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Sample records for random phase function

  1. Random functions and turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Panchev, S

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 32: Random Functions and Turbulence focuses on the use of random functions as mathematical methods. The manuscript first offers information on the elements of the theory of random functions. Topics include determination of statistical moments by characteristic functions; functional transformations of random variables; multidimensional random variables with spherical symmetry; and random variables and distribution functions. The book then discusses random processes and random fields, including stationarity and ergodicity of random

  2. Quasiparticle random phase approximation predictions of the gamma-ray strength functions using the Gogny force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilaire, Stéphane; Goriely, Stéphane; Péru, Sophie; Lechaftois, François; Deloncle, Isabelle; Martini, Marco

    2017-09-01

    Dipole excitations of nuclei are crucial since they play an important role in nuclear reaction modeling in connection with the photoabsorption and the radiative capture processes. We present here results for the gamma-ray strength function obtained in large-scale axially-symmetric deformed quasiparticle (qp) random phase approximations approach using the finite-range Gogny force, with a particular emphasis on the E1 mode. The convergence with respect to the number of harmonic oscillator shells adopted and the cut-off introduced in the 2-quasiparticle excitation energy space is analyzed. The microscopic nature of our self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov plus QRPA (HFB+QRPA) calculation has unfortunately to be broken, some phenomenological corrections being needed to take into account effects beyond the standard 2-qp QRPA excitations and the coupling between the single-particle and low-lying collective phonon degrees of freedom. The corresponding phenomenological parameters are adjusted on experimental photoabsorption data. In such a procedure, a rather satisfactory description of experimental data is obtained. To study the sensitivity of these phenomenological corrections on the extrapolation, both at low energies and towards exotic neutron-rich nuclei, three different prescriptions are considered. They are shown to lead to rather similar predictions of the E1 strength at low energies as well as for exotic neutron-rich nuclei. The Gogny-HFB+QRPA strength is finally applied to the calculation of radiative neutron capture cross sections and the predictions compared with those obtained with more traditional Lorentzian-type approaches.

  3. The gated integration technique for the accurate measurement of the autocorrelation function of speckle intensities scattered from random phase screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningyu; Cheng, Chuanfu; Teng, Shuyun; Chen, Xiaoyi; Xu, Zhizhan

    2007-09-01

    A new approach based on the gated integration technique is proposed for the accurate measurement of the autocorrelation function of speckle intensities scattered from a random phase screen. The Boxcar used for this technique in the acquisition of the speckle intensity data integrates the photoelectric signal during its sampling gate open, and it repeats the sampling by a preset number, m. The average analog of the m samplings output by the Boxcar enhances the signal-to-noise ratio by √{m}, because the repeated sampling and the average make the useful speckle signals stable, while the randomly varied photoelectric noise is suppressed by 1/√{m}. In the experiment, we use an analog-to-digital converter module to synchronize all the actions such as the stepped movement of the phase screen, the repeated sampling, the readout of the averaged output of the Boxcar, etc. The experimental results show that speckle signals are better recovered from contaminated signals, and the autocorrelation function with the secondary maximum is obtained, indicating that the accuracy of the measurement of the autocorrelation function is greatly improved by the gated integration technique.

  4. Empirical forward scattering phase functions from 0.08 to 16 deg. for randomly shaped terrigenous 1-21 microm sediment grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Y C; Mikkelsen, Ole A

    2009-05-25

    We present in-water forward scattering phase functions covering the angle range 0.08 to 16 degrees for 19 narrow-sized dispersions of randomly shaped sediment grains. These dispersions cover particle size range from 1 to 20 microns. These phase functions offer a realistic alternative to Mie theory. Qualitatively, (i) the magnitude of phase functions at the smallest angles for equal size spheres and randomly shaped particles are nearly equal; (ii) the oscillations predicted by Mie theory for spheres disappear for random shaped grains, and (iii) the tendency of phase functions of large spheres to merge at large angles is also seen with randomly shaped grains. The data are also provided in tabulated form.

  5. Spin-adapted open-shell random phase approximation and time-dependent density functional theory. I. Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhendong; Liu, Wenjian

    2010-08-14

    The spin-adaptation of single-reference quantum chemical methods for excited states of open-shell systems has been nontrivial. The primary reason is that the configuration space, generated by a truncated rank of excitations from only one component of a reference multiplet, is spin-incomplete. Those "missing" configurations are of higher ranks and can, in principle, be recaptured by a particular class of excitation operators. However, the resulting formalisms are then quite involved and there are situations [e.g., time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) under the adiabatic approximation] that prevent one from doing so. To solve this issue, we propose here a tensor-coupling scheme that invokes all the components of a reference multiplet (i.e., a tensor reference) rather than increases the excitation ranks. A minimal spin-adapted n-tuply excited configuration space can readily be constructed by tensor products between the n-tuple tensor excitation operators and the chosen tensor reference. Further combined with the tensor equation-of-motion formalism, very compact expressions for excitation energies can be obtained. As a first application of this general idea, a spin-adapted open-shell random phase approximation is first developed. The so-called "translation rule" is then adopted to formulate a spin-adapted, restricted open-shell Kohn-Sham (ROKS)-based TD-DFT (ROKS-TD-DFT). Here, a particular symmetry structure has to be imposed on the exchange-correlation kernel. While the standard ROKS-TD-DFT can access only excited states due to singlet-coupled single excitations, i.e., only some of the singly excited states of the same spin (S(i)) as the reference, the new scheme can capture all the excited states of spin S(i)-1, S(i), or S(i)+1 due to both singlet- and triplet-coupled single excitations. The actual implementation and computation are very much like the (spin-contaminated) unrestricted Kohn-Sham-based TD-DFT. It is also shown that spin-contaminated spin

  6. Effectiveness of prophylactic non-invasive ventilation on respiratory function in the postoperative phase of pediatric cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla R. S. Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of prophylactic, non-invasive ventilation (NIV on respiratory function in seven- to 16-year-old children in the post-operative phase of cardiac surgery. Method A randomized, controlled trial with 50 children who had undergone cardiac surgery with median sternotomy. After extubation, patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control group (n=26, which received instructions regarding posture, early ambulation, and cough stimulation, and CPAP group (continuous positive airway pressure; n=24, which received the same instructions as the control group and CPAP=10 cmH20 twice daily for 30 minutes from the 1st to the 5th post-operative day (POD. As a primary outcome, lung function was evaluated before and on the 1st, 3rd, and 5th PODs with measures of respiratory rate (RR, tidal volume (TV, slow vital capacity (SVC, inspiratory capacity (IC, minute volume (MV, peak expiratory flow (PEF, and maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP. As secondary outcomes, the time of hospitalization and intensive care were recorded. A mixed, linear regression model and z-test were used to analyze respiratory function, considering p<0.05. Results All variables, except RR and MV, showed a significant drop on the 1st POD, with gradual recovery; however, only MIP had returned to pre-operative values on the 5th POD in both groups. The RR showed a significant increase on the 1st POD, with a gradual reduction but without returning to baseline. In the intergroup analysis, significant improvement (p=0.04 was observed only in PEF in the CPAP group on the 1st DPO. The length of hospitalization and intensive care showed no significant differences. Conclusion NIV was safe and well accepted in this group of patients, and the protocol used was effective in improving PEF on the 1st DPO in the CPAP group.

  7. Beyond the random phase approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2013-01-01

    , and metals. For molecular atomization energies, the rALDA is a factor of 7 better than RPA and a factor of 4 better than the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) functional when compared to experiments, and a factor of 3 (1.5) better than RPA (PBE) for cohesive energies of solids. For transition metals......, the inclusion of full shell semicore states is found to be crucial for both RPA and rALDA calculations and can improve the cohesive energies by up to 0shell semicore states.4 eV. Finally, we discuss straightforward generalizations of the method, which might improve results even further....

  8. Improved health-related quality of life and physical function in patients with refractory chronic gout following treatment with pegloticase: evidence from phase III randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Vibeke; Khanna, Dinesh; Singh, Jasvinder A; Forsythe, Anna; Edwards, N Lawrence

    2012-07-01

    To assess the efficacy of pegloticase on pain, physical function, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with refractory chronic gout. Subjects in 2 replicate, 6-month, randomized controlled phase III trials received intravenous infusions of pegloticase 8 mg twice monthly (biweekly group), pegloticase alternating with placebo (8-mg monthly group), or placebo. Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), patient global assessment of disease activity (PtGA), and pain by visual analog scale were completed at weeks 1 (baseline), 13, 19, and 25. Prespecified pooled analyses of patient-reported outcomes were performed by combining values for each treatment group (biweekly treatment, monthly treatment, and placebo) at Week 25. Of 212 patients enrolled, 157 (74.1%) completed treatment. At entry, mean age was 55.4 years (range 23-89 yrs) and mean plasma uric acid was 9.7 mg/dl; most were male (81.6%) and white (67.5%). Subjects reported an average of 9.8 flares in the previous 18 months. Baseline SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) scores were > 1.5 SD below US normative values. At Week 25, mean changes from baseline in PtGA, pain, HAQ-DI, and PCS scores were statistically significant and exceeded minimum clinically important differences (MCID) in the biweekly treatment group, compared with little to no improvement in placebo group. Statistically significant improvements greater than or equal to MCID were reported in 6 of 8 SF-36 domains. Monthly pegloticase resulted in significantly improved PtGA, HAQ-DI, PCS, and 3 SF-36 domains. Pegloticase therapy resulted in statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements in PtGA, pain, physical function, and HRQOL.

  9. Phase Transitions on Random Lattices: How Random is Topological Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghathi, Hatem; Vojta, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    We study the effects of topological (connectivity) disorder on phase transitions. We identify a broad class of random lattices whose disorder fluctuations decay much faster with increasing length scale than those of generic random systems, yielding a wandering exponent of ω = (d - 1) / (2 d) in d dimensions. The stability of clean critical points is thus governed by the criterion (d + 1) ν > 2 rather than the usual Harris criterion dν > 2 , making topological disorder less relevant than generic randomness. The Imry-Ma criterion is also modified, allowing first-order transitions to survive in all dimensions d > 1 . These results explain a host of puzzling violations of the original criteria for equilibrium and nonequilibrium phase transitions on random lattices. We discuss applications, and we illustrate our theory by computer simulations of random Voronoi and other lattices. This work was supported by the NSF under Grant Nos. DMR-1205803 and PHYS-1066293. We acknowledge the hospitality of the Aspen Center for Physics.

  10. Random-phase metasurfaces at optical wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anders; Ding, Fei; Chen, Yiting

    2016-01-01

    of an optically thick gold film overlaid by a subwavelength thin glass spacer and an array of gold nanobricks, we design and realize random-phase metasurfaces at a wavelength of 800 nm. Optical characterisation of the fabricated samples convincingly demonstrates the diffuse scattering of reflected light...

  11. Random phase textures: theory and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galerne, Bruno; Gousseau, Yann; Morel, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the mathematical and algorithmic properties of two sample-based texture models: random phase noise (RPN) and asymptotic discrete spot noise (ADSN). These models permit to synthesize random phase textures. They arguably derive from linearized versions of two early Julesz texture discrimination theories. The ensuing mathematical analysis shows that, contrarily to some statements in the literature, RPN and ADSN are different stochastic processes. Nevertheless, numerous experiments also suggest that the textures obtained by these algorithms from identical samples are perceptually similar. The relevance of this study is enhanced by three technical contributions providing solutions to obstacles that prevented the use of RPN or ADSN to emulate textures. First, RPN and ADSN algorithms are extended to color images. Second, a preprocessing is proposed to avoid artifacts due to the nonperiodicity of real-world texture samples. Finally, the method is extended to synthesize textures with arbitrary size from a given sample.

  12. Relativistic Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation in Deformed Nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Pena Arteaga, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Covariant density functional theory is used to study the influence of electromagnetic radiation on deformed superfluid nuclei. The relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov equations and the resulting diagonalization problem of the quasiparticle random phase approximation are solved for axially symmetric systems in a fully self-consistent way by a newly developed parallel code. Three different kinds of high precision energy functionals are investigated and special care is taken for the decoupling of th...

  13. The application of random phase filter in the image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiujuan; Zhong, Mei; Shao, Zhufeng

    2016-03-01

    We define one kind of new correlation, i.e. random phase correlation, which based on the Random Fourier Transform (RFT). An optical pattern recognition system, random phase filtering, is given according to random phase correlation. Furthermore its electro-optical setup is given for the application in image recognition. By the numerical simulation on computer, when the, we have found the proposed random phase filter can recognize the small change of object image and has higher recognition capability comparing of other three conventional correlators, the classical marched filter, the phase-only filter and the pure phase correlator.

  14. Reconstruction of a random phase dynamics network from observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikovsky, A.

    2018-01-01

    We consider networks of coupled phase oscillators of different complexity: Kuramoto-Daido-type networks, generalized Winfree networks, and hypernetworks with triple interactions. For these setups an inverse problem of reconstruction of the network connections and of the coupling function from the observations of the phase dynamics is addressed. We show how a reconstruction based on the minimization of the squared error can be implemented in all these cases. Examples include random networks with full disorder both in the connections and in the coupling functions, as well as networks where the coupling functions are taken from experimental data of electrochemical oscillators. The method can be directly applied to asynchronous dynamics of units, while in the case of synchrony, additional phase resettings are necessary for reconstruction.

  15. Increased plasma donepezil concentration improves cognitive function in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies: An exploratory pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis in a phase 3 randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Etsuro; Ikeda, Manabu; Nakai, Kenya; Miyagishi, Hideaki; Nakagawa, Masaki; Kosaka, Kenji

    2016-07-15

    To investigate whether increasing plasma donepezil concentration further improves cognitive function and neuropsychiatric symptoms without compromising safety in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We analyzed data from a 12-week phase 3 trial of donepezil (5 and 10mg/day) in patients with DLB. The contribution of factors affecting plasma donepezil concentration was evaluated using multivariate regression analysis. The relationships between plasma donepezil concentration and efficacy (cognitive function as measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE], hallucinations and cognitive fluctuation), or safety (blood pressure, pulse rate, body weight, and parkinsonism as measured by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III) were assessed by scatterplots and Pearson correlation. The data of 87 patients were used in the analyses. Plasma donepezil concentration increased proportionally with increasing dose from 5 to 10mg/day. The dose (contribution rate: 0.39, p<0.0001) and age (contribution rate: 0.12, p=0.0003) were statistically significant contributing factors affecting plasma donepezil concentration. Plasma donepezil concentration correlated significantly with improvement of MMSE score (p=0.040), but no significant correlations were found with the change in other tested parameters. Plasma donepezil concentration correlated positively with change in cognitive function without affecting safety, and was affected mainly by dose and to a lesser extent by age. Therefore, for patients in whom safety concerns are not found at donepezil 5mg/day, increasing the dose to 10mg/day to increase plasma concentration is worthwhile to further improve cognitive function. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation in deformed nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena Arteaga, D.

    2007-06-25

    Covariant density functional theory is used to study the influence of electromagnetic radiation on deformed superfluid nuclei. The relativistic Hartree-Bogolyubov equations and the resulting diagonalization problem of the quasiparticle random phase approximation are solved for axially symmetric systems in a fully self-consistent way by a newly developed parallel code. Three different kinds of high precision energy functionals are investigated and special care is taken for the decoupling of the Goldstone modes. This allows the microscopic investigation of Pygmy and scissor resonances in electric and magnetic dipole fields. Excellent agreement with recent experiments is found and new types of modes are predicted for deformed systems with large neutron excess. (orig.)

  17. Nonlinear higher quasiparticle random phase approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Adam; Šimkovic, Fedor; Štefánik, Dušan; Krivoruchenko, Mikhail

    2017-10-01

    We develop a new approach to describe nuclear states of multiphonon origin, motivated by the necessity for a more accurate description of matrix elements of neutrinoless double-beta decay. Our approach is an extension of the Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA), in which nonlinear phonon operators play an essential role. Before applying the nonlinear higher QRPA (nhQRPA) to realistic problems, we test its efficiency with exactly solvable models. The first considered model is equivalent to a harmonic oscillator. The nhQRPA solutions follow from the standard QRPA equation, but for nonlinear phonon operators defined for each individual excited state separately. The second exactly solvable model is the proton-neutron Lipkin model that describes successfully not only energy spectrum of nuclei, but also beta-decay transitions. Again, we reproduce exactly the numerical solutions in the nhQRPA framework. We show in particular that truncation of the nonlinear phonon operators leads to an approximation similar to the self-consistent second QRPA, given the phonon operators are defined with a constant term. The test results demonstrate that the proposed nhQRPA is a promising tool for a realistic calculation of energy spectra and nuclear transitions.

  18. Virtual reality exercise on a home-based phase III cardiac rehabilitation program, effect on executive function, quality of life and depression, anxiety and stress: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ágata; Melo, Cristina; Machado, Jorge; Gabriel, Joaquim

    2018-02-01

    To analyse the effect of a six-month home-based phase III cardiac rehabilitation (CR) specific exercise program, performed in a virtual reality (Kinect) or conventional (booklet) environment, on executive function, quality of life and depression, anxiety and stress of subjects with coronary artery disease. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with subjects, who had completed phase II, randomly assigned to intervention group 1 (IG1), whose program encompassed the use of Kinect (n = 11); or intervention group 2 (IG2), a paper booklet (n = 11); or a control group (CG), only subjected to the usual care (n = 11). The three groups received education on cardiovascular risk factors. The assessed parameters, at baseline (M0), 3 (M1) and 6 months (M2), were executive function, control and integration in the implementation of an adequate behaviour in relation to a certain objective, specifically the ability to switch information (Trail Making Test), working memory (Verbal Digit Span test), and selective attention and conflict resolution ability (Stroop test), quality of life (MacNew questionnaire) and depression, anxiety and stress (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21). Descriptive and inferential statistical measures were used, significance level was set at .05. The IG1 revealed significant improvements, in the selective attention and conflict resolution ability, in comparison with the CG in the variable difference M0 - M2 (p = .021) and in comparison with the IG2 in the variable difference M1 - M2 and M0 - M2 (p = .001 and p = .002, respectively). No significant differences were found in the quality of life, and depression, anxiety and stress. The virtual reality format had improved selective attention and conflict resolution ability, revealing the potential of CR, specifically with virtual reality exercise, on executive function. Implications for Rehabilitation In cardiac rehabilitation, especially in phase III, it is

  19. Optical double image security using random phase fractional Fourier domain encoding and phase-retrieval algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Sudheesh K.; Nishchal, Naveen K.

    2017-04-01

    We propose a novel security scheme based on the double random phase fractional domain encoding (DRPE) and modified Gerchberg-Saxton (G-S) phase retrieval algorithm for securing two images simultaneously. Any one of the images to be encrypted is converted into a phase-only image using modified G-S algorithm and this function is used as a key for encrypting another image. The original images are retrieved employing the concept of known-plaintext attack and following the DRPE decryption steps with all correct keys. The proposed scheme is also used for encryption of two color images with the help of convolution theorem and phase-truncated fractional Fourier transform. With some modification, the scheme is extended for simultaneous encryption of gray-scale and color images. As a proof-of-concept, simulation results have been presented for securing two gray-scale images, two color images, and simultaneous gray-scale and color images.

  20. A number-phase Wigner function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya-Cessa, Hector [INAOE, Coordinacion de Optica, Apartado Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2003-06-01

    One of the most prominent quasiprobability functions in quantum mechanics is the Wigner function, which gives the correct marginal probability functions if integrated over position or momentum. Here we depart from the definition of the position-momentum Wigner function to, by analogy, construct a number-phase Wigner function that, if summed over photon numbers, gives the correct phase distribution and, if integrated over phase, gives the correct photon distribution.

  1. Review of Random Phase Encoding in Volume Holographic Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chia Su

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Random phase encoding is a unique technique for volume hologram which can be applied to various applications such as holographic multiplexing storage, image encryption, and optical sensing. In this review article, we first review and discuss diffraction selectivity of random phase encoding in volume holograms, which is the most important parameter related to multiplexing capacity of volume holographic storage. We then review an image encryption system based on random phase encoding. The alignment of phase key for decryption of the encoded image stored in holographic memory is analyzed and discussed. In the latter part of the review, an all-optical sensing system implemented by random phase encoding and holographic interconnection is presented.

  2. Ordering and phase transitions in random-field Ising systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritan, Amos; Swift, Michael R.; Cieplak, Marek; Chan, Moses H. W.; Cole, Milton W.; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1991-01-01

    An exact analysis of the Ising model with infinite-range interactions in a random field and a local mean-field theory in three dimensions is carried out leading to a phase diagram with several coexistence surfaces and lines of critical points. The results show that the phase diagram depends crucially on whether the distribution of random fields is symmetric or not. Thus, Ising-like phase transitions in a porous medium (the asymmetric case) are in a different universality class from the conventional random-field model (symmetric case).

  3. Random search optimization based on genetic algorithm and discriminant function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiciman, M. O.; Akgul, M.; Erarslanoglu, G.

    1990-01-01

    The general problem of optimization with arbitrary merit and constraint functions, which could be convex, concave, monotonic, or non-monotonic, is treated using stochastic methods. To improve the efficiency of the random search methods, a genetic algorithm for the search phase and a discriminant function for the constraint-control phase were utilized. The validity of the technique is demonstrated by comparing the results to published test problem results. Numerical experimentation indicated that for cases where a quick near optimum solution is desired, a general, user-friendly optimization code can be developed without serious penalties in both total computer time and accuracy.

  4. Analytic interatomic forces in the random phase approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Ramberger, Benjamin; Kresse, Georg

    2016-01-01

    We discuss that in the random phase approximation (RPA) the first derivative of the energy with respect to the Green's function is the self-energy in the GW approximation. This relationship allows to derive compact equations for the RPA interatomic forces. We also show that position dependent overlap operators are elegantly incorporated in the present framework. The RPA force equations have been implemented in the projector augmented wave formalism, and we present illustrative applications, including ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, the calculation of phonon dispersion relations for diamond and graphite, as well as structural relaxations for water on boron nitride. The present derivation establishes a concise framework for forces within perturbative approaches and is also applicable to more involved approximations for the correlation energy.

  5. Variance of phase fluctuations of waves propagating through a random medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Nelson C.; Kong, Jin AU; Yueh, Simon H.; Nghiem, Son V.; Fleischman, Jack G.; Ayasli, Serpil; Shin, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    As an electromagnetic wave propagates through a random scattering medium, such as a forest, its energy is attenuated and random phase fluctuations are induced. The magnitude of the random phase fluctuations induced is important in estimating how well a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) can image objects within the scattering medium. The two-layer random medium model, consisting of a scattering layer between free space and ground, is used to calculate the variance of the phase fluctuations induced between a transmitter located above the random medium and a receiver located below the random medium. The scattering properties of the random medium are characterized by a correlation function of the random permittivity fluctuations. The effective permittivity of the random medium is first calculated using the strong fluctuation theory, which accounts for large permittivity fluctuations of the scatterers. The distorted Born approximation is used to calculate the first-order scattered field. A perturbation series for the phase of the received field in the Rytov approximation is then introduced and the variance of the phase fluctuations is also calculated assuming that the transmitter and receiver are in the paraxial limit of the random medium, which allows an analytic solution to be obtained. Results are compared using the paraxial approximation, scalar Green's function formulation, and dyadic Green's function formulation. The effects studied are the dependence of the variance of the phase fluctuations on receiver location in lossy and lossless regions, medium thickness, correlation length and fractional volume of scatterers, depolarization of the incident wave, ground layer permittivity, angle of incidence, and polarization.

  6. Static correlation beyond the random phase approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2014-01-01

    We investigate various approximations to the correlation energy of a H2 molecule in the dissociation limit, where the ground state is poorly described by a single Slater determinant. The correlation energies are derived from the density response function and it is shown that response functions de...

  7. Relativistic continuum random phase approximation in spherical nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daoutidis, Ioannis

    2009-10-01

    Covariant density functional theory is used to analyze the nuclear response in the external multipole fields. The investigations are based on modern functionals with zero range and density dependent coupling constants. After a self-consistent solution of the Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) equations for the nuclear ground states multipole giant resonances are studied within the Relativistic Random Phase Approximation (RRPA), the small amplitude limit of the time-dependent RMF. The coupling to the continuum is treated precisely by calculating the single particle Greens-function of the corresponding Dirac equation. In conventional methods based on a discretization of the continuum this was not possible. The residual interaction is derived from the same RMF Lagrangian. This guarantees current conservation and a precise decoupling of the Goldstone modes. For nuclei with open shells pairing correlations are taken into account in the framework of BCS theory and relativistic quasiparticle RPA. Continuum RPA (CRPA) presents a robust method connected with an astonishing reduction of the numerical effort as compared to conventional methods. Modes of various multipolarities and isospin are investigated, in particular also the newly discovered Pygmy modes in the vicinity of the neutron evaporation threshold. The results are compared with conventional discrete RPA calculations as well as with experimental data. We find that the full treatment of the continuum is essential for light nuclei and the study of resonances in the neighborhood of the threshold. (orig.)

  8. Short- and Long-Term Quality of Life and Bowel Function in Patients With MRI-Defined, High-Risk, Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Treated With an Intensified Neoadjuvant Strategy in the Randomized Phase 2 EXPERT-C Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sclafani, Francesco; Peckitt, Clare [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Cunningham, David, E-mail: david.cunningham@rmh.nhs.uk [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Tait, Diana [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Giralt, Jordi [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Department of Medical Oncology, Barcelona (Spain); Glimelius, Bengt [University of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Keränen, Susana Roselló [Biomedical Research Institute INCLIVA, Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, University of Valencia (Spain); Bateman, Andrew [Southampton General Hospital, Cancer Sciences Unit, University of Southampton (United Kingdom); Hickish, Tamas [Poole Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Medical Oncology, Bournemouth University (United Kingdom); Tabernero, Josep [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Department of Medical Oncology, Barcelona (Spain); Thomas, Janet; Brown, Gina; Oates, Jacqueline; Chau, Ian [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    Objective: Intensified preoperative treatments have been increasingly investigated in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), but limited data are available for the impact of these regimens on quality of life (QoL) and bowel function (BF). We assessed these outcome measures in EXPERT-C, a randomized phase 2 trial of neoadjuvant capecitabine combined with oxaliplatin (CAPOX), followed by chemoradiation therapy (CRT), total mesorectal excision, and adjuvant CAPOX with or without cetuximab in magnetic resonance imaging-defined, high-risk LARC. Methods and Materials: QoL was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR29 questionnaires. Bowel incontinence was assessed using the modified Fecal Incontinence Severity Index questionnaire. Results: Compared to baseline, QoL scores during preoperative treatment were better for symptoms associated with the primary tumor in the rectum (blood and mucus in stool, constipation, diarrhea, stool frequency, buttock pain) but worse for global health status, role functioning, and symptoms related to the specific safety profile of each treatment modality. During follow-up, improved emotional functioning and lessened anxiety and insomnia were observed, but deterioration of body image, increased urinary incontinence, less sexual interest (men), and increased impotence and dyspareunia were observed. Cetuximab was associated with a deterioration of global health status during neoadjuvant chemotherapy but did not have any long-term detrimental effect. An improvement in bowel continence was observed after preoperative treatment and 3 years after sphincter-sparing surgery. Conclusions: Intensifying neoadjuvant treatment by administering induction systemic chemotherapy before chemoradiation therapy improves tumor-related symptoms and does not appear to have a significantly detrimental effect on QoL and BF, in both the short and the long term.

  9. Phase transitions for information diffusion in random clustered networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungsu; Shin, Joongbo; Kwak, Namju; Jung, Kyomin

    2016-09-01

    We study the conditions for the phase transitions of information diffusion in complex networks. Using the random clustered network model, a generalisation of the Chung-Lu random network model incorporating clustering, we examine the effect of clustering under the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) epidemic diffusion model with heterogeneous contact rates. For this purpose, we exploit the branching process to analyse information diffusion in random unclustered networks with arbitrary contact rates, and provide novel iterative algorithms for estimating the conditions and sizes of global cascades, respectively. Showing that a random clustered network can be mapped into a factor graph, which is a locally tree-like structure, we successfully extend our analysis to random clustered networks with heterogeneous contact rates. We then identify the conditions for phase transitions of information diffusion using our method. Interestingly, for various contact rates, we prove that random clustered networks with higher clustering coefficients have strictly lower phase transition points for any given degree sequence. Finally, we confirm our analytical results with numerical simulations of both synthetically-generated and real-world networks.

  10. Functional Implications of Intracellular Phase Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holehouse, Alex S; Pappu, Rohit V

    2018-01-11

    Intracellular environments are heterogeneous milieus comprising of macromolecules, osmolytes, and a range of assemblies that include membrane-bound organelles and membraneless biomolecular condensates. The latter are non-stoichiometric assemblies of protein and RNA molecules. They represent distinct phases and form via intracellular phase transitions. Here, we present insights from recent studies and provide a perspective on how phase transitions that lead to biomolecular condensates might contribute to cellular functions.

  11. Single-random-phase holographic encryption of images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P. W. M.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a method is proposed for encrypting an optical image onto a phase-only hologram, utilizing a single random phase mask as the private encryption key. The encryption process can be divided into 3 stages. First the source image to be encrypted is scaled in size, and pasted onto an arbitrary position in a larger global image. The remaining areas of the global image that are not occupied by the source image could be filled with randomly generated contents. As such, the global image as a whole is very different from the source image, but at the same time the visual quality of the source image is preserved. Second, a digital Fresnel hologram is generated from the new image, and converted into a phase-only hologram based on bi-directional error diffusion. In the final stage, a fixed random phase mask is added to the phase-only hologram as the private encryption key. In the decryption process, the global image together with the source image it contained, can be reconstructed from the phase-only hologram if it is overlaid with the correct decryption key. The proposed method is highly resistant to different forms of Plain-Text-Attacks, which are commonly used to deduce the encryption key in existing holographic encryption process. In addition, both the encryption and the decryption processes are simple and easy to implement.

  12. Randomness in resting state functional connectivity matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Victor M; Calhoun, Vince

    2016-08-01

    Separate brain regions exhibit synchronous intrinsic activity used to assess connectivity patterns known to appear among brain areas. Connectivity is evaluated from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measuring the blood oxygen level dependent signal (BOLD) signal. Extensive research has revealed a distinctive pattern of connectivity among brain areas that can be visualized through a functional connectivity matrix (FCM) matrix. As in any measurement, BOLD signals are subject to contamination from noise and nuisances unrelated to brain's intrinsic activity. Up until now, little work has been developed to determine if patterns observed in FCMs occurred by chance or were driven by a more deterministic process. This work proposes a mathematical framework to test the randomness of FCM connectivity patterns in a systematic and statistical way. A cohort of 121 healthy controls is used to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed framework. Results indicate that particular parts of the brain might exhibit decreasing randomness with age and gender. Results also show the framework's effectiveness in assessing FCM randomness.

  13. Random geometric graphs with general connection functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmann, Carl P; Georgiou, Orestis

    2016-03-01

    In the original (1961) Gilbert model of random geometric graphs, nodes are placed according to a Poisson point process, and links formed between those within a fixed range. Motivated by wireless ad hoc networks "soft" or "probabilistic" connection models have recently been introduced, involving a "connection function" H(r) that gives the probability that two nodes at distance r are linked (directly connect). In many applications (not only wireless networks), it is desirable that the graph is connected; that is, every node is linked to every other node in a multihop fashion. Here the connection probability of a dense network in a convex domain in two or three dimensions is expressed in terms of contributions from boundary components for a very general class of connection functions. It turns out that only a few quantities such as moments of the connection function appear. Good agreement is found with special cases from previous studies and with numerical simulations.

  14. Random phase-free computer-generated hologram

    CERN Document Server

    Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Addition of random phase to the object light is required in computer-generated holograms (CGHs) to widely diffuse the object light and to avoid its concentration on the CGH; however, this addition causes considerable speckle noise in the reconstructed image. For improving the speckle noise problem, techniques such as iterative phase retrieval algorithms and multi-random phase method are used; however, they are time consuming and are of limited effectiveness. Herein, we present a simple and computationally inexpensive method that drastically improves the image quality and reduces the speckle noise by multiplying the object light with the virtual convergence light. Feasibility of the proposed method is shown using simulations and optical reconstructions; moreover, we apply it to lens-less zoom-able holographic projection. The proposed method is useful for the speckle problems in holographic applications.

  15. Enhanced wavefront reconstruction by random phase modulation with a phase diffuser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival F; Pedrini, Giancarlo; Gundu, Phanindra Narayan

    2011-01-01

    propagation in free space. The presentation of this technique is carried out using two setups. In the first setup, a diffuser plate is placed at the image plane of a metallic test object. The benefit of randomizing the phase of the object wave is the enhanced intensity recording due to high dynamic range...... of the diffusely scattered beam. The use of demagnification optics will also allow the investigations of relatively large objects. In the second setup, a transparent object is illuminated using a wavefront with random phase and constant amplitude by positioning the phase diffuser close to the object. The benefit...

  16. Phase shifting interferometry from two normalized interferograms with random tilt phase-shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengwei; Wu, Yongqian; Wu, Fan

    2015-07-27

    We propose a novel phase shifting interferometry from two normalized interferograms with random tilt phase-shift. The determination of tilt phase-shift is performed by extracting the tilted phase-shift plane from the phase difference of two normalized interferograms, and with the calculated tilt phase-shift value the phase distribution can be retrieved from the two normalized frames. By analyzing the distribution of phase difference and utilizing special points fitting method, the tilted phase-shift plane is extracted in three different cases, which relate to different magnitudes of tilts. Proposed method has been applied to simulations and experiments successfully and the satisfactory results manifest that proposed method is of high accuracy and high speed compared with the three step iterative method. Additionally, both open and closed fringe can be analyzed with proposed method. What's more, it cannot only eliminate the small tilt-shift error caused by slight vibration in phase-shifting interferometry, but also detect the large tilt phase-shift in phase-tilting interferometry. Thus, it will relaxes the requirements on the accuracy of phase shifter, and the costly phase shifter may even be useless by applying proposed method in high amplitude vibrated circumstance to achieve high-precision analysis.

  17. Importance sampling the Rayleigh phase function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2011-01-01

    Rayleigh scattering is used frequently in Monte Carlo simulation of multiple scattering. The Rayleigh phase function is quite simple, and one might expect that it should be simple to importance sample it efficiently. However, there seems to be no one good way of sampling it in the literature. Thi....... This paper provides the details of several different techniques for importance sampling the Rayleigh phase function, and it includes a comparison of their performance as well as hints toward efficient implementation.......Rayleigh scattering is used frequently in Monte Carlo simulation of multiple scattering. The Rayleigh phase function is quite simple, and one might expect that it should be simple to importance sample it efficiently. However, there seems to be no one good way of sampling it in the literature...

  18. Shaping the spectrum of random-phase radar waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Marquette, Brandeis

    2017-05-09

    The various technologies presented herein relate to generation of a desired waveform profile in the form of a spectrum of apparently random noise (e.g., white noise or colored noise), but with precise spectral characteristics. Hence, a waveform profile that could be readily determined (e.g., by a spoofing system) is effectively obscured. Obscuration is achieved by dividing the waveform into a series of chips, each with an assigned frequency, wherein the sequence of chips are subsequently randomized. Randomization can be a function of the application of a key to the chip sequence. During processing of the echo pulse, a copy of the randomized transmitted pulse is recovered or regenerated against which the received echo is correlated. Hence, with the echo energy range-compressed in this manner, it is possible to generate a radar image with precise impulse response.

  19. Exploring phase dependent functional gait variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Daniel; Hamacher, Dennis; Müller, Roy; Schega, Lutz; Zech, Astrid

    2017-04-01

    Gait variability is frequently used to evaluate the sensorimotor system and elderly fallers compared to non-fallers exhibit an altered variability in gait parameters during unchanged conditions. While gait variability is often interpreted as movement error, it is also necessary to change the gait pattern in order to react to internal and external perturbations. This phenomenon has been described as functional variability and ensures the stability of gait motor control. The aim of the current study is to explore the functional variability in relation to the different phases of the gait cycle (phase-dependent gait variability). Kinematics of the foot, shank and thigh were registered with inertial sensors (MTw2, Xsens Technologies B.V) in 25 older participants (70±6years) during normal overground walking. Phase-dependent variability was defined as the standard deviation of the Euclidean norm of the angular velocity data. To assess differences with respect to the variability of different body segments (foot, shank, and thigh), the statistical parametric mapping method was applied. In normal walking, the variability of the time-continuous foot kinematics during parts of the swing phase was higher compared to the shank (9-14% of swing phase, pgait. In fact, we found reduced variability in the time-continuous foot kinematics in mid swing during normal walking where also the minimum toe clearance event occurs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimation of Frequency Response Functions by Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune

    1996-01-01

    A method for estimating frequency response functions by the Random Decrement technique is investigated in this paper. The method is based on the auto and cross Random Decrement functions of the input process and the output process of a linear system. The Fourier transformation of these functions ...... Decrement function. The method is demonstrated by a simulation study....

  1. VC-dimensions of random function classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Ycart

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For any class of binary functions on [n]={1, …, n} a classical result by Sauer states a sufficient condition for its VC-dimension to be at least d: its cardinality should be at least O(n d-1. A necessary condition is that its cardinality be at least 2 d (which is O(1 with respect to n. How does the size of a `typical' class of VC-dimension d compare to these two extreme thresholds ? To answer this, we consider classes generated randomly by two methods, repeated biased coin flips on the n-dimensional hypercube or uniform sampling over the space of all possible classes of cardinality k on [n]. As it turns out, the typical behavior of such classes is much more similar to the necessary condition; the cardinality k need only be larger than a threshold of 2 d for its VC-dimension to be at least d with high probability. If its expected size is greater than a threshold of O(log (which is still significantly smaller than the sufficient size of O(n d-1 then it shatters every set of size d with high probability. The behavior in the neighborhood of these thresholds is described by the asymptotic probability distribution of the VC-dimension and of the largest d such that all sets of size d are shattered.

  2. Viterbi Tracking of Randomly Phase-Modulated Data (and Related Topics).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-10

    space I-ir, vr). were a random sequence on the unit circle C or equiva- Discretization of this bounded interval leads to a finite-state lently on the...and the symbol phase, arg ak. Also, of Recall ’k is defined on the circle C . Therefore, for clarity course, for PSK symbol sets only one symbol...x)) on [-V,w] g,(R(x)) Wropped on M-4 the Circle C . M*4 (c) (d) Fig. 5. Density functions of phase increment before and after folding. dix). It

  3. Dynamic response of a two-dimensional electron gas: Exact treatment of Coulomb exchange in the random-phase approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, K.; Lipparini, E.

    1995-07-01

    The Dyson equation for the particle-hole Green's function, including Coulomb exchange matrix elements, has been solved exactly for a two-dimensional electron gas. Static and dynamic dielectric functions have been calculated and compared with normal random-phase-approximation and recent quantum Monte Carlo results.

  4. Improvement of the image quality of random phase--free holography using an iterative method

    CERN Document Server

    Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Hiyama, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Satoki; Nagahama, Yuki; Sano, Marie; Oikawa, Minoru; Sugie, Takashige; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Our proposed method of random phase-free holography using virtual convergence light can obtain large reconstructed images exceeding the size of the hologram, without the assistance of random phase. The reconstructed images have low-speckle noise in the amplitude and phase-only holograms (kinoforms); however, in low-resolution holograms, we obtain a degraded image quality compared to the original image. We propose an iterative random phase-free method with virtual convergence light to address this problem.

  5. Correlations in two-dimensional electron gas: Random-phase approximation with exchange and ladder results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederiva, F.; Lipparini, E.; Takayanagi, K.

    1997-12-01

    We have evaluated the density-density response of the two-dimensional electron gas at zero temperature by solving the Dyson equation for the particle-hole Green's function, including exchange Coulomb matrix elements and short-range contributions in the ladder approximation. We study the effect of these correlations on the total energy, compressibility per particle, local field factor G(q), static structure factor and pair-correlation function. Results are compared with the normal random-phase approximation, local field theories and quantum Monte Carlo calculations.

  6. Electro-Optical Aerosol Phase Function Database PFNDAT2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shirkey, Richard C; Tofsted, David H

    2005-01-01

    The Phase Function Database (PFNDAT) 2005 consists of a series of wavelength dependent phase functions, single scattering albedos, extinction coefficients, and asymmetry parameters of ten naturally occurring and four manmade aerosols...

  7. Cramer-Rao Bounds for M-PSK Packets with Random Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we derive new Cramer-Rao bounds (CRBs) for the estimation of phase from a block of random M-PSK (M=8) symbols for the case where the phase to be estimated is a random variable(r.v.). Existing bounds for 2 and 4-PSK which model the phase as non-random are extended to obtain a new 8-PSK CRB. The new bound which models the phase as a r.v. is compared to the new 8-PSK bound which models the phase as non-random. With 8-PSK we see clearly that use of the random phase CRB more accurately models the behavior if the phase, as normally happens, is supposed to be constrained to the interval [-pi/M,pi/M).

  8. Estimation of Correlation Functions by the Random Decrement Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Krenk, S.; Jensen, Jakob Laigaard

    1993-01-01

    The Random Decrement (RDD) Technique is a versatile technique for characterization of random signals in the time domain. In this paper a short review of the theoretical basis is given, and the technique is illustrated by estimating auto-correlation functions and cross-correlation functions on modal...... - in some case up to 100 times faster that the FFT technique. Another important advantage is that if the RDD technique is implemented correctly, the correlation function estimates are unbiased. Comparison with exact solutions for the correlation functions show that the RDD auto-correlation estimates suffer...

  9. Estimation of Correlation Functions by the Random Decrement Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Krenk, Steen; Jensen, Jakob Laigaard

    The Random Decrement (RDD) Technique is a versatile technique for characterization of random signals in the time domain. In this paper a short review of the theoretical basis is given, and the technique is illustrated by estimating auto-correlation functions and cross-correlation functions on modal...... - in some case up to 100 times faster that the FFT technique. Another important advantage is that if the RDD technique is implemented correctly, the correlation function estimates are unbiased. Comparison with exact solutions for the correlation functions show that the RDD auto-correlation estimates suffer...

  10. On marginalization of phase-space distribution functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarz, Joachim J.

    1999-12-01

    We discuss marginalization procedures based on integration of quantum phase-space distribution functions over a family of phase-space manifolds. We show that under some conditions the resulting marginals are always nonnegative.

  11. Equilibrium phase diagram of a randomly pinned glass-former.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Misaki; Kob, Walter; Ikeda, Atsushi; Miyazaki, Kunimasa

    2015-06-02

    We use computer simulations to study the thermodynamic properties of a glass-former in which a fraction c of the particles has been permanently frozen. By thermodynamic integration, we determine the Kauzmann, or ideal glass transition, temperature [Formula: see text] at which the configurational entropy vanishes. This is done without resorting to any kind of extrapolation, i.e., [Formula: see text] is indeed an equilibrium property of the system. We also measure the distribution function of the overlap, i.e., the order parameter that signals the glass state. We find that the transition line obtained from the overlap coincides with that obtained from the thermodynamic integration, thus showing that the two approaches give the same transition line. Finally, we determine the geometrical properties of the potential energy landscape, notably the T- and c dependence of the saddle index, and use these properties to obtain the dynamic transition temperature [Formula: see text]. The two temperatures [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] cross at a finite value of c and indicate the point at which the glass transition line ends. These findings are qualitatively consistent with the scenario proposed by the random first-order transition theory.

  12. Equilibrium phase behavior and maximally random jammed state of truncated tetrahedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Duyu; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore

    2014-07-17

    Numerous recent investigations have been devoted to the determination of the equilibrium phase behavior and packing characteristics of hard nonspherical particles, including ellipsoids, superballs, and polyhedra, to name but just a few shapes. Systems of hard nonspherical particles exhibit a variety of stable phases with different degrees of translational and orientational order, including isotropic liquid, solid crystal, rotator and a variety of liquid crystal phases. In this paper, we employ a Monte Carlo implementation of the adaptive-shrinking-cell (ASC) numerical scheme and free-energy calculations to ascertain with high precision the equilibrium phase behavior of systems of congruent Archimedean truncated tetrahedra over the entire range of possible densities up to the maximal nearly space-filling density. In particular, we find that the system undergoes two first-order phase transitions as the density increases: first a liquid-solid transition and then a solid-solid transition. The isotropic liquid phase coexists with the Conway-Torquato (CT) crystal phase at intermediate densities, verifying the result of a previous qualitative study [ J. Chem. Phys. 2011 , 135 , 151101 ]. The freezing- and melting-point packing fractions for this transition are respectively ϕF = 0.496 ± 0.006 and ϕM = 0.591 ± 0.005. At higher densities, we find that the CT phase undergoes another first-order phase transition to one associated with the densest-known crystal, with coexistence densities in the range ϕ ∈ [0.780 ± 0.002, 0.802 ± 0.003]. We find no evidence for stable rotator (or plastic) or nematic phases. We also generate the maximally random jammed (MRJ) packings of truncated tetrahedra, which may be regarded to be the glassy end state of a rapid compression of the liquid. Specifically, we systematically study the structural characteristics of the MRJ packings, including the centroidal pair correlation function, structure factor and orientational pair correlation

  13. Functional cardiac imaging by random access microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eCrocini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the development of voltage sensitive dyes and Ca2+ sensors in combination with innovative microscopy techniques allowed researchers to perform functional measurements with an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. At the moment, one of the shortcomings of available technologies is their incapability of imaging multiple fast phenomena while controlling the biological determinants involved. In the near future, ultrafast deflectors can be used to rapidly scan laser beams across the sample, performing optical measurements of action potential and Ca2+ release from multiple sites within cardiac cells and tissues. The same scanning modality could also be used to control local Ca2+ release and membrane electrical activity by activation of caged compounds and light-gated ion channels. With this approach, local Ca2+ or voltage perturbations could be induced, simulating arrhythmogenic events, and their impact on physiological cell activity could be explored. The development of this optical methodology will provide fundamental insights in cardiac disease, boosting new therapeutic strategies, and, more generally, it will represent a new approach for the investigation of the physiology of excitable cells.

  14. Deep Learning the Quantum Phase Transitions in Random Two-Dimensional Electron Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Tomoki; Ohtsuki, Tomi

    2016-12-01

    Random electron systems show rich phases such as Anderson insulator, diffusive metal, quantum Hall and quantum anomalous Hall insulators, Weyl semimetal, as well as strong/weak topological insulators. Eigenfunctions of each matter phase have specific features, but owing to the random nature of systems, determining the matter phase from eigenfunctions is difficult. Here, we propose the deep learning algorithm to capture the features of eigenfunctions. Localization-delocalization transition, as well as disordered Chern insulator-Anderson insulator transition, is discussed.

  15. Estimation of Correlation Functions by the Random Decrement Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Krenk, Steen; Jensen, Jacob Laigaard

    1991-01-01

    The Random Decrement (RDD) Technique is a versatile technique for characterization of random signals in the time domain. In this paper a short review of the theoretical basis is given, and the technique is illustrated by estimating auto-correlation functions and cross-correlation functions on modal...... - in some cases up to 100 times faster than the FFT technique. Another important advantage is that if the RDD technique is implemented correctly, the correlation function estimates are unbiased. Comparison with exact solutions for the correlation functions shows that the RDD auto-correlation estimates...... suffer from smaller RDD auto-correlation estimation errors than the corresponding FFT estimates. However, in the case of estimating cross-correlation functions for the stochastic processes with low mutual correlation, the FFT tehcnique might be more accurate....

  16. Mean dyadic Green's function for a two layer random medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    The mean dyadic Green's function for a two-layer random medium with arbitrary three-dimensional correlation functions has been obtained with the zeroth-order solution to the Dyson equation by applying the nonlinear approximation. The propagation of the coherent wave in the random medium is similar to that in an anisotropic medium with different propagation constants for the characteristic transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations. In the limit of a laminar structure, two propagation constants for each polarization are found to exist.

  17. Scattering Phase Functions of Constituents of Mineral Dust Aerosols ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that there is increasing asymmetry and complexity of the phase functions with increasing radial sizes for each of the selected constituents: Illite, Kaolinite, Montmorillonte, Hematite, Calcite and Quartz. The behaviour of these constituents as observed by their phase functions provide information on the ...

  18. On quantum mechanical phase-space wave functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wlodarz, Joachim J.

    1994-01-01

    An approach to quantum mechanics based on the notion of a phase-space wave function is proposed within the Weyl-Wigner-Moyal representation. It is shown that the Schrodinger equation for the phase-space wave function is equivalent to the quantum Liouville equation for the Wigner distribution...

  19. Scattering Phase Functions of Constituents of Mineral Dust Aerosols ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a Mie-based numerical computation and visualization program has been used to compute the phase functions of typical constituents of mineral dust ... The behaviour of these constituents as observed by their phase functions provide information on the optical properties and radiative effects of the mineral dust ...

  20. Industrial applications of multi-functional, multi-phase reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, G.J.; Chewter, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    To reveal trends in the design and operation of multi-functional, multi-phase reactors, this paper describes, in historical sequence, three industrial applications of multi-functional, multi-phase reactors developed and operated by Shell Chemicals during the last five decades. For each case, we

  1. Brain potentials index executive functions during random number generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppich, Gregor; Däuper, Jan; Dengler, Reinhard; Johannes, Sönke; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F

    2004-06-01

    The generation of random sequences is considered to tax different executive functions. To explore the involvement of these functions further, brain potentials were recorded in 16 healthy young adults while either engaging in random number generation (RNG) by pressing the number keys on a computer keyboard in a random sequence or in ordered number generation (ONG) necessitating key presses in the canonical order. Key presses were paced by an external auditory stimulus to yield either fast (1 press/800 ms) or slow (1 press/1300 ms) sequences in separate runs. Attentional demands of random and ordered tasks were assessed by the introduction of a secondary task (key-press to a target tone). The P3 amplitude to the target tone of this secondary task was reduced during RNG, reflecting the greater consumption of attentional resources during RNG. Moreover, RNG led to a left frontal negativity peaking 140 ms after the onset of the pacing stimulus, whenever the subjects produced a true random response. This negativity could be attributed to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and was absent when numbers were repeated. This negativity was interpreted as an index for the inhibition of habitual responses. Finally, in response locked ERPs a negative component was apparent peaking about 50 ms after the key-press that was more prominent during RNG. Source localization suggested a medial frontal source. This effect was tentatively interpreted as a reflection of the greater monitoring demands during random sequence generation.

  2. Influence of liquid crystalline phases on the tunability of a random laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trull, José; Salud, Josep; Diez-Berart, Sergio; López, David O.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we report the temperature behavior of an optimized disordered photonic system-based liquid crystal by means of heat capacity and refractive index measurements. The scattering system is formed by a porous borosilicate glass random matrix (about 60%) infiltrated with a smectogenic liquid crystal (about 16%) and a small amount of laser dye (0.1%). The rest of the scattering system is about 24% air, giving rise to a high refractive index contrast scattering system. Such a system has the functionality to change the refractive index contrast with temperature due to the liquid crystal temperature behavior. The system, optically pumped by the second harmonic of a Q -switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser working at 532 nm, exhibits random laser action, the threshold of which depends upon the liquid crystalline mesophase. Temperatures of existence of the smectic-B phase correspond to the most optimized random laser. In such a mesophase, the transport mean free path has been determined as about 16 μm in a coherent backscattering experiment.

  3. Double blind randomized phase II study with radiation + 5-fluorouracil ± celecoxib for resectable rectal cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Debucquoy, Annelies; Roels, Sarah; Goethals, Laurence; Libbrecht, Louis; Cutsem, Eric Van; Geboes, Karel; Penninckx, Freddy; D’Hoore, André; McBride, William H; Haustermans, Karin

    2009-01-01

    To assess the feasibility and efficacy of the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib in conjunction with preoperative chemoradiation for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer in a double blind randomized phase II study...

  4. Optical image transformation and encryption by phase-retrieval-based double random-phase encoding and compressive ghost imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Sheng; Yang, Yangrui; Liu, Xuemei; Zhou, Xin; Wei, Zhenzhuo

    2018-01-01

    An optical image transformation and encryption scheme is proposed based on double random-phase encoding (DRPE) and compressive ghost imaging (CGI) techniques. In this scheme, a secret image is first transformed into a binary image with the phase-retrieval-based DRPE technique, and then encoded by a series of random amplitude patterns according to the ghost imaging (GI) principle. Compressive sensing, corrosion and expansion operations are implemented to retrieve the secret image in the decryption process. This encryption scheme takes the advantage of complementary capabilities offered by the phase-retrieval-based DRPE and GI-based encryption techniques. That is the phase-retrieval-based DRPE is used to overcome the blurring defect of the decrypted image in the GI-based encryption, and the CGI not only reduces the data amount of the ciphertext, but also enhances the security of DRPE. Computer simulation results are presented to verify the performance of the proposed encryption scheme.

  5. Fractional Fourier domain optical image hiding using phase retrieval algorithm based on iterative nonlinear double random phase encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2014-09-22

    We present a novel image hiding method based on phase retrieval algorithm under the framework of nonlinear double random phase encoding in fractional Fourier domain. Two phase-only masks (POMs) are efficiently determined by using the phase retrieval algorithm, in which two cascaded phase-truncated fractional Fourier transforms (FrFTs) are involved. No undesired information disclosure, post-processing of the POMs or digital inverse computation appears in our proposed method. In order to achieve the reduction in key transmission, a modified image hiding method based on the modified phase retrieval algorithm and logistic map is further proposed in this paper, in which the fractional orders and the parameters with respect to the logistic map are regarded as encryption keys. Numerical results have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  6. Speeding up image quality improvement in random phase-free holograms using ringing artifact characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Yuki; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Kakue, Takashi; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2017-05-01

    A holographic projector utilizes holography techniques. However, there are several barriers to realizing holographic projections. One is deterioration of hologram image quality caused by speckle noise and ringing artifacts. The combination of the random phase-free method and the Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm has improved the image quality of holograms. However, the GS algorithm requires significant computation time. We propose faster methods for image quality improvement of random phase-free holograms using the characteristics of ringing artifacts.

  7. Computer routines for probability distributions, random numbers, and related functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, W.

    1983-01-01

    Use of previously coded and tested subroutines simplifies and speeds up program development and testing. This report presents routines that can be used to calculate various probability distributions and other functions of importance in statistical hydrology. The routines are designed as general-purpose Fortran subroutines and functions to be called from user-written main progress. The probability distributions provided include the beta, chi-square, gamma, Gaussian (normal), Pearson Type III (tables and approximation), and Weibull. Also provided are the distributions of the Grubbs-Beck outlier test, Kolmogorov 's and Smirnov 's D, Student 's t, noncentral t (approximate), and Snedecor F. Other mathematical functions include the Bessel function, I sub o, gamma and log-gamma functions, error functions, and exponential integral. Auxiliary services include sorting and printer-plotting. Random number generators for uniform and normal numbers are provided and may be used with some of the above routines to generate numbers from other distributions. (USGS)

  8. Dielectric matrix formulation of correlation energies in the Random Phase Approximation (RPA): inclusion of exchange effects

    CERN Document Server

    Mussard, Bastien; Jansen, Georg; Angyan, Janos

    2016-01-01

    Starting from the general expression for the ground state correlation energy in the adiabatic connection fluctuation dissipation theorem (ACFDT) framework, it is shown that the dielectric matrix formulation, which is usually applied to calculate the direct random phase approximation (dRPA) correlation energy, can be used for alternative RPA expressions including exchange effects. Within this famework, the ACFDT analog of the second order screened exchange (SOSEX) approximation leads to a logarithmic formula for the correlation energy similar to the direct RPA expression. Alternatively, the contribution of the exchange can be included in the kernel used to evaluate the response functions. In this case the use of an approximate kernel is crucial to simplify the formalism and to obtain a correlation energy in logarithmic form. Technical details of the implementation of these methods are discussed and it is shown that one can take advantage of density fitting or Cholesky decomposition techniques to improve the co...

  9. Insight into organic reactions from the direct random phase approximation and its corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzsinszky, Adrienn [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States); Zhang, Igor Ying; Scheffler, Matthias [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-10-14

    The performance of the random phase approximation (RPA) and beyond-RPA approximations for the treatment of electron correlation is benchmarked on three different molecular test sets. The test sets are chosen to represent three typical sources of error which can contribute to the failure of most density functional approximations in chemical reactions. The first test set (atomization and n-homodesmotic reactions) offers a gradually increasing balance of error from the chemical environment. The second test set (Diels-Alder reaction cycloaddition = DARC) reflects more the effect of weak dispersion interactions in chemical reactions. Finally, the third test set (self-interaction error 11 = SIE11) represents reactions which are exposed to noticeable self-interaction errors. This work seeks to answer whether any one of the many-body approximations considered here successfully addresses all these challenges.

  10. Multiple-wavelength double random phase encoding with CCD-plane sparse-phase multiplexing for optical information verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen

    2015-12-20

    A novel method is proposed by using multiple-wavelength double random phase encoding (MW-DRPE) with CCD-plane sparse-phase multiplexing for optical information verification. Two different strategies are applied to conduct sparse-phase multiplexing in the CCD plane. The results demonstrate that large capacity can be achieved for optical multiple-image verification. The proposed optical verification strategy is implemented based on optical encoding, and the keys generated by optical encryption can further guarantee the safety of the designed optical multiple-image verification system. The proposed method provides a novel alternative for DRPE-based optical information verification.

  11. Virtual reality based rehabilitation speeds up functional recovery of the upper extremities after stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study in the acute phase of stroke using the rehabilitation gaming system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Cameirão, Mónica; Bermúdez I Badia, Sergi; Duarte, Esther; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2011-01-01

    Given the incidence of stroke, the need has arisen to consider more self-managed rehabilitation approaches. A promising technology is Virtual Reality (VR). Thus far, however, it is not clear what the benefits of VR systems are when compared to conventional methods. Here we investigated the clinical impact of one such system, the Rehabilitation Gaming System (RGS), on the recovery time course of acute stroke. RGS combines concepts of action execution and observation with an automatic individualization of training. METHODS. Acute stroke patients (n = 8) used the RGS during 12 weeks in addition to conventional therapy. A control group (n = 8) performed a time matched alternative treatment, which consisted of intense occupational therapy or non-specific interactive games. RESULTS. At the end of the treatment, between-group comparisons showed that the RGS group displayed significantly improved performance in paretic arm speed that was matched by better performance in the arm subpart of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment Test and the Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory. In addition, the RGS group presented a significantly faster improvement over time for all the clinical scales during the treatment period. CONCLUSIONS. Our results suggest that rehabilitation with the RGS facilitates the functional recovery of the upper extremities and that this system is therefore a promising tool for stroke neurorehabilitation.

  12. Three Phase Power Imbalance Decomposition into Systematic Imbalance and Random Imbalance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Wangwei; Ma, Kang; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    is calculated based on the systematic imbalance component to guide phase swapping. Case studies demonstrate that 72.8% of 782 low voltage substations have systematic imbalance components. The degree of power imbalance results reveal the maximum need for phase swapping and the random imbalance components reveal...

  13. A Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Study of Phase-Shift Sound Therapy for Tinnitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijneman, Karin M.; de Kleine, Emile; van Dijk, Pim

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of the treatment of tinnitus with a phase-shifting pure tone to that of the same tone treatment without phase shifting. Study Design. A double-blind crossover randomized controlled trial. Setting. This study was conducted at the

  14. Understanding the role of phase function in translucent appearance

    OpenAIRE

    Gkioulekas, Ioannis; Xiao, Bei; Zhao, Shuang; Adelson, Edward H.; Zickler, Todd; Bala, Kavita

    2012-01-01

    Multiple scattering contributes critically to the characteristic translucent appearance of food, liquids, skin, and crystals; but little is known about how it is perceived by human observers. This article explores the perception of translucency by studying the image effects of variations in one factor of multiple scattering: the phase function. We consider an expanded space of phase functions created by linear combinations of Henyey-Greenstein and von Mises-Fisher lobes, and we study this phy...

  15. Age at menarche and lung function: a Mendelian randomization study

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Dipender; Sheehan, Nuala A; Wielscher, Matthias; Shrine, Nick; Amaral, Andre F. S.; Thompson, John R.; Granell, Raquel; Leynaert, Bénédicte; Real, Francisco Gómez; Hall, Ian P.; Tobin, Martin D; Auvinen, Juha; Ring, Susan M.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Wain, Louise V

    2017-01-01

    A trend towards earlier menarche in women has been associated with childhood factors (e.g. obesity) and hypothesised environmental exposures (e.g. endocrine disruptors present in household products). Observational evidence has shown detrimental effects of early menarche on various health outcomes including adult lung function, but these might represent spurious associations due to confounding. To address this we used Mendelian randomization where genetic variants are used as proxies for age a...

  16. Phase-function method for Coulomb-distorted nuclear scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sett, G.C.; Laha, U.; Talukdar, B.

    1988-09-21

    The phase-function method is very effective in treating quantum mechanical scattering problems for short-range local potentials. We adapt the phase method to deal with Coulomb plus Graz non-local separable potentials and derive a closed-form expression for the scattering phase shift. Our approach to the problem circumvents in a rather natural way the typical difficulties of incorporating the Coulomb interaction in a nuclear phase-shift calculation. We demonstrate the usefulness of our constructed expression by means of a model calculation.

  17. Statistical mechanics of random geometric graphs: Geometry-induced first-order phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostilli, Massimo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2015-04-01

    Random geometric graphs (RGGs) can be formalized as hidden-variables models where the hidden variables are the coordinates of the nodes. Here we develop a general approach to extract the typical configurations of a generic hidden-variables model and apply the resulting equations to RGGs. For any RGG, defined through a rigid or a soft geometric rule, the method reduces to a nontrivial satisfaction problem: Given N nodes, a domain D, and a desired average connectivity 〈k〉, find, if any, the distribution of nodes having support in D and average connectivity 〈k〉. We find out that, in the thermodynamic limit, nodes are either uniformly distributed or highly condensed in a small region, the two regimes being separated by a first-order phase transition characterized by a O(N) jump of 〈k〉. Other intermediate values of 〈k〉 correspond to very rare graph realizations. The phase transition is observed as a function of a parameter a∈[0,1] that tunes the underlying geometry. In particular, a=1 indicates a rigid geometry where only close nodes are connected, while a=0 indicates a rigid antigeometry where only distant nodes are connected. Consistently, when a=1/2 there is no geometry and no phase transition. After discussing the numerical analysis, we provide a combinatorial argument to fully explain the mechanism inducing this phase transition and recognize it as an easy-hard-easy transition. Our result shows that, in general, ad hoc optimized networks can hardly be designed, unless to rely to specific heterogeneous constructions, not necessarily scale free.

  18. Minocycline in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage: An Early Phase Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Abdelrahman Y; Newsome, Andrea S; Spellicy, Samantha; Waller, Jennifer L; Zhi, Wenbo; Hess, David C; Ergul, Adviye; Edwards, David J; Fagan, Susan C; Switzer, Jeffrey A

    2017-10-01

    Minocycline is under investigation as a neurovascular protective agent for stroke. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic, anti-inflammatory, and safety profile of minocycline after intracerebral hemorrhage. This study was a single-site, randomized controlled trial of minocycline conducted from 2013 to 2016. Adults ≥18 years with primary intracerebral hemorrhage who could have study drug administered within 24 hours of onset were included. Patients received 400 mg of intravenous minocycline, followed by 400 mg minocycline oral daily for 4 days. Serum concentrations of minocycline after the last oral dose and biomarkers were sampled to determine the peak concentration, half-life, and anti-inflammatory profile. A total of 16 consecutive eligible patients were enrolled, with 8 randomized to minocycline. Although the literature supports a time to peak concentration (Tmax) of 1 hour for oral minocycline, the Tmax was estimated to be at least 6 hours in this cohort. The elimination half-life (available on 7 patients) was 17.5 hours (SD±3.5). No differences were observed in inflammatory biomarkers, hematoma volume, or perihematomal edema. Concentrations remained at neuroprotective levels (>3 mg/L) throughout the dosing interval in 5 of 7 patients. In intracerebral hemorrhage, a 400 mg dose of minocycline was safe and achieved neuroprotective serum concentrations. However, oral administration led to delayed absorption in these critically ill patients and should not be used when rapid, high concentrations are desired. Given the safety and pharmacokinetic profile of minocycline in intracerebral hemorrhage and promising data in the treatment of ischemic stroke, intravenous minocycline is an excellent candidate for a prehospital treatment trial. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01805895. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Long-Term Improvements After Multimodal Rehabilitation in Late Phase After Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunketorp-Käll, Lina; Lundgren-Nilsson, Åsa; Samuelsson, Hans; Pekny, Tulen; Blomvé, Karin; Pekna, Marcela; Pekny, Milos; Blomstrand, Christian; Nilsson, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Treatments that improve function in late phase after stroke are urgently needed. We assessed whether multimodal interventions based on rhythm-and-music therapy or horse-riding therapy could lead to increased perceived recovery and functional improvement in a mixed population of individuals in late phase after stroke. Participants were assigned to rhythm-and-music therapy, horse-riding therapy, or control using concealed randomization, stratified with respect to sex and stroke laterality. Therapy was given twice a week for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was change in participants' perception of stroke recovery as assessed by the Stroke Impact Scale with an intention-to-treat analysis. Secondary objective outcome measures were changes in balance, gait, grip strength, and cognition. Blinded assessments were performed at baseline, postintervention, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. One hundred twenty-three participants were assigned to rhythm-and-music therapy (n=41), horse-riding therapy (n=41), or control (n=41). Post-intervention, the perception of stroke recovery (mean change from baseline on a scale ranging from 1 to 100) was higher among rhythm-and-music therapy (5.2 [95% confidence interval, 0.79-9.61]) and horse-riding therapy participants (9.8 [95% confidence interval, 6.00-13.66]), compared with controls (-0.5 [-3.20 to 2.28]); P =0.001 (1-way ANOVA). The improvements were sustained in both intervention groups 6 months later, and corresponding gains were observed for the secondary outcomes. Multimodal interventions can improve long-term perception of recovery, as well as balance, gait, grip strength, and working memory in a mixed population of individuals in late phase after stroke. URL: http//www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01372059. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Potential energy function information from quantum phase shift using the variable phase method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemes, Nelson H T; Braga, João P; Alves, Márcio O; Costa, Éderson D'M

    2014-07-01

    The present work discusses quantum phase shift sensitivity analysis with respect to the potential energy function. A set of differential equations for the functional derivative of the quantum phase shift with respect to the potential energy function was established and coupled with the variable phase equation. This set of differential equations provides a simple, exact and straightforward way to establish the sensitivity matrix. The present procedure is easier to use than the finite difference approach, in which several direct problems have to be addressed. Furthermore, integration of the established equations can be used to demonstrate how the sensitivity phase shift is accumulated as a function of the interatomic distance. The potential energy function was refined to produce a better quality function. The average error on the phase shift decreased from 9.8% in the original potential function to 0.13% in the recovered potential. The present procedure is an important initial step for further work towards recovering potential energy functions in upper dimensions or to recovering this function from cross sections.

  1. Phase microscopy of technical and biological samples through random phase modulation with a difuser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival; Pedrini, Giancarlo; Gundu, Phanindra Narayan

    2010-01-01

    A technique for phase microscopy using a phase diffuser and a reconstruction algorithm is proposed. A magnified specimen wavefront is projected on the diffuser plane that modulates the wavefront into a speckle field. The speckle patterns at axially displaced planes are sampled and used in an iter...

  2. Visual Tracking With Convolutional Random Vector Functional Link Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Suganthan, Ponnuthurai Nagaratnam

    2017-10-01

    Deep neural network-based methods have recently achieved excellent performance in visual tracking task. As very few training samples are available in visual tracking task, those approaches rely heavily on extremely large auxiliary dataset such as ImageNet to pretrain the model. In order to address the discrepancy between the source domain (the auxiliary data) and the target domain (the object being tracked), they need to be finetuned during the tracking process. However, those methods suffer from sensitivity to the hyper-parameters such as learning rate, maximum number of epochs, size of mini-batch, and so on. Thus, it is worthy to investigate whether pretraining and fine tuning through conventional back-prop is essential for visual tracking. In this paper, we shed light on this line of research by proposing convolutional random vector functional link (CRVFL) neural network, which can be regarded as a marriage of the convolutional neural network and random vector functional link network, to simplify the visual tracking system. The parameters in the convolutional layer are randomly initialized and kept fixed. Only the parameters in the fully connected layer need to be learned. We further propose an elegant approach to update the tracker. In the widely used visual tracking benchmark, without any auxiliary data, a single CRVFL model achieves 79.0% with a threshold of 20 pixels for the precision plot. Moreover, an ensemble of CRVFL yields comparatively the best result of 86.3%.

  3. Density Functional Approach and Random Matrix Theory in Proteogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Masanori

    2017-02-01

    We study the energy-level statistics of amino acids by random matrix theory. The molecular orbital and the Kohn-Sham orbital energies are calculated using ab initio and density-functional formalisms for 20 different amino acids. To generate statistical data, we performed a multipoint calculation on 10000 molecular structures produced via a molecular dynamics simulation. For the valence orbitals, the energy-level statistics exhibit repulsion, but the universality in the random matrix cannot be determined. For the unoccupied orbitals, the energy-level statistics indicate an intermediate distribution between the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble and the semi-Poisson statistics for all 20 different amino acids. These amino acids are considered to be in a type of critical state.

  4. Lattictic non-archimedean random stability of ACQ functional equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadati Reza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we prove the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of the following additive-cubic-quartic functional equation 1 1 f ( x + 2 y + 1 1 f ( x - 2 y = 4 4 f ( x + y + 4 4 f ( x - y + 1 2 f ( 3 y - 4 8 f ( 2 y + 6 0 f ( y - 6 6 f ( x in various complete lattictic random normed spaces. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000 Primary 54E40; Secondary 39B82, 46S50, 46S40.

  5. On the nonoscillatory phase function for Legendre's differential equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, James; Rokhlin, Vladimir

    2017-12-01

    We express a certain complex-valued solution of Legendre's differential equation as the product of an oscillatory exponential function and an integral involving only nonoscillatory elementary functions. By calculating the logarithmic derivative of this solution, we show that Legendre's differential equation admits a nonoscillatory phase function. Moreover, we derive from our expression an asymptotic expansion useful for evaluating Legendre functions of the first and second kinds of large orders, as well as the derivative of the nonoscillatory phase function. Our asymptotic expansion is not as efficient as the well-known uniform asymptotic expansion of Olver; however, unlike Olver's expansion, it coefficients can be easily obtained. Numerical experiments demonstrating the properties of our asymptotic expansion are presented.

  6. Experimental Phase Functions of Millimeter-sized Cosmic Dust Grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, O.; Moreno, F.; Guirado, D.; Escobar-Cerezo, J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Vargas-Martín, F. [Department of Electromagnetism and Electronics, University of Murcia, E-30100 Murcia (Spain); Min, M. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sobornnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Hovenier, J. W. [Astronomical Institute “Anton Pannekoek,” University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-09-01

    We present the experimental phase functions of three types of millimeter-sized dust grains consisting of enstatite, quartz, and volcanic material from Mount Etna, respectively. The three grains present similar sizes but different absorbing properties. The measurements are performed at 527 nm covering the scattering angle range from 3° to 170°. The measured phase functions show two well-defined regions: (i) soft forward peaks and (ii) a continuous increase with the scattering angle at side- and back-scattering regions. This behavior at side- and back-scattering regions is in agreement with the observed phase functions of the Fomalhaut and HR 4796A dust rings. Further computations and measurements (including polarization) for millimeter-sized grains are needed to draw some conclusions about the fluffy or compact structure of the dust grains.

  7. UA(1) breaking and phase transition in chiral random matrix model

    OpenAIRE

    Sano, T.; Fujii, H.; Ohtani, M

    2009-01-01

    We propose a chiral random matrix model which properly incorporates the flavor-number dependence of the phase transition owing to the \\UA(1) anomaly term. At finite temperature, the model shows the second-order phase transition with mean-field critical exponents for two massless flavors, while in the case of three massless flavors the transition turns out to be of the first order. The topological susceptibility satisfies the anomalous \\UA(1) Ward identity and decreases gradually with the temp...

  8. Deterministic matrices matching the compressed sensing phase transitions of Gaussian random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monajemi, Hatef; Jafarpour, Sina; Gavish, Matan; Donoho, David L.; Ambikasaran, Sivaram; Bacallado, Sergio; Bharadia, Dinesh; Chen, Yuxin; Choi, Young; Chowdhury, Mainak; Chowdhury, Soham; Damle, Anil; Fithian, Will; Goetz, Georges; Grosenick, Logan; Gross, Sam; Hills, Gage; Hornstein, Michael; Lakkam, Milinda; Lee, Jason; Li, Jian; Liu, Linxi; Sing-Long, Carlos; Marx, Mike; Mittal, Akshay; Monajemi, Hatef; No, Albert; Omrani, Reza; Pekelis, Leonid; Qin, Junjie; Raines, Kevin; Ryu, Ernest; Saxe, Andrew; Shi, Dai; Siilats, Keith; Strauss, David; Tang, Gary; Wang, Chaojun; Zhou, Zoey; Zhu, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    In compressed sensing, one takes samples of an N-dimensional vector using an matrix A, obtaining undersampled measurements . For random matrices with independent standard Gaussian entries, it is known that, when is k-sparse, there is a precisely determined phase transition: for a certain region in the (,)-phase diagram, convex optimization typically finds the sparsest solution, whereas outside that region, it typically fails. It has been shown empirically that the same property—with the same phase transition location—holds for a wide range of non-Gaussian random matrix ensembles. We report extensive experiments showing that the Gaussian phase transition also describes numerous deterministic matrices, including Spikes and Sines, Spikes and Noiselets, Paley Frames, Delsarte-Goethals Frames, Chirp Sensing Matrices, and Grassmannian Frames. Namely, for each of these deterministic matrices in turn, for a typical k-sparse object, we observe that convex optimization is successful over a region of the phase diagram that coincides with the region known for Gaussian random matrices. Our experiments considered coefficients constrained to for four different sets , and the results establish our finding for each of the four associated phase transitions. PMID:23277588

  9. Fractional Fourier transform-based optical encryption with treble random phase-encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yi; Tao, Ran; Wang, Yue

    2008-03-01

    We propose a new architecture of optical encryption technique using the fractional Fourier transform with three statistically independent random phase masks. Compared with the existing double-phase encoding method in the fractional Fourier-domain, the proposed extra phase mask in the last fractional Fourier domain makes the architecture symmetrical, and additive processing to the encrypted image can be turned into complex stationary white noise after decryption, and enlarge the key space without any degradation of its robustness to blind decryption. This property can be utilized to improve the quality of the recover image. Simulation results have verified the validity.

  10. Density Functional Theory for Phase-Ordering Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jianzhong [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2016-03-30

    Colloids display astonishing structural and dynamic properties that can be dramatically altered by modest changes in the solution condition or an external field. This complex behavior stems from a subtle balance of colloidal forces and intriguing mesoscopic and macroscopic phase transitions that are sensitive to the processing conditions and the dispersing environment. Whereas the knowledge on the microscopic structure and phase behavior of colloidal systems at equilibrium is now well-advanced, quantitative predictions of the dynamic properties and the kinetics of phase-ordering transitions in colloids are not always realized. Many important mesoscopic and off-equilibrium colloidal states remain poorly understood. The proposed research aims to develop a new, unifying approach to describe colloidal dynamics and the kinetics of phase-ordering transitions based on accomplishments from previous work for the equilibrium properties of both uniform and inhomogeneous systems and on novel concepts from the state-of-the-art dynamic density functional theory. In addition to theoretical developments, computational research is designed to address a number of fundamental questions on phase-ordering transitions in colloids, in particular those pertinent to a competition of the dynamic pathways leading to various mesoscopic structures, off-equilibrium states, and crystalline phases. By providing a generic theoretical framework to describe equilibrium, metastable as well as non-ergodic phase transitions concurrent with the colloidal self-assembly processes, accomplishments from this work will have major impacts on both fundamental research and technological applications.

  11. Generation of sound by Alfven waves with random phases in the solar atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrukhin, N.S.; Fainshtein, S.M.

    1976-11-01

    The problem of the excitation of sound by Alfven waves meeting in the solar plasma is discussed. Kinetic equations for the interacting waves are derived and analyzed on the assumption that the Alfven waves have random phases. Estimates are given which show the possibility of the generation of LF-pulsations in the solar atmosphere.

  12. Nanostructure-property relations for phase-change random access memory (PCRAM) line cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, B. J.; Oosthoek, J. L. M.; Verheijen, M. A.; Kaiser, M.; Jedema, F. J.; Gravesteijn, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Phase-change random access memory (PCRAM) cells have been studied extensively using electrical characterization and rather limited by detailed structure characterization. The combination of these two characterization techniques has hardly been exploited and it is the focus of the present work.

  13. Thermochemistry and Geometries for Transition-Metal Chemistry from the Random Phase Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitt, Craig; Ferrara, Nashali M; Eshuis, Henk

    2016-11-08

    Performance of the random phase approximation (RPA) is tested for thermochemistry and geometries of transition-metal chemistry using various benchmarks obtained either computationally or experimentally. Comparison is made to popular (semi)local meta- and hybrid density functionals as well as to the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) and its spin-component-scaled derivatives. The benchmark sets include reaction energies, barrier heights, and dissociation energies of prototype bond-activation reactions, dissociation energies for a set of large transition-metal complexes, bond lengths and dissociation energies of metal hydride ions, and bond lengths and angles of a set of closed-shell first-row transition-metal complexes. The emphasis is on first-row transition-metal chemistry, though for energies, elements beyond the first-row are included. Attention is paid to the basis set convergence of RPA. For thermochemistry, RPA performs on par or better than the density functional theory (DFT) functionals presented and is significantly more accurate than MP2. The largest errors are observed in dissociation energies where the electronic environment is altered substantially. For structural parameters, very good results were obtained, and RPA meets the high quality of structures from DFT. In most cases, well-converged structures are obtained with basis sets of triple-zeta quality. MP2 optimized values can often not be obtained and are on average of inferior quality. Though chemical accuracy is not reached, the RPA method is a step forward toward a systematic, parameter-free, all-round method to describe transition-metal chemistry.

  14. 3D Multisource Full‐Waveform Inversion using Dynamic Random Phase Encoding

    KAUST Repository

    Boonyasiriwat, Chaiwoot

    2010-10-17

    We have developed a multisource full‐waveform inversion algorithm using a dynamic phase encoding strategy with dual‐randomization—both the position and polarity of simultaneous sources are randomized and changed every iteration. The dynamic dual‐randomization is used to promote the destructive interference of crosstalk noise resulting from blending a large number of common shot gathers into a supergather. We compare our multisource algorithm with various algorithms in a numerical experiment using the 3D SEG/EAGE overthrust model and show that our algorithm provides a higher‐quality velocity tomogram than the other methods that use only monorandomization. This suggests that increasing the degree of randomness in phase encoding should improve the quality of the inversion result.

  15. Security enhanced optical encryption system by random phase key and permutation key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingzhao; Tan, Qiaofeng; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2009-12-07

    Conventional double random phase encoding (DRPE) encrypts plaintext to white noise-like ciphertext which may attract attention of eavesdroppers, and recent research reported that DRPE is vulnerable to various attacks. Here we propose a security enhanced optical encryption system that can hide the existence of secret information by watermarking. The plaintext is encrypted using iterative fractional Fourier transform with random phase key, and ciphertext is randomly permuted with permutation key before watermarking. Cryptanalysis shows that linearity of the security system has been broken and the permutation key prevent the attacker from accessing the ciphertext in various attacks. A series of simulations have shown the effectiveness of this system and the security strength is enhanced for invisibility, nonlinearity and resistance against attacks.

  16. Deep Learning the Quantum Phase Transitions in Random Electron Systems: Applications to Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Tomi; Ohtsuki, Tomoki

    2017-04-01

    Three-dimensional random electron systems undergo quantum phase transitions and show rich phase diagrams. Examples of the phases are the band gap insulator, Anderson insulator, strong and weak topological insulators, Weyl semimetal, and diffusive metal. As in the previous paper on two-dimensional quantum phase transitions [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 85, 123706 (2016)], we use an image recognition algorithm based on a multilayered convolutional neural network to identify which phase the eigenfunction belongs to. The Anderson model for localization-delocalization transition, the Wilson-Dirac model for topological insulators, and the layered Chern insulator model for Weyl semimetal are studied. The situation where the standard transfer matrix approach is not applicable is also treated by this method.

  17. Stochastic modeling for starting-time of phase evolution of random seismic ground motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbo Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to the challenge inherent in classical high-dimensional models of random ground motions, a family of simulation methods for non-stationary seismic ground motions was developed previously through employing a wave-group propagation formulation with phase spectrum model built up on the frequency components' starting-time of phase evolution. The present paper aims at extending the formulation to the simulation of non-stationary random seismic ground motions. The ground motion records associated with N—S component of Northridge Earthquake at the type-II site are investigated. The frequency components' starting-time of phase evolution of is identified from the ground motion records, and is proved to admit the Gamma distribution through data fitting. Numerical results indicate that the simulated random ground motion features zero-mean, non-stationary, and non-Gaussian behaviors, and the phase spectrum model with only a few starting-times of phase evolution could come up with a sound contribution to the simulation.

  18. Double image encryption based on random phase encoding in the fractional Fourier domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ran; Xin, Yi; Wang, Yue

    2007-11-26

    A novel image encryption method is proposed by utilizing random phase encoding in the fractional Fourier domain to encrypt two images into one encrypted image with stationary white distribution. By applying the correct keys which consist of the fractional orders, the random phase masks and the pixel scrambling operator, the two primary images can be recovered without cross-talk. The decryption process is robust against the loss of data. The phase-based image with a larger key space is more sensitive to keys and disturbances than the amplitude-based image. The pixel scrambling operation improves the quality of the decrypted image when noise perturbation occurs. The novel approach is verified by simulations.

  19. Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2014-04-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.

  20. Phase-Image Encryption Based on 3D-Lorenz Chaotic System and Double Random Phase Encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neha; Saini, Indu; Yadav, AK; Singh, Phool

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, an encryption scheme for phase-images based on 3D-Lorenz chaotic system in Fourier domain under the 4f optical system is presented. The encryption scheme uses a random amplitude mask in the spatial domain and a random phase mask in the frequency domain. Its inputs are phase-images, which are relatively more secure as compared to the intensity images because of non-linearity. The proposed scheme further derives its strength from the use of 3D-Lorenz transform in the frequency domain. Although the experimental setup for optical realization of the proposed scheme has been provided, the results presented here are based on simulations on MATLAB. It has been validated for grayscale images, and is found to be sensitive to the encryption parameters of the Lorenz system. The attacks analysis shows that the key-space is large enough to resist brute-force attack, and the scheme is also resistant to the noise and occlusion attacks. Statistical analysis and the analysis based on correlation distribution of adjacent pixels have been performed to test the efficacy of the encryption scheme. The results have indicated that the proposed encryption scheme possesses a high level of security.

  1. Vagus nerve stimulation for treatment-resistant depression: a randomized, controlled acute phase trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, A John; Marangell, Lauren B; Sackeim, Harold A; George, Mark S; Brannan, Stephen K; Davis, Sonia M; Howland, Robert; Kling, Mitchel A; Rittberg, Barry R; Burke, William J; Rapaport, Mark H; Zajecka, John; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Husain, Mustafa M; Ginsberg, David; Cooke, Robert G

    2005-09-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) alters both concentrations of neurotransmitters or their metabolites and functional activity of central nervous system regions dysregulated in mood disorders. An open trial has suggested efficacy. This 10-week, acute, randomized, controlled, masked trial compared adjunctive VNS with sham treatment in 235 outpatients with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder (n = 210) or nonpsychotic, depressed phase, bipolar disorder (n = 25). In the current episode, participants had not responded adequately to between two and six research-qualified medication trials. A two-week, single-blind recovery period (no stimulation) and then 10 weeks of masked active or sham VNS followed implantation. Medications were kept stable. Primary efficacy outcome among 222 evaluable participants was based on response rates (>/=50% reduction from baseline on the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HRSD(24)]). At 10-weeks, HRSD(24) response rates were 15.2% for the active (n = 112) and 10.0% for the sham (n = 110) groups (p = .251, last observation carried forward [LOCF]). Response rates with a secondary outcome, the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology - Self-Report (IDS-SR(30)), were 17.0% (active) and 7.3% (sham) (p = .032, LOCF). VNS was well tolerated; 1% (3/235) left the study because of adverse events. This study did not yield definitive evidence of short-term efficacy for adjunctive VNS in treatment-resistant depression.

  2. Restricted second random phase approximations and Tamm-Dancoff approximations for electronic excitation energy calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Degao; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Peng [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Yang, Weitao, E-mail: weitao.yang@duke.edu [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2014-12-07

    In this article, we develop systematically second random phase approximations (RPA) and Tamm-Dancoff approximations (TDA) of particle-hole and particle-particle channels for calculating molecular excitation energies. The second particle-hole RPA/TDA can capture double excitations missed by the particle-hole RPA/TDA and time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT), while the second particle-particle RPA/TDA recovers non-highest-occupied-molecular-orbital excitations missed by the particle-particle RPA/TDA. With proper orbital restrictions, these restricted second RPAs and TDAs have a formal scaling of only O(N{sup 4}). The restricted versions of second RPAs and TDAs are tested with various small molecules to show some positive results. Data suggest that the restricted second particle-hole TDA (r2ph-TDA) has the best overall performance with a correlation coefficient similar to TDDFT, but with a larger negative bias. The negative bias of the r2ph-TDA may be induced by the unaccounted ground state correlation energy to be investigated further. Overall, the r2ph-TDA is recommended to study systems with both single and some low-lying double excitations with a moderate accuracy. Some expressions on excited state property evaluations, such as 〈S{sup ^2}〉 are also developed and tested.

  3. Restricted second random phase approximations and Tamm-Dancoff approximations for electronic excitation energy calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Degao; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Weitao

    2014-12-01

    In this article, we develop systematically second random phase approximations (RPA) and Tamm-Dancoff approximations (TDA) of particle-hole and particle-particle channels for calculating molecular excitation energies. The second particle-hole RPA/TDA can capture double excitations missed by the particle-hole RPA/TDA and time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT), while the second particle-particle RPA/TDA recovers non-highest-occupied-molecular-orbital excitations missed by the particle-particle RPA/TDA. With proper orbital restrictions, these restricted second RPAs and TDAs have a formal scaling of only O(N4). The restricted versions of second RPAs and TDAs are tested with various small molecules to show some positive results. Data suggest that the restricted second particle-hole TDA (r2ph-TDA) has the best overall performance with a correlation coefficient similar to TDDFT, but with a larger negative bias. The negative bias of the r2ph-TDA may be induced by the unaccounted ground state correlation energy to be investigated further. Overall, the r2ph-TDA is recommended to study systems with both single and some low-lying double excitations with a moderate accuracy. Some expressions on excited state property evaluations, such as < hat{S}2rangle are also developed and tested.

  4. A randomized placebo-controlled phase III trial of oral laquinimod for multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollmer, T L; Sorensen, P S; Selmaj, K

    2014-01-01

    using EDSS was -31 % [hazard ratio (HR) 0.69, p = 0.063], and using Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) z-score was -77 % (p = 0.150), vs. placebo. IFNβ-1a reduced ARR 26 % (RR = 0.74, 95 % CI 0.60-0.92, p = 0.007), showed no effect on PBVC loss (+11 %, p = 0.14), and changes in disability......The phase III placebo-controlled BRAVO study assessed laquinimod effects in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), and descriptively compared laquinimod with interferon beta (IFNβ)-1a (Avonex(®) reference arm). RRMS patients age 18-55 years with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores...... months. The primary endpoint was annualized relapse rate (ARR); secondary endpoints included percent brain volume change (PBVC) and 3-month confirmed disability worsening. In all, 1,331 patients were randomized: laquinimod (n = 434), placebo (n = 450), and IFNβ-1a (n = 447). ARR was not significantly...

  5. Functional brain networks: random, "small world" or deterministic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinowska, Katarzyna J; Kaminski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Lately the problem of connectivity in brain networks is being approached frequently by graph theoretical analysis. In several publications based on bivariate estimators of relations between EEG channels authors reported random or "small world" structure of networks. The results of these works often have no relation to other evidence based on imaging, inverse solutions methods, physiological and anatomical data. Herein we try to find reasons for this discrepancy. We point out that EEG signals are very much interdependent, thus bivariate measures applied to them may produce many spurious connections. In fact, they may outnumber the true connections. Giving all connections equal weights, as it is usual in the framework of graph theoretical analysis, further enhances these spurious links. In effect, close to random and disorganized patterns of connections emerge. On the other hand, multivariate connectivity estimators, which are free of the artificial links, show specific, well determined patterns, which are in a very good agreement with other evidence. The modular structure of brain networks may be identified by multivariate estimators based on Granger causality and formalism of assortative mixing. In this way, the strength of coupling may be evaluated quantitatively. During working memory task, by means of multivariate Directed Transfer Function, it was demonstrated that the modules characterized by strong internal bonds exchange the information by weaker connections.

  6. Functional brain networks: random, "small world" or deterministic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna J Blinowska

    Full Text Available Lately the problem of connectivity in brain networks is being approached frequently by graph theoretical analysis. In several publications based on bivariate estimators of relations between EEG channels authors reported random or "small world" structure of networks. The results of these works often have no relation to other evidence based on imaging, inverse solutions methods, physiological and anatomical data. Herein we try to find reasons for this discrepancy. We point out that EEG signals are very much interdependent, thus bivariate measures applied to them may produce many spurious connections. In fact, they may outnumber the true connections. Giving all connections equal weights, as it is usual in the framework of graph theoretical analysis, further enhances these spurious links. In effect, close to random and disorganized patterns of connections emerge. On the other hand, multivariate connectivity estimators, which are free of the artificial links, show specific, well determined patterns, which are in a very good agreement with other evidence. The modular structure of brain networks may be identified by multivariate estimators based on Granger causality and formalism of assortative mixing. In this way, the strength of coupling may be evaluated quantitatively. During working memory task, by means of multivariate Directed Transfer Function, it was demonstrated that the modules characterized by strong internal bonds exchange the information by weaker connections.

  7. Advances in random matrix theory, zeta functions, and sphere packing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, T. C.; Sarnak, P.; Pugh, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    Over four hundred years ago, Sir Walter Raleigh asked his mathematical assistant to find formulas for the number of cannonballs in regularly stacked piles. These investigations aroused the curiosity of the astronomer Johannes Kepler and led to a problem that has gone centuries without a solution: why is the familiar cannonball stack the most efficient arrangement possible? Here we discuss the solution that Hales found in 1998. Almost every part of the 282-page proof relies on long computer verifications. Random matrix theory was developed by physicists to describe the spectra of complex nuclei. In particular, the statistical fluctuations of the eigenvalues (“the energy levels”) follow certain universal laws based on symmetry types. We describe these and then discuss the remarkable appearance of these laws for zeros of the Riemann zeta function (which is the generating function for prime numbers and is the last special function from the last century that is not understood today.) Explaining this phenomenon is a central problem. These topics are distinct, so we present them separately with their own introductory remarks. PMID:11058156

  8. Cognitive Function in a Randomized Trial of Evolocumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliano, Robert P; Mach, François; Zavitz, Kenton; Kurtz, Christopher; Im, Kyungah; Kanevsky, Estella; Schneider, Jingjing; Wang, Huei; Keech, Anthony; Pedersen, Terje R; Sabatine, Marc S; Sever, Peter S; Robinson, Jennifer G; Honarpour, Narimon; Wasserman, Scott M; Ott, Brian R

    2017-08-17

    Background Findings from clinical trials of proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors have led to concern that these drugs or the low levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol that result from their use are associated with cognitive deficits. Methods In a subgroup of patients from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of evolocumab added to statin therapy, we prospectively assessed cognitive function using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. The primary end point was the score on the spatial working memory strategy index of executive function (scores range from 4 to 28, with lower scores indicating a more efficient use of strategy and planning). Secondary end points were the scores for working memory (scores range from 0 to 279, with lower scores indicating fewer errors), episodic memory (scores range from 0 to 70, with lower scores indicating fewer errors), and psychomotor speed (scores range from 100 to 5100 msec, with faster times representing better performance). Assessments of cognitive function were performed at baseline, week 24, yearly, and at the end of the trial. The primary analysis was a noninferiority comparison of the mean change from baseline in the score on the spatial working memory strategy index of executive function between the patients who received evolocumab and those who received placebo; the noninferiority margin was set at 20% of the standard deviation of the score in the placebo group. Results A total of 1204 patients were followed for a median of 19 months; the mean (±SD) change from baseline over time in the raw score for the spatial working memory strategy index of executive function (primary end point) was -0.21±2.62 in the evolocumab group and -0.29±2.81 in the placebo group (Pfunction was observed over a median of 19 months. (Funded by Amgen; EBBINGHAUS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02207634 .).

  9. Bayesian phase II adaptive randomization by jointly modeling time-to-event efficacy and binary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiudong; Yuan, Ying; Yin, Guosheng

    2011-01-01

    In oncology, toxicity is typically observable shortly after a chemotherapy treatment, whereas efficacy, often characterized by tumor shrinkage, is observable after a relatively long period of time. In a phase II clinical trial design, we propose a Bayesian adaptive randomization procedure that accounts for both efficacy and toxicity outcomes. We model efficacy as a time-to-event endpoint and toxicity as a binary endpoint, sharing common random effects in order to induce dependence between the bivariate outcomes. More generally, we allow the randomization probability to depend on patients' specific covariates, such as prognostic factors. Early stopping boundaries are constructed for toxicity and futility, and a superior treatment arm is recommended at the end of the trial. Following the setup of a recent renal cancer clinical trial at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, we conduct extensive simulation studies under various scenarios to investigate the performance of the proposed method, and compare it with available Bayesian adaptive randomization procedures.

  10. Acute dark chocolate and cocoa ingestion and endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi, Zubaida; Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Dutta, Suparna; Ali, Ather; Katz, David L

    2008-07-01

    Studies suggest cardioprotective benefits of dark chocolate containing cocoa. This study examines the acute effects of solid dark chocolate and liquid cocoa intake on endothelial function and blood pressure in overweight adults. Randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind crossover trial of 45 healthy adults [mean age: 53 y; mean body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 30]. In phase 1, subjects were randomly assigned to consume a solid dark chocolate bar (containing 22 g cocoa powder) or a cocoa-free placebo bar (containing 0 g cocoa powder). In phase 2, subjects were randomly assigned to consume sugar-free cocoa (containing 22 g cocoa powder), sugared cocoa (containing 22 g cocoa powder), or a placebo (containing 0 g cocoa powder). Solid dark chocolate and liquid cocoa ingestion improved endothelial function (measured as flow-mediated dilatation) compared with placebo (dark chocolate: 4.3 +/- 3.4% compared with -1.8 +/- 3.3%; P cocoa: 5.7 +/- 2.6% and 2.0 +/- 1.8% compared with -1.5 +/- 2.8%; P cocoa compared with placebo (dark chocolate: systolic, -3.2 +/- 5.8 mm Hg compared with 2.7 +/- 6.6 mm Hg; P cocoa: systolic, -2.1 +/- 7.0 mm Hg compared with 3.2 +/- 5.6 mm Hg; P cocoa (5.7 +/- 2.6% compared with 2.0 +/- 1.8%; P cocoa improved endothelial function and lowered blood pressure in overweight adults. Sugar content may attenuate these effects, and sugar-free preparations may augment them.

  11. Targeting Functional Decline in Alzheimer Disease: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Christopher M; Boustani, Malaz A; Schmid, Arlene A; LaMantia, Michael A; Austrom, Mary G; Miller, Douglas K; Gao, Sujuan; Ferguson, Denisha Y; Lane, Kathleen A; Hendrie, Hugh C

    2017-02-07

    Alzheimer disease results in progressive functional decline, leading to loss of independence. To determine whether collaborative care plus 2 years of home-based occupational therapy delays functional decline. Randomized, controlled clinical trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01314950). Urban public health system. 180 community-dwelling participants with Alzheimer disease and their informal caregivers. All participants received collaborative care for dementia. Patients in the intervention group also received in-home occupational therapy delivered in 24 sessions over 2 years. The primary outcome measure was the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Group Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADCS ADL); performance-based measures included the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and Short Portable Sarcopenia Measure (SPSM). At baseline, clinical characteristics did not differ significantly between groups; the mean Mini-Mental State Examination score for both groups was 19 (SD, 7). The intervention group received a median of 18 home visits from the study occupational therapists. In both groups, ADCS ADL scores declined over 24 months. At the primary end point of 24 months, ADCS ADL scores did not differ between groups (mean difference, 2.34 [95% CI, -5.27 to 9.96]). We also could not definitively demonstrate between-group differences in mean SPPB or SPSM values. The results of this trial are indeterminate and do not rule out potential clinically important effects of the intervention. The authors could not definitively demonstrate whether the addition of 2 years of in-home occupational therapy to a collaborative care management model slowed the rate of functional decline among persons with Alzheimer disease. This trial underscores the burden undertaken by caregivers as they provide care for family members with Alzheimer disease and the difficulty in slowing functional decline. National Institute on Aging.

  12. Quasi-Coherent Noise Jamming to LFM Radar Based on Pseudo-random Sequence Phase-modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel quasi-coherent noise jamming method is proposed against linear frequency modulation (LFM signal and pulse compression radar. Based on the structure of digital radio frequency memory (DRFM, the jamming signal is acquired by the pseudo-random sequence phase-modulation of sampled radar signal. The characteristic of jamming signal in time domain and frequency domain is analyzed in detail. Results of ambiguity function indicate that the blanket jamming effect along the range direction will be formed when jamming signal passes through the matched filter. By flexible controlling the parameters of interrupted-sampling pulse and pseudo-random sequence, different covering distances and jamming effects will be achieved. When the jamming power is equivalent, this jamming obtains higher process gain compared with non-coherent jamming. The jamming signal enhances the detection threshold and the real target avoids being detected. Simulation results and circuit engineering implementation validate that the jamming signal covers real target effectively.

  13. Role of an encapsulating layer for reducing resistance drift in phase change random access memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phase change random access memory (PCRAM devices exhibit a steady increase in resistance in the amorphous phase upon aging and this resistance drift phenomenon directly affects the device reliability. A stress relaxation model is used here to study the effect of a device encapsulating layer material in addressing the resistance drift phenomenon in PCRAM. The resistance drift can be increased or decreased depending on the biaxial moduli of the phase change material (YPCM and the encapsulating layer material (YELM according to the stress relationship between them in the drift regime. The proposed model suggests that the resistance drift can be effectively reduced by selecting a proper material as an encapsulating layer. Moreover, our model explains that reducing the size of the phase change material (PCM while fully reset and reducing the amorphous/crystalline ratio in PCM help to improve the resistance drift, and thus opens an avenue for highly reliable multilevel PCRAM applications.

  14. What makes a phase transition? Analysis of the random satisfiability problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Katharina A.; Palla, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás

    2010-04-01

    In the last 30 years it was found that many combinatorial systems undergo phase transitions. One of the most important examples of these can be found among the random k-satisfiability problems (often referred to as k-SAT), asking whether there exists an assignment of Boolean values satisfying a Boolean formula composed of clauses with k random variables each. The random 3-SAT problem is reported to show various phase transitions at different critical values of the ratio of the number of clauses to the number of variables. The most famous of these occurs when the probability of finding a satisfiable instance suddenly drops from 1 to 0. This transition is associated with a rise in the hardness of the problem, but until now the correlation between any of the proposed phase transitions and the hardness is not totally clear. In this paper we will first show numerically that the number of solutions universally follows a lognormal distribution, thereby explaining the puzzling question of why the number of solutions is still exponential at the critical point. Moreover we provide evidence that the hardness of the closely related problem of counting the total number of solutions does not show any phase transition-like behavior. This raises the question of whether the probability of finding a satisfiable instance is really an order parameter of a phase transition or whether it is more likely to just show a simple sharp threshold phenomenon. More generally, this paper aims at starting a discussion where a simple sharp threshold phenomenon turns into a genuine phase transition.

  15. QCD Green's Functions and Phases of Strongly-Interacting Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaefer B.J.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available After presenting a brief summary of functional approaches to QCD at vanishing temperatures and densities the application of QCD Green's functions at non-vanishing temperature and vanishing density is discussed. It is pointed out in which way the infrared behavior of the gluon propagator reflects the (de-confinement transition. Numerical results for the quark propagator are given thereby verifying the relation between (de--confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (restoration. Last but not least some results of Dyson-Schwinger equations for the color-superconducting phase at large densities are shown.

  16. Randomized trial of infusion set function: steel versus teflon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Parul J; Benasi, Kari; Ferrari, Gina; Evans, Mark G; Shanmugham, Satya; Wilson, Darrell M; Buckingham, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    This study compared infusion set function for up to 1 week using either a Teflon(®) (Dupont(™), Wilmington, DE) catheter or a steel catheter for insulin pump therapy in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Twenty subjects participating in a randomized, open-labeled, crossover study were asked to wear two Quick-Set(®) and two Sure-T(®) infusion sets (both from Medtronic Minimed, Northridge, CA) until the infusion set failed or was worn for 1 week. All subjects wore a MiniMed continuous glucose monitoring system for the duration of the study. One subject withdrew from the study. There were 38 weeks of Sure-T wear and 39 weeks of Quick-Set wear with no difference in the survival curves of the infusion sets. There was, however, a 15% initial failure rate with the Teflon infusion set. After 7 days, both types of infusion sets had a 64% failure rate. Overall, 30% failed because of hyperglycemia and a failed correction dose, 13% were removed for pain, 10% were pulled out by accident, 10% had erythema and/or induration of>10 mm, 5% fell out because of loss of adhesion, and 4% were removed for infection. The main predictor of length of wear was the individual subject. There was no increase in hyperglycemia or daily insulin requirements when an infusion set was successfully used for 7 days (n=25 of 77 weeks). We found no difference between steel and Teflon infusion sets in their function over 7 days, although 15% of Teflon sets failed because of kinking on insertion. The strongest predictor of prolonged 7-day infusion set function was the individual subject, not the type of infusion set.

  17. Information hiding based on double random-phase encoding and public-key cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yuan; Xin, Zhou; Alam, Mohammed S; Xi, Lu; Xiao-Feng, Li

    2009-03-02

    A novel information hiding method based on double random-phase encoding (DRPE) and Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) public-key cryptosystem is proposed. In the proposed technique, the inherent diffusion property of DRPE is cleverly utilized to make up the diffusion insufficiency of RSA public-key cryptography, while the RSA cryptosystem is utilized for simultaneous transmission of the cipher text and the two phase-masks, which is not possible under the DRPE technique. This technique combines the complementary advantages of the DPRE and RSA encryption techniques and brings security and convenience for efficient information transmission. Extensive numerical simulation results are presented to verify the performance of the proposed technique.

  18. Phase-space representation and polarization domains of random electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Roman; Betancur, Rafael; Herrera, Jorge; Carrasquilla, Juan

    2008-08-01

    The phase-space representation of stationary random electromagnetic fields is developed by using electromagnetic spatial coherence wavelets. The propagation of the field's power and states of spatial coherence and polarization results from correlations between the components of the field vectors at pairs of points in space. Polarization domains are theoretically predicted as the structure of the field polarization at the observation plane. In addition, the phase-space representation provides a generalization of the Poynting theorem. Theoretical predictions are examined by numerically simulating the Young experiment with electromagnetic waves. The experimental implementation of these results is a current subject of research.

  19. Security authentication with a three-dimensional optical phase code using random forest classifier: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, Adam; Carnicer, Artur; Javidi, Bahram

    2017-05-01

    We overview our recent work [1] on utilizing three-dimensional (3D) optical phase codes for object authentication using the random forest classifier. A simple 3D optical phase code (OPC) is generated by combining multiple diffusers and glass slides. This tag is then placed on a quick-response (QR) code, which is a barcode capable of storing information and can be scanned under non-uniform illumination conditions, rotation, and slight degradation. A coherent light source illuminates the OPC and the transmitted light is captured by a CCD to record the unique signature. Feature extraction on the signature is performed and inputted into a pre-trained random-forest classifier for authentication.

  20. A randomized double-blind crossover study of phase-shift sound therapy for tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijneman, Karin M; de Kleine, Emile; van Dijk, Pim

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of the treatment of tinnitus with a phase-shifting pure tone to that of the same tone treatment without phase shifting. A double-blind crossover randomized controlled trial. This study was conducted at the University Medical Center Groningen. Twenty-two patients with predominantly tonal tinnitus underwent both intervention and control treatments. Each treatment consisted of three 30-minute sessions in 1 week. The control treatment was identical to the intervention treatment, except that the stimulus was a pure tone without phase shifting. Questionnaires, tinnitus loudness match, and annoyance and loudness ratings were used to measure treatment effects. Pure-tone treatment and phase-shift treatment had no significant effect on tinnitus according to questionnaires (Tinnitus Handicap Index, Tinnitus Reaction Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Maastricht Questionnaire), audiological matching procedures, and loudness and annoyance ratings of tinnitus. Furthermore, phase-shift treatment showed no additional significant improvement in comparison with pure-tone treatment. Changes in questionnaire scores due to pure-tone and the phase-shift treatment were correlated. On average across the group, both treatments failed to demonstrate a significant effect. Both treatments were beneficial for some patients. However, a positive effect was not demonstrated that could be attributed to the periodic shifting of the phase of the stimulus tone.

  1. Electric dipole strength and dipole polarizability in 48Ca within a fully self-consistent second random-phase approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambacurta, D.; Grasso, M.; Vasseur, O.

    2018-02-01

    The second random-phase-approximation model corrected by a subtraction procedure designed to cure double counting, instabilities, and ultraviolet divergences, is employed for the first time to analyze the dipole strength and polarizability in 48Ca. All the terms of the residual interaction are included, leading to a fully self-consistent scheme. Results are illustrated with two Skyrme parametrizations, SGII and SLy4. Those obtained with the SGII interaction are particularly satisfactory. In this case, the low-lying strength below the neutron threshold is well reproduced and the giant dipole resonance is described in a very satisfactory way especially in its spreading and fragmentation. Spreading and fragmentation are produced in a natural way within such a theoretical model by the coupling of 1 particle-1 hole and 2 particle-2 hole configurations. Owing to this feature, we may provide for the electric polarizability as a function of the excitation energy a curve with a similar slope around the centroid energy of the giant resonance compared to the corresponding experimental results. This represents a considerable improvement with respect to previous theoretical predictions obtained with the random-phase approximation or with several ab-initio models. In such cases, the spreading width of the excitation cannot be reproduced and the polarizability as a function of the excitation energy displays a stiff increase around the predicted centroid energy of the giant resonance.

  2. Luteal Phase Support in the Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) Cycles: A Randomized Double Blind, Placebo Controlled Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Batool Hossein Rashidi; Fatemeh Davari Tanha; Haleh Rahmanpour; Mahya Ghazizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of luteal phase support with vaginal progesterone on pregnancy rates in the intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles, stimulated with clomiphene citrate and human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), in sub fertile couples. Materials and methods: This prospective, randomized, double blind study was performed in a tertiary infertility center from March 2011 to January 2012. It consisted of 253 sub fertile couples undergoing ovarian stimulation for IUI cycles. They und...

  3. Implementation of the direct evaluation of strains using a phase analysis code for random patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Molimard, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    A new approach for decoding directly strains from surfaces encoded with random patterns has been developed and validated. It is based on phase analysis of small region of interest. Here we adapt to random patterns new concepts proposed by Badulescu (2009) on the grid method. First metrological results are encouraging: resolution is proportional to strain level, being 9% of the nominal value, for a spatial resolution of 9 pixels (ZOI 64 \\times 64 pixels2). Random noise has to be carefully controlled. A numerical example shows the relevance of the approach. Then, first application on a carbon fiber reinforced composite is developed. Fabric intertwining is studied using a tensile test. Over-strains are clearly visible, and results connect well with the previous studies

  4. Acupuncture for Functional Dyspepsia: A Single Blinded, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulian Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the therapeutic potential of acupuncture on patients with functional dyspepsia (FD, patients were randomized to receive acupuncture at classic acupoints with manipulations (treatment group versus acupuncture at nonacupoints without manipulation (control group once every other day, three times a week, for one month and were followed up for three months. The primary outcomes included dyspeptic symptoms, quality of life, and mental status. The secondary outcomes included the fasting serum gastrin concentration, and frequency and propagation velocity of gastric slow waves. Sixty patients with FD were included, among whom, four dropped out. After one month's treatment, patients with FD showed significant improvements in primary (in both groups and secondary (in the eight patients of the treatment group outcomes as compared with baseline (P=0.0078 to <0.0001; treatment group has better outcomes in all primary outcome measures (P<0.0001 except for SDS (P=0.0005. Improvements on dyspeptic symptoms persist during follow-up (better in the treatment group. Acupuncture with manual manipulation had better effects on improving dyspeptic symptoms, mental status, and quality of life in patients with FD. These effects may be related to the increased frequency and propagation speed of gastric slow waves and serum gastrin secretion.

  5. Electroacupuncture for Functional Constipation: A Multicenter, Randomized, Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Zheng, Cuihong; Xu, Xiaohu; Ding, Pei; Xiong, Fan; Tian, Man; Wang, Ying; Dong, Haoxu; Zhang, Mingmin; Wang, Wei; Xu, Shabei; Xie, Minjie; Huang, Guangying

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aim. To investigate the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture (EA) with different current intensities for functional constipation (FC) and to assess whether the effects of EA with different current intensities are superior to the mosapride. Methods. Patients with FC were randomly divided into low current intensity group (LCI), high current intensity group (HCI), and mosapride group (MC). The primary outcome was three or more spontaneous bowel movements (SBMs) per week and an increase of one or more SBMs from baseline during at least 3 of the 4 weeks. Results. The primary outcome was reached by 53.45%, 66.15%, and 52.24% of the patients who received LCI, HCI, and mosapride, respectively. EA can significantly improve the weekly SBMs and stool consistency and reduce straining severity (p HCI improved the quality of life better than mosapride (p HCI are not superior to mosapride. EA is superior to mosapride in improving patients' life quality and satisfaction level of treatment; EA has fewer adverse events than mosapride.

  6. Trunk Exercises Improve Gait Symmetry in Parkinson Disease: A Blind Phase II Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubble, Ryan P; Naughton, Geraldine; Silburn, Peter A; Cole, Michael H

    2018-03-01

    Deficits in step-to-step symmetry and trunk muscle activations have been linked to falls in Parkinson disease. Given such symptoms are poorly managed with anti-parkinsonian medications, alternate therapies are needed. This blind phase II randomized controlled trial sought to establish whether exercise can improve step-to-step symmetry in Parkinson disease. Twenty-four Parkinson disease patients with a falls history completed baseline assessments of symptom severity, balance confidence, mobility, and quality of life. Step-to-step symmetry was assessed by deriving harmonic ratios from three-dimensional accelerations collected for the head and trunk. Patients were randomly assigned to either 12 wks of exercise and falls prevention education or falls prevention education only. Both groups repeated the baseline tests 12 and 24 wks after the initial assessment. The Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number is ACTRN12613001175763. At 12 wks, the exercise group had statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements in anterior-posterior step-to-step trunk symmetry. In contrast, the education group recorded statistically significant and clinically meaningful reductions in medial-lateral and vertical step-to-step trunk symmetry at 12 wks. Given that step-to-step symmetry improved for the exercise group and declined for the education group after intervention, active interventions seem more suited to increasing independence and quality of life for people with Parkinson disease. Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME CME OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to do the following: (1) Describe the effect deficits in trunk muscle function have on gait in individuals with Parkinson disease; (2) Identify the benefits of targeted trunk exercises on step-to-step symmetry; and (3) Discuss the benefits of improving step-to-step symmetry in individuals with Parkinson

  7. Hubbard-U corrected Hamiltonians for non-self-consistent random-phase approximation total-energy calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick, Christopher; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2016-01-01

    In non-self-consistent calculations of the total energy within the random-phase approximation (RPA) for electronic correlation, it is necessary to choose a single-particle Hamiltonian whose solutions are used to construct the electronic density and noninteracting response function. Here we...... investigate the effect of including a Hubbard-U term in this single-particle Hamiltonian, to better describe the on-site correlation of 3d electrons in the transitionmetal compounds ZnS, TiO2, and NiO.We find that the RPA lattice constants are essentially independent of U, despite large changes...... and qualitatively different from that found from calculations employingU-corrected (semi)local functionals.However we also find that the+U term cannot be used to correct the RPA’s poor description of the heat of formation of NiO....

  8. Parenteral nutrition at the palliative phase of advanced cancer: the ALIM-K study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazart, Lionel; Cretin, Elodie; Grodard, Ghislain; Cornet, Cecile; Mathieu-Nicot, Florence; Bonnetain, Franck; Mercier, Mariette; Cuynet, Patrice; Bouleuc, Carole; Aubry, Regis

    2014-09-24

    Malnutrition is a common complication in patients at the palliative stage of cancer. During the curative phase of cancer, optimal enteral or parenteral nutrition intake can reduce morbidity and mortality, and improve quality of life. When the main goal of treatment becomes palliative, introduction of artificial nutrition is controversial. Although scientific societies do not recommend the introduction of artificial nutrition in all cases of malnutrition, especially in hypophagic patients if their life expectancy is shorter than 2 months, considerable differences in the use of parenteral nutrition in nonsurgical oncology practice are noted around the world. One explanation is a paucity of well-conducted randomized controlled trials in these situations, and consequently, the risk/benefit ratio of parenteral nutrition and its impact on quality of life in palliative care remains uncertain. The ALIM-K study is a French national multicenter randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate the effectiveness of parenteral nutrition, versus an exclusive oral-feeding supply, on the quality of life of malnourished patients who have a functional digestive tube and who are at the palliative phase of advanced cancer with a life expectancy of more than 2 months. This article presents the methodologic options chosen for our study, and in particular, the choice of the Zelen method of randomization, the definition of the main end point (quality of life), the choice of comparator (oral feeding), and the inclusion criteria (life expectancy of more than 2 months), which are all critical points in building a randomized controlled trial in the setting of palliative care. This study was registered with the clinical trials database ClinicalTrials.gov on May 27, 2014, under the number NCT02151214.

  9. Prophylactic nimodipine treatment for cochlear and facial nerve preservation after vestibular schwannoma surgery: a randomized multicenter Phase III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Christian; Wienke, Andreas; Tatagiba, Marcos; Gharabaghi, Alireza; Ramina, Kristofer F; Ganslandt, Oliver; Bischoff, Barbara; Zenk, Johannes; Engelhorn, Tobias; Matthies, Cordula; Westermaier, Thomas; Antoniadis, Gregor; Pedro, Maria Teresa; Rohde, Veit; von Eckardstein, Kajetan; Kretschmer, Thomas; Kornhuber, Malte; Steighardt, Jörg; Richter, Michael; Barker, Fred G; Strauss, Christian

    2016-03-01

    A pilot study of prophylactic nimodipine and hydroxyethyl starch treatment showed a beneficial effect on facial and cochlear nerve preservation following vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery. A prospective Phase III trial was undertaken to confirm these results. An open-label, 2-arm, randomized parallel group and multicenter Phase III trial with blinded expert review was performed and included 112 patients who underwent VS surgery between January 2010 and February 2013 at 7 departments of neurosurgery to investigate the efficacy and safety of the prophylaxis. The surgery was performed after the patients were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups using online randomization. The treatment group (n = 56) received parenteral nimodipine (1-2 mg/hr) and hydroxyethyl starch (hematocrit 30%-35%) from the day before surgery until the 7th postoperative day. The control group (n = 56) was not treated prophylactically. Intent-to-treat analysis showed no statistically significant effects of the treatment on either preservation of facial nerve function (35 [67.3%] of 52 [treatment group] compared with 34 [72.3%] of 47 [control group]) (p = 0.745) or hearing preservation (11 [23.4%] of 47 [treatment group] compared with 15 [31.2%] of 48 [control group]) (p = 0.530) 12 months after surgery. Since tumor sizes were significantly larger in the treatment group than in the control group, logistic regression analysis was required. The risk for deterioration of facial nerve function was adjusted nearly the same in both groups (OR 1.07 [95% CI 0.34-3.43], p = 0.91). In contrast, the risk for postoperative hearing loss was adjusted 2 times lower in the treatment group compared with the control group (OR 0.49 [95% CI 0.18-1.30], p = 0.15). Apart from dose-dependent hypotension (p nimodipine can be recommended in VS surgery.

  10. Pair-correlation functions and phase separation in a two-component point Yukawa fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, P.; Archer, A. J.; Evans, R.

    2006-02-01

    We investigate the structure of a binary mixture of particles interacting via purely repulsive point Yukawa pair potentials with a common inverse screening length λ. Using the hypernetted chain closure to the Ornstein-Zernike equations, we find that for a system with "ideal" (Berthelot mixing rule) pair-potential parameters for the interaction between unlike species, the asymptotic decay of the total correlation functions crosses over from monotonic to damped oscillatory on increasing the fluid total density at fixed composition. This gives rise to a Kirkwood line in the phase diagram. We also consider a "nonideal" system, in which the Berthelot mixing rule is multiplied by a factor (1+δ). For any δ >0 the system exhibits fluid-fluid phase separation and remarkably the ultimate decay of the correlation functions is now monotonic for all (mixture) state points. Only in the limit of vanishing concentration of either species does one find oscillatory decay extending to r =∞. In the nonideal case the simple random-phase approximation provides a good description of the phase separation and the accompanying Lifshitz line.

  11. Pair-correlation functions and phase separation in a two-component point Yukawa fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, P; Archer, A J; Evans, R

    2006-02-07

    We investigate the structure of a binary mixture of particles interacting via purely repulsive point Yukawa pair potentials with a common inverse screening length lambda. Using the hypernetted chain closure to the Ornstein-Zernike equations, we find that for a system with "ideal" (Berthelot mixing rule) pair-potential parameters for the interaction between unlike species, the asymptotic decay of the total correlation functions crosses over from monotonic to damped oscillatory on increasing the fluid total density at fixed composition. This gives rise to a Kirkwood line in the phase diagram. We also consider a "nonideal" system, in which the Berthelot mixing rule is multiplied by a factor (1+delta). For any delta>0 the system exhibits fluid-fluid phase separation and remarkably the ultimate decay of the correlation functions is now monotonic for all (mixture) state points. Only in the limit of vanishing concentration of either species does one find oscillatory decay extending to r=infinity. In the nonideal case the simple random-phase approximation provides a good description of the phase separation and the accompanying Lifshitz line.

  12. Robot-assisted Versus Laparoscopic Surgery for Rectal Cancer: A Phase II Open Label Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Park, Sung Chan; Park, Ji Won; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Dae Yong; Nam, Byung-Ho; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Oh, Jae Hwan

    2018-02-01

    The phase II randomized controlled trial aimed to compare the outcomes of robot-assisted surgery with those of laparoscopic surgery in the patients with rectal cancer. The feasibility of robot-assisted surgery over laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer has not been established yet. Between February 21, 2012 and March 11, 2015, patients with rectal cancer (cT1-3NxM0) were enrolled. Patients were randomized 1:1 to either robot-assisted or laparoscopic surgery, and stratified per sex and administration of preoperative chemoradiotherapy. The primary outcome was the quality of total mesorectal excision (TME) specimen. Secondary outcomes were the circumferential and distal resection margins, the number of harvested lymph nodes, morbidity, bowel function recovery, and quality of life. A total of 163 patients were randomly assigned to the robot-assisted (n = 81) and laparoscopic (n = 82) surgery groups, and 139 patients were eligible for the analyses (73 vs 66, respectively). One patient (1.2%) in the robot-assisted group was converted to open surgery. The TME quality did not differ between the robot-assisted and laparoscopic groups (80.3% vs 78.1% complete TME, respectively; 18.2% vs 21.9% nearly complete TME, respectively; P = 0.599). The resection margins, number of harvested lymph nodes, morbidity, and bowel function recovery also were not significantly different. On analyzing quality of life, scores of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life (EORTC QLQ C30) and EORTC QLQ CR38 were similar in the 2 groups, but in the EORTC QLQ CR 38 questionnaire, sexual function 12 months postoperatively was better in the robot-assisted group than in the laparoscopic group (P = 0.03). Robot-assisted surgery in rectal cancer showed TME quality comparable with that of laparoscopic surgery, and it demonstrated similar postoperative morbidity, bowel function recovery, and quality of life.

  13. High-vs low-dose cytarabine combined with interferon alfa in patients with first chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia. A prospective randomized phase III study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deenik, W.; van der Holt, B.; Verhoef, G. E. G.; Schattenberg, A. V. M. B.; Verdonck, L. F.; Daenen, S. M. G. J.; Zachee, P.; Westveer, P. H. M.; Smit, W. M.; Wittebol, S.; Schouten, H. C.; Lowenberg, B.; Ossenkoppele, G. J.; Cornelissen, J. J.

    A prospective randomized phase III study was performed to evaluate whether intensified cytarabine would induce a higher response rate and longer event-free interval as compared to low-dose cytarabine in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). One hundred and eighteen patients with CML in early chronic phase

  14. High-vs low-dose cytarabine combined with interferon alfa in patients with first chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia : A prospective randomized phase III study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deenik, W.; Holt, B. van der; Verhoef, G.E.; Schattenberg, A.V.M.B.; Verdonck, L.F.; Daenen, S.M.G.J.; Zachee, P.; Westveer, P.H.; Smit, W.M.; Wittebol, S.; Schouten, H.C.; Lowenberg, B.; Ossenkoppele, G.J.; Cornelissen, J.J.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    A prospective randomized phase III study was performed to evaluate whether intensified cytarabine would induce a higher response rate and longer event-free interval as compared to low-dose cytarabine in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). One hundred and eighteen patients with CML in early chronic phase

  15. Dasatinib or imatinib in newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia : 2-year follow-up from a randomized phase 3 trial (DASISION)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Shah, Neil P.; Cortes, Jorge E.; Baccarani, Michele; Agarwal, Mohan B.; Soledad Undurraga, Maria; Wang, Jianxiang; Kassack Ipina, Juan Julio; Kim, Dong-Wook; Ogura, Michinori; Pavlovsky, Carolina; Junghanss, Christian; Milone, Jorge H.; Nicolini, Franck E.; Robak, Tadeusz; Van Droogenbroeck, Jan; Vellenga, Edo; Bradley-Garelik, M. Brigid; Zhu, Chao; Hochhaus, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Dasatinib is a highly potent BCR-ABL inhibitor with established efficacy and safety in imatinib-resistant/-intolerant patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In the phase 3 DASISION trial, patients with newly diagnosed chronic-phase (CP) CML were randomized to receive dasatinib 100 mg (n =

  16. Generalised partition functions: inferences on phase space distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Treumann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that the statistical mechanical partition function can be used to construct various different forms of phase space distributions. This indicates that its structure is not restricted to the Gibbs–Boltzmann factor prescription which is based on counting statistics. With the widely used replacement of the Boltzmann factor by a generalised Lorentzian (also known as the q-deformed exponential function, where κ = 1∕|q − 1|, with κ, q ∈ R both the kappa-Bose and kappa-Fermi partition functions are obtained in quite a straightforward way, from which the conventional Bose and Fermi distributions follow for κ → ∞. For κ ≠ ∞ these are subject to the restrictions that they can be used only at temperatures far from zero. They thus, as shown earlier, have little value for quantum physics. This is reasonable, because physical κ systems imply strong correlations which are absent at zero temperature where apart from stochastics all dynamical interactions are frozen. In the classical large temperature limit one obtains physically reasonable κ distributions which depend on energy respectively momentum as well as on chemical potential. Looking for other functional dependencies, we examine Bessel functions whether they can be used for obtaining valid distributions. Again and for the same reason, no Fermi and Bose distributions exist in the low temperature limit. However, a classical Bessel–Boltzmann distribution can be constructed which is a Bessel-modified Lorentzian distribution. Whether it makes any physical sense remains an open question. This is not investigated here. The choice of Bessel functions is motivated solely by their convergence properties and not by reference to any physical demands. This result suggests that the Gibbs–Boltzmann partition function is fundamental not only to Gibbs–Boltzmann but also to a large class of generalised Lorentzian distributions as well as to the

  17. Random countable alphabet conformal iterated function systems satisfying the transversality condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbański, Mariusz

    2016-03-01

    Dealing with with countable (finite and infinite alike) alphabet random conformal iterated function systems with overlaps, we formulate appropriate transversality conditions and then prove the relevant, in such a context, the Moran-Bowen formula which determines the Hausdorff dimension of random limit sets in dynamical terms. We also provide large classes of examples of such random systems satisfying the transversality condition.

  18. RIM: A Random Item Mixture Model to Detect Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickx, Sofie; Tuerlinckx, Francis; De Boeck, Paul; Magis, David

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new methodology for detecting differential item functioning (DIF). We introduce a DIF model, called the random item mixture (RIM), that is based on a Rasch model with random item difficulties (besides the common random person abilities). In addition, a mixture model is assumed for the item difficulties such that the…

  19. RIM: A random item mixture model to detect Differential Item Functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederickx, S.; Tuerlinckx, T.; de Boeck, P.; Magis, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new methodology for detecting differential item functioning (DIF). We introduce a DIF model, called the random item mixture (RIM), that is based on a Rasch model with random item difficulties (besides the common random person abilities). In addition, a mixture model is

  20. Securing image information using double random phase encoding and parallel compressive sensing with updated sampling processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guiqiang; Xiao, Di; Wang, Yong; Xiang, Tao; Zhou, Qing

    2017-11-01

    Recently, a new kind of image encryption approach using compressive sensing (CS) and double random phase encoding has received much attention due to the advantages such as compressibility and robustness. However, this approach is found to be vulnerable to chosen plaintext attack (CPA) if the CS measurement matrix is re-used. Therefore, designing an efficient measurement matrix updating mechanism that ensures resistance to CPA is of practical significance. In this paper, we provide a novel solution to update the CS measurement matrix by altering the secret sparse basis with the help of counter mode operation. Particularly, the secret sparse basis is implemented by a reality-preserving fractional cosine transform matrix. Compared with the conventional CS-based cryptosystem that totally generates all the random entries of measurement matrix, our scheme owns efficiency superiority while guaranteeing resistance to CPA. Experimental and analysis results show that the proposed scheme has a good security performance and has robustness against noise and occlusion.

  1. Core polarization effects in the Hartree--Fock--random phase approximation schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipparini, E.; Stringari, S.

    1987-02-01

    Core polarization effects in odd nuclei are investigated in the framework of the Hartree--Fock and random phase approximation schemes. The results of the particle vibration coupling model are recovered by linearizing the equations of motion in the interaction Hamiltonian between the external and the core particles. The formalism is used to study the renormalization of diagonal and off-diagonal M1 matrix elements. It is found that M1 polarization effects exhibit a very strong dependence on the range of the force. Copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc.

  2. Role of small-norm components in extended random-phase approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohyama, Mitsuru

    2017-09-01

    The role of the small-norm amplitudes in extended random-phase approximation (RPA) theories such as the particle-particle and hole-hole components of one-body amplitudes and the two-body amplitudes other than two-particle/two-hole components are investigated for the one-dimensional Hubbard model using an extended RPA derived from the time-dependent density matrix theory. It is found that these amplitudes cannot be neglected in strongly interacting regions where the effects of ground-state correlations are significant.

  3. Optical information authentication via compressed sensing and double random phase encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junxin; Bao, Nan; Zhu, Zhi-liang

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a novel information authentication scheme via compressed sensing and double random phase encoding. Two alternative architectures have been investigated, in which significantly compressed data with micro percentage is sufficient for authentication. At the decoder end, a noise-like image with no leakage of the plaintext is recovered and subsequently authenticated using a nonlinear optical correlation approach. The authentication effectiveness, noise resistance and security performance of the proposed scheme have been experimentally validated. This work was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (N162410002-4, N151904002), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61374178).

  4. Restoring the Pauli principle in the random phase approximation ground state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosov, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    Random phase approximation ground state contains electronic configurations where two (and more) identical electrons can occupy the same molecular spin-orbital violating the Pauli exclusion principle. This overcounting of electronic configurations happens due to quasiboson approximation in the treatment of electron-hole pair operators. We describe the method to restore the Pauli principle in the RPA wavefunction. The proposed theory is illustrated by the calculations of molecular dipole moments and electronic kinetic energies. The Hartree-Fock based RPA, which is corrected for the Pauli principle, gives the results of comparable accuracy with Møller-Plesset second order perturbation theory and coupled-cluster singles and doubles method.

  5. Cryptographic salting for security enhancement of double random phase encryption schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez Zea, Alejandro; Fredy Barrera, John; Torroba, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    Security in optical encryption techniques is a subject of great importance, especially in light of recent reports of successful attacks. We propose a new procedure to reinforce the ciphertexts generated in double random phase encrypting experimental setups. This ciphertext is protected by multiplexing with a ‘salt’ ciphertext coded with the same setup. We present an experimental implementation of the ‘salting’ technique. Thereafter, we analyze the resistance of the ‘salted’ ciphertext under some of the commonly known attacks reported in the literature, demonstrating the validity of our proposal.

  6. Phase transitions of Ising mixed spin 1 and 3/2 with random crystal field distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, S.; EL Falaki, M.; EL Yadari, M.; Benyoussef, A.; EL Kenz, A.

    2016-10-01

    The thermal and magnetic properties of the mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 in the presence of the random crystal field are studied within the mean field approach based on the Bogoliubov inequality for the Gibbs free energy. The model exhibits first, second order transitions, a tricritical point, triple point and an isolated critical end point. It is found that the system displays simple and double compensation temperatures, five topologies of the phase diagrams. A re-entrant phenomenon is also discussed and the thermal dependences of total magnetization according to extended Neel classification have been also given.

  7. High energy X-ray phase and dark-field imaging using a random absorption mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Cai, Biao; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-07-28

    High energy X-ray imaging has unique advantage over conventional X-ray imaging, since it enables higher penetration into materials with significantly reduced radiation damage. However, the absorption contrast in high energy region is considerably low due to the reduced X-ray absorption cross section for most materials. Even though the X-ray phase and dark-field imaging techniques can provide substantially increased contrast and complementary information, fabricating dedicated optics for high energies still remain a challenge. To address this issue, we present an alternative X-ray imaging approach to produce transmission, phase and scattering signals at high X-ray energies by using a random absorption mask. Importantly, in addition to the synchrotron radiation source, this approach has been demonstrated for practical imaging application with a laboratory-based microfocus X-ray source. This new imaging method could be potentially useful for studying thick samples or heavy materials for advanced research in materials science.

  8. Workshop on Strategic Behavior and Phase Transitions in Random and Complex Combinatorial Structures : Extended Abstracts

    CERN Document Server

    Kirousis, Lefteris; Ortiz-Gracia, Luis; Serna, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This book is divided into two parts, the first of which seeks to connect the phase transitions of various disciplines, including game theory, and to explore the synergies between statistical physics and combinatorics. Phase Transitions has been an active multidisciplinary field of research, bringing together physicists, computer scientists and mathematicians. The main research theme explores how atomic agents that act locally and microscopically lead to discontinuous macroscopic changes. Adopting this perspective has proven to be especially useful in studying the evolution of random and usually complex or large combinatorial objects (like networks or logic formulas) with respect to discontinuous changes in global parameters like connectivity, satisfiability etc. There is, of course, an obvious strategic element in the formation of a transition: the atomic agents “selfishly” seek to optimize a local parameter. However, up to now this game-theoretic aspect of abrupt, locally triggered changes had not been e...

  9. Random walks with long-range steps generated by functions of Laplacian matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Riascos, A. P.; Michelitsch, T. M.; Collet, B. A.; Nowakowski, A. F.; Nicolleau, F. C. G. A

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we explore different Markovian random walk strategies on networks with transition probabilities between nodes defined in terms of functions of the Laplacian matrix. We generalize random walk strategies with local information in the Laplacian matrix, that describes the connections of a network, to a dynamics determined by functions of this matrix. The resulting processes is non-local allowing transitions of the random walker from one node to nodes beyond its nearest neighbors. I...

  10. Phase retrieval with tunable phase transfer function based on the transport of intensity equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Carranza, J.; Stepien, P.; Kozacki, T.

    2017-06-01

    Recovering phase information with Deterministic approaches as the Transport of Intensity Equation (TIE) has recently emerged as an alternative tool to the interferometric techniques because it is experimentally easy to implement and provides fast and accurate results. Moreover, the potential of employing partially coherent illumination (PCI) in such techniques allow obtaining high quality phase reconstructions providing that the estimation of the corresponding Phase Transfer Function (PTF) is carried out correctly. Hence, accurate estimation of the PTF requires that the physical properties of the optical system are well known. Typically, these parameters are assumed constant in all the set of measurements, which might not be optimal. In this work, we proposed the use of an amplitude Spatial Light Modulator (aSLM) for tuning the degree of coherence of the optical system. The aSLM will be placed at the Fourier plane of the optical system, and then, band pass filters will be displayed. This methodology will perform amplitude modulation of the propagated field and as a result, the state of coherence of the optical system can be modified. Theoretical and experimental results that validate our proposed technique will be shown.

  11. Looking for phase transitions of strongly interacting matter applying new method on basic of Random Matrix Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suleymanov, Mais [CIIT, Islamabad (Pakistan); Shahaliev, Ehtiram [HEPL, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    Over the last 25 years a lot of efforts have been made to search for new phases of strongly interacting matter. Heavy ion collisions are of great importance since they open a way to reproduce these phases in the Earth laboratory. But in this case the volume of information increases sharply as well as the background information. A method was introduced a method on the basic of Random Matrix Theory to study the fluctuations of neutron resonances in compound nuclei which doesn't depend on the background of measurements. To analyze the energetic levels of compound nuclei the function of distances between two energetic levels p(s{sub i}) is defined as the general distributions for probability of all kinds of ensembles. At values of the index of universality {nu}=0 it will change to Poisson type distributions pointing to absence of any correlations in the system and at the values of {nu}=1 it will change to Wigner type behavior directing to some correlation in the studying ensemble. We discuss that the experimental study of the behavior of p(s{sub i}) distribution for secondary particles could give a signal on the phase transitions.

  12. Application of an extended random-phase approximation to giant resonances in light-, medium-, and heavy-mass nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselyaev, V.; Lyutorovich, N.; Speth, J.; Krewald, S.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2016-09-01

    We present results of the time blocking approximation (TBA) for giant resonances in light-, medium-, and heavy-mass nuclei. The TBA is an extension of the widely used random-phase approximation (RPA) adding complex configurations by coupling to phonon excitations. A new method for handling the single-particle continuum is developed and applied in the present calculations. We investigate in detail the dependence of the numerical results on the size of the single-particle space and the number of phonons as well as on nuclear matter properties. Our approach is self-consistent, based on an energy-density functional of Skyrme type where we used seven different parameter sets. The numerical results are compared with experimental data.

  13. Double, Rydberg and charge transfer excitations from pairing matrix fluctuation and particle-particle random phase approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Aggelen, Helen van [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Yang, Weitao, E-mail: weitao.yang@duke.edu [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2013-12-14

    Double, Rydberg, and charge transfer (CT) excitations have been great challenges for time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Starting from an (N ± 2)-electron single-determinant reference, we investigate excitations for the N-electron system through the pairing matrix fluctuation, which contains information on two-electron addition/removal processes. We adopt the particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) and the particle-particle Tamm-Dancoff approximation (pp-TDA) to approximate the pairing matrix fluctuation and then determine excitation energies by the differences of two-electron addition/removal energies. This approach captures all types of interesting excitations: single and double excitations are described accurately, Rydberg excitations are in good agreement with experimental data and CT excitations display correct 1/R dependence. Furthermore, the pp-RPA and the pp-TDA have a computational cost similar to TDDFT and consequently are promising for practical calculations.

  14. A block variational procedure for the iterative diagonalization of non-Hermitian random-phase approximation matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Dario; Bai, Zhaojun; Li, Ren-Cang; Galli, Giulia

    2012-01-21

    We present a technique for the iterative diagonalization of random-phase approximation (RPA) matrices, which are encountered in the framework of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) and the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The non-Hermitian character of these matrices does not permit a straightforward application of standard iterative techniques used, i.e., for the diagonalization of ground state Hamiltonians. We first introduce a new block variational principle for RPA matrices. We then develop an algorithm for the simultaneous calculation of multiple eigenvalues and eigenvectors, with convergence and stability properties similar to techniques used to iteratively diagonalize Hermitian matrices. The algorithm is validated for simple systems (Na(2) and Na(4)) and then used to compute multiple low-lying TDDFT excitation energies of the benzene molecule. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  15. Phase I/II randomized trial of aerobic exercise in Parkinson disease in a community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uc, Ergun Y; Doerschug, Kevin C; Magnotta, Vincent; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Thomsen, Teri R; Kline, Joel N; Rizzo, Matthew; Newman, Sara R; Mehta, Sonya; Grabowski, Thomas J; Bruss, Joel; Blanchette, Derek R; Anderson, Steven W; Voss, Michelle W; Kramer, Arthur F; Darling, Warren G

    2014-07-29

    To (1) investigate effects of aerobic walking on motor function, cognition, and quality of life in Parkinson disease (PD), and (2) compare safety, tolerability, and fitness benefits of different forms of exercise intervention: continuous/moderate intensity vs interval/alternating between low and vigorous intensity, and individual/neighborhood vs group/facility setting. Initial design was a 6-month, 2 × 2 randomized trial of different exercise regimens in independently ambulatory patients with PD. All arms were required to exercise 3 times per week, 45 minutes per session. Randomization to group/facility setting was not feasible because of logistical factors. Over the first 2 years, we randomized 43 participants to continuous or interval training. Because preliminary analyses suggested higher musculoskeletal adverse events in the interval group and lack of difference between training methods in improving fitness, the next 17 participants were allocated only to continuous training. Eighty-one percent of 60 participants completed the study with a mean attendance of 83.3% (95% confidence interval: 77.5%-89.0%), exercising at 46.8% (44.0%-49.7%) of their heart rate reserve. There were no serious adverse events. Across all completers, we observed improvements in maximum oxygen consumption, gait speed, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale sections I and III scores (particularly axial functions and rigidity), fatigue, depression, quality of life (e.g., psychological outlook), and flanker task scores (p exercise program improves aerobic fitness, motor function, fatigue, mood, and cognition. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. A random phased array device for delivery of high intensity focused ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, J W [Radiological Sciences Unit, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0HS (United Kingdom); Shaw, A; Sadhoo, N; Rajagopal, S [Acoustics Group, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Dickinson, R J [Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Gavrilov, L R [N.N. Andreev Acoustics Institute, 117036 Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: j.hand@imperial.ac.uk

    2009-10-07

    Randomized phased arrays can offer electronic steering of a single focus and simultaneous multiple foci concomitant with low levels of secondary maxima and are potentially useful as sources of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). This work describes laboratory testing of a 1 MHz random phased array consisting of 254 elements on a spherical shell of radius of curvature 130 mm and diameter 170 mm. Acoustic output power and efficiency are measured for a range of input electrical powers, and field distributions for various single- and multiple-focus conditions are evaluated by a novel technique using an infrared camera to provide rapid imaging of temperature changes on the surface of an absorbing target. Experimental results show that the array can steer a single focus laterally to at least {+-}15 mm off axis and axially to more than {+-}15 mm from the centre of curvature of the array and patterns of four and five simultaneous foci {+-}10 mm laterally and axially whilst maintaining low intensity levels in secondary maxima away from the targeted area in good agreement with linear theoretical predictions. Experiments in which pork meat was thermally ablated indicate that contiguous lesions several cm{sup 3} in volume can be produced using the patterns of multiple foci.

  17. Affine cryptosystem of double-random-phase encryption based on the fractional Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhou; Sheng, Yuan; Sheng-wei, Wang; Jian, Xie

    2006-11-20

    An affine mapping mathematical expression of the double-random-phase encryption technique has been deduced utilizing the matrix form of discrete fractional Fourier transforms. This expression clearly describes the encryption laws of the double-random-phase encoding techniques based on both the fractional Fourier transform and the ordinary Fourier transform. The encryption process may be regarded as a substantial optical realization of the affine cryptosystem. It has been illustrated that the encryption process converts the original image into a white Gaussian noise with a zero-mean value. Also, the decryption process converts the data deviations of the encrypted image into white Gaussian noises, regardless of the type of data deviations. These noises superimpose on the decrypted image and degrade the signal-to-noise ratio. Numerical simulations have been implemented for the different types of noises introduced into the encrypted image, such as the white noise with uniform distribution probability, the white noise with Gaussian distribution probability, colored noise, and the partial occlusion of the encrypted image.

  18. Band-phase-randomized Surrogates to assess nonlinearity in non-stationary time series

    CERN Document Server

    Guarin, Diego; Orozco, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Testing for nonlinearity is one of the most important preprocessing steps in nonlinear time series analysis. Typically, this is done by means of the linear surrogate data methods. But it is a known fact that the validity of the results heavily depends on the stationarity of the time series. Since most physiological signals are non-stationary, it is easy to falsely detect nonlinearity using the linear surrogate data methods. In this document, we propose a methodology to extend the procedure for generating constrained surrogate time series in order to assess nonlinearity in non-stationary data. The method is based on the band-phase-randomized surrogates, which consists (contrary to the linear surrogate data methods) in randomizing only a portion of the Fourier phases in the high frequency band. Analysis of simulated time series showed that in comparison to the linear surrogate data method, our method is able to discriminate between linear stationarity, linear non-stationary and nonlinear time series. When apply...

  19. Robustness of double random phase encoding spread-space spread-spectrum image watermarking technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi; Hennelly, Bryan M.; Sheridan, John T.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper the robustness of a recently proposed image watermarking scheme is investigated, namely the Double Random Phase Encoding spread-space spread-spectrum watermarking (DRPE SS-SS) technique. In the DRPE SS-SS method, the watermark is in the form of a digital barcode image which is numerically encrypted using a simulation of the optical DRPE process. This produces a random complex image, which is then processed to form a real valued random image with a low number of quantization levels. This signal is added to the host image. Extraction of the barcode, involves applying an inverse DRPE process to the watermarked image followed by a low pass filter. This algorithm is designed to utilize the capability of the DRPE to reversibly spread the energy of the watermarking information in both the space and spatial frequency domains, and the energy of the watermark in any spatial or spatial frequency bin is very small. The common geometric transformations and signal processing operations are performed using both the informed and the blind detections for different barcode widths and different quantization levels. The results presented indicate that the DRPE SS-SS method is robust to scaling, JPEG compression distortion, cropping, low pass and high pass filtering. It is also demonstrated that the bigger the barcode width is, the lower the false positive rate will be.

  20. Phase behaviour of transfer functions in vibrating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jianyuan; Ohlrich, Mogens

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicabilities of pole-zero models and wave propagation theory in estimating the phase characteristics of vibrating systems. The measured phase spectra are compared with the estimated reverberant phase limit and wave propagation phase. The relations between transfer...... on frequency in this band, but from the transition frequency and onwards the phase increases only with the square root of frequency. This behaviour is characteristic for free propagating waves....

  1. Serelaxin as a potential treatment for renal dysfunction in cirrhosis: Preclinical evaluation and results of a randomized phase 2 trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria K Snowdon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic liver scarring from any cause leads to cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and a progressive decline in renal blood flow and renal function. Extreme renal vasoconstriction characterizes hepatorenal syndrome, a functional and potentially reversible form of acute kidney injury in patients with advanced cirrhosis, but current therapy with systemic vasoconstrictors is ineffective in a substantial proportion of patients and is limited by ischemic adverse events. Serelaxin (recombinant human relaxin-2 is a peptide molecule with anti-fibrotic and vasoprotective properties that binds to relaxin family peptide receptor-1 (RXFP1 and has been shown to increase renal perfusion in healthy human volunteers. We hypothesized that serelaxin could ameliorate renal vasoconstriction and renal dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension.To establish preclinical proof of concept, we developed two independent rat models of cirrhosis that were characterized by progressive reduction in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate and showed evidence of renal endothelial dysfunction. We then set out to further explore and validate our hypothesis in a phase 2 randomized open-label parallel-group study in male and female patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Forty patients were randomized 1:1 to treatment with serelaxin intravenous (i.v. infusion (for 60 min at 80 μg/kg/d and then 60 min at 30 μg/kg/d or terlipressin (single 2-mg i.v. bolus, and the regional hemodynamic effects were quantified by phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography at baseline and after 120 min. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in total renal artery blood flow. Therapeutic targeting of renal vasoconstriction with serelaxin in the rat models increased kidney perfusion, oxygenation, and function through reduction in renal vascular resistance, reversal of endothelial dysfunction, and increased activation of the AKT

  2. Comparison between amniotomy, oxytocin or both for augmentation of labor in prolonged latent phase: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Shalev Eliezer; Zafran Noah; Kadan Yfat; Garmi Gali; Nachum Zohar; Salim Raed

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background A prolonged latent phase is independently associated with an increased incidence of subsequent labor abnormalities. We aimed to compare between oxytocin augmentation, amniotomy and a combination of both on the duration of labor among women with a prolonged latent phase. Methods Women with a singleton fetus in cephalic presentation who have a prolonged latent phase, were randomly allocated to amniotomy (group 1), oxytocin (group 2) or both (group 3). A group of women who pr...

  3. A functional renormalization method for wave propagation in random media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamagna, Federico; Calzetta, Esteban

    2017-08-01

    We develop the exact renormalization group approach as a way to evaluate the effective speed of the propagation of a scalar wave in a medium with random inhomogeneities. We use the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism to translate the problem into a non equilibrium field theory one, and then consider a sequence of models with a progressively lower infrared cutoff; in the limit where the cutoff is removed we recover the problem of interest. As a test of the formalism, we compute the effective dielectric constant of an homogeneous medium interspersed with randomly located, interpenetrating bubbles. A simple approximation to the renormalization group equations turns out to be equivalent to a self-consistent two-loops evaluation of the effective dielectric constant.

  4. Multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III study of pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene in distributive shock (PHOENIX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Privalle, Christopher T; Singer, Mervyn; Lorente, José A; Boehm, Erwin; Meier-Hellmann, Andreas; Darius, Harald; Ferrer, Ricard; Sirvent, Josep-Maria; Marx, Gernot; DeAngelo, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness and safety of the hemoglobin-based nitric oxide scavenger, pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene, against placebo in patients with vasopressor-dependent distributive shock. Multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, open-label study. Sixty-one participating ICUs in six European countries (Austria, Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, and United Kingdom). All patients admitted with distributive shock, defined as the presence of at least two systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria, persisting norepinephrine dependence and evidence of organ dysfunction/hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Patients were randomized to receive 0.25 mL/kg/hr pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene (20 mg Hb/kg/hr) or an equal volume of placebo, infused for up to 150 hours, in addition to conventional vasopressor therapy. The study was stopped after interim analysis showed higher mortality in the pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene group and an increased prevalence of adverse events. At this time, 377 patients had been randomized to pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene (n = 183) or placebo (n = 194). Age, gender, type of patient (medical/surgical), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores were similar between groups. Twenty-eight-day mortality rate was 44.3% in the pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene group versus 37.6% in the placebo group (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.85-1.95; p = 0.227). In patients with higher organ dysfunction scores (Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment > 13), mortality rates were significantly higher in the pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene group when compared with those in placebo-treated patients (60.9% vs 39.2%; p = 0.014). Survivors who received pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene had a longer vasopressor-free time (21.3 vs 19.7 d; p = 0.035). In this randomized, controlled phase III trial in patients with vasopressor-dependent distributive shock

  5. Hazard Function Estimation with Cause-of-Death Data Missing at Random

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qihua; Dinse, Gregg E.; Liu, Chunling

    2012-01-01

    Hazard function estimation is an important part of survival analysis. Interest often centers on estimating the hazard function associated with a particular cause of death. We propose three nonparametric kernel estimators for the hazard function, all of which are appropriate when death times are subject to random censorship and censoring indicators can be missing at random. Specifically, we present a regression surrogate estimator, an imputation estimator, and an inverse probability weighted e...

  6. Random fractional Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengjun; Liu, Shutian

    2007-08-01

    We propose a novel random fractional Fourier transform by randomizing the transform kernel function of the conventional fractional Fourier transform. The random fractional Fourier transform inherits the excellent mathematical properties from the fractional Fourier transform and can be easily implemented in optics. As a primary application the random fractional Fourier transform can be directly used in optical image encryption and decryption. The double phase encoding image encryption schemes can thus be modeled with cascaded random fractional Fourier transformers.

  7. Luteal Phase Support in the Intrauterine Insemination (IUI Cycles: A Randomized Double Blind, Placebo Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Hossein Rashidi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of luteal phase support with vaginal progesterone on pregnancy rates in the intrauterine insemination (IUI cycles, stimulated with clomiphene citrate and human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG, in sub fertile couples.This prospective, randomized, double blind study was performed in a tertiary infertility center from March 2011 to January 2012. It consisted of 253 sub fertile couples undergoing ovarian stimulation for IUI cycles. They underwent ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate (100 mg and hMG (75 IU in preparation for the IUI cycle. Study group (n = 127 received luteal phase support in the form of vaginal progesterone (400 mg twice a day, and control group (n = 126 received placebo. Clinical pregnancy and abortion rates were assessed and compared between the two groups.The clinical pregnancy rate was not significantly higher for supported cycles than that for the unsupported ones (15.75% vs. 12.69%, p = 0.3. The abortion rate in the patients with progesterone luteal support compared to placebo group was not statistically different (10% vs. 18.75%, p = 0.45.It seems that luteal phase support with vaginal progesterone was not enhanced the success of IUI cycles outcomes, when clomiphene citrate and hMG were used for ovulation stimulation.

  8. Luteal Phase Support in the Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) Cycles: A Randomized Double Blind, Placebo Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein Rashidi, Batool; Davari Tanha, Fatemeh; Rahmanpour, Haleh; Ghazizadeh, Mahya

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of luteal phase support with vaginal progesterone on pregnancy rates in the intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles, stimulated with clomiphene citrate and human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), in sub fertile couples. This prospective, randomized, double blind study was performed in a tertiary infertility center from March 2011 to January 2012. It consisted of 253 sub fertile couples undergoing ovarian stimulation for IUI cycles. They underwent ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate (100 mg) and hMG (75 IU) in preparation for the IUI cycle. Study group (n = 127) received luteal phase support in the form of vaginal progesterone (400 mg twice a day), and control group (n = 126) received placebo. Clinical pregnancy and abortion rates were assessed and compared between the two groups. The clinical pregnancy rate was not significantly higher for supported cycles than that for the unsupported ones (15.75% vs. 12.69%, p = 0.3). The abortion rate in the patients with progesterone luteal support compared to placebo group was not statistically different (10% vs. 18.75%, p = 0.45). It seems that luteal phase support with vaginal progesterone was not enhanced the success of IUI cycles outcomes, when clomiphene citrate and hMG were used for ovulation stimulation.

  9. Using Lambert W function and error function to model phase change on microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez Garcia, Anderson

    2014-05-01

    Solidification and melting modeling on microfluidics are solved using Lambert W's function and error's functions. Models are formulated using the heat's diffusion equation. The generic posed case is the melting of a slab with time dependent surface temperature, having a micro or nano-fluid liquid phase. At the beginning the solid slab is at melting temperature. A slab's face is put and maintained at temperature greater than the melting limit and varying in time. Lambert W function and error function are applied via Maple to obtain the analytic solution evolution of the front of microfluidic-solid interface, it is analytically computed and slab's corresponding melting time is determined. It is expected to have analytical results to be useful for food engineering, cooking engineering, pharmaceutical engineering, nano-engineering and bio-medical engineering.

  10. [Gonadal function in anorexia nervosa patients in the postcritical phase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, P; Kabir-Gros, N; Lansac, J

    1984-01-01

    Resuming of menstruation is generally held as a hall mark of recovery in Anorexia Nervosa. Nevertheless, fifteen young women (17 to 28 years old) consulted us about secondary amenorrhea while the acute phase of illness was over. Basal gonadotropins and Estradiol (E2) were measured and a GnRH- TRH stimulation test was performed. Two groups of patients were considered: A - 7 patients with a normal Body Weight Index; B - 8 patients with a Body Weight Index still low. (- 20% - 30%). In group A, 6 out of 7 patients had a early onset of anorexia nervosa (within two years after menarche). In group B, 6 out of 8 patients had a late onset of their disease (more than five years after puberty). As for Body Weight, it seems that the prognosis is better when Anorexia Nervosa occurs within few years after menarche. By comparison with normal women of same age explored in early follicular phase, our population of Anorexia Nervosa showed no significant difference in basal levels of F.S.H., L.H., E2. Cumulative Response F.S. H./L.H. was slightly increased (= 1) compared with normal control (= 0,34). Basal and stimulated Prl were normal. When Body Weight Index was still low, LH and E2 were decreased whereas cumulative response F.S. H./L.H. was dramatically increased. A correlation between E2 and Body Weight Index was shown, low E2 usually fitting well with Low Body Weight Index. Prognosis is poorer for recovery of normal gonadal function in late onset Anorexia Nervosa. Nevertheless, in each group, some patients escaped this rule. Induction of ovulation with Clomifene let us disappointed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Pseudo-random-bit-sequence phase modulation for reduced errors in a fiber optic gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoun, Jacob; Digonnet, Michel J F

    2016-12-15

    Low noise and drift in a laser-driven fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) are demonstrated by interrogating the sensor with a low-coherence laser. The laser coherence was reduced by broadening its optical spectrum using an external electro-optic phase modulator driven by either a sinusoidal or a pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS) waveform. The noise reduction measured in a FOG driven by a modulated laser agrees with the calculations based on the broadened laser spectrum. Using PRBS modulation, the linewidth of a laser was broadened from 10 MHz to more than 10 GHz, leading to a measured FOG noise of only 0.00073  deg/√h and a drift of 0.023  deg/h. To the best of our knowledge, these are the lowest noise and drift reported in a laser-driven FOG, and this noise is below the requirement for the inertial navigation of aircraft.

  12. Effect of oral appliance therapy on neurobehavioral functioning in obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Sharon L; Winter, Virginia R; Hickie, Ian B; Cistulli, Peter A

    2005-10-15

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a custom-made mandibular advancement splint for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with respect to neuropsychological functioning and mood state. A randomized controlled crossover design was used in which 73 participants (mean age = 48.4, SD = 11.0, % men = 80.8) with at least 2 symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea and an apnea hypopnea index > or = 10 per hour underwent treatment with both mandibular advancement splint and an inactive oral device. Polysomnographic, neuropsychological and self-report measures were conducted at baseline and repeated after each of the two 4-week treatment phases. MAS treatment was associated with improvements on the somatic component of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Vigor-Activity and Fatigue-Inertia scales of the Profile of Mood States. While there were no improvements within the neuropsychological domains of attention/working memory, verbal memory, visuospatial or executive functioning, treatment with the mandibular advancement splint was associated with faster performance on a test of vigilance/psychomotor speed. These changes, however, did not correspond to the improved subjective sleepiness or apnea-hypopnea index during treatment. Treatment with the mandibular advancement splint results in improvements in self-reported sleepiness, fatigue/energy levels and vigilance/psychomotor speed in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  13. Functional oesophagoscopy: endoscopic evaluation of the oesophageal phase of deglutition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belafsky, P C; Rees, C J

    2009-09-01

    The anatomy and function of the oropharynx and larynx during deglutition can be assessed using the flexible endoscope, but this evaluation does not provide information on the oesophagus. Guided observation of oesophageal swallowing enables extended dysphagia evaluation. To assess the diagnostic utility of guided observation of oesophageal swallowing in the evaluation of dysphagia. Retrospective case series. Procedures for guided observation of oesophageal swallowing were reviewed for oesophageal findings and compared with fluoroscopy and manometry. Twenty-one patients underwent guided observation of oesophageal swallowing and concurrent videofluoroscopy and/or manometry. No complications of the former procedure occurred. The results of guided observation of oesophageal swallowing concurred with those of fluoroscopy in 15/21 cases (71 per cent) and with those of manometry in five of six (83 per cent) cases. Guided observation of oesophageal swallowing revealed anatomic pathology contributing to dysphagia in 15/21 (71 per cent) patients. The procedure identified pathology not detected by fluoroscopy and manometry in 13/21 (62 per cent) patients. Guided observation of oesophageal swallowing appears to be a safe diagnostic tool with which to evaluate the oesophageal phase of deglutition.

  14. Nivolumab for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Results of a Randomized Phase II Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motzer, Robert J.; Rini, Brian I.; McDermott, David F.; Redman, Bruce G.; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Harrison, Michael R.; Vaishampayan, Ulka N.; Drabkin, Harry A.; George, Saby; Logan, Theodore F.; Margolin, Kim A.; Plimack, Elizabeth R.; Lambert, Alexandre M.; Waxman, Ian M.; Hammers, Hans J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nivolumab is a fully human immunoglobulin G4 programmed death–1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody that restores T-cell immune activity. This phase II trial assessed the antitumor activity, dose-response relationship, and safety of nivolumab in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Patients and Methods Patients with clear-cell mRCC previously treated with agents targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway were randomly assigned (blinded ratio of 1:1:1) to nivolumab 0.3, 2, or 10 mg/kg intravenously once every 3 weeks. The primary objective was to evaluate the dose-response relationship as measured by progression-free survival (PFS); secondary end points included objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and safety. Results A total of 168 patients were randomly assigned to the nivolumab 0.3- (n = 60), 2- (n = 54), and 10-mg/kg (n = 54) cohorts. One hundred eighteen patients (70%) had received more than one prior systemic regimen. Median PFS was 2.7, 4.0, and 4.2 months, respectively (P = .9). Respective ORRs were 20%, 22%, and 20%. Median OS was 18.2 months (80% CI, 16.2 to 24.0 months), 25.5 months (80% CI, 19.8 to 28.8 months), and 24.7 months (80% CI, 15.3 to 26.0 months), respectively. The most common treatment-related adverse event (AE) was fatigue (24%, 22%, and 35%, respectively). Nineteen patients (11%) experienced grade 3 to 4 treatment-related AEs. Conclusion Nivolumab demonstrated antitumor activity with a manageable safety profile across the three doses studied in mRCC. No dose-response relationship was detected as measured by PFS. These efficacy and safety results in mRCC support study in the phase III setting. PMID:25452452

  15. Stability of Pexiderized Quadratic Functional Equation in Random 2-Normed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Alghamdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the stability of Hyers-Ulam-Rassias type theorems by considering the pexiderized quadratic functional equation in the setting of random 2-normed spaces (RTNS, while the concept of random 2-normed space has been recently studied by Goleţ (2005.

  16. Deriving Genomic Breeding Values for Residual Feed Intake from Covariance Functions of Random Regression Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders B; Mark, Thomas; Nielsen, Bjarne

    Random regression models were used to estimate covariance functions between cumulated feed intake (CFI) and body weight (BW) in 8424 Danish Duroc pigs. Random regressions on second order Legendre polynomials of age were used to describe genetic and permanent environmental curves in BW and CFI. Ba...

  17. Asymmetric multiple information cryptosystem based on chaotic spiral phase mask and random spectrum decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq Abuturab, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    A new asymmetric multiple information cryptosystem based on chaotic spiral phase mask (CSPM) and random spectrum decomposition is put forwarded. In the proposed system, each channel of secret color image is first modulated with a CSPM and then gyrator transformed. The gyrator spectrum is randomly divided into two complex-valued masks. The same procedure is applied to multiple secret images to get their corresponding first and second complex-valued masks. Finally, first and second masks of each channel are independently added to produce first and second complex ciphertexts, respectively. The main feature of the proposed method is the different secret images encrypted by different CSPMs using different parameters as the sensitive decryption/private keys which are completely unknown to unauthorized users. Consequently, the proposed system would be resistant to potential attacks. Moreover, the CSPMs are easier to position in the decoding process owing to their own centering mark on axis focal ring. The retrieved secret images are free from cross-talk noise effects. The decryption process can be implemented by optical experiment. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the viability and security of the proposed method.

  18. Mavoglurant in Parkinson's patients with l-Dopa-induced dyskinesias: Two randomized phase 2 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkwalder, Claudia; Stocchi, Fabrizio; Poewe, Werner; Dronamraju, Nalina; Kenney, Chris; Shah, Amy; von Raison, Florian; Graf, Ana

    2016-07-01

    Two phase 2 randomized, double-blind studies were designed to evaluate efficacy and safety of immediate-release (study 1) and modified-release (study 2) mavoglurant formulations in PD l-dopa-induced dyskinesia. Patients were randomized to mavoglurant 100-mg or placebo (4:3) groups (study 1) and mavoglurant 200-mg, mavoglurant 150-mg, or placebo (2:1:1) groups (study 2). Primary outcome was antidyskinetic efficacy, as measured by change from baseline to week 12 in modified Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale total score. Differences in least-squares mean (standard error) change in modified Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale total score in week 12 did not reach statistical significance in either study (study 1: mavoglurant 100 mg twice a day versus placebo, 1.7 [1.31]; study 2: mavoglurant 150 mg twice a day (-1.3 [1.16]) and 200 mg twice a day (-0.2 [1.03]) versus placebo). Adverse events incidence was higher with mavoglurant than with placebo. Both studies failed to meet the primary objective of demonstrating improvement of dyskinesia with mavoglurant treatment. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  19. Delta Function Potential Randomly Placed within an Infinite Square Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Josh; Caragiu, Mellita

    2009-10-01

    A simple and elegant equation has been derived for calculating the energy spectrum of a quantum particle encountering a delta function potential arbitrarily placed within an infinite square well. The solutions to this exact equation can be expressed in terms of analytical solutions to a simpler equation, to which correction terms can be added, to any desired precision. Formulas for the first order correction terms are derived, for any value of the energy eigenvalues; distinction is being made between rational versus irrational values for the coordinate of the delta function potential.

  20. A Multispectral Photon-Counting Double Random Phase Encoding Scheme for Image Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faliu Yi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new method for color image-based authentication that combines multispectral photon-counting imaging (MPCI and double random phase encoding (DRPE schemes. The sparsely distributed information from MPCI and the stationary white noise signal from DRPE make intruder attacks difficult. In this authentication method, the original multispectral RGB color image is down-sampled into a Bayer image. The three types of color samples (red, green and blue color in the Bayer image are encrypted with DRPE and the amplitude part of the resulting image is photon counted. The corresponding phase information that has nonzero amplitude after photon counting is then kept for decryption. Experimental results show that the retrieved images from the proposed method do not visually resemble their original counterparts. Nevertheless, the original color image can be efficiently verified with statistical nonlinear correlations. Our experimental results also show that different interpolation algorithms applied to Bayer images result in different verification effects for multispectral RGB color images.

  1. Local Treatment of Unresectable Colorectal Liver Metastases: Results of a Randomized Phase II Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Coevorden, Frits; Punt, Cornelis J. A.; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E. N.; Borel-Rinkes, Inne; Ledermann, Jonathan A.; Poston, Graeme; Bechstein, Wolf; Lentz, Marie-Ange; Mauer, Murielle; Folprecht, Gunnar; Van Cutsem, Eric; Ducreux, Michel; Nordlinger, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tumor ablation is often employed for unresectable colorectal liver metastases. However, no survival benefit has ever been demonstrated in prospective randomized studies. Here, we investigate the long-term benefits of such an aggressive approach. Methods: In this randomized phase II trial, 119 patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases (n  38%) was met. We now report on long-term OS results. All statistical tests were two-sided. The analyses were according to intention to treat. Results: At a median follow up of 9.7 years, 92 of 119 (77.3%) patients had died: 39 of 60 (65.0%) in the combined modality arm and 53 of 59 (89.8%) in the systemic treatment arm. Almost all patients died of progressive disease (35 patients in the combined modality arm, 49 patients in the systemic treatment arm). There was a statistically significant difference in OS in favor of the combined modality arm (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38 to 0.88, P = .01). Three-, five-, and eight-year OS were 56.9% (95% CI = 43.3% to 68.5%), 43.1% (95% CI = 30.3% to 55.3%), 35.9% (95% CI = 23.8% to 48.2%), respectively, in the combined modality arm and 55.2% (95% CI = 41.6% to 66.9%), 30.3% (95% CI = 19.0% to 42.4%), 8.9% (95% CI = 3.3% to 18.1%), respectively, in the systemic treatment arm. Median OS was 45.6 months (95% CI = 30.3 to 67.8 months) in the combined modality arm vs 40.5 months (95% CI = 27.5 to 47.7 months) in the systemic treatment arm. Conclusions: This phase II trial is the first randomized study demonstrating that aggressive local treatment can prolong OS in patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases. PMID:28376151

  2. A Locust Phase Change Model with Multiple Switching States and Random Perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Changcheng; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.; Qin, Wenjie

    2016-12-01

    Insects such as locusts and some moths can transform from a solitarious phase when they remain in loose populations and a gregarious phase, when they may swarm. Therefore, the key to effective management of outbreaks of species such as the desert locust Schistocercagregaria is early detection of when they are in the threshold state between the two phases, followed by timely control of their hopper stages before they fledge because the control of flying adult swarms is costly and often ineffective. Definitions of gregarization thresholds should assist preventive control measures and avoid treatment of areas that might not lead to gregarization. In order to better understand the effects of the threshold density which represents the gregarization threshold on the outbreak of a locust population, we developed a model of a discrete switching system. The proposed model allows us to address: (1) How frequently switching occurs from solitarious to gregarious phases and vice versa; (2) When do stable switching transients occur, the existence of which indicate that solutions with larger amplitudes can switch to a stable attractor with a value less than the switching threshold density?; and (3) How does random perturbation influence the switching pattern? Our results show that both subsystems have refuge equilibrium points, outbreak equilibrium points and bistable equilibria. Further, the outbreak equilibrium points and bistable equilibria can coexist for a wide range of parameters and can switch from one to another. This type of switching is sensitive to the intrinsic growth rate and the initial values of the locust population, and may result in locust population outbreaks and phase switching once a small perturbation occurs. Moreover, the simulation results indicate that the switching transient patterns become identical after some generations, suggesting that the evolving process of the perturbation system is not related to the initial value after some fixed number of

  3. Dry cupping in children with functional constipation: A randomized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: As a common disease in pediatrics, constipation poses a high burden to the community. In this study, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of dry cupping therapy (an Eastern traditional manipulative therapy) in children with functional constipation. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty children (4-18 ...

  4. Self-consistent random phase approximation - application to systems of strongly correlated fermions; Approximation des phases aleatoires self-consistante - applications a des systemes de fermions fortement correles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemai, M

    2004-07-01

    In the present thesis we have applied the self consistent random phase approximation (SCRPA) to the Hubbard model with a small number of sites (a chain of 2, 4, 6,... sites). Earlier SCRPA had produced very good results in other models like the pairing model of Richardson. It was therefore interesting to see what kind of results the method is able to produce in the case of a more complex model like the Hubbard model. To our great satisfaction the case of two sites with two electrons (half-filling) is solved exactly by the SCRPA. This may seem a little trivial but the fact is that other respectable approximations like 'GW' or the approach with the Gutzwiller wave function yield results still far from exact. With this promising starting point, the case of 6 sites at half filling was considered next. For that case, evidently, SCRPA does not any longer give exact results. However, they are still excellent for a wide range of values of the coupling constant U, covering for instance the phase transition region towards a state with non zero magnetisation. We consider this as a good success of the theory. Non the less the case of 4 sites (a plaquette), as indeed all cases with 4n sites at half filling, turned out to have a problem because of degeneracies at the Hartree Fock level. A generalisation of the present method, including in addition to the pairs, quadruples of Fermions operators (called second RPA) is proposed to also include exactly the plaquette case in our approach. This is therefore a very interesting perspective of the present work. (author)

  5. Critical points of quadratic renormalizations of random variables and phase transitions of disordered polymer models on diamond lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monthus, Cécile; Garel, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    We study the wetting transition and the directed polymer delocalization transition on diamond hierarchical lattices. These two phase transitions with frozen disorder correspond to the critical points of quadratic renormalizations of the partition function. (These exact renormalizations on diamond lattices can also be considered as approximate Migdal-Kadanoff renormalizations for hypercubic lattices.) In terms of the rescaled partition function z=Z/Z(typ) , we find that the critical point corresponds to a fixed point distribution with a power-law tail P(c)(z) ~ Phi(ln z)/z(1+mu) as z-->+infinity [up to some subleading logarithmic correction Phi(ln z)], so that all moments z(n) with n>mu diverge. For the wetting transition, the first moment diverges z=+infinity (case 0infinity (case 1fixed point distribution coincides with the transfer matrix describing a directed polymer on the Cayley tree, but the random weights determined by the fixed point distribution P(c)(z) are broadly distributed. This induces some changes in the traveling wave solutions with respect to the usual case of more narrow distributions.

  6. Diverse phase relations among neuronal rhythms and their potential function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, E.G.G.; Fries, P.; Ede, F.L. van

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations at nearby sites in the brain often show phase relations that are consistent across time, yet diverse across space. We discuss recent demonstrations of this phase relation diversity, and show that, contrary to earlier beliefs, this diversity is a general property of oscillations

  7. Use acupuncture to treat functional constipation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ying

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether acupuncture is effective for patients with functional constipation is still unclear. Therefore, we report the protocol of a randomized controlled trial of using acupuncture to treat functional constipation. Design A randomized, controlled, four-arm design, large-scale trial is currently undergoing in China. Seven hundred participants are randomly assigned to three acupuncture treatment groups and Mosapride Citrate control group in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Participants in acupuncture groups receive 16 sessions of acupuncture treatment, and are followed up for a period of 9 weeks after randomization. The acupuncture groups are: (1 Back-Shu and Front-Mu acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (Shu-Mu points group; (2 He-Sea and Lower He-Sea acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (He points group; (3 Combining used Back-Shu, Front-Mu, He-Sea, and Lower He-Sea acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (Shu-Mu-He points group. The control group is Mosapride Citrate group. The primary outcome is frequency of defecation per week at the fourth week after randomization. The secondary outcomes include Bristol stool scale, the extent of difficulty during defecating, MOS 36-item Short Form health survey (SF-36, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS, and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS. The first two of second outcomes are measured 1 week before randomization and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after randomization. Other second outcomes are measured 1 week before randomization and 2 and 4 weeks after randomization, but SF-36 is measured at randomization and 4 weeks after randomization. Discussion The result of this trial (which will be available in 2012 will confirm whether acupuncture is effective to treat functional constipation and whether traditional acupuncture theories play an important role in it. Trials registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT01411501

  8. Random matrix theory for analyzing the brain functional network in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Wang, Li; Yang, Yong; Li, Jiajia; Wu, Ying; Lin, Pan

    2016-11-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood neuropsychiatric disorder and affects approximately 6 -7 % of children worldwide. Here, we investigate the statistical properties of undirected and directed brain functional networks in ADHD patients based on random matrix theory (RMT), in which the undirected functional connectivity is constructed based on correlation coefficient and the directed functional connectivity is measured based on cross-correlation coefficient and mutual information. We first analyze the functional connectivity and the eigenvalues of the brain functional network. We find that ADHD patients have increased undirected functional connectivity, reflecting a higher degree of linear dependence between regions, and increased directed functional connectivity, indicating stronger causality and more transmission of information among brain regions. More importantly, we explore the randomness of the undirected and directed functional networks using RMT. We find that for ADHD patients, the undirected functional network is more orderly than that for normal subjects, which indicates an abnormal increase in undirected functional connectivity. In addition, we find that the directed functional networks are more random, which reveals greater disorder in causality and more chaotic information flow among brain regions in ADHD patients. Our results not only further confirm the efficacy of RMT in characterizing the intrinsic properties of brain functional networks but also provide insights into the possibilities RMT offers for improving clinical diagnoses and treatment evaluations for ADHD patients.

  9. Diverse Phase Relations among Neuronal Rhythms and Their Potential Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, Eric; Fries, Pascal; van Ede, Freek

    2016-02-01

    Neuronal oscillations at nearby sites in the brain often show phase relations that are consistent across time, yet diverse across space. We discuss recent demonstrations of this phase relation diversity, and show that, contrary to earlier beliefs, this diversity is a general property of oscillations that is neither restricted to low-frequency oscillations nor to periods outside of stimulus processing. Arguing for the computational relevance of phase relation diversity, we discuss that it can be modulated by sensory and motor events, and put forward the idea that phase relation diversity may support effective neuronal communication by (i) enhancing selectivity and (ii) allowing for the concurrent segregation of multiple information streams. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Phase Ib open label, randomized, safety study of SANGUINATE™ in patients with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Hemant; Bainbridge, James; Berryman, John; Abuchowski, Abraham; Galvez, Kenneth Mauricio; Uribe, Luis Fernando; Hernandez, Angel Luis; Sosa, Nestor Rodolfo

    Treatment of sickle cell anemia is a challenging task and despite the well understood genetic and biochemical pathway of sickle hemoglobin, current therapy continues to be limited to the symptomatic treatment of pain, supplemental oxygen, antibiotics, red blood cell transfusions and hydroxyurea. SANGUINATE is a carbon monoxide releasing molecule and oxygen transfer agent under clinical development for the treatment of sickle cell anemia and comorbidities. An open-label randomized Phase Ib study was performed in adult sickle cell anemia patients. Two dose levels of SANGUINATE were compared to hydroxyurea in 24 homozygotes for Hb SS. Twelve subjects received either a low dose (160mg/kg) of SANGUINATE or 15mg/kg hydroxyurea. Another 12 subjects received either a high dose (320mg/kg) of SANGUINATE or 15mg/kg hydroxyurea. The primary endpoint was the safety of SANGUINATE versus hydroxyurea in sickle cell anemia patients. Secondary endpoints included determination of the plasma pharmacokinetics and assessment of hematologic measurements. Musculoskeletal related adverse events were the most common. Transient troponin I levels increased in three patients, one of whom had an increase in tricuspid regurgitant velocity; however, no clinical signs were noted. Following an assessment of vital signs, tricuspid regurgitant velocity, electrocardiogram, serum biochemistry, hematology, urinalysis, and analysis of reported adverse events, SANGUINATE was found to be safe in stable sickle cell anemia patients. The clinical trial met its primary objective of demonstrating an acceptable safety profile for SANGUINATE in patients with sickle cell anemia. This trial established the safety of SANGUINATE at both dose levels and permitted its advance to Phase II trials. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Validation of the k-filtering technique for a signal composed of random-phase plane waves and non-random coherent structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. W. Roberts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations of astrophysical magnetic fields have shown the presence of fluctuations being wave-like (propagating in the plasma frame and those described as being structure-like (advected by the plasma bulk velocity. Typically with single-spacecraft missions it is impossible to differentiate between these two fluctuations, due to the inherent spatio-temporal ambiguity associated with a single point measurement. However missions such as Cluster which contain multiple spacecraft have allowed for temporal and spatial changes to be resolved, using techniques such as k filtering. While this technique does not assume Taylor's hypothesis it requires both weak stationarity of the time series and that the fluctuations can be described by a superposition of plane waves with random phases. In this paper we test whether the method can cope with a synthetic signal which is composed of a combination of non-random-phase coherent structures with a mean radius d and a mean separation λ, as well as plane waves with random phase.

  12. Etanercept in Alzheimer disease: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchart, Joseph; Brook, Laura; Hopkins, Vivienne; Teeling, Jessica; Püntener, Ursula; Culliford, David; Sharples, Richard; Sharif, Saif; McFarlane, Brady; Raybould, Rachel; Thomas, Rhodri; Passmore, Peter; Perry, V Hugh; Holmes, Clive

    2015-05-26

    To determine whether the tumor necrosis factor α inhibitor etanercept is well tolerated and obtain preliminary data on its safety in Alzheimer disease dementia. In a double-blind study, patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease dementia were randomized (1:1) to subcutaneous etanercept (50 mg) once weekly or identical placebo over a 24-week period. Tolerability and safety of this medication was recorded including secondary outcomes of cognition, global function, behavior, and systemic cytokine levels at baseline, 12 weeks, 24 weeks, and following a 4-week washout period. This trial is registered with EudraCT (2009-013400-31) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01068353). Forty-one participants (mean age 72.4 years; 61% men) were randomized to etanercept (n = 20) or placebo (n = 21). Etanercept was well tolerated; 90% of participants (18/20) completed the study compared with 71% (15/21) in the placebo group. Although infections were more common in the etanercept group, there were no serious adverse events or new safety concerns. While there were some interesting trends that favored etanercept, there were no statistically significant changes in cognition, behavior, or global function. This study showed that subcutaneous etanercept (50 mg/wk) was well tolerated in this small group of patients with Alzheimer disease dementia, but a larger more heterogeneous group needs to be tested before recommending its use for broader groups of patients. This study shows Class I evidence that weekly subcutaneous etanercept is well tolerated in Alzheimer disease dementia. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Random matrix theory and discrete moments of the Riemann zeta function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, C P [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Mathematical Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2003-03-28

    We calculate the discrete moments of the characteristic polynomial of a random unitary matrix, evaluated a small distance away from an eigenangle. Such results allow us to make conjectures about similar moments for the Riemann zeta function, and provide a uniform approach to understanding moments of the zeta function and its derivative.

  14. Exact solutions for spectra and Green's functions in random one-dimensional systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Th.M.

    1984-01-01

    For chains of harmonic oscillators with random masses a set of equations is derived, which determine the spatial Fourier components of the average one-particle Green's function. These equations are valid for complex values of the frequency. A relation between the spectral density and functions

  15. A mathematical theory of stochastic microlensing. I. Random time delay functions and lensing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petters, A. O.; Rider, B.; Teguia, A. M.

    2009-07-01

    Stochastic microlensing is a central tool in probing dark matter on galactic scales. From first principles, we initiate the development of a mathematical theory of stochastic microlensing. Beginning with the random time delay function and associated lensing map, we determine exact expressions for the mean and variance of these transformations. In addition, we derive the probability density function (pdf) of a random point-mass potential, which form the constituent of a stochastic microlens potential. We characterize the exact pdf of a normalized random time delay function at the origin, showing that it is a shifted gamma distribution, which also holds at leading order in the limit of a large number of point masses if the normalized time delay function was at a general point of the lens plane. For the large number of point-mass limit, we also prove that the asymptotic pdf of the random lensing map under a specified scaling converges to a bivariate normal distribution. We show analytically that the pdf of the random scaled lensing map at leading order depends on the magnitude of the scaled bending angle due purely to point masses as well as demonstrate explicitly how this radial symmetry is broken at the next order. Interestingly, we found at leading order a formula linking the expectation and variance of the normalized random time delay function to the first Betti number of its domain. We also determine an asymptotic pdf for the random bending angle vector and find an integral expression for the probability of a lens plane point being near a fixed point. Lastly, we show explicitly how the results are affected by location in the lens plane. The results of this paper are relevant to the theory of random fields and provide a platform for further generalizations as well as analytical limits for checking astrophysical studies of stochastic microlensing.

  16. Alpha-galactosylceramide in chronic hepatitis B infection: results from a randomized placebo-controlled Phase I/II trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltman, A.M.; Borg, M.J. Ter; Binda, R.S.; Sprengers, D.; Blomberg, B.M.E. von; Scheper, R.J.; Hayashi, K.; Nishi, N.; Boonstra, A.; Molen, R.G. van der; Janssen, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The glycosphingolipid alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) is known to stimulate invariant natural killer T-cells (iNKTs) and is able to induce powerful antiviral immune responses. The present dose-escalating randomized placebo-controlled Phase I/II trial aimed to investigate

  17. Double random phase spread spectrum spread space technique for secure parallel optical multiplexing with individual encryption key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennelly, B. M.; Javidi, B.; Sheridan, J. T.

    2005-09-01

    A number of methods have been recently proposed in the literature for the encryption of 2-D information using linear optical systems. In particular the double random phase encoding system has received widespread attention. This system uses two Random Phase Keys (RPK) positioned in the input spatial domain and the spatial frequency domain and if these random phases are described by statistically independent white noises then the encrypted image can be shown to be a white noise. Decryption only requires knowledge of the RPK in the frequency domain. The RPK may be implemented using a Spatial Light Modulators (SLM). In this paper we propose and investigate the use of SLMs for secure optical multiplexing. We show that in this case it is possible to encrypt multiple images in parallel and multiplex them for transmission or storage. The signal energy is effectively spread in the spatial frequency domain. As expected the number of images that can be multiplexed together and recovered without loss is proportional to the ratio of the input image and the SLM resolution. Many more images may be multiplexed with some loss in recovery. Furthermore each individual encryption is more robust than traditional double random phase encoding since decryption requires knowledge of both RPK and a lowpass filter in order to despread the spectrum and decrypt the image. Numerical simulations are presented and discussed.

  18. Broadband diffuse terahertz wave scattering by flexible metasurface with randomized phase distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Liang, Lanju; Yang, Jing; Feng, Yijun; Zhu, Bo; Zhao, Junming; Jiang, Tian; Jin, Biaobing; Liu, Weiwei

    2016-05-26

    Suppressing specular electromagnetic wave reflection or backward radar cross section is important and of broad interests in practical electromagnetic engineering. Here, we present a scheme to achieve broadband backward scattering reduction through diffuse terahertz wave reflection by a flexible metasurface. The diffuse scattering of terahertz wave is caused by the randomized reflection phase distribution on the metasurface, which consists of meta-particles of differently sized metallic patches arranged on top of a grounded polyimide substrate simply through a certain computer generated pseudorandom sequence. Both numerical simulations and experimental results demonstrate the ultralow specular reflection over a broad frequency band and wide angle of incidence due to the re-distribution of the incident energy into various directions. The diffuse scattering property is also polarization insensitive and can be well preserved when the flexible metasurface is conformably wrapped on a curved reflective object. The proposed design opens up a new route for specular reflection suppression, and may be applicable in stealth and other technology in the terahertz spectrum.

  19. Combining double random phase encoding for color image watermarking in quaternion gyrator domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhuhong; Duan, Yuping; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Wu, Jiasong; Meng, Jinyu; Shu, Huazhong

    2015-05-01

    Quaternion representation of color image has attracted great attention due to its capability to treat holistically the three color channels. In a more general way, it has successfully been used in multi-channel signal processing applications over the past few decades. In this study, a joint encryption/watermarking system with more security based on double random phase encoding (DRPE) in quaternion gyrator transform domain is addressed. In the proposed scheme, an RGB-scale watermark image together with a grayscale watermark image or not is encoded into a quaternion matrix and encrypted through the DRPE, the encrypted data is then fused into the middle coefficients of the quaternion gyrator-transformed host image. In the process of extracting watermarks, it is impossible to retrieve them without authorized keys. Compared with the three channels independently processing approach implemented in fractional Fourier domain, the proposed algorithm achieves lower complexity by reason of avoiding repetitive operations. Experimental results have demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed algorithm and its superior performance in terms of noise robustness.

  20. Biometrics based key management of double random phase encoding scheme using error control codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an optical security system has been proposed in which key of the double random phase encoding technique is linked to the biometrics of the user to make it user specific. The error in recognition due to the biometric variation is corrected by encoding the key using the BCH code. A user specific shuffling key is used to increase the separation between genuine and impostor Hamming distance distribution. This shuffling key is then further secured using the RSA public key encryption to enhance the security of the system. XOR operation is performed between the encoded key and the feature vector obtained from the biometrics. The RSA encoded shuffling key and the data obtained from the XOR operation are stored into a token. The main advantage of the present technique is that the key retrieval is possible only in the simultaneous presence of the token and the biometrics of the user which not only authenticates the presence of the original input but also secures the key of the system. Computational experiments showed the effectiveness of the proposed technique for key retrieval in the decryption process by using the live biometrics of the user.

  1. Innovative measurement of parallelism for parallel transparent plate based on optical scanning holography by using a random-phase pupil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo-Zhi, Zhang; Jian-Ping, Hu; Dao-Ming, Wan; Xing, Zeng; Chun-Miao, Li; Xin, Zhou

    2015-03-20

    A potential method is proposed to measure the parallelism of parallel transparent plate with an advanced lower limit and a convenient process by optical scanning holography (OSH) using a random-phase pupil, which is largely distinct from traditional methods. As a new possible application of OSH, this promising method is demonstrated theoretically and numerical simulations are carried out on a 2  cm×2  cm parallel plate. Discussions are also made on the quality of reconstructed image as well as local mean square error (MSE), which are closely related with the parallelism of sample. These amounts may become the judgments of parallelism, while in most interference methods judgments are paces between two interference fringes. In addition, randomness of random-phase pupil also affects the quality of reconstructed image and local MSE. According to the simulation results, high parallelism usually brings about distinguishable reconstructed information and suppressed local MSE.

  2. Pseudo-random Spray Release to Measure World-wide Transfer Functions of Cloud Albedo Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Institute for Energy Systems, School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh. S.Salter@ed.ac.uk Previous climate models of Latham's proposal to reverse global warming by using sub-micron sea spray to increase cloud albedo have used a variety of spray patterns. Kettles forced CCN concentration to be 375/cm3 everywhere. Rasch et al used the 20% and 70% most susceptible regions. Bala and Caldeira used an even spread. Jones et al. concentrated spray in the 3.3% oceans with the highest susceptibility All used the same rate through the year. We want to choose a scheme for a climate-modelling experiment designed to identify simultaneously the effects of cloud albedo control at various seasons of the year from spray at all regions of the world on climates of all other regions the world. In particular we want to know seasons and spray places which might have an undesirable effect on precipitation. The spray systems in various regions of a numerical climate model will be modulated on an off with different but known pseudo-random sequences and a selection of seasons. The mean value of the resulting weather records of the parameters of interest, mainly temperature and water run-off, at each region will be subtracted from each value of the record so as to give just the alternating component with an average value of zero. This will be correlated with each of the chosen pseudo-random sequences to give the magnitude and polarity of the effect of a treatment at each input area and selected seasons of the year with the resulting effects on all regions. By doing a time-shifted correlation we can account for phase-shift and time delay. The signal-to-noise ratio should improve with the square root of the analysis time and so we may be able to measure the transfer function with quite a small stimulus. The results of a Mathcad simulation of the process with statistical distributions approximating to natural variations temperature and precipitation show that a single run of a climate

  3. Nature of the spin-glass phase in dense packings of Ising dipoles with random anisotropy axes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Juan J.; Allés, B.

    2017-09-01

    Using tempered Monte Carlo simulations, we study the the spin-glass phase of dense packings of Ising dipoles pointing along random axes. We consider systems of dipoles (i) placed on the sites of a simple cubic lattice with lattice constant d, and (ii) placed at the center of random close packed spheres of diameter d that occupy 64% of the volume. For both cases, we find a spin-glass phase below a certain temperature T sg. By analysing the data obtained for the overlap parameter, the associated correlation length, as well as the statistics of the overlap distributions of individual samples, we find a behavior consistent with quasi-long-range order in the spin-glass phase, similar to the one previously found in strongly diluted dipolar systems.

  4. Nature of the spin-glass phase in dense packings of Ising dipoles with random anisotropy axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Juan J; Allés, B

    2017-09-06

    Using tempered Monte Carlo simulations, we study the the spin-glass phase of dense packings of Ising dipoles pointing along random axes. We consider systems of dipoles (i) placed on the sites of a simple cubic lattice with lattice constant d, and (ii) placed at the center of random close packed spheres of diameter d that occupy 64% of the volume. For both cases, we find a spin-glass phase below a certain temperature T sg. By analysing the data obtained for the overlap parameter, the associated correlation length, as well as the statistics of the overlap distributions of individual samples, we find a behavior consistent with quasi-long-range order in the spin-glass phase, similar to the one previously found in strongly diluted dipolar systems.

  5. Functional-task exercise versus resistance strength exercise to improve daily function in older women : A randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, MM; van Meeteren, NLU; Duursma, SA; Verhaar, HJJ; de Vreede, P.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a functional-task exercise program and a resistance exercise program have different effects on the ability of community-living older people to perform daily tasks. DESIGN: A randomized, controlled, single-blind trial. SETTING: Community leisure center in Utrecht, the

  6. Vapor phase growth of functional pentacene films at atmospheric pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolin, C.; Vasseur, K.; Niesen, B.; Willegems, M.; Müller, R.; Steudel, S.; Genoe, J.; Heremans, P.

    2012-01-01

    Compared to traditional vacuum evaporation techniques for small organic molecules, organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD) possesses a extra processing parameter: the pressure of process gas Pch. Here, the influence of large Pch variations (from 0.1 mbar to atmospheric pressure) on pentacene thin film

  7. TOWARDS PHASE TRANSFERABLE POTENTIAL FUNCTIONS - METHODOLOGY AND APPLICATION TO NITROGEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JORDAN, PC; VAN MAAREN, PJ; MAVRI, J; VAN DER SPOEL, D; BERENDSEN, HJC

    1995-01-01

    We describe a generalizable approach to the development of phase transferable effective intermolecular potentials and apply the method to the study of N-2 The method is based on a polarizable shell model description of the isolated molecule and uses experimental data to establish the parameters.

  8. Optimized goniometer for determination of the scattering phase function of suspended particles: simulations and measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschum, Florian; Kienle, Alwin

    2013-08-01

    We present simulations and measurements with an optimized goniometer for determination of the scattering phase function of suspended particles. We applied the Monte Carlo method, using a radially layered cylindrical geometry and mismatched boundary conditions, in order to investigate the influence of reflections caused by the interfaces of the glass cuvette and the scatterer concentration on the accurate determination of the scattering phase function. Based on these simulations we built an apparatus which allows direct measurement of the phase function from ϑ=7  deg to ϑ=172  deg without any need for correction algorithms. Goniometric measurements on polystyrene and SiO2 spheres proved this concept. Using the validated goniometer, we measured the phase function of yeast cells, demonstrating the improvement of the new system compared to standard goniometers. Furthermore, the scattering phase function of different fat emulsions, like Intralipid, was determined precisely.

  9. A phase 3 randomized placebo-controlled trial of tadalafil for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Ronald G; Sweeney, H Lee; Finkel, Richard; McDonald, Craig M; Byrne, Barry; Eagle, Michelle; Goemans, Nathalie; Vandenborne, Krista; Dubrovsky, Alberto L; Topaloglu, Haluk; Miceli, M Carrie; Furlong, Pat; Landry, John; Elashoff, Robert; Cox, David

    2017-10-24

    To conduct a randomized trial to test the primary hypothesis that once-daily tadalafil, administered orally for 48 weeks, lessens the decline in ambulatory ability in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Three hundred thirty-one participants with DMD 7 to 14 years of age taking glucocorticoids were randomized to tadalafil 0.3 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), tadalafil 0.6 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), or placebo. The primary efficacy measure was 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) after 48 weeks. Secondary efficacy measures included North Star Ambulatory Assessment and timed function tests. Performance of Upper Limb (PUL) was a prespecified exploratory outcome. Tadalafil had no effect on the primary outcome: 48-week declines in 6MWD were 51.0 ± 9.3 m with placebo, 64.7 ± 9.8 m with low-dose tadalafil (p = 0.307 vs placebo), and 59.1 ± 9.4 m with high-dose tadalafil (p = 0.538 vs placebo). Tadalafil also had no effect on secondary outcomes. In boys >10 years of age, total PUL score and shoulder subscore declined less with low-dose tadalafil than placebo. Adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of tadalafil and the DMD disease state. Tadalafil did not lessen the decline in ambulatory ability in boys with DMD. Further studies should be considered to confirm the hypothesis-generating upper limb data and to determine whether ambulatory decline can be slowed by initiation of tadalafil before 7 years of age. NCT01865084. This study provides Class I evidence that tadalafil does not slow ambulatory decline in 7- to 14-year-old boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Methadone induction in primary care (ANRS-Methaville: a phase III randomized intervention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roux Perrine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In France, the rapid scale-up of buprenorphine, an opioid maintenance treatment (OMT, in primary care for drug users has led to an impressive reduction in HIV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDU but has had no major effect on Hepatitis C incidence. To date, patients willing to start methadone can only do so in a methadone clinic (a medical centre for drug and alcohol dependence (CSAPA or a hospital setting and are referred to primary care physicians after dose stabilization. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of methadone in patients who initiated treatment in primary care compared with those who initiated it in a CSAPA, by measuring abstinence from street opioid use after one year of treatment. Methods/Design The ANRS-Methaville study is a randomized multicenter non-inferiority control trial comparing methadone induction (lasting approximately 2 weeks in primary care and in CSAPA. The model of care chosen for methadone induction in primary care was based on study-specific pre-training of all physicians, exclusion criteria and daily supervision of methadone during the initiation phase. Between January 2009 and January 2011, 10 sites each having one CSAPA and several primary care physicians, were identified to recruit patients to be randomized into two groups, one starting methadone in primary care (n = 147, the other in CSAPA (n = 48. The primary outcome of the study is the proportion of participants abstinent from street opioids after 1 year of treatment i.e. non-inferiority of primary care model in terms of the proportion of patients not using street opioids compared with the proportion observed in those starting methadone in a CSAPA. Discussion The ANRS-Methaville study is the first in France to use an interventional trial to improve access to OMT for drug users. Once the non-inferiority results become available, the Ministry of Health and agency for the safety of health products may change the the

  11. A Phase 3 Randomized Trial of Nicotinamide for Skin-Cancer Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew C; Martin, Andrew J; Choy, Bonita; Fernández-Peñas, Pablo; Dalziell, Robyn A; McKenzie, Catriona A; Scolyer, Richard A; Dhillon, Haryana M; Vardy, Janette L; Kricker, Anne; St George, Gayathri; Chinniah, Niranthari; Halliday, Gary M; Damian, Diona L

    2015-10-22

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers, such as basal-cell carcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma, are common cancers that are caused principally by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Nicotinamide (vitamin B3) has been shown to have protective effects against damage caused by UV radiation and to reduce the rate of new premalignant actinic keratoses. In this phase 3, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, we randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, 386 participants who had had at least two nonmelanoma skin cancers in the previous 5 years to receive 500 mg of nicotinamide twice daily or placebo for 12 months. Participants were evaluated by dermatologists at 3-month intervals for 18 months. The primary end point was the number of new nonmelanoma skin cancers (i.e., basal-cell carcinomas plus squamous-cell carcinomas) during the 12-month intervention period. Secondary end points included the number of new squamous-cell carcinomas and basal-cell carcinomas and the number of actinic keratoses during the 12-month intervention period, the number of nonmelanoma skin cancers in the 6-month postintervention period, and the safety of nicotinamide. At 12 months, the rate of new nonmelanoma skin cancers was lower by 23% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4 to 38) in the nicotinamide group than in the placebo group (P=0.02). Similar differences were found between the nicotinamide group and the placebo group with respect to new basal-cell carcinomas (20% [95% CI, -6 to 39] lower rate with nicotinamide, P=0.12) and new squamous-cell carcinomas (30% [95% CI, 0 to 51] lower rate, P=0.05). The number of actinic keratoses was 11% lower in the nicotinamide group than in the placebo group at 3 months (P=0.01), 14% lower at 6 months (Pnicotinamide was discontinued. Oral nicotinamide was safe and effective in reducing the rates of new nonmelanoma skin cancers and actinic keratoses in high-risk patients. (Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council; ONTRAC Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials

  12. Microbial synthesis of functional homo-, random, and block polyhydroxyalkanoates by β-oxidation deleted Pseudomonas entomophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shijun; Cai, Longwei; Wu, Linping

    2014-01-01

    Functional polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) allow chemical modifications to widen PHA diversity, promising to increase values of these biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters. Among functional PHAs, unsaturated PHA site chains can be easily grafted to add chemical groups, and to cross-link with ot......Functional polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) allow chemical modifications to widen PHA diversity, promising to increase values of these biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters. Among functional PHAs, unsaturated PHA site chains can be easily grafted to add chemical groups, and to cross......-link with other PHA polymer chains. However, it has been very difficult to obtain structurally controllable functional homo-, random, or block PHA. For the first time, a β-oxidation deleted Pseudomonas entomophila was used to successfully synthesize random copolymers of 3-hydroxydodecanoate (3HDD) and 3-hydroxy-9...... characterizations of the above homo-, random, and diblock PHA polymers were conducted. It was found that the diblock polymer P3HDD-b-P3H9D increased at least 2-fold on Young's modulus compared with its random copolymers consisting of similar 3HDD/3H9D ratios. This study demonstrates that PHA functionality could...

  13. Accelerated three-dimensional cine phase contrast imaging using randomly undersampled echo planar imaging with compressed sensing reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Tamer A; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Goddu, Beth; Berg, Sophie; Nezafat, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to implement and evaluate an accelerated three-dimensional (3D) cine phase contrast MRI sequence by combining a randomly sampled 3D k-space acquisition sequence with an echo planar imaging (EPI) readout. An accelerated 3D cine phase contrast MRI sequence was implemented by combining EPI readout with randomly undersampled 3D k-space data suitable for compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction. The undersampled data were then reconstructed using low-dimensional structural self-learning and thresholding (LOST). 3D phase contrast MRI was acquired in 11 healthy adults using an overall acceleration of 7 (EPI factor of 3 and CS rate of 3). For comparison, a single two-dimensional (2D) cine phase contrast scan was also performed with sensitivity encoding (SENSE) rate 2 and approximately at the level of the pulmonary artery bifurcation. The stroke volume and mean velocity in both the ascending and descending aorta were measured and compared between two sequences using Bland-Altman plots. An average scan time of 3 min and 30 s, corresponding to an acceleration rate of 7, was achieved for 3D cine phase contrast scan with one direction flow encoding, voxel size of 2 × 2 × 3 mm(3) , foot-head coverage of 6 cm and temporal resolution of 30 ms. The mean velocity and stroke volume in both the ascending and descending aorta were statistically equivalent between the proposed 3D sequence and the standard 2D cine phase contrast sequence. The combination of EPI with a randomly undersampled 3D k-space sampling sequence using LOST reconstruction allows a seven-fold reduction in scan time of 3D cine phase contrast MRI without compromising blood flow quantification. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Bicomponent Block Copolymers Derived from One or More Random Copolymers as an Alternative Route to Controllable Phase Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashraf, Arman R. [Corporate Research and Development, The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati OH 45224 USA; Ryan, Justin J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC 27695 USA; Satkowski, Michael M. [Corporate Research and Development, The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati OH 45224 USA; Lee, Byeongdu [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Smith, Steven D. [Corporate Research and Development, The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati OH 45224 USA; Spontak, Richard J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC 27695 USA; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC 27695 USA

    2017-06-29

    Block copolymers have been extensively studied due to their ability to spontaneously self-organize into a wide variety of morphologies that are valuable in energy-, medical- and conservation-related (nano)technologies. While the phase behavior of bicomponent diblock and triblock copolymers is conventionally governed by temperature and individual block masses, we demonstrate that their phase behavior can alternatively be controlled through the use of blocks with random monomer sequencing. Block random copolymers (BRCs), i.e., diblock copolymers wherein one or both blocks is a random copolymer comprised of A and B repeat units, have been synthesized, and their phase behavior, expressed in terms of the order-disorder transition (ODT), has been investigated. Our results establish that, depending on the block composition contrast and molecular weight, BRCs can microphase-separate. We also report that the predicted ODT can be generated at relatively constant molecular weight and temperature with these new soft materials. This sequence-controlled synthetic strategy is extended to thermoplastic elastomeric triblock copolymers differing in chemistry and possessing a random-copolymer midblock.

  15. Statistics of time delay and scattering correlation functions in chaotic systems. I. Random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Marcel

    2015-06-01

    We consider the statistics of time delay in a chaotic cavity having M open channels, in the absence of time-reversal invariance. In the random matrix theory approach, we compute the average value of polynomial functions of the time delay matrix Q = - iħS†dS/dE, where S is the scattering matrix. Our results do not assume M to be large. In a companion paper, we develop a semiclassical approximation to S-matrix correlation functions, from which the statistics of Q can also be derived. Together, these papers contribute to establishing the conjectured equivalence between the random matrix and the semiclassical approaches.

  16. Statistics of time delay and scattering correlation functions in chaotic systems. I. Random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novaes, Marcel [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Ave. João Naves de Ávila, 2121, Uberlândia, MG 38408-100 (Brazil)

    2015-06-15

    We consider the statistics of time delay in a chaotic cavity having M open channels, in the absence of time-reversal invariance. In the random matrix theory approach, we compute the average value of polynomial functions of the time delay matrix Q = − iħS{sup †}dS/dE, where S is the scattering matrix. Our results do not assume M to be large. In a companion paper, we develop a semiclassical approximation to S-matrix correlation functions, from which the statistics of Q can also be derived. Together, these papers contribute to establishing the conjectured equivalence between the random matrix and the semiclassical approaches.

  17. ATX-101 for reduction of submental fat: A phase III randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Shannon; Sykes, Jonathan; Kantor, Jonathan; Bertucci, Vince; Walker, Patricia; Lee, Daniel R; Lizzul, Paul F; Gross, Todd M; Beddingfield, Frederick C

    2016-10-01

    ATX-101, an injectable form of deoxycholic acid, causes adipocytolysis when injected subcutaneously into fat. We sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ATX-101. In this phase III trial (REFINE-2), adults dissatisfied with their moderate or severe submental fat (SMF) were randomized to ATX-101 or placebo. Coprimary end points, evaluated at 12 weeks after last treatment, were composite improvements of 1 or more grades and 2 or more grades in SMF observed on both the validated Clinician- and Patient-Reported SMF Rating Scales. Other end points included magnetic resonance imaging-based assessment of submental volume, assessment of psychological impact of SMF, and additional patient-reported outcomes. Among those treated with ATX-101 or placebo (n = 258/treatment group), 66.5% versus 22.2%, respectively, achieved a composite improvement of 1 or more grades (Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio 2.98; 95% confidence interval 2.31-3.85) and 18.6% versus 3.0% achieved a composite improvement of 2 or more grades in SMF (Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio 6.27; 95% confidence interval 2.91-13.52; P ATX-101 were more likely to achieve submental volume reduction confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, greater reduction in psychological impact of SMF, and satisfaction with treatment (P ATX-101 group and 76.9% in the placebo group were localized to the injection site. Follow-up was limited to 44 weeks. ATX-101 is an alternative treatment for SMF reduction. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Early Aqueous Suppressant Therapy on Hypertensive Phase Following Glaucoma Drainage Device Procedure: A Randomized Prospective Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Simon K; Kornmann, Helen L; Giaconi, JoAnn A; Kwong, Allen; Tran, Eric; Caprioli, Joseph

    2016-03-01

    To prospectively evaluate the effect of early aqueous suppression (therapy) on hypertensive phase (HP) and intraocular pressure (IOP) control after implantation of silicone Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV). Patients who underwent AGV implantation were randomized to initiate therapy (including β-blockers, α-agonists, or carbonic anhydrase inhibitors) when postoperative IOP>10 mm Hg (low-IOP initiation group) or >17 mm Hg (moderate-IOP initiation group). HP was defined as an IOP>21 mm Hg during the first 6 postoperative months, after an initial IOP reduction to measures included the occurrence of HP and IOP control. Fifty-two eyes (50 patients) underwent AGV implantation. Average follow-up was 21.9±10.7 months. HP was observed in 21 eyes (40.4%) with average peak IOP of 30±8 mm Hg, onset at 32±30 days, and duration of 15±32 days. One year postoperatively, those eyes with HP had higher IOP than eyes that did not develop HP (15.1±5.2, 11.4±4.3, respectively; P=0.021) and required more additional glaucoma surgeries (28.6%, 3.2%, respectively; P=0.013). The peak IOP at week 3 postoperatively in the low-IOP initiation group (26 eyes) was significantly lower than in the moderate-IOP initiation group (26 eyes; 15.7±3.6, 20.6±8.9, respectively; P=0.012). Eyes with therapy started after HP onset had significantly higher postoperative IOP from 2 to 4 months. Therapy initiated before the development of HP was not associated with a higher complication rate. Aqueous suppression initiated in the early postoperative period while IOPs were still in the low-teens and was able to reduce the incidence of IOP spike associated with the HP without an increased complication rate.

  19. Randomized phase 2 study of obinutuzumab monotherapy in symptomatic, previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, John C; Flynn, Joseph M; Kipps, Thomas J; Boxer, Michael; Kolibaba, Kathryn S; Carlile, David J; Fingerle-Rowson, Guenter; Tyson, Nicola; Hirata, Jamie; Sharman, Jeff P

    2016-01-07

    Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered, type 2 anti-CD20 humanized antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). With other CD20 antibodies, a dose-response relationship has been shown. We therefore performed a randomized phase 2 study in symptomatic, untreated CLL patients to evaluate if an obinutuzumab dose response exists. Obinutuzumab was given at a dose of 1000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 1000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8) or 2000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 3, 2000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 2000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Eighty patients were enrolled with similar demographics: median age 67 years, 41% high-risk Rai disease, and 10% del(17p)(13.1). ORR (67% vs 49%, P = .08) and complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete cytopenia response (20% vs 5%) favored 2000 mg obinutuzumab. Overall, therapy was well tolerated, and infusion events were manageable. This study demonstrates significant efficacy of obinutuzumab monotherapy, for 1000 mg as well as for 2000 mg, in untreated CLL patients with acceptable toxicity. Although exploratory, a dose-response relationship may exist, but its relevance to improving progression-free survival is uncertain and will require further follow-up. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01414205. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  20. A novel urea-functionalized surface-confined octadecylimidazolium ionic liquid silica stationary phase for reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Tan, Ting; Li, Zhan; Gu, Tongnian; Chen, Jia; Qiu, Hongdeng

    2014-10-24

    One-pot synthesis of surface-confined ionic liquid functionalized silica spheres was proposed using N-(3-aminopropyl)imidazole, γ-isopropyltriethoxysilane and 1-bromooctadecane as starting materials. The surface modification of the silica spheres was successful with a high surface density of octadecylimidazolium, enabling the utilization of this new urea-functionalized ionic liquid-grafted silica material as stationary phase for high-performance liquid chromatography in reversed-phase mode. The long aliphatic chain combined with the multiple polar group embedded in the ligands imparted the new stationary phase fine selectivity towards PAH isomers and polar aromatics and higher affinity for phenolic compounds. The unique features of the new material, especially the effect of the urea group on the retention were elucidated by mathematic modeling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dance Improves Functionality and Psychosocial Adjustment in Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Machado, Lavinia; Azevedo-Santos, Isabela; DeSantana, Josimari Melo

    2017-06-01

    This randomized controlled clinical trial aimed to investigate the effect of dance in the functionality and psychosocial adjustment of young subjects with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-six young subjects with CP, GMFCS (Gross Motor Function Classification System) levels from II to V, were randomized into two intervention groups: kinesiotherapy and dance (n = 13 each). Twenty-four sessions (1 hour, twice a week) were performed in both groups. Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) by International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) were used before and after each intervention. Dance increased the classification of functioning (P = 0.001), independence function (P = 0.004), self-care (P = 0.01), mobility (P = 0.008), locomotion (P = 0.01), communication (P = 0.02), psychosocial adjustments (P = 0.04), and cognitive function (P = 0.03). Intergroup analysis evidenced significantly greater improvements in classification of functioning (P = 0.0002), independence function (P = 0.0006), self-care (P = 0.01), mobility (P = 0.001), locomotion (P = 0.002), communication (P = 0.0001), psychosocial adjustments (P = 0.002), and cognitive function (P = 0.0001) in dance group. It was shown that this approach could have an influence on basic common points in the body and motion, including emotional and social aspects, supporting the concept of complex multimodal psychomotor adjustments. Dance promoted enhancement on functionality and social activities regarding psychosocial adjustments in cerebral palsy young subjects.

  2. Biphasic effects of alcohol as a function of circadian phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reen, Eliza; Rupp, Tracy L; Acebo, Christine; Seifer, Ronald; Carskadon, Mary A

    2013-01-01

    To assess how alcohol affects multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT) and subjective measures of stimulation/sedation when alcohol is given at different circadian phases. Twenty-seven healthy young adults (age 21-26 yr) were studied. Double-blind placebo and alcohol (vodka tonic targeting 0.05 g% concentration) beverages were each administered three times during the 20-h forced desynchrony protocol. Sleep latency tests and Biphasic Effects of Alcohol Scale (BAES) were administered on each forced desynchrony day. The outcome variables for this study include sleep onset latency (SOL) and stimulation and sedation value (from the BAES). Each outcome variable was associated with the ascending or descending limb of the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) curve and assigned a circadian phase within a 90° bin. BrAC confirmed targeted maximal levels. Only outcome variables associated with the ascending and descending limb of the alcohol curve were analyzed for this article. Alcohol administered at a circadian time associated with greatest sleepiness showed longer SOL compared with placebo when measured on the ascending limb of the BrAC curve. We also found longer SOL with alcohol on the ascending limb of the BrAC curve in a circadian bin that favors greatest alertness. We observed shorter SOLs on the descending limb of the BrAC curve, but with no circadian phase interaction. The subjective data were partially consistent with the objective data. The physiologic findings in this study support the biphasic stimulating and sedating properties of alcohol, but limit the effect to specific circadian times.

  3. Tolvaptan and Neurocognitive Function in Mild to Moderate Chronic Hyponatremia: A Randomized Trial (INSIGHT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbalis, Joseph G; Ellison, Howard; Hobart, Mary; Krasa, Holly; Ouyang, John; Czerwiec, Frank S

    2016-06-01

    This trial assessed the effect of tolvaptan on cognition, gait, and postural stability in adult patients with mild to moderate asymptomatic hyponatremia. Phase 3b, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group pilot study. 57 men and women 50 years or older with chronic asymptomatic euvolemic or hypervolemic hyponatremia (serum sodium concentration >120-tolvaptan or matching placebo beginning at a dose of 15mg/d, with titration to 30 or 60mg/d based on change in serum sodium concentration and tolerance. Primary: change from baseline in the neurocognitive composite score of speed domains. Secondary: changes from baseline in individual neurocognitive domain scores, overall neurocognitive composite score, gait and postural stability test results, and serum sodium concentrations. Mean serum sodium concentration increased from 129 to 136 mEq/L in the tolvaptan group and from 130 to 132 mEq/L in the placebo group (Ptolvaptan (treatment effect, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.04-0.51; P=0.03). There were some imbalances between treatment groups in baseline neurocognitive function scores and some baseline test results were near normal, leaving little opportunity for improvement. Formal sample size calculations were not performed because this was a pilot study. The study population was small (n=57) and treatment was of short duration (3 weeks). The primary end point of the study was not significant; thus, subgroup analyses are subject to errors of multiplicity and should be regarded as hypothesis generating. Tolvaptan was effective in reversing chronic hyponatremia, and this correlated with improvements in results of a variety of neurocognition tests, particularly rapid motor movements, which tended to reverse following return to a low baseline serum sodium concentration after treatment withdrawal. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Emergence of deterministic Green's functions from noise generated by finite random sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Oleg A

    2009-12-01

    Two-point correlation functions of sufficiently diffuse wave fields generated by uncorrelated random sources are known to approximate deterministic Green's functions between the two points. This property is utilized increasingly for passive imaging and remote sensing of the environment. Here we show that the relation between the Green's functions and the noise cross-correlation function holds under much less restrictive conditions than previously thought. It can even hold when ambient noise sources have correlation ranges large compared to the wavelength. Admissible correlation ranges are limited from above by the size of the Fresnel zone at wave propagation between the points where noise cross correlation is evaluated.

  5. Hybrid random walk-linear discriminant analysis method for unwrapping quantitative phase microscopy images of biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Diane N. H.; Teitell, Michael A.; Reed, Jason; Zangle, Thomas A.

    2015-11-01

    Standard algorithms for phase unwrapping often fail for interferometric quantitative phase imaging (QPI) of biological samples due to the variable morphology of these samples and the requirement to image at low light intensities to avoid phototoxicity. We describe a new algorithm combining random walk-based image segmentation with linear discriminant analysis (LDA)-based feature detection, using assumptions about the morphology of biological samples to account for phase ambiguities when standard methods have failed. We present three versions of our method: first, a method for LDA image segmentation based on a manually compiled training dataset; second, a method using a random walker (RW) algorithm informed by the assumed properties of a biological phase image; and third, an algorithm which combines LDA-based edge detection with an efficient RW algorithm. We show that the combination of LDA plus the RW algorithm gives the best overall performance with little speed penalty compared to LDA alone, and that this algorithm can be further optimized using a genetic algorithm to yield superior performance for phase unwrapping of QPI data from biological samples.

  6. Comparison between amniotomy, oxytocin or both for augmentation of labor in prolonged latent phase: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachum, Zohar; Garmi, Gali; Kadan, Yfat; Zafran, Noah; Shalev, Eliezer; Salim, Raed

    2010-11-07

    A prolonged latent phase is independently associated with an increased incidence of subsequent labor abnormalities. We aimed to compare between oxytocin augmentation, amniotomy and a combination of both on the duration of labor among women with a prolonged latent phase. Women with a singleton fetus in cephalic presentation who have a prolonged latent phase, were randomly allocated to amniotomy (group 1), oxytocin (group 2) or both (group 3). A group of women who progressed spontaneously without intervention composed the control group (group 4). The primary outcome was the duration of time from initiation of augmentation until delivery. A total of 213 women were consented and randomized to group 1 (70 women), group 2 (72 women) and group 3 (71 women). Group 4 was composed from additional 70 women. A mean reduction of 120 minutes in labor duration was observed among group 3 compared to group 1 (p = 0.08) and 180 minutes compared to group 2 and 4 (p = 0.001). Women in group 3 had a shorter length of time from augmentation until the beginning of the active phase and a shorter first stage of labor than group 1 (p = 0.03), group 2 (p = 0.001) and group 4 (p = 0.001). Satisfaction was greater among group 3 and 4. Mode of delivery and neonatal outcome were comparable between the groups. Labor augmentation by combined amniotomy and oxytocin among women with a prolonged latent phase at term seems superior compared to either of them alone.

  7. Use of ELVIS II platform for random process modelling and analysis of its probability density function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslennikova, Yu. S.; Nugmanov, I. S.

    2016-08-01

    The problem of probability density function estimation for a random process is one of the most common in practice. There are several methods to solve this problem. Presented laboratory work uses methods of the mathematical statistics to detect patterns in the realization of random process. On the basis of ergodic theory, we construct algorithm for estimating univariate probability density distribution function for a random process. Correlational analysis of realizations is applied to estimate the necessary size of the sample and the time of observation. Hypothesis testing for two probability distributions (normal and Cauchy) is used on the experimental data, using χ2 criterion. To facilitate understanding and clarity of the problem solved, we use ELVIS II platform and LabVIEW software package that allows us to make the necessary calculations, display results of the experiment and, most importantly, to control the experiment. At the same time students are introduced to a LabVIEW software package and its capabilities.

  8. Preventing decline in function. Evidence from randomized trials around the world.

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, E.H.

    1997-01-01

    Over the past decade, increasing epidemiologic evidence points to a few important risk factors for loss of mobility and functional decline, such as inactivity, cigarette smoking, obesity, depression, and alcohol and drug misuse. Global interventions addressing these risk factors along with other medical problems have been evaluated in randomized controlled clinical trials. With few exceptions, these trials have shown that intervention has a positive effect on health and functional status, as ...

  9. Microbial synthesis of functional homo-, random, and block polyhydroxyalkanoates by β-oxidation deleted Pseudomonas entomophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shijun; Cai, Longwei; Wu, Linping; Zeng, Guodong; Chen, Jinchun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2014-06-09

    Functional polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) allow chemical modifications to widen PHA diversity, promising to increase values of these biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters. Among functional PHAs, unsaturated PHA site chains can be easily grafted to add chemical groups, and to cross-link with other PHA polymer chains. However, it has been very difficult to obtain structurally controllable functional homo-, random, or block PHA. For the first time, a β-oxidation deleted Pseudomonas entomophila was used to successfully synthesize random copolymers of 3-hydroxydodecanoate (3HDD) and 3-hydroxy-9-decenoate (3H9D). Compositions of the random copolymers P(3HDD-co-3H9D) can be adjusted by ratios of dodecanoic acid (DDA) to 9-decenol (9DEO) fed to the culture of P. entomophila. Homopolymer P3H9D was formed when only 9DEO was added to the culture. Diblock copolymers of P3HDD-b-P3H9D were produced by feeding DDA as the first precursor to form a P3HDD block followed by adding 9DEO as the second precursor to form a second P3H9D block. It was demonstrated that random copolymers P(3HDD-co-3H9D) could be crossed-linked under UV-radiation due to the presence of the unsaturated bonds. Thermal and mechanical characterizations of the above homo-, random, and diblock PHA polymers were conducted. It was found that the diblock polymer P3HDD-b-P3H9D increased at least 2-fold on Young's modulus compared with its random copolymers consisting of similar 3HDD/3H9D ratios. This study demonstrates that PHA functionality could be controlled to meet various requirements.

  10. Effect of modafinil on cognitive functions in alcohol dependent patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joos, Leen; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Schmaal, Lianne; van den Brink, Wim; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.; Dom, Geert

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are highly prevalent in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients and may have a detrimental impact on treatment response and treatment outcome. Enhancing cognitive functions may improve treatment success. Modafinil is a promising compound in this respect. Therefore, a randomized

  11. On solving discrete optimization problems with one random element under general regret functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, D.; Mandal, Pranab K.; Das, S

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we consider the class of stochastic discrete optimization problems in which the feasibility of a solution does not depend on the particular values the random elements in the problem take. Given a regret function, we introduce the concept of the risk associated with a solution, and

  12. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Overweight Children's Cognitive Functioning: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Catherine L.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Boyle, Colleen A.; Waller, Jennifer L.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.; Gregoski, Mathew

    2007-01-01

    The study tested the effect of aerobic exercise training on executive function in overweight children. Ninety-four sedentary, overweight but otherwise healthy children (mean age = 9.2 years, body mass index [greater than or equal to] 85th percentile) were randomized to a low-dose (20 min/day exercise), high-dose (40 min/day exercise), or control…

  13. N-point free energy distribution function in one dimensional random directed polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dotsenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Explicit expression for the N-point free energy distribution function in one dimensional directed polymers in a random potential is derived in terms of the Bethe ansatz replica technique. The obtained result is equivalent to the one derived earlier by Prolhac and Spohn [J. Stat. Mech., 2011, P03020].

  14. A randomized open-label comparison of the impact of olanzapine versus risperidone on sexual functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, H; Boks, M; Blijd, C; Castelein, S; Van den Bosch, RJ; Wiersma, D

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare sexual functioning in patients treated with olanzapine or risperidone. This open-label trial included 46 patients randomized to olanzapine (5-15mg/d) or risperidone (1-6mg/d) for 6 weeks. We used sexual dysfunction was assessed by a semistructured interview

  15. Optimizing Linear Functions with Randomized Search Heuristics - The Robustness of Mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witt, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of randomized search heuristics on classes of functions is fundamental for the understanding of the underlying stochastic process and the development of suitable proof techniques. Recently, remarkable progress has been made in bounding the expected optimization time of the simple (1...

  16. On the excited state wave functions of Dirac fermions in the random ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the last decade, it was shown that the Liouville field theory is an effective theory of Dirac fermions in the random gauge potential (FRGP). We show that the Dirac wave functions in FRGP can be written in terms of descendents of the Liouville vertex operator. In the quasiclassical approximation of the Liouville theory, our ...

  17. Tight Bounds on the Optimization Time of a Randomized Search Heuristic on Linear Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witt, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of randomized search heuristics on classes of functions is fundamental to the understanding of the underlying stochastic process and the development of suitable proof techniques. Recently, remarkable progress has been made in bounding the expected optimization time of a simple...

  18. Riemann integral of a random function and the parabolic equation with a general stochastic measure

    OpenAIRE

    Radchenko, Vadym

    2012-01-01

    For stochastic parabolic equation driven by a general stochastic measure, the weak solution is obtained. The integral of a random function in the equation is considered as a limit in probability of Riemann integral sums. Basic properties of such integrals are studied in the paper.

  19. Computation of covex bounds for present value functions with random payments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahcan, A.; Darkiewicz, G.; Goovaerts, M.J.; Hoedemakers, T.

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution we study the distribution of the present value function of a series of random payments in a stochastic financial environment. Such distributions occur naturally in a wide range of applications within fields of insurance and finance. We obtain accurate approximations by

  20. Does epicatechin contribute to the acute vascular function effects of dark chocolate? A randomized, crossover study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dower, James I.; Geleijnse, Marianne; Kroon, Paul A.; Philo, Mark; Mensink, Marco; Kromhout, Daan; Hollman, Peter C.H.

    2016-01-01

    Scope: Cocoa, rich in flavan-3-ols, improves vascular function, but the contribution of specific flavan-3-ols is unknown. We compared the effects of pure epicatechin, a major cocoa flavan-3-ol, and chocolate. Methods and results: In a randomized crossover study, twenty healthy men (40-80 years)

  1. Phase diagram of two-dimensional hard rods from fundamental mixed measure density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, René; Sitta, Christoph E; Smallenburg, Frank; Löwen, Hartmut

    2017-10-07

    A density functional theory for the bulk phase diagram of two-dimensional orientable hard rods is proposed and tested against Monte Carlo computer simulation data. In detail, an explicit density functional is derived from fundamental mixed measure theory and freely minimized numerically for hard discorectangles. The phase diagram, which involves stable isotropic, nematic, smectic, and crystalline phases, is obtained and shows good agreement with the simulation data. Our functional is valid for a multicomponent mixture of hard particles with arbitrary convex shapes and provides a reliable starting point to explore various inhomogeneous situations of two-dimensional hard rods and their Brownian dynamics.

  2. Robotic Resistance Treadmill Training Improves Locomotor Function in Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming; Kim, Janis; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah J; Schmit, Brian D; Arora, Pooja

    2017-11-01

    To determine whether applying controlled resistance forces to the legs during the swing phase of gait may improve the efficacy of treadmill training as compared with applying controlled assistance forces in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Randomized controlled study. Research unit of a rehabilitation hospital. Children with spastic CP (N=23; mean age, 10.6y; range, 6-14y; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels, I-IV). Participants were randomly assigned to receive controlled assistance (n=11) or resistance (n=12) loads applied to the legs at the ankle. Participants underwent robotic treadmill training 3 times a week for 6 weeks (18 sessions). A controlled swing assistance/resistance load was applied to both legs starting from the toe-off to mid-swing phase of gait during training. Outcome measures consisted of overground walking speed, 6-minute walk distance, and Gross Motor Function Measure scores and were assessed pre and post 6 weeks of training and 8 weeks after the end of training. After 6 weeks of treadmill training in participants from the resistance training group, fast walking speed and 6-minute walk distance significantly improved (18% and 30% increases, respectively), and 6-minute walk distance was still significantly greater than that at baseline (35% increase) 8 weeks after the end of training. In contrast, overground gait speed and 6-minute walk distance had no significant changes after robotic assistance training. The results of the present study indicated that robotic resistance treadmill training is more effective than assistance training in improving locomotor function in children with CP. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sculpturing the electron wave function using nanoscale phase masks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiloh, Roy, E-mail: royshilo@post.tau.ac.il; Lereah, Yossi; Lilach, Yigal; Arie, Ady

    2014-09-15

    Electron beams are extensively used in lithography, microscopy, material studies and electronic chip inspection. Today, beams are mainly shaped using magnetic or electric forces, enabling only simple shaping tasks such as focusing or scanning. Recently, binary amplitude gratings achieved complex shapes. These, however, generate multiple diffraction orders, hence the desired shape, appearing only in one order, retains little of the beam energy. Here we demonstrate a method in electron-optics for arbitrarily shaping electron beams into a single desired shape, by precise patterning of a thin-membrane. It is conceptually similar to shaping light beams using refractive or diffractive glass elements such as lenses or holograms – rather than applying electromagnetic forces, the beam is controlled by spatially modulating its wavefront. Our method allows for nearly-maximal energy transference to the designed shape, and may avoid physical damage and charging effects that are the scorn of commonly-used (e.g. Zernike and Hilbert) phase-plates. The experimental demonstrations presented here – on-axis Hermite–Gauss and Laguerre–Gauss (vortex) beams, and computer-generated holograms – are a first example of nearly-arbitrary manipulation of electron beams. Our results herald exciting prospects for microscopic material studies, enables electron lithography with fixed sample and beam and high resolution electronic chip inspection by structured electron illumination. - Highlights: • Nanoscale-patterned membranes are used to shape electron beams. • Designing on-axis phase plates outside the back focal plane is possible. • Computer-generated holograms enable nearly-arbitrary beam shaping. • Applications in microscopy, lithography, chip inspection and material sciences.

  4. Randomized phase 1b trial of MOR103, a human antibody to GM-CSF, in multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinescu, Cris S.; Asher, Aliya; Fryze, Waldemar; Kozubski, Wojciech; Wagner, Frank; Aram, Jehan; Tanasescu, Radu; Korolkiewicz, Roman P.; Dirnberger-Hertweck, Maren; Steidl, Stefan; Libretto, Susan E.; Sprenger, Till; Radue, Ernst W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and immunogenicity of the recombinant human monoclonal antibody MOR103 to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) with clinical or MRI activity. Methods: In this 20-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1b dose-escalation trial (registration number NCT01517282), adults with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) or secondary progressive MS (SPMS) received an IV infu...

  5. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning decoupled: invariant ecosystem functioning despite non-random reductions in consumer diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radchuk, V.; Leander, de F.; Brink, van den P.J.; Grimm, V.

    2016-01-01

    Most research that demonstrates enhancement and stabilization of ecosystem functioning due to biodiversity is based on biodiversity manipulations within one trophic level and measuring changes in ecosystem functions provided by that same trophic level. However, it is less understood whether and how

  6. Liquid-phase exfoliated graphene: functionalization, characterization, and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildred Quintana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of chemical strategies to render graphene viable for incorporation into devices is a great challenge. A promising approach is the production of stable graphene dispersions from the exfoliation of graphite in water and organic solvents. The challenges involve the production of a large quantity of graphene sheets with tailored distribution in thickness, size, and shape. In this review, we present some of the recent efforts towards the controlled production of graphene in dispersions. We also describe some of the chemical protocols that have provided insight into the vast organic chemistry of the single atomic plane of graphite. Controlled chemical reactions applied to graphene are expected to significantly improve the design of hierarchical, functional platforms, driving the inclusion of graphene into advanced functional materials forward.

  7. Random Number Generation and Executive Functions in Parkinson's Disease: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münte, Thomas F; Joppich, Gregor; Däuper, Jan; Schrader, Christoph; Dengler, Reinhard; Heldmann, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The generation of random sequences is considered to tax executive functions and has been reported to be impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD) previously. To assess the neurophysiological markers of random number generation in PD. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded in 12 PD patients and 12 age-matched normal controls (NC) while either engaging in random number generation (RNG) by pressing the number keys on a computer keyboard in a random sequence or in ordered number generation (ONG) necessitating key presses in the canonical order. Key presses were paced by an external auditory stimulus at a rate of 1 tone every 1800 ms. As a secondary task subjects had to monitor the tone-sequence for a particular target tone to which the number "0" key had to be pressed. This target tone occurred randomly and infrequently, thus creating a secondary oddball task. Behaviorally, PD patients showed an increased tendency to count in steps of one as well as a tendency towards repetition avoidance. Electrophysiologically, the amplitude of the P3 component of the ERP to the target tone of the secondary task was reduced during RNG in PD but not in NC. The behavioral findings indicate less random behavior in PD while the ERP findings suggest that this impairment comes about, because attentional resources are depleted in PD.

  8. Random Wiring, Ganglion Cell Mosaics, and the Functional Architecture of the Visual Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Schottdorf

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The architecture of iso-orientation domains in the primary visual cortex (V1 of placental carnivores and primates apparently follows species invariant quantitative laws. Dynamical optimization models assuming that neurons coordinate their stimulus preferences throughout cortical circuits linking millions of cells specifically predict these invariants. This might indicate that V1's intrinsic connectome and its functional architecture adhere to a single optimization principle with high precision and robustness. To validate this hypothesis, it is critical to closely examine the quantitative predictions of alternative candidate theories. Random feedforward wiring within the retino-cortical pathway represents a conceptually appealing alternative to dynamical circuit optimization because random dimension-expanding projections are believed to generically exhibit computationally favorable properties for stimulus representations. Here, we ask whether the quantitative invariants of V1 architecture can be explained as a generic emergent property of random wiring. We generalize and examine the stochastic wiring model proposed by Ringach and coworkers, in which iso-orientation domains in the visual cortex arise through random feedforward connections between semi-regular mosaics of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and visual cortical neurons. We derive closed-form expressions for cortical receptive fields and domain layouts predicted by the model for perfectly hexagonal RGC mosaics. Including spatial disorder in the RGC positions considerably changes the domain layout properties as a function of disorder parameters such as position scatter and its correlations across the retina. However, independent of parameter choice, we find that the model predictions substantially deviate from the layout laws of iso-orientation domains observed experimentally. Considering random wiring with the currently most realistic model of RGC mosaic layouts, a pairwise interacting point

  9. Dynamic functional-structural coupling within acute functional state change phases: Evidence from a depression recognition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Kun; Hua, Lingling; Wei, Maobin; Qin, Jiaolong; Lu, Qing; Yao, Zhijian

    2016-02-01

    Dynamic functional-structural connectivity (FC-SC) coupling might reflect the flexibility by which SC relates to functional connectivity (FC). However, during the dynamic acute state change phases of FC, the relationship between FC and SC may be distinctive and embody the abnormality inherent in depression. This study investigated the depression-related inter-network FC-SC coupling within particular dynamic acute state change phases of FC. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were collected from 26 depressive patients (13 women) and 26 age-matched controls (13 women). We constructed functional brain networks based on MEG data and structural networks from DTI data. The dynamic connectivity regression algorithm was used to identify the state change points of a time series of inter-network FC. The time period of FC that contained change points were partitioned into types of dynamic phases (acute rising phase, acute falling phase,acute rising and falling phase and abrupt FC variation phase) to explore the inter-network FC-SC coupling. The selected FC-SC couplings were then fed into the support vector machine (SVM) for depression recognition. The best discrimination accuracy was 82.7% (P=0.0069) with FC-SC couplings, particularly in the acute rising phase of FC. Within the FC phases of interest, the significant discriminative network pair was related to the salience network vs ventral attention network (SN-VAN) (P=0.0126) during the early rising phase (70-170ms). This study suffers from a small sample size, and the individual acute length of the state change phases was not considered. The increased values of significant discriminative vectors of FC-SC coupling in depression suggested that the capacity to process negative emotion might be more directly related to the SC abnormally and be indicative of more stringent and less dynamic brain function in SN-VAN, especially in the acute rising phase of FC. We demonstrated that depressive brain

  10. Testing two different doses of tiotropium Respimat® in cystic fibrosis: phase 2 randomized trial results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy M Bradley

    Full Text Available Tiotropium is a once-daily, long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator with the potential to alleviate airway obstruction in cystic fibrosis. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 2.5 and 5 µg once-daily tiotropium delivered via the Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler vs. placebo in people with cystic fibrosis.This phase 2, 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group study of tiotropium Respimat as add-on to usual cystic fibrosis maintenance therapy included people with cystic fibrosis with pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ≥ 25% predicted. Co-primary efficacy end points were change from baseline in percent-predicted FEV1 area under the curve from 0 to 4 hours (FEV1 AUC0-4h, and trough FEV1 at the end of week 12.A total of 510 subjects with cystic fibrosis aged 5-69 years were randomized. Both doses of tiotropium resulted in significant improvement compared with placebo in the co-primary efficacy end points at the end of week 12 (change from baseline in percent-predicted FEV1 AUC0-4h: 2.5 µg: 2.94%, 95% confidence interval 1.19-4.70, p = 0.001; 5 µg: 3.39%, 95% confidence interval 1.67-5.12, p = 0.0001; in percent-predicted trough FEV1 ∶ 2.5 µg: 2.24%, p = 0.2; 5 µg: 2.22%, p = 0.02. There was a greater benefit with tiotropium 5 vs. 2.5 µg. No treatment-related adverse events or unexpected safety findings were observed in patients taking tiotropium.Tiotropium significantly improved lung function in people with cystic fibrosis. The improvement was greater with the higher dose than the lower dose, with no difference in adverse events.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00737100 EudraCT 2008-001156-43.

  11. Functional redundancy patterns reveal non-random assembly rules in a species-rich marine assemblage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guillemot

    Full Text Available The relationship between species and the functional diversity of assemblages is fundamental in ecology because it contains key information on functional redundancy, and functionally redundant ecosystems are thought to be more resilient, resistant and stable. However, this relationship is poorly understood and undocumented for species-rich coastal marine ecosystems. Here, we used underwater visual censuses to examine the patterns of functional redundancy for one of the most diverse vertebrate assemblages, the coral reef fishes of New Caledonia, South Pacific. First, we found that the relationship between functional and species diversity displayed a non-asymptotic power-shaped curve, implying that rare functions and species mainly occur in highly diverse assemblages. Second, we showed that the distribution of species amongst possible functions was significantly different from a random distribution up to a threshold of ∼90 species/transect. Redundancy patterns for each function further revealed that some functions displayed fast rates of increase in redundancy at low species diversity, whereas others were only becoming redundant past a certain threshold. This suggested non-random assembly rules and the existence of some primordial functions that would need to be fulfilled in priority so that coral reef fish assemblages can gain a basic ecological structure. Last, we found little effect of habitat on the shape of the functional-species diversity relationship and on the redundancy of functions, although habitat is known to largely determine assemblage characteristics such as species composition, biomass, and abundance. Our study shows that low functional redundancy is characteristic of this highly diverse fish assemblage, and, therefore, that even species-rich ecosystems such as coral reefs may be vulnerable to the removal of a few keystone species.

  12. A randomized, controlled, phase 2 study of AMG 317, an IL-4Ralpha antagonist, in patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corren, Jonathan; Busse, William; Meltzer, Eli O; Mansfield, Lyndon; Bensch, George; Fahrenholz, John; Wenzel, Sally E; Chon, Yun; Dunn, Meleana; Weng, Haoling H; Lin, Shao-Lee

    2010-04-15

    IL-4 and IL-13 share many biological functions important in the development of allergic airway inflammation and are implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. AMG 317 is a fully human monoclonal antibody to IL-4Ralpha that blocks both IL-4 and IL-13 pathways. To evaluate efficacy and safety of AMG 317 in patients with moderate to severe asthma. In this phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients received weekly subcutaneous injections of placebo or AMG 317 (75-300 mg) for 12 weeks, followed by a 4-week follow-up period. The primary endpoint was change from baseline at Week 12 in Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) symptom score. Mean ACQ change (SE) was -0.49 (0.09) in placebo (n = 74), and -0.43 (0.11), -0.58 (0.12), and -0.70 (0.09) in the AMG 317 75 mg (n = 73), 150 mg (n = 73), and 300 mg (n = 74) groups, respectively (treatment effect P = 0.25). No statistically significant differences were observed in the secondary endpoints. Numerical decreases in number of and time to exacerbations were noted in patients receiving AMG 317 150 mg and 300 mg. Preplanned analyses by tertile of baseline ACQ revealed that patients with higher baseline ACQ scores (>or=2.86) were more likely to respond to AMG 317. Serious adverse events were reported in three patients, each noted as not related to study drug. AMG 317 did not demonstrate clinical efficacy across the overall group of patients. Clinically significant improvements were observed in several outcome measures in patients with higher baseline ACQ scores. AMG 317 was safe and well tolerated in this study population. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00436670).

  13. Hemodynamic and glucometabolic factors fail to predict renal function in a random population sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, M.; Nielsen, M.; Olesen, Thomas Bastholm

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether baseline hemodynamic and/or glucometabolic risk factors could predict renal function at follow-up, independently of baseline serum creatinine, in survivors from a random population sample. Design and method: We examined associations between baseline serum creatinine...... indices of beta-cell function (HOMA-2B), insulin sensitivity (HOMA-2S), and insulin resistance (HOMA-2IR)), traditional cardiovascular risk factors (age, sex, smoking status, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, total serum cholesterol), and later renal function determined as serum cystatin C in 238 men...... and 7 women aged 38 to 49 years at the time of inclusion, using multivariable linear regression analysis (p-entry 0.05, p-removal 0.20). Study subjects came from a random population based sample and were included 1974-1992, whilst the follow-up with cystatin C measurement was performed 2002...

  14. LED Lighting System Reliability Modeling and Inference via Random Effects Gamma Process and Copula Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibing Hao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Light emitting diode (LED lamp has attracted increasing interest in the field of lighting systems due to its low energy and long lifetime. For different functions (i.e., illumination and color, it may have two or more performance characteristics. When the multiple performance characteristics are dependent, it creates a challenging problem to accurately analyze the system reliability. In this paper, we assume that the system has two performance characteristics, and each performance characteristic is governed by a random effects Gamma process where the random effects can capture the unit to unit differences. The dependency of performance characteristics is described by a Frank copula function. Via the copula function, the reliability assessment model is proposed. Considering the model is so complicated and analytically intractable, the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method is used to estimate the unknown parameters. A numerical example about actual LED lamps data is given to demonstrate the usefulness and validity of the proposed model and method.

  15. Hazard Function Estimation with Cause-of-Death Data Missing at Random.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qihua; Dinse, Gregg E; Liu, Chunling

    2012-04-01

    Hazard function estimation is an important part of survival analysis. Interest often centers on estimating the hazard function associated with a particular cause of death. We propose three nonparametric kernel estimators for the hazard function, all of which are appropriate when death times are subject to random censorship and censoring indicators can be missing at random. Specifically, we present a regression surrogate estimator, an imputation estimator, and an inverse probability weighted estimator. All three estimators are uniformly strongly consistent and asymptotically normal. We derive asymptotic representations of the mean squared error and the mean integrated squared error for these estimators and we discuss a data-driven bandwidth selection method. A simulation study, conducted to assess finite sample behavior, demonstrates that the proposed hazard estimators perform relatively well. We illustrate our methods with an analysis of some vascular disease data.

  16. Modified step aerobics training and neuromuscular function in osteoporotic patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Martin; Müller, Karoline; Kilb, Jill-Isabel; Schleese, Lennart; Herlyn, Philipp K E; Bruhn, Sven; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Schober, Hans-Christof; Fischer, Dagmar-C

    2017-02-01

    Training programs directed to improve neuromuscular and musculoskeletal function of the legs are scarce with respect to older osteoporotic patients. We hypothesized that a modified step aerobics training program might be suitable for this purpose and performed a randomized controlled pilot study to assess the feasibility of conducting a large study. Here we report on the training-related effects on neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors. Twenty-seven patients with an age of at least 65 years were enrolled and randomized into control and intervention group. The latter received supervised modified step aerobics training (twice weekly, 1 h per session) over a period of 6 months. At baseline, and after 3 and 6 months neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors, i.e., isometric maximum voluntary torque, rate of torque development and twitch torque parameters were determined in detail in all patients of both groups. Twenty-seven patients (median age 75 years; range 66-84 years) were randomized (control group n = 14; intervention group n = 13). After 3 and 6 months of training, maximum voluntary contraction strength in the intervention group was significantly higher by 7.7 Nm (9.1%; 95% CI 3.3-12.2 Nm, P training program in a large randomized trial. However, a detailed neuromuscular assessment appears feasible only in a subset of participants.

  17. Object performance as a function of pileup density for CMS PhaseII

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This document collects the performance of physics objects (electrons, muons, taus, jets, MET) reconstructed with the CMS Phase-2 upgraded detector as a function of the pileup density for the High Luminosity LHC environment of 200 PU.

  18. Randomization and resilience of brain functional networks as systems-level endophenotypes of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chun-Yi Zac; Su, Tsung-Wei; Huang, Chu-Chung; Hung, Chia-Chun; Chen, Wei-Ling; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Lin, Ching-Po; Bullmore, Edward T

    2015-07-21

    Schizophrenia is increasingly conceived as a disorder of brain network organization or dysconnectivity syndrome. Functional MRI (fMRI) networks in schizophrenia have been characterized by abnormally random topology. We tested the hypothesis that network randomization is an endophenotype of schizophrenia and therefore evident also in nonpsychotic relatives of patients. Head movement-corrected, resting-state fMRI data were acquired from 25 patients with schizophrenia, 25 first-degree relatives of patients, and 29 healthy volunteers. Graphs were used to model functional connectivity as a set of edges between regional nodes. We estimated the topological efficiency, clustering, degree distribution, resilience, and connection distance (in millimeters) of each functional network. The schizophrenic group demonstrated significant randomization of global network metrics (reduced clustering, greater efficiency), a shift in the degree distribution to a more homogeneous form (fewer hubs), a shift in the distance distribution (proportionally more long-distance edges), and greater resilience to targeted attack on network hubs. The networks of the relatives also demonstrated abnormal randomization and resilience compared with healthy volunteers, but they were typically less topologically abnormal than the patients' networks and did not have abnormal connection distances. We conclude that schizophrenia is associated with replicable and convergent evidence for functional network randomization, and a similar topological profile was evident also in nonpsychotic relatives, suggesting that this is a systems-level endophenotype or marker of familial risk. We speculate that the greater resilience of brain networks may confer some fitness advantages on nonpsychotic relatives that could explain persistence of this endophenotype in the population.

  19. Two-dimensional Green's functions for fluid and thermoelastic two-phase plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Fei Hou

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The two-dimensional Green's functions for a steady-state line heat source in the interior of fluid and thermoelastic two-phase plane are derived in this paper. By virtue of the compact two-dimensional general solutions which are expressed in harmonic functions, four newly introduced harmonic functions with undetermined constants are constructed. Then, all the thermoelastic components in the fluid and thermoelastic two-phase plane can be derived by substituting these harmonic functions into the corresponding general solutions. And the undetermined constants can be obtained by the corresponding conditions of compatibility, boundary and equilibrium. Numerical results are given graphically by contours.

  20. General post-Minkowskian expansion and application of the phase function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Cheng-Gang; Shao, Cheng-Gang

    2017-07-01

    The phase function is a useful tool to study all observations of space missions, since it can give all the information about light propagation in a gravitational field. For the extreme accuracy of the modern space missions, a precise relativistic modeling of observations is required. So, we develop a recursive procedure enabling us to expand the phase function into a perturbative series of ascending powers of the Newtonian gravitational constant. Any n th-order perturbation of the phase function can be determined by the integral along the straight line connecting two point events. To illustrate the result, we carry out the calculation of the phase function outside a static, spherically symmetric body up to the order of G2. Then, we develop a precise relativistic model that is able to calculate the phase function and the derivatives of the phase function in the gravitational field of rotating and uniformly moving bodies. This model allows the computing of the Doppler, radio science, and astrometric observables of the space missions in the Solar System. With the development of space technology, the relativistic corrections due to the motion of a planet's spin must be considered in the high-precision space missions in the near future. As an example, we give the estimates of the relativistic corrections on the observables about the space missions TianQin and BEACON.

  1. A 12-Week Physical and Cognitive Exercise Program Can Improve Cognitive Function and Neural Efficiency in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Shu; Yamada, Minoru; Tanigawa, Takanori; Sekiyama, Kaoru; Kawagoe, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Maki; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Abe, Nobuhito; Otsuka, Yuki; Nakai, Ryusuke; Aoyama, Tomoki; Tsuboyama, Tadao

    2015-07-01

    To investigate whether a 12-week physical and cognitive exercise program can improve cognitive function and brain activation efficiency in community-dwelling older adults. Randomized controlled trial. Kyoto, Japan. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 48) were randomized into an exercise group (n = 24) and a control group (n = 24). Exercise group participants received a weekly dual task-based multimodal exercise class in combination with pedometer-based daily walking exercise during the 12-week intervention phase. Control group participants did not receive any intervention and were instructed to spend their time as usual during the intervention phase. The outcome measures were global cognitive function, memory function, executive function, and brain activation (measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging) associated with visual short-term memory. Exercise group participants had significantly greater postintervention improvement in memory and executive functions than the control group (P brain regions associated with visual short-term memory, including the prefrontal cortex, in the exercise group (P physical and cognitive exercise program can improve the efficiency of brain activation during cognitive tasks in older adults, which is associated with improvements in memory and executive function. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Concentration inequalities for functions of Gibbs fields with application to diffraction and random Gibbs measures

    CERN Document Server

    Külske, C

    2003-01-01

    We derive useful general concentration inequalities for functions of Gibbs fields in the uniqueness regime. We also consider expectations of random Gibbs measures that depend on an additional disorder field, and prove concentration w.r.t the disorder field. Both fields are assumed to be in the uniqueness regime, allowing in particular for non-independent disorder field. The modification of the bounds compared to the case of an independent field can be expressed in terms of constants that resemble the Dobrushin contraction coefficient, and are explicitly computable. On the basis of these inequalities, we obtain bounds on the deviation of a diffraction pattern created by random scatterers located on a general discrete point set in the Euclidean space, restricted to a finite volume. Here we also allow for thermal dislocations of the scatterers around their equilibrium positions. Extending recent results for independent scatterers, we give a universal upper bound on the probability of a deviation of the random sc...

  3. Accuracy and uncertainty in random speckle modulation transfer function measurement of infrared focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Kenneth J.; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Plummer, Philip J.

    2016-12-01

    This paper expands upon a previously reported random speckle technique for measuring the modulation transfer function of midwave infrared focal plane arrays by considering a number of factors that impact the accuracy of the estimated modulation transfer function. These factors arise from assumptions in the theoretical derivation and bias in the estimation procedure. Each factor is examined and guidelines are determined to maintain accuracy within 2% of the true value. The uncertainty of the measurement is found by applying a one-factor ANOVA analysis and confidence intervals are established for the results. The small magnitude of the confidence intervals indicates a very robust technique capable of distinguishing differences in modulation transfer function among focal plane arrays on the order of a few percent. This analysis directly indicates the high quality of the random speckle modulation transfer function measurement technique. The methodology is applied to a focal plane array and results are presented that emphasize the need for generating independent random speckle realizations to accurately assess measured values.

  4. Circadian phase preference in college students: relationships with psychological functioning and academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Daniel J; Clay, Kendra C; Bramoweth, Adam D; Sethi, Kevin; Roane, Brandy M

    2011-07-01

    The current study offers a comprehensive assessment of psychosocial functioning and academic performance in relation to circadian phase preference in a US sample of undergraduate college students (N = 838), aged 17-26 (M = 19.78, SD = 1.89). Women had greater morning preference than men, and seniors had greater morning preference than freshmen. Circadian phase preference, fatigue, perceived stress, depression, anxiety, and substance use were assessed cross-sectionally and grade point average (GPA) was assessed prospectively. Evening phase preference was related to higher levels of fatigue, alcohol and caffeine use, and worse academic performance than morning or intermediate phase preferences.

  5. Efficacy of an Ayurvedic Formulation for Mild-to-moderate Osteoarthritis: A Phase 3, Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Milind Dattatraya; Barde, Mohini Prajak

    2017-01-01

    Context • Current treatment options offer only symptomatic pain relief for patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, a need exists for effective treatment of the disability-causing disease. The proprietary polyherbal formulation, Nartana, has been used for several years for OA. Objective • The study intended to compare the benefits of the herbal formulation with those of routinely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for patients with mild-to-moderate OA. Design • The research team designed a phase 3, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized controlled study. Setting • The study was conducted at 2 hospital sites in Pune, India. Participants • The participants were 80 outpatients with OA at the hospitals. Intervention • The participants were randomly assigned to receive either the intervention (herbal formulation) or the active control (diclofenac) for 12 wk. The herbal formulation group received 450 mg of Nartana capsule and diclofenac-matching placebo. Treatment was given 2 ×/d for first 15 d and then 1 ×/d until the end of the study. The control group received 50 mg of diclofenac tablet 2 ×/d for first 15 d and then 100 mg of diclofenac tablet 1 ×/d and a Nartana-matching placebo until end of the study. Outcome Measures • To measure efficacy, the study used the modified Center for Rheumatic Diseases Pune version of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA index (WOMAC) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). The study also measured overall perceived pain relief. The primary outcome measure was the change in the combined WOMAC score from baseline to postintervention (12 wk). Safety and other efficacy measures were the secondary end points. Results • The herbal formulation and diclofenac groups matched well at baseline for demographic profile, disease status, and WOMAC scores. The combined WOMAC scores were significantly reduced from baseline to postintervention for both groups (P < .01). The earliest significant

  6. Functional training reduces body fat and improves functional fitness and cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Lucas M; Fortaleza, Ana C; Rossi, Fabrício E; Diniz, Tiego A; Codogno, Jamile S; Gobbo, Luis A; Gobbi, Sebastião; Freitas, Ismael F

    2017-04-01

    This randomized clinical trial with concealed allocations, and blinding of the assessors and the data analyst, was aimed at determining the effects of 16 weeks of functional training on the body composition, functional fitness and lipid profiles in postmenopausal women. The study began with 64 subjects (N.=32 functional training and N.=32 control group) and ended with 50 subjects (N.=28 functional training and N.=22 control group). The exercise was conducted in circuit training format with 8 stations related to the development of muscular strength (using elastic bands for resistance) plus 3 stations focused on balance, coordination, and agility. The training session also incorporated an 18 to 30 minute walk. The control group did not participate in the exercise programs during the period of study. The participants were evaluated before and after the training period as regards their body composition (fat and lean mass), functional fitness, abdominal strength and blood chemistry variables. Significant reductions were observed in all body composition variables related to fat (FM= -3.4 and Android FM= -7.7%) (Pfunctional fitness components had significant improvements in coordination (-33.3%), strength (66.5%), agility (-19.5%) and aerobic capacity (-7%), and significant improvement in abdominal strength (188.2%). We observed significant improvements in total cholesterol (-4.4%) and HDL (-9.9%). The observed data lead us to conclude that functional training utilizing with elastic bands and unstable bases causes significantly improved in body composition, functional fitness and lipid profiles.

  7. Longitudinal social-interpersonal functioning among higher-risk responders to acute-phase cognitive therapy for recurrent major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E; Jarrett, Robin B

    2016-07-15

    Social-interpersonal dysfunction increases disability in major depressive disorder (MDD). Here we clarified the durability of improvements in social-interpersonal functioning made during acute-phase cognitive therapy (CT), whether continuation CT (C-CT) or fluoxetine (FLX) further improved functioning, and relations of functioning with depressive symptoms and relapse/recurrence. Adult outpatients (N=241) with recurrent MDD who responded to acute-phase CT with higher risk of relapse (due to unstable or partial remission) were randomized to 8 months of C-CT, FLX, or pill placebo plus clinical management (PBO) and followed 24 additional months. We analyzed repeated measures of patients' social adjustment, interpersonal problems, dyadic adjustment, depressive symptoms, and major depressive relapse/recurrence. Large improvements in social-interpersonal functioning occurring during acute-phase CT (median d=1.4) were maintained, with many patients (median=66%) scoring in normal ranges for 32 months. Social-interpersonal functioning did not differ significantly among C-CT, FLX, and PBO arms. Beyond concurrently measured residual symptoms, deterioration in social-interpersonal functioning preceded and predicted upticks in depressive symptoms and major depressive relapse/recurrence. Results may not generalize to other patient populations, treatment protocols, or measures of social-interpersonal functioning. Mechanisms of risk connecting poorer social-interpersonal functioning with depression were not studied. Average improvements in social-interpersonal functioning among higher-risk responders to acute phase CT are durable for 32 months. After acute-phase CT, C-CT or FLX may not further improve social-interpersonal functioning. Among acute-phase CT responders, deteriorating social-interpersonal functioning provides a clear, measurable signal of risk for impending major depressive relapse/recurrence and opportunity for preemptive intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  8. Functional electrical stimulation therapy for grasping in traumatic incomplete spinal cord injury: randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Naaz M; Zivanovic, Vera; Furlan, Julio C; Craven, B Cathy; McGillivray, Colleen; Popovic, Milos R

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this single-site randomized control trial was to assess the short-term and long-term efficacy of functional electrical stimulation (FES) therapy over conventional occupational therapy in improving voluntary hand function in incomplete C4-C7 spinal cord injury individuals. All 22 participants recruited in this randomized control trial received treatment for both the left and right upper extremities. Every participant, irrespective of group allocation, received one dose (60 min per day, 5 days per week for the duration of 8 weeks) of conventional occupational therapy for hand function. Of the 22 participants, 12 individuals received an additional dose of conventional occupational therapy, while the remaining 10 participants received a dose of FES hand therapy. The primary outcome measure was Functional Independence Measure (FIM) self-care subscore. The secondary outcome measures were Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) self-care subscore and Toronto Rehabilitation Institute Hand Function Test (TRI-HFT). The participants who received FES therapy showed significantly greater improvements in hand function at discharge, and were able to maintain their gains at long-term follow-up as assessed using FIM self-care subscore, SCIM self-care subscore, and TRI-HFT. The FES therapy effectively increased independence and thereby improved quality of life of individuals with tetraplegia when compared with conventional occupational therapy. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Enhancing physical function in HIV-infected older adults: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Krupa N; Majeed, Zahraa; Yoruk, Yilmaz B; Yang, Hongmei; Hilton, Tiffany N; McMahon, James M; Hall, William J; Walck, Donna; Luque, Amneris E; Ryan, Richard M

    2016-06-01

    HIV-infected older adults (HOA) are at risk of functional decline. Interventions promoting physical activity that can attenuate functional decline and are easily translated into the HOA community are of high priority. We conducted a randomized, controlled clinical trial to evaluate whether a physical activity counseling intervention based on self-determination theory (SDT) improves physical function, autonomous motivation, depression and the quality of life (QOL) in HOA. In total, 67 community-dwelling HOA with mild-to-moderate functional limitations were randomized to 1 of 2 groups: a physical activity counseling group or the usual care control group. We used SDT to guide the development of the experimental intervention. Outcome measures that were collected at baseline and final study visits included a battery of physical function tests, levels of physical activity, autonomous motivation, depression, and QOL. The study participants were similar in their demographic and clinical characteristics in both the treatment and control groups. Overall physical performance, gait speed, measures of endurance and strength, and levels of physical activity improved in the treatment group compared to the control group (p autonomous regulation such as identified regulation, and measures of depression and QOL improved significantly in the treatment group compared with the control group (p autonomous motivation, depression, and QOL in HOA with functional limitations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Prediction of detailed enzyme functions and identification of specificity determining residues by random forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioko Nagao

    Full Text Available Determining enzyme functions is essential for a thorough understanding of cellular processes. Although many prediction methods have been developed, it remains a significant challenge to predict enzyme functions at the fourth-digit level of the Enzyme Commission numbers. Functional specificity of enzymes often changes drastically by mutations of a small number of residues and therefore, information about these critical residues can potentially help discriminate detailed functions. However, because these residues must be identified by mutagenesis experiments, the available information is limited, and the lack of experimentally verified specificity determining residues (SDRs has hindered the development of detailed function prediction methods and computational identification of SDRs. Here we present a novel method for predicting enzyme functions by random forests, EFPrf, along with a set of putative SDRs, the random forests derived SDRs (rf-SDRs. EFPrf consists of a set of binary predictors for enzymes in each CATH superfamily and the rf-SDRs are the residue positions corresponding to the most highly contributing attributes obtained from each predictor. EFPrf showed a precision of 0.98 and a recall of 0.89 in a cross-validated benchmark assessment. The rf-SDRs included many residues, whose importance for specificity had been validated experimentally. The analysis of the rf-SDRs revealed both a general tendency that functionally diverged superfamilies tend to include more active site residues in their rf-SDRs than in less diverged superfamilies, and superfamily-specific conservation patterns of each functional residue. EFPrf and the rf-SDRs will be an effective tool for annotating enzyme functions and for understanding how enzyme functions have diverged within each superfamily.

  11. Prediction of Detailed Enzyme Functions and Identification of Specificity Determining Residues by Random Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Chioko; Nagano, Nozomi; Mizuguchi, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Determining enzyme functions is essential for a thorough understanding of cellular processes. Although many prediction methods have been developed, it remains a significant challenge to predict enzyme functions at the fourth-digit level of the Enzyme Commission numbers. Functional specificity of enzymes often changes drastically by mutations of a small number of residues and therefore, information about these critical residues can potentially help discriminate detailed functions. However, because these residues must be identified by mutagenesis experiments, the available information is limited, and the lack of experimentally verified specificity determining residues (SDRs) has hindered the development of detailed function prediction methods and computational identification of SDRs. Here we present a novel method for predicting enzyme functions by random forests, EFPrf, along with a set of putative SDRs, the random forests derived SDRs (rf-SDRs). EFPrf consists of a set of binary predictors for enzymes in each CATH superfamily and the rf-SDRs are the residue positions corresponding to the most highly contributing attributes obtained from each predictor. EFPrf showed a precision of 0.98 and a recall of 0.89 in a cross-validated benchmark assessment. The rf-SDRs included many residues, whose importance for specificity had been validated experimentally. The analysis of the rf-SDRs revealed both a general tendency that functionally diverged superfamilies tend to include more active site residues in their rf-SDRs than in less diverged superfamilies, and superfamily-specific conservation patterns of each functional residue. EFPrf and the rf-SDRs will be an effective tool for annotating enzyme functions and for understanding how enzyme functions have diverged within each superfamily. PMID:24416252

  12. Why the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid functional description of VO2 phases is not correct

    KAUST Repository

    Grau-Crespo, Ricardo

    2012-08-06

    In contrast with recent claims that the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) screened hybrid functional can provide a good description of the electronic and magnetic structures of VO2 phases, we show here that the HSE lowest-energy solutions for both the low-temperature monoclinic (M1) phase and the high-temperature rutile (R) phase, which are obtained upon inclusion of spin polarization, are at odds with experimental observations. For the M1 phase the ground state is (but should not be) magnetic, while the ground state of the R phase, which is also spin polarized, is not (but should be) metallic. The energy difference between the low-temperature and high-temperature phases has strong discrepancies with the experimental latent heat.

  13. Non-canonical spectral decomposition of random functions of the traction voltage and current in electric transportation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Kostin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the non-canonical spectral decomposition of random functions of the traction voltages and currents. This decomposition is adapted for the electric transportation systems. The numerical representation is carried out for the random function of voltage on the pantograph of electric locomotives VL8 and DE1.

  14. Comparison between amniotomy, oxytocin or both for augmentation of labor in prolonged latent phase: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalev Eliezer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prolonged latent phase is independently associated with an increased incidence of subsequent labor abnormalities. We aimed to compare between oxytocin augmentation, amniotomy and a combination of both on the duration of labor among women with a prolonged latent phase. Methods Women with a singleton fetus in cephalic presentation who have a prolonged latent phase, were randomly allocated to amniotomy (group 1, oxytocin (group 2 or both (group 3. A group of women who progressed spontaneously without intervention composed the control group (group 4. The primary outcome was the duration of time from initiation of augmentation until delivery. Results A total of 213 women were consented and randomized to group 1 (70 women, group 2 (72 women and group 3 (71 women. Group 4 was composed from additional 70 women. A mean reduction of 120 minutes in labor duration was observed among group 3 compared to group 1 (p = 0.08 and 180 minutes compared to group 2 and 4 (p = 0.001. Women in group 3 had a shorter length of time from augmentation until the beginning of the active phase and a shorter first stage of labor than group 1 (p = 0.03, group 2 (p = 0.001 and group 4 (p = 0.001. Satisfaction was greater among group 3 and 4. Mode of delivery and neonatal outcome were comparable between the groups. Conclusion Labor augmentation by combined amniotomy and oxytocin among women with a prolonged latent phase at term seems superior compared to either of them alone.

  15. Is there a spin-glass phase in the random temperature Ising ferromagnet?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarjus, Gilles; Dotsenko, Victor [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique des Liquides, UMR 7600, Universite Paris VI, Paris (France)

    2002-02-22

    In this paper we study the phase diagram of the disordered Ising ferromagnet. Within the framework of the Gaussian variational approximation it is shown that in systems with a finite value of the disorder in dimensions D=4 and D<4 the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases are separated by a spin-glass phase. The transition from paramagnetic to spin-glass state is continuous (second order), whereas the transition between spin-glass and ferromagnetic states is discontinuous (first order). It is also shown that within the considered approximation there is no replica symmetry breaking in the spin-glass phase. The validity of the Gaussian variational approximation for the present problem is discussed, and we provide a tentative physical interpretation of the results. (author)

  16. Orlistat in clozapine- or olanzapine-treated patients with overweight or obesity: a 16-week open-label extension phase and both phases of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchoukhine, Evgueni; Takala, Pirjo; Hakko, Helinä; Raidma, Mirjam; Putkonen, Hanna; Räsänen, Pirkko; Terevnikov, Viacheslav; Stenberg, Jan-Henry; Eronen, Markku; Joffe, Grigori

    2011-03-01

    To explore long-term effects of orlistat in adult clozapine- or olanzapine-treated patients with DSM-IV-diagnosed schizophrenia and overweight or obesity who tolerate orlistat. Orlistat or placebo was added to clozapine or olanzapine in stable doses in a 16-week randomized controlled trial. Open-label orlistat was added to the antipsychotics during a 16-week extension phase for those completing the double-blind phase. No low-calorie diet or participation in behavioral programs was required. Body weight (primary outcome) and some metabolic parameters were measured prospectively. Analyses were performed for those completing both phases (ie, population differing from that reported earlier). The study was conducted from 2004 through 2005. During the open-label phase, the 44 patients experienced mean ± SD body weight loss of -1.29 ± 3.04 kg, P = .007. During both phases, men (but not women) showed a weight loss of -2.39 ± 5.45 kg, P = .023. Some subgroups showed desirable changes in several metabolic parameters. Prolonged (32 weeks) orlistat treatment yielded no additional benefits as compared to short (16 weeks) treatment. In clozapine- or olanzapine-treated overweight or obese patients able to take orlistat on a long-term basis, the drug, with no concomitant hypocaloric diet or behavioral interventions, caused moderate weight loss only in men. However, some metabolic benefits may be achieved independently of weight changes. In patients who do not respond to orlistat within the first 16 weeks, continuation treatment may provide no additional benefits. controlled-trials.com Identifier: ISRCTN65731856. © Copyright 2011 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  17. Functional Stretching Exercise Submitted for Spastic Diplegic Children: A Randomized Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Elshafey, Mohamed Ali; Abd-Elaziem, Adel; Gouda, Rana Elmarzouki

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Studying the effect of the functional stretching exercise in diplegic children. Design. Children were randomly assigned into two matched groups. Setting. Outpatient Clinic of the Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University. Participants. Thirty ambulant spastic diplegic children, ranging in age from five to eight years, participated in this study. Interventions. The control group received physical therapy program with traditional passive stretching exercises. The study group re...

  18. Randomization to nutritional intervention at home did not improve postoperative function, fatigue or well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Bach; Hessov, Ib

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative fatigue and deterioration in functional capacity have been correlated to postoperative weight loss. This suggested that nutritional support to enhance the regain of weight might improve upon the convalescence. METHODS: Patients were allocated randomly at discharge...... to standard management or to dietary advice and protein-rich supplements for 4 months. The convalescence of 32 patients admitted electively for colorectal surgery and of 21 operated on for acute obstruction or severe peritonitis was studied. RESULTS: The intervention substantially increased protein intake...

  19. Phase structure of the O(n) model on a random lattice for n > 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, B.; Kristjansen, C.

    1997-01-01

    We show that coarse graining arguments invented for the analysis of multi-spin systems on a randomly triangulated surface apply also to the O(n) model on a random lattice. These arguments imply that if the model has a critical point with diverging string susceptibility, then either γ = +1...... by (γ̃, γ) = (-1/m, 1/m+1), m = 2, 3, . . . We also show that at the critical points with positive string susceptibility exponent the average number of loops on the surface diverges while the average length of a single loop stays finite....

  20. Simplified thermodynamic functions for vapor-liquid phase separation and fountain effect pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Hepler, W. A.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1984-01-01

    He-4 fluid handling devices near 2 K require novel components for non-Newtonian fluid transport in He II. Related sizing of devices has to be based on appropriate thermophysical property functions. The present paper presents simplified equilibrium state functions for porous media components which serve as vapor-liquid phase separators and fountain effect pumps.

  1. Renormalization group improved computation of correlation functions in theories with nontrivial phase diagram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, Alessandro; Tonero, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple and consistent way to compute correlation functions in interacting theories with nontrivial phase diagram. As an example we show how to consistently compute the four-point function in three dimensional Z2-scalar theories. The idea is to perform the path integral by weighting...

  2. Extracellular antimutagenic activities of selected probiotic Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus spp. as a function of growth phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalova, V I; Lingbeck, J M; Kwon, Y M; Ricke, S C

    2008-02-01

    The capabilities of selected strains from genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium to produce extracellular bioactive compounds with antimutagenic properties against benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and sodium azide (SA) were tested as a function of growth phase. The bacterial supernatants from exponential and stationary phases were characterized with different patterns of antimutagenic activity against the two mutagens. All lactobacilli exhibited either no effect or low antimutagenicity against BaP during exponential growth. Higher antimutagenic activities of lactobacilli supernatants were observed in the stationary phase against SA as well. An exception was Lactobacillus sakei 23K which expressed a relatively low percent of inhibition of mutagenesis (PI = 28.14 +/- 7.41) in the exponential phase and no antimutagenic activity in the stationary phase. Of the bifidobacteria, only Bifidobacterium adoleascentis ATCC 15703 exhibited higher antimutagenecity against BaP in the exponential phase. The same bacterial supernatants however, did not possess any antimutagenicity against SA in either the exponential or stationary phases. B. bifidum ATCC 11863 did not express any significant differences in its activity against either BaP or SA in the exponential or stationary phases. Only B. breve ATCC 15700 expressed a high antimutagenic effect against SA in the stationary phase but exhibited no effect during exponential growth. Overall, bacterial antimutagenic responses were associated with growth phase and type of mutagen.

  3. Non-Spherical Aerosol Phase Functions Derived from MODIS and AERONET Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, L. A.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Levy, R. C.; Dubovik, O.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We compare MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite aerosol retrievals of spectral optical thickness and size parameters over ocean with the same quantities derived from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) observations made at island and coastal sites. Over much of the globe, the satellite-derived quantities agree well with the AERONET quantities. However, in regimes dominated by desert dust aerosol, the agreement is less robust. In the dust regimes, the MODIS retrievals show greater spectral dependence and report smaller particle sizes than do the AERONET derivations. We suggest that the reason for this discrepancy is the nonspherical nature of desert dust particles, which the initial MODIS algorithm is not able to handle. Using the discrepancy between MODIS and AERONET derived spectral optical thickness as an asset, instead of a detriment, we reconstruct the aerosol phase functions that the MODIS algorithm would have needed in order to match the AERONET retrievals. No assumptions of particle shape are used in the derivation of these functions and the results are empirical total column, ambient phase functions. We compare the empirically derived phase functions with phase functions calculated from spheres and spheroids, both situations in which assumptions about particle shape must be made. The resulting empirical nonspherical phase functions will be included in future updates of the MODIS algorithm.

  4. Resveratrol and exercise to treat functional limitations in late life: Design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Layne

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle mitochondrial function declines with age and is a key factor in the maintenance of physical function among older adults. Research studies from animals and humans have consistently demonstrated that exercise improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in early and middle adulthood. However, mitochondrial adaptations to both acute and chronic exercise are attenuated in late life. Thus, there is an important need to identify adjuvant therapies capable of augmenting mitochondrial adaptations to exercise (e.g. improved mitochondrial respiration, muscle mitochondria biogenesis among older adults. This study is investigating the potential of resveratrol supplementation for this purpose. The objective of this randomized, double-masked pilot trial is to evaluate the efficacy of resveratrol supplementation combined with a comprehensive supervised exercise program exercise for improving physical function among older adults. Moderately functioning, sedentary participants aged ≥60 years will perform 24 sessions (2 day/wk for 12 weeks of center-based walking and resistance training and are randomly assigned to receive either (1 500 mg/day resveratrol (2 1000 mg/day resveratrol or (3 placebo. Study dependent outcomes include changes in 1 knee extensor strength, 2 objective measures of physical function (e.g. 4 m walk test, Short Physical Performance Battery, 3 subjective measures of physical function assessed by Late Life Function and Disability Instrument, and 4 skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. This study will provide novel information regarding the therapeutic potential of resveratrol supplementation combined with exercise while also informing about the long-term clinical viability of the intervention by evaluating participant safety and willingness to engage in the intervention.

  5. Optical key distribution system using atmospheric turbulence as the randomness generating function: classical optical protocol for information assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Marvin D.; Bas, Christophe F.; Gervais, David; Renda, Priscilla F.; Townsend, Daniel; Rushanan, Joseph J.; Francoeur, Joe; Donnangelo, Nick; Stenner, Michael D.

    2013-05-01

    We describe an experimental laboratory system that generates and distributes random binary sequence bit streams between two optical terminals (labeled Alice and Bob). The random binary sequence is generated through probing the optical channel of a turbulent atmosphere between the two terminals with coincident laser beams. The two laser beams experience differential phase delays while propagating through the atmospheric optical channel. The differential phase delays are detected and sampled at each terminal to yield raw random bit streams. The random bit streams are processed to remove bit errors and, through privacy amplification, to yield a bit stream known only to Alice and Bob. The same chaotic physical mechanism that provides randomness also provides confidentiality. The laboratory system yielded secret key bit rates of a few bits/second. For external optical channels over longer channel lengths with atmospheric turbulence levels, secret bit rates of 10 s of bits/second are predicted.

  6. Characterization of topological phases of dimerized Kitaev chain via edge correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yucheng; Miao, Jian-Jian; Jin, Hui-Ke; Chen, Shu

    2017-11-01

    We study analytically topological properties of a noninteracting modified dimerized Kitaev chain and an exactly solvable interacting dimerized Kitaev chain under open boundary conditions by analyzing two introduced edge correlation functions. The interacting dimerized Kitaev chain at the symmetry point Δ =t and the chemical potential μ =0 can be exactly solved by applying two Jordan-Wigner transformations and a spin rotation, which permits us to calculate the edge correlation functions analytically. We demonstrate that the two edge correlation functions can be used to characterize the trivial, Su-Schrieffer-Heeger-like topological and topological superconductor phases of both the noninteracting and interacting systems and give their phase diagrams.

  7. On the use of functional calculus for phase-type and related distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Campillo Navarro, Azucena; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    of matrices. Functional calculus, which is a branch of operator theory frequently associated with complex analysis, can be applied to phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions in a rather straightforward way. In this paper we provide a number of examples on how to execute the formal arguments.......The area of phase-type distributions is renowned for its ability to obtain closed form formulas or algorithmically exact solutions to many complex stochastic models. The method of functional calculus will provide an additional tool along these lines for establishing results in terms of functions...

  8. Exact Partition Function for the Random Walk of an Electrostatic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The partition function for the random walk of an electrostatic field produced by several static parallel infinite charged planes in which the charge distribution could be either ±σ is obtained. We find the electrostatic energy of the system and show that it can be analyzed through generalized Dyck paths. The relation between the electrostatic field and generalized Dyck paths allows us to sum overall possible electrostatic field configurations and is used for obtaining the partition function of the system. We illustrate our results with one example.

  9. Preventing decline in function. Evidence from randomized trials around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, E H

    1997-10-01

    Over the past decade, increasing epidemiologic evidence points to a few important risk factors for loss of mobility and functional decline, such as inactivity, cigarette smoking, obesity, depression, and alcohol and drug misuse. Global interventions addressing these risk factors along with other medical problems have been evaluated in randomized controlled clinical trials. With few exceptions, these trials have shown that intervention has a positive effect on health and functional status, as well as reducing length of stay in a hospital or nursing home. The extent to which the success of these programs is attributable to risk-factor reduction or to geriatric assessment and management is uncertain.

  10. Integrability and tau-functions on Random Walkers & Isomonodromy Deformation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz Rodriguez, Axel Ivan

    We consider three types of integrable models which happen to lie under the classification of random walkers or isomonodromic deformations. We deal with an infinite queue that moves forward at random times, indecisive walkers on a circle walking left with probability p and walking right with probability 1-p at any given time, and a deformation of a matrix multi-valued holomorphic function on the projective line which preserves the monodromy structure of the function. Particularly, we work with the Plancherel growth process where we write the Schur generating function and show that it is a KP tau-function. Also, we work with the asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) on a finite ring lattice and prove that the Bethe ansatz gives a complete set of eigenfunctions for generic parameters. Lastly, we write a solution and the tau-function to the Painleve 1 isomonodromy system using the Eynard-Orantin topological recursion. Additionally, we include an introductory background for integrable systems and an appendix that gives a resolution of a family of singular maps through blow-ups, which is used for the proof on the Bethe ansatz.

  11. Switching patients with acromegaly from octreotide to pasireotide improves biochemical control: Crossover extension to a randomized, double-blind, Phase III study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D. Bronstein (Marcello); Fleseriu, M. (Maria); S.J.C.M.M. Neggers (Bas); A. Colao (Annamaria); Sheppard, M. (Michael); Gu, F. (Feng); Shen, C.-C. (Chiung-Chyi); M.R. Gadelha (Mônica R.); Farrall, A.J. (Andrew J.); Reséndiz, K.H. (Karina Hermosillo); Ruffin, M. (Matthieu); Chen, Y. (YinMiao); P.U. Freda (Pamela)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractBackground Many patients with acromegaly do not achieve biochemical control with first-generation somatostatin analogues. A large, multicenter, randomized, Phase III core study demonstrated that pasireotide LAR had significantly superior efficacy over octreotide LAR. This analysis

  12. W-Band Millimeter-Wave Vector Signal Generation Based on Precoding-Assisted Random Photonic Frequency Tripling Scheme Enabled by Phase Modulator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Xinying; Xu, Yuming; Xiao, Jiangnan; Yu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    We propose W-band photonic millimeter-wave (mm-wave) vector signal generation employing a precoding-assisted random frequency tripling scheme enabled by a single phase modulator cascaded with a wavelength selective switch (WSS...

  13. Recovery of hand function with robot-assisted therapy in acute stroke patients: a randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Patrizio; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Lombardi, Valentina; Galafate, Daniele; Massimiani, Maria P; Posteraro, Federico; Damiani, Carlo; Franceschini, Marco

    2014-09-01

    In the last few years, not many studies on the use of robot-assisted therapy to recover hand function in acute stroke patients have been carried out. This randomized-controlled observer trial is aimed at evaluating the effects of intensive robot-assisted hand therapy compared with intensive occupational therapy in the early recovery phases after stroke with a 3-month follow-up. Twenty acute stroke patients at their first-ever stroke were enrolled and randomized into two groups. The experimental treatment was performed using the Amadeo Robotic System. Control treatment, instead, was carried out using occupational therapy executed by a trained physiotherapist. All participants received 20 sessions of treatment for 4 consecutive weeks (5 days/week). The following clinical scales, Fugl-Meyer Scale (FM), Medical Research Council Scale for Muscle Strength (hand flexor and extensor muscles) (MRC), Motricity Index (MI) and modified Ashworth Scale for wrist and hand muscles (MAS), were performed at baseline (T0), after 20 sessions (end of treatment) (T1) and at the 3-month follow-up (T2). The Barthel Index was assessed only at T0 and T1. Evidence of a significant improvement was shown by the Friedman test for the FM [experimental group (EG): P=0.0039, control group (CG): Phand recovery functions in individuals with acute stroke. The robotic rehabilitation treatment may contribute toward the recovery of hand motor function in acute stroke patients. The positive results obtained through the safe and reliable robotic rehabilitation treatment reinforce the recommendation to extend it to a larger clinical practice.

  14. Effect of Trospium Chloride on Cognitive Function in Women Aged 50 and Older: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Elizabeth J; Dumond, Julie B; Bowling, J Michael; Khandelwal, Christine M; Wu, Jennifer M; Busby-Whitehead, Jan; Kaufer, Daniel I

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of trospium chloride on cognitive function in postmenopausal women treated for overactive bladder (OAB). Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted from April 2013 to April 2015. Women aged 50 years or older seeking treatment for OAB were randomized to either trospium chloride XR 60 mg daily or placebo. Baseline cognitive function was assessed via Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R), Mini Mental Status Exam, Mini Mental Status X, Digit Span, Trails A, Trails B, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Cognitive function was reassessed at week 1 and week 4. A priori power analysis determined that 21 subjects were needed per group. Although 59 women were enrolled and randomized (28 trospium and 31 placebo), 45 completed assessment (21 trospium and 24 placebo). Mean age was 68 years, 78% were white, and 44% had previously taken OAB medication. For the primary outcome, there was no difference in HVLT-R total score between trospium and placebo groups at week 4 (P = 0.29). There were also no differences based on the other cognitive tests. There was a correlation between age and the following week-4 tests: HVLT-R total score (r = -0.3, P = 0.02), HVLT-R total recall subscale (r = -0.4, P = 0.007), Trails A (r = 0.4, P = 0.002), and Trails B (r = 0.4, P = 0.004). A linear regression model found that HVLT-R total score decreased by 0.372 points for each increased year of age. In women aged 50 years and older, there were no changes in cognitive function between those taking trospium and placebo. Cognitive function was correlated with age.

  15. Generalized optimal design for two-arm, randomized phase II clinical trials with endpoints from the exponential dispersion family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Mahnken, Jonathan D; He, Jianghua; Mayo, Matthew S

    2016-11-01

    For two-arm randomized phase II clinical trials, previous literature proposed an optimal design that minimizes the total sample sizes subject to multiple constraints on the standard errors of the estimated event rates and their difference. The original design is limited to trials with dichotomous endpoints. This paper extends the original approach to be applicable to phase II clinical trials with endpoints from the exponential dispersion family distributions. The proposed optimal design minimizes the total sample sizes needed to provide estimates of population means of both arms and their difference with pre-specified precision. Its applications on data from specific distribution families are discussed under multiple design considerations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. A randomized, placebo controlled, double masked phase IB study evaluating the safety and antiviral activity of aprepitant, a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist in HIV-1 infected adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Tebas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R antagonists have anti-HIV activity in monocyte-derived macrophages, decrease CCR5 expression and improve natural killer cell function ex vivo. Aprepitant is a NK1R antagonist approved by FDA as an antiemetic. METHODS: We conducted a phase IB randomized, placebo controlled, double masked study to evaluate the safety, antiviral activity, pharmacokinetics and immune-modulatory effects of aprepitant in HIV-infected adults not receiving antiretroviral therapy, with CD4+ cell count ≥350 cells/mm(3 and plasma viral load ≥2,000 copies/ml. Subjects were stratified by viral load (< vs. ≥20,000 copies/ml and randomized within each stratum to receive aprepitant at 125 mg QD(Low, or 250 mg QD(High, or placebo(PL for 14 days, and followed for 42 days. RESULTS: Thirty subjects were randomized and 27 completed treatment (9, 8, 10 subjects in 125 (Low, 250 (High, and PL groups. 63% were male; 37% white; mean (SD age 43 (9.3 years. Geometric mean baseline viral load (copies/ml for Low, High, and PL was 15,709, 33,013, and 19,450, respectively. Mean (95%CI change in log10 viral load at day 14 for Low, High, and PL was -0.02(-0.24,+0.20, -0.05(-0.21,+0.10, and +0.04(-0.08,+0.16, respectively. The number of subjects with AEs was 4(44.4%, 5(62.5%, and 1(10% for Low, High, and PL. No Grade 4 AEs occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Adverse events of aprepitant were more common in the treated groups. At the dose used in this two-week phase IB study, aprepitant showed biological activity, but no significant antiviral activity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00428519.

  17. Constructing gene co-expression networks and predicting functions of unknown genes by random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Feng; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhong, Jianxin; Gao, Haichun; Khan, Latifur; Thompson, Dorothea K; Zhou, Jizhong

    2007-01-01

    Background Large-scale sequencing of entire genomes has ushered in a new age in biology. One of the next grand challenges is to dissect the cellular networks consisting of many individual functional modules. Defining co-expression networks without ambiguity based on genome-wide microarray data is difficult and current methods are not robust and consistent with different data sets. This is particularly problematic for little understood organisms since not much existing biological knowledge can be exploited for determining the threshold to differentiate true correlation from random noise. Random matrix theory (RMT), which has been widely and successfully used in physics, is a powerful approach to distinguish system-specific, non-random properties embedded in complex systems from random noise. Here, we have hypothesized that the universal predictions of RMT are also applicable to biological systems and the correlation threshold can be determined by characterizing the correlation matrix of microarray profiles using random matrix theory. Results Application of random matrix theory to microarray data of S. oneidensis, E. coli, yeast, A. thaliana, Drosophila, mouse and human indicates that there is a sharp transition of nearest neighbour spacing distribution (NNSD) of correlation matrix after gradually removing certain elements insider the matrix. Testing on an in silico modular model has demonstrated that this transition can be used to determine the correlation threshold for revealing modular co-expression networks. The co-expression network derived from yeast cell cycling microarray data is supported by gene annotation. The topological properties of the resulting co-expression network agree well with the general properties of biological networks. Computational evaluations have showed that RMT approach is sensitive and robust. Furthermore, evaluation on sampled expression data of an in silico modular gene system has showed that under-sampled expressions do not affect the

  18. Constructing gene co-expression networks and predicting functions of unknown genes by random matrix theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Feng; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhong, Jianxin; Gao, Haichun; Khan, Latifur; Thompson, Dorothea K; Zhou, Jizhong

    2007-08-14

    Large-scale sequencing of entire genomes has ushered in a new age in biology. One of the next grand challenges is to dissect the cellular networks consisting of many individual functional modules. Defining co-expression networks without ambiguity based on genome-wide microarray data is difficult and current methods are not robust and consistent with different data sets. This is particularly problematic for little understood organisms since not much existing biological knowledge can be exploited for determining the threshold to differentiate true correlation from random noise. Random matrix theory (RMT), which has been widely and successfully used in physics, is a powerful approach to distinguish system-specific, non-random properties embedded in complex systems from random noise. Here, we have hypothesized that the universal predictions of RMT are also applicable to biological systems and the correlation threshold can be determined by characterizing the correlation matrix of microarray profiles using random matrix theory. Application of random matrix theory to microarray data of S. oneidensis, E. coli, yeast, A. thaliana, Drosophila, mouse and human indicates that there is a sharp transition of nearest neighbour spacing distribution (NNSD) of correlation matrix after gradually removing certain elements insider the matrix. Testing on an in silico modular model has demonstrated that this transition can be used to determine the correlation threshold for revealing modular co-expression networks. The co-expression network derived from yeast cell cycling microarray data is supported by gene annotation. The topological properties of the resulting co-expression network agree well with the general properties of biological networks. Computational evaluations have showed that RMT approach is sensitive and robust. Furthermore, evaluation on sampled expression data of an in silico modular gene system has showed that under-sampled expressions do not affect the recovery of gene

  19. Polyphenon E, non-futile at neuroprotection in multiple sclerosis but unpredictably hepatotoxic: Phase I single group and phase II randomized placebo-controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovera, Jesus; Ramos, Alexander; Devier, Deidre; Garrison, Virginia; Kovner, Blake; Reza, Tara; Koop, Dennis; Rooney, William; Foundas, Anne; Bourdette, Dennis

    2015-11-15

    Phase I (PhI): assess the safety of Polyphenon E in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and determine the futility of Polyphenon E as a neuroprotective agent. Correlate plasma levels of EGCG with neuroprotective effects. Phase II (PhII): Further assess safety and confirm the neuroprotective effects of Polyphenon E. PhI: single group futility study. PhII: parallel group randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Recruitment area (both studies): LSU MS Center, New Orleans, LA and general public from surrounding areas. Inclusion criteria (both studies): 1) MS per 2005 McDonald criteria; 2) relapsing remitting or secondary progressive MS; 3) stable for six months prior to enrollment on either no therapy or glatiramer acetate (GA) for the PhI study and on either on GA or Interferon β for the PhII study. Exclusion criteria (both studies): 1) complete bone marrow ablation or alentuzumab use at any time; 2) mitoxantrone, cyclophosphamide, natalizumab or fingolimod use in the prior nine months; 3) liver problems or significant medical problems. PhI: Polyphenon E, a green tea extract containing 50% of the antioxidant Epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), two capsules twice daily (200mg of EGCG per capsule; total daily dose 800mg) for six months. PhII: Polyphenon E or matching placebo capsules, same dose for one year. Only the research pharmacist knew treatment assignment and she randomized participants (one-to-one, stratified by GA or Interferon β, blocks of 4 or 6). Outcome evaluators did not discuss side effects with participants. PhI: 1) adverse events (AE); 2) futility: decrease in N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) from baseline to six months of 10% or more; 3) association between EGCG plasma levels and change in NAA. PhII: 1) AEs; 2) difference in the rate of change of NAA-levels over twelve months.We measured NAA using a point resolved magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging sequence (TE30/TR2000) on a 10cm×10cm×1cm volume of interest (VOI) located just superior to the

  20. Using correlation functions to describe complex multi-phase porous media structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsanina, Marina; Sizonenko, Timofey; Korost, Dmitry; Gerke, Kirill

    2017-04-01

    Multi-scale flow and transport modelling relies on multi-scale image/property fusion techniques. Previusly we have rigorously addressed binary porous media description and stochastic reconstruction problems. However, numerous porous media have more than two, usually solids and pores, phases, e.g., clays, organic, heavy minerals and such. In this contribution we develop efficient approaches to utilize correlation functions to describe such muti-phase soil and rock structures using large sets of cluster, linear and probability functions, including cross-correlations. The approach is tested on numerous 3D images, which were segmented into 3 and more relevant phases. It is shown that multi-phase correlation functions are potentially a very powerful tool to describe any type of porous media at hand and this study also provides a basis for multi-phase stochastic reconstruction techniques, necessary for multi-phase image fusion to obtain large 3D images of hierarchical porous media based on, for example, macro and micro X-ray tomography scans and FIB/BIB-SEM and SEM. References: 1) Karsanina, M.V., Gerke, K.M., Skvortsova, E.B. and Mallants, D. (2015) Universal spatial correlation functions for describing and reconstructing soil microstructure. PLoS ONE 10(5), e0126515. 2) Gerke, K. M., & Karsanina, M. V. (2015). Improving stochastic reconstructions by weighting correlation functions in an objective function. EPL (Europhysics Letters),111(5), 56002. 3) Gerke, K. M., Karsanina, M. V., Vasilyev, R. V., & Mallants, D. (2014). Improving pattern reconstruction using directional correlation functions. EPL (Europhysics Letters), 106(6), 66002. 4) Gerke, K.M., Karsanina, M. V, Mallants, D., 2015. Universal Stochastic Multiscale Image Fusion: An Example Application for Shale Rock. Sci. Rep. 5, 15880. doi:10.1038/srep15880

  1. Multiple-image authentication with a cascaded multilevel architecture based on amplitude field random sampling and phase information multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Desheng; Meng, Xiangfeng; Wang, Yurong; Yang, Xiulun; Pan, Xuemei; Peng, Xiang; He, Wenqi; Dong, Guoyan; Chen, Hongyi

    2015-04-10

    A multiple-image authentication method with a cascaded multilevel architecture in the Fresnel domain is proposed, in which a synthetic encoded complex amplitude is first fabricated, and its real amplitude component is generated by iterative amplitude encoding, random sampling, and space multiplexing for the low-level certification images, while the phase component of the synthetic encoded complex amplitude is constructed by iterative phase information encoding and multiplexing for the high-level certification images. Then the synthetic encoded complex amplitude is iteratively encoded into two phase-type ciphertexts located in two different transform planes. During high-level authentication, when the two phase-type ciphertexts and the high-level decryption key are presented to the system and then the Fresnel transform is carried out, a meaningful image with good quality and a high correlation coefficient with the original certification image can be recovered in the output plane. Similar to the procedure of high-level authentication, in the case of low-level authentication with the aid of a low-level decryption key, no significant or meaningful information is retrieved, but it can result in a remarkable peak output in the nonlinear correlation coefficient of the output image and the corresponding original certification image. Therefore, the method realizes different levels of accessibility to the original certification image for different authority levels with the same cascaded multilevel architecture.

  2. Vernakalant hydrochloride for rapid conversion of atrial fibrillation - A phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, D.; Pratt, C.M.; Torp-Pedersen, C.

    2008-01-01

    .6%; P complete atrioventricular block, and cardiogenic shock) occurred in 3 patients. Conclusion - Vernakalant......Background - The present study assessed the efficacy and safety of vernakalant hydrochloride ( RSD1235), a novel compound, for the conversion of atrial fibrillation ( AF). Methods and Results - Patients were randomized in a 2: 1 ratio to receive vernakalant or placebo and were stratified by AF...... was conversion of AF to sinus rhythm for at least 1 minute within 90 minutes of the start of drug infusion in the short-duration AF group. A total of 336 patients were randomized and received treatment (short duration, n = 220; long duration, n = 116). Of the 145 vernakalant patients, 75 (51.7%) in the short...

  3. Effectiveness of combined exercise training to improve functional fitness in older adults: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Nelson; Mendes, Romeu; Abrantes, Catarina; Sampaio, Jaime; Oliveira, José

    2014-10-01

    The present randomized controlled trial evaluated the impact of different exercise training modalities on functional fitness responses in apparently healthy older men. A total of 59 community-dwelling older men were randomly assigned to an aerobic training group (ATG, n=19), a combined aerobic and resistance training group (CTG, n=20) or a control group (n=20). Both exercise training programs were moderate-to-vigorous intensity, 3 days/week for 9 months. Six independent functional fitness tests (back scratch, chair sit-and-reach, 30-s chair stand, arm curl, 8-ft up-and-go, 6-min walk) were measured on five different occasions. The data were analyzed using a mixed-model ANOVA. ANOVA showed a significant main effect of group (Pfunctional fitness tests, with significant differences between both training groups and controls. However, the ATG only improved the chair sit-and-reach and the 30-s chair stand performance, whereas CTG improved in all functional fitness tests. ANOVA also identified a significant main effect of time for 8-ft up-and-go (P=0.031) in the CTG. Only the combined exercise program was effective in improving all functional fitness components related to daily living activities. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Phase I Randomized Safety Study of Twice Daily Dosing of Acidform Vaginal Gel: Candidate Antimicrobial Contraceptive

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Marla J.; Carpenter, Colleen A.; Yungtai Lo; Einstein, Mark H.; Congzhou Liu; David N Fredricks; Herold, Betsy C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Acidform gel, an acid-buffering product that inactivates spermatozoa, may be an effective topical non-hormonal contraceptive. This study was designed to evaluate the safety of vaginal dosing and effects of Acidform on mucosal immune mediators, antimicrobial properties of genital secretions, and vaginal microbiota. Methods Thirty-six sexually abstinent U.S. women were randomized to apply Acidform or hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) placebo gel twice daily for 14 consecutive days. Safety ...

  5. Effects of Exercise on Cognitive Function in Older People with Dementia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toots, Annika; Littbrand, Håkan; Boström, Gustaf; Hörnsten, Carl; Holmberg, Henrik; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor; Lindelöf, Nina; Nordström, Peter; Gustafson, Yngve; Rosendahl, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Although physical exercise has been suggested to influence cognitive function, previous exercise studies show inconsistent results in people with dementia. To investigate effects of exercise on cognitive function in people with dementia. The Umeå Dementia and Exercise (UMDEX) study, a cluster-randomized controlled trial, was set in 16 nursing homes in Umeå, Sweden. One hundred-and-forty-one women and 45 men with dementia; mean age of 85 y and mean Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 15, were randomized to a High-Intensity Functional Exercise program or a seated attention control activity. Blinded assessors measured global cognitive function using the MMSE and the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog), and executive function using Verbal fluency (VF) at baseline and 4 months (directly after intervention completion), and MMSE and VF at 7 months. Linear mixed models showed no between-group effects in mean difference from baseline (95% confidence intervals, CI) at 4 months in MMSE (-0.27; 95% CI -1.4 to 0.87, p = 0.644), ADAS-Cog (-1.04, 95% CI -4 to 1.92, p = 0.491), or VF (-0.53, 95% CI -1.42 to 0.35, p = 0.241) or at 7 months in MMSE (-1.15, 95% CI -2.32 to 0.03, p = 0.056) or VF (-0.18, 95% CI -1.09 to 0.74, p = 0.707). A 4-month, high-intensity functional exercise program had no superior effects on global cognition or executive function in people with dementia living in nursing homes when compared with an attention control activity.

  6. Functional design criteria for project W-252, phase II liquid effluent treatment and disposal. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This document is the Functional Design Criteria for Project W-252. Project W-252 provides the scope to provide BAT/AKART (best available technology...) to 200 Liquid Effluent Phase II streams (B-Plant). This revision (Rev. 2) incorporates a major descoping of the project. The descoping was done to reflect a combination of budget cutting measures allowed by a less stringent regulatory posture toward the Phase II streams

  7. Effects of prenatal yoga on women's stress and immune function across pregnancy: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pao-Ju; Yang, Luke; Chou, Cheng-Chen; Li, Chia-Chi; Chang, Yu-Cune; Liaw, Jen-Jiuan

    2017-04-01

    The effects of prenatal yoga on biological indicators have not been widely studied. Thus, we compared changes in stress and immunity salivary biomarkers from 16 to 36 weeks' gestation between women receiving prenatal yoga and those receiving routine prenatal care. For this longitudinal, prospective, randomized controlled trial, we recruited 94 healthy pregnant women at 16 weeks' gestation through convenience sampling from a prenatal clinic in Taipei. Participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=48) or control (n=46) groups using Clinstat block randomization. The 20-week intervention comprised two weekly 70-min yoga sessions led by a midwife certified as a yoga instructor; the control group received only routine prenatal care. In both groups, participants' salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A levels were collected before and after yoga every 4 weeks from 16 to 36 weeks' gestation. The intervention group had lower salivary cortisol (pyoga than the control group. Specifically, the intervention group had significantly higher long-term salivary immunoglobulin A levels than the control group (p=0.018), and infants born to women in the intervention group weighed more than those born to the control group (pyoga significantly reduced pregnant women's stress and enhanced their immune function. Clinicians should learn the mechanisms of yoga and its effects on pregnant women. Our findings can guide clinicians to help pregnant women alleviate their stress and enhance their immune function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Functional Principal Component Analysis and Randomized Sparse Clustering Algorithm for Medical Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Jiang, Junhai; Guo, Shicheng; Xiong, Momiao

    2015-01-01

    Due to the advancement in sensor technology, the growing large medical image data have the ability to visualize the anatomical changes in biological tissues. As a consequence, the medical images have the potential to enhance the diagnosis of disease, the prediction of clinical outcomes and the characterization of disease progression. But in the meantime, the growing data dimensions pose great methodological and computational challenges for the representation and selection of features in image cluster analysis. To address these challenges, we first extend the functional principal component analysis (FPCA) from one dimension to two dimensions to fully capture the space variation of image the signals. The image signals contain a large number of redundant features which provide no additional information for clustering analysis. The widely used methods for removing the irrelevant features are sparse clustering algorithms using a lasso-type penalty to select the features. However, the accuracy of clustering using a lasso-type penalty depends on the selection of the penalty parameters and the threshold value. In practice, they are difficult to determine. Recently, randomized algorithms have received a great deal of attentions in big data analysis. This paper presents a randomized algorithm for accurate feature selection in image clustering analysis. The proposed method is applied to both the liver and kidney cancer histology image data from the TCGA database. The results demonstrate that the randomized feature selection method coupled with functional principal component analysis substantially outperforms the current sparse clustering algorithms in image cluster analysis. PMID:26196383

  9. Functional Principal Component Analysis and Randomized Sparse Clustering Algorithm for Medical Image Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lin

    Full Text Available Due to the advancement in sensor technology, the growing large medical image data have the ability to visualize the anatomical changes in biological tissues. As a consequence, the medical images have the potential to enhance the diagnosis of disease, the prediction of clinical outcomes and the characterization of disease progression. But in the meantime, the growing data dimensions pose great methodological and computational challenges for the representation and selection of features in image cluster analysis. To address these challenges, we first extend the functional principal component analysis (FPCA from one dimension to two dimensions to fully capture the space variation of image the signals. The image signals contain a large number of redundant features which provide no additional information for clustering analysis. The widely used methods for removing the irrelevant features are sparse clustering algorithms using a lasso-type penalty to select the features. However, the accuracy of clustering using a lasso-type penalty depends on the selection of the penalty parameters and the threshold value. In practice, they are difficult to determine. Recently, randomized algorithms have received a great deal of attentions in big data analysis. This paper presents a randomized algorithm for accurate feature selection in image clustering analysis. The proposed method is applied to both the liver and kidney cancer histology image data from the TCGA database. The results demonstrate that the randomized feature selection method coupled with functional principal component analysis substantially outperforms the current sparse clustering algorithms in image cluster analysis.

  10. Exercise to improve spinal flexibility and function for people with Parkinson's disease: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkman, M; Cutson, T M; Kuchibhatla, M; Chandler, J; Pieper, C F; Ray, L; Laub, K C

    1998-10-01

    The effectiveness of an exercise intervention for people in early and midstage Parkinson's disease (stages 2 and 3 of Hoehn and Yahr) in improving spinal flexibility and physical performance in a sample of community-dwelling older people is described. Fifty-one men and women, aged 55-84 years, identified through advertisement, local support groups, and local neurologists were enrolled into a randomized, controlled trial. Subjects were assigned randomly to an intervention or a usual care arm (i.e., no specific exercise). Of the original 51 participants, 46 completed the randomized, controlled trial. Participants in the exercise arm (n = 23) received individual instruction three times per week for 10 weeks. Participants in the usual care arm (n = 23) were "wait listed" for intervention. Changes over 10 weeks in spinal flexibility (i.e., functional axial rotation) and physical performance (i.e., functional reach, timed supine to stand) were the primary outcome measures. MANOVA conducted for the three primary outcome variables demonstrated significant differences (P exercise program for people in the early and midstages of PD.

  11. Phase-space diffusion in turbulent plasmas: The random acceleration problem revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, H.L.; Trulsen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Phase-space diffusion of test particles in turbulent plasmas is studied by an approach based on a conditional statistical analysis of fluctuating electrostatic fields. Analytical relations between relevant conditional averages and higher-order correlations, , and trip...

  12. Identification of emotion associated brain functional network with phase locking value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonuguntla, V; Mallipeddi, R; Veluvolu, K C

    2016-08-01

    Recognition of discriminative brain functional network pattern and regions corresponding to emotions are important in understanding the neuron functional network underlying the human emotion process. Emotion models mapping onto brain is possible with the help of emotion-specific network patterns and its corresponding brain regions. This paper presents a method to identify emotion related functional connectivity pattern and their distinctive associated regions using EEG phase synchrony (phase locking value (PLV)) connectivity analysis. The emotion-specific channel pairs, reactive band, and synchrony related locations are identified based on the network dissimilarities between emotion and rest tasks. With the most reactive pairs identified, the emotion-specific functional network is formed. The proposed method is validated on `database for emotion analysis using physiological signals (DEAP)' that confirms the distinct nature of identified functional connectivity pattern and the regions corresponding to the emotion.

  13. Functional Super Read Out Driver Demonstrator for the Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Carrió, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Ferrer, A; Fiorini, L; González, V; Hernández, Y; Higón, E; Moreno, P; Sanchis, E; Solans, C; Valero, A; Valls, J

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the implementation of a functional super Read Out Driver (sROD) demonstrator for the Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) in the LHC experiment. The proposed front-end for the Phase II Upgrade communicates with back-end electronics using a multifiber optical connector with a data rate of 57.6 Gbps using the GBT protocol. This functional sROD demonstrator aims to help in the understanding of the problems that could arise in the upgrade of back-end electronics. The demonstrator is composed of three different boards that have been developed in the framework of ATLAS activities: the Optical Multiplexer Board (OMB), the Read-Out Driver (ROD) and the Optical Link Card (OLC). This functional sROD demonstrator will be used to develop a prototype, in ATCA format, of the new ROD for the Phase II.

  14. Randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive therapy for low-functioning patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Paul M; Huh, Gloria A; Perivoliotis, Dimitri; Stolar, Neal M; Beck, Aaron T

    2012-02-01

    Low-functioning patients with chronic schizophrenia have high direct treatment costs and indirect costs incurred due to lost employment and productivity and have a low quality of life; antipsychotic medications and psychosocial interventions have shown limited efficacy to promote improved functional outcomes. To determine the efficacy of an 18-month recovery-oriented cognitive therapy program to improve psychosocial functioning and negative symptoms (avolition-apathy, anhedonia-asociality) in low-functioning patients with schizophrenia. Design, Setting, and A single-center, 18-month, randomized, single-blind, parallel group trial enrolled 60 low-functioning, neurocognitively impaired patients with schizophrenia (mean age, 38.4 years; 33.3% female; 65.0% African American). Cognitive therapy plus standard treatment vs standard treatment alone. The primary outcome measure was the Global Assessment Scale score at 18 months after randomization. The secondary outcomes were scores on the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms at 18 months after randomization. Patients treated with cognitive therapy showed a clinically significant mean improvement in global functioning from baseline to 18 months that was greater than the improvement seen with standard treatment (within-group Cohen d, 1.36 vs 0.06, respectively; adjusted mean [SE], 58.3 [3.30] vs 47.9 [3.60], respectively; P = .03; between-group d = 0.56). Patients receiving cognitive therapy as compared with those receiving standard treatment also showed a greater mean reduction in avolition-apathy (adjusted mean [SE], 1.66 [0.31] vs 2.81 [0.34], respectively; P = .01; between-group d = -0.66) and positive symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, disorganization) (adjusted mean [SE], 9.4 [3.3] vs 18.2 [3.8], respectively; P = .04; between-group d = -0.46) at 18 months. Age was controlled in the analyses, and there were no meaningful group differences in

  15. Functional treatment versus plaster for simple elbow dislocations (FuncSiE: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verleisdonk Egbert JMM

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elbow dislocations can be classified as simple or complex. Simple dislocations are characterized by the absence of fractures, while complex dislocations are associated with fractures. After reduction of a simple dislocation, treatment options include immobilization in a static plaster for different periods of time or so-called functional treatment. Functional treatment is characterized by early active motion within the limits of pain with or without the use of a sling or hinged brace. Theoretically, functional treatment should prevent stiffness without introducing increased joint instability. The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial is to compare early functional treatment versus plaster immobilization following simple dislocations of the elbow. Methods/Design The design of the study will be a multicenter randomized controlled trial of 100 patients who have sustained a simple elbow dislocation. After reduction of the dislocation, patients are randomized between a pressure bandage for 5-7 days and early functional treatment or a plaster in 90 degrees flexion, neutral position for pro-supination for a period of three weeks. In the functional group, treatment is started with early active motion within the limits of pain. Function, pain, and radiographic recovery will be evaluated at regular intervals over the subsequent 12 months. The primary outcome measure is the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score. The secondary outcome measures are the Mayo Elbow Performance Index, Oxford elbow score, pain level at both sides, range of motion of the elbow joint at both sides, rate of secondary interventions and complication rates in both groups (secondary dislocation, instability, relaxation, health-related quality of life (Short-Form 36 and EuroQol-5D, radiographic appearance of the elbow joint (degenerative changes and heterotopic ossifications, costs, and cost-effectiveness. Discussion The successful

  16. Combining social cognitive treatment, cognitive remediation, and functional skills training in schizophrenia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Javier; Ibarretxe-Bilbao, Naroa; Sánchez, Pedro; Iriarte, Maria B; Elizagarate, Edorta; Garay, Maria A; Gutiérrez, Miguel; Iribarren, Aránzazu; Ojeda, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of an integrative cognitive remediation program (REHACOP) in improving cognition and functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia. The program combines cognitive remediation, social cognitive intervention, and functional skills training. Few studies have attempted this approach. One hundred and eleven patients diagnosed with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to either the cognitive remediation group (REHACOP) or an active control group (occupational activities) for 4 months (three sessions per week, 90 min). Primary outcomes were change on general neurocognitive performance and social cognition, including theory of mind (ToM), emotion perception (EP), attributional style, and social perception (SP). Secondary outcomes included changes on clinical symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) and functional outcome (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment and the Global Assessment of Functioning). The trial was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02796417). No baseline group differences were found. Significant differences were found in the mean change between the REHACOP group and control group in neurocognition ([Formula: see text]), SP ([Formula: see text]), ToM ([Formula: see text]), EP ([Formula: see text]), negative symptoms ([Formula: see text]), emotional distress ([Formula: see text]), Global Assessment of Functioning ([Formula: see text]), and UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment ([Formula: see text]). The combination of cognitive remediation, social cognitive intervention, and functional skills training demonstrated statistically significant and clinically meaningful changes in neurocognition, social cognition, negative, and functional disability.

  17. Non-random food-web assembly at habitat edges increases connectivity and functional redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Guadalupe; Frost, Carol M; Didham, Raphael K; Rand, Tatyana A; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2017-04-01

    Habitat fragmentation dramatically alters the spatial configuration of landscapes, with the creation of artificial edges affecting community structure and dynamics. Despite this, it is not known how the different food webs in adjacent habitats assemble at their boundaries. Here we demonstrate that the composition and structure of herbivore-parasitoid food webs across edges between native and plantation forests are not randomly assembled from those of the adjacent communities. Rather, elevated proportions of abundant, interaction-generalist parasitoid species at habitat edges allowed considerable interaction rewiring, which led to higher linkage density and less modular networks, with higher parasitoid functional redundancy. This was despite high overlap in host composition between edges and interiors. We also provide testable hypotheses for how food webs may assemble between habitats with lower species overlap. In an increasingly fragmented world, non-random assembly of food webs at edges may increasingly affect community dynamics at the landscape level. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Protocol for Shoulder function training reducing musculoskeletal pain in shoulder and neck: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christoffer H; Andersen, Lars L; Mortensen, Ole S

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Neck and shoulder complaints are common among employees in sedentary occupations characterized by intensive computer use. Such musculoskeletal pain - which is often associated with restricted range of motion and loss of muscle strength - is one of the most common conditions...... treated by physical therapists. The exact mechanism of neck pain is rarely revealed by clinical examination and the treatment has varied from passive rest to active treatments. Active treatments have often been divided into either training of the painful area or the surrounding musculature avoiding direct...... training of the painful area. Our study investigates the effect of the latter approach. METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial of 10 weeks duration is currently being conducted. Employed office workers with severe neck-shoulder pain are randomized to 3 × 20 min shoulder function training...

  19. Cross-covariance functions for multivariate random fields based on latent dimensions

    KAUST Repository

    Apanasovich, T. V.

    2010-02-16

    The problem of constructing valid parametric cross-covariance functions is challenging. We propose a simple methodology, based on latent dimensions and existing covariance models for univariate random fields, to develop flexible, interpretable and computationally feasible classes of cross-covariance functions in closed form. We focus on spatio-temporal cross-covariance functions that can be nonseparable, asymmetric and can have different covariance structures, for instance different smoothness parameters, in each component. We discuss estimation of these models and perform a small simulation study to demonstrate our approach. We illustrate our methodology on a trivariate spatio-temporal pollution dataset from California and demonstrate that our cross-covariance performs better than other competing models. © 2010 Biometrika Trust.

  20. A phase-synchronization and random-matrix based approach to multichannel time-series analysis with application to epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Ivan; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2011-09-01

    We present a general method to analyze multichannel time series that are becoming increasingly common in many areas of science and engineering. Of particular interest is the degree of synchrony among various channels, motivated by the recognition that characterization of synchrony in a system consisting of many interacting components can provide insights into its fundamental dynamics. Often such a system is complex, high-dimensional, nonlinear, nonstationary, and noisy, rendering unlikely complete synchronization in which the dynamical variables from individual components approach each other asymptotically. Nonetheless, a weaker type of synchrony that lasts for a finite amount of time, namely, phase synchronization, can be expected. Our idea is to calculate the average phase-synchronization times from all available pairs of channels and then to construct a matrix. Due to nonlinearity and stochasticity, the matrix is effectively random. Moreover, since the diagonal elements of the matrix can be arbitrarily large, the matrix can be singular. To overcome this difficulty, we develop a random-matrix based criterion for proper choosing of the diagonal matrix elements. Monitoring of the eigenvalues and the determinant provides a powerful way to assess changes in synchrony. The method is tested using a prototype nonstationary noisy dynamical system, electroencephalogram (scalp) data from absence seizures for which enhanced cortico-thalamic synchrony is presumed, and electrocorticogram (intracranial) data from subjects having partial seizures with secondary generalization for which enhanced local synchrony is similarly presumed.

  1. "HEATPAC" - a phase II randomized study of concurrent thermochemoradiotherapy versus chemoradiotherapy alone in locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Niloy Ranjan; Pestalozzi, Bernhard; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Siebenhüner, Alexander; Puric, Emsad; Khan, Shaka; Mamot, Christoph; Riesterer, Oliver; Knuchel, Jürg; Reiner, Cäcilia Sophie; Bodis, Stephan

    2017-11-21

    Pancreatic cancer has a dismal prognosis with 5-year overall survival rate of around 5%. Although surgery is still the best option in operable cases, majority of the patients who present in locally advanced stages are deemed inoperable. Novel approaches are therefore needed for the management of around 80% of these inoperable locally advanced pancreatic cancers (LAPC). Hyperthermia (39-43 °C) is a potent radiosensitizer and further enhances the action of gemcitabine, also a known radiosensitizer. Thus through triple sensitization, a combination of hyperthermia, radiotherapy and gemcitabine could be expected to improve the therapeutic outcomes in LAPC. This phase II randomized trial, HEATPAC in unresectable LAPC, explores the feasibility and efficacy of concurrent thermochemoradiotherapy (HTCTRT) over chemoradiotherapy (CTRT) alone with pre- and post-intervention FOLFIRINOX at standard dosage and schedule. Following 4 cycles of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX, patients with no metastasis and absence of gross peritoneal carcinomatosis would be randomized to either (a) control arm: concurrent CTRT with gemcitabine (400 mg/m2, weekly ×6) or (b) study arm: locoregional hyperthermia (weekly ×6 during radiotherapy) with concurrent CTRT (same as in control arm). All patients would receive simultaneous-integrated boost intensity-modulated radiation therapy to doses of 56Gy and 50.4Gy to the gross and clinical target volumes respectively delivered in 28 fractions over 5.5 weeks. Deep locoregional hyperthermia would be administered weekly and monitored with real-time intraduodenal multisensor thermometry probe. A temperature of 40-43 °C for 60 min would be aimed for each hyperthermia session. On completion of CTRT/HTCTRT, patients of both groups would receive an additional 8 cycles of FOLFIRINOX. The expected 1-year baseline overall survival with CTRT alone is considered as 40%. With HTCTRT, a survival advantage of +20% is expected. Considering α = 0.05 and β = 0

  2. Bayesian Markov Random Field analysis for protein function prediction based on network data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourmpetis, Yiannis A I; van Dijk, Aalt D J; Bink, Marco C A M; van Ham, Roeland C H J; ter Braak, Cajo J F

    2010-02-24

    Inference of protein functions is one of the most important aims of modern biology. To fully exploit the large volumes of genomic data typically produced in modern-day genomic experiments, automated computational methods for protein function prediction are urgently needed. Established methods use sequence or structure similarity to infer functions but those types of data do not suffice to determine the biological context in which proteins act. Current high-throughput biological experiments produce large amounts of data on the interactions between proteins. Such data can be used to infer interaction networks and to predict the biological process that the protein is involved in. Here, we develop a probabilistic approach for protein function prediction using network data, such as protein-protein interaction measurements. We take a Bayesian approach to an existing Markov Random Field method by performing simultaneous estimation of the model parameters and prediction of protein functions. We use an adaptive Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm that leads to more accurate parameter estimates and consequently to improved prediction performance compared to the standard Markov Random Fields method. We tested our method using a high quality S. cereviciae validation network with 1622 proteins against 90 Gene Ontology terms of different levels of abstraction. Compared to three other protein function prediction methods, our approach shows very good prediction performance. Our method can be directly applied to protein-protein interaction or coexpression networks, but also can be extended to use multiple data sources. We apply our method to physical protein interaction data from S. cerevisiae and provide novel predictions, using 340 Gene Ontology terms, for 1170 unannotated proteins and we evaluate the predictions using the available literature.

  3. Phase function measurements on nonspherical scatterers using a two-axis goniometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Florian Klaus; Kienle, Alwin; Michels, Rene; Hibst, Raimund

    2006-01-01

    We present a two-axis goniometer for measuring the phase function of scattering media with an angular resolution of about 0.2 deg having 12 decades of dynamic range and covering almost the full solid angle. The setup is evaluated with polystyrene spheres and with perpendicularly and obliquely illuminated thin glass cylinders. The scattering pattern and its intensity distribution are in excellent agreement with analytical theory. A multiple scattering configuration composed of two parallel cylinders is also examined. Finally, the phase function of dentin slabs is measured and its dependence on the dental microstructure is discussed.

  4. Phase diagram and dynamic response functions of the Holstein-Hubbard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koller, W. [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, 180 Queen' s Gate, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Meyer, D. [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, 180 Queen' s Gate, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: d.meyer@ic.ac.uk; Hewson, A.C. [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, 180 Queen' s Gate, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); O-bar no, Y. [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2005-04-30

    We present the phase diagram and dynamical correlation functions for the Holstein-Hubbard model at half-filling and at zero temperature. The calculations are based on the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). The effective impurity model is solved using exact diagonalization (ED) and the numerical renormalization group (NRG). Excluding long-range order, we find three different paramagnetic phases, metallic, bipolaronic and Mott insulating, depending on the Hubbard interaction U and the electron-phonon coupling g. We present the behaviour of the one-electron spectral functions and phonon spectra close to the metal-insulator transitions.

  5. Non-interferometric, non-iterative phase retrieval by Green's functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Johannes; Altmeyer, Stefan; Wernicke, Guenther

    2010-10-01

    In this paper a non-interferometric, non-iterative method for phase retrieval by Green's functions is presented. The theory is based on the parabolic wave equation that describes propagation of light in the Fresnel approximation in homogeneous media. Green's first identity will be used to derive an algorithm for phase retrieval considering different boundary conditions. Finally it will be shown that a commonly used solution of the transport-of-intensity equation can be obtained as a special case of the more general Green's function formulation derived here.

  6. Brain training game improves executive functions and processing speed in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Nouchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions, but these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Here we investigate the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age on cognitive functions in the elderly. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-two elderly volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris. This study was completed by 14 of the 16 members in the Brain Age group and 14 of the 16 members in the Tetris group. To maximize the benefit of the interventions, all participants were non-gamers who reported playing less than one hour of video games per week over the past 2 years. Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Each group played for a total of about 20 days. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into four categories (global cognitive status, executive functions, attention, and processing speed. Results showed that the effects of the brain training game were transferred to executive functions and to processing speed. However, the brain training game showed no transfer effect on any global cognitive status nor attention. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that playing Brain Age for 4 weeks could lead to improve cognitive functions (executive functions and processing speed in the elderly. This result indicated that there is a possibility which the elderly could improve executive functions and processing speed in short term training. The results need replication in large samples. Long-term effects and relevance for every-day functioning remain uncertain as yet. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000002825.

  7. Brain Training Game Improves Executive Functions and Processing Speed in the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Akitsuki, Yuko; Shigemune, Yayoi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Tsukiura, Takashi; Yomogida, Yukihito; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    Background The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions, but these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Here we investigate the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on cognitive functions in the elderly. Methods and Results Thirty-two elderly volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris). This study was completed by 14 of the 16 members in the Brain Age group and 14 of the 16 members in the Tetris group. To maximize the benefit of the interventions, all participants were non-gamers who reported playing less than one hour of video games per week over the past 2 years. Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Each group played for a total of about 20 days. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into four categories (global cognitive status, executive functions, attention, and processing speed). Results showed that the effects of the brain training game were transferred to executive functions and to processing speed. However, the brain training game showed no transfer effect on any global cognitive status nor attention. Conclusions Our results showed that playing Brain Age for 4 weeks could lead to improve cognitive functions (executive functions and processing speed) in the elderly. This result indicated that there is a possibility which the elderly could improve executive functions and processing speed in short term training. The results need replication in large samples. Long-term effects and relevance for every-day functioning remain uncertain as yet. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000002825 PMID:22253758

  8. Brain training game improves executive functions and processing speed in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Akitsuki, Yuko; Shigemune, Yayoi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Tsukiura, Takashi; Yomogida, Yukihito; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions, but these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Here we investigate the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on cognitive functions in the elderly. Thirty-two elderly volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris). This study was completed by 14 of the 16 members in the Brain Age group and 14 of the 16 members in the Tetris group. To maximize the benefit of the interventions, all participants were non-gamers who reported playing less than one hour of video games per week over the past 2 years. Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Each group played for a total of about 20 days. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into four categories (global cognitive status, executive functions, attention, and processing speed). Results showed that the effects of the brain training game were transferred to executive functions and to processing speed. However, the brain training game showed no transfer effect on any global cognitive status nor attention. Our results showed that playing Brain Age for 4 weeks could lead to improve cognitive functions (executive functions and processing speed) in the elderly. This result indicated that there is a possibility which the elderly could improve executive functions and processing speed in short term training. The results need replication in large samples. Long-term effects and relevance for every-day functioning remain uncertain as yet. UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000002825.

  9. Efficacy of dignity therapy on depression and anxiety in Portuguese terminally ill patients: a phase II randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julião, Miguel; Oliveira, Fátima; Nunes, Baltazar; Vaz Carneiro, António; Barbosa, António

    2014-06-01

    Dignity therapy is a brief psychotherapy developed for patients living with a life-limiting illness. To determine the influence of dignity therapy on depression and anxiety in inpatients with a terminal illness and experiencing a high level of distress in a palliative care unit. A nonblinded phase II randomized controlled trial of 80 patients who were randomly assigned to one of two groups: intervention group (dignity therapy+standard palliative care [SPC]) or control group (SPC alone). The main outcomes were depression and anxiety scores, as measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and assessed at baseline (T1), day 4 (T2), day 15 (T3), and day 30 (T4) of follow-up. This study is registered with www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN34354086. Of the final 80 participants, 41 were randomly assigned to SPC and 39 to dignity therapy. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. Dignity therapy was associated with a decrease in depression scores (median, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.00, -6.00 to -2.00, pdepression and anxiety symptoms in end-of-life care. The therapeutic benefit of dignity therapy was sustained over a 30-day period. Having established its efficacy, future trials of dignity therapy may now begin, comparing it with other psychotherapeutic approaches within the context of terminal illness.

  10. Safety and immunogenicity of the recombinant BCG vaccine VPM1002 in a phase 1 open-label randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grode, Leander; Ganoza, Christian A; Brohm, Christiane; Weiner, January; Eisele, Bernd; Kaufmann, Stefan H E

    2013-02-18

    Current vaccination using Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), fails to prevent pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). New vaccination strategies are essential for reducing the global incidence of TB. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of VPM1002, a recombinant BCG vaccine candidate. EudraCT (2007-002789-37) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00749034). Healthy volunteers were enrolled in a phase 1 open-label, dose escalation randomized clinical trial, and received one intradermal dose of VPM1002 (Mycobacterium bovis BCG ΔureC::hly Hm(R)) or BCG. Immunogenicity was assessed by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production, cellular immune response markers by flow cytometry and serum antibodies against mycobacterial antigens. Eighty volunteers were randomized into two groups according to previous BCG vaccination and mycobacterial exposure (BCG-naïve, n=40 and BCG-immune, n=40). In each group, 30 individuals were vaccinated with VPM1002 (randomized to three escalating doses) and 10 with BCG. VPM1002 was safe and stimulated IFN-γ-producing and multifunctional T cells, as well as antibody-producing B cells in BCG-naïve and BCG-immune individuals. VPM1002 was safe and immunogenic for B-cell and T-cell responses and hence will be brought forward through the clinical trial pipeline. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phase IV: randomized controlled trial to evaluate lot consistency of trivalent split influenza vaccines in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Joon Young; Cheong, Hee Jin; Lee, Jacob; Wie, Seong-Heon; Park, Kyung-Hwa; Kee, Sae Yoon; Jeong, Hye Won; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Noh, Ji Yun; Choi, Won Suk; Park, Dae Won; Sohn, Jang Wook; Kim, Woo Joo

    2014-01-01

    Influenza vaccines are the primary method for preventing influenza and its complications. Considering the increasing demand for influenza vaccines, vaccine manufacturers are required to establish large-scale production systems. This phase IV randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the lot consistency of trivalent split influenza vaccines regarding immunogenicity and safety. A total of 1,023 healthy adults aged 18-64 y were enrolled in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive the GC FLU® Prefilled Syringe or the GC FLU® Injection, and they were further randomized to one of 3 lots of each vaccine in a 1:1:1 ratio. In both GC FLU® Injection and GC FLU® Prefilled Syringe groups, immune responses were equivalent between lots for each of the 3 vaccine strains on day 21. The 2-sided 95% CI of GMT ratios between pairs of lots were between 0.67 and 1.5, meeting the equivalence criteria. After vaccination, all 3 criteria of the European Medicines Agency were met in both GC FLU® Injection and GC FLU® Prefilled Syringe groups. The vaccines showed tolerable safety profiles without serious adverse events. The demonstration of lot consistency, robust immunogenic responses and favorable safety profiles support the reliability of mass-manufacturing systems for the GC FLU® Injection and GC FLU® Prefilled Syringe.

  12. Periodically driven random quantum spin chains: real-space renormalization for Floquet localized phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monthus, Cécile

    2017-07-01

    When random quantum spin chains are submitted to some periodic Floquet driving, the eigenstates of the time-evolution operator over one period can be localized in real space. For the case of periodic quenches between two Hamiltonians (or periodic kicks), where the time-evolution operator over one period reduces to the product of two simple transfer matrices, we propose a block-self-dual renormalization procedure to construct the localized eigenstates of the Floquet dynamics. We also discuss the corresponding strong disorder renormalization procedure, that generalizes the RSRG-X procedure to construct the localized eigenstates of time-independent Hamiltonians.

  13. Thermodynamics of Phase Transitions and Bipolar Filamentary Switching in Resistive Random-Access Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, V. G.; Niraula, D.; Karpov, I. V.; Kotlyar, R.

    2017-08-01

    We present a phenomenological theory of bipolar filamentary resistive random-access memory describing the commonly observed features of their current-voltage characteristics. Our approach follows the approach of a thermodynamic theory developed earlier for chalcogenide memory and threshold switches and largely independent of their microscopic details. It explains, without adjustable parameters, such features as the domains of filament formation and switching, voltage-independent current in set and current-independent voltage in reset regimes, the relation between the set and reset voltages, filament resistance independent of its length, etc. Furthermore, it expresses the observed features through the material and circuitry parameters, thus paving the way to device improvements.

  14. Randomized phase II study of TJ-54 (Yokukansan) for postoperative delirium in gastrointestinal and lung malignancy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Nobuhiro; Aoyama, Toru; Sato, Tsutomu; Kamiya, Mariko; Amano, Shinya; Yamamoto, Naoto; Nagashima, Takuya; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Masudo, Katsuhiko; Taguri, Masataka; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Yamamoto, Yuji; Matsukawa, Hiroshi; Shiraisi, Ryuji; Oshima, Takashi; Yukawa, Norio; Rino, Yasushi; Masuda, Munetaka

    2017-10-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy and safety of TJ-54 (Yokukansan; a traditional Japanese medicine) for the prevention and/or treatment of postoperative delirium in a randomized phase II trial of patients receiving surgery for gastrointestinal and lung malignancies. Patients ≥70 years of age who underwent surgery for gastrointestinal or lung malignancy were eligible for participation in the study. The 186 eligible patients were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to receive TJ-54 or control during their peri-operative care (between 7 days prior to surgery and 4 days following surgery, except for the operation day). The signs and symptoms of delirium were assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV by the investigator during the peri-operative period. A total of 186 eligible gastrointestinal or lung malignancy patients were analyzed (93, TJ-54; 93, control). There were no marked differences between the two randomized groups. The incidence of delirium was 6.5% (6 patients) in the TJ-54 group and 9.7% (9 patients) in the control group, with no significant difference (P=0.419). However, of the patients categorized with a mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score of ≤26, the incidence of postoperative delirium was 9.1% in the TJ-54 group and 26.9% in the control group [risk ratio, 0.338; 95% confidence interval (0.078-1.462), P=0.115]. Treatment with TJ-54 reduced the incidence of postoperative delirium compared with the control group. Although TJ-54 did not demonstrate any contribution to preventing or treating postoperative delirium in patients following surgery for gastrointestinal or lung malignancy, TJ-54 reduced the risk of postoperative delirium in the patients who were classified as MMSE ≤26. Further phase III studies with a larger sample size are required in order to clarify the effects of TJ-54 against postoperative delirium.

  15. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for comprehensive treatment of oligometastatic tumors (SABR-COMET: Study protocol for a randomized phase II trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma David A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR has emerged as a new treatment option for patients with oligometastatic disease. SABR delivers precise, high-dose, hypofractionated radiotherapy, and achieves excellent rates of local control. Survival outcomes for patients with oligometastatic disease treated with SABR appear promising, but conclusions are limited by patient selection, and the lack of adequate controls in most studies. The goal of this multicenter randomized phase II trial is to assess the impact of a comprehensive oligometastatic SABR treatment program on overall survival and quality of life in patients with up to 5 metastatic cancer lesions, compared to patients who receive standard of care treatment alone. Methods After stratification by the number of metastases (1-3 vs. 4-5, patients will be randomized between Arm 1: current standard of care treatment, and Arm 2: standard of care treatment + SABR to all sites of known disease. Patients will be randomized in a 1:2 ratio to Arm 1:Arm 2, respectively. For patients receiving SABR, radiotherapy dose and fractionation depends on the site of metastasis and the proximity to critical normal structures. This study aims to accrue a total of 99 patients within four years. The primary endpoint is overall survival, and secondary endpoints include quality of life, toxicity, progression-free survival, lesion control rate, and number of cycles of further chemotherapy/systemic therapy. Discussion This study will provide an assessment of the impact of SABR on clinical outcomes and quality of life, to determine if long-term survival can be achieved for selected patients with oligometastatic disease, and will inform the design of a possible phase III study. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01446744

  16. Functional bracing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a prospective, randomized, multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Edward R; Taylor, Dean C; Miller, Mark D; Gerber, John P; Ziemke, Gregg; Hinkin, Daniel; Uhorchak, John M; Arciero, Robert A; Pierre, Patrick St

    2004-12-01

    Bracing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is expensive and is not proven to prevent injuries or influence outcomes. To determine whether postoperative functional knee bracing influences outcomes. Prospective, randomized, multicenter clinical trial. One hundred volunteers from the 3 US service academies with acute anterior cruciate ligament tears were randomized into braced or nonbraced groups. Only those subjects with anterior cruciate ligament tears treated surgically within the first 8 weeks of injury were included. Patients with chondral injuries, significant meniscal tears, or multiple knee ligament injuries were excluded. Surgical procedures and the postoperative physical therapy protocols were identical for both groups. The braced group was instructed to wear an off-the-shelf functional knee brace for all cutting, pivoting, or jumping activities for the first year after surgery. Ninety-five subjects were available with a minimum 2-year follow-up. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in knee stability, functional testing with the single-legged hop test, International Knee Documentation Committee scores, Lysholm scores, knee range of motion, or isokinetic strength testing. Two braced subjects had reinjuries, and 3 nonbraced subjects had reinjuries. In this young, active population, postoperative bracing does not appear to change the clinical outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

  17. Random matrix theory, the exceptional Lie groups and L-functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, J P [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TW, UK (United Kingdom); Linden, N [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TW, UK (United Kingdom); Rudnick, Z [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Mathematical Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2003-03-28

    There has recently been interest in relating properties of matrices drawn at random from the classical compact groups to statistical characteristics of number-theoretical L-functions. One example is the relationship conjectured to hold between the value distributions of the characteristic polynomials of such matrices and value distributions within families of L-functions. These connections are extended here to non-classical groups. We focus on an explicit example: the exceptional Lie group G{sub 2}. The value distributions for characteristic polynomials associated with the 7- and 14-dimensional representations of G{sub 2}, defined with respect to the uniform invariant (Haar) measure, are calculated using two of the Macdonald constant term identities. A one-parameter family of L-functions over a finite field is described whose value distribution in the limit as the size of the finite field grows is related to that of the characteristic polynomials associated with the seven-dimensional representation of G{sub 2}. The random matrix calculations extend to all exceptional Lie groups.

  18. Effect of hippotherapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong-Yi; Chang, Hyun Jung; Yi, Sook-Hee; Lee, Ji Young; Shin, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether hippotherapy has a clinically significant effect on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Randomized controlled trial. Outpatient therapy center. Ninety-two children with CP, aged 4-10 years, presenting variable function (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels I-IV). Hippotherapy (30 minutes twice weekly for 8 consecutive weeks). Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-88, GMFM-66, and Pediatric Balance Scale. Pre- and post-treatment measures were completed by 91 children (45 in the intervention group and 46 in the control group). Differences in improvement on all three measures significantly differed between groups after the 8-week study period. Dimensions of GMFM-88 improved significantly after hippotherapy varied by GMFCS level: dimension E in level I, dimensions D and E in level II, dimensions C and D in level III, and dimensions B and C in level IV. Hippotherapy positively affects gross motor function and balance in children with CP of various functional levels.

  19. More evidence on additive antipsychotic effect of adjunctive mirtazapine in schizophrenia: an extension phase of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terevnikov, Viacheslav; Stenberg, Jan-Henry; Joffe, Marina; Tiihonen, Jari; Burkin, Mark; Tchoukhine, Evgueni; Joffe, Grigori

    2010-08-01

    Adjunctive mirtazapine improved negative symptoms of schizophrenia in several studies. Recently, we found an improvement also in positive symptoms when mirtazapine was added to first generation antipsychotics (FGAs) in a 6 week randomized controlled trial (RCT). The short duration of that trial was its limitation. This study aimed to explore whether longer treatment is worthwhile. Completers of the RCT (n = 39) received open-label add-on mirtazapine for additional 6 weeks. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (primary outcome) and several other clinical parameters were measured prospectively. During the open-label phase, significant improvement was achieved in all parameters, with an effect size of 0.94 (CI 95% = 0.45-1.43) on the primary outcome and an impressive additive antipsychotic effect. Patients who received mirtazapine during both phases demonstrated greater improvement in positive symptoms (29.6% versus 21.2%, p = 0.027) than those who received mirtazapine during open-label extension phase only. These findings support our previous data on the additive antipsychotic effect of mirtazapine in FGAs-treated schizophrenia. Mirtazapine may be effective in other symptom domains, too. Longer duration of mirtazapine treatment may yield additional benefits. If these results will be confirmed in larger studies, add-on mirtazapine may become a feasible option in difficult-to-treat schizophrenia. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Second harmonic generation in gallium phosphide microdisks on silicon: from strict \\bar{4} to random quasi-phase matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemé, P.; Dumeige, Y.; Stodolna, J.; Vallet, M.; Rohel, T.; Létoublon, A.; Cornet, C.; Ponchet, A.; Durand, O.; Léger, Y.

    2017-06-01

    The convergence of nonlinear optical devices and silicon photonics is a key milestone for the practical development of photonic integrated circuits. The associated technological issues often stem from material incompatibility. This is the case of second order nonlinear processes in monolithically integrated III-V semiconductor devices on silicon, where structural defects called antiphase domains strongly impact the optical properties of the material. We theoretically investigate the influence of antiphase domains on second harmonic generation in III-V whispering gallery mode microresonators on silicon and focus on the effects of the antiphase domains’ mean size (i.e. the correlation length of the distribution). We demonstrate that the domain distributions can have opposite effects depending on the nonlinear process under consideration: while antiphase domains negatively impact second harmonic generation under \\bar{4} quasi-phase matching conditions (independent of the correlation length), large conversion efficiencies can arise far from \\bar{4}-quasi-phase matching provided that the APD correlation length remains within an appropriate range, and is still compatible with the spontaneous emergence of such defects in the usual III-V on Si epilayers. Such a build-up can be explained by the occurrence of random quasi-phase matching in the system.

  1. A randomized controlled Phase Ib trial of the malaria vaccine candidate GMZ2 in African children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bélard, Sabine; Issifou, Saadou; Hounkpatin, Aurore B

    2011-01-01

    GMZ2 is a fusion protein of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3) and glutamate rich protein (GLURP) that mediates an immune response against the blood stage of the parasite. Two previous phase I clinical trials, one in naïve European adults and one in malaria-exposed Gabonese ...... adults showed that GMZ2 was well tolerated and immunogenic. Here, we present data on safety and immunogenicity of GMZ2 in one to five year old Gabonese children, a target population for future malaria vaccine efficacy trials....

  2. The Gross-Pitaevskii Functional with a Random Background Potential and Condensation in the Single Particle Ground State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klopp, Frederic, E-mail: klopp@math.jussieu.fr [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Institut de Mathematiques de Jussieu (France); Metzger, Bernd, E-mail: metzger@wias-berlin.de [Weierstrass Institute Berlin (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    For discrete and continuum Gross-Pitaevskii energy functionals with a random background potential, we study the Gross-Pitaevskii ground state. We characterize a regime of interaction coupling when the Gross-Pitaevskii ground state and the ground state of the random background Hamiltonian asymptotically coincide.

  3. Radial distribution function imaging by STEM diffraction: Phase mapping and analysis of heterogeneous nanostructured glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Xiaoke, E-mail: muxiaoke@gmail.com [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Helmholtz-Institute Ulm for Electrochemical Energy Storage (HIU), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 89081 Ulm (Germany); Wang, Di [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Feng, Tao [Herbert Gleiter Institute of Nanoscience, Nanjing University of Science and Technology (NJUST), 210094 Nanjing (China); Kübel, Christian [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Helmholtz-Institute Ulm for Electrochemical Energy Storage (HIU), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 89081 Ulm (Germany); Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    Characterizing heterogeneous nanostructured amorphous materials is a challenging topic, because of difficulty to solve disordered atomic arrangement in nanometer scale. We developed a new transmission electron microscopy (TEM) method to enable phase analysis and mapping of heterogeneous amorphous structures. That is to combine scanning TEM (STEM) diffraction mapping, radial distribution function (RDF) analysis, and hyperspectral analysis. This method was applied to an amorphous zirconium oxide and zirconium iron multilayer system, and showed extreme sensitivity to small atomic packing variations. This approach helps to understand local structure variations in glassy composite materials and provides new insights to correlate structure and properties of glasses. - Highlights: • A method for phase mapping of nanostructured amorphous materials was developed. • The phase mapping is purely based on structural information. • The method combines STEM diffraction with radial distribution function analysis. • The method was applied on an amorphous multilayer for demonstrating its sensitivity.

  4. How accurate is Density Functional Theory in Predicting Reaction Energies Relevant to Phase Stability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautier, Geoffroy; Ong, Shyue Ping; Jain, Anubhav; Moore, Charles J.; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2012-02-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) computations can be used to build computational phase diagrams that are used to understand the stability of known phases but also to assess the stability of novel, predicted compounds. The quality and predictive power of those phase diagrams rely on the accuracy of DFT in modeling reaction energies and we will present in this talk the results of a large scale comparison between experimentally measured and DFT computed reaction energies. For starters, we will show that only certain reaction energies are directly relevant to phase stability of multicomponent systems and that very often those reaction energies are not the commonly studied reactions from the elements. Using data from different experimental thermochemical tables and DFT high-throughput computing, we will present the results of a statistical study based on more than 130 reaction energies relevant to phase stability and from binary oxides to ternary oxides. We will show that the typical error are around 30 meV/at and therefore an order of magnitude lower than the errors in reaction energies from the elements. Finally, we will discuss the broad implications of our results on the evaluation of ab initio phase diagrams and on the computational prediction of new solid phases.

  5. On the use of functional calculus for phase-type and related distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Navarro, Azucena Campillo; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2016-01-01

    of matrices. Functional calculus, which is a branch of operator theory frequently associated with complex analysis, can be applied to phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions in a rather straightforward way. In this article we provide a number of examples of how to execute the formal arguments....

  6. Solid-phase synthesis of succinylhydroxamate peptides : Functionalized matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, M.A.; Geurink, P.P.; Klein, T; Kauffman, H.F; van der Marel, G.A.; Bischoff, Rainer; Overkleeft, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    A novel solid-phase synthesis strategy toward succinylhydroxamate peptides, using an appropriately protected hydroxamate building block, is described. Rapid and efficient access is gained to amine-functionalized peptides, which can be decorated with, for instance, a fluorescent label. In addition,

  7. Light source distribution and scattering phase function influence light transport in diffuse multi-layered media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudelle, Fabrice; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre; Askoura, Mohamed Lamine

    2017-06-01

    Red and near-Infrared light is often used as a useful diagnostic and imaging probe for highly scattering media such as biological tissues, fruits and vegetables. Part of diffusively reflected light gives interesting information related to the tissue subsurface, whereas light recorded at further distances may probe deeper into the interrogated turbid tissues. However, modelling diffusive events occurring at short source-detector distances requires to consider both the distribution of the light sources and the scattering phase functions. In this report, a modified Monte Carlo model is used to compute light transport in curved and multi-layered tissue samples which are covered with a thin and highly diffusing tissue layer. Different light source distributions (ballistic, diffuse or Lambertian) are tested with specific scattering phase functions (modified or not modified Henyey-Greenstein, Gegenbauer and Mie) to compute the amount of backscattered and transmitted light in apple and human skin structures. Comparisons between simulation results and experiments carried out with a multispectral imaging setup confirm the soundness of the theoretical strategy and may explain the role of the skin on light transport in whole and half-cut apples. Other computational results show that a Lambertian source distribution combined with a Henyey-Greenstein phase function provides a higher photon density in the stratum corneum than in the upper dermis layer. Furthermore, it is also shown that the scattering phase function may affect the shape and the magnitude of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution (BRDF) exhibited at the skin surface.

  8. Investigation of snow single scattering properties based on first order Legendre phase function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppanapelli, Lavan Kumar; Casselgren, Johan; Wåhlin, Johan; Sjödahl, Mikael

    2017-04-01

    Angularly resolved bidirectional reflectance measurements were modelled by approximating a first order Legendre expanded phase function to retrieve single scattering properties of snow. The measurements from 10 different snow types with known density and specific surface area (SSA) were investigated. A near infrared (NIR) spectrometer was used to measure reflected light above the snow surface over the hemisphere in the wavelength region of 900-1650 nm. A solver based on discrete ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT) model was used to retrieve the estimated Legendre coefficients of the phase function and a correlation between the coefficients and physical properties of different snow types is investigated. Results of this study suggest that the first two coefficients of the first order Legendre phase function provide sufficient information about the physical properties of snow where the latter captures the anisotropic behaviour of snow and the former provides a relative estimate of the single scattering albedo of snow. The coefficients of the first order phase function were compared with the experimental data and observed that both the coefficients are in good agreement with the experimental data. These findings suggest that our approach can be applied as a qualitative tool to investigate physical properties of snow and also to classify different snow types.

  9. The Age-ility Project (Phase 1): Structural and functional imaging and electrophysiological data repository

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karayanidis, F.; Keuken, M.C.; Wong, A.; Rennie, J.L.; de Hollander, G.; Cooper, P.S.; Fulham, W.R.; Lenroot, R.; Parsons, M.; Philips, N.; Michie, P.T.; Forstmann, B.U.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the complex interplay between structural and functional organisation of brain networks is being advanced by the development of novel multi-modal analyses approaches. The Age-ility Project (Phase 1) data repository offers open access to structural MRI, diffusion MRI, and

  10. Calibration of Modulation Transfer Function of Surface Profilometers with 1D and 2D Binary Pseudo-random Array Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.

    2008-05-19

    We suggest and describe the use of a binary pseudo-random grating as a standard test surface for calibration of the modulation transfer function of microscopes. Results from calibration of a MicromapTM-570 interferometric microscope are presented.

  11. Improving function in age-related macular degeneration: design and methods of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J; Hegel, Mark T; Massof, Robert W; Leiby, Benjamin E; Tasman, William S

    2011-03-01

    Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe vision loss in older adults and impairs the ability to read, drive, and live independently and increases the risk for depression, falls, and earlier mortality. Although new medical treatments have improved AMD's prognosis, vision-related disability remains a major public health problem. Improving Function in AMD (IF-AMD) is a two-group randomized, parallel design, controlled clinical trial that compares the efficacy of Problem-Solving Therapy (PST) with Supportive Therapy (ST) (an attention control treatment) to improve vision function in 240 patients with AMD. PST and ST therapists deliver 6 one-hour respective treatment sessions to subjects in their homes over 2 months. Outcomes are assessed masked to treatment assignment at 3 months (main trial endpoint) and 6 months (maintenance effects). The primary outcome is targeted vision function (TVF), which refers to specific vision-dependent functional goals that subjects highly value but find difficult to achieve. TVF is an innovative outcome measure in that it is targeted and tailored to individual subjects yet is measured in a standardized way. This paper describes the research methods, theoretical and clinical aspects of the study treatments, and the measures used to evaluate functional and psychiatric outcomes in this population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Random phase approximation applied to solids, molecules, and graphene-metal interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2013-01-01

    to semilocal and hybrid functionals in systems dominated by weak van der Waals or mixed covalent-dispersive interactions. In this work, we present plane-wave-based RPA calculations for a broad collection of systems with bond types ranging from strong covalent to van der Waals. Our main result is the RPA...... potential energy surfaces of graphene on the Cu(111), Ni(111), Co(0001), Pd(111), Pt(111), Ag(111), Au(111), and Al(111) metal surfaces, which represent archetypical examples of metal-organic interfaces. Comparison with semilocal density approximations and a nonlocal van der Waals functional show that only...

  13. Continuous-time random walk: exact solutions for the probability density function and first two moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok Sau Fa [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900 Maringa-PR (Brazil); Joni Fat, E-mail: kwok@dfi.uem.br [Jurusan Teknik Elektro-Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Tarumanagara, Jl. Let. Jend. S. Parman 1, Blok L, Lantai 3 Grogol, Jakarta 11440 (Indonesia)

    2011-10-15

    We consider the decoupled continuous-time random walk model with a finite characteristic waiting time and approximate jump length variance. We take the waiting time probability density function (PDF) given by a combination of the exponential and the Mittag-Leffler function. Using this waiting time PDF, we investigate the diffusion behavior for all times. We obtain exact solutions for the first two moments and the PDF for the force-free and linear force cases. Due to the finite characteristic waiting time and jump length variance, the model presents, for the force-free case, normal diffusive behavior in the long-time limit. Further, the model can describe anomalous behavior at intermediate times.

  14. How different from random are docking predictions when ranked by scoring functions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda; Oliva, Baldomero

    2010-01-01

    Docking algorithms predict the structure of protein-protein interactions. They sample the orientation of two unbound proteins to produce various predictions about their interactions, followed by a scoring step to rank the predictions. We present a statistical assessment of scoring functions used...... to rank near-native orientations, applying our statistical analysis to a benchmark dataset of decoys of protein-protein complexes and assessing the statistical significance of the outcome in the Critical Assessment of PRedicted Interactions (CAPRI) scoring experiment. A P value was assigned that depended...... functions results merely from random choice. This analysis reveals that changes should be made in the design of the CAPRI scoring experiment. We propose including the statistical assessment in this experiment either at the preprocessing or the evaluation step....

  15. Hydrotherapy improves pain and function in older women with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, João Marcos; Cisneros, Lígia; Dias, Rosângela; Fritsch, Carolina; Gomes, Wellington; Pereira, Leani; Santos, Mary Luci; Ferreira, Paulo Henrique

    Currently, there is poor evidence of the effect of hydrotherapy alone on patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis. The study aimed to assess the impact of hydrotherapy on pain, function, and muscle function in older women with knee osteoarthritis. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of hydrotherapy in women with knee osteoarthritis. Seventy-three women aged 65 and older were randomized to hydrotherapy (n=36) or a control group (n=37). The hydrotherapy group received the intervention program in a heated pool (twice per week for six weeks) and an educational protocol while the control group received an educational protocol only. Primary outcomes (before and post-treatment) were pain intensity (0-100) and function (0-100), assessed with the WOMAC questionnaire. Secondary outcomes (before and post-treatment) were knee extensor and knee flexor muscle performance (strength, power, and endurance), assessed by an isokinetic dynamometer. The magnitude of change between the groups for the outcomes was calculated using linear regression models adjusted by baseline outcome values. The hydrotherapy group had better outcomes for pain (adjusted mean difference=11 points, 95% CI: 3-18) and function (adjusted mean difference=12 points, 95% CI: 5-18). Patients receiving hydrotherapy had better performance for knee flexor and extensor strength, knee flexor power, and knee extensor endurance. Older women with knee osteoarthritis are likely to have benefits from a course of hydrotherapy exercises. Registry of clinical trials (Trial number RBR-8F57KR) - http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-8f57kr/. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Swimming Improves Pain and Functional Capacity of Patients With Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Giovana; Jennings, Fabio; Nery Cabral, Michele Vieira; Pirozzi Buosi, Ana Letícia; Natour, Jamil

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of swimming on pain, functional capacity, aerobic capacity, and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Randomized controlled trial. Rheumatology outpatient clinics of a university hospital. Women with FM (N=75; age range, 18-60y) randomly assigned to a swimming group (SG) (n=39) or a walking group (WG) (n=36). The SG performed 50 minutes of swimming 3 times a week for 12 weeks, with a heart rate at 11 beats under the anaerobic threshold. The WG performed walking with a heart rate at the anaerobic threshold, with the same duration and frequency as the SG. Participants were evaluated before the exercise protocols (t0), at 6 weeks (t6), and at 12 weeks (t12) after the onset of the protocols. The primary outcome measure was the visual analog scale for pain. The secondary measurements were the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey for quality of life; a spiroergometric test for cardiorespiratory variables; and the timed Up & Go test for functional performance. Patients in both groups experienced improvement in pain after the 12-week program, with no difference between groups (P=.658). The same results were found regarding functional capacity and quality of life. Moreover, no statistical difference between groups was found regarding aerobic capacity over time. Swimming, like walking, is an effective method for reducing pain and improving both functional capacity and quality of life in patients with FM. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cognitive function in multiple sclerosis improves with telerehabilitation: Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh E Charvet

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment affects more than half of all individuals living with multiple sclerosis (MS. We hypothesized that training at home with an adaptive online cognitive training program would have greater cognitive benefit than ordinary computer games in cognitively-impaired adults with MS. This was a double-blind, randomized, active-placebo-controlled trial. Participants with MS were recruited through Stony Brook Medicine and randomly assigned to either the adaptive cognitive remediation (ACR program or active control of ordinary computer games for 60 hours over 12 weeks. Training was remotely-supervised and delivered through a study-provided laptop computer. A computer generated, blocked stratification table prepared by statistician provided the randomization schedule and condition was assigned by a study technician. The primary outcome, administered by study psychometrician, was measured by change in a neuropsychological composite measure from baseline to study end. An intent-to-treat analysis was employed and missing primary outcome values were imputed via Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Participants in the ACR (n = 74 vs. active control (n = 61 training program had significantly greater improvement in the primary outcome of cognitive functioning (mean change in composite z score±SD: 0·25±0·45 vs. 0·09±0·37, p = 0·03, estimated difference = 0·16 with 95% CI: 0·02-0·30, despite greater training time in the active control condition (mean±SD:56·9 ± 34·6 vs. 37·7 ±23 ·8 hours played, p = 0·006. This study provides Class I evidence that adaptive, computer-based cognitive remediation accessed from home can improve cognitive functioning in MS. This telerehabilitation approach allowed for rapid recruitment and high compliance, and can be readily applied to other neurological conditions associated with cognitive dysfunction.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02141386.

  18. Cognitive function in multiple sclerosis improves with telerehabilitation: Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Leigh E; Yang, Jie; Shaw, Michael T; Sherman, Kathleen; Haider, Lamia; Xu, Jianjin; Krupp, Lauren B

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment affects more than half of all individuals living with multiple sclerosis (MS). We hypothesized that training at home with an adaptive online cognitive training program would have greater cognitive benefit than ordinary computer games in cognitively-impaired adults with MS. This was a double-blind, randomized, active-placebo-controlled trial. Participants with MS were recruited through Stony Brook Medicine and randomly assigned to either the adaptive cognitive remediation (ACR) program or active control of ordinary computer games for 60 hours over 12 weeks. Training was remotely-supervised and delivered through a study-provided laptop computer. A computer generated, blocked stratification table prepared by statistician provided the randomization schedule and condition was assigned by a study technician. The primary outcome, administered by study psychometrician, was measured by change in a neuropsychological composite measure from baseline to study end. An intent-to-treat analysis was employed and missing primary outcome values were imputed via Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Participants in the ACR (n = 74) vs. active control (n = 61) training program had significantly greater improvement in the primary outcome of cognitive functioning (mean change in composite z score±SD: 0·25±0·45 vs. 0·09±0·37, p = 0·03, estimated difference = 0·16 with 95% CI: 0·02-0·30), despite greater training time in the active control condition (mean±SD:56·9 ± 34·6 vs. 37·7 ±23 ·8 hours played, p = 0·006). This study provides Class I evidence that adaptive, computer-based cognitive remediation accessed from home can improve cognitive functioning in MS. This telerehabilitation approach allowed for rapid recruitment and high compliance, and can be readily applied to other neurological conditions associated with cognitive dysfunction. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02141386.

  19. Adalimumab for nail psoriasis: Efficacy and safety from the first 26 weeks of a phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elewski, Boni E; Okun, Martin M; Papp, Kim; Baker, Christopher S; Crowley, Jeffrey J; Guillet, Gérard; Sundaram, Murali; Poulin, Yves; Gu, Yihua; Geng, Ziqian; Williams, David A; Rich, Phoebe A

    2018-01-01

    Previous clinical trials have not evaluated improvement in nail psoriasis as a primary end point. This phase 3 trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of adalimumab in patients with moderate-to-severe fingernail psoriasis and moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Patients were randomized 1:1 to 40 mg adalimumab every other week or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was at least 75% improvement in total-fingernail modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI75) response rate at week 26. Ranked secondary end point scores evaluated at week 26 were total-fingernail NAPSI and modified NAPSI, nail pain, Nail Psoriasis Physical Functioning Severity, Brigham Scalp Nail Inverse Palmo-Plantar Psoriasis Index, and Physician's Global Assessment (fingernail psoriasis). Of the 217 randomized patients (108 received placebo and 109 received adalimumab), 188 (86.6%) completed 26 weeks of treatment (period A) or escaped early to the open-label period. The study met the primary end point (response rate of 3.4% with placebo vs 46.6% with adalimumab [P psoriasis versus with placebo and no new safety risks were identified. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Eischens Yoga During Radiation Therapy on Prostate Cancer Patient Symptoms and Quality of Life: A Randomized Phase II Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Josef, Avital Mazar; Chen, Jerry; Wileyto, Paul; Doucette, Abigail; Bekelman, Justin; Christodouleas, John; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha

    2017-08-01

    A randomized phase II study was performed to measure the potential therapeutic effects of yoga on fatigue, erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence, and overall quality of life (QOL) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy (RT). The participants were randomized to yoga and no-yoga cohorts (1:1). Twice-weekly yoga interventions were offered throughout the 6- to 9-week courses of RT. Comparisons of standardized assessments were performed between the 2 cohorts for the primary endpoint of fatigue and the secondary endpoints of erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence, and QOL before, during, and after RT. From October 2014 to January 2016, 68 eligible PCa patients underwent informed consent and agreed to participate in the study. Of the 68 patients, 18 withdrew early, mostly because of treatment schedule-related time constraints, resulting in 22 and 28 patients in the yoga and no-yoga groups, respectively. Throughout treatment, those in the yoga arm reported less fatigue than those in the control arm, with global fatigue, effect of fatigue, and severity of fatigue subscales showing statistically significant interactions (Pyoga having a significant time by treatment effect on the emotional, physical, and social scores but not on functional scores. A structured yoga intervention of twice-weekly classes during a course of RT was associated with a significant reduction in pre-existing and RT-related fatigue and urinary and sexual dysfunction in PCa patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-Hermitian random matrix theory: summation of planar diagrams, the 'single-ring' theorem and the disc-annulus phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinberg, Joshua [Physics Department, University of Haifa at Oranim, Tivon 36006 (Israel); Physics Department, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2006-08-11

    I review aspects of work done in collaboration with A Zee and R Scalettar (1997 Nucl. Phys. B 504 579; 1997 Nucl. Phys. B 501 643; 2001 J. Math. Phys. 42 5718) on complex non-Hermitian random matrices. I open by explaining why the bag of tools used regularly in analysing Hermitian random matrices cannot be applied directly to analyse non-Hermitian matrices, and then introduce the method of Hermitization, which solves this problem. Then, for rotationally invariant ensembles, I derive a master equation for the average density of eigenvalues in the complex plane, in the limit of infinitely large matrices. This is achieved by resumming all the planar diagrams which appear in the perturbative expansion of the Hermitized Green function. Remarkably, this resummation can be carried out explicitly for any rotationally invariant ensemble. I prove that in the limit of infinitely large matrices, the shape of the eigenvalue distribution is either a disc or an annulus. This is the celebrated 'single-ring' theorem. Which of these shapes is realized is determined by the parameters (coupling constants) which determine the ensemble. By varying these parameters a phase transition may occur between the two possible shapes. I briefly discuss the universal features of this transition. As the analysis of this problem relies heavily on summation of planar Feynman diagrams, I make a special effort at presenting a pedagogical exposition of the diagrammatic method, which some readers may find useful.

  2. Dispersive and Covalent Interactions between Graphene and Metal Surfaces from the Random Phase Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Yan, Jun; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    for exchange-correlation functionals give inadequate descriptions of either van der Waals or chemical bonds, RPA accounts accurately for both. It is found that the adsorption is a delicate competition between a weak chemisorption minimum close to the surface and a physisorption minimum further from the surface....

  3. Acupuncture in shoulder pain and functional impairment after neck dissection: A prospective randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deganello, Alberto; Battat, Nir; Muratori, Enrico; Cristofaro, Glauco; Buongiorno, Ana; Mannelli, Giuditta; Picconi, Mario; Giachetti, Rita; Borsotti, Giulia; Gallo, Oreste

    2016-08-01

    The efficacy of conventional physiotherapy and antiinflammatory/analgesic drugs in the management of shoulder pain and functional disability following neck dissection is often disappointing. Acupuncture is a safe and well-tolerated method. We report the results regarding our pilot trial of acupuncture versus conventional care in the management of postoperative shoulder pain and dysfunction after neck dissection. Pilot study. Patients at a tertiary university center with chronic pain or dysfunction attributed to neck dissection were randomly assigned to either weekly acupuncture or usual care (eg., physical therapy, analgesia, and/or antiinflammatory drugs) for 5 consecutive weeks. The Constant-Murley score, a composite measure of pain, function, and activities of daily living, was the primary outcome measure. As secondary end point, The Neck Dissection Impairment Index (NDII) was used to quantify site-specific, self-reported quality of life (QOL). After randomization, 48 patients completed the study (23 and 25 patients on acupuncture and control arms, respectively). Constant-Murley scores improved more in the acupuncture group (gain difference between groups 13.6, P pain and dysfunction related to neck dissection. 2b. Laryngoscope, 126:1790-1795, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. A Randomized Trial of Vitamin D Supplementation on Vascular Function in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek; Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Lal, Anupam; Kumar, Vinod; Singhal, Manphool; Billot, Laurent; Gupta, Krishan Lal; Banerjee, Debasish; Jha, Vivekanand

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency associates with mortality in patients with CKD, and vitamin D supplementation might mitigate cardiovascular disease risk in CKD. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the effect of cholecalciferol supplementation on vascular function in 120 patients of either sex, aged 18-70 years, with nondiabetic CKD stage 3-4 and vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≤20 ng/ml). We randomized patients using a 1:1 ratio to receive either two directly observed oral doses of cholecalciferol (300,000 IU) or matching placebo at baseline and 8 weeks. The primary outcome was change in endothelium-dependent brachial artery flow-mediated dilation at 16 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included changes in pulse wave velocity and circulating biomarkers. Cholecalciferol supplementation significantly increased endothelium-dependent brachial artery flow-mediated dilation at 16 weeks, whereas placebo did not (between-group difference in mean change: 5.49%; 95% confidence interval, 4.34% to 6.64%; P vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D supplementation may improve vascular function. This study is registered with the Clinical Trials Registry of India (no.: CTRI/2013/05/003648). Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Induction chemotherapy before chemoradiotherapy and surgery for locally advanced rectal cancer. Is it time for a randomized phase III trial?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedel, Claus [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Onkologie; Arnold, Dirk [Halle Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Innere Medizin IV; Becker, Heinz; Ghadimi, Michael; Liersch, Torsten [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Allgemein- und Visceralchirurgie; Fietkau, Rainer; Sauer, Rolf [Erlangen Univ. (Germany). Strahlenklinik; Graeven, Ullrich [Kliniken Maria Hilf GmbH, Moenchengladbach (Germany). Klinik fuer Haematologie, Onkologie und Gastroenterologie; Hess, Clemens [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie; Hofheinz, Ralf [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim (Germany). III. Medizinische Klinik Haematologie und Internistische Onkologie; Hohenberger, Werner [Erlangen Univ. (Germany). Chirurgische Klinik; Post, Stefan [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim (Germany). Chirurgische Klinik; Raab, Rudolf [Klinikum Oldenburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Allgemein- und Visceralchirurgie; Wenz, Frederick [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie

    2010-12-15

    Background: In the era of preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and total mesorectal excision (TME), the development of distant metastases is the predominant mode of failure in rectal cancer patients today. Integrating more effective systemic therapy into combined modality programs is the challenge. The question that needs to be addressed is how and when to apply systemic treatment with adequate dose and intensity. Material and Methods: This review article focuses on phase II-III trials designed to improve 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based combined modality treatment for rectal cancer patients through the inclusion of concurrent, adjuvant or, most recently, induction combination chemotherapy. Computerized bibliographic searches of PubMed were supplemented with hand searches of reference lists and abstracts of ASCO/ASTRO/ESTRO meetings. Results: After preoperative CRT and surgical resection, approximately one third of patients do not receive adjuvant chemotherapy, mainly due to surgical complications, patients' refusal, or investigator's discretion. In order to be able to apply chemotherapy with sufficient dose and intensity, an innovative approach is to deliver systemic therapy prior to preoperative CRT rather than adjuvant chemotherapy. Emerging evidence from several phase II trials and, recently, randomized phase II trials indicate that induction chemotherapy is feasible, does not compromise CRT or surgical resection, and enables the delivery of chemotherapy in adequate dose and intensity. Although this approach did not increase local efficacy in recent trials (e.g., pathological complete response rates, tumor regression, R0 resection rates, local control), it may help to improve control of distant disease. Conclusion: Whether this improvement in applicability and dose density of chemotherapy will ultimately translate into improved disease-free survival will have to be tested in a larger phase III trial. (orig.)

  6. Teriflunomide added to interferon-β in relapsing multiple sclerosis: a randomized phase II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, M S; Wolinsky, J S; Wamil, B; Confavreux, C; Comi, G; Kappos, L; Olsson, T P; Miller, A; Benzerdjeb, H; Li, H; Simonson, C; O'Connor, P W

    2012-06-05

    To evaluate teriflunomide as add-on therapy to ongoing stable-dosed interferon-β (IFNβ) in patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (RMS). A total of 118 patients with RMS were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to receive oral placebo or teriflunomide, 7 or 14 mg, once daily for 24 weeks; 86 patients entered the 24-week extension. The primary objective was to evaluate safety; secondary objectives were to evaluate the effects of treatment on disease activity assessed by MRI and relapse rate. Teriflunomide was well tolerated with a low and similar incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) across the 3 groups; TEAEs led to treatment discontinuation of 4.9%, 8.1%, and 7.9% of patients in the placebo, 7-mg, and 14-mg groups, respectively. The number of gadolinium-enhancing T1 (T1-Gd) lesions was reduced in both teriflunomide groups, with relative risk reductions (RRRs) of 84.6% (p = 0.0005) and 82.8% (p Teriflunomide as add-on therapy to IFNβ had acceptable safety and tolerability and reduced MRI disease activity compared with IFNβ alone. This study provides Class II evidence that teriflunomide, 7 and 14 mg, added to IFNβ, is safe. The T1-Gd lesion burden was significantly reduced with both teriflunomide doses.

  7. Randomized Phase II trial of nintedanib, afatinib and sequential combination in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molife, L Rhoda; Omlin, Aurelius; Jones, Rob J; Karavasilis, Vasilios; Bloomfield, David; Lumsden, Graeme; Fong, Peter C; Olmos, David; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Pedley, Ian; Hickish, Tamas; Jenkins, Peter; Thompson, Emilda; Oommen, Nikhil; Wheatley, Duncan; Heath, Catherine; Temple, Graham; Pelling, Katy; de Bono, Johann S

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this article was to evaluate afatinib (BIBW 2992), an ErbB family blocker, and nintedanib (BIBF 1120), a triple angiokinase inhibitor, in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients. Patients were randomized to receive nintedanib (250 mg twice daily), afatinib (40 mg once daily [q.d.]), or alternating sequential 7-day nintedanib (250 mg twice daily) and afatinib (70 mg q.d. [Combi70]), which was reduced to 40 mg q.d. (Combi40) due to adverse events. The primary end point was progression-free rate at 12 weeks. Of the 85 patients treated 46, 20, 16 and three received nintedanib, afatinib, Combi40 and Combi70, respectively. At 12 weeks, the progression-free rate was 26% (seven out of 27 patients) for nintedanib, and 0% for afatinib and Combi40 groups. Two patients had a ≥50% decline in PSA (nintedanib and the Combi40 groups). The most common drug-related adverse events were diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and lethargy. Nintedanib and/or afatinib demonstrated limited anti-tumor activity in unselected advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer patients.

  8. The exergy of a phase shift: Ecosystem functioning loss in seagrass meadows of the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montefalcone, Monica; Vassallo, Paolo; Gatti, Giulia; Parravicini, Valeriano; Paoli, Chiara; Morri, Carla; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

    2015-04-01

    Sustained functioning of ecosystems is predicted to depend upon the maintenance of their biodiversity, structure and integrity. The large consensus achieved in this regard, however, faces to the objective difficulty of finding appropriate metrics to measure ecosystem functioning. Here, we aim at evaluating functional consequence of the phase shift occurring in meadows of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, a priority habitat that is undergoing regression in many coastal areas due to multiple human pressures. Structural degradation of the P. oceanica ecosystem, consequent to increasing coastal exploitation and climate change, may result in the progressive replacement of this seagrass by opportunistic macrophytes, either native or alien. Reviewing published information and our personal records, we measured changes in biological habitat provisioning, species richness and biomass associated to each of the alternative states characterizing the phase shift. Then, ecosystem functioning was assessed by computing the exergy associated to each state, exergy being a state variable that measures the ecosystem capacity to produce work. Phase shift was consistently shown to imply loss in habitat provision, species richness, and biomass; structural and compositional loss was parallelled by a reduction of exergy content, thus providing for the first time an objective and integrative measure of the loss of ecosystem functioning following the degradation of healthy seagrass meadows.

  9. Phase retrieval for characteristic functions of convex bodies and reconstruction from covariograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Gabriele; Gardner, Richard; Kiderlen, Markus

    2011-01-01

    We propose strongly consistent algorithms for reconstructing the characteristic function $ 1_K$ of an unknown convex body $ K$ in $ \\mathbb{R}^n$ from possibly noisy measurements of the modulus of its Fourier transform $ \\widehat{1_K}$. This represents a complete theoretical solution to the Phase...... Retrieval Problem for characteristic functions of convex bodies. The approach is via the closely related problem of reconstructing $ K$ from noisy measurements of its covariogram, the function giving the volume of the intersection of $ K$ with its translates. In the many known situations in which...

  10. Fishing the PTM proteome with chemical approaches using functional solid phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Cheng; Jiang, Hucong; Yang, Pengyuan; Lu, Haojie

    2015-11-21

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are covalent additions of functional groups to proteins and are known to play essential roles in biological processes. Covalently attached PTMs are usually present at substoichiometric levels, implying that a PTM proteome is often present in only a small fraction of the entire proteome. The low abundance of PTMs creates a tremendous analytical challenge for PTM proteomics. New analytical strategies, especially enrichment approaches, are required to allow the comprehensive determination of PTMs. Solid-phase capture of PTMs through chemical reactions provides the most specific approach for fishing the PTM proteome, and based on these chemical reactions, a variety of novel functional nanomaterials have been developed. This review mainly focuses on the currently available chemical approaches for investigating PTMs, as well as the functional solid phases used for PTM proteome separation.

  11. Spin {ital M}1 excitations in deformed nuclei from self-consistent Hartree-Fock plus random-phase approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarriguren, P.; Moya de Guerra, E.; Nojarov, R. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 119, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    1996-08-01

    We present a method to study spin magnetic dipole excitations in deformed nuclei within the quasiparticle random phase approximation based on self-consistent Hartree-Fock mean fields and residual interactions derived from the same effective two-body force. We perform a comprehensive study covering different Skyrme forces and various mass regions, and discussing the role of the mean field and of the residual interaction. An overall agreement with experimental data is obtained with the SG2 force. We study the systematics and the deformation dependence of the spin {ital M}1 strength distributions of {ital K}{sup {pi}}=1{sup +} excitations. It is found for the first time that the summed spin {ital M}1 strength obeys a quadratic dependence on deformation in the two isotope chains studied, {sup 142,146,148,150}Nd and {sup 144,148,150,152,154}Sm. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  12. Lapatinib versus hormone therapy in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma: a randomized phase III clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravaud, Alain; Hawkins, Robert; Gardner, Jason P

    2008-01-01

    of metastatic sites--were randomly assigned to lapatinib 1,250 mg daily or HT. The primary end point was time to progression (TTP); secondary end points included overall survival (OS), safety, and biomarker analyses. RESULTS: Four hundred sixteen patients were enrolled onto the study. Median TTP was 15.3 weeks......PURPOSE: Lapatinib is an orally reversible inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) tyrosine kinases with demonstrated activity in patients with HER-2-positive breast cancer. In the current phase III open-label trial, lapatinib...... was compared with hormone therapy (HT) in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) that express EGFR and/or HER-2. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced RCC who had experienced disease progression through first-line cytokine therapy--stratified by Karnofsky performance status and number...

  13. Factors associated with publication of randomized phase iii cancer trials in journals with a high impact factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, P A; Pond, G R; Welch, S; Chen, E X

    2014-08-01

    Impact factor (if) is often used as a measure of journal quality. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether trials with positive outcomes are more likely to be published in journals with higher ifs. We reviewed 476 randomized phase iii cancer trials published in 13 journals between 1995 and 2005. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate predictors of publication in journals with high ifs (compared with low and medium ifs). A positive outcome had the strongest association with publication in high-if journals [odds ratio (or): 4.13; 95% confidence interval (ci): 2.67 to 6.37; p impact factor bias," and investigators should be encouraged to submit reports of trials of high methodologic quality to journals with high ifs regardless of study outcomes.

  14. Effect of yoga on autonomic functions and psychological status during both phases of menstrual cycle in young healthy females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojia, Sarita; Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Gandhi, Asha; Kapoor, Raj; Kukreja, Ajay; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Premenstrual stress affects 75% of women of childbearing age and yoga has been found to be beneficial in many psycho-somatic disorders. To investigate the effect of integrated yoga on autonomic parameters and psychological well-being during both pre and post phases of menstrual cycle in healthy young female subjects. Present study is a randomized control trial and was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India. Fifty apparently healthy females in the age group of 18-20 years were randomized into two groups: Group I (n=25) consisted of subjects who practiced yoga 35-40 minutes per day, six times per week for the duration of three menstrual cycles. Training was given by qualified yoga instructor. Group II (n=25) subjects acted as controls. Following parameters were recorded at the beginning and after completion of three menstrual cycles in all the subjects: Height, weight (BW), Resting Heart Rate (HR), Resting Systolic (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), parasympathetic reactivity tests including Expiration-Inspiration Ratio (E: I ratio) and 30:15 ratio, sympathetic reactivity tests including BP changes due to Isometric Hand Grip (IHG) exercise, and Cold Pressor Test (CPT). Assessment of psychological status was done by administering DIPAS (Defense Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences) inventories of Anger self report scale, Trait Anxiety, Sense of well-being and Depression scale. Intra-group comparison of physiological parameters was done by using paired 't' test, whereas intra-group comparison of non-parameteric data such as scores of anxiety, depression, anger and sense of well-being was done by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Inter-group comparison of parameters was done by Students 't' test for parametric tests and Mann-Whitney 'U' test for non-parameteric tests. There was significantly higher BW, resting SBP, DBP, sympathetic activity and blunting of parasympathetic reactivity and also, significantly

  15. Dietary Soy Supplement on Fibromyalgia Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Early Phase Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietlind L. Wahner-Roedler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with fibromyalgia use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. Properly designed controlled trials are necessary to assess the effectiveness of these practices. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, early phase trial. Fifty patients seen at a fibromyalgia outpatient treatment program were randomly assigned to a daily soy or placebo (casein shake. Outcome measures were scores of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention. Analysis was with standard statistics based on the null hypothesis, and separation test for early phase CAM comparative trials. Twenty-eight patients completed the study. Use of standard statistics with intent-to-treat analysis showed that total FIQ scores decreased by 14% in the soy group (P = .02 and by 18% in the placebo group (P < .001. The difference in change in scores between the groups was not significant (P = .16. With the same analysis, CES-D scores decreased in the soy group by 16% (P = .004 and in the placebo group by 15% (P = .05. The change in scores was similar in the groups (P = .83. Results of statistical analysis using the separation test and intent-to-treat analysis revealed no benefit of soy compared with placebo. Shakes that contain soy and shakes that contain casein, when combined with a multidisciplinary fibromyalgia treatment program, provide a decrease in fibromyalgia symptoms. Separation between the effects of soy and casein (control shakes did not favor the intervention. Therefore, large-sample studies using soy for patients with fibromyalgia are probably not indicated.

  16. DRY CUPPING IN CHILDREN WITH FUNCTIONAL CONSTIPATION: A RANDOMIZED OPEN LABEL CLINICAL TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahamat, Mahmoud; Daneshfard, Babak; Najib, Khadijeh-Sadat; Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Tafazoli, Vahid; Kasalaei, Afshineh

    2016-01-01

    As a common disease in pediatrics, constipation poses a high burden to the community. In this study, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of dry cupping therapy (an Eastern traditional manipulative therapy) in children with functional constipation. One hundred and twenty children (4-18 years old) diagnosed as functional constipation according to ROME III criteria were assigned to receive a traditional dry cupping protocol on the abdominal wall for 8 minutes every other day or standard laxative therapy (Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 40% solution without electrolyte), 0.4 g/kg once daily) for 4 weeks, in an open label randomized controlled clinical trial using a parallel design with a 1:1 allocation ratio. Patients were evaluated prior to and following 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of the intervention commencement in terms of the ROME III criteria for functional constipation. There were no significant differences between the two arms regarding demographic and clinical basic characteristics. After two weeks of the intervention, there was a significant better result in most of the items of ROME III criteria of patients in PEG group. In contrast, after four weeks of the intervention, the result was significantly better in the cupping group. There was no significant difference in the number of patients with constipation after 4 and 8 weeks of the follow-up period. This study showed that dry cupping of the abdominal wall, as a traditional manipulative therapy, can be as effective as standard laxative therapy in children with functional constipation.

  17. The RESPIRE trials: Two phase III, randomized, multicentre, placebo-controlled trials of Ciprofloxacin Dry Powder for Inhalation (Ciprofloxacin DPI) in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksamit, Timothy; Bandel, Tiemo-Joerg; Criollo, Margarita; De Soyza, Anthony; Elborn, J Stuart; Operschall, Elisabeth; Polverino, Eva; Roth, Katrin; Winthrop, Kevin L; Wilson, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The primary goals of long-term disease management in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) are to reduce the number of exacerbations, and improve quality of life. However, currently no therapies are licensed for this. Ciprofloxacin Dry Powder for Inhalation (Ciprofloxacin DPI) has potential to be the first long-term intermittent therapy approved to reduce exacerbations in NCFB patients. The RESPIRE programme consists of two international phase III prospective, parallel-group, randomized, double-blinded, multicentre, placebo-controlled trials of the same design. Adult patients with idiopathic or post-infectious NCFB, a history of ≥2 exacerbations in the previous 12months, and positive sputum culture for one of seven pre-specified pathogens, undergo stratified randomization 2:1 to receive twice-daily Ciprofloxacin DPI 32.5mg or placebo using a pocket-sized inhaler in one of two regimens: 28days on/off treatment or 14days on/off treatment. The treatment period is 48weeks plus an 8-week follow-up after the last dose. The primary efficacy endpoints are time to first exacerbation after treatment initiation and frequency of exacerbations using a stringent definition of exacerbation. Secondary endpoints, including frequency of events using different exacerbation definitions, microbiology, quality of life and lung function will also be evaluated. The RESPIRE trials will determine the efficacy and safety of Ciprofloxacin DPI. The strict entry criteria and stratified randomization, the inclusion of two treatment regimens and a stringent definition of exacerbation should clarify the patient population best positioned to benefit from long-term inhaled antibiotic therapy. Additionally RESPIRE will increase understanding of NCFB treatment and could lead to an important new therapy for sufferers. The RESPIRE trials are registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, ID number NCT01764841 (RESPIRE 1; date of registration January 8, 2013) and NCT02106832 (RESPIRE 2; date of registration

  18. Effect of blonanserin on cognitive and social function in acute phase Japanese schizophrenia compared with risperidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hori H

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hikaru Hori, Kenji Yamada, Dan Kamada, Yuka Shibata, Asuka Katsuki, Reiji Yoshimura, Jun NakamuraDepartment of Psychiatry, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, JapanBackground: This study aims to determine the effectiveness of blonanserin (BNS on the cognitive and social functions of patients with schizophrenia compared with risperidone (RIS during acute-phase (8-week treatment.Methods: A total of 39 schizophrenia inpatients were included in this study. The subjects received either BNS (N=20 or RIS (N=19, and the clinical responses were evaluated periodically. The concomitant use of mood stabilizers was not allowed. Efficacy was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for schizophrenia. Cognition was assessed using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese-language version. Social function was assessed using the Life Assessment Scale for the Mentally Ill.Results: For both groups, each assessment exhibited a decrease in the mean change from baseline on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The depression subscale was significantly improved in the BNS group compared with the RIS group at 8 weeks after administration. BNS improved verbal fluency and executive function (cognitive function and daily living and work skills (social function. Compared with the RIS group, BNS was observed to improve daily living.Conclusion: BNS may improve psychotic symptoms, cognitive function, and daily living in patients with acute-phase schizophrenia. BNS may be superior to RIS in the improvement of daily living.Keywords: risperidone, blonanserin, schizophrenia, cognitive function, social function, acute-phase

  19. A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Phase IIB Trial of Curcumin in Oral Leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Ramdas, Kunnambath; Dey, Bindu; Iyer, Subramanya; Rajan, Gunaseelan; Elango, Kalavathy K; Suresh, Amritha; Ravindran, Divya; Kumar, Rajneesh R; R, Prathiba; Ramachandran, Surya; Kumar, Nisha Asok; Thomas, Gigi; Somanathan, Thara; Ravindran, Hiran K; Ranganathan, Kannan; Katakam, Sudhakar Babu; Parashuram, Shivashankar; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Pillai, M Radhakrishna

    2016-08-01

    Oral leukoplakia is a potentially malignant lesion of the oral cavity, for which no effective treatment is available. We investigated the effectiveness of curcumin, a potent inhibitor of NF-κB/COX-2, molecules perturbed in oral carcinogenesis, to treat leukoplakia. Subjects with oral leukoplakia (n = 223) were randomized (1:1 ratio) to receive orally, either 3.6 g/day of curcumin (n = 111) or placebo (n = 112), for 6 months. The primary endpoint was clinical response obtained by bi-dimensional measurement of leukoplakia size at recruitment and 6 months. Histologic response, combined clinical and histologic response, durability and effect of long-term therapy for an additional six months in partial responders, safety and compliance were the secondary endpoints. Clinical response was observed in 75 (67.5%) subjects [95% confidence interval (CI), 58.4-75.6] in the curcumin and 62 (55.3%; 95% CI, 46.1-64.2) in placebo arm (P = 0.03). This response was durable, with 16 of the 18 (88.9%; 95% CI, 67.2-96.9) subjects with complete response in curcumin and 7 of 8 subjects (87.5%) in placebo arm, demonstrating no relapse after 6 months follow-up. Difference in histologic response between curcumin and placebo was not significant (HR, 0.88, 95% CI, 0.45-1.71; P = 0.71). Combined clinical and histologic response assessment indicated a significantly better response with curcumin (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.27-0.92; P = 0.02). Continued therapy, in subjects with partial response at 6 months, did not yield additional benefit. The treatment did not raise any safety concerns. Treatment of oral leukoplakia with curcumin (3.6 g for six months), thus was well tolerated and demonstrated significant and durable clinical response for 6 months. Cancer Prev Res; 9(8); 683-91. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Design of a Phase III cluster randomized trial to assess the efficacy and safety of a malaria transmission blocking vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrieu, Isabelle; Leboulleux, Didier; Ivinson, Karen; Gessner, Bradford D

    2015-03-24

    Vaccines interrupting Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission targeting sexual, sporogonic, or mosquito-stage antigens (SSM-VIMT) are currently under development to reduce malaria transmission. An international group of malaria experts was established to evaluate the feasibility and optimal design of a Phase III cluster randomized trial (CRT) that could support regulatory review and approval of an SSM-VIMT. The consensus design is a CRT with a sentinel population randomly selected from defined inner and buffer zones in each cluster, a cluster size sufficient to assess true vaccine efficacy in the inner zone, and inclusion of ongoing assessment of vaccine impact stratified by distance of residence from the cluster edge. Trials should be conducted first in areas of moderate transmission, where SSM-VIMT impact should be greatest. Sample size estimates suggest that such a trial is feasible, and within the range of previously supported trials of malaria interventions, although substantial issues to implementation exist. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oral domperidone has no additional effect on chronic functional constipation in children: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Askarian, Mehrdad; Kaffashan, Heidar Ali

    2014-03-01

    Chronic constipation represents a common problem in children. The treatment of functional constipation is challenging. Some studies have investigated the effect of prokinetic agents as potential therapies for motility disorders of the lower gastrointestinal tract with paradoxical results. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of oral domperidone in the treatment of chronic functional constipation in children. A total of 105 children with chronic functional constipation (according to Rome III criteria) who were referred to the Pediatric Gastroenterology Clinic were recruited in this double-blind randomized clinical trial. The study subjects were randomly divided into two groups, the first of which received polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution 0.6 g/kg/day two times a day for 6 months and domperidone syrup 0.15 mL/kg three times a day for 3 months (case group) while the second one received PEG with the same dose for 6 months and placebo for 3 months with the same dose (control group). The two groups were compared regarding their symptoms and Rome III criteria through 1, 3, and 6 months following therapy. Primary outcome was response to treatment, and a response was defined as decrease in signs and symptoms that did not fulfill Rome III criteria. Secondary outcome measures were side effects during the course of treatment. A significant difference was observed both before and after PEG and domperidone treatment and before and after PEG and placebo treatment regarding Rome III criteria. There was no significant difference in response to treatment between the two study groups during 1 (p = 1), 3 (p = 0.799), and 6 (p = 0.403) month follow up periods. Also, the two groups were not significantly different regarding the Rome III criteria during the mentioned follow up periods. There were no side effects during the course of treatment. There was no additional effect of domperidone as adjunct to PEG in the treatment of children with constipation.

  2. Effects of pentoxifylline on renal function and blood pressure in cardiac transplant recipients: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, R P; Edwards, B S; Olson, L J; Schwab, M K; Adams, T F; Textor, S C; Daly, R C; McGregor, C G; Rodeheffer, R J

    1997-06-15

    The current success of cardiac transplantation is in part attributable to the development of effective immunosuppressive agents such as cyclosporine. However, concern remains regarding the potential for cyclosporine-induced nephrotoxicity. Animal studies and early reports of renal protective effects of pentoxifylline in bone marrow transplant recipients prompted a randomized trial in cardiac transplant recipients. Twenty-nine patients were randomized to receive pentoxifylline 400 mg p.o. t.i.d. or matching placebo for 1 year after cardiac transplantation. Renal function was assessed preoperatively and at 1, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow were measured with iothalamate and para-aminohippurate, respectively. Serum creatinine was also measured. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring after withdrawal of antihypertensives for 3 days was performed 12 months postoperatively. Twenty-seven patients completed the study. Glomerular filtration rate rose between 1 and 6 months after transplantation, presumably due to the reduction in goal cyclosporine level in that period, and then fell modestly between 6 and 12 months, presumably due to ongoing nephrotoxic effects of cyclosporine. No difference in glomerular filtration rate or creatinine was seen between pentoxifylline and placebo groups at any interval. Renal plasma flow increased modestly between baseline and 6 months in the pentoxifylline group, but not in the placebo group, and then fell between 6 and 12 months. Serum creatinine increased between baseline and 6 months in both groups, apparently due to increased body weight. Results of 18-hr ambulatory blood pressure monitoring obtained 1 year after transplantation was not different between groups. Renal function declines only modestly in the first year after cardiac transplantation. Pentoxifylline did not attenuate this process and had no effect on blood pressure. The modest decline in renal function may be related to

  3. James Webb Space Telescope segment phasing using differential optical transfer functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codona, Johanan L; Doble, Nathan

    2015-03-01

    Differential optical transfer function (dOTF) is an image-based, noniterative wavefront sensing method that uses two star images with a single small change in the pupil. We describe two possible methods for introducing the required pupil modification to the James Webb Space Telescope, one using a small (telescope can be measured simultaneously. Also, since dOTF gives the pupil field amplitude as well as the phase, it could provide a first approximation or constraint to the planned iterative phase retrieval algorithms.

  4. Ingestion of micronutrient fortified breakfast cereal has no influence on immune function in healthy children: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Wei

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the influence of 2-months ingestion of an "immune" nutrient fortified breakfast cereal on immune function and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI in healthy children during the winter season. Methods Subjects included 73 children (N = 42 males, N = 31 females ranging in age from 7 to 13 years (mean ± SD age, 9.9 ± 1.7 years, and 65 completed all phases of the study. Subjects were randomized to one of three groups--low, moderate, or high fortification--with breakfast cereals administered in double blinded fashion. The "medium" fortified cereal contained B-complex vitamins, vitamins A and C, iron, zinc, and calcium, with the addition of vitamin E and higher amounts of vitamins A and C, and zinc in the "high" group. Immune measures included delayed-typed hypersensitivity, global IgG antibody response over four weeks to pneumococcal vaccination, salivary IgA concentration, natural killer cell activity, and granulocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity. Subjects under parental supervision filled in a daily log using URTI symptoms codes. Results Subjects ingested 3337 ± 851 g cereal during the 2-month study, which represented 14% of total diet energy intake and 20-85% of selected vitamins and minerals. Despite significant increases in nutrient intake, URTI rates and pre- to- post-study changes in all immune function measures did not differ between groups. Conclusions Data from this study indicate that ingestion of breakfast cereal fortified with a micronutrient blend for two winter months by healthy, growing children does not significantly influence biomarkers for immune function or URTI rates.

  5. Ingestion of micronutrient fortified breakfast cereal has no influence on immune function in healthy children: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This study investigated the influence of 2-months ingestion of an "immune" nutrient fortified breakfast cereal on immune function and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in healthy children during the winter season. Methods Subjects included 73 children (N = 42 males, N = 31 females) ranging in age from 7 to 13 years (mean ± SD age, 9.9 ± 1.7 years), and 65 completed all phases of the study. Subjects were randomized to one of three groups--low, moderate, or high fortification--with breakfast cereals administered in double blinded fashion. The "medium" fortified cereal contained B-complex vitamins, vitamins A and C, iron, zinc, and calcium, with the addition of vitamin E and higher amounts of vitamins A and C, and zinc in the "high" group. Immune measures included delayed-typed hypersensitivity, global IgG antibody response over four weeks to pneumococcal vaccination, salivary IgA concentration, natural killer cell activity, and granulocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity. Subjects under parental supervision filled in a daily log using URTI symptoms codes. Results Subjects ingested 3337 ± 851 g cereal during the 2-month study, which represented 14% of total diet energy intake and 20-85% of selected vitamins and minerals. Despite significant increases in nutrient intake, URTI rates and pre- to- post-study changes in all immune function measures did not differ between groups. Conclusions Data from this study indicate that ingestion of breakfast cereal fortified with a micronutrient blend for two winter months by healthy, growing children does not significantly influence biomarkers for immune function or URTI rates. PMID:21510864

  6. Ingestion of micronutrient fortified breakfast cereal has no influence on immune function in healthy children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, David C; Henson, Dru A; Sha, Wei

    2011-04-21

    This study investigated the influence of 2-months ingestion of an "immune" nutrient fortified breakfast cereal on immune function and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in healthy children during the winter season. Subjects included 73 children (N=42 males, N=31 females) ranging in age from 7 to 13 years (mean±SD age, 9.9±1.7 years), and 65 completed all phases of the study. Subjects were randomized to one of three groups--low, moderate, or high fortification--with breakfast cereals administered in double blinded fashion. The "medium" fortified cereal contained B-complex vitamins, vitamins A and C, iron, zinc, and calcium, with the addition of vitamin E and higher amounts of vitamins A and C, and zinc in the "high" group. Immune measures included delayed-typed hypersensitivity, global IgG antibody response over four weeks to pneumococcal vaccination, salivary IgA concentration, natural killer cell activity, and granulocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity. Subjects under parental supervision filled in a daily log using URTI symptoms codes. Subjects ingested 3337±851 g cereal during the 2-month study, which represented 14% of total diet energy intake and 20-85% of selected vitamins and minerals. Despite significant increases in nutrient intake, URTI rates and pre- to- post-study changes in all immune function measures did not differ between groups. Data from this study indicate that ingestion of breakfast cereal fortified with a micronutrient blend for two winter months by healthy, growing children does not significantly influence biomarkers for immune function or URTI rates.

  7. Solid phase synthesis of a functionalized bis-peptide using "safety catch" methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Conrad T; Schafmeister, Christian E

    2012-05-15

    In 1962, R.B. Merrifield published the first procedure using solid-phase peptide synthesis as a novel route to efficiently synthesize peptides. This technique quickly proved advantageous over its solution-phase predecessor in both time and labor. Improvements concerning the nature of solid support, the protecting groups employed and the coupling methods employed over the last five decades have only increased the usefulness of Merrifield's original system. Today, use of a Boc-based protection and base/nucleophile cleavable resin strategy or Fmoc-based protection and acidic cleavable resin strategy, pioneered by R.C. Sheppard, are most commonly used for the synthesis of peptides(1). Inspired by Merrifield's solid supported strategy, we have developed a Boc/tert-butyl solid-phase synthesis strategy for the assembly of functionalized bis-peptides(2), which is described herein. The use of solid-phase synthesis compared to solution-phase methodology is not only advantageous in both time and labor as described by Merrifield(1), but also allows greater ease in the synthesis of bis-peptide libraries. The synthesis that we demonstrate here incorporates a final cleavage stage that uses a two-step "safety catch" mechanism to release the functionalized bis-peptide from the resin by diketopiperazine formation. Bis-peptides are rigid, spiro-ladder oligomers of bis-amino acids that are able to position functionality in a predictable and designable way, controlled by the type and stereochemistry of the monomeric units and the connectivity between each monomer. Each bis-amino acid is a stereochemically pure, cyclic scaffold that contains two amino acids (a carboxylic acid with an α-amine)(3,4). Our laboratory is currently investigating the potential of functional bis-peptides across a wide variety of fields including catalysis, protein-protein interactions and nanomaterials.

  8. Mindfulness Meditation Training and Executive Control Network Resting State Functional Connectivity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, Adrienne A; Gianaros, Peter J; Greco, Carol M; Lindsay, Emily K; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K; Ferris, Jennifer L; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L; Creswell, J David

    Mindfulness meditation training has been previously shown to enhance behavioral measures of executive control (e.g., attention, working memory, cognitive control), but the neural mechanisms underlying these improvements are largely unknown. Here, we test whether mindfulness training interventions foster executive control by strengthening functional connections between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC)-a hub of the executive control network-and frontoparietal regions that coordinate executive function. Thirty-five adults with elevated levels of psychological distress participated in a 3-day randomized controlled trial of intensive mindfulness meditation or relaxation training. Participants completed a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan before and after the intervention. We tested whether mindfulness meditation training increased resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) between dlPFC and frontoparietal control network regions. Left dlPFC showed increased connectivity to the right inferior frontal gyrus (T = 3.74), right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) (T = 3.98), right supplementary eye field (T = 4.29), right parietal cortex (T = 4.44), and left middle temporal gyrus (T = 3.97, all p < .05) after mindfulness training relative to the relaxation control. Right dlPFC showed increased connectivity to right MFG (T = 4.97, p < .05). We report that mindfulness training increases rsFC between dlPFC and dorsal network (superior parietal lobule, supplementary eye field, MFG) and ventral network (right IFG, middle temporal/angular gyrus) regions. These findings extend previous work showing increased functional connectivity among brain regions associated with executive function during active meditation by identifying specific neural circuits in which rsFC is enhanced by a mindfulness intervention in individuals with high levels of psychological distress. Clinicaltrials.gov,NCT01628809.

  9. Does magnesium sulfate delay the active phase of labor in women with premature rupture of membranes? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzamoradi, Masoumeh; Behnam, Marzieh; Jahed, Tayebeh; Saleh-Gargari, Soraya; Bakhtiyari, Mahmood

    2014-09-01

    Administration of many drugs including magnesium sulfate (MS) has considerable influences on pregnancy outcomes. The present study investigates the effects of MS administration on reaching the active phase of labor in women with premature rupture of membrane (PROM) and subsequent fetal complications. A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed among primipara women referred to the PROM center in Tehran, Iran between March 2010 and August 2012. Patients were equally allocated into two groups; the intervention group who received MS (n = 46) and the control (placebo) group (n = 46). Both groups received a corticosteroid, 1g oral azithromycin (oral) and 2 g ampicillin (IV) every 6 hours for 48 hours, followed by amoxicillin (500 mg orally 3 times daily) for an additional 5 days. None of the research staff were aware of the treatment allocation of patients in order for blinding purposes. Administration of MS in intervention group increases this period 2.7 times compared to the control group. In women whose gestational age was magnesium sulfate reduced the risk of respiratory distress syndrome significantly (p = 0 .002), without producing any adverse pregnancy outcomes. Magnesium sulfate increases delay in reaching the active phase of labor in mothers with PROM, without producing adverse birth outcomes. (Registration ID in IRCT; IRCT2012091810876N1). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Phase I randomized safety study of twice daily dosing of acidform vaginal gel: candidate antimicrobial contraceptive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla J Keller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acidform gel, an acid-buffering product that inactivates spermatozoa, may be an effective topical non-hormonal contraceptive. This study was designed to evaluate the safety of vaginal dosing and effects of Acidform on mucosal immune mediators, antimicrobial properties of genital secretions, and vaginal microbiota. METHODS: Thirty-six sexually abstinent U.S. women were randomized to apply Acidform or hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC placebo gel twice daily for 14 consecutive days. Safety was assessed by symptoms and pelvic examination. The impact of gel on mucosal immunity was assessed by quantifying cytokines, chemokines, antimicrobial proteins and antimicrobial activity of genital secretions collected by cervicovaginal lavage (CVL at screening, 2 hours after gel application, and on days 7, 14 and 21. Vaginal microbiota was characterized at enrollment and day 14 using species-specific quantitative PCR assays. RESULTS: The median vaginal and cervical pH was significantly lower 2 hours after application of Acidform and was associated with an increase in the bactericidal activity of CVL against E. coli. However, 65% of women who received Acidform had at least one local adverse event compared with 11% who received placebo (p = 0.002. While there was no increase in inflammatory cytokines or chemokines, CVL concentrations of lactoferrin and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra, an anti-inflammatory protein, were significantly lower following Acidform compared to HEC placebo gel application. There were no significant changes in Lactobacillus crispatus or Lactobacillus jensenii in either group but there was a decrease in Gardnerella vaginalis in the Acidform group (p = 0.08. CONCLUSIONS: Acidform gel may augment mucosal defense as evidenced by an increase in bactericidal activity of genital secretions against E. coli and a decrease in Gardnerella vaginalis colonization. However, Acidform was associated with more irritation than

  11. Phase I randomized safety study of twice daily dosing of acidform vaginal gel: candidate antimicrobial contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Marla J; Carpenter, Colleen A; Lo, Yungtai; Einstein, Mark H; Liu, Congzhou; Fredricks, David N; Herold, Betsy C

    2012-01-01

    Acidform gel, an acid-buffering product that inactivates spermatozoa, may be an effective topical non-hormonal contraceptive. This study was designed to evaluate the safety of vaginal dosing and effects of Acidform on mucosal immune mediators, antimicrobial properties of genital secretions, and vaginal microbiota. Thirty-six sexually abstinent U.S. women were randomized to apply Acidform or hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) placebo gel twice daily for 14 consecutive days. Safety was assessed by symptoms and pelvic examination. The impact of gel on mucosal immunity was assessed by quantifying cytokines, chemokines, antimicrobial proteins and antimicrobial activity of genital secretions collected by cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) at screening, 2 hours after gel application, and on days 7, 14 and 21. Vaginal microbiota was characterized at enrollment and day 14 using species-specific quantitative PCR assays. The median vaginal and cervical pH was significantly lower 2 hours after application of Acidform and was associated with an increase in the bactericidal activity of CVL against E. coli. However, 65% of women who received Acidform had at least one local adverse event compared with 11% who received placebo (p = 0.002). While there was no increase in inflammatory cytokines or chemokines, CVL concentrations of lactoferrin and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), an anti-inflammatory protein, were significantly lower following Acidform compared to HEC placebo gel application. There were no significant changes in Lactobacillus crispatus or Lactobacillus jensenii in either group but there was a decrease in Gardnerella vaginalis in the Acidform group (p = 0.08). Acidform gel may augment mucosal defense as evidenced by an increase in bactericidal activity of genital secretions against E. coli and a decrease in Gardnerella vaginalis colonization. However, Acidform was associated with more irritation than placebo and lower levels of antimicrobial (lactoferrin) and anti

  12. Randomized phase II clinical trial of chemo-immunotherapy in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lasalvia-Prisco

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Lasalvia-Prisco1,4, Emilio Garcia-Giralt2, Jesús Vázquez2,4, Marta Aghazarian4, Eduardo Lasalvia-Galante3,4, Joshemaria Larrañaga3,4, Gonzalo Spera31Interdoctors Medical Procedures, North Miami Beach, FL, USA; 2Centre De Cancérologie Hartmann, Neuilly Sur Seine, France; 3Interdoctors Medical Procedures, Montevideo, Uruguay; 4National Institute of Oncology, Montevideo, Uruguay (initial dataAbstract: The purpose of this study was to compare chemotherapy-naive patients with stage IV nonsmall cell lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy or chemoimmunotherapy. We tested doxetacel plus cisplatinum as chemotherapy protocol. An immunomodulatory adjuvant system was added as chemoimmunotherapy to the previously mentioned protocol. This system contains three well-known and complementary conditioners of protective immune-responses: cyclophosphamide low-dose, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulant factor and magnesium silicate granuloma. Eighty-eight patients were randomly assigned to receive every 3-weeks one of the treatments under comparison. Patients received four cycles of treatment unless disease progression or unacceptable toxicity was documented. The maximum follow-up was one year. In each arm, tumor response (rate, duration, median survival time, 1-year overall survival, safety, and immunity modifications were assessed. Immunity was evaluated by submitting peripheral blood mononuclear cells to laboratory tests for nonspecific immunity: a phytohemaglutinin-induced lymphocyte proliferation, b prevalence of T-Regulatory (CD4+CD25+ cells and for specific immunity: a lymphocyte proliferation induced by tumor-associated antigens (TAA contained in a previously described autologous thermostable hemoderivative. The difference (chemotherapy vs. chemoimmunotherapy in response rate induced by the two treatments (39.0% and 35.0% was not statistically significant. However, the response duration (22 and 31 weeks, the median survival time (32

  13. Survival Outcomes With Short-Course Radiation Therapy in Elderly Patients With Glioblastoma: Data From a Randomized Phase 3 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes de Castro, Douglas; Matiello, Juliana; Roa, Wilson; Ghosh, Sunita; Kepka, Lucyna; Kumar, Narendra; Sinaika, Valery; Lomidze, Darejan; Hentati, Dalenda; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Fidarova, Elena

    2017-07-15

    To perform a subset analysis of survival outcomes in elderly patients with glioblastoma from a randomized phase 3 trial comparing 2 short-course radiation therapy (RT) regimens in elderly and/or frail patients. The original trial population included elderly and/or frail patients with a diagnosis of glioblastoma. Patients joined the phase 3, randomized, multicenter, prospective, noninferiority trial; were assigned to 1 of 2 groups in a 1:1 ratio, either short-course RT (25 Gy in 5 fractions, arm 1) or commonly used RT (40 Gy in 15 fractions, arm 2); and were stratified by age (elderly and frail patients were defined as patients aged ≥65 years with KPS of 50%-70%; elderly and non-frail patients were defined as patients aged ≥65 years with KPS of 80%-100%); 61 of the 98 initial patients comprised the patient population, with 26 patients randomized to arm 1 and 35 to arm 2. In this unplanned analysis, the short-course RT results were not statistically significantly different from the results of commonly used RT in elderly patients. The median overall survival time was 6.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.5-9.1 months) in arm 1 and 6.2 months (95% CI, 4.7-7.7 months) in arm 2 (P=.936). The median progression-free survival time was 4.3 months (95% CI, 2.6-5.9 months) in arm 1 and 3.2 months (95% CI, 0.1-6.3 months) in arm 2 (P=.706). A short-course RT regimen of 25 Gy in 5 fractions is an acceptable treatment option for patients aged ≥65 years, mainly those with a poor performance status or contraindication to chemotherapy, which would be indicated in cases of methylated O6 methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase promoter tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of Autonomic Function by Phase Rectification of RRInterval Histogram Analysis in Chagas Disease

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    Olivassé Nasari Junior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In chronic Chagas disease (ChD, impairment of cardiac autonomic function bears prognostic implications. Phase‑rectification of RR-interval series isolates the sympathetic, acceleration phase (AC and parasympathetic, deceleration phase (DC influences on cardiac autonomic modulation. Objective: This study investigated heart rate variability (HRV as a function of RR-interval to assess autonomic function in healthy and ChD subjects. Methods: Control (n = 20 and ChD (n = 20 groups were studied. All underwent 60-min head-up tilt table test under ECG recording. Histogram of RR-interval series was calculated, with 100 ms class, ranging from 600–1100 ms. In each class, mean RR-intervals (MNN and root-mean-squared difference (RMSNN of consecutive normal RR-intervals that suited a particular class were calculated. Average of all RMSNN values in each class was analyzed as function of MNN, in the whole series (RMSNNT, and in AC (RMSNNAC and DC (RMSNNDC phases. Slopes of linear regression lines were compared between groups using Student t-test. Correlation coefficients were tested before comparisons. RMSNN was log-transformed. (α < 0.05. Results: Correlation coefficient was significant in all regressions (p < 0.05. In the control group, RMSNNT, RMSNNAC, and RMSNNDC significantly increased linearly with MNN (p < 0.05. In ChD, only RMSNNAC showed significant increase as a function of MNN, whereas RMSNNT and RMSNNDC did not. Conclusion: HRV increases in proportion with the RR-interval in healthy subjects. This behavior is lost in ChD, particularly in the DC phase, indicating cardiac vagal incompetence.

  15. Effect of blonanserin on cognitive and social function in acute phase Japanese schizophrenia compared with risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hikaru; Yamada, Kenji; Kamada, Dan; Shibata, Yuka; Katsuki, Asuka; Yoshimura, Reiji; Nakamura, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effectiveness of blonanserin (BNS) on the cognitive and social functions of patients with schizophrenia compared with risperidone (RIS) during acute-phase (8-week) treatment. A total of 39 schizophrenia inpatients were included in this study. The subjects received either BNS (N=20) or RIS (N=19), and the clinical responses were evaluated periodically. The concomitant use of mood stabilizers was not allowed. Efficacy was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for schizophrenia. Cognition was assessed using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese-language version. Social function was assessed using the Life Assessment Scale for the Mentally Ill. For both groups, each assessment exhibited a decrease in the mean change from baseline on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The depression subscale was significantly improved in the BNS group compared with the RIS group at 8 weeks after administration. BNS improved verbal fluency and executive function (cognitive function) and daily living and work skills (social function). Compared with the RIS group, BNS was observed to improve daily living. BNS may improve psychotic symptoms, cognitive function, and daily living in patients with acute-phase schizophrenia. BNS may be superior to RIS in the improvement of daily living.

  16. Social skills improvement in children with high-functioning autism: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadli, A; Brisot, J; Henry, V; Michelon, C; Soussana, M; Rattaz, C; Picot, M C

    2013-07-01

    High-functioning autism (HFA) is characterized by persistent impairment in social interaction despite the absence of mental retardation. Although an increasing number of group-based programs for the improvement of social skills have been described, randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate their efficacy. To compare the effect of a Social Skills Training Group-based Program (SST-GP) and a Leisure Activities Group-based Program (LA-GP) on the perception of facial emotions and quality of life (QoL) in young people with HFA. Eligible patients were children and adolescents with HFA. Participants were randomized to the SST or LA group. The primary outcome was defined as an improvement of 2 points in error rates for facial emotion labeling (DANVA2) from baseline. After the 6-month training period, the SST Group made fewer errors in labeling anger on adult faces, whereas error rates in the LA Group remained stable. Progress in the ability to recognize anger in the SST Group was due to better recognition of low intensity stimuli on adult faces. QoL increased in the SST Group in the dimension of school environment, as a marker of the transfer of skills acquired in the treatment setting to their use in the community. The SST-GP had higher efficacy than the LA-GP. Data justify replication using larger samples.

  17. Acupuncture for functional dyspepsia: study protocol for a two-center, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gajin; Ko, Seok-Jae; Park, Jae-Woo; Kim, Jinsung; Yeo, Inkwon; Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Song-Yi; Lee, Hyangsook

    2014-03-22

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common health problem currently without any optimal treatments. Acupuncture has been traditionally sought as a treatment for FD. The aim of this study is to investigate whether acupuncture treatment helps improve symptoms of FD. A two-center, randomized, waitlist-controlled trial will be carried out to evaluate whether acupuncture treatment improves FD symptoms. Seventy six participants aged 18 to 75 years with FD as diagnosed by Rome III criteria will be recruited from August 2013 to January 2014 at two Korean Medicine hospitals. They will be randomly allocated either into eight sessions of partially individualized acupuncture treatment over 4 weeks or a waitlist group. The acupuncture group will then be followed-up for 3 weeks with six telephone visits and a final visit will be paid at 8 weeks. The waitlist group will receive the identical acupuncture treatment after a 4-week waiting period. The primary outcome is the proportion of responders with adequate symptom relief and the secondary outcomes include Nepean dyspepsia index, EQ-5D, FD-related quality of life, Beck's depression inventory, state-trait anxiety inventory questionnaire, and level of ghrelin hormone. The protocol was approved by the participating centers' Institutional Review Boards. Results of this trial will help clarify not only whether the acupuncture treatment is beneficial for symptom improvement in FD patients but also to elucidate the related mechanisms of how acupuncture might work. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01921504.

  18. Critical point of gas-liquid type phase transition and phase equilibrium functions in developed two-component plasma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butlitsky, M A; Zelener, B B; Zelener, B V

    2014-07-14

    A two-component plasma model, which we called a "shelf Coulomb" model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The "shelf Coulomb" model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ɛ parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ɛ and γ = βe(2)n(1/3) (where β = 1/kBT, n is the particle's density, kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ɛ and γ parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ɛ(crit) ≈ 13(T(*)(crit) ≈ 0.076), γ(crit) ≈ 1.8(v(*)(crit) ≈ 0.17), P(*)(crit) ≈ 0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/γ(3) and reduced temperature T(*) = ɛ(-1).

  19. Executive function predicts response to antiaggression treatment in schizophrenia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowski, Menahem I; Czobor, Pal

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive experience with antipsychotic medications, we have limited capacity to predict which patients will benefit from which medications and for what symptoms. Such prediction is of particular importance for the proper treatment of violence. Our goal was to determine whether executive function predicts outcome of treatment for aggressive behavior and whether such prediction varies across medication groups. Ninety-nine physically aggressive inpatients (aged 18-60 years) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (diagnosed according to DSM-IV) who completed tests of executive function were randomly assigned in a double-blind, parallel-group, 12-week trial to clozapine (n = 32), olanzapine (n = 32), or haloperidol (n = 35). The number and severity of aggressive events as measured by the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) were the outcome measures. Psychopathology and medication side effects were also assessed. The study was conducted from 1999 to 2004. Poor executive function predicted higher levels of aggression, as measured by MOAS scores over the 12-week period, in all 3 medication groups (F(1,98) = 222.2, P aggression in patients with schizophrenia. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01123408. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  20. Does epicatechin contribute to the acute vascular function effects of dark chocolate? A randomized, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dower, James I; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Kroon, Paul A; Philo, Mark; Mensink, Marco; Kromhout, Daan; Hollman, Peter C H

    2016-11-01

    Cocoa, rich in flavan-3-ols, improves vascular function, but the contribution of specific flavan-3-ols is unknown. We compared the effects of pure epicatechin, a major cocoa flavan-3-ol, and chocolate. In a randomized crossover study, twenty healthy men (40-80 years) were supplemented with: (1) 70g dark chocolate (150 mg epicatechin) with placebo capsules; (2) pure epicatechin capsules (2 × 50 mg epicatechin) with 75g white chocolate; and (3) placebo capsules with 75 g white chocolate (0 mg epicatechin). Vascular function (flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and augmentation index (AIx)) were measured before and 2 hours after interventions. Epicatechin metabolites time-profiles were measured in blood to calculate the bioavailability. Pure epicatechin did not significantly improve FMD (+0.75%; p = 0.10) or AIx (-2.2%; p = 0.23) compared to placebo. Dark chocolate significantly improved FMD (+0.96%; p = 0.04) and AIx (-4.6%; p = 0.02). Differences in improvements in FMD (+ 0.21%; p = 0.65) or Aix (-2.4%; p = 0.20) between pure epicatechin and dark chocolate were not significant. The bioavailability of epicatechin did not differ between pure epicatechin and dark chocolate (p = 0.14). Despite differences in epicatechin dose, improvements in vascular function after pure epicatechin and chocolate were similar and the bioavailability did not differ, suggesting a role for epicatechin. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Effect of fruit and vegetable concentrates on endothelial function in metabolic syndrome: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Yingying

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objective Dehydrated fruit and vegetable concentrates provide an accessible form of phytonutrient supplementation that may offer cardioprotective effects. This study assessed the effects of two blends of encapsulated juice powder concentrates (with and without added berry powders on endothelial function in persons with metabolic syndrome, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Methods Randomized, double blind, placebo controlled crossover clinical trial with three treatment arms. 64 adults with metabolic syndrome were enrolled and received 8-week sequences of each blend of the concentrates and placebo. The primary outcome measure was change in endothelial function (assessed as flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery 2 hr after consuming a 75 g glucose load, after 8-weeks of daily consumption (sustained or 2 hr after consumption of a single dose (acute. Secondary outcome measures included plasma glucose, serum insulin, serum lipids, and body weight. Results No significant between-group differences in endothelial function with daily treatment for 8 weeks were seen. No other significant treatment effects were discerned in glucose, insulin, lipids, and weight. Conclusion Encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrates did not alter insulin or glucose measures in this sample of adults with metabolic syndrome. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01224743

  2. Triclosan and triclocarban exposure and thyroid function during pregnancy-A randomized intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Catherine; Pischel, Lauren; Parsonnet, Julie

    2017-09-20

    Triclosan and triclocarban (TCs) are broad-spectrum microbicides found in household and personal wash products. We sought to determine whether TC exposure from wash products or urinary triclosan level modified thyroid function during pregnancy or anthropometric measurements at birth. A randomized intervention of wash products with or without TCs, including toothpaste, enrolled pregnant women from 20 weeks' gestation. Urinary triclosan, TSH, T4 and T3 were assessed at enrollment, 36weeks' gestation and/or post-delivery; anthropometric measures at birth were ascertained from medical records. 78 and 76 mothers were assigned to the TC-containing and no-TC-containing product arms, respectively. No differences were observed in any thyroid function measure at any time point or in any anthropometric measurement at birth between either exposure arms or lowest and highest urinary triclosan quartile groups. TCs from wash products, primarily liquid and bar soaps, did not affect thyroid function measures during pregnancy or babies' anthropometric measures at delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiofrequency in female external genital cosmetics and sexual function: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordêlo, Patrícia; Leal, Mariana Robatto Dantas; Brasil, Cristina Aires; Santos, Juliana Menezes; Lima, Maria Clara Neves Pavie Cardoso; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira

    2016-11-01

    Female sexual behavior goes through cultural changes constantly, and recently, some women have shown the desire the ideal genitalia. In this study, we aimed to evaluate clinical responses to nonablative radiofrequency (RF) in terms of its cosmetic outcome in the female external genitalia and its effect on sexual function. A single-masking randomized controlled trial was conducted in 43 women (29 sexually active) who were unsatisfied with the appearance of their external genitalia. The women were divided into an RF group (n = 21, 14 sexually active) and a control group (n = 22, 15 sexually active). Eight sessions of RF were performed once a week. Photographs (taken before the first session and 8 days after the last session) were evaluated by the women and three blinded health professionals by using two 3-point Likert scales (unsatisfied, unchanged, and satisfied; and worst, unchanged, and improved). Sexual function was evaluated using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and analyzed using the Student t test. Women's satisfaction and health professional evaluation were analyzed using the chi-square test and inter- and intragroup binomial comparisons. Satisfaction response rates were 76 and 27 % for the RF and control groups, respectively (p = 0.001). All professionals found a clinical improvement association in the treated group with RF in comparison with the control group (p cosmetic outcome for the female external genitalia, with positives changes in patients' satisfaction and FSFI scores.

  4. Functional stretching exercise submitted for spastic diplegic children: a randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafey, Mohamed Ali; Abd-Elaziem, Adel; Gouda, Rana Elmarzouki

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Studying the effect of the functional stretching exercise in diplegic children. Design. Children were randomly assigned into two matched groups. Setting. Outpatient Clinic of the Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University. Participants. Thirty ambulant spastic diplegic children, ranging in age from five to eight years, participated in this study. Interventions. The control group received physical therapy program with traditional passive stretching exercises. The study group received physical therapy program with functional stretching exercises. The treatment was performed for two hours per session, three times weekly for three successive months. Main Outcome Measure(s). H∖M ratio, popliteal angle, and gait parameters were evaluated for both groups before and after treatment. Results. There was significant improvement in all the measuring variables for both groups in favor of study group. H∖M ratio was reduced, popliteal angle was increased, and gait was improved. Conclusion(s). Functional stretching exercises were effectively used in rehabilitation of spastic diplegic children; it reduced H∖M ratio, increased popliteal angle, and improved gait.

  5. Dynamic Balance Training Improves Physical Function in Individuals With Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Judit; Krowchuk, Natasha M; Garland, S Jayne; Carpenter, Mark G; Hunt, Michael A

    2017-08-01

    To examine the effect of a targeted balance training program on dynamic balance and self-reported physical function in people with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (OA). Single-blind randomized controlled trial. Exercise gymnasium and community dwellings. Individuals with medial compartment knee OA (N=40). Ten weeks of partially supervised exercises targeting dynamic balance and strength performed 4 times per week or no intervention (nonintervention group). Dynamic balance was measured using the Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CB&M), and self-reported physical function was measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index physical function subscale. Secondary outcomes included knee pain, fear of movement, knee joint proprioception, and muscle strength. Forty individuals underwent baseline testing, with 36 participants completing follow-up testing. Adherence to exercise in the training group was high, with 82.2% of all home-based exercise sessions completed. No significant changes were observed in any outcome in the nonintervention group at follow-up. Significant improvements in self-reported pain, physical function, and fear of movement were observed in the training group when compared with the nonintervention group. No other within- or between-group differences were observed. A 10-week dynamic balance training program for people with knee OA significantly improved self-reported knee pain, physical function, and fear of movement; however, there was no change in dynamic balance as quantified by the CB&M. Further research is needed to investigate how exercise may result in improvement on objective measures of dynamic balance. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of physical training on function of chronically painful muscles: A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Zebis, Mette K

    2008-01-01

    ) with a clinical diagnosis of trapezius myalgia participated in a 10 week randomized controlled intervention; specific strength training of the neck/shoulder muscles (SST), general fitness training performed as leg-bicycling (GFT), or a reference intervention without physical activity (REF). Torque.......01-0.05). While EMG activity of the unaffected deltoid remained unchanged during the maximal contractions, an increase in EMG amplitude (42-86%, Pmuscle. Correspondingly, torque increased 18-53% (P...Purpose: Pain and tenderness of the upper trapezius muscle is frequent in several occupational groups. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of three contrasting interventions on muscle function and pain in women with trapezius myalgia. Methods: A group of employed women (n=42...

  7. Efficacy of kinesiotape on functional disability of women with postnatal back pain: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Eman A; El-Shamy, Fayiz F; Hamed, Hany

    2017-09-22

    Postpartum low back pain harmfully affects all parts of women's life. To investigate the effect of kinesiotape on women with postnatal backache. Thirty participants were randomly allocated to either group (A; n= 15), treated by kinesiotape with exercise program, or the group (B; n= 15), treated by exercise program. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and Back Pain Function Scale (BPFS) were evaluated.at baseline and after 2 weeks of intervention. There were no statistically significant changes between group A and group B for baseline characteristics (p> 0.05). After two-week intervention, within group analyses revealed that VAS decreased (p 0.05) in the two groups. Between group analyses showed that there was significant reduction of VAS (pKinesiotape and postural correction exercises can be recommended as effective treatment methods for women's postnatal back pain with better effect of kinesiotape and postural correction exercises than exercise alone.

  8. LCN: a random graph mixture model for community detection in functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Christopher; Zhu, Hongtu; Ahn, Mihye; Ibrahim, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a Bayesian random graph mixture model (RGMM) to detect the latent class network (LCN) structure of brain connectivity networks and estimate the parameters governing this structure. The use of conjugate priors for unknown parameters leads to efficient estimation, and a well-known nonidentifiability issue is avoided by a particular parameterization of the stochastic block model (SBM). Posterior computation proceeds via an efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. Simulations demonstrate that LCN outperforms several other competing methods for community detection in weighted networks, and we apply our RGMM to estimate the latent community structures in the functional resting brain networks of 185 subjects from the ADHD-200 sample. We find overlap in the estimated community structure across subjects, but also heterogeneity even within a given diagnosis group.

  9. Randomized Phase II Trial of Adjuvant WT-1 Analog Peptide Vaccine in Patients with Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma after Completion of Multimodality Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    10-1-0699 TITLE: Randomized Phase II Trial of Adjuvant WT-1 Analog Peptide Vaccine in Patients with Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma after...apoptosis. WT1 protein is highly expressed in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), and is a rational target for immunotherapy. We have developed a...this project is to conduct a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized trial comparing treatment with the WT-1 peptide vaccine + Montanide/GM-CSF to

  10. Functionalized Polymers-Emerging Versatile Tools for Solution-Phase Chemistry and Automated Parallel Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschning, Andreas; Monenschein, Holger; Wittenberg, Rüdiger

    2001-02-16

    As part of the dramatic changes associated with the need for preparing compound libraries in pharmaceutical and agrochemical research laboratories, industry searches for new technologies that allow for the automation of synthetic processes. Since the pioneering work by Merrifield polymeric supports have been identified to play a key role in this field however, polymer-assisted solution-phase synthesis which utilizes immobilized reagents and catalysts has only recently begun to flourish. Polymer-assisted solution-phase synthesis has various advantages over conventional solution-phase chemistry, such as the ease of separation of the supported species from a reaction mixture by filtration and washing, the opportunity to use an excess of the reagent to force the reaction to completion without causing workup problems, and the adaptability to continuous-flow processes. Various strategies for employing functionalized polymers stoichiometrically have been developed. Apart from reagents that are covalently or ionically attached to the polymeric backbone and which are released into solution in the presence of a suitable substrate, scavenger reagents play an increasingly important role in purifying reaction mixtures. Employing functionalized polymers in solution-phase synthesis has been shown to be extremely useful in automated parallel synthesis and multistep sequences. So far, compound libraries containing as many as 88 members have been generated by using several polymer-bound reagents one after another. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that complex natural products like the alkaloids (+/-)-oxomaritidine and (+/-)-epimaritidine can be prepared by a sequence of five and six consecutive polymer-assisted steps, respectively, and the potent analgesic compound (+/-)-epibatidine in twelve linear steps ten of which are based on functionalized polymers. These developments reveal the great future prospects of polymer-assisted solution-phase synthesis.

  11. Sexual function in women on estradiol or venlafaxine for hot flushes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Susan D; Mitchell, Caroline M; Joffe, Hadine; Cohen, Lee; Shifren, Jan L; Newton, Katherine M; Freeman, Ellen W; Larson, Joseph C; Manson, JoAnn E; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Guthrie, Katherine A

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate sexual function in midlife women taking low-dose oral estradiol or venlafaxine for hot flushes. In an 8-week randomized controlled trial among women aged 40-62 years, sexual function was compared between 0.5 mg oral estradiol per day or 75 mg venlafaxine per day (both compared with a placebo). Measures included composite and six domain scores from the Female Sexual Function Index and sexually related personal distress. Participants were aged 54.6 years (standard deviation [SD] 3.8) years, 59% white, with 8.1 (SD 5.3) daily hot flushes. Median composite baseline Female Sexual Function Index score was 16.3 (SD 11.9, n=256) for all women and 21.7 (SD 9.3, n=198) among sexually active women. Composite mean Female Sexual Function Index change from baseline to week 8 was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.4 to 3.2) for estradiol, 1.1 (95% CI -0.5 to 2.7) for venlafaxine, and -0.3 (95% CI -1.6 to 1.0) for placebo. Composite Female Sexual Function Index and sexually related distress change from baseline did not differ between estradiol and placebo (P=.38, P=.30) or venlafaxine and placebo (P=.79, P=.48). Among sexually active women, Female Sexual Function Index domain score change from baseline differences (active compared with placebo) in desire was 0.3 (95% CI 0.0-0.6) for estradiol, -0.6 (95% CI -1.2 to 0.0) in orgasm for venlafaxine, and 0.9 (95% CI 0.2-1.6) in penetration pain for venlafaxine. No women reported adverse events related to sexual dysfunction. Overall sexual function among nondepressed midlife women experiencing hot flushes did not change over 8 weeks with low-dose oral estradiol or venlafaxine (compared with placebo), although a subtle increase in desire (estradiol) and decreases in orgasm and pain (venlafaxine) may exist. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01418209. I.

  12. Efficient randomization of biological networks while preserving functional characterization of individual nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Francesco; Bernardo-Faura, Marti; Gobbi, Andrea; Cokelaer, Thomas; Jurman, Giuseppe; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio

    2016-12-20

    Networks are popular and powerful tools to describe and model biological processes. Many computational methods have been developed to infer biological networks from literature, high-throughput experiments, and combinations of both. Additionally, a wide range of tools has been developed to map experimental data onto reference biological networks, in order to extract meaningful modules. Many of these methods assess results' significance against null distributions of randomized networks. However, these standard unconstrained randomizations do not preserve the functional characterization of the nodes in the reference networks (i.e. their degrees and connection signs), hence including potential biases in the assessment. Building on our previous work about rewiring bipartite networks, we propose a method for rewiring any type of unweighted networks. In particular we formally demonstrate that the problem of rewiring a signed and directed network preserving its functional connectivity (F-rewiring) reduces to the problem of rewiring two induced bipartite networks. Additionally, we reformulate the lower bound to the iterations' number of the switching-algorithm to make it suitable for the F-rewiring of networks of any size. Finally, we present BiRewire3, an open-source Bioconductor package enabling the F-rewiring of any type of unweighted network. We illustrate its application to a case study about the identification of modules from gene expression data mapped on protein interaction networks, and a second one focused on building logic models from more complex signed-directed reference signaling networks and phosphoproteomic data. BiRewire3 it is freely available at https://www.bioconductor.org/packages/BiRewire/ , and it should have a broad application as it allows an efficient and analytically derived statistical assessment of results from any network biology tool.

  13. Protocol for Shoulder function training reducing musculoskeletal pain in shoulder and neck: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortensen Ole S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neck and shoulder complaints are common among employees in sedentary occupations characterized by intensive computer use. Such musculoskeletal pain - which is often associated with restricted range of motion and loss of muscle strength - is one of the most common conditions treated by physical therapists. The exact mechanism of neck pain is rarely revealed by clinical examination and the treatment has varied from passive rest to active treatments. Active treatments have often been divided into either training of the painful area or the surrounding musculature avoiding direct training of the painful area. Our study investigates the effect of the latter approach. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial of 10 weeks duration is currently being conducted. Employed office workers with severe neck-shoulder pain are randomized to 3 × 20 min shoulder function training with training supervision or to a reference group receiving advice to stay physically active. Shoulder function training primarily focuses on the serratus anterior and lower trapezius muscle with only minimal activation the upper trapezius. An announcement was sent to the administrative section of the university including jobs characterized by intensive computer work. The first 100 positive replies entered the study. Among these inclusion criteria were pain intensity in the neck/shoulder of at least 3 on a 0-9 scale. Exclusion criteria were cardiovascular disease, trauma, hypertension, or serious chronic disease. Before and after the intervention period the participants replied to a questionnaire about musculoskeletal disorders and work disability, and underwent a standardized clinical examination of the neck and shoulder girdle. Further, on a weekly basis the participants log pain intensity of the neck and shoulder during the previous week. The primary outcome measure is pain in the neck and shoulders at week 10 based on the weekly pain registration and results

  14. Presumption of Phase Shift in Resonant Dynamical Systems using Wigner-Ville Distribution Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Hironobu; Yatsu, Shigeo; Kayukawa, Naoyuki

    2002-02-01

    The time evolution of the forced and eigen oscillation modes of a basic rotor model induced by an external force with frequencies of linear functions of time was analyzed by means of the Wigner-Ville distribution function. The instantaneous frequency of the forced oscillation was extracted from the spectrum distribution on the time-frequency plane, and the phase shift between the forced oscillation and the external force was calculated for both weak and strong nonstationariness cases. In the latter case, neither forced nor eigen modes could be separated definitely around the resonant point. This resulted in a discrepancy of the asymptotic value of the phase shift from π in cooperation with the finite frequency resolution. It was shown that the phase shift in this “mixed mode region” could be numerically traced and the bifurcation point could be approximately identified on the basis of the finding that the asymptotic value of the phase shift in the present model was π, irrespective of the nonstationariness.

  15. Shape measurement with modified phase-shift lateral shearing interferometry illumination and radial basis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiangjun; Shao, Xinxing; Li, Lijun; Liu, Cong; Dai, Meiling; Yun, Hai; Yang, Fujun

    2017-07-20

    Three-dimensional shapes of objects were evaluated with modified phase-shift lateral shearing interferometry illumination and radial basis function. A simple optical system was developed to create the fringe pattern based on the Murty interferometer. The phase shift was generated only by moving a plane-parallel plate along an in-plane parallel direction. A novel moving radial basis function method was presented to improve the quality of fringe patterns. And the proper calculation window size was given based on numerical simulation. Three-dimensional shapes of two kinds of objects were determined to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method, and the reconstructed height distributions were in good accordance with the referenced data.

  16. Priming with r-metHuSCF and filgrastim or chemotherapy and filgrastim in patients with malignant lymphomas: a randomized phase II pilot study of mobilization and engraftment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, H E; Geisler, C; Juvonen, E

    2011-01-01

    SCF has been shown to synergize with G-CSF to mobilize CD34(+) PBPCs. In this study we report results from this combination after a phase II trial of 32 patients with malignant lymphoma randomized to receive recombinant methionyl human SCF (ancestim, r-metHuSCF) in combination with recombinant...... and thrombocytopenia was documented in arm B. Third, 9/14 (64%) patients in arm A reached the target of 5 million CD34(+) cells/kg body weight (bw) compared with 13/15 (87%) in arm B. The results represent the first randomized trial of growth factor plus chemotherapy priming and indicate that a formal phase III trial...

  17. A density-functional study of the phase diagram of cementite-type (Fe,Mn)3C at absolute zero temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Appen, Jörg; Eck, Bernhard; Dronskowski, Richard

    2010-11-15

    The phase diagram of (Fe(1-x) Mn(x))(3)C has been investigated by means of density-functional theory (DFT) calculations at absolute zero temperature. The atomic distributions of the metal atoms are not random-like as previously proposed but we find three different, ordered regions within the phase range. The key role is played by the 8d metal site which forms, as a function of the composition, differing magnetic layers, and these dominate the physical properties. We calculated the magnetic moments, the volumes, the enthalpies of mixing and formation of 13 different compositions and explain the changes of the macroscopic properties with changes in the electronic and magnetic structures by means of bonding analyses using the Crystal Orbital Hamilton Population (COHP) technique. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Charge pattern matching as a ‘fuzzy’ mode of molecular recognition for the functional phase separations of intrinsically disordered proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Brady, Jacob P.; Forman-Kay, Julie D.; Chan, Hue Sun

    2017-11-01

    Biologically functional liquid–liquid phase separation of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is driven by interactions encoded by their amino acid sequences. Little is currently known about the molecular recognition mechanisms for distributing different IDP sequences into various cellular membraneless compartments. Pertinent physics was addressed recently by applying random-phase-approximation (RPA) polymer theory to electrostatics, which is a major energetic component governing IDP phase properties. RPA accounts for charge patterns and thus has advantages over Flory–Huggins (FH) and Overbeek–Voorn mean-field theories. To make progress toward deciphering the phase behaviors of multiple IDP sequences, the RPA formulation for one IDP species plus solvent is hereby extended to treat polyampholyte solutions containing two IDP species plus solvent. The new formulation generally allows for binary coexistence of two phases, each containing a different set of volume fractions ({φ }1,{φ }2) for the two different IDP sequences. The asymmetry between the two predicted coexisting phases with regard to their {φ }1/{φ }2 ratios for the two sequences increases with increasing mismatch between their charge patterns. This finding points to a multivalent, stochastic, ‘fuzzy’ mode of molecular recognition that helps populate various IDP sequences differentially into separate phase compartments. An intuitive illustration of this trend is provided by FH models, whereby a hypothetical case of ternary coexistence is also explored. Augmentations of the present RPA theory with a relative permittivity {ε }{{r}}(φ ) that depends on IDP volume fraction φ ={φ }1+{φ }2 lead to higher propensities to phase separate, in line with the case with one IDP species we studied previously. Notably, the cooperative, phase-separation-enhancing effects predicted by the prescriptions for {ε }{{r}}(φ ) we deem physically plausible are much more prominent than that entailed by common

  19. Lifitegrast for the Treatment of Dry Eye Disease: Results of a Phase III, Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Trial (OPUS-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Edward J; Luchs, Jodi; Karpecki, Paul M; Nichols, Kelly K; Jackson, Mitchell A; Sall, Kenneth; Tauber, Joseph; Roy, Monica; Raychaudhuri, Aparna; Shojaei, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Lifitegrast is a lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 antagonist developed to reduce inflammation in dry eye disease (DED). We report the results of OPUS-3 (NCT02284516), a phase III study evaluating the efficacy and safety of lifitegrast versus placebo in participants with DED. Twelve-week, phase III, randomized, double-masked, multicenter, placebo-controlled study. Adults aged ≥18 years with Schirmer tear test (without anesthesia) ≥1 and ≤10 mm, corneal fluorescein staining score ≥2.0 (0-4 scale), eye dryness score (EDS) ≥40 (0-100 visual analogue scale [VAS]), and history of artificial tear use within 30 days of study entry. After a 14-day placebo run-in, participants were randomized 1:1 to lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5.0% or placebo twice daily for 84 days. The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline to day 84 in EDS. Key secondary efficacy end points were change from baseline to days 42 and 14 in EDS. Other secondary efficacy end points included additional VAS items (burning/stinging, itching, foreign body sensation, eye discomfort, photophobia, pain), ocular discomfort score (ODS), and safety/tolerability of lifitegrast versus placebo. In the study, 711 participants were randomized: placebo, 356; lifitegrast, 355 (intention-to-treat [ITT] population). At day 84, lifitegrast-treated participants experienced significantly greater improvement from baseline in EDS versus those receiving placebo (treatment effect [TE], 7.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.04-11.28; P = 0.0007). Mean changes from baseline in EDS also significantly favored lifitegrast on days 42 (TE, 9.32; 95% CI, 5.44-13.20; P lifitegrast-treated participants at day 42 in itching (nominal P = 0.0318), foreign body sensation (nominal P = 0.0418), and eye discomfort (P = 0.0048) versus participants receiving placebo. Most treatment-emergent adverse events were mild to moderate in severity; no serious ocular adverse events were reported. Lifitegrast significantly

  20. Randomized phase II trial of hypofractionated proton versus carbon ion radiation therapy in patients with sacrococcygeal chordoma-the ISAC trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Matthias; Edler, Lutz; Jensen, Alexandra D; Habl, Gregor; Oelmann, Jan; Röder, Falk; Jäckel, Oliver; Debus, Jürgen; Herfarth, Klaus

    2014-04-29

    Chordomas are relatively rare lesions of the bones. About 30% occur in the sacrococcygeal region. Surgical resection is still the standard treatment. Due to the size, proximity to neurovascular structures and the complex anatomy of the pelvis, a complete resection with adequate safety margin is difficult to perform. A radical resection with safety margins often leads to the loss of bladder and rectal function as well as motoric/sensoric dysfunction. The recurrence rate after surgery alone is comparatively high, such that adjuvant radiation therapy is very important for improving local control rates. Proton therapy is still the international standard in the treatment of chordomas. High-LET beams such as carbon ions theoretically offer biologic advantages in slow-growing tumors. Data of a Japanese study of patients with unresectable sacral chordoma showed comparable high control rates after hypofractionated carbon ion therapy only. This clinical study is a prospective randomized, monocentric phase II trial. Patients with histologically confirmed sacrococcygeal chordoma will be randomized to either proton or carbon ion radiation therapy stratified regarding the clinical target volume. Target volume delineation will be carried out based on CT and MRI data. In each arm the PTV will receive 64 GyE in 16 fractions. The primary objective of this trial is safety and feasibility of hypofractionated irradiation in patients with sacrococygeal chordoma using protons or carbon ions in raster scan technique for primary or additive treatment after R2 resection. The evaluation is therefore based on the proportion of treatments without Grade 3-5 toxicity (CTCAE, version 4.0) up to 12 months after treatment and/or discontinuation of the treatment for any reason as primary endpoint. Local-progression free survival, overall survival and quality of life will be analyzed as secondary end points. The aim of this study is to confirm the toxicity results of the Japanese data in raster scan

  1. N08C9 (Alliance): A Phase 3 Randomized Study of Sulfasalazine Versus Placebo in the Prevention of Acute Diarrhea in Patients Receiving Pelvic Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Robert C., E-mail: miller.robert@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Petereit, Daniel G. [Rapid City Regional Oncology Group, Rapid City, South Dakota (United States); Sloan, Jeff A.; Liu, Heshan [Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Martenson, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Bearden, James D. [Upstate Carolina Community Clinical Oncology Program, Spartanburg, South Carolina (United States); Sapiente, Ronald [Carle Cancer Center CCOP, Urbana, Illinois (United States); Seeger, Grant R. [Altru Health Systems, Grand Forks, North Dakota (United States); Mowat, Rex B. [Toledo Community Hospital Oncology Program CCOP, Toledo, Ohio (United States); Liem, Ben [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico (United States); Iott, Matthew J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Loprinzi, Charles L. [Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To provide confirmatory evidence on the use of sulfasalazine to reduce enteritis during pelvic radiation therapy (RT), following 2 prior single-institution trials suggestive that benefit existed. Methods and Materials: A multi-institution, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial was designed to assess the efficacy of sulfasalazine versus placebo in the treatment of RT-related enteritis during RT including the posterior pelvis (45.0-53.5 Gy) and conducted through a multicenter national cooperative research alliance. Patients received 1000 mg of sulfasalazine or placebo orally twice daily during and for 4 weeks after RT. The primary endpoint was maximum severity of diarrhea (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0). Toxicity and bowel function were assessed by providers through a self-administered bowel function questionnaire taken weekly during RT and for 6 weeks afterward. Results: Eighty-seven patients were enrolled in the trial between April 29, 2011, and May 13, 2013, with evenly distributed baseline factors. At the time of a planned interim toxicity analysis, more patients with grade ≥3 diarrhea received sulfasalazine than received placebo (29% vs 11%, P=.04). A futility analysis showed that trial continuation would be unlikely to yield a positive result, and a research board recommended halting study treatment. Final analysis of the primary endpoint showed no significant difference in maximum diarrhea severity between the sulfasalazine and placebo arms (P=.41). Conclusions: Sulfasalazine does not reduce enteritis during pelvic RT and may be associated with a higher risk of adverse events than placebo. This trial illustrates the importance of confirmatory phase 3 trials in the evaluation of symptom-control agents.

  2. The effect of incentive spirometry on postoperative pulmonary function following laparotomy: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Anna F; Kendig, Claire E; Mabedi, Charles; Cairns, Bruce A; Charles, Anthony G

    2015-03-01

    Changes in pulmonary dynamics following laparotomy are well documented. Deep breathing exercises, with or without incentive spirometry, may help counteract postoperative decreased vital capacity; however, the evidence for the role of incentive spirometry in the prevention of postoperative atelectasis is inconclusive. Furthermore, data are scarce regarding the prevention of postoperative atelectasis in sub-Saharan Africa. To determine the effect of the use of incentive spirometry on pulmonary function following exploratory laparotomy as measured by forced vital capacity (FVC). This was a single-center, randomized clinical trial performed at Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi. Study participants were adult patients who underwent exploratory laparotomy and were randomized into the intervention or control groups (standard of care) from February 1 to November 30, 2013. All patients received routine postoperative care, including instructions for deep breathing and early ambulation. We used bivariate analysis to compare outcomes between the intervention and control groups. Adult patients who underwent exploratory laparotomy participated in postoperative deep breathing exercises. Patients in the intervention group received incentive spirometers. We assessed pulmonary function using a peak flow meter to measure FVC in both groups of patients. Secondary outcomes, such as hospital length of stay and mortality, were obtained from the medical records. A total of 150 patients were randomized (75 in each arm). The median age in the intervention and control groups was 35 years (interquartile range, 28-53 years) and 33 years (interquartile range, 23-46 years), respectively. Men predominated in both groups, and most patients underwent emergency procedures (78.7% in the intervention group and 84.0% in the control group). Mean initial FVC did not differ significantly between the intervention and control groups (0.92 and 0.90 L, respectively; P=.82 [95% CI, 0.52-2.29]). Although

  3. Taming waveform inversion non-linearity through phase unwrapping of the model and objective functions

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-09-25

    Traveltime inversion focuses on the geometrical features of the waveform (traveltimes), which is generally smooth, and thus, tends to provide averaged (smoothed) information of the model. On other hand, general waveform inversion uses additional elements of the wavefield including amplitudes to extract higher resolution information, but this comes at the cost of introducing non-linearity to the inversion operator, complicating the convergence process. We use unwrapped phase-based objective functions in waveform inversion as a link between the two general types of inversions in a domain in which such contributions to the inversion process can be easily identified and controlled. The instantaneous traveltime is a measure of the average traveltime of the energy in a trace as a function of frequency. It unwraps the phase of wavefields yielding far less non-linearity in the objective function than that experienced with conventional wavefields, yet it still holds most of the critical wavefield information in its frequency dependency. However, it suffers from non-linearity introduced by the model (or reflectivity), as reflections from independent events in our model interact with each other. Unwrapping the phase of such a model can mitigate this non-linearity as well. Specifically, a simple modification to the inverted domain (or model), can reduce the effect of the model-induced non-linearity and, thus, make the inversion more convergent. Simple numerical examples demonstrate these assertions.

  4. Quantitative phase imaging of platelet: assessment of cell morphology and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, Irina; Vlasova, Elizaveta; Metelin, Vladislav; Agadzhanjan, B.; Lyfenko, R.

    2017-02-01

    It is well known that platelets play a central role in hemostasis and thrombosis, they also mediate tumor cell growth, dissemination and angiogenesis. The purpose of the present experiment was to evaluate living platelet size, function and morphology simultaneously in unactivated and activated states using Phase-Interference Microscope "Cytoscan" (Moscow, Russia). We enrolled 30 healthy volunteers, who had no past history of aeteriosclerosis-related disorders, such as coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, hypertention, diabetes or hyperlipidemia and 30 patients with oropharynx cancer. We observed the optic-geometrical parameters of each isolated living cell and the distribution of platelets by sizes have been analysed to detect the dynamics of cell population heterogeneity. Simultaneously we identified 4 platelet forms that have different morphological features and different parameters of size distribution. We noticed that morphological platelet types correlate with morphometric platelet parameters. The data of polymorphisms of platelet reactivity in tumor progression can be used to improve patient outcomes in the cancer prevention and treatment. Moreover morphometric and functional platelet parameters can serve criteria of the efficiency of the radio- and chemotherapy carried out. In conclusion the computer phase-interference microscope provides rapid and effective analysis of living platelet morphology and function at the same time. The use of the computer phase-interference microscope could be an easy and fast method to check the state of platelets in patients with changed platelet activation and to follow a possible pharmacological therapy to reduce this phenomenon.

  5. DRY CUPPING IN CHILDREN WITH FUNCTIONAL CONSTIPATION: A RANDOMIZED OPEN LABEL CLINICAL TRIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahamat, Mahmoud; Daneshfard, Babak; Najib, Khadijeh-Sadat; Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Tafazoli, Vahid; Kasalaei, Afshineh

    2016-01-01

    Background: As a common disease in pediatrics, constipation poses a high burden to the community. In this study, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of dry cupping therapy (an Eastern traditional manipulative therapy) in children with functional constipation. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty children (4-18 years old) diagnosed as functional constipation according to ROME III criteria were assigned to receive a traditional dry cupping protocol on the abdominal wall for 8 minutes every other day or standard laxative therapy (Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 40% solution without electrolyte), 0.4 g/kg once daily) for 4 weeks, in an open label randomized controlled clinical trial using a parallel design with a 1:1 allocation ratio. Patients were evaluated prior to and following 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of the intervention commencement in terms of the ROME III criteria for functional constipation. Results: There were no significant differences between the two arms regarding demographic and clinical basic characteristics. After two weeks of the intervention, there was a significant better result in most of the items of ROME III criteria of patients in PEG group. In contrast, after four weeks of the intervention, the result was significantly better in the cupping group. There was no significant difference in the number of patients with constipation after 4 and 8 weeks of the follow-up period. Conclusion: This study showed that dry cupping of the abdominal wall, as a traditional manipulative therapy, can be as effective as standard laxative therapy in children with functional constipation. PMID:28852716

  6. Survival benefit with capecitabine/docetaxel versus docetaxel alone: analysis of therapy in a randomized phase III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, David; Vukelja, Svetislava; Moiseyenko, Vladimir; Cervantes, Guadalupe; Mauriac, Louis; Van Hazel, Guy; Liu, Wing-Yiu; Ayoub, Jean-Pierre; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce A

    2004-10-01

    In a large phase III trial of 511 patients with anthracycline-pretreated advanced/metastatic breast cancer, capecitabine/docetaxel combination therapy was shown to have significantly superior efficacy compared with single-agent docetaxel, including superior progression-free and overall survival and objective response rate. An updated survival analysis with >/= 27 months follow-up shows that patients receiving combination therapy maintained significantly superior survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.777 [95% CI, 0.645-0.942]; P < 0.01; median survival, 14.5 months vs. 11.5 months) compared with those receiving single-agent docetaxel. Following the failure of docetaxel monotherapy, 35% of patients did not receive additional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Among patients randomized to single-agent docetaxel, only those given poststudy single-agent capecitabine had significantly prolonged survival compared with those given any other poststudy chemotherapy (HR, 0.500; P = 0.0046; median survival, 21.0 months vs. 12.3 months, respectively). By contrast, poststudy vinorelbine-containing chemotherapy did not affect survival following progression on single-agent docetaxel compared with other poststudy chemotherapy regimens (HR, 1.014; P = 0.94; median survival, 13.5 months vs. 12.6 months, respectively). Among patients randomized to combination therapy, discontinuing docetaxel of capecitabine has a similar effect on survival (HR, 0.720; P = 0.20; median survival, 15.8 months vs. 18.3 months, respectively). Median survival was 18.3 months in patients who discontinued docetaxel and continued to receive capecitabine versus 15.8 months in patients who discontinued capecitabine and continued to receive docetaxel, with a trend toward improved survival in patients continuing to receive capecitabine. Although this is a retrospective analysis, these data suggest that the sequential administration of docetaxel followed by capecitabine is associated with prolonged survival in patients who are

  7. Pharmacokinetics of lacosamide and omeprazole coadministration in healthy volunteers: results from a phase I, randomized, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawello, Willi; Mueller-Voessing, Christa; Fichtner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The antiepileptic drug lacosamide has a low potential for drug-drug interactions, but is a substrate and moderate inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme CYP2C19. This phase I, randomized, open-label, two-way crossover trial evaluated the pharmacokinetic effects of lacosamide and omeprazole coadministration. Healthy, White, male volunteers (n = 36) who were not poor metabolizers of CYP2C19 were randomized to treatment A (single-dose 40 mg omeprazole on days 1 and 8 together with 6 days of multiple-dose lacosamide [200-600 mg/day] on days 3-8) and treatment B (single doses of 300 mg lacosamide on days 1 and 8 with 7 days of 40 mg/day omeprazole on days 3-9) in pseudorandom order, separated by a ≥ 7-day washout period. Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and peak concentration (C(max)) were the primary pharmacokinetic parameters measured for lacosamide or omeprazole administered alone (reference) or in combination (test). Bioequivalence was determined if the 90 % confidence interval (CI) of the ratio (test/reference) fell within the acceptance range of 0.8-1.25. The point estimates (90 % CI) of the ratio of omeprazole + lacosamide coadministered versus omeprazole alone for AUC (1.098 [0.996-1.209]) and C(max) (1.105 [0.979-1.247]) fell within the acceptance range for bioequivalence. The point estimates (90 % CI) of the ratio of lacosamide + omeprazole coadministration versus lacosamide alone also fell within the acceptance range for bioequivalence (AUC 1.133 [1.102-1.165]); C(max) 0.996 (0.947-1.047). Steady-state lacosamide did not influence omeprazole single-dose pharmacokinetics, and multiple-dose omeprazole did not influence lacosamide single-dose pharmacokinetics.

  8. Comparison of Iohexol-380 and Iohexol-350 for coronary CT angiography: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind phase 3 trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun Ah; Lee, Whal [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Doo Kyoung [Dept. of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-06-15

    This multi-center, randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of contrast agents iohexol-380 and iohexol-350 for coronary CT angiography in healthy subjects. Volunteers were randomized to receive 420 mgI/kg of either iohexol-350 or iohexol-380 using a flow rate of 4 mL/sec. All adverse events were recorded. Two blinded readers independently reviewed the CT images and conflicting results were resolved by a third reader. Luminal attenuations (ascending aorta, left main coronary artery, and left ventricle) in Hounsfield units (HUs) and image quality on a 4-point scale were calculated. A total of 225 subjects were given contrast media (115 with iohexol-380 and 110 with iohexol-350). There was no difference in number of adverse drug reactions between groups: 75 events in 56 (48.7%) of 115 subjects in the iohexol-380 group vs. 74 events in 51 (46.4%) of 110 subjects in the iohexol-350 group (p = 0.690). No severe adverse drug reactions were recorded. Neither group showed an increase in serum creatinine. Significant differences in mean density between the groups was found in the ascending aorta: 375.8 ± 71.4 HU with iohexol-380 vs. 356.3 ± 61.5 HU with iohexol-350 (p = 0.030). No significant differences in image quality scores between both groups were observed for all three anatomic evaluations (all, p > 0.05). Iohexol-380 provides improved enhancement of the ascending aorta and similar attenuation of the coronary arteries without any increase in adverse drug reactions, as compared with iohexol-350 using an identical amount of total iodine.

  9. Randomized phase 2 trial of regadenoson for treatment of acute vaso-occlusive crises in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Joshua J; Majerus, Elaine; Gordeuk, Victor R; Gowhari, Michel; Hoppe, Carolyn; Heeney, Matthew M; Achebe, Maureen; George, Alex; Chu, Hillary; Sheehan, Brian; Puligandla, Maneka; Neuberg, Donna; Lin, Gene; Linden, Joel; Nathan, David G

    2017-09-12

    Adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) agonists have been shown to decrease tissue inflammation induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation in mice with sickle cell disease (SCD). The key mediator of the A 2A R agonist's anti-inflammatory effects is a minor lymphocyte subset, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. We tested the hypothesis that administration of an A 2A R agonist in patients with SCD would decrease iNKT cell activation and dampen the severity of vaso-occlusive (VO) crises. In a phase 2, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we administered a 48-hour infusion of the A 2A R agonist regadenoson (1.44 μg/kg per hour) to patients with SCD during VO crises to produce a plasma concentration of ∼5 nM, a concentration known from prior studies to suppress iNKT cell activation in SCD. The primary outcome measure was a >30% reduction in the percentage of activated iNKT cells. Ninety-two patients with SCD were randomized to receive a 48-hour infusion of regadenoson or placebo, in addition to standard-of-care treatment, during hospital admission for a VO crisis and had analyzable iNKT cell samples. The proportion of subjects who demonstrated a reduction of >30% in activated iNKT cells was not significantly different between the regadenoson and placebo arms (43% vs 23%; P = .07). There were also no differences between regadenoson and placebo groups in length of hospital stay, mean total opioid use, or pain scores. These data demonstrate that a low-dose infusion of regadenoson intended to reduce the activity of iNKT cells is not sufficient to produce a statistically significant reduction in such activation or in measures of clinical efficacy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01788631.

  10. Functional design criteria for Project W-252, Phase II Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, C.E.

    1994-11-10

    This document provides the functional design criteria required for the Phase 2 Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal Project, Project W-252. Project W-252 shall provide new facilities and existing facility modifications required to implement Best Available Technology/All Known, Available, and Reasonable Methods of Prevention, Control, and Treatment (BAT/AKART) for the 200 East Phase II Liquid Effluent Streams. The project will also provide a 200 East Area Phase II Effluent Collection System (PTECS) for connection to a disposal system for relevant effluent streams to which BAT/AKART has been applied. Liquid wastestreams generated in the 200 East Area are currently discharged to the soil column. Included in these wastestreams are cooling water, steam condensate, raw water, and sanitary wastewaters. It is the policy of the DOE that the use of soil columns to treat and retain radionuclides and nonradioactive contaminants be discontinued at the earliest practical time in favor of wastewater treatment and waste minimization. In 1989, the DOE entered into an interagency agreement with Ecology and EPA. This agreement is referred to as the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). Project W-252 is one of the projects required to achieve the milestones set forth in the Tri-Party Agreement. One of the milestones requires BAT/AKART implementation for Phase II streams by October 1997. This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) document provides the technical baseline required to initiate Project W-252 to meet the Tri-Party Agreement milestone for the application of BAT/AKART to the Phase II effluents.

  11. Functional relaxation as complementary therapy in irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmann, Claas; Röhricht, Frank; Sauer, Nina; Noll-Hussong, Michael; Ronel, Joram; Henrich, Gerhard; von Arnim, Angela; Loew, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a frequently disabling and almost invariably distressing disease with a high overall prevalence. Numerous trials identified the importance of psychogenic and emotional etiological factors, and this is obvious in clinical practice. Although relaxation techniques are frequently recommended, there is still a lack of evidence for their efficacy in the management of IBS. This study therefore aims to determine the efficacy of functional relaxation (FR) in IBS. The subjects were 80 patients with IBS. Participants were randomly allocated either to FR or to enhanced medical care (EMC: treatment as usual plus two counseling interviews) as control intervention with 2 weekly sessions over the 5-week trial each. Thirty-nine (39) patients completed FR and 39 received EMC. An impairment-severity score (IS) was employed as the primary outcome parameter with assessment at baseline, after treatment, and again after 3-month follow-up. FR was significantly superior to EMC with a standardized effect size of 0.85. The achieved effects through FR remained stable in terms of psychic and bodily impairment after 3-month follow-up. The results of our trial suggest a positive effect of FR training on subjective functional impairment in the IS, if provided in addition to treatment as usual (TAU). There appears to be a clinically relevant long-term benefit of FR as a nonpharmacological and complementary therapy approach in IBS.

  12. Effect of Yoga on Psychological Functioning of Nursing Students: A Randomized Wait List Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathad, Monali Devaraj; Pradhan, Balaram; Sasidharan, Rajesh K

    2017-05-01

    Nursing students experience considerable amount of stress to meet their professional demands. Yoga is an effective practice to reduce stress and improve psychological well being. However, improvement in psychological well being aids in stress management. To evaluate the effectiveness of eight week yoga intervention on psychological functioning of nursing students. This was a randomised Wait List Control (WLC) trial, we recruited total 100 students from Kempegowda Institute of Nursing, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India and randomized them into two groups (yoga=50 and WLC=50 students). The following instruments were used to collect the data, Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI), Self-Compassion Scale- Short Form (SCS-SF), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Jefferson Scale of Empathy HPS-Version (JSE-HPS), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Data was analysed using Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (RM-ANOVA) followed by post-hoc Bonferroni correction for all psychological variables. The results of our study report that eight week yoga intervention was significantly effective in improving self compassion and mindfulness among nursing students in experimental group than compared to WLC group. Even though there were improvements in resilience, satisfaction in life and perceived stress, results were not statistically significant. Overall, results of the present study have demonstrated impact of eight week yoga intervention on the psychological functioning of nursing students. Yoga intervention can be inculcated in the nursing education to meet demands of the profession.

  13. A randomized open-label comparison of the impact of olanzapine versus risperidone on sexual functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knegtering, H; Boks, Marco; Blijd, Carl; Castelein, Stynke; van den Bosch, Robert J; Wiersma, Durk

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare sexual functioning in patients treated with olanzapine or risperidone. This open-label trial included 46 patients randomized to olanzapine (5-15 mg/d) or risperidone (1-6 mg/d) for 6 weeks. We used sexual dysfunction was assessed by a semistructured interview based on the items of the UKU side effect rating scale. Three olanzapine-treated patients (12.0%), compared with 11 risperidone-treated patients (52.4%), reported sexual dysfunctions (p = .008) in the semistructured interview. Only 4 patients (8.7%) spontaneously reported sexual dysfunction. The mean dose was 9.4 mg/d for olanzapine and 3.4 mg/d for risperidone. The mean (+/-SD) prolactin levels (ng/mL) in olanzapine-and risperidone-treated patients were 25.1 (+/- 23.5) and 43.5 (+/- 26.1), respectively. Less sexual dysfunction occurred in the group treated with olanzapine compared with the risperidone group. Direct questioning about sexual functioning is necessary to avoid underestimating the frequency of sexual side effects in patients with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders.

  14. Controlled random sequences: methods of convex analysis and problems with functional constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piunovskii, A. B.

    1998-12-01

    ContentsIntroduction § 1. Controlled random sequences: main definitions and traditional approaches § 1.1. Description of the mathematical model § 1.2. Models with integral functionals § 1.3. Homogeneous Markov decision processes with average cost criteria § 2. Application of methods of convex analysis § 2.1. Properties of the space \\mathcal D § 2.2. Existence of optimal policies § 2.3. Sufficiency of selectors § 2.4. Preliminary results. The notion of an occupation measure § 2.5. Markov decision processes with total cost criteria and occupation measures § 2.6. Discounted costs and the corresponding occupation measures § 2.7. Average costs and ergodic occupation measures § 3. Problems with functional constraints § 3.1. General results § 3.2. Preliminary conclusions § 3.3. Markov decision processes with total cost criteria § 3.4. Homogeneous Markov decision processes with discounting § 3.5. Homogeneous Markov decision processes with average cost criteria § 3.6. Other constrained problems, related topics, and future prospectsConclusionAppendix. Elements of convex analysis and measure theory Bibliography

  15. Tai chi improves cognitive and physical function in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiao; Kanagawa, Katsuko; Sasaki, Junko; Ooki, Syuichi; Xu, Huali; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effect of Tai Chi on cognitive and physical function in the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] A randomized trial design was used. A total 150 subjects were enrolled and were divided into Tai Chi and control groups. Subjects in the Tai Chi group participated Tai Chi for 6 months, and subjects in the control group participated in other non-athletic activities. [Results] There were no differences between the groups in the one leg standing time with eyes open, left grip strength, or the Frontal Assessment Battery at bedside after 3 and 6 months of intervention. The Mini-Mental State Examination scores after 3 and 6 months were higher in the Tai Chi group than in the control group. The right grip strength after 3 months increased more in the Tai Chi group than in the control group. Both the 5-m high walking speed and 10-m normal walking speed were significantly lower after 3 and 6 months of Tai Chi practice. [Conclusion] These results suggest that regular Tai Chi practice may improve cognitive and physical function in the elderly. PMID:26157242

  16. Action observation training for functional activities after stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hee; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of action observation training and motor imagery training on recovery from chronic stroke. Thirty patients who were more than six months post stroke participated in this study and were randomly allocated to three groups. The action observation training group practiced additional action observation training for five 30-minute sessions over a four-week period. The motor imagery training group practiced additional motor imagery training for five 30-minute sessions over a four-week period. The following clinical measures were used for assessment of dynamic balance and gait abilities: Timed Up and Go Test, Functional Reaching Test, Walking Ability Questionnaire, and Functional Ambulation Category. Spatiotemporal gait parameters were also collected using a GAITRite system. Compared with the physical training group, the action observation training group showed significant improvement in the Timed Up and Go test, gait speed, cadence, and single limb support of the affected side. No significant differences in any of the outcome measures were observed between the action observation training group and the motor imagery training group. Action observation training and motor imagery training results in improvement of dynamic balance and gait ability. These results suggest the feasibility and suitability of action observation training for patients with chronic stroke.

  17. Effect of modafinil on cognitive functions in alcohol dependent patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Leen; Goudriaan, Anna E; Schmaal, Lianne; van den Brink, Wim; Sabbe, Bernard G C; Dom, Geert

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive deficits are highly prevalent in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients and may have a detrimental impact on treatment response and treatment outcome. Enhancing cognitive functions may improve treatment success. Modafinil is a promising compound in this respect. Therefore, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted with modafinil (300 mg/d) or placebo in 83 AD patients for 10 weeks. Various cognitive functions (digit span task, Tower of London task, Stroop task) were measured at baseline, during and after treatment. Compared to placebo, modafinil improved verbal short-term memory (number of forward digit spans) (p=0.030), but modafinil exerted a negative effect on the working memory score of the digit span task (p=0.003). However, subgroup analyses revealed that modafinil did improve both working memory and verbal short-term memory in AD patients with a poor working memory ability at baseline (25% worst performers), whereas no significant treatment effect of modafinil was found on these two dependent variables in patients with good working memory skills at baseline (25% best performers). No effect of modafinil was found on measures of planning (Tower of London task) and selective attention (Stroop task). Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between cognitive remediation and treatment outcome in order to design targeted treatments.

  18. Effect of slow release-Fampridine on muscle strength, rate of force development, functional capacity and cognitive function in an enriched population of MS patients. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H B; Nielsen, J L; Ravnborg, M.

    2016-01-01

    contraction (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD) of the lower extremities and 2) to replicate previously published data on the effect of slow release-Fampridine (SR-Fampridine) on the functional capacity of the lower limbs, the upper limb and cognitive function, in persons with multiple sclerosis (pw......-Fampridine on functional capacity of the lower limbs were replicated. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01656148.......DESIGN: This study was conducted as a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled parallel group trial preceded by open label enrichment phase. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were 1) to examine the effect of SR-Fampridine treatment on muscle strength in terms of maximal voluntary...

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Plus Bright Light Therapy for Adolescent Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradisar, Michael; Dohnt, Hayley; Gardner, Greg; Paine, Sarah; Starkey, Karina; Menne, Annemarie; Slater, Amy; Wright, Helen; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Weaver, Edward; Trenowden, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate cognitive-behavior therapy plus bright light therapy (CBT plus BLT) for adolescents diagnosed with delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). Design: Randomized controlled trial of CBT plus BLT vs. waitlist (WL) control with comparisons at pre- and post-treatment. There was 6-month follow-up for the CBT plus BLT group only. Setting: Flinders University Child & Adolescent Sleep Clinic, Adelaide, South Australia. Patients: 49 adolescents (mean age 14.6 ± 1.0 y, 53% males) diagnosed with DSPD; mean chronicity 4 y 8 months; 16% not attending school. Eighteen percent of adolescents dropped out of the study (CBT plus BLT: N = 23 vs WL: N = 17). Interventions: CBT plus BLT consisted of 6 individual sessions, including morning bright light therapy to advance adolescents' circadian rhythms, and cognitive restructuring and sleep education to target associated insomnia and sleep hygiene. Measurements and Results: DSPD diagnosis was performed via a clinical interview and 7-day sleep diary. Measurements at each time-point included online sleep diaries and scales measuring sleepiness, fatigue, and depression symptoms. Compared to WL, moderate-to-large improvements (d = 0.65-1.24) were found at post-treatment for CBT plus BLT adolescents, including reduced sleep latency, earlier sleep onset and rise times, total sleep time (school nights), wake after sleep onset, sleepiness, and fatigue. At 6-month follow-up (N = 15), small-to-large improvements (d = 0.24-1.53) continued for CBT plus BLT adolescents, with effects found for all measures. Significantly fewer adolescents receiving CBT plus BLT met DPSD criteria at post-treatment (WL = 82% vs. CBT plus BLT = 13%, P sleep and daytime impairments in the immediate and long-term. Studies evaluating the treatment effectiveness of each treatment component are needed. Clinical Trial Information: Australia – New Zealand Trials Registry Number: ACTRN12610001041044. Citation: Gradisar M; Dohnt H; Gardner G; Paine S; Starkey

  20. Safety and immunogenicity of an AMA-1 malaria vaccine in Malian adults: results of a phase 1 randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahamadou A Thera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of the AMA-1-based blood-stage malaria vaccine FMP2.1/AS02A in adults exposed to seasonal malaria.A phase 1 double blind randomized controlled dose escalation trial was conducted in Bandiagara, Mali, West Africa, a rural town with intense seasonal transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The malaria vaccine FMP2.1/AS02A is a recombinant protein (FMP2.1 based on apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1 from the 3D7 clone of P. falciparum, adjuvanted with AS02A. The comparator vaccine was a cell-culture rabies virus vaccine (RabAvert. Sixty healthy, malaria-experienced adults aged 18-55 y were recruited into 2 cohorts and randomized to receive either a half dose or full dose of the malaria vaccine (FMP2.1 25 microg/AS02A 0.25 mL or FMP2.1 50 microg/AS02A 0.5 mL or rabies vaccine given in 3 doses at 0, 1 and 2 mo, and were followed for 1 y. Solicited symptoms were assessed for 7 d and unsolicited symptoms for 30 d after each vaccination. Serious adverse events were assessed throughout the study. Titers of anti-AMA-1 antibodies were measured by ELISA and P. falciparum growth inhibition assays were performed on sera collected at pre- and post-vaccination time points. Transient local pain and swelling were common and more frequent in both malaria vaccine dosage groups than in the comparator group. Anti-AMA-1 antibodies increased significantly in both malaria vaccine groups, peaking at nearly 5-fold and more than 6-fold higher than baseline in the half-dose and full-dose groups, respectively.The FMP2.1/AS02A vaccine had a good safety profile, was well-tolerated, and was highly immunogenic in malaria-exposed adults. This malaria vaccine is being evaluated in Phase 1 and 2 trials in children at this site.

  1. A double-blind, randomized, multicenter phase 2 study of prasugrel versus placebo in adult patients with sickle cell disease

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    Wun Ted

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease (SCD suggesting antiplatelet agents may be therapeutic. To evaluate the safety of prasugrel, a thienopyridine antiplatelet agent, in adult patients with SCD, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Methods The primary endpoint, safety, was measured by hemorrhagic events requiring medical intervention. Patients were randomized to prasugrel 5 mg daily (n = 41 or placebo (n = 21 for 30 days. Platelet function by VerifyNow® P2Y12 and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein assays at days 10 and 30 were significantly inhibited in prasugrel- compared with placebo-treated SCD patients. Results There were no hemorrhagic events requiring medical intervention in either study arm. Mean pain rate (percentage of days with pain and intensity in the prasugrel arm were decreased compared with placebo. However, these decreases did not reach statistical significance. Platelet surface P-selectin and plasma soluble P-selectin, biomarkers of in vivo platelet activation, were significantly reduced in SCD patients receiving prasugrel compared with placebo. In sum, prasugrel was well tolerated and not associated with serious hemorrhagic events. Conclusions Despite the small size and short duration of this study, there was a decrease in platelet activation biomarkers and a trend toward decreased pain.

  2. Assessing time-dependent association between scalp EEG and muscle activation: A functional random-effects model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X F; Yang, Qi; Fan, Zhaozhi; Sun, Chang-Kai; Yue, Guang H

    2009-02-15

    This study investigates time-dependent associations between source strength estimated from high-density scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) and force of voluntary handgrip contraction at different intensity levels. We first estimate source strength from raw EEG signals collected during voluntary muscle contractions at different levels and then propose a functional random-effects model approach in which both functional fixed effects and functional random-effects are considered for the data. Two estimation procedures for the functional model are discussed. The first estimation procedure is a two-step method which involves no iterations. It can flexibly use different smoothing methods and smoothing parameters. The second estimation procedure benefits from the connection between linear mixed models and regression splines and can be fitted using existing software. Functional ANOVA is then suggested to assess the experimental effects from the functional point of view. The statistical analysis shows that the time-dependent source strength function exhibits a nonlinear feature, where a bump is detected around the force onset time. However, there is the lack of significant variations in source strength on different force levels and different cortical areas. The proposed functional random-effects model procedure can be applied to other types of functional data in neuroscience.

  3. Randomized Phase 2 Trial of S1 and Oxaliplatin-Based Chemoradiotherapy With or Without Induction Chemotherapy for Esophageal Cancer

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    Yoon, Dok Hyun [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Geundoo [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym Medical Center, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong-Hee [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Youn [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeong Ryul [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Lee, Gin-Hyug [Department of Gastroenterology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ho Young [Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Ja [Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jin-Sook [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Bae, E-mail: sbkim3@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To assess, in a randomized, phase 2 trial, the efficacy and safety of chemoradiotherapy with or without induction chemotherapy (ICT) of S1 and oxaliplatin for esophageal cancer. Patients and Methods: Patients with stage II, III, or IVA esophageal cancer were randomly allocated to either 2 cycles of ICT (oxaliplatin 130 mg/m{sup 2} on day 1 and S1 at 40 mg/m{sup 2} twice daily on days 1-14, every 3 weeks) followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) (46 Gy, 2 Gy/d with oxaliplatin 130 mg/m{sup 2} on days 1 and 21 and S1 30 mg/m{sup 2} twice daily, 5 days per week during radiation therapy) and esophagectomy (arm A), or the same CCRT followed by esophagectomy without ICT (arm B). The primary endpoint was the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate. Results: A total of 97 patients were randomized (arm A/B, 47/50), 70 of whom underwent esophagectomy (arm A/B, 34/36). The intention-to-treat pCR rate was 23.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.2-35.6%) in arm A and 38% (95% CI 24.5% to 51.5%) in arm B. With a median follow-up duration of 30.3 months, the 2-year progression-free survival rate was 58.4% in arm A and 58.6% in arm B, whereas the 2-year overall survival rate was 60.7% and 63.7%, respectively. Grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia during CCRT was more common in arm A than in arm B (35.4% vs 4.1%). The relative dose intensity of S1 (89.5% ± 20.6% vs 98.3% ± 5.2%, P=.005) and oxaliplatin (91.4% ± 16.8% vs 99.0% ± 4.2%, P=.007) during CCRT was lower in arm A compared with arm B. Three patients in arm A, compared with none in arm B, died within 90 days after surgery. Conclusions: Combination chemotherapy of S1 and oxaliplatin is an effective chemoradiotherapy regimen to treat esophageal cancer. However, we failed to show that the addition of ICT to the regimen can improve the pCR rate.

  4. Safety and Activity of UR-1505 in Atopic Dermatitis: A Randomized, Double-blind Phase II Exploratory Trial.

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    Vives, Roser; Pontes, Caridad; Sarasa, Maria; Millier, Aurelie

    2015-09-01

    UR-1505 is a new small molecule with immune modulator properties intended for the topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases that has shown anti-inflammatory effects in models of skin inflammation. We compared the activity of UR-1505 ointment against its vehicle in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Secondary objectives included exploring dose response, safety, and local tolerability of UR-1505. Patients with AD lesions on 2 symmetrical topographic areas (arms, leg, or trunk) were included in this unicenter randomized, double-blind, within-patient, controlled Phase II exploratory trial and received simultaneously 2 different treatments (0.5%, 1%, or 2% UR-1505 and vehicle or 0.1% tacrolimus ointment) once daily during 28 days. The primary efficacy end point was the change from baseline in the Investigator Global Assessment score at Day 28. Secondary end points were percentage of area clearance, local Eczema Area Severity Index (local EASI), and local tolerability. A linear mixed model was used, fitting treatment, body side, and group (treatment at the contralateral side) as fixed factors and the patient as a random effect. Twenty-eight patients were randomized and 25 patients were included in the per protocol analysis, with 50 evaluable lesions (n = 13 for vehicle, n = 8 for UR-1505 0.5%, n = 9 for 1% UR-1505, n=8 for 2% UR-1505, and n=12 for tacrolimus). The mean Investigator Global Assessment score change from baseline at Day 28 was -1.7 for vehicle, -1.0, -1.2, and -1.5 for 0.5%, 1%, and 2% UR-1505, respectively, and -2.6% for tacrolimus (P = 0.002). No serious nor causal adverse reactions were reported in this study, but patients reported numerous local symptoms after product applications, especially itching, tingling, tightness, and heat/burning sensations at frequencies that were similar for vehicle, 1% UR-1505, and 2% UR-1505; more frequent with 0.5% UR-1505; and lowest for tacrolimus. This study found that UR-1505 may not be a suitable option for the

  5. Randomized phase 1b trial of MOR103, a human antibody to GM-CSF, in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Cris S; Asher, Aliya; Fryze, Waldemar; Kozubski, Wojciech; Wagner, Frank; Aram, Jehan; Tanasescu, Radu; Korolkiewicz, Roman P; Dirnberger-Hertweck, Maren; Steidl, Stefan; Libretto, Susan E; Sprenger, Till; Radue, Ernst W

    2015-08-01

    To determine the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and immunogenicity of the recombinant human monoclonal antibody MOR103 to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) with clinical or MRI activity. In this 20-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1b dose-escalation trial (registration number NCT01517282), adults with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) or secondary progressive MS (SPMS) received an IV infusion of placebo (n = 6) or MOR103 0.5 (n = 8), 1.0 (n = 8), or 2.0 (n = 9) mg/kg every 2 weeks for 10 weeks. Patients had to have ≤10 gadolinium (Gd)-enhancing brain lesions on T1-weighted MRI at baseline. The primary objective was safety. Most treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were mild to moderate in severity. The most frequent was nasopharyngitis. Between-group differences in TEAE numbers were small. There were no TEAE-related trial discontinuations, infusion-related reactions, or deaths. Nine patients experienced MS exacerbations: 3, 5, 1, and 0 patient(s) in the placebo, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg groups, respectively. A few T1 Gd-enhancing lesions and/or new or enlarging T2 lesions indicative of inflammation were observed in all treatment groups. No clinically significant changes were observed in other clinical assessments or laboratory safety assessments. No anti-MOR103 antibodies were detected. PK evaluations indicated dose linearity with low/no drug accumulation over time. MOR103 was generally well-tolerated in patients with RRMS or SPMS. No evidence of immunogenicity was found. This phase 1b study provides Class I evidence that MOR103 has acceptable tolerability in patients with MS.

  6. Amino acid supplementation is anabolic during the acute phase of endotoxin-induced inflammation: A human randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittig, N; Bach, E; Thomsen, H H; Johannsen, M; Jørgensen, J O; Richelsen, B; Jessen, N; Møller, N

    2016-04-01

    Inflammation is catabolic and causes muscle loss. It is unknown if amino acid supplementation reverses these effects during the acute phase of inflammation. The aim was to test whether amino acid supplementation counteracts endotoxin-induced catabolism. Eight young, healthy, lean males were investigated three times in randomized order: (i) normal conditions (Placebo), (ii) endotoxemia (LPS), and (iii) endotoxemia with amino acid supplementation (LPS + A). Protein kinetics were determined using phenylalanine, tyrosine, and urea tracers. Each study day consisted of a four-hour non-insulin stimulated period and a two-hour hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp period. Muscle biopsies were collected once each period. Endotoxin administration created a significant inflammatory response (cytokines, hormones, and vital parameters) without significant differences between LPS and LPS + A. Whole body protein breakdown was elevated during LPS compared with Placebo and LPS + A (p translation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) phosphorylation (p = 0.007) without activating AMPK or affecting insulin signaling through Akt. During insulin stimulation net muscle phenylalanine release and protein degradation were further reduced. Amino acid supplementation in the acute phase of inflammation reduces whole body and muscle protein loss, and this effect is associated with activation of mTOR and downstream signaling to protein synthesis through mTORC1, suggesting a therapeutic role for intravenous amino acids in inflammatory states. The Central Denmark Region Ethics Commitee (1-10-71-410-12) www.clinicaltrials.gov (identification number NCT01705782). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Pimpinella anisum in the treatment of functional dyspepsia: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial

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    S Ashraffodin Ghoshegir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to evaluate the effects of Pimpinella anisum (anise from Apiaceae family on relieving the symptoms of postprandial distress syndrome (PDS in this double-blind randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Totally, 107 patients attending the gastroenterology clinic, aged 18-65 years, diagnosed with PDS according to ROME III criteria and signed a written consent form were enrolled. They were randomized to receive either anise or placebo, blindly, for 4 weeks. Anise group included 47 patients and received anise powders, 3 g after each meal (3 times/day. Control group involved 60 patients and received placebo powders (corn starch, 3 gafter each meal (3 times/day. The severity of Functional dyspepsia (FD symptoms was assessed by FD severity scale. Assessments were done at baseline and by the end of weeks 2, 4 and 12. Mean scores of severity of FD symptoms and the frequency distribution of patients across the study period were compared. Results: The age, sex, body mass index, smoking history, and coffee drinking pattern of the intervention and control groups were not significantly different. Mean (standard deviation total scores of FD severity scale before intervention in the anise and control groups were 10.6 (4.1 and 10.96 (4.1, respectively (P = 0.6. They were 7.04 (4.1 and 12.30 (4.3 by week 2, respectively (P = 0.0001, 2.44 (4.2 and 13.05 (5.2 by week 4, respectively (P = 0.0001, and 1.08 (3.8 and 13.30 (6.2 by week 12, respectively (P = 0.0001. Conclusion: This study showed the effectiveness of anise in relieving the symptoms of postpartum depression. The findings were consistent across the study period at weeks 2, 4 and 12.

  8. Short-term aerobic exercise and vascular function in CKD stage 3: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Samuel; Germain, Michael; Wood, Richard; Joubert, Jyovani; Milch, Charles; Evans, Elizabeth; Poindexter, Anthony; Cornelius, Allen; Brewer, Britton; Pescatello, Linda S; Parker, Beth

    2014-08-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect of short-term moderate-intensity exercise training on arterial stiffness in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3. Randomized controlled trial with a parallel-group design. Testing and training sessions were performed at Springfield College. 46 (treatment group, n=25; control group, n=21) patients with CKD with diabetes and/or hypertension completed the study. The aerobic training program consisted of 16 weeks of supervised exercise training at 50%-60% peak oxygen uptake (Vo2peak) 3 times per week, while the control group remained sedentary. Identical testing procedures were performed following the 16-week intervention. The primary outcome was arterial stiffness. Secondary outcomes were aerobic capacity, various blood parameters (endothelin 1, nitrate/nitrite, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), and health-related quality of life. Arterial stiffness was assessed with aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), aerobic capacity by Vo2peak, blood parameters by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and health-related quality of life by the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Participants attended 4 sessions before being randomly assigned to either the treatment or control group. Participants gave consent during the first session, whereas a graded exercise test with measurement of Vo2peak was completed during the second session. During sessions 3 and 4, aortic PWV was measured at rest prior to 40 minutes of either moderate-intensity exercise training or seated rest. A venous blood sample was obtained prior to exercise or rest and participants completed the SF-36 questionnaire. 16 weeks of training led to an 8.2% increase in Vo2peak for the treatment group (P=0.05), but no changes in aortic PWV . Randomization was not concealed and was violated on one occasion; also, use of an indirect measurement of endothelial function and the short duration of the intervention. Short-term moderate-intensity exercise

  9. A Randomized Open Label Comparison of the Effects ofRisperidone and Haloperidol on Sexual Function

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    S. Jaber Mousavi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "nSexual dysfunction in patients who take antipsychotics causes adecline in their quality of life and medication acceptance. Considering the restrictions in cross sectional design of many earlier researches, we used a clinical trial aimed at assessing sexual dysfunction by substituting Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic drug, with Haloperidol, a typical one . "n "n "nMethod: This clinical trial was conducted on 51 patients who had been using Risperidone with a minimum dose of 2 mg/daily for at least 2 months. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. The first group continued taking Risperidone, whereas the second group was given Haloperidol. Sexual function prior to and after the drug substitution was assessed using a sexual questionnaire designed to assess four stages of sexual function . "nResults: Compared to those who changed their medication to Haloperidol, the patients who remained on Risperidone therapy suffered from more sexual dysfunction, especially in their tendency towards having sexual activities (P= 0.01, post menstrual sexual activity (P= 0.002, and reaching orgasm in their sexual activities (P= 0.04; however in the Haloperidol group, no significant difference was observed before and after the change in medication . "nConclusion: Although Risperidone and Haloperidol can both disturb patients'sexual function, the side effects of Risperidone are stronger. Hence toprevent the decline of medication acceptance or irregular consumption by patients which may lead to possible relapse, substitution of Risperidone withanother drug with fewer side effects on sexual activities is definitely to the advantage of the patients .

  10. Effect of periodontal therapy on arterial structure and function among aboriginal australians: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapellas, Kostas; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Jamieson, Lisa M; Do, Loc G; O'Dea, Kerin; Brown, Alex; Cai, Tommy Y; Anstey, Nicholas M; Sullivan, David R; Wang, Hao; Celermajer, David S; Slade, Gary D; Skilton, Michael R

    2014-10-01

    Observational studies and nonrandomized trials support an association between periodontal disease and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Both diseases occur frequently in Aboriginal Australians. We hypothesized that nonsurgical periodontal therapy would improve measures of arterial function and structure that are subclinical indicators of atherosclerotic vascular disease. This parallel-group, randomized, open label clinical trial enrolled 273 Aboriginal Australians aged ≥18 years with periodontitis. Intervention participants received full-mouth periodontal scaling during a single visit, whereas controls received no treatment. Prespecified primary end points measured 12-month change in carotid intima-media thickness, an indicator of arterial structure, and 3- and 12-month change in pulse wave velocity, an indicator of arterial function. ANCOVA used complete case data to evaluate treatment group differences. End points could be calculated for 169 participants with follow-up data at 3 months and 168 participants at 12 months. Intima-media thickness decreased significantly after 12 months in the intervention group (mean reduction=-0.023 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -0.038 to -0.008] mm) but not in the control group (mean increase=0.002 [95% CI, -0.017 to 0.022] mm). The difference in intima-media thickness change between treatment groups was statistically significant (-0.026 [95% CI, -0.048 to -0.003] mm; P=0.03). In contrast, there were no significant differences between treatment groups in pulse wave velocity at 3 months (mean difference, 0.06 [95% CI, -0.17 to 0.29] m/s; P=0.594) or 12 months (mean difference, 0.21 [95% CI, -0.01 to 0.43] m/s; P=0.062). Periodontal therapy reduced subclinical arterial thickness but not function in Aboriginal Australians with periodontal disease, suggesting periodontal disease and atherosclerosis are significantly associated. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Effects of combined training vs aerobic training on cognitive functions in COPD: a randomized controlled trial

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    Aquino G

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Giovanna Aquino,1 Enzo Iuliano,1 Alessandra di Cagno,2 Angela Vardaro,3 Giovanni Fiorilli,1 Stefano Moffa,1 Alfonso Di Costanzo,1 Giuseppe De Simone,3 Giuseppe Calcagno1 1Department of Medicine and Health Sciences “Vincenzo Tiberio”, University of Molise, Campobasso, 2Department of Health Science, University ForoItalico, Rome, 3“Villa Margherita”, Benevento, Italy Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity aerobic training (AT and high-intensity aerobic training combined with resistance training (ie, combined training [CT] on cognitive function in patients with COPD. Methods: Twenty-eight Caucasian male patients (68.35±9.64 years; mean ± SD with COPD were recruited and randomized into two groups, AT and CT. Both groups performed physical reconditioning for 4 weeks, with a frequency of five training sessions per week. The CT group completed two daily sessions of 30 minutes: one aerobic session and one strength session, respectively; The AT group performed two 30-minute aerobic endurance exercise sessions on treadmill. Physical and cognitive function tests were performed before and after the training intervention performances. Results: Exercise training improved the following cognitive functions: long-term memory, verbal fluency, attentional capacity, apraxia, and reasoning skills (P<0.01. Moreover, the improvements in the CT group were significantly greater than those in the AT group in long-term memory, apraxia, and reasoning skills (P<0.05. Conclusion: CT may be a possible strategy to prevent cognitive decline and associated comorbidities in male patients with COPD. Keywords: physical training, cognition, resistance training, rehabilitation, respiratory disease

  12. Effect of singing on respiratory function, voice, and mood after quadriplegia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamplin, Jeanette; Baker, Felicity A; Grocke, Denise; Brazzale, Danny J; Pretto, Jeffrey J; Ruehland, Warren R; Buttifant, Mary; Brown, Douglas J; Berlowitz, David J

    2013-03-01

    To explore the effects of singing training on respiratory function, voice, mood, and quality of life for people with quadriplegia. Randomized controlled trial. Large, university-affiliated public hospital, Victoria, Australia. Participants (N=24) with chronic quadriplegia (C4-8, American Spinal Injury Association grades A and B). The experimental group (n=13) received group singing training 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. The control group (n=11) received group music appreciation and relaxation for 12 weeks. Assessments were conducted pre, mid-, immediately post-, and 6-months postintervention. Standard respiratory function testing, surface electromyographic activity from accessory respiratory muscles, sound pressure levels during vocal tasks, assessments of voice quality (Perceptual Voice Profile, Multidimensional Voice Profile), and Voice Handicap Index, Profile of Mood States, and Assessment of Quality of Life instruments. The singing group increased projected speech intensity (P=.028) and maximum phonation length (P=.007) significantly more than the control group. Trends for improvements in respiratory function, muscle strength, and recruitment were also evident for the singing group. These effects were limited by small sample sizes with large intersubject variability. Both groups demonstrated an improvement in mood (P=.002), which was maintained in the music appreciation and relaxation group after 6 months (P=.017). Group music therapy can have a positive effect on not only physical outcomes, but also can improve mood, energy, social participation, and quality of life for an at-risk population, such as those with quadriplegia. Specific singing therapy can augment these general improvements by improving vocal intensity. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Compression socks and functional recovery following marathon running: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Stuart A; Till, Eloise S; Maloney, Stephen R; Harris, Gregory A

    2015-02-01

    Compression socks have become a popular recovery aid for distance running athletes. Although some physiological markers have been shown to be influenced by wearing these garments, scant evidence exists on their effects on functional recovery. This research aims to shed light onto whether the wearing of compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running can improve functional recovery, as measured by a timed treadmill test to exhaustion 14 days following marathon running. Athletes (n = 33, age, 38.5 ± 7.2 years) participating in the 2012 Melbourne, 2013 Canberra, or 2013 Gold Coast marathons were recruited and randomized into the compression sock or placebo group. A graded treadmill test to exhaustion was performed 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after each marathon. Time to exhaustion, average and maximum heart rates were recorded. Participants were asked to wear their socks for 48 hours immediately after completion of the marathon. The change in treadmill times (seconds) was recorded for each participant. Thirty-three participants completed the treadmill protocols. In the compression group, average treadmill run to exhaustion time 2 weeks after the marathon increased by 2.6% (52 ± 103 seconds). In the placebo group, run to exhaustion time decreased by 3.4% (-62 ± 130 seconds), P = 0.009. This shows a significant beneficial effect of compression socks on recovery compared with placebo. The wearing of below-knee compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running has been shown to improve functional recovery as measured by a graduated treadmill test to exhaustion 2 weeks after the event.

  14. Treating insomnia improves mood state, sleep, and functioning in bipolar disorder: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Allison G; Soehner, Adriane M; Kaplan, Kate A; Hein, Kerrie; Lee, Jason; Kanady, Jennifer; Li, Descartes; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Ketter, Terence A; Neylan, Thomas C; Buysse, Daniel J

    2015-06-01

    To determine if a treatment for interepisode bipolar disorder I patients with insomnia improves mood state, sleep, and functioning. Alongside psychiatric care, interepisode bipolar disorder I participants with insomnia were randomly allocated to a bipolar disorder-specific modification of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBTI-BP; n = 30) or psychoeducation (PE; n = 28) as a comparison condition. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, the end of 8 sessions of treatment, and 6 months later. This pilot was conducted to determine initial feasibility and generate effect size estimates. During the 6-month follow-up, the CBTI-BP group had fewer days in a bipolar episode relative to the PE group (3.3 days vs. 25.5 days). The CBTI-BP group also experienced a significantly lower hypomania/mania relapse rate (4.6% vs. 31.6%) and a marginally lower overall mood episode relapse rate (13.6% vs. 42.1%) compared with the PE group. Relative to PE, CBTI-BP reduced insomnia severity and led to higher rates of insomnia remission at posttreatment and marginally higher rates at 6 months. Both CBTI-BP and PE showed statistically significant improvement on selected sleep and functional impairment measures. The effects of treatment were well sustained through follow-up for most outcomes, although some decline on secondary sleep benefits was observed. CBTI-BP was associated with reduced risk of mood episode relapse and improved sleep and functioning on certain outcomes in bipolar disorder. Hence, sleep disturbance appears to be an important pathway contributing to bipolar disorder. The need to develop bipolar disorder-specific sleep diary scoring standards is highlighted. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The role of a structured exercise training program on cardiac structure and function after acute myocardial infarction: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes-Carvalho, Ricardo; Sampaio, Francisco; Teixeira, Madalena; Gama, Vasco; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F

    2015-03-12

    Exercise training is effective in improving functional capacity and quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease, but its effects on left ventricular systolic and diastolic function are controversial. Diastolic dysfunction is a major determinant of adverse outcome after myocardial infarction and, contrary to systolic function, no therapy or intervention has proved to significantly improve diastolic function. Data from animal studies and from patients with diastolic heart failure has suggested that exercise training can have a positive effect on diastolic function parameters. This trial aims to evaluate if a structured exercise training program can improve resting left ventricular diastolic and systolic function in patients who have had an acute myocardial infarction. This is a phase II, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint trial that will include at least 96 consecutive patients who have had an acute myocardial infarction one month previously. Patients will be randomized (1:1) to an exercise training program or a control group, receiving standard of care. At enrolment, and at the end of the follow-up period, patients will be submitted to an echocardiography (with detailed assessment of diastolic and systolic function using recent consensus guidelines), cardiopulmonary exercise testing, an anthropometric assessment, blood testing, and clinical evaluation. Patients randomized to the intervention group will be submitted to an eight-week outpatient exercise program, combining endurance and resistance training, for three sessions per week. The primary endpoint will be the change in lateral E' velocity immediately after the eight-week exercise training program. Secondary endpoints will include other echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular diastolic and systolic function, cardiac structure, metabolic and inflammation biomarkers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and pro-BNP), functional capacity (peak oxygen consumption and

  16. Density functional theory of gas-liquid phase separation in dilute binary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Ryuichi; Onuki, Akira

    2016-06-22

    We examine statics and dynamics of phase-separated states of dilute binary mixtures using density functional theory. In our systems, the difference of the solvation chemical potential between liquid and gas [Formula: see text] (the Gibbs energy of transfer) is considerably larger than the thermal energy [Formula: see text] for each solute particle and the attractive interaction among the solute particles is weaker than that among the solvent particles. In these conditions, the saturated vapor pressure increases by [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the solute density added in liquid. For [Formula: see text], phase separation is induced at low solute densities in liquid and the new phase remains in gaseous states, even when the liquid pressure is outside the coexistence curve of the solvent. This explains the widely observed formation of stable nanobubbles in ambient water with a dissolved gas. We calculate the density and stress profiles across planar and spherical interfaces, where the surface tension decreases with increasing interfacial solute adsorption. We realize stable solute-rich bubbles with radius about 30 nm, which minimize the free energy functional. We then study dynamics around such a bubble after a decompression of the surrounding liquid, where the bubble undergoes a damped oscillation. In addition, we present some exact and approximate expressions for the surface tension and the interfacial stress tensor.

  17. Optimization of Sigma Phase Precipitates with Respect to the Functional Properties of Duplex Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Stradomski

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of examination concerning optimization of the σ phase precipitates with respect to the functional properties of ferritic-austenitic cast steel. The examined material comprised two grades of corrosion-resistant cast steel, namely GX2CrNiMoN25-6-3 and GX2CrNiMoCuN25-6-3-3, used for example in elements of systems of wet flue gas desulphurisation in power industry. The operating conditions in media heated up to 70°C and containing Cl- and SO4 ions and solid particles produce high erosive and corrosive wear. The work proposes an application of the σ phase as a component of precipitation strengthening mechanism in order to increase the functional properties of the material. Morphology and quantities of σ phase precipitates were determined, as well as its influence on the erosion and corrosion wear resistance. It was shown that annealing at 800°C or 900°C significantly improves tribological properties as compared with the supersaturated state, and the best erosion and corrosion wear resistance achieved due to the ferrite decomposition δ → γ’ + σ was exhibited in the case of annealing at the temperature of 800°C for 3 hours.

  18. Ixekizumab treatment improves fingernail psoriasis in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis: results from the randomized, controlled and open-label phases of UNCOVER-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, P. van de; Guenther, L.; Gottlieb, A.B.; Sebastian, M.; Wu, J.J.; Foley, P.; Morita, A.; Goldblum, O.; Zhang, L.; Erickson, J.; Ball, S.; Rich, P.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fingernail psoriasis is difficult to treat. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effect of ixekizumab, a monoclonal antibody selectively targeting IL-17A, on fingernail psoriasis. METHODS: This Phase 3, double-blind trial (UNCOVER-3) randomized patients to placebo, etanercept

  19. CheckMate 025 Randomized Phase 3 Study: Outcomes by Key Baseline Factors and Prior Therapy for Nivolumab Versus Everolimus in Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escudier, Bernard; Sharma, Padmanee; McDermott, David F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The randomized, phase 3 CheckMate 025 study of nivolumab (n=410) versus everolimus (n=411) in previously treated adults (75% male; 88% white) with advanced renal cell carcinoma (aRCC) demonstrated significantly improved overall survival (OS) and objective response rate (ORR). OBJECTIV...

  20. ACUTE TOXICITY PROFILE AND COMPLIANCE TO ACCELERATED RADIOTHERAPY PLUS CARBOGEN AND NICOTINAMIDE FOR CLINICAL STAGE T2-4 LARYNGEAL CANCER : RESULTS OF A PHASE III RANDOMIZED TRIAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Geert O.; Terhaard, Chris H.; Doornaert, Patricia A.; Bijl, Hendrik P.; van den Ende, Piet; Chin, Alim; Pop, Lucas A.; Kaanders, Johannes H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report the acute toxicity profile and compliance from a randomized Phase III trial comparing accelerated radiotherapy (AR) with accelerated radiotherapy plus carbogen and nicotinamide (ARCON) in laryngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: From April 2001 to February 2008, 345 patients with

  1. Acute toxicity profile and compliance to accelerated radiotherapy plus carbogen and nicotinamide for clinical stage T2-4 laryngeal cancer: results of a phase III randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, G.O.R.J.; Terhaard, C.H.J.; Doornaert, P.A.; Bijl, H.P.; Ende, P. van den; Chin, A.; Pop, L.A.M.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report the acute toxicity profile and compliance from a randomized Phase III trial comparing accelerated radiotherapy (AR) with accelerated radiotherapy plus carbogen and nicotinamide (ARCON) in laryngeal cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From April 2001 to February 2008, 345 patients with

  2. A randomized phase 3 study on the effect of thalidomide combined with adriamycin, dexamethasone, and high-dose melphalan, followed by thalidomide maintenance in patients with multiple myeloma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, H.M.; Holt, B. van der; Zweegman, S.; Vellenga, E.; Croockewit, S.; Oers, M.H. van; Borne, P. von dem; Wijermans, P.; Schaafsma, R.; Weerdt, O. de; Wittebol, S.; Delforge, M.; Berenschot, H.; Bos, G.M.; Jie, K.S.; Sinnige, H.; Marwijk-Kooy, M. van; Joosten, P.; Minnema, M.C.; Ammerlaan, R. van; Sonneveld, P.

    2010-01-01

    The phase 3 trial HOVON-50 was designed to evaluate the effect of thalidomide during induction treatment and as maintenance in patients with multiple myeloma who were transplant candidates. A total of 556 patients was randomly assigned to arm A: 3 cycles of vincristine, adriamycin, and

  3. A randomized phase 3 study on the effect of thalidomide combined with adriamycin, dexamethasone, and high-dose melphalan, followed by thalidomide maintenance in patients with multiple myeloma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, Henk M.; van der Holt, Bronno; Zweegman, Sonja; Vellenga, Edo; Croockewit, Sandra; van Oers, Marinus H.; von dem Borne, Peter; Wijermans, Pierre; Schaafsma, Ron; de Weerdt, Okke; Wittebol, Shulamiet; Delforge, Michel; Berenschot, Henriëtte; Bos, Gerard M.; Jie, Kon-Siong G.; Sinnige, Harm; van Marwijk-Kooy, Marinus; Joosten, Peter; Minnema, Monique C.; van Ammerlaan, Rianne; Sonneveld, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    The phase 3 trial HOVON-50 was designed to evaluate the effect of thalidomide during induction treatment and as maintenance in patients with multiple myeloma who were transplant candidates. A total of 556 patients was randomly assigned to arm A: 3 cycles of vincristine, adriamycin, and

  4. Randomized double-blind controlled Phase I/IIa trial to assess the efficacy of malaria vaccine PfCS102 to protect against challenge with P. falciparum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genton, B.; D'Acremont, V.; Lurati-Ruiz, F.; Verhage, D.F.; Audran, R.; Hermsen, C.C.; Wolters, L.; Reymond, C.; Spertini, F.; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this Phase I/IIa double-blind controlled trial was to test the efficacy of the sporozoite-based malaria vaccine PfCS 282-383 (PfCS102) to protect against Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia. 16 volunteers were randomized to receive twice 30 mug of PfCS102 formulated in Montanide ISA 720 or

  5. The FINISH-3 Trial : A Phase 3, International, Randomized, Single-Blind, Controlled Trial of Topical Fibrocaps in Intraoperative Surgical Hemostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochicchio, Grant V.; Gupta, Navyash; Porte, Robert J.; Renkens, Kenneth L.; Pattyn, Piet; Topal, Baki; Troisi, Roberto Ivan; Muir, William; Chetter, Ian; Gillen, Daniel L.; Zuckerman, Linda A.; Frohna, Paul A.

    BACKGROUND: This Phase 3, international, randomized, single-blind, controlled trial (FINISH-3) compared the efficacy and safety of Fibrocaps, a ready-to-use, dry-powder fibrin sealant containing human plasma-derived thrombin and fibrinogen, vs gelatin sponge alone for use as a hemostat for surgical

  6. A randomized phase 3 study on the effect of thalidomide combined with adriamycin, dexamethasone, and high-dose melphalan, followed by thalidomide maintenance in patients with multiple myeloma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. Lokhorst (Henk); B. van der Holt (Bronno); S. Zweegman (Sonja); E. Vellenga (Edo); S. Croockewit (Sandra); M.H.J. van Oers (Marinus); P.A. von dem Borne (P. A.); P.W. Wijermans (Pierre); R. Schaafsma (Ron); O. de Weerdt (Okke); S. Wittebol (Shulamit); M. Delforge (Michel); H. Berenschot (Henriëtte); G.M. Bos (Gerard); K.S-G. Jie; H. Sinnige (Harm); M. van Marwijk Kooy (Marinus); P. Joosten (Peter); M.C. Minnema (Monique); R.A.H.M. Ammerlaan (Rianne); P. Sonneveld (Pieter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe phase 3 trial HOVON-50 was designed to evaluate the effect of thalidomide during induction treatment and as maintenance in patients with multiple myeloma who were transplant candidates. A total of 556 patients was randomly assigned to arm A: 3 cycles of vincristine, adriamycin, and

  7. Adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and total mesorectal excision: a Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) randomized phase III trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugom, A.J.; Gijn, W. van; Muller, E.W.; Berglund, A; Broek, C.B. van den; Fokstuen, T.; Gelderblom, H.; Kapiteijn, E.; Leer, J.W.H.; Marijnen, C.A.; Martijn, H.; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Pahlman, L.; Punt, C.J.A.; Putter, H.; Roodvoets, A.G.; Rutten, H.J.; Steup, W.H.; Glimelius, B.; Velde, C.J. van de

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The discussion on the role of adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients treated according to current guidelines is still ongoing. A multicentre, randomized phase III trial, PROCTOR-SCRIPT, was conducted to compare adjuvant chemotherapy with observation for rectal cancer patients

  8. Adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and total mesorectal excision: a Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) randomized phase III trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugom, A. J.; van Gijn, W.; Muller, E. W.; Berglund, Å; van den Broek, C. B. M.; Fokstuen, T.; Gelderblom, H.; Kapiteijn, E.; Leer, J. W. H.; Marijnen, C. A. M.; Martijn, H.; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E.; Nagtegaal, I. D.; Påhlman, L.; Punt, C. J. A.; Putter, H.; Roodvoets, A. G. H.; Rutten, H. J. T.; Steup, W. H.; Glimelius, B.; van de Velde, C. J. H.

    2015-01-01

    The discussion on the role of adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients treated according to current guidelines is still ongoing. A multicentre, randomized phase III trial, PROCTOR-SCRIPT, was conducted to compare adjuvant chemotherapy with observation for rectal cancer patients treated with

  9. Clinical feasibility of the Nintendo Wii™ for balance training post-stroke: a phase II randomized controlled trial in an inpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Kelly J; Clark, Ross A; McGinley, Jennifer L; Martin, Clarissa L; Miller, Kimberly J

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the feasibility and potential efficacy of the Nintendo Wii™ for balance rehabilitation after stroke. Phase II, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Inpatient rehabilitation facility. Thirty adults (mean age 63.6 (14.7) years) undergoing inpatient rehabilitation who were less than three months post-stroke and able to stand unsupported. Participants were allocated to a Balance Group, using the 'Wii Fit Plus' in standing, or Upper Limb Group, using the 'Wii Sports/Sports Resort' in sitting. Both groups undertook three 45 minute sessions per week over two to four weeks in addition to standard care. The primary focus was feasibility, addressed by recruitment, retention, adherence, acceptability and safety. Efficacy was evaluated by balance, mobility and upper limb outcomes. Twenty-one percent of individuals screened were recruited and 86% (n = 30) of eligible people agreed to participate. Study retention and session adherence was 90% and > 99%, respectively, at two weeks; dropping to 70% and 87% at four weeks due to early discharge. All participants reported enjoying the sessions and most felt they were beneficial. No major adverse events occurred. Wii use by the Balance Group was associated with trends for improved balance, with significantly greater improvement in outcomes including the Step Test and Wii Balance Board-derived centre of pressure scores. The Upper Limb Group had larger, non-significant changes in arm function. A Wii-based approach appears feasible and promising for post-stroke balance rehabilitation. A larger randomized controlled trial is recommended to further investigate efficacy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Effects of high-intensity aerobic interval training on cardiovascular disease risk in testicular cancer survivors: A phase 2 randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott C; DeLorey, Darren S; Davenport, Margie H; Stickland, Michael K; Fairey, Adrian S; North, Scott; Szczotka, Alexander; Courneya, Kerry S

    2017-10-15

    Testicular cancer survivors (TCS) have an increased risk of treatment-related cardiovascular disease (CVD), which may limit their overall survival. We evaluated the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval training (HIIT) on traditional and novel CVD risk factors and surrogate markers of mortality in a population-based sample of TCS. This phase 2 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02459132) randomly assigned 63 TCS to usual care (UC) or 12 weeks of supervised HIIT (ie, alternating periods of vigorous-intensity and light-intensity aerobic exercise). The primary outcome was peak aerobic fitness (VO2peak ) assessed via a treadmill-based maximal cardiorespiratory exercise test. Secondary endpoints included CVD risk (eg, Framingham Risk Score), arterial health, parasympathetic nervous system function, and blood-based biomarkers. Postintervention VO2peak data were obtained for 61 participants (97%). HIIT participants attended 99% of the exercise sessions and achieved 98% of the target exercise intensity. Analysis of covariance demonstrated that HIIT was superior to UC for improving VO2peak (adjusted between-group mean difference, 3.7 mL O2 /kg/min; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-5.1 [P<.001]) and multiple secondary outcomes including CVD risk (P = .011), arterial thickness (P<.001), arterial stiffness (P<.001), postexercise parasympathetic reactivation (P = .001), inflammation (P = .045), and low-density lipoprotein (P = .014). Overall, HIIT reduced the prevalence of modifiable CVD risk factors by 20% compared with UC. This randomized trial provides the first evidence that HIIT improves cardiorespiratory fitness, multiple pathways of CVD risk, and surrogate markers of mortality in TCS. These findings have important implications for the management of TCS. Further research concerning the long-term effects of HIIT on CVD morbidity and mortality in TCS is warranted. Cancer 2017;123:4057-65. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer

  11. Sequential FOLFIRI.3 + Gemcitabine Improves Health-Related Quality of Life Deterioration-Free Survival of Patients with Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: A Randomized Phase II Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Anota

    Full Text Available A randomized multicenter phase II trial was conducted to assess the sequential treatment strategy using FOLFIRI.3 and gemcitabine alternately (Arm 2 compared to gemcitabine alone (Arm 1 in patients with metastatic non pre-treated pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival (PFS rate at 6 months. It concludes that the sequential treatment strategy appears to be feasible and effective with a PFS rate of 43.5% in Arm 2 at 6 months (26.1% in Arm 1. This paper reports the results of the longitudinal analysis of the health-related quality of life (HRQoL as a secondary endpoint of this study.HRQoL was evaluated using the EORTC QLQ-C30 at baseline and every two months until the end of the study or death. HRQoL deterioration-free survival (QFS was defined as the time from randomization to a first significant deterioration as compared to the baseline score with no further significant improvement, or death. A propensity score was estimated comparing characteristics of partial and complete responders. Analyses were repeated with inverse probability weighting method using the propensity score. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to identify independent factors influencing QFS.98 patients were included between 2007 and 2011. Adjusting on the propensity score, patients of Arm 2 presented a longer QFS of Global Health Status (Hazard Ratio: 0.52 [0.31-0.85], emotional functioning (0.35 [0.21-0.59] and pain (0.50 [0.31-0.81] than those of Arm 1.Patients of Arm 2 presented a better HRQoL with a longer QFS than those of Arm 1. Moreover, the propensity score method allows to take into account the missing data depending on patients' characteristics.Eudract N° 2006-005703-34. (Name of the Trial: FIRGEM.

  12. A phase II randomized trial comparing radiotherapy with concurrent weekly cisplatin or weekly paclitaxel in patients with advanced cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charafeddine Maya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose/Objective This is a prospective comparison of weekly cisplatin to weekly paclitaxel as concurrent chemotherapy with standard radiotherapy for locally advanced cervical carcinoma. Materials/Methods Between May 2000 and May 2004, 31 women with FIGO stage IB2-IVA cervical cancer or with postsurgical pelvic recurrence were enrolled into this phase II study and randomized to receive on a weekly basis either 40 mg/m2 Cisplatin (group I; 16 patients or 50 mg/m2 paclitaxel (group II; 15 patients concurrently with radiotherapy. Median total dose to point A was 74 Gy (range: 66-92 Gy for group I and 66 Gy (range: 40-98 Gy for group II. Median follow-up time was 46 months. Results Patient and tumor characteristics were similar in both groups. The mean number of chemotherapy cycles was also comparable with 87% and 80% of patients receiving at least 4 doses in groups I and II, respectively. Seven patients (44% of group I and 8 patients (53% of group II developed tumor recurrence. The Median Survival time was not reached for Group I and 53 months for group II. The proportion of patients surviving at 2 and 5 years was 78% and 54% for group I and 73% and 43% for group II respectively. Conclusions This small prospective study shows that weekly paclitaxel does not provide any clinical advantage over weekly cisplatin for concurrent chemoradiation for advanced carcinoma of the cervix.

  13. A phase III randomized controlled trial of tiotropium add-on therapy in children with severe symptomatic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefler, Stanley J; Murphy, Kevin; Harper, Thomas; Boner, Attilio; Laki, István; Engel, Michael; El Azzi, Georges; Moroni-Zentgraf, Petra; Finnigan, Helen; Hamelmann, Eckard

    2017-11-01

    Studies in adults and adolescents have demonstrated that tiotropium is efficacious as an add-on therapy to inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) with or without other maintenance therapies in patients with moderate or severe symptomatic asthma. We sought to assess the efficacy and safety of once-daily tiotropium Respimat add-on therapy to high-dose ICS with 1 or more controller medications, or medium-dose ICS with 2 or more controller medications, in the first phase III trial of tiotropium in children with severe symptomatic asthma. In this 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, 401 participants aged 6 to 11 years were randomized to receive once-daily tiotropium 5 μg (2 puffs of 2.5 μg) or 2.5 μg (2 puffs of 1.25 μg), or placebo (2 puffs), administered through the Respimat device as add-on to background therapy. Compared with placebo, tiotropium 5 μg, but not 2.5 μg, add-on therapy improved the primary end point, peak FEV 1 within 3 hours after dosing (5 μg, 139 mL [95% CI, 75-203; P add-on therapy to ICS with other maintenance therapies in children with severe symptomatic asthma. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of dance labor on the management of active phase labor pain & clients' satisfaction: a randomized controlled trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolahian, Somayeh; Ghavi, Fatemeh; Abdollahifard, Sareh; Sheikhan, Fatemeh

    2014-03-30

    There are a wide variety of non- pharmacologic pain relief techniques for labor which include pelvic movement, upright position, back massage and partner support during the first stage of labor. The effectiveness of dance labor- which is a combination of these techniques- has not been evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of dance labor in pain reduction and woman's satisfaction during the first stage of labor. 60 primiparous women aged 18-35 years old were randomly assigned to dance labor and control groups. In the dance labor group, women were instructed to do standing upright with pelvic tilt and rock their hips back and forth or around in a circle while their partner massaged their back and sacrum for a minimum of 30 minutes. In the control group, the participants received usual care during physiologic labor. Pain and satisfaction scores were measured by Visual Analogue Scale. Data were analyzed by using the t. test and Chi-square. Mean pain score in the dance labor group was significantly lower than the control group (P dance labor group was significantly higher than in the control group (P Dance labor which is a complementary treatment with low risk can reduce the intensity of pain and increase mothers, satisfaction with care during the active phase of labor.

  15. Detection and measurement of fetal abdominal contour in ultrasound images via local phase information and iterative randomized Hough transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiming; Qin, Jing; Zhu, Lei; Ni, Dong; Chui, Yim-Pan; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2014-01-01

    Due to the characteristic artifacts of ultrasound images, e.g., speckle noise, shadows and intensity inhomogeneity, traditional intensity-based methods usually have limited success on the segmentation of fetal abdominal contour. This paper presents a novel approach to detect and measure the abdominal contour from fetal ultrasound images in two steps. First, a local phase-based measure called multiscale feature asymmetry (MSFA) is de ned from the monogenic signal to detect the boundaries of fetal abdomen. The MSFA measure is intensity invariant and provides an absolute measurement for the signi cance of features in the image. Second, in order to detect the ellipse that ts to the abdominal contour, the iterative randomized Hough transform is employed to exclude the interferences of the inner boundaries, after which the detected ellipse gradually converges to the outer boundaries of the abdomen. Experimental results in clinical ultrasound images demonstrate the high agreement between our approach and manual approach on the measurement of abdominal circumference (mean sign difference is 0.42% and correlation coef cient is 0.9973), which indicates that the proposed approach can be used as a reliable and accurate tool for obstetrical care and diagnosis.

  16. Effect of sacrum-perineum heat therapy on active phase labor pain and client satisfaction: a randomized, controlled trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taavoni, Simin; Abdolahian, Somayeh; Haghani, Hamid

    2013-09-01

    Reduction of labor pain is one of the most important aspects of obstetric care. Heat therapy, typically applied to the woman's back, lower abdomen, groin, and/or perineum during last stage of labor, is an easy pain relief method that does not require highly skilled care. The effectiveness of heat therapy applied to the perineum during the first stage of labor has not been evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of heat therapy for pain and woman's satisfaction during physiological labor. Sixty primiparous women aged 18-35 years old were randomly assigned to heat therapy and control groups. Pain and satisfaction scores were measured by visual analog scale. The measurements of satisfaction were accomplished after birth. Data were analyzed by using the t-test and chi-square Mean pain scores in the heat therapy group were significantly lower than the control group (P < 0.05). The mean satisfaction score in the heat therapy group was significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). Heat therapy, an inexpensive complementary treatment with low risk, can reduce the intensity of pain and increase mothers' satisfaction with care during the active phase of labor. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Spin-unrestricted random-phase approximation with range separation: Benchmark on atomization energies and reaction barrier heights

    CERN Document Server

    Mussard, Bastien; Angyan, Janos; Toulouse, Julien

    2015-01-01

    We consider several spin-unrestricted random-phase approximation (RPA) variants for calculating correlation energies, with and without range separation, and test them on datasets of atomization energies and reaction barrier heights. We show that range separation greatly improves the accuracy of all RPA variants for these properties. Moreover, we show that a RPA variant with exchange, hereafter referred to as RPAx-SO2, first proposed by Sz-abo and Ostlund [A. Szabo and N. S. Ostlund, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 4351 (1977)] in a spin-restricted closed-shell formalism, and extended here to a spin-unrestricted formalism, provides on average the most accurate range-separated RPA variant for atomization energies and reaction barrier heights. Since this range-separated RPAx-SO2 method had already been shown to be among the most accurate range-separated RPA variants for weak intermolecular interactions [J. Toulouse, W. Zhu, A. Savin, G. Jansen, and J. G. {\\'A}ngy{\\'a}n, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 084119 (2011)], this works confirms...

  18. ISAR Imaging of Ship Targets Based on an Integrated Cubic Phase Bilinear Autocorrelation Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibin Zheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR imaging of a ship target moving with ocean waves, the image constructed with the standard range-Doppler (RD technique is blurred and the range-instantaneous-Doppler (RID technique has to be used to improve the image quality. In this paper, azimuth echoes in a range cell of the ship target are modeled as noisy multicomponent cubic phase signals (CPSs after the motion compensation and a RID ISAR imaging algorithm is proposed based on the integrated cubic phase bilinear autocorrelation function (ICPBAF. The ICPBAF is bilinear and based on the two-dimensionally coherent energy accumulation. Compared to five other estimation algorithms, the ICPBAF can acquire higher cross term suppression and anti-noise performance with a reasonable computational cost. Through simulations and analyses with the synthetic model and real radar data, we verify the effectiveness of the ICPBAF and corresponding RID ISAR imaging algorithm.

  19. ISAR Imaging of Ship Targets Based on an Integrated Cubic Phase Bilinear Autocorrelation Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jibin; Liu, Hongwei; Liu, Zheng; Liu, Qing Huo

    2017-03-03

    For inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging of a ship target moving with ocean waves, the image constructed with the standard range-Doppler (RD) technique is blurred and the range-instantaneous-Doppler (RID) technique has to be used to improve the image quality. In this paper, azimuth echoes in a range cell of the ship target are modeled as noisy multicomponent cubic phase signals (CPSs) after the motion compensation and a RID ISAR imaging algorithm is proposed based on the integrated cubic phase bilinear autocorrelation function (ICPBAF). The ICPBAF is bilinear and based on the two-dimensionally coherent energy accumulation. Compared to five other estimation algorithms, the ICPBAF can acquire higher cross term suppression and anti-noise performance with a reasonable computational cost. Through simulations and analyses with the synthetic model and real radar data, we verify the effectiveness of the ICPBAF and corresponding RID ISAR imaging algorithm.

  20. Liver Function in Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Randomized to Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Versus Sleeve Gastrectomy: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Piotr; Paluszkiewicz, Rafał; Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska, Bogna; Wróblewski, Tadeusz; Remiszewski, Piotr; Grodzicki, Mariusz; Krawczyk, Marek

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the influence of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) versus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on liver function in bariatric patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a randomized clinical trial (NCT01806506). Rapid weight loss and malabsorption after bariatric surgery in patients with NAFLD or steatohepatitis (NASH) may impair liver function. Sixty-six morbidly obese patients randomized to SG or RYGB were included in a secondary outcome analysis. Intraoperative liver biopsies were categorized with NAFLD Activity Score (NAS) and liver function tests were done before surgery and after 1, 6 and 12 months. NASH was present in 54.5% RYGB and 51.5% SG patients (P > 0.05). At 12 months excess weight loss was 68.7 ± 19.7% after SG and 62.8 ± 18.5% after RYGB (P > 0.05). At 1 month international normalized ratio (INR) increased after RYGB (0.98 ± 0.05 vs 1.14 ± 0.11; P liver function than after SG.

  1. Aceneuramic Acid Extended Release Administration Maintains Upper Limb Muscle Strength in a 48-week Study of Subjects with GNE Myopathy: Results from a Phase 2, Randomized, Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argov, Zohar; Caraco, Yoseph; Lau, Heather; Pestronk, Alan; Shieh, Perry B.; Skrinar, Alison; Koutsoukos, Tony; Ahmed, Ruhi; Martinisi, Julia; Kakkis, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Background: GNE Myopathy (GNEM) is a progressive adult-onset myopathy likely caused by deficiency of sialic acid (SA) biosynthesis. Objective: Evaluate the safety and efficacy of SA (delivered by aceneuramic acid extended-release [Ace-ER]) as treatment for GNEM. Methods: A Phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating Ace-ER 3 g/day or 6 g/day versus placebo was conducted in GNEM subjects (n = 47). After the first 24 weeks, placebo subjects crossed over to 3 g/day or 6 g/day for 24 additional weeks (dose pre-assigned during initial randomization). Assessments included serum SA, muscle strength by dynamometry, functional assessments, clinician- and patient-reported outcomes, and safety. Results: Dose-dependent increases in serum SA levels were observed. Supplementation with Ace-ER resulted in maintenance of muscle strength in an upper extremity composite (UEC) score at 6 g/day compared with placebo at Week 24 (LS mean difference +2.33 kg, p = 0.040), and larger in a pre-specified subgroup able to walk ≥200 m at Screening (+3.10 kg, p = 0.040). After cross-over, a combined 6 g/day group showed significantly better UEC strength than a combined 3 g/day group (+3.46 kg, p = 0.0031). A similar dose-dependent response was demonstrated within the lower extremity composite score, but was not significant (+1.06 kg, p = 0.61). The GNEM-Functional Activity Scale demonstrated a trend improvement in UE function and mobility in a combined 6 g/day group compared with a combined 3 g/day group. Patients receiving Ace-ER tablets had predominantly mild-to-moderate AEs and no serious adverse events. Conclusions: This is the first clinical study to provide evidence that supplementation with SA delivered by Ace-ER may stabilize muscle strength in individuals with GNEM and initiating treatment earlier in the disease course may lead to better outcomes. PMID:27854209

  2. PEG 400-Based Phase Change Materials Nano-Enhanced with Functionalized Graphene Nanoplatelets

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    Marco A. Marcos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents new Nano-enhanced Phase Change Materials, NePCMs, formulated as dispersions of functionalized graphene nanoplatelets in a poly(ethylene glycol with a mass-average molecular mass of 400 g·mol−1 for possible use in Thermal Energy Storage. Morphology, functionalization, purity, molecular mass and thermal stability of the graphene nanomaterial and/or the poly(ethylene glycol were characterized. Design parameters of NePCMs were defined on the basis of a temporal stability study of nanoplatelet dispersions using dynamic light scattering. Influence of graphene loading on solid-liquid phase change transition temperature, latent heat of fusion, isobaric heat capacity, thermal conductivity, density, isobaric thermal expansivity, thermal diffusivity and dynamic viscosity were also investigated for designed dispersions. Graphene nanoplatelet loading leads to thermal conductivity enhancements up to 23% while the crystallization temperature reduces up to in 4 K. Finally, the heat storage capacities of base fluid and new designed NePCMs were examined by means of the thermophysical properties through Stefan and Rayleigh numbers. Functionalized graphene nanoplatelets leads to a slight increase in the Stefan number.

  3. Functional phase-correlated micro-CT imaging of small rodents with low dose

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    Sawall, Stefan; Bergner, Frank; Hess, Andreas; Lapp, Robert; Mronz, Markus; Karolczak, Marek; Kachelriess, Marc

    2011-03-01

    Functional imaging of an animals thoracic region requires cardiac and respiratory gating. The information on respiratory motion and ECG required for double-gating are extracted from the rawdata and used to select the projections appropriate for a given motion phase. A conventional phase-correlated reconstruction (PC) therefore uses only a small amount of the total projections acquired. Thus the resulting images comprise a high noise level unless acquired with very high dose, and streak artifacts may occur due to the sparse angular sampling. Here, we are aiming at getting high fidelity images even for relatively low dose values. To overcome these issues we implemented an iterative reconstruction method encompassing a five-dimensional (spatial, cardiac-temporal, respiratory-temporal) edge-preserving filter. This new phase-correlated low-dose (LDPC) reconstruction method is evaluated using retrospectively-gated, contrast-enhanced micro CT data of mice. The scans performed comprise 7200 projections within 10 rotations over 5 minutes. A tube voltage of 65 kV was used resulting in an administered dose of about 500 mGy. 20 respiratory phases and 10 cardiac phases are reconstructed. Using LDPC reconstruction the image noise is typically reduced by a factor of about six and artifacts are almost removed. Reducing the number of projections available for reconstruction shows that we can get comparable image quality with only 200 mGy. LDPC enables high fidelity low-dose double-gated imaging of free breathing rodents without compromises in image quality. Compared to PC image noise is significantly reduced with LDPC and the administered dose can be reduced accordingly.

  4. Sexual Function in Women on Estradiol or Venlafaxine for Hot Flushes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Susan D.; Mitchell, Caroline M.; Joffe, Hadine; Cohen, Lee; Shifren, Jan L.; Newton, Katherine M.; Freeman, Ellen W.; Larson, Joseph C.; Manson, JoAnn E.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Guthrie, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate sexual function in midlife women taking low-dose oral estradiol or venlafaxine for hot flushes. Methods In an 8-week randomized controlled trial among women aged 40-62 years, sexual function was compared between oral estradiol 0.5 mg/day or venlafaxine 75 mg/day (both compared with placebo). Measures included composite and 6 domain scores from the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and sexually related personal distress. Results Participants were aged 54.6 (standard deviation [SD] 3.8) years, 59% Caucasian, with 8.1 (SD 5.3) daily hot flushes. Median composite baseline FSFI score was 16.3 (SD 11.9, n=256) for all women and 21.7 (SD 9.3, n=198) among sexually active women. Composite mean FSFI change from baseline to week-8 was 1.4 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] -0.4, 3.2) for estradiol, 1.1 (95% CI -0.5, 2.7) for venlafaxine and -0.3 (95% CI -1.6, 1.0) for placebo. Composite FSFI and sexually-related distress change from baseline did not differ between estradiol and placebo (p= 0.38, p=0.30) or venlafaxine and placebo (p=0.79, p=0.48). Among sexually active women, FSFI domain score change from baseline differences (active compared with placebo) in desire was 0.3 (95% CI 0.0, 0.6) for estradiol; -0.6 (95% CI -1.2, 0.0) in orgasm for venlafaxine, and 0.9 (95% CI 0.2, 1.6) in penetration pain for venlafaxine. No women reported adverse events related to sexual dysfunction. Conclusions Overall sexual function among nondepressed midlife women experiencing hot flushes did not change over 8-weeks with low-dose oral estradiol or venlafaxine (compared with placebo), although subtle increase in desire (estradiol), and decreases in orgasm and pain (venlafaxine) may exist. PMID:25004335

  5. Improving function in age-related macular degeneration: a randomized clinical trial.

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    Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J; Hegel, Mark T; Massof, Robert W; Leiby, Benjamin E; Ho, Allen C; Tasman, William S

    2013-08-01

    To compare the efficacy of problem-solving therapy (PST) with supportive therapy (ST) to improve targeted vision function (TVF) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Single-masked, attention-controlled, randomized clinical trial with outcome assessments at 3 months (main trial endpoint) and 6 months (maintenance effects). Patients with AMD (n = 241) attending retina practices. Whereas PST uses a structured problem-solving approach to reduce vision-related task difficulty, ST is a standardized attention-control treatment. We assessed TVF, the 25-item National Eye Institute Vision Function Questionnaire plus Supplement (NEI VFQ), the Activities Inventory (AI), and vision-related quality of life (QoL). There were no between-group differences in TVF scores at 3 (P = 0.47) or 6 (P = 0.62) months. For PST subjects, mean ± standard deviation TVF scores improved from 2.71±0.52 at baseline to 2.18±0.88 at 3 months (P = 0.001) and were 2.18±0.95 at 6 months (change from 3 to 6 months, P = 0.74). For ST subjects, TVF scores improved from 2.73±0.52 at baseline to 2.14±0.96 at 3 months (P = 0.001) and were 2.15±0.96 at 6 months (change from 3 to 6 months, P = 0.85). Similar proportions of PST and ST subjects had less difficulty performing a TVF goal at 3 months (77.4% vs 78.6%, respectively; P = 0.83) and 6 months (76.2% vs 79.1%, respectively; P = 0.61). There were no changes in the NEI VFQ or AI. Vision-related QoL improved for PST relative to ST subjects at 3 months (F(4, 192) = 2.46; P = 0.05) and at 6 months (F(4, 178) = 2.55; P = 0.05). The PST subjects also developed more adaptive coping strategies than ST subjects. We found that PST was not superior to ST at improving vision function in patients with AMD, but that PST improved their vision-related QoL. Despite the benefits of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatments, AMD remains associated with disability, depression, and diminished QoL. This clinical reality necessitates new rehabilitative

  6. Effectiveness of balance exercises in the acute post-operative phase following total hip and knee arthroplasty: A randomized clinical trial

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    Pankaj Jogi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of balance exercises in the acute post-operative phase following total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty. Methods: Patients who had total hip arthroplasty (n = 30 or total knee arthroplasty (n = 33 were seen in their residence 1–2 times per week for 5 weeks. At the first post-operative home visit, patients were randomly assigned to either typical (TE, n = 33 or typical plus balance (TE + B, n = 30 exercise groups. The TE group completed seven typical surgery-specific joint range-of-motion and muscle strengthening exercises, while the TE + B group completed the typical exercises plus three balance exercises. Patients were assessed before and 5 weeks after administering the rehabilitation program using four outcome measures: (1 the Berg Balance Scale, (2 the Timed Up and Go test, (3 the Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, and (4 the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale. Results: Post-intervention scores for all four outcome measures were significantly improved (p < 0.01 over baseline scores. Patients who participated in the TE + B group demonstrated significantly greater improvement on the Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Up and Go tests (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Balance exercises added to a typical rehabilitation program resulted in significantly greater improvements in balance and functional mobility compared to typical exercises alone.

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF EARLY STRETCHING EXERCISES FOR RANGE OF MOTION IN THE SHOULDER JOINT AND QUALITY OF FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY IN PATIENTS WITH BURNS - A RANDOMIZED CONTROL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara D. Perer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated the effects of an early stretching exercises programme on the range of motion of the shoulder joint and functional recovery in patients with burns. Methods: A randomized controlled study was conducted. Patients from 15 to 55 years of age with a total burn injury surface area (TBSA of 10% to 45% involving the shoulder joint including axilla were eligible. Participants were randomized into two groups; intervention and a usual care control group, with 110 patients in each group. A standardized protocol was used in the management of intervention group for 14 days. The control group was subjected to usual protocol currently used. The range of Motion (ROM was measured, and Functional recovery (FR was assessed with the Quick DASH questionnaire and the Abduction Ladder. Data were obtained before and after the intervention phase and at 3, 6 and 12 months of post-burn period. Results: The mean (SD age of intervention group and control group were 29.76 [9.81] and 30.31 [9.45] respectively. The mean (SD TBSA% of intervention group and control group was 26.15[9.45] and 24.60[9.56] respectively. There is a significant beneficial difference (p=<0.0001 in ROM and FR between the intervention group and the control group. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that an early sustained stretching exercise regime significantly improved the ROM and functional recovery of the shoulder joint after a severe burn involving the axilla.

  8. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of itopride (100 and 200 mg three times daily) on gastric motor and sensory function in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, R S; Talley, N J; Peterson, J; Camilleri, M; Burton, D; Harmsen, W S; Zinsmeister, A R

    2007-03-01

    Itopride, a dopamine D2 antagonist and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, significantly improved symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia in one phase II randomized trial. However, the mechanisms by which itopride may improve symptoms are unknown. We aimed to compare the effects of two doses of itopride and placebo on gastric volumes, gastric emptying, small bowel transit and satiation in female and male healthy volunteers. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated gastric function before and after 7 days of itopride 100 mg (n = 16) or 200 mg (n = 15) or placebo (n = 15) t.i.d. Validated methods were used to study gastric accommodation (single photon emission computed tomography), gastric emptying and orocecal transit and satiation postnutrient challenge. The three arms were comparable with regard to age, gender and body mass index. There were no statistically significant effects of itopride on gastric emptying, orocecal transit, fasting gastric volume, maximum tolerated volume or aggregate symptom score with nutrient drink challenge. Postprandial (PP) change in gastric volume differed in the three groups (P = 0.019): 625[+/-28 (SEM)], 555(+/-26) and 512(+/-33) in placebo, itopride 100 and 200 mg groups, respectively. In healthy subjects, itopride reduced total PP gastric volume without accelerating gastric emptying or significantly altering gastric motor and sensory function in healthy individuals.

  9. [Randomized controlled study on chronic functional constipation treated with grain-shaped moxibustion and acupuncture].

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    Wang, Li-juan; Wang, Ling-ling

    2011-04-01

    To compare the therapeutic effect differences of chronic functional constipation treated with the combined therapy of grain-shaped moxibustion and acupuncture and simple acupuncture therapy. One hundred cases of constipation were randomly divided into an acupuncture and moxibustion group and an acupuncture group by fifty-fifty. Both groups were treated by acupuncture therapy with acupoints of two groups alternatively. Group 1: Tianshu (ST 25), Daheng (SP 15), Qihai (CV 6), Guanyuan (CV 4), Zusanli (ST 36), Shangjuxu (ST 37) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6). Group 2: Zhongliao (BL 33), Xialiao (BL 34), Dachangshu (BL 25), Shenshu (BL 23) and Pishu (BL 20). In acupuncture group, all the acupoints, were punctured; in acupuncture and moxibustion group, grain-shaped moxibustion was given at Qihai (CV 6), Susanli (ST 36), Dachangshu (BL 25) and Pishu (BL 20), and others were treated by puncture. The clinical therapeutic effect, and the changes of clinical score of constipation, quality of life and psychological symptoms score were observed before and after treatment. The total effective rate in acupuncture and moxibustion group was 74.0% (37/50), superior to that (52.0%, 26/50) in acupuncture group (P life and psychological symptoms score in both groups improved after treatment; in clinical score of constipation, the improvement of difficulty of defecation, defecation time, abdominal pain, exsufflation difficulty, endless sensation of defecation, obstruction sense of anus, purgative prescription dependence, quality of life score and psychological symptoms score in acupuncture and moxibustion group were superior to those in acupuncture group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). For treating chronic functional constipation, the combined therapy of both grain-shaped moxibustion and acupuncture is safe and effective, superior to the simple acupuncture therapy.

  10. Thermal stability of functional P(S-r-MMA) random copolymers for nanolithographic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparnacci, Katia; Antonioli, Diego; Gianotti, Valentina; Laus, Michele; Zuccheri, Giampaolo; Ferrarese Lupi, Federico; Giammaria, Tommaso Jacopo; Seguini, Gabriele; Ceresoli, Monica; Perego, Michele

    2015-02-25

    Two strategies are envisioned to improve the thermal stability of the grafted layer and to allow the processing of the random copolymer/block copolymer (RCP/BCP) system at high temperature. From one side, a high-temperature thermal treatment of a commercial α-hydroxyl ω-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy functional RCP, namely, TR58, leads to the formation of a stabilized layer able to induce the perpendicular orientation of a symmetric BCP to temperatures higher than 310 °C. On the other side, an α-hydroxyl ω-Br functional RCP, namely, BrR58, with the same molar mass and composition of TR58, was prepared by activator regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization. The resulting brush layer can sustain the self-assembly of the symmetric BCP for processing temperatures as high as 330 °C. In both systems, the disruption of the BCP film, deposited on the grafted RCP layer, occurs because of the formation of bubbles, due to a low-temperature evolution of monomers from the RCP layer. The extent of the low-temperature monomer evolution is higher for TR58 than it is for BrR58 and starts at lower temperatures. For both copolymers, the thermal treatment offsets the low-temperature monomer evolution while still maintaining surface characteristics suitable to induce the perpendicular orientation of the BCPs, thus ultimately extending the range of processing temperatures of the BCP film and consequently speeding the self-organization process.

  11. Effect of vaginal electrical stimulation on female sexual functions: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Serdar; Arıoğlu Aydın, Çağrı; Batmaz, Gonca; Dansuk, Ramazan

    2015-02-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a common problem that may be encountered in the interruption of normal sexual functioning in the sexual response cycle. Women with a pelvic floor disorder who scored low on the Fem