is such a widespread security protocol that errors in its implementation can have disastrous consequences. This responsibility is mostly borne by programmers, caught between specifications with the ambiguities of natural language and error-prone low-level parsing of network packets. We report here on the construction in the Coq proof-assistant of libraries to model, specify, and verify C programs to process TLS packets. We provide in particular an encoding of the core subset of C whose originality lies in its use of dependent types to guarantee statically well-formedness of datatypes and correct typing. We further equip this encoding with a Separation logic that enables byte-level reasoning and also provide a logical view of data structures. We also formalize a significant part of the RFC for TLS, again using dependent types to capture succinctly constraints that are left implicit in the prose document. Finally, we apply the above framework to an existing implementation of TLS (namely, PolarSSL of which we specify and verify a parsing function for network packets. Thanks to this experiment, we were able to spot ambiguities in the RFC and to correct bugs in the C source code.

  18. Psoriasis patients exhibit impairment of the high potency CCR5+ T regulatory cell subset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, David C.; Sugiyama, Hideaki; Young, Andrew B.; Massari, Jessica V.; McCormick, Thomas S.; Cooper, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    CCR5 expression on CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) has been reported to be crucial for limiting Th1 inflammation associated with autoimmunity and bacterial infections. We inquired whether abnormalities in chemokine receptors expressed on Tregs might be involved in the psoriatic pathogenesis. Indeed, the proportion of CCR5+Treg was 58.8% in healthy individuals (n=9), whereas only half as many CCR5+Treg cells were found in psoriatic individuals (29.1%, n=8, p<0.01). The flow-enriched control CCR5+Tregs consistently exceeded the suppressive capacity of unsorted Tregs in autologous MLR assays (n=5, p<0.05) showing that CCR5+Treg subset is a high potency regulatory T cell population. Interestingly, psoriatic CCR5+Treg cells exhibited significantly less migratory capacity toward CCR5 ligands MIP-1β and RANTES in vitro compared to CCR5+Treg controls (n=3, p<0.05). Our data demonstrate that psoriatic CCR5+Tregs cells are numerically-, functionally- and chemotactically-deficient compared to controls and may pose a triple impairment on the ability of psoriatic Tregs to restrain inflammation. PMID:23954573

  19. Selecting Feature Subsets Based on SVM-RFE and the Overlapping Ratio with Applications in Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection is an important topic in bioinformatics. Defining informative features from complex high dimensional biological data is critical in disease study, drug development, etc. Support vector machine-recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE is an efficient feature selection technique that has shown its power in many applications. It ranks the features according to the recursive feature deletion sequence based on SVM. In this study, we propose a method, SVM-RFE-OA, which combines the classification accuracy rate and the average overlapping ratio of the samples to determine the number of features to be selected from the feature rank of SVM-RFE. Meanwhile, to measure the feature weights more accurately, we propose a modified SVM-RFE-OA (M-SVM-RFE-OA algorithm that temporally screens out the samples lying in a heavy overlapping area in each iteration. The experiments on the eight public biological datasets show that the discriminative ability of the feature subset could be measured more accurately by combining the classification accuracy rate with the average overlapping degree of the samples compared with using the classification accuracy rate alone, and shielding the samples in the overlapping area made the calculation of the feature weights more stable and accurate. The methods proposed in this study can also be used with other RFE techniques to define potential biomarkers from big biological data.

  20. The role of T cell subsets and cytokines in the regulation of intracellular bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira S.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular immune responses are a critical part of the host's defense against intracellular bacterial infections. Immunity to Brucella abortus crucially depends on antigen-specific T cell-mediated activation of macrophages, which are the major effectors of cell-mediated killing of this organism. T lymphocytes that proliferate in response to B. abortus were characterized for phenotype and cytokine activity. Human, murine, and bovine T lymphocytes exhibited a type 1 cytokine profile, suggesting an analogous immune response in these different hosts. In vivo protection afforded by a particular cell type is dependent on the antigen presented and the mechanism of antigen presentation. Studies using MHC class I and class II knockout mice infected with B. abortus have demonstrated that protective immunity to brucellosis is especially dependent on CD8+ T cells. To target MHC class I presentation we transfected ex vivo a murine macrophage cell line with B. abortus genes and adoptively transferred them to BALB/c mice. These transgenic macrophage clones induced partial protection in mice against experimental brucellosis. Knowing the cells required for protection, vaccines can be designed to activate the protective T cell subset. Lastly, as a new strategy for priming a specific class I-restricted T cell response in vivo, we used genetic immunization by particle bombardment-mediated gene transfer

  1. Survival and signaling changes in antigen presenting cell subsets after radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jennifer Janell

    examine co-stimulatory receptor activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine release, and T cell proliferation with and without radiation and inhibition of the NFkappaB pathway, demonstrated that NEMO is necessary for the activation, maturation, and enhanced responsiveness of human subsets of antigen presenting cells that occur after radiation. These findings provided insight into the mechanism of action of radiation-enhanced promotion of the antigen presenting cell responses. The methods of analysis employed can be used for monitoring immune changes that impact immune modulation in transplantation and tumor vaccines studies. Furthermore, NFkappaB pathway proteins have the potential to serve as biomarkers for optimal antitumor responses. The NBD peptide may also have usefulness as a therapeutic agent for inhibition of graft versus host disease (GVHD) in patients who have undergone transplantation. While the first set of experiments focused on antigen presenting cell responsiveness, the second set of experiments were designed to enhance our understanding of why antigen presenting cells, specifically monocytes and dendritic cells, are more radioresistant than conventional T cells. Flow cytometric analysis of various surface markers and intracellular signaling markers were used to examine the mechanisms behind the radioresistance of antigen presenting cells. The experiments described here showed a hierarchy of radiosensitivity among T cells, with naive CD8 T cells being the most radiosensitive and CD4 memory T cells being the most radioresistant. Antigen presenting cells were found to be significantly more radioresistant than T cell subsets (immune cell subsets. Again, these findings are clinically relevant to transplant patients and patients with tumors receiving radiation therapy since APC survival may have importance for the generation of anti-tumor immunity and post-transplantation immune sequelae such as GVHD. In addition, elucidation of the mechanism of death of APC and T

  2. Lymphoid subsets and prognostic factors in multiple myeloma. Cooperative Group for the Study of Monoclonal Gammopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, J F; González, M; Gascón, A; Moro, M J; Hernández, J M; Ortega, F; Jiménez, R; Guerras, L; Romero, M; Casanova, F

    1992-03-01

    In a uniform series of 170 untreated myeloma patients (MM) we investigated the distribution of T cell subsets in peripheral blood (PB) and their relationship with the most relevant disease characteristics, including survival. CD4 cells were significantly decreased both in percentage and absolute numbers (P less than 0.0001). On the other hand, the CD8 cells only showed a slight increase in relative numbers. Upon correlating the abnormalities in the distribution of T cells with other clinical and biological disease characteristics the most remarkable correlation was with survival. A low number of CD4 cells (less than 700 x 10(6)/l) was associated with both an advanced clinical stage and a shorter survival (20 v. 43 months, P = 0.01). Moreover, a significant correlation also exists between the decrease in CD4 cells and both high beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2M) levels and anaemia. On the other hand, no relationship was found with the type of M-component nor with the plasma cell phenotype. Finally multivariate analysis showed that the number of CD4 cells add independent prognostic information to other well-established tests for the assessment of disease outcome in patients with multiple myeloma.

  3. Rbfox3 Controls the Biogenesis of a Subset of MicroRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee K.; Yang, Yanqin; Zhu, Jun; Adelstein, Robert S.; Kawamoto, Sachiyo

    2014-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) regulate numerous aspects of gene expression, thus identification of endogenous targets of RBPs is important for understanding their functions in cells. Here we identified transcriptome-wide targets of Rbfox3 in neuronally differentiated P19 cells and mouse brain using Photoactivatable-Ribonucleoside-Enhanced Crosslinking and Immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP). Although Rbfox3 is known to regulate pre-mRNA splicing through binding to the UGCAUG motif, PAR-CLIP analysis revealed diverse Rbfox3 targets including primary-microRNAs (pri-miRNAs) which lack the UGCAUG motif. Induced expression and depletion of Rbfox3 led to changes in the expression levels of a subset of PAR-CLIP-detected miRNAs. In vitro analyses revealed that Rbfox3 functions as a positive and a negative regulator at the stage of pri-miRNA processing to precursor-miRNA. Rbfox3 binds directly to pri-miRNAs and regulates the recruitment of the microprocessor complex to pri-miRNAs. Our study proposes a novel function for Rbfox3 in miRNA biogenesis. PMID:25240799

  4. Changes of peripheral lymphocyte subsets and cytokine environment during aging and deteriorating gastrointestinal tract health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yang, Guodong; Wang, Dongfang; Liu, Kuiliang; Ma, Yongchao; Liu, Hong; Wu, Jing; Fang, Min

    2017-09-22

    Human immune senescence accompanies with the physical and physiological frailty. The functional change and shift of NK, NKT and T cell subsets by aging have been widely studied. However, it remains largely unclear how the aging and disease conditions affect the distribution of lymphocytes. In the present study, 233 subjects with age range from 20 to 87 year old, including healthy people, people with chronic gastrointestinal tract disease or cancers were investigated. We found that the proportion of NK cells, CD8(+) T cells and NKT cells remained relatively unchanged with aging. However, NKG2D and CD16 expression level on NK cells decreased with aging indicating impaired NK cell function. Surprisingly, the proportion of NK, NKT and T cells all declined with deteriorating health status from health to chronic gastrointestinal tract disease and cancer. Furthermore, cytokine and chemokine profiles changed with aging, but did not vary with different health status. Our results highlight new evidence for a continuum of change during immunologic aging and show unique data for variations of NK cells, CD8(+) T cells, NKT cells, and cytokine microenvironment with human aging and health status transformation.

  5. Lesional dendritic cells in patients with chronic atopic dermatitis and psoriasis exhibit parallel ability to activate T-cell subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hideki; Shemer, Avner; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Johnson-Huang, Leanne M; Tintle, Suzanne; Cardinale, Irma; Fuentes-Duculan, Judilyn; Novitskaya, Inna; Carucci, John A; Krueger, James G; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2011-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis represent polar immune diseases. AD is a T(H)2/T(H)22-dominant disease, whereas psoriasis is considered a T(H)1/T(H)17 disease. Local immune deviation is suggested to be regulated by dendritic cell (DC)-induced T-cell polarization and recruitment of specific T-cell subsets by chemokines. Although the role of chemokines is well documented, the actual contribution of DCs to activate polar T-cell subsets in human subjects is still a matter of speculation. We sought to elucidate the significance of each cutaneous DC subset in disease-specific T-cell immune deviation. We performed a comprehensive analysis of major cutaneous resident (Langerhans cells and blood dendritic cell antigen 1-positive dermal DCs) and inflammatory (inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells and blood dendritic cell antigen 1-negative dermal DCs) DC subsets directly isolated from the lesional skin of patients with AD and those with psoriasis. The ability of each DC subset to expand T(H)1, T(H)2, T(H)17, and T(H)22 subsets was similar between the 2 diseases, despite the association of both with accumulation of resident and inflammatory DCs. We also confirmed differential upregulation of chemokine expression in patients with AD (CCL17, CCL18, and CCL22) and psoriasis (CXCL1, IL-8, and CCL20). The expression of CCL17 and CCL22 was higher in Langerhans cells from patients with AD than from patients with psoriasis, whereas the opposite was observed for CXCL9 and CXCL10. Our results suggest that DC polarity does not directly drive differential T-cell subset responses. Alternatively, disease-specific chemokines might recruit specific memory T-cell subsets into the skin, which in turn might be activated and expanded by DCs at the site of inflammation, maintaining differential immune polarity in these diseases. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Randomized Block Cubic Newton Method

    KAUST Repository

    Doikov, Nikita

    2018-02-12

    We study the problem of minimizing the sum of three convex functions: a differentiable, twice-differentiable and a non-smooth term in a high dimensional setting. To this effect we propose and analyze a randomized block cubic Newton (RBCN) method, which in each iteration builds a model of the objective function formed as the sum of the natural models of its three components: a linear model with a quadratic regularizer for the differentiable term, a quadratic model with a cubic regularizer for the twice differentiable term, and perfect (proximal) model for the nonsmooth term. Our method in each iteration minimizes the model over a random subset of blocks of the search variable. RBCN is the first algorithm with these properties, generalizing several existing methods, matching the best known bounds in all special cases. We establish ${\\\\cal O}(1/\\\\epsilon)$, ${\\\\cal O}(1/\\\\sqrt{\\\\epsilon})$ and ${\\\\cal O}(\\\\log (1/\\\\epsilon))$ rates under different assumptions on the component functions. Lastly, we show numerically that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a variety of machine learning problems, including cubically regularized least-squares, logistic regression with constraints, and Poisson regression.

  7. TMEM119 marks a subset of microglia in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Jun-ichi; Kino, Yoshihiro; Asahina, Naohiro; Takitani, Mika; Miyoshi, Junko; Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Yuko

    2016-02-01

    Microglia are resident myeloid cells of the central nervous system (CNS), activated in the brains of various neurological diseases. Microglia are ontogenetically and functionally distinct from monocyte-derived macrophages that infiltrate the CNS under pathological conditions. However, a lack of specific markers that distinguish resident microglia from circulating blood-derived macrophages in human brain tissues hampers accurate evaluation of microglial contributions to the human brain pathology. By comparative analysis of five comprehensive microglial transcriptome datasets, we identified an evolutionarily conserved protein TMEM119 as the most promising candidate for human microglial markers. TMEM119 was expressed on immortalized human microglia, in which the expression levels were not elevated by exposure to lipopolysaccharide, IFNγ, IL-4, IL-13 or TGFβ1. Notably, TMEM119 immunoreactivity was expressed exclusively on a subset of Iba1(+) CD68(+) microglia with ramified and amoeboid morphologies in the brains of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), whereas Iba1(+) CD68(+) infiltrating macrophages do not express TMEM119 in demyelinating lesions of multiple sclerosis and necrotic lesions of cerebral infarction. TMEM119 mRNA levels were elevated in AD brains, although the protein levels were not significantly different between AD and non-AD cases by western blot and morphometric analyses. TMEM119-positive microglia did not consistently express polarized markers for M1 (CD80) or M2 (CD163, CD209) in AD brains. These results suggest that TMEM119 serves as a reliable microglial marker that discriminates resident microglia from blood-derived macrophages in the human brain. © 2015 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  8. Induction of cytotoxic granules in human memory CD8+ T cell subsets requires cell cycle progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yuru; Harlin, Helena; O'Keefe, James P; Gajewski, Thomas F

    2006-08-01

    Memory CD8(+) T cell responses are thought to be more effective as a result of both a higher frequency of Ag-specific clones and more rapid execution of effector functions such as granule-mediated lysis. Murine models have indicated that memory CD8(+) T cells exhibit constitutive expression of perforin and can lyse targets directly ex vivo. However, the regulated expression of cytotoxic granules in human memory CD8(+) T cell subsets has been underexplored. Using intracellular flow cytometry, we observed that only a minor fraction of CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells, or of CD8(+) T cells reactive to EBV-HLA2 tetramer, expressed intracellular granzyme B (GrB). Induction of GrB-containing cytotoxic granules in both CD45RA(+) and CD45RA(-) cells was achieved by stimulation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 mAb-coated beads, required at least 3 days, occurred after several rounds of cell division, and required cell cycle progression. The strongest GrB induction was seen in the CCR7(+) subpopulations, with poorest proliferation being observed in the CD45RA(-)CCR7(-) effector-memory pool. Our results indicate that, as with naive T cells, induction of cytotoxic granules in human Ag-experienced CD8(+) T cells requires time and cell division, arguing that the main numerical advantage of a memory T cell pool is a larger frequency of CTL precursors. The fact that granule induction can be achieved through TCR and CD28 ligation has implications for restoring lytic effector function in the context of antitumor immunity.

  9. Brucella discriminates between mouse dendritic cell subsets upon in vitro infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Alexia; Gagnaire, Aurélie; Degos, Clara; de Chastellier, Chantal; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Brucella is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for brucellosis, a worldwide re-emerging zoonosis. Brucella has been shown to infect and replicate within Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) in vitro grown bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC). In this cell model, Brucella can efficiently control BMDC maturation. However, it has been shown that Brucella infection in vivo induces spleen dendritic cells (DC) migration and maturation. As DCs form a complex network composed by several subpopulations, differences observed may be due to different interactions between Brucella and DC subsets. Here, we compare Brucella interaction with several in vitro BMDC models. The present study shows that Brucella is capable of replicating in all the BMDC models tested with a high infection rate at early time points in GMCSF-IL15 DCs and Flt3l DCs. GMCSF-IL15 DCs and Flt3l DCs are more activated than the other studied DC models and consequently intracellular bacteria are not efficiently targeted to the ER replicative niche. Interestingly, GMCSF-DC and GMCSF-Flt3l DC response to infection is comparable. However, the key difference between these 2 models concerns IL10 secretion by GMCSF DCs observed at 48 h post-infection. IL10 secretion can explain the weak secretion of IL12p70 and TNFα in the GMCSF-DC model and the low level of maturation observed when compared to GMCSF-IL15 DCs and Flt3l DCs. These models provide good tools to understand how Brucella induce DC maturation in vivo and may lead to new therapeutic design using DCs as cellular vaccines capable of enhancing immune response against pathogens.

  10. Phenotypic expression of autoimmune autistic disorder (AAD): a major subset of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijendra K

    2009-01-01

    Autism causes incapacitating neurologic problems in children that last a lifetime. The author of this article previously hypothesized that autism may be caused by autoimmunity to the brain, possibly triggered by a viral infection. This article is a summary of laboratory findings to date plus new data in support of an autoimmune pathogenesis for autism. Autoimmune markers were analyzed in the sera of autistic and normal children, but the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of some autistic children was also analyzed. Laboratory procedures included enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and protein immunoblotting assay. Autoimmunity was demonstrated by the presence of brain autoantibodies, abnormal viral serology, brain and viral antibodies in CSF, a positive correlation between brain autoantibodies and viral serology, elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines and acute-phase reactants, and a positive response to immunotherapy. Many autistic children harbored brain myelin basic protein autoantibodies and elevated levels of antibodies to measles virus and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Measles might be etiologically linked to autism because measles and MMR antibodies (a viral marker) correlated positively to brain autoantibodies (an autoimmune marker)--salient features that characterize autoimmune pathology in autism. Autistic children also showed elevated levels of acute-phase reactants--a marker of systemic inflammation. The scientific evidence is quite credible for our autoimmune hypothesis, leading to the identification of autoimmune autistic disorder (AAD) as a major subset of autism. AAD can be identified by immune tests to determine immune problems before administering immunotherapy. The author has advanced a speculative neuroautoimmune (NAI) model for autism, in which virus-induced autoimmunity is a key player. The latter should be targeted by immunotherapy to help children with autism.

  11. Quantitative proteomics reveals that only a subset of the endoplasmic reticulum contributes to the phagosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Valois, François-Xavier; Trost, Matthias; Chemali, Magali; Dill, Brian D; Laplante, Annie; Duclos, Sophie; Sadeghi, Shayan; Rondeau, Christiane; Morrow, Isabel C; Bell, Christina; Gagnon, Etienne; Hatsuzawa, Kiyokata; Thibault, Pierre; Desjardins, Michel

    2012-07-01

    Phagosomes, by killing and degrading pathogens for antigen presentation, are organelles implicated in key aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. Although it has been well established that phagosomes consist of membranes from the plasma membrane, endosomes, and lysosomes, the notion that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane could play an important role in the formation of the phagosome is debated. However, a method to accurately estimate the contribution of potential source organelles and contaminants to the phagosome proteome has been lacking. Herein, we have developed a proteomic approach for objectively quantifying the contribution of various organelles to the early and late phagosomes by comparing these fractions to their total membrane and postnuclear supernatant of origin in the J774A.1 murine macrophage cell line. Using quantitative label-free mass spectrometry, the abundance of peptides corresponding to hundreds of proteins was estimated and attributed to one of five organelles (e.g. plasma membrane, endosomes/lysosomes, ER, Golgi, and mitochondria). These data in combination with a stable isotope labeling in cell culture method designed to detect potential contaminant sources revealed that the ER is part of the phagosomal membrane and contributes ≈ 20% of the early phagosome proteome. In addition, only a subset of ER proteins is recruited to the phagosome, suggesting that a specific subdomain(s) of the ER might be involved in phagocytosis. Western blotting and immunofluorescence substantially validated this conclusion; we were able to demonstrate that the fraction of the ER in which the ER marker GFP-KDEL accumulates is excluded from the phagosomes, whereas that containing the mVenus-Syntaxin 18 is recruited. These results highlight promising new avenues for the description of the pathogenic mechanisms used by Leishmania, Brucella, and Legionella spp., which thrive in ER-rich phagosomes.

  12. Subset geometric phase analysis method for deformation evaluation of HRTEM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongye; Liu, Zhanwei; Wen, Huihui; Xie, Huimin; Liu, Chao

    2016-12-01

    Geometrical phase analysis (GPA) is typically a powerful tool to investigate the deformation in high resolution transmission electron microscopy images and has been used in various fields. The traditional GPA method using the fast Fourier transform, referred to as global-GPA (G-GPA) here, is based on the relationship between the displacement and the phase difference. In this paper, a subset-GPA (S-GPA) is introduced for further improvement. The S-GPA performs the windowed Fourier transform block by block in the image. The maximum strain measurement scale of the GPA method is theoretically analyzed on the basic of the phase spectrum extraction process. The upper limit is one third of the atomic spacing. The results of various numerical simulations verified that the S-GPA method performs better than the traditional G-GPA method in both the homogeneous and inhomogeneous deformation conditions, with the evaluation parameter of calculation reliability of S-GPA 10% higher than G-GPA. Specifically, the measurement accuracy of S-GPA is about three times higher than the G-GPA when calculating small strain (less than 2000με). For the large strain (greater than 150000με), the measurement accuracy of S-GPA is about 50% higher than that of the G-GPA. Besides, the S-GPA method can significantly eliminate the phase filling effect, while the G-GPA cannot. The S-GPA method has been successfully applied to analyze the strain field distribution in an lnGaAs/InAlAs supperlattice heterostructure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. KAHROOD MONITORING USING SMALL BASELINE SUBSET SYNTHETIC APRETURE RADAR (SAR INTERFEROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tavakkoli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The area of Kahrood is a small village located in the north-east of Damavand in the center of the Alborz range, north of Iran. Kahrood is located in Haraz valley exactly below the land slide area. To monitor the temporal evolution of the landslide, the conventional small baseline subset (SBAS, a radar differential Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry (DInSAR algorithm is used for time-series analysis. 19 Interferograms characterized by small spatial and temporal baselines are generated using 14 images. In order to remove the topographic effects, a digital elevation model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, with a spatial resolution of 90 m, is used. In the time-series analysis the first image was selected as the temporal reference. In the least squares solution, in order to increase the number of observational equation as well as decrease the temporal fluctuations due to atmospheric and unwrapping errors, a smoothing constraint is incorporated into the inversion problem. We divide the deformation time-series into two main parts. The maximum deformation rate estimated from the first part of the time-series is estimated as 3.3 cm within the landslide area. According to the time series results the land surface is moving away from the satellite. The second part of the deformation time-series showed a small landslide rate up to 0.7 cm. According to the time series results the land surface is moving toward the satellite. The deformation is estimated along the Mean line of sight (LOS. Considering the whole time series, the maximum LOS deformation rate is estimated as 14 cm.

  14. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND LEUKOCYTE SUBSET RESPONSES TO EXERCISE AND COLD EXPOSURE IN COLD-ACCLIMATIZED SKATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated physiological responses and changes in circulating immune cells following exercise in cold and thermoneutral conditions. Participants were short track skaters (n=9 who were acclimatized to cold conditions, and inline skaters (n=10 who were not acclimatized. All skaters were young, and skating at a recreational level three days per week for at least one year. Using a cross-over design, study variables were measured during 60 min of submaximal cycling (65% ·VO2max in cold (ambient temperature: 5±1°C, relative humidity: 41±9% and thermoneutral conditions (ambient temperature: 21±1°C, relative humidity: 35±5%. Heart rate, blood lactate and tympanic temperature were measured at rest, during exercise and recovery. Plasma cortisol, calprotectin and circulating blood cell numbers were measured before and after 60 min of cold or thermoneutral conditions, and during recovery from exercise. Heart rate was lower in both groups during exercise in cold versus thermoneutral conditions (P<0.05. The increase in total leukocytes during recovery was primarily due to an increase in neutrophils in both groups. The cold-acclimatized group activated neutrophils after exercise in cold exposure, whereas the non-acclimatized group activated lymphocyte and cortisol after exercise in cold exposure. Lymphocyte subsets significantly changed in both groups over time during recovery as compared to rest. Immediately after exercise in both groups, CD16+ and CD69+ cells were elevated compared to rest or before exercise in both conditions. Acclimatization to exercise in the cold does not appear to influence exercise-induced immune changes in cold conditions, with the possible exception of neutrophils, lymphocytes and cortisol concentration.

  15. Physiological and leukocyte subset responses to exercise and cold exposure in cold-acclimatized skaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K; Suzuki, K; Peake, J; Ahn, N; Ogawa, K; Hong, Ch; Kim, S; Lee, I; Park, J

    2014-03-01

    We investigated physiological responses and changes in circulating immune cells following exercise in cold and thermoneutral conditions. Participants were short track skaters (n=9) who were acclimatized to cold conditions, and inline skaters (n=10) who were not acclimatized. All skaters were young, and skating at a recreational level three days per week for at least one year. Using a cross-over design, study variables were measured during 60 min of submaximal cycling (65% [Formula: see text]O2max) in cold (ambient temperature: 5±1°C, relative humidity: 41±9%) and thermoneutral conditions (ambient temperature: 21±1°C, relative humidity: 35±5%). Heart rate, blood lactate and tympanic temperature were measured at rest, during exercise and recovery. Plasma cortisol, calprotectin and circulating blood cell numbers were measured before and after 60 min of cold or thermoneutral conditions, and during recovery from exercise. Heart rate was lower in both groups during exercise in cold versus thermoneutral conditions (Pcold-acclimatized group activated neutrophils after exercise in cold exposure, whereas the non-acclimatized group activated lymphocyte and cortisol after exercise in cold exposure. Lymphocyte subsets significantly changed in both groups over time during recovery as compared to rest. Immediately after exercise in both groups, CD16+ and CD69+ cells were elevated compared to rest or before exercise in both conditions. Acclimatization to exercise in the cold does not appear to influence exercise-induced immune changes in cold conditions, with the possible exception of neutrophils, lymphocytes and cortisol concentration.

  16. Role of Lymphocyte Subsets in the Immune Response to Primary B Cell-Derived Exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunderson, Sarah C; McLellan, Alexander D

    2017-10-01

    Exosomes are lipid nanovesicles released after fusion of the endosomal limiting membrane with the plasma membrane. In this study, we investigated the requirement for CD4 T cells, B cells, and NK cells to provide help for CD8 T cell-mediated response to B cell-derived exosomes. CTL responses to Ag-loaded exosomes were dependent on host MHC class I, with a critical role for splenic langerin(+) CD8α(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in exosomal Ag cross-presentation. In addition, there was an absolute dependence on the presence of CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, and NK cells, where the loss of any one of these subsets led to a complete loss of CTL response. Interestingly, NK cell depletion experiments demonstrated a critical cutoff point for depletion efficacy, with low-level residual NK cells providing sufficient help to allow optimal CD8 T cell proliferative responses to exosomal protein. Despite the potential role for B cells in the response to B cell-derived exosomal proteins, B cell depletion did not alter the exosome-induced CTL response. Similarly, a possible role for the BCR or circulating Ab in mediating CTL responses to B cell-derived exosomes was ruled out using DHLMP2A mice, which lack secreted and membrane-bound Ab, yet harbor marginal zone and follicular B cells. In contrast, CTL responses to DC-derived exosomes were significantly inhibited within Ab-deficient DHLMP2A mice compared with wild-type mice. However, this response was not restored upon serum transfer, implicating a role for the BCR, but not circulating Ab, in DC-derived exosome responses. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Characterization of a naturally occurring breast cancer subset enriched in EMT and stem cell characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennessy, Bryan T.; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana-Maria; Stemke-Hale, Katherine; Gilcrease, Michael Z.; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Lee, Ju-Seog; Fridlyand, Jane; Sahin, Aysegul; Agarwal, Roshan; Joy, Corwin; Liu, Wenbin; Stivers, David; Baggerly, Keith; Carey, Mark; Lluch, Ana; Monteagudo, Carlos; He, Xiaping; Weigman, Victor; Fan, Cheng; Palazzo, Juan; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Nolden, Laura K.; Wang, Nicholas J.; Valero, Vicente; Gray, Joe W.; Perou, Charles M.; Mills, Gordon B.

    2009-05-19

    Metaplastic breast cancers (MBC) are aggressive, chemoresistant tumors characterized by lineage plasticity. To advance understanding of their pathogenesis and relatedness to other breast cancer subtypes, 28 MBCs were compared with common breast cancers using comparative genomic hybridization, transcriptional profiling, and reverse-phase protein arrays and by sequencing for common breast cancer mutations. MBCs showed unique DNA copy number aberrations compared with common breast cancers. PIK3CA mutations were detected in 9 of 19 MBCs (47.4%) versus 80 of 232 hormone receptor-positive cancers (34.5%; P = 0.32), 17 of 75 HER-2-positive samples (22.7%; P = 0.04), 20 of 240 basal-like cancers (8.3%; P < 0.0001), and 0 of 14 claudin-low tumors (P = 0.004). Of 7 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway phosphorylation sites, 6 were more highly phosphorylated in MBCs than in other breast tumor subtypes. The majority of MBCs displayed mRNA profiles different from those of the most common, including basal-like cancers. By transcriptional profiling, MBCs and the recently identified claudin-low breast cancer subset constitute related receptor-negative subgroups characterized by low expression of GATA3-regulated genes and of genes responsible for cell-cell adhesion with enrichment for markers linked to stem cell function and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In contrast to other breast cancers, claudin-low tumors and most MBCs showed a significant similarity to a 'tumorigenic' signature defined using CD44{sup +}/CD24{sup -} breast tumor-initiating stem cell-like cells. MBCs and claudin-low tumors are thus enriched in EMT and stem cell-like features, and may arise from an earlier, more chemoresistant breast epithelial precursor than basal-like or luminal cancers. PIK3CA mutations, EMT, and stem cell-like characteristics likely contribute to the poor outcomes of MBC and suggest novel therapeutic targets.

  18. Androgen receptors and serum testosterone levels identify different subsets of postmenopausal breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secreto Giorgio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgen receptors (AR are frequently expressed in breast cancers, but their implication in cancer growth is still controversial. In the present study, we further investigated the role of the androgen/AR pathway in breast cancer development. Methods AR expression was evaluated by immunochemistry in a cohort of 528 postmenopausal breast cancer patients previously examined for the association of serum testosterone levels with patient and tumor characteristics. AR expression was classified according to the percentage of stained cells: AR-absent (0% and AR-poorly (1%-30%, AR-moderately (>30%-60%, and AR-highly (>60% positive. Results Statistical analysis was performed in 451 patients who experienced natural menopause. AR-high expression was significantly related with low histologic grade and estrogen receptor (ER- and progesterone receptor (PR-positive status (P trendP=0.022, although a trend across the AR expression categories was not present. When women defined by ER status were analyzed separately, regression analysis in the ER-positive group showed a significant association of high testosterone levels with AR-highly-positive expression (OR 1.86; 95% CI, 1.10-3.16, but the association was essentially due to patients greater than or equal to 65 years (OR 2.42; 95% CI, 1.22-4.82. In ER-positive group, elevated testosterone levels appeared also associated with AR-absent expression, although the small number of patients in this category limited the appearance of significant effects (OR 1.92; 95% CI, 0.73–5.02: the association was present in both age groups ( Conclusions The findings in the present study confirm that testosterone levels are a marker of hormone-dependent breast cancer and suggest that the contemporary evaluation of ER status, AR expression, and circulating testosterone levels may identify different subsets of cancers whose growth may be influenced by androgens.

  19. Existence of Nicotinic Receptors in A Subset of Type I Vestibular Hair Cells of Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chang-Kai

    2017-12-30

    In mammals, vestibular hair cells (VHCs) are classified as type I and II according to morphological criteria. Acetylcholine (ACh) is identified as the primary efferent neurotransmitter. To date, cholinergic activities have been reported in mammalian type II VHCs, but similar activities in type I VHCs have not been pursued presumably because the body of type I VHCs were suggested to be totally surrounded by afferent nerve calyces. A few reports showed that part of type I VHCs were incompletely surrounded by calyces and received contact from the efferent nerve endings in the mammals studied. The possibility of the expression of cholinergic receptors, their subunit composition, and their function in mammals' type I VHCs are still unclear. In this study, nicotinic responses were investigated by the whole-cell patch clamp technique in isolated type I VHCs of guinea pigs. Of the cells, 7.3% were sensitive to cholinergic agonists and showed an excitatory current at -40mV which was not sensitive to nifedipine, iberiotoxin (IBTX), and apamin. The main carriers of this current were Na+ and K+. The rank order of activation potency was nicotine > 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium (DMPP) > ACh. These nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) were not blocked by strychnine and α-bungarotoxin (α-BTX), but sensitive to d-tubocurarine (dTC) and mecamylamine (Mec). The findings provide physiological evidence that some subtypes of nAChRs may be located in a subset of type I VHCs, which were different from α9α10 nAChRs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Lymphocyte subset reconstitution after unrelated cord blood or bone marrow transplantation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rénard, Cécile; Barlogis, Vincent; Mialou, Valérie; Galambrun, Claire; Bernoux, Delphine; Goutagny, Marie Pierre; Glasman, Laurence; Loundou, Anderson Dieudonné; Poitevin-Later, Françoise; Dignat-George, Françoise; Dubois, Valérie; Picard, Christophe; Chabannon, Christian; Bertrand, Yves; Michel, Gérard

    2011-02-01

    We report the post-transplant lymphocyte subset recovery of 226 children treated with Unrelated Cord Blood transplant (UCBT) (n = 112) or Unrelated Bone Marrow Transplant (UBMT) (n = 114) for malignant or non-malignant diseases. Absolute numbers of natural killer (NK), B and T cells were monitored by flow cytometry up to 5 years post-transplant. Immunological endpoints were: time to achieve a CD3(+) cell count > 0·5 and 1·5 × 10⁹/l, CD4(+) > 0·2 and 0·5 × 10⁹/l, CD8(+) > 0·25 ×10⁹/l, CD19(+) > 0·2 × 10⁹/l, NK > 0·1 × 10⁹/l. These endpoints were analysed through the use of cumulative incidence curves in the context of competing risks. CD8(+) T cell recovery was delayed after UCBT with a median time to reach CD8(+) T cells > 0·25 × 10⁹/l of 7·7 months whereas it was 2·8 months in UBMT (P 0·2 × 10⁹/l of 3·2 months in UCBT and 6·4 months in UBMT (P = 0·03). Median time for CD4(+) T cell and NK cell recovery was similar in UCBT and UBMT. CD4(+) T cells recovery was negatively correlated to age (better reconstitution in younger patients, P = 0·002). CD8(+) T cells recovery was shorter in recipients with a positive cytomegalovirus serology (P =0·001). © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. The effect of penicillin administration in early life on murine gut microbiota and blood lymphocyte subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, Jaroslaw; Daniluk, Urszula; Rusak, Malgorzata; Dabrowska, Milena; Reszec, Joanna; Garbowicz, Magdalena; Huminska, Kinga; Dabrowski, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    Antibiotics have many beneficial effects but their uncontrolled use may lead to increased risk of serious diseases in the future. Our hypothesis is that an early antibiotic exposition may affect immune system by altering gut microbiota. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the effect of penicillin treatment on gut microorganisms and immune system of mice. 21-days old C57BL6/J/cmdb male mice were treated with low-dose of penicillin (study group) or water only (control group) for 4 weeks. Tissue and stool samples for histology or microbiome assessment and peripheral blood for CBC and flow cytometry evaluation were collected. We found high variability in microbiota composition at different taxonomic levels between littermate mice kept in the same conditions, independently of treatment regimen. Interestingly, low-dose of penicillin caused significant increase of Parabacteroides goldsteinii in stool and in colon tissue in comparison to control group (9.5% vs. 4.9%, p = 0.008 and 10.7% vs. 6.1%, p = 0.008, respectively). Moreover, mice treated with penicillin demonstrated significantly elevated percentage of B cells (median 10.5% vs 8.0%, p = 0.01) and decrease in the percentage of total CD4+ cell (median 75.4% vs 82.5%, p = 0.0039) with subsequent changes among subsets - increased percentage of regulatory T cells (Treg), T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2) cells. Our study showed significant effect of penicillin on B and T cells in peripheral blood of young mice. This effect may be mediated through changes in gut microbiota represented by the expansion of Parabacteroides goldsteinii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Random fixed points and random differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos S. Papageorgiou

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, first, we study random best approximations to random sets, using fixed point techniques, obtaining this way stochastic analogues of earlier deterministic results by Browder-Petryshyn, KyFan and Reich. Then we prove two fixed point theorems for random multifunctions with stochastic domain that satisfy certain tangential conditions. Finally we consider a random differential inclusion with upper semicontinuous orientor field and establish the existence of random solutions.

  3. Subsets of CD34+ cells and rapid hematopoietic recovery after peripheral-blood stem-cell transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dercksen, M. W.; Rodenhuis, S.; Dirkson, M. K.; Schaasberg, W. P.; Baars, J. W.; van der Wall, E.; Slaper-Cortenbach, I. C.; Pinedo, H. M.; von dem Borne, A. E.; van der Schoot, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    To study whether there is a relationship between transplanted cell dose and rate of hematopoietic recovery after peripheral-blood stem-cell (PBSC) transplantation, and to obtain an indication whether specific subsets of CD34+ cell populations contribute to rapid recovery of neutrophils or platelets.

  4. Acceleration of motion-compensated PET reconstruction: ordered subsets-gates EM algorithms and a priori reference gate information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikaios, N; Fryer, T D, E-mail: tdf21@wbic.cam.ac.uk [Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-21

    Patient motion during positron emission tomography scans leads to significant resolution loss and image degradation. Motion-compensated image reconstruction (MCIR) algorithms have proven to be reliable correction methods given accurate deformation fields. However, although ordered subsets (OS) are widely used to speed up the convergence, OS-MCIR algorithms are still computationally expensive. This study concentrates on acceleration of OS-MCIR algorithms through two methods: combining OS with motion subsets and use of an initial estimate based on reference gate data. These approaches were compared to two existing OS-MCIR algorithms and post-reconstruction registration using data from the NCAT phantom. The methods were evaluated in terms of noise, lesion bias and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The straightforward combination of motion subsets with projection subsets (OSGEM) produced inferior results (lower CNR, p < 0.01) to existing OS-MCIR algorithms. The addition of a spacer step using data from all gates to OSGEM resulted in an algorithm (SS-OSGEM) that generated images that were statistically consistent with those from existing OS-MCIR algorithms (no significant difference in CNR, p > 0.05) at one third of the computational expense. The use of a reference gate initial estimate (MCDOi) resulted in comparable image quality in terms of bias and CNR (p > 0.05) at half the computational burden. This study indicates that MCDOi and SS-OSGEM in particular are attractive accelerated OS-MCIR approaches.

  5. Different tumor microenvironments contain functionally distinct subsets of macrophages derived from Ly6C(high) monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Kiavash; Laoui, Damya; Gysemans, Conny; Baeten, Martijn; Stangé, Geert; Van den Bossche, Jan; Mack, Matthias; Pipeleers, Daniel; In't Veld, Peter; De Baetselier, Patrick; Van Ginderachter, Jo A

    2010-07-15

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) form a major component of the tumor stroma. However, important concepts such as TAM heterogeneity and the nature of the monocytic TAM precursors remain speculative. Here, we show for the first time that mouse mammary tumors contained functionally distinct subsets of TAMs and provide markers for their identification. Furthermore, in search of the TAM progenitors, we show that the tumor-monocyte pool almost exclusively consisted of Ly6C(hi)CX(3)CR1(low) monocytes, which continuously seeded tumors and renewed all nonproliferating TAM subsets. Interestingly, gene and protein profiling indicated that distinct TAM populations differed at the molecular level and could be classified based on the classic (M1) versus alternative (M2) macrophage activation paradigm. Importantly, the more M2-like TAMs were enriched in hypoxic tumor areas, had a superior proangiogenic activity in vivo, and increased in numbers as tumors progressed. Finally, it was shown that the TAM subsets were poor antigen presenters, but could suppress T-cell activation, albeit by using different suppressive mechanisms. Together, our data help to unravel the complexities of the tumor-infiltrating myeloid cell compartment and provide a rationale for targeting specialized TAM subsets, thereby optimally "re-educating" the TAM compartment. (c)2010 AACR.

  6. The prognostic role of blood lymphocyte subset distribution in patients with resected high-risk primary or regionally metastatic melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernberg, Micaela; Mattila, Petri S; Rissanen, Marjo

    2007-01-01

    Cooperative Group adjuvant interferon study. The frequencies of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets were monitored by flow cytometry using CD3, CD4, CD8, CD56, and CD69 monoclonal antibodies. Patients with low proportions of CD3+CD4+CD69+ cells and of CD3+CD56+ cells before treatment had an improved disease...

  7. The relationship between human T-lymphocyte subsets defined by monoclonal antibodies and by avidity differences to sheep erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, P; Hokland, M; Heron, I

    1982-01-01

    differences to sheep erythrocytes. Through a correlation was demonstrated between the T4+ (inducer) cells and the high avidity ("active") T cells and between the T8+ (suppressor) cells and low avidity T cells, these subsets were far from identical, and it is concluded that the application of monoclonal...

  8. Recirculation of lymphocyte subsets (CD5+, CD4+, CD8+, T19+ and B cells) through fetal lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimpton, W G; Washington, E A; Cahill, R N

    1989-01-01

    The experiments reported in this paper examine the cell-surface phenotype (CD5, CD4, CD8, T19, MHC class II and sIg) and cell output of lymphocyte subsets circulating through a subcutaneous lymph node in the sheep fetus, in an environment unaffected by foreign antigen and circulating immunoglobulins. CD4+ lymphocytes were the major T-cell subset in fetal lymph and were clearly enriched in lymph compared with blood, whereas T19+, CD8+ and B lymphocytes were not. It seems likely that in the fetus CD4+ lymphocytes are extracted from the blood at a faster rate than are other T-cell subsets and B cells. There was a much higher percentage of CD8+ and T null cells and a lower percentage of MHC class II+ and B cells circulating in the fetal lymph than in adult lymph, while the percentage of T19+ lymphocytes in fetal blood was twice that in the adult. Although the hourly cell output from an adult prescapular lymph node was far higher than that from a fetal lymph node, the circulation of lymphocytes through fetal lymph nodes was much greater per gram lymph node weight than that through adult lymph nodes. The wholesale recirculation in the fetus of all the major T-cell subsets found in the adult is paradoxical because it is not known what function they serve in the fetus in the absence of antigen and ongoing immune responses, although clearly they are not memory cells. PMID:2481644

  9. Exploratory subsetting of autism families based on savant skills improves evidence of genetic linkage to 15q11-q13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmi, Erika L; Dowd, Michael; Tadevosyan-Leyfer, Ovsanna; Haines, Jonathan L; Folstein, Susan E; Sutcliffe, James S

    2003-07-01

    Autism displays a remarkably high heritability but a complex genetic etiology. One approach to identifying susceptibility loci under these conditions is to define more homogeneous subsets of families on the basis of genetically relevant phenotypic or biological characteristics that vary from case to case. The authors performed a principal components analysis, using items from the Autism Diagnostic Interview, which resulted in six clusters of variables, five of which showed significant sib-sib correlation. The utility of these phenotypic subsets was tested in an exploratory genetic analysis of the autism candidate region on chromosome 15q11-q13. When the Collaborative Linkage Study of Autism sample was divided, on the basis of mean proband score for the "savant skills" cluster, the heterogeneity logarithm of the odds under a recessive model at D15S511, within the GABRB3 gene, increased from 0.6 to 2.6 in the subset of families in which probands had greater savant skills. These data are consistent with the genetic contribution of a 15q locus to autism susceptibility in a subset of affected individuals exhibiting savant skills. Similar types of skills have been noted in individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome, which results from deletions of this chromosomal region.

  10. Identifying developmental toxicity pathways for a subset of ToxCast chemicals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolomics analysis was performed on the supernatant of human embryonic stem (hES) cell cultures exposed to a blinded subset of 11 chemicals selected from the chemical library of EPA's ToxCast™ chemical screening and prioritization research project. Metabolites from hES cultur...

  11. Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation in Childhood Obesity Is Associated with Decreased IL-10 Expression by Monocyte Subsets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael T Mattos

    Full Text Available Chronic low-grade inflammation is related to the development of comorbidities and poor prognosis in obesity. Monocytes are main sources of cytokines and play a pivotal role in inflammation. We evaluated monocyte frequency, phenotype and cytokine profile of monocyte subsets, to determine their association with the pathogenesis of childhood obesity. Children with obesity were evaluated for biochemical and anthropometric parameters. Monocyte subsets were characterized by flow cytometry, considering cytokine production and activation/recognition molecules. Correlation analysis between clinical parameters and immunological data delineated the monocytes contribution for low-grade inflammation. We observed a higher frequency of non-classical monocytes in the childhood obesity group (CO than normal-weight group (NW. All subsets displayed higher TLR4 expression in CO, but their recognition and antigen presentation functions seem to be diminished due to lower expression of CD40, CD80/86 and HLA-DR. All subsets showed a lower expression of IL-10 in CO and correlation analyses showed changes in IL-10 expression profile. The lower expression of IL-10 may be decisive for the maintenance of the low-grade inflammation status in CO, especially for alterations in non-classical monocytes profile. These cells may contribute to supporting inflammation and loss of regulation in the immune response of children with obesity.

  12. Intrinsic features of the CD8α(-) dendritic cell subset in inducing functional T follicular helper cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Changsik; Han, Jae-A; Choi, Bongseo; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung; Do, Yoonkyung; Ryu, Seongho

    2016-04-01

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, a true B cell helper, have a critical role in enhancing humoral immune responses. However, the initial differentiation of Tfh cells by dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent antigen presenting cells, has not been clearly understood, particularly in the knowledge of the two major conventional dendritic cell subsets, CD8α(+) DCs or CD8α(-) DCs. Here we demonstrated that the localization of CD8α(-) DCs in the marginal zone (MZ) bridging channels is closely associated with the induction of CXCR5(+)CCR7(low) Tfh cells. We also showed that the major source of IL-6 for inducing Tfh cells is provided from the activated CD4(+) T cells induced by CD8α(-) DCs, and IL-6 directly secreted from the DC subsets seems minor. CD8α(-) DCs were superior in inducing functional Tfh cells over other antigen presenting cells including B cells. We here observed the unknown intrinsic features of the DC subsets, suggesting the potential of utilizing the CD8α(-) DC subset as therapeutic vaccine for the regulation of humoral immune responses. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. IL-10 is produced by subsets of human CD4+ T cell clones and peripheral blood T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yssel, H.; de Waal Malefyt, R.; Roncarolo, M. G.; Abrams, J. S.; Lahesmaa, R.; Spits, H.; de Vries, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    Murine IL-10 has been reported originally to be produced by the Th2 subset of CD4+ T cell clones. In this study, we demonstrate that human IL-10 is produced by Th0, Th1-, and Th2-like CD4+ T cell clones after both Ag-specific and polyclonal activation. In purified peripheral blood T cells, low, but

  14. Mapping the Dutch SNOMED CT subset to Omaha System, NANDA International and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieft, R A M M; Vreeke, E M; de Groot, E M; de Graaf-Waar, H I; van Gool, C H; Koster, N; Ten Napel, H; Francke, A L; Delnoij, D M J

    2018-03-01

    Nurses register data in electronic health records, which can use various terminology and coding systems. The net result is that information cannot be exchanged and reused properly, for example when a patient is transferred from one care setting to another. A nursing subset of patient problems was therefore developed in the Netherlands, based on comparable and exchangeable terms that are used throughout the healthcare sector and elsewhere (semantic interoperability). The purpose of the current research is to develop a mapping between the subset of patient problems and three classifications in order to improve the exchangeability of data. Those classifications are the Omaha System, NANDA International, and ICF (the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health). Descriptive research using a unidirectional mapping strategy. Some 30%-39% of the 119 SNOMED CT patient problems can be mapped one-to-one from the subset onto each separate classification. Between 6% and 8% have been mapped partially to a related term. This is considered to be a one-to-one mapping, although the meanings do not correspond fully. Additionally, 23%-51% of the patient problems could be mapped n-to-one, i.e. more specifically than the classification. Some loss of information will always occur in such exchanges. Between 1% and 4% of the patient problems from the subset are defined less specifically than the problems within the individual classifications. Finally, it turns out that 9%-32% of the terms from the subset of patient problems could not be mapped onto a classification, either because they did not occur in the classification or because they could not be mapped at a higher level. To promote the exchange of data, the subset of patient problems has been mapped onto three classifications. Loss of information occurs in most cases when the patient problems are transformed from the subset into a classification. This arises because the classifications are different in structure

  15. Analysis of high dimensional data using pre-defined set and subset information, with applications to genomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Wenge

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on available biological information, genomic data can often be partitioned into pre-defined sets (e.g. pathways and subsets within sets. Biologists are often interested in determining whether some pre-defined sets of variables (e.g. genes are differentially expressed under varying experimental conditions. Several procedures are available in the literature for making such determinations, however, they do not take into account information regarding the subsets within each set. Secondly, variables (e.g. genes belonging to a set or a subset are potentially correlated, yet such information is often ignored and univariate methods are used. This may result in loss of power and/or inflated false positive rate. Results We introduce a multiple testing-based methodology which makes use of available information regarding biologically relevant subsets within each pre-defined set of variables while exploiting the underlying dependence structure among the variables. Using this methodology, a biologist may not only determine whether a set of variables are differentially expressed between two experimental conditions, but may also test whether specific subsets within a significant set are also significant. Conclusions The proposed methodology; (a is easy to implement, (b does not require inverting potentially singular covariance matrices, and (c controls the family wise error rate (FWER at the desired nominal level, (d is robust to the underlying distribution and covariance structures. Although for simplicity of exposition, the methodology is described for microarray gene expression data, it is also applicable to any high dimensional data, such as the mRNA seq data, CpG methylation data etc.

  16. Immune Reactions against Gene Gun Vaccines Are Differentially Modulated by Distinct Dendritic Cell Subsets in the Skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Stefanie Weber

    Full Text Available The skin accommodates multiple dendritic cell (DC subsets with remarkable functional diversity. Immune reactions are initiated and modulated by the triggering of DC by pathogen-associated or endogenous danger signals. In contrast to these processes, the influence of intrinsic features of protein antigens on the strength and type of immune responses is much less understood. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of distinct DC subsets in immune reactions against two structurally different model antigens, E. coli beta-galactosidase (betaGal and chicken ovalbumin (OVA under otherwise identical conditions. After epicutaneous administration of the respective DNA vaccines with a gene gun, wild type mice induced robust immune responses against both antigens. However, ablation of langerin+ DC almost abolished IgG1 and cytotoxic T lymphocytes against betaGal but enhanced T cell and antibody responses against OVA. We identified epidermal Langerhans cells (LC as the subset responsible for the suppression of anti-OVA reactions and found regulatory T cells critically involved in this process. In contrast, reactions against betaGal were not affected by the selective elimination of LC, indicating that this antigen required a different langerin+ DC subset. The opposing findings obtained with OVA and betaGal vaccines were not due to immune-modulating activities of either the plasmid DNA or the antigen gene products, nor did the differential cellular localization, size or dose of the two proteins account for the opposite effects. Thus, skin-borne protein antigens may be differentially handled by distinct DC subsets, and, in this way, intrinsic features of the antigen can participate in immune modulation.

  17. Influence of feeding formula and breast milk fortifier on lymphocyte subsets in very low birth weight premature newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarcan, Aylin; Gürakan, Berkan; Tiker, Filiz; Ozbek, Namik

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that breast-feeding protects the newborn from infectious diseases. This is especially important for very low birth weight preterm infants, whose immune systems are immature. In this study we investigated how a milk fortifier and replacement formula affected lymphocyte subsets in preterm infants. The study assessed the effects of different types of feeding (human milk, n = 14; fortified human milk, n = 16; formula, n = 14) on lymphocyte subsets in 44 very low birth weight preterm infants. For each baby, two consecutive blood samples were collected 7-10 days apart during the full enteral feeding period. For each sample, the percentages of CD3+ (pan-T), CD19+ (B-cell), CD4+ (T-helper), CD8+ (T-suppressor), and CD3-CD16/56+ (natural killer cell) lymphocytes were measured in a flow cytometer, and the absolute count for each subset was calculated based on the total lymphocyte count. Within each feeding group, the absolute numbers of each lymphocyte subset in the two consecutive samples were compared. Also, the mean absolute counts for each cell type were compared among the 3 groups for the first set of blood samples, and the same comparisons were made for the second set. The mean number of CD3-CD16/56+ cells in the formula-fed infants was significantly lower than the corresponding means in the groups fed human milk alone and fortified human milk (p = 0.037). The findings suggest that babies fed formula have different lymphocyte subset compositions than those fed breast milk or fortified breast milk. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Flow cytometric gating for spleen monocyte and DC subsets: differences in autoimmune NOD mice and with acute inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Matthew B; Rahman, M Jubayer; Tarbell, Kristin V

    2016-05-01

    The role of antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and other inflammatory diseases is now better understood due to advances in multicolor flow cytometry, gene expression analysis of APC populations, and functional correlation of mouse to human APC populations. A simple but informative nomenclature of conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cell subsets (cDC1, cDC2, pDC) and monocyte-derived populations incorporates these advances, but accurate subset identification is critical. Ambiguous gating schemes and alterations of cell surface markers in inflammatory condition can make comparing results between studies difficult. Both acute inflammation, such as TLR-ligand stimulation, and chronic inflammation as found in mouse models of autoimmunity can alter DC subset gating. Here, we address these issues using in vivo CpG stimulation as an example of acute inflammation and the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse as a model of chronic inflammation.We provide a flow cytometric antibody panel and gating scheme that differentiate 2 monocytic and 3DC subsets in the spleen both at steady state and after CpG stimulation. Using this method, we observed differences in the composition of NOD DCs that have been previously reported, and newly identified increases in the number of NOD monocyte-derived DCs. Finally, we established a protocol for DC phosphoflow to measure the phosphorylation state of intracellular proteins, and use it to confirm functional differences in the identified subsets. Therefore, we present optimized methods for distinguishing monocytic and DC populations with and without inflammation and/or autoimmunity associated with NOD mice. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Is antibody clustering predictive of clinical subsets and damage in systemic lupus erythematosus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, C H; Petri, M

    2005-12-01

    venous thrombosis (7.8%). Osteoporotic fracture (11.9%) was also more common in cluster 3 than in cluster 2. Autoantibody clustering is a valuable tool to differentiate between various subsets of SLE, allowing prediction of subsequent clinical course and organ damage.

  20. CD4 T-cell subsets in Malaria: TH1/TH2 revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian ePerez-Mazliah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CD4+ T cells have been shown to play a central role in immune control of infection with Plasmodium parasites. At the erythrocytic stage of infection, IFN-γ production by CD4+ T cells and CD4+ T-cell help for the B-cell response are required for control and elimination of infected red blood cells. CD4+ T cells are also important for controlling Plasmodium pre-erythrocytic stages through the activation of parasite-specific CD8+ T cells. However, excessive inflammatory responses triggered by the infection have been shown to drive pathology. Early classical experiments demonstrated a biphasic CD4+ T-cell response against erythrocytic stages in mice, in which T helper (Th1 and antibody helper CD4+ T cells appear sequentially during a primary infection. While IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells do play a role in controlling acute infections, and they contribute to acute erythrocytic-stage pathology, it became apparent that a classical Th2 response producing IL-4 is not a critical feature of the CD4+ T cell response during the chronic phase of infection. Rather, effective CD4+ T-cell help for B cells, which can occur in the absence of IL-4, is required to control chronic parasitemia. IL-10, important to counterbalance inflammation and associated with protection from inflammatory-mediated severe malaria in both humans and experimental models, was originally considered be produced by CD4+ Th2 cells during infection. We review the interpretations of CD4+ T cell responses during Plasmodium infection, proposed under the original Th1/Th2 paradigm, in light of more recent advances, including the identification of multifunctional T cells such as Th1 cells co-expressing IFN-γ and IL-10, the identification of follicular helper T cells (Tfh as the predominant CD4+ T helper subset for B cells, and the recognition of inherent plasticity in the fates of different CD4+ T cells.