WorldWideScience

Sample records for random overlap structures

  1. Overlap Synchronisation in Multipartite Random Energy Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Giuseppe; Tantari, Daniele

    2017-12-01

    In a multipartite random energy model, made of a number of coupled generalised random energy models (GREMs), we determine the joint law of the overlaps in terms of the ones of the single GREMs. This provides the simplest example of the so-called overlap synchronisation.

  2. Overlap Dirac operator, eigenvalues and random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Robert G.; Heller, Urs M.; Kiskis, Joe; Narayanan, Rajamani

    2000-03-01

    The properties of the spectrum of the overlap Dirac operator and their relation to random matrix theory are studied. In particular, the predictions from chiral random matrix theory in topologically non-trivial gauge field sectors are tested.

  3. Overlapping structures in sensory-motor mappings.

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    Kevin Earland

    Full Text Available This paper examines a biologically-inspired representation technique designed for the support of sensory-motor learning in developmental robotics. An interesting feature of the many topographic neural sheets in the brain is that closely packed receptive fields must overlap in order to fully cover a spatial region. This raises interesting scientific questions with engineering implications: e.g. is overlap detrimental? does it have any benefits? This paper examines the effects and properties of overlap between elements arranged in arrays or maps. In particular we investigate how overlap affects the representation and transmission of spatial location information on and between topographic maps. Through a series of experiments we determine the conditions under which overlap offers advantages and identify useful ranges of overlap for building mappings in cognitive robotic systems. Our motivation is to understand the phenomena of overlap in order to provide guidance for application in sensory-motor learning robots.

  4. Overlapping structures in sensory-motor mappings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earland, Kevin; Lee, Mark; Shaw, Patricia; Law, James

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a biologically-inspired representation technique designed for the support of sensory-motor learning in developmental robotics. An interesting feature of the many topographic neural sheets in the brain is that closely packed receptive fields must overlap in order to fully cover a spatial region. This raises interesting scientific questions with engineering implications: e.g. is overlap detrimental? does it have any benefits? This paper examines the effects and properties of overlap between elements arranged in arrays or maps. In particular we investigate how overlap affects the representation and transmission of spatial location information on and between topographic maps. Through a series of experiments we determine the conditions under which overlap offers advantages and identify useful ranges of overlap for building mappings in cognitive robotic systems. Our motivation is to understand the phenomena of overlap in order to provide guidance for application in sensory-motor learning robots.

  5. Random matrix theory and the spectra of overlap fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcheredin, S.; Bietenholz, W.; Chiarappa, T.; Jansen, K.; Nagai, K.-I

    2004-03-01

    The application of Random Matrix Theory to the Dirac operator of QCD yields predictions for the probability distributions of the lowest eigenvalues. We measured Dirac operator spectra using massless overlap fermions in quenched QCD at topological charge {nu} = 0, {+-} 1 and {+-}2, and found agreement with those predictions -- at least for the first non-zero eigenvalue -- if the volume exceeds about (1.2 fm){sup 4}.

  6. Leveraging disjoint communities for detecting overlapping community structure

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Tanmoy

    2015-01-01

    Network communities represent mesoscopic structure for understanding the organization of real-world networks, where nodes often belong to multiple communities and form overlapping community structure in the network. Due to non-triviality in finding the exact boundary of such overlapping communities, this problem has become challenging, and therefore huge effort has been devoted to detect overlapping communities from the network. In this paper, we present PVOC (Permanence based Vertex-replicat...

  7. A local immunization strategy for networks with overlapping community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavian, Fatemeh; Salehi, Mostafa; Teimouri, Mehdi

    2017-02-01

    Since full coverage treatment is not feasible due to limited resources, we need to utilize an immunization strategy to effectively distribute the available vaccines. On the other hand, the structure of contact network among people has a significant impact on epidemics of infectious diseases (such as SARS and influenza) in a population. Therefore, network-based immunization strategies aim to reduce the spreading rate by removing the vaccinated nodes from contact network. Such strategies try to identify more important nodes in epidemics spreading over a network. In this paper, we address the effect of overlapping nodes among communities on epidemics spreading. The proposed strategy is an optimized random-walk based selection of these nodes. The whole process is local, i.e. it requires contact network information in the level of nodes. Thus, it is applicable to large-scale and unknown networks in which the global methods usually are unrealizable. Our simulation results on different synthetic and real networks show that the proposed method outperforms the existing local methods in most cases. In particular, for networks with strong community structures, high overlapping membership of nodes or small size communities, the proposed method shows better performance.

  8. Non-random retention of protein-coding overlapping genes in Metazoa

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    Bork Peer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the overlap of transcriptional units occurs frequently in eukaryotic genomes, its evolutionary and biological significance remains largely unclear. Here we report a comparative analysis of overlaps between genes coding for well-annotated proteins in five metazoan genomes (human, mouse, zebrafish, fruit fly and worm. Results For all analyzed species the observed number of overlapping genes is always lower than expected assuming functional neutrality, suggesting that gene overlap is negatively selected. The comparison to the random distribution also shows that retained overlaps do not exhibit random features: antiparallel overlaps are significantly enriched, while overlaps lying on the same strand and those involving coding sequences are highly underrepresented. We confirm that overlap is mostly species-specific and provide evidence that it frequently originates through the acquisition of terminal, non-coding exons. Finally, we show that overlapping genes tend to be significantly co-expressed in a breast cancer cDNA library obtained by 454 deep sequencing, and that different overlap types display different patterns of reciprocal expression. Conclusion Our data suggest that overlap between protein-coding genes is selected against in Metazoa. However, when retained it may be used as a species-specific mechanism for the reciprocal regulation of neighboring genes. The tendency of overlaps to involve non-coding regions of the genes leads to the speculation that the advantages achieved by an overlapping arrangement may be optimized by evolving regulatory non-coding transcripts.

  9. An algorithm Walktrap-SPM for detecting overlapping community structure

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    Hu, Fang; Zhu, Youze; Shi, Yuan; Cai, Jianchao; Chen, Luogeng; Shen, Shaowu

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, based on Walktrap algorithm with the idea of random walk, and by selecting the neighbor communities, introducing improved signed probabilistic mixture (SPM) model and considering the edges within the community as positive links and the edges between the communities as negative links, a novel algorithm Walktrap-SPM for detecting overlapping community is proposed. This algorithm not only can identify the overlapping communities, but also can greatly increase the objectivity and accuracy of the results. In order to verify the accuracy, the performance of this algorithm is tested on several representative real-world networks and a set of computer-generated networks based on LFR benchmark. The experimental results indicate that this algorithm can identify the communities accurately, and it is more suitable for overlapping community detection. Compared with Walktrap, SPM and LMF algorithms, the presented algorithm can acquire higher values of modularity and NMI. Moreover, this new algorithm has faster running time than SPM and LMF algorithms.

  10. Growing networks of overlapping communities with internal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jean-Gabriel; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Allard, Antoine; Dubé, Louis J.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce an intuitive model that describes both the emergence of community structure and the evolution of the internal structure of communities in growing social networks. The model comprises two complementary mechanisms: One mechanism accounts for the evolution of the internal link structure of a single community, and the second mechanism coordinates the growth of multiple overlapping communities. The first mechanism is based on the assumption that each node establishes links with its neighbors and introduces new nodes to the community at different rates. We demonstrate that this simple mechanism gives rise to an effective maximal degree within communities. This observation is related to the anthropological theory known as Dunbar's number, i.e., the empirical observation of a maximal number of ties which an average individual can sustain within its social groups. The second mechanism is based on a recently proposed generalization of preferential attachment to community structure, appropriately called structural preferential attachment (SPA). The combination of these two mechanisms into a single model (SPA+) allows us to reproduce a number of the global statistics of real networks: The distribution of community sizes, of node memberships, and of degrees. The SPA+ model also predicts (a) three qualitative regimes for the degree distribution within overlapping communities and (b) strong correlations between the number of communities to which a node belongs and its number of connections within each community. We present empirical evidence that support our findings in real complex networks.

  11. Exploring overlapping functional units with various structure in protein interaction networks.

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    Xiao-Fei Zhang

    Full Text Available Revealing functional units in protein-protein interaction (PPI networks are important for understanding cellular functional organization. Current algorithms for identifying functional units mainly focus on cohesive protein complexes which have more internal interactions than external interactions. Most of these approaches do not handle overlaps among complexes since they usually allow a protein to belong to only one complex. Moreover, recent studies have shown that other non-cohesive structural functional units beyond complexes also exist in PPI networks. Thus previous algorithms that just focus on non-overlapping cohesive complexes are not able to present the biological reality fully. Here, we develop a new regularized sparse random graph model (RSRGM to explore overlapping and various structural functional units in PPI networks. RSRGM is principally dominated by two model parameters. One is used to define the functional units as groups of proteins that have similar patterns of connections to others, which allows RSRGM to detect non-cohesive structural functional units. The other one is used to represent the degree of proteins belonging to the units, which supports a protein belonging to more than one revealed unit. We also propose a regularizer to control the smoothness between the estimators of these two parameters. Experimental results on four S. cerevisiae PPI networks show that the performance of RSRGM on detecting cohesive complexes and overlapping complexes is superior to that of previous competing algorithms. Moreover, RSRGM has the ability to discover biological significant functional units besides complexes.

  12. Exploring overlapping functional units with various structure in protein interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Dai, Dao-Qing; Ou-Yang, Le; Wu, Meng-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Revealing functional units in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks are important for understanding cellular functional organization. Current algorithms for identifying functional units mainly focus on cohesive protein complexes which have more internal interactions than external interactions. Most of these approaches do not handle overlaps among complexes since they usually allow a protein to belong to only one complex. Moreover, recent studies have shown that other non-cohesive structural functional units beyond complexes also exist in PPI networks. Thus previous algorithms that just focus on non-overlapping cohesive complexes are not able to present the biological reality fully. Here, we develop a new regularized sparse random graph model (RSRGM) to explore overlapping and various structural functional units in PPI networks. RSRGM is principally dominated by two model parameters. One is used to define the functional units as groups of proteins that have similar patterns of connections to others, which allows RSRGM to detect non-cohesive structural functional units. The other one is used to represent the degree of proteins belonging to the units, which supports a protein belonging to more than one revealed unit. We also propose a regularizer to control the smoothness between the estimators of these two parameters. Experimental results on four S. cerevisiae PPI networks show that the performance of RSRGM on detecting cohesive complexes and overlapping complexes is superior to that of previous competing algorithms. Moreover, RSRGM has the ability to discover biological significant functional units besides complexes.

  13. Sandwich Panel as a Structural Element of Overlap

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    Novikov Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the issue of sandwich panels using as load-bearing structural elements. The comparison of deflections and critical failure loads were obtained by the results of the full-scale roof sandwich panels tests conducted by the company “Joris Ide” and the theoretical design, according to the calculation method described in Euronorms. Based on these results it was concluded that sandwich panels can be treated as a load-bearing structure only with more taught manufacturing requirements. Thus, the reduced spread of critical loads can be achieved.

  14. Exploring the structure of the quenched QCD vacuum with overlap fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgenfritz, E.M. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Koller, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Sektion Physik; Koma, Y. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Streuer, T. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Weinberg, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)]|[Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2007-05-15

    Overlap fermions have an exact chiral symmetry on the lattice and are thus an appropriate tool for investigating the chiral and topological structure of the QCD vacuum. We study various chiral and topological aspects of quenched gauge field configurations. This includes the localization and chiral properties of the eigenmodes, the local structure of the ultraviolet filtered field strength tensor, as well as the structure of topological charge fluctuations. We conclude that the vacuum has a multifractal structure. (orig.)

  15. Overlapping communities reveal rich structure in large-scale brain networks during rest and task conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mahshid; McMenamin, Brenton W; Simon, Jonathan Z; Pessoa, Luiz

    2016-07-15

    Large-scale analysis of functional MRI data has revealed that brain regions can be grouped into stable "networks" or communities. In many instances, the communities are characterized as relatively disjoint. Although recent work indicates that brain regions may participate in multiple communities (for example, hub regions), the extent of community overlap is poorly understood. To address these issues, here we investigated large-scale brain networks based on "rest" and task human functional MRI data by employing a mixed-membership Bayesian model that allows each brain region to belong to all communities simultaneously with varying membership strengths. The approach allowed us to 1) compare the structure of disjoint and overlapping communities; 2) determine the relationship between functional diversity (how diverse is a region's functional activation repertoire) and membership diversity (how diverse is a region's affiliation to communities); 3) characterize overlapping community structure; 4) characterize the degree of non-modularity in brain networks; 5) study the distribution of "bridges", including bottleneck and hub bridges. Our findings revealed the existence of dense community overlap that was not limited to "special" hubs. Furthermore, the findings revealed important differences between community organization during rest and during specific task states. Overall, we suggest that dense overlapping communities are well suited to capture the flexible and task dependent mapping between brain regions and their functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Automatic Classification of Protein Structure Using the Maximum Contact Map Overlap Metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Andonov (Rumen); H. Djidjev (Hristo); G.W. Klau (Gunnar); M. Le Boudic-Jamin (Mathilde); I. Wohlers (Inken)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this work, we propose a new distance measure for comparing two protein structures based on their contact map representations. We show that our novel measure, which we refer to as the maximum contact map overlap (max-CMO) metric, satisfies all properties of a metric on the space of

  17. Automatic classification of protein structure using the maximum contact map overlap metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andonov, Rumen; Djidjev, Hristo; Klau, Gunnar W.; Boudic-Jamin, Mathilde Le; Wohlers, Inken

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a new distance measure for comparing two protein structures based on their contact map representations. We show that our novel measure, which we refer to as the maximum contact map overlap (max-CMO) metric, satisfiesall properties of a metric on the space of protein

  18. Optimal Altitude, Overlap, and Weather Conditions for Computer Vision UAV Estimates of Forest Structure

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    Jonathan P. Dandois

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecological remote sensing is being transformed by three-dimensional (3D, multispectral measurements of forest canopies by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV and computer vision structure from motion (SFM algorithms. Yet applications of this technology have out-paced understanding of the relationship between collection method and data quality. Here, UAV-SFM remote sensing was used to produce 3D multispectral point clouds of Temperate Deciduous forests at different levels of UAV altitude, image overlap, weather, and image processing. Error in canopy height estimates was explained by the alignment of the canopy height model to the digital terrain model (R2 = 0.81 due to differences in lighting and image overlap. Accounting for this, no significant differences were observed in height error at different levels of lighting, altitude, and side overlap. Overall, accurate estimates of canopy height compared to field measurements (R2 = 0.86, RMSE = 3.6 m and LIDAR (R2 = 0.99, RMSE = 3.0 m were obtained under optimal conditions of clear lighting and high image overlap (>80%. Variation in point cloud quality appeared related to the behavior of SFM ‘image features’. Future research should consider the role of image features as the fundamental unit of SFM remote sensing, akin to the pixel of optical imaging and the laser pulse of LIDAR.

  19. Study of the structure of the QCD vacuum by means of overlap fermions; Untersuchung der Struktur des QCD-Vakuums mit Hilfe von Overlap-Fermionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, Volker

    2008-12-15

    In this thesis the structure of the QCD vacuum and the nature of the chiral phase transition were studied by means of overlap fermions. The main topic of the theiss lies in the study of the infrared long-range aspects shown by the low-lying eigenmodes of the overlap operator. For the characterization of the structure and dimension of an arbitray density embedded in the four-dimensional space-time diverse analysis tools were developed. These are applied both at low temperature (T=0) in the valence-quark approximation of QCD and in the environment of the high-temperature phase transition of the full QCD for the description of the structure of the modes and the topological density, as well as for the analysis of the local self-duality of the basing gauge fields.

  20. Exploring hierarchical and overlapping modular structure in the yeast protein interaction network

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    Zhao Yi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing effective strategies to reveal modular structures in protein interaction networks is crucial for better understanding of molecular mechanisms of underlying biological processes. In this paper, we propose a new density-based algorithm (ADHOC for clustering vertices of a protein interaction network using a novel subgraph density measurement. Results By statistically evaluating several independent criteria, we found that ADHOC could significantly improve the outcome as compared with five previously reported density-dependent methods. We further applied ADHOC to investigate the hierarchical and overlapping modular structure in the yeast PPI network. Our method could effectively detect both protein modules and the overlaps between them, and thus greatly promote the precise prediction of protein functions. Moreover, by further assaying the intermodule layer of the yeast PPI network, we classified hubs into two types, module hubs and inter-module hubs. Each type presents distinct characteristics both in network topology and biological functions, which could conduce to the better understanding of relationship between network architecture and biological implications. Conclusions Our proposed algorithm based on the novel subgraph density measurement makes it possible to more precisely detect hierarchical and overlapping modular structures in protein interaction networks. In addition, our method also shows a strong robustness against the noise in network, which is quite critical for analyzing such a high noise network.

  1. CHIMERA: Top-down model for hierarchical, overlapping and directed cluster structures in directed and weighted complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, R.

    2016-11-01

    In many networks discovered in biology, medicine, neuroscience and other disciplines special properties like a certain degree distribution and hierarchical cluster structure (also called communities) can be observed as general organizing principles. Detecting the cluster structure of an unknown network promises to identify functional subdivisions, hierarchy and interactions on a mesoscale. It is not trivial choosing an appropriate detection algorithm because there are multiple network, cluster and algorithmic properties to be considered. Edges can be weighted and/or directed, clusters overlap or build a hierarchy in several ways. Algorithms differ not only in runtime, memory requirements but also in allowed network and cluster properties. They are based on a specific definition of what a cluster is, too. On the one hand, a comprehensive network creation model is needed to build a large variety of benchmark networks with different reasonable structures to compare algorithms. On the other hand, if a cluster structure is already known, it is desirable to separate effects of this structure from other network properties. This can be done with null model networks that mimic an observed cluster structure to improve statistics on other network features. A third important application is the general study of properties in networks with different cluster structures, possibly evolving over time. Currently there are good benchmark and creation models available. But what is left is a precise sandbox model to build hierarchical, overlapping and directed clusters for undirected or directed, binary or weighted complex random networks on basis of a sophisticated blueprint. This gap shall be closed by the model CHIMERA (Cluster Hierarchy Interconnection Model for Evaluation, Research and Analysis) which will be introduced and described here for the first time.

  2. Analysis of topological structure of the QCD vacuum with overlap-Dirac operator eigenmode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iritani, T.; Cossu, G.; Hashimoto, S.

    Using the eigenmodes of the overlap-Dirac operator, we study the topological structure of the QCD vacuum. We investigate the space-time profile of the low-lying eigenmodes and their contribution to the vacuum action density and chiral condensate under the existence of static color sources. We demonstrate that the low-lying Dirac eigenmode shows the flux-tube structure, which suggests the relevance to confinement. We also analyze the chiral condensate in the flux-tube. Chiral symmetry is partially restored inside the flux, and the reduction of the condensate is about 20% at the center of the tube.

  3. Domain overlap matrices from plane-wave-based methods of electronic structure calculation

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    Golub, Pavlo; Baranov, Alexey I.

    2016-10-01

    Plane waves are one of the most popular and efficient basis sets for electronic structure calculations of solids; however, their delocalized nature makes it difficult to employ for them classical orbital-based methods of chemical bonding analysis. The quantum chemical topology approach, introducing chemical concepts via partitioning of real space into chemically meaningful domains, has no difficulties with plane-wave-based basis sets. Many popular tools employed within this approach, for instance delocalization indices, need overlap integrals over these domains—the elements of the so called domain overlap matrices. This article reports an efficient algorithm for evaluation of domain overlap matrix elements for plane-wave-based calculations as well as evaluation of its implementation for one of the most popular projector augmented wave (PAW) methods on the small set of simple and complex solids. The stability of the obtained results with respect to PAW calculation parameters has been investigated, and the comparison of the results with the results from other calculation methods has also been made.

  4. Structural Characterization of Bimetallic Nanomaterials with Overlapping X-ray Absorption Edges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menard, L.; Wang, Q; Kang, J; Sealey, A; Girolami, G; Teng, X; Frenkel, A; Nuzzo, R

    2009-01-01

    We describe a data analysis method for extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy suitable for use with compounds of diverse form that contain overlapping absorption edges. This method employs direct concurrent analysis of the data-demonstrated here for cases involving two interfering metal edges-and does not utilize subtractive or data filtering strategies that have been previously used to address this challenge. Its generality and precision are demonstrated in analyses made on two model nanoscale samples: (1) a Ir-Pt nanoparticle system supported on ?-Al2O3 and (2) a hybrid system of Pt nanowires on which Au nanoparticles have been nucleated and grown at the nanowire tips, stacking faults, and twinning boundaries. The results obtained demonstrate the unique compositional and structural qualities of these two systems as well as the broader utility of the new x-ray absorption spectroscopy based protocol used to characterize them.

  5. Community structure detection for overlapping modules through mathematical programming in protein interaction networks.

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    Laura Bennett

    Full Text Available Community structure detection has proven to be important in revealing the underlying properties of complex networks. The standard problem, where a partition of disjoint communities is sought, has been continually adapted to offer more realistic models of interactions in these systems. Here, a two-step procedure is outlined for exploring the concept of overlapping communities. First, a hard partition is detected by employing existing methodologies. We then propose a novel mixed integer non linear programming (MINLP model, known as OverMod, which transforms disjoint communities to overlapping. The procedure is evaluated through its application to protein-protein interaction (PPI networks of the rat, E. coli, yeast and human organisms. Connector nodes of hard partitions exhibit topological and functional properties indicative of their suitability as candidates for multiple module membership. OverMod identifies two types of connector nodes, inter and intra-connector, each with their own particular characteristics pertaining to their topological and functional role in the organisation of the network. Inter-connector proteins are shown to be highly conserved proteins participating in pathways that control essential cellular processes, such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis and their differences with intra-connectors is highlighted. Many of these proteins are shown to possess multiple roles of distinct nature through their participation in different network modules, setting them apart from proteins that are simply 'hubs', i.e. proteins with many interaction partners but with a more specific biochemical role.

  6. Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS): structured literature review and physician insights.

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    Ding, B; Enstone, A

    2016-01-01

    To understand the key characteristics of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overlap Syndrome (ACOS) and to identify evidence gaps relating to the identification, treatment and management of ACOS patients. A structured literature review and 1-hour telephone interviews with specialist respiratory physicians were conducted (n=10; China, France, Germany, Japan and the USA). All 10 physicians used the term ACOS in clinical practice. ACOS was not clearly defined in the literature. Prevalence of ACOS among adult patients with COPD or asthma ranged from 12-55%. ACOS patients had severe disease, with increased exacerbations and hospitalisations compared to some asthma and COPD patients. ACOS represented a clinical challenge due to a lack of evidence-based guidelines distinguishing between asthma, COPD and ACOS. Published data quantifying ACOS costs were limited. There is a need for consensus evidence-based guidance to facilitate earlier diagnosis and to optimise the management of ACOS patients.

  7. Geographic structure of adelie penguin populations: overlap in colony-specific foraging areas

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    Ainley, D.G.; Ribic, C.A.; Ballard, G.; Heath, S.; Gaffney, I.; Karl, B.J.; Barton, K.J.; Wilson, P.R.; Webb, S.

    2004-01-01

    In an investigation of the factors leading to geographic structuring among Ade??lie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) populations, we studied the size and overlap of colony-specific foraging areas within an isolated cluster of colonies. The study area, in the southwestern Ross Sea, included one large and three smaller colonies, ranging in size from 3900 to 135000 nesting pairs, clustered on Ross and Beaufort Islands. We used triangulation of radio signals from transmitters attached to breeding penguins to determine foraging locations and to define colony-specific foraging areas during the chick-provisioning period of four breeding seasons, 1997-2000. Colony populations (nesting pairs) were determined using aerial photography just after egg-laying; reproductive success was estimated by comparing ground counts of chicks fledged to the number of breeding pairs apparent in aerial photos. Foraging-trip duration, meal size, and adult body mass were estimated using RFID (radio frequency identification) tags and an automated reader and weighbridge. Chick growth was assessed by weekly weighing. We related the following variables to colony size: foraging distance, area, and duration; reproductive success; chick meal size and growth rate; and seasonal variation in adult body mass. We found that penguins foraged closest to their respective colonies, particularly at the smaller colonies. However, as the season progressed, foraging distance, duration, and area increased noticeably, especially at the largest colony. The foraging areas of the smaller colonies overlapped broadly, but very little foraging area overlap existed between the large colony and the smaller colonies, even though the foraging area of the large colony was well within range of the smaller colonies. Instead, the foraging areas of the smaller colonies shifted as that of the large colony grew. Colony size was not related to chick meal size, chick growth, or parental body mass. This differed from the year previous to

  8. Substructure hybrid testing of reinforced concrete shear wall structure using a domain overlapping technique

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    Zhang, Yu; Pan, Peng; Gong, Runhua; Wang, Tao; Xue, Weichen

    2017-10-01

    An online hybrid test was carried out on a 40-story 120-m high concrete shear wall structure. The structure was divided into two substructures whereby a physical model of the bottom three stories was tested in the laboratory and the upper 37 stories were simulated numerically using ABAQUS. An overlapping domain method was employed for the bottom three stories to ensure the validity of the boundary conditions of the superstructure. Mixed control was adopted in the test. Displacement control was used to apply the horizontal displacement, while two controlled force actuators were applied to simulate the overturning moment, which is very large and cannot be ignored in the substructure hybrid test of high-rise buildings. A series of tests with earthquake sources of sequentially increasing intensities were carried out. The test results indicate that the proposed hybrid test method is a solution to reproduce the seismic response of high-rise concrete shear wall buildings. The seismic performance of the tested precast high-rise building satisfies the requirements of the Chinese seismic design code.

  9. Overlapping and independent structural roles for human papillomavirus type 16 L2 conserved cysteines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Michael J; Alam, Samina; Christensen, Neil D; Meyers, Craig

    2009-10-25

    Cryoelectron microscopy images of HPV16 pseudovirions (PsV) depict that each pentamer of L1 can be occluded with a monomer of L2. Further research suggests that an N-terminal external loop of L2 exists, which is the target of neutralizing and cross-neutralizing antibodies. Here we show that N-terminal L2 cysteine residues, Cys22 and Cys28, have overlapping and independent structural roles, which affect both early- and late-stage assembly events. Substitution of either cysteine residue enhances infectivity markedly in comparison to wild-type HPV16. However, only Cys22Ser 20-day virions become nearly as stable as wild type. In addition, Cys22Ser, and Cys22,28Ser 20-day virions have lost their susceptibility to neutralization by anti-L2 antibodies, whereas Cys28Ser 20-day virions remain partially susceptible. These results suggest that Cys28 is necessary for late-stage stabilization of capsids, while Cys22 is necessary for proper display of L2 neutralizing epitopes.

  10. Vacuum structure revealed by over-improved stout-link smearing compared with the overlap analysis for quenched QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Leinweber, D.; Moran, P. [Adelaide Univ., SA (AU). Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter (CSSM); Koller, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Sektion Physik; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Weinberg, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-01-11

    A detailed comparison is made between the topological structure of quenched QCD as revealed by the recently proposed over-improved stout-link smearing in conjunction with an improved gluonic definition of the topological density on one hand and a similar analysis made possible by the overlap-fermionic topological charge density both with and without variable ultraviolet cutoff {lambda}{sub cut}. The matching is twofold, provided by fitting the density-density two-point functions on one hand and by a point-by-point fitting of the topological densities according to the two methods. We point out the similar cluster structure of the topological density for moderate smearing and 200 MeV<{lambda}{sub cut}<600 MeV, respectively. We demonstrate the relation of the gluonic topological density for extensive smearing to the location of the overlap zero modes and the lowest overlap non-zero mode as found for the unsmeared configurations. (orig.)

  11. Overlap syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuers, Ulrich; Rust, Christian

    2005-01-01

    In hepatology, the term overlap syndrome describes variant forms of the major hepatobiliary autoimmune diseases, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Patients with overlap syndromes present with both hepatitic and cholestatic

  12. Unveiling the Structure of Cognitive Vulnerability for Depression: Specificity and Overlap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeys, Tom; Alloy, Lauren B.; Koster, Ernst H. W.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive literature establishing the influence of rumination, hopelessness, and dysfunctional attitudes on depressive symptoms. However, it is unclear whether these vulnerability factors are distinctly related to depressive symptoms or show substantial overlap. In two large samples of undergraduates (Study #1, n = 304; Study #2, n = 491) and two samples of clinically depressed individuals (Study #3, n = 141; Study #4, n = 109, from published studies), questionnaire data were used to examine the relationship between cognitive vulnerability factors and depressive symptoms, along with additional measures of anxiety and stress symptoms. To decompose model fit into its specific and common partitions, we relied on commonality analysis (CA). CA showed that there is substantial overlap in cognitive risk factors for depression. Moreover, we found strong evidence that hopelessness provides a unique statistical contribution to depression. This pattern of findings was stable in healthy as well as clinical samples. Symptom-levels analysis revealed that a specific subset of depressive symptoms are associated with hopelessness. In closing, we showed that CA provides a powerful tool to map unique and overlapping variance between multiple risk factors. Moreover, hopelessness emerged to be an important focus of clinical attention. PMID:27992548

  13. Unveiling the Structure of Cognitive Vulnerability for Depression: Specificity and Overlap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Marchetti

    Full Text Available There is extensive literature establishing the influence of rumination, hopelessness, and dysfunctional attitudes on depressive symptoms. However, it is unclear whether these vulnerability factors are distinctly related to depressive symptoms or show substantial overlap. In two large samples of undergraduates (Study #1, n = 304; Study #2, n = 491 and two samples of clinically depressed individuals (Study #3, n = 141; Study #4, n = 109, from published studies, questionnaire data were used to examine the relationship between cognitive vulnerability factors and depressive symptoms, along with additional measures of anxiety and stress symptoms. To decompose model fit into its specific and common partitions, we relied on commonality analysis (CA. CA showed that there is substantial overlap in cognitive risk factors for depression. Moreover, we found strong evidence that hopelessness provides a unique statistical contribution to depression. This pattern of findings was stable in healthy as well as clinical samples. Symptom-levels analysis revealed that a specific subset of depressive symptoms are associated with hopelessness. In closing, we showed that CA provides a powerful tool to map unique and overlapping variance between multiple risk factors. Moreover, hopelessness emerged to be an important focus of clinical attention.

  14. Flow simulations about steady-complex and unsteady moving configurations using structured-overlapped and unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, James C., III

    1995-01-01

    The limiting factor in simulating flows past realistic configurations of interest has been the discretization of the physical domain on which the governing equations of fluid flow may be solved. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, many Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methodologies that are based on different grid generation and domain decomposition techniques have been developed. However, due to the costs involved and expertise required, very few comparative studies between these methods have been performed. In the present work, the two CFD methodologies which show the most promise for treating complex three-dimensional configurations as well as unsteady moving boundary problems are evaluated. These are namely the structured-overlapped and the unstructured grid schemes. Both methods use a cell centered, finite volume, upwind approach. The structured-overlapped algorithm uses an approximately factored, alternating direction implicit scheme to perform the time integration, whereas, the unstructured algorithm uses an explicit Runge-Kutta method. To examine the accuracy, efficiency, and limitations of each scheme, they are applied to the same steady complex multicomponent configurations and unsteady moving boundary problems. The steady complex cases consist of computing the subsonic flow about a two-dimensional high-lift multielement airfoil and the transonic flow about a three-dimensional wing/pylon/finned store assembly. The unsteady moving boundary problems are a forced pitching oscillation of an airfoil in a transonic freestream and a two-dimensional, subsonic airfoil/store separation sequence. Accuracy was accessed through the comparison of computed and experimentally measured pressure coefficient data on several of the wing/pylon/finned store assembly's components and at numerous angles-of-attack for the pitching airfoil. From this study, it was found that both the structured-overlapped and the unstructured grid schemes yielded flow solutions of

  15. Monocular Road Detection Using Structured Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xiao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Road detection is a key task for autonomous land vehicles. Monocular vision-based road-detection algorithms are mostly based on machine learning approaches and are usually cast as classification problems. However, the pixel-wise classifiers are faced with the ambiguity caused by changes in road appearance, illumination and weather. An effective way to reduce the ambiguity is to model the contextual information with structured learning and prediction. Currently, the widely used structured prediction model in road detection is the Markov random field or conditional random field. However, the random field-based methods require additional complex optimization after pixel-wise classification, making them unsuitable for real-time applications. In this paper, we present a structured random forest-based road-detection algorithm which is capable of modelling the contextual information efficiently. By mapping the structured label space to a discrete label space, the test function of each split node can be trained in a similar way to that of the classical random forests. Structured random forests make use of the contextual information of image patches as well as the structural information of the labels to get more consistent results. Besides this benefit, by predicting a batch of pixels in a single classification, the structured random forest-based road detection can be much more efficient than the conventional pixel-wise random forest. Experimental results tested on the KITTI-ROAD dataset and data collected in typical unstructured environments show that structured random forest-based road detection outperforms the classical pixel-wise random forest both in accuracy and efficiency.

  16. The genotypic structure of a multi-host bumblebee parasite suggests a role for ecological niche overlap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahel M Salathé

    Full Text Available The genotypic structure of parasite populations is an important determinant of ecological and evolutionary dynamics of host-parasite interactions with consequences for pest management and disease control. Genotypic structure is especially interesting where multiple hosts co-exist and share parasites. We here analyze the natural genotypic distribution of Crithidia bombi, a trypanosomatid parasite of bumblebees (Bombus spp., in two ecologically different habitats over a time period of three years. Using an algorithm to reconstruct genotypes in cases of multiple infections, and combining these with directly identified genotypes from single infections, we find a striking diversity of infection for both data sets, with almost all multi-locus genotypes being unique, and are inferring that around half of the total infections are resulting from multiple strains. Our analyses further suggest a mixture of clonality and sexuality in natural populations of this parasite species. Finally, we ask whether parasite genotypes are associated with host species (the phylogenetic hypothesis or whether ecological factors (niche overlap in flower choice shape the distribution of parasite genotypes (the ecological hypothesis. Redundancy analysis demonstrates that in the region with relatively high parasite prevalence, both host species identity and niche overlap are equally important factors shaping the distribution of parasite strains, whereas in the region with lower parasite prevalence, niche overlap more strongly contributes to the distribution observed. Overall, our study underlines the importance of ecological factors in shaping the natural dynamics of host-parasite systems.

  17. Persisting fetal clonotypes influence the structure and overlap of adult human T cell receptor repertoires.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V Pogorelyy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of T-cell receptors recognizing foreign pathogens is generated through a highly stochastic recombination process, making the independent production of the same sequence rare. Yet unrelated individuals do share receptors, which together constitute a "public" repertoire of abundant clonotypes. The TCR repertoire is initially formed prenatally, when the enzyme inserting random nucleotides is downregulated, producing a limited diversity subset. By statistically analyzing deep sequencing T-cell repertoire data from twins, unrelated individuals of various ages, and cord blood, we show that T-cell clones generated before birth persist and maintain high abundances in adult organisms for decades, slowly decaying with age. Our results suggest that large, low-diversity public clones are created during pre-natal life, and survive over long periods, providing the basis of the public repertoire.

  18. Local atomic structure of solid solutions with overlapping shells by EXAFS: The regularization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babanov, Yu.A., E-mail: babanov@imp.uran.ru [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Ponomarev, D.A.; Ustinov, V.V. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Baranov, A.N. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Zubavichus, Ya.V. [Russian Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A method for determining bond lengths from combined EXAFS spectra for solid oxide solutions is proposed. • We have demonstrated a high resolution in r-space of close spacing atoms in the Periodical Table. • These results were obtained without any assumptions concerning interatomic distances for multi-component systems. • Coordinates ions for the solid solution with rock salt structure are determined. - Abstract: The regularization method of solving ill-posed problem is used to determine five partial interatomic distances on the basis of combined two EXAFS spectra. Mathematical algorithm and experimental results of the EXAFS analysis for Ni{sub c}Zn{sub 1−c}O (c = 0.0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0) solid solutions with the rock salt (rs) crystal structure are discussed. Samples were synthesized from the binary oxide powders at pressure of 7.7 GPa and temperatures 1450–1650 K. The measurements were performed using synchrotron facilities (Russian Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow). The Ni and Zn K absorption spectra were recorded in transmission mode under room temperature. It is shown, the ideal rock salt lattice is distorted and long-range order exists only in the average (Vegard law). In order to determine coordinates ions for the solid solution with rock salt structure, we used the Pauling model. The simulation is performed for 343,000 cluster of oxide ions. The distribution functions for ions (Ni−O, Ni−Ni, Ni−Zn, Zn−Zn, Zn−O, O−O) depending on the distance are obtained. The width of the Gaussian distribution function is determined by the difference of the radii of the metal ions. The results are consistent with the data both X-ray diffraction and the EXAFS spectroscopy.

  19. Overlapping and Divergent Actions of Structurally Distinct Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Cardiac Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, Katherine B; Stratton, Matthew S; Blakeslee, Weston W; Wempe, Michael F; Wagner, Florence F; Holson, Edward B; Kuo, Yin-Ming; Andrews, Andrew J; Gilbert, Tonya M; Hooker, Jacob M; McKinsey, Timothy A

    2017-04-01

    Inhibitors of zinc-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) profoundly affect cellular function by altering gene expression via changes in nucleosomal histone tail acetylation. Historically, investigators have employed pan-HDAC inhibitors, such as the hydroxamate trichostatin A (TSA), which simultaneously targets members of each of the three zinc-dependent HDAC classes (classes I, II, and IV). More recently, class- and isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors have been developed, providing invaluable chemical biology probes for dissecting the roles of distinct HDACs in the control of various physiologic and pathophysiological processes. For example, the benzamide class I HDAC-selective inhibitor, MGCD0103 [N-(2-aminophenyl)-4-[[(4-pyridin-3-ylpyrimidin-2-yl)amino]methyl] benzamide], was shown to block cardiac fibrosis, a process involving excess extracellular matrix deposition, which often results in heart dysfunction. Here, we compare the mechanisms of action of structurally distinct HDAC inhibitors in isolated primary cardiac fibroblasts, which are the major extracellular matrix-producing cells of the heart. TSA, MGCD0103, and the cyclic peptide class I HDAC inhibitor, apicidin, exhibited a common ability to enhance histone acetylation, and all potently blocked cardiac fibroblast cell cycle progression. In contrast, MGCD0103, but not TSA or apicidin, paradoxically increased expression of a subset of fibrosis-associated genes. Using the cellular thermal shift assay, we provide evidence that the divergent effects of HDAC inhibitors on cardiac fibroblast gene expression relate to differential engagement of HDAC1- and HDAC2-containing complexes. These findings illustrate the importance of employing multiple compounds when pharmacologically assessing HDAC function in a cellular context and during HDAC inhibitor drug development. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  20. Aspects of randomness in neural graph structures

    CERN Document Server

    Rudolph-Lilith, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    In the past two decades, significant advances have been made in understanding the structural and functional properties of biological networks, via graph-theoretic analysis. In general, most graph-theoretic studies are conducted in the presence of serious uncertainties, such as major undersampling of the experimental data. In the specific case of neural systems, however, a few moderately robust experimental reconstructions do exist, and these have long served as fundamental prototypes for studying connectivity patterns in the nervous system. In this paper, we provide a comparative analysis of these "historical" graphs, both in (unmodified) directed and (often symmetrized) undirected forms, and focus on simple structural characterizations of their connectivity. We find that in most measures the networks studied are captured by simple random graph models; in a few key measures, however, we observe a marked departure from the random graph prediction. Our results suggest that the mechanism of graph formation in th...

  1. A novel method of protein secondary structure prediction with high segment overlap measure: support vector machine approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, S; Sun, Z

    2001-04-27

    We have introduced a new method of protein secondary structure prediction which is based on the theory of support vector machine (SVM). SVM represents a new approach to supervised pattern classification which has been successfully applied to a wide range of pattern recognition problems, including object recognition, speaker identification, gene function prediction with microarray expression profile, etc. In these cases, the performance of SVM either matches or is significantly better than that of traditional machine learning approaches, including neural networks.The first use of the SVM approach to predict protein secondary structure is described here. Unlike the previous studies, we first constructed several binary classifiers, then assembled a tertiary classifier for three secondary structure states (helix, sheet and coil) based on these binary classifiers. The SVM method achieved a good performance of segment overlap accuracy SOV=76.2 % through sevenfold cross validation on a database of 513 non-homologous protein chains with multiple sequence alignments, which out-performs existing methods. Meanwhile three-state overall per-residue accuracy Q(3) achieved 73.5 %, which is at least comparable to existing single prediction methods. Furthermore a useful "reliability index" for the predictions was developed. In addition, SVM has many attractive features, including effective avoidance of overfitting, the ability to handle large feature spaces, information condensing of the given data set, etc. The SVM method is conveniently applied to many other pattern classification tasks in biology. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  2. Sex differences in the structure and stability of children's playground social networks and their overlap with friendship relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Ed; Blatchford, Peter

    2009-09-01

    Gender segregated peer networks during middle childhood have been highlighted as important for explaining later sex differences in behaviour, yet few studies have examined the structural composition of these networks and their implications. This short-term longitudinal study of 119 children (7-8 years) examined the size and internal structure of boys' and girls' social networks, their overlap with friendship relations, and their stability over time. Data collection at the start and end of the year involved systematic playground observations of pupils' play networks during team and non-team activities and measures of friendship from peer nomination interviews. Social networks were identified by aggregating play network data at each time point. Findings showed that the size of boy's play networks on the playground, but not their social networks, varied according to activity type. Social network cores consisted mainly of friends. Girl's social networks were more likely to be composed of friends and boys' networks contained friends and non-friends. Girls had more friends outside of the social network than boys. Stability of social network membership and internal network relations were higher for boys than girls. These patterns have implications for the nature of social experiences within these network contexts.

  3. SPARK: Sparsity-based analysis of reliable k-hubness and overlapping network structure in brain functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kangjoo; Lina, Jean-Marc; Gotman, Jean; Grova, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    Functional hubs are defined as the specific brain regions with dense connections to other regions in a functional brain network. Among them, connector hubs are of great interests, as they are assumed to promote global and hierarchical communications between functionally specialized networks. Damage to connector hubs may have a more crucial effect on the system than does damage to other hubs. Hubs in graph theory are often identified from a correlation matrix, and classified as connector hubs when the hubs are more connected to regions in other networks than within the networks to which they belong. However, the identification of hubs from functional data is more complex than that from structural data, notably because of the inherent problem of multicollinearity between temporal dynamics within a functional network. In this context, we developed and validated a method to reliably identify connectors and corresponding overlapping network structure from resting-state fMRI. This new method is actually handling the multicollinearity issue, since it does not rely on counting the number of connections from a thresholded correlation matrix. The novelty of the proposed method is that besides counting the number of networks involved in each voxel, it allows us to identify which networks are actually involved in each voxel, using a data-driven sparse general linear model in order to identify brain regions involved in more than one network. Moreover, we added a bootstrap resampling strategy to assess statistically the reproducibility of our results at the single subject level. The unified framework is called SPARK, i.e. SParsity-based Analysis of Reliable k-hubness, where k-hubness denotes the number of networks overlapping in each voxel. The accuracy and robustness of SPARK were evaluated using two dimensional box simulations and realistic simulations that examined detection of artificial hubs generated on real data. Then, test/retest reliability of the method was assessed

  4. Fatigue in Steel Structures under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning

    1999-01-01

    Fatigue damage accumulation in steel structures under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series have been carried through on various...... types of welded plate test specimens and full-scale offshore tubular joints. The materials that have been used are either conventional structural steel with a yield stress of ~ 360-410 MPa or high-strength steel with a yield stress of ~ 810-1010 MPa. The fatigue tests and the fracture mechanics analyses...... test results. Both the fracture mechanics analysis and the fatigue test results indicate that Miner's rule, which is normally used in the design against fatigue in steel structures, may give results, which are unconservative, and that the validity of the results obtained from Miner's rule will depend...

  5. Homogeneous 1-based structures and interpretability in random structures

    OpenAIRE

    Koponen, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Let $V$ be a finite relational vocabulary in which no symbol has arity greater than 2. Let $M$ be countable $V$-structure which is homogeneous, simple and 1-based. The first main result says that if $M$ is, in addition, primitive, then it is strongly interpretable in a random structure. The second main result, which generalizes the first, implies (without the assumption on primitivity) that if $M$ is "coordinatized" by a set with SU-rank 1 and there is no definable (without parameters) nontri...

  6. Polarity correspondence in metaphor congruency effects: structural overlap predicts categorization times for bipolar concepts presented in vertical space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakens, Daniël

    2012-05-01

    Previous research has shown that words presented on metaphor congruent locations (e.g., positive words UP on the screen and negative words DOWN on the screen) are categorized faster than words presented on metaphor incongruent locations (e.g., positive words DOWN and negative words UP). These findings have been explained in terms of an interference effect: The meaning associated with UP and DOWN vertical space can automatically interfere with the categorization of words with a metaphorically incongruent meaning. The current studies test an alternative explanation for the interaction between the vertical position of abstract concepts and the speed with which these stimuli are categorized. Research on polarity differences (basic asymmetries in the way dimensions are processed) predicts that +polar endpoints of dimensions (e.g., positive, moral, UP) are categorized faster than -polar endpoints of dimensions (e.g., negative, immoral, DOWN). Furthermore, the polarity correspondence principle predicts that stimuli where polarities correspond (e.g., positive words presented UP) provide an additional processing benefit compared to stimuli where polarities do not correspond (e.g., negative words presented UP). A meta-analysis (Study 1) shows that a polarity account provides a better explanation of reaction time patterns in previous studies than an interference explanation. An experiment (Study 2) reveals that controlling for the polarity benefit of +polar words compared to -polar words did not only remove the main effect of word polarity but also the interaction between word meaning and vertical position due to polarity correspondence. These results reveal that metaphor congruency effects should not be interpreted as automatic associations between vertical locations and word meaning but instead are more parsimoniously explained by their structural overlap in polarities. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Overlapping clusters for distributed computation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirrokni, Vahab (Google Research, New York, NY); Andersen, Reid (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA); Gleich, David F.

    2010-11-01

    Scalable, distributed algorithms must address communication problems. We investigate overlapping clusters, or vertex partitions that intersect, for graph computations. This setup stores more of the graph than required but then affords the ease of implementation of vertex partitioned algorithms. Our hope is that this technique allows us to reduce communication in a computation on a distributed graph. The motivation above draws on recent work in communication avoiding algorithms. Mohiyuddin et al. (SC09) design a matrix-powers kernel that gives rise to an overlapping partition. Fritzsche et al. (CSC2009) develop an overlapping clustering for a Schwarz method. Both techniques extend an initial partitioning with overlap. Our procedure generates overlap directly. Indeed, Schwarz methods are commonly used to capitalize on overlap. Elsewhere, overlapping communities (Ahn et al, Nature 2009; Mishra et al. WAW2007) are now a popular model of structure in social networks. These have long been studied in statistics (Cole and Wishart, CompJ 1970). We present two types of results: (i) an estimated swapping probability {rho}{infinity}; and (ii) the communication volume of a parallel PageRank solution (link-following {alpha} = 0.85) using an additive Schwarz method. The volume ratio is the amount of extra storage for the overlap (2 means we store the graph twice). Below, as the ratio increases, the swapping probability and PageRank communication volume decreases.

  8. East Pacific Rise from Siqueiros to Orozco Fracture Zones: Along-strike continuity of axial neovolcanic zone and structure and evolution of overlapping spreading centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Ken; Sempere, Jean-Christophe; Fox, P. J.

    1984-07-01

    We have used the Sea Beam multibeam echo-sounding system to survey the East Pacific Rise (EPR) from 8°20'N to 18°30'N, obtaining complete coverage of the EPR axial neovolcanic zone and all intervening transform faults. Here we focus on the EPR neovolcanic zone and the definition of overlapping spreading centers (OCS's) between the Orozco and Siqueiros transform faults. The neovolcanic zone is narrow (0.5-2.0 km) and continuous along strike and occurs within and near a strike-continuous axial summit graben. The neovolcanic zone and summit graben reside along the crest of a volcanic axial high which is 2-10 km wide and which continues uninterrupted along strike for 40-140 km. Within 20-50 km of an intersection with a transform fault the axial neovolcanic zone narrows and deepens, and within only 3-6 km of the intersection the neovolcanic zone turns sharply into the transform valley. At seven locations between the Siqueiros and Orozco transform faults the axial neovolcanic zone is discontinuous and is laterally offset a short distance (1-15 km). In contrast with a classic ridge/transform/ridge plate boundary, however, offset rise terminations overlap each other by a distance approximately 3 times greater than their offset. They curve toward each other, and often one merges into the other along strike. Separating the OSC's is an elliptical overlap basin up to 600 m deep whose long axis is subparallel to the adjacent spreading centers. The overlap basin is characterized by volcanic constructional edifices. A key difference between these offsets and small transform faults in the Atlantic is that there are no transform fault structures in the overlap basin which link the offset rise axes. A continuous axial depth profile reveals a long-wavelength (20-60 km) undulation of the rise axis which may be associated with variations in the magmatic budget along strike. The lowest points in the axial depth profile occur near transform faults and at OSC's, suggesting that these

  9. Non-stationary random vibration analysis of structures under multiple correlated normal random excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanbin; Mulani, Sameer B.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Fei, Qingguo; Wu, Shaoqing

    2017-07-01

    An algorithm that integrates Karhunen-Loeve expansion (KLE) and the finite element method (FEM) is proposed to perform non-stationary random vibration analysis of structures under excitations, represented by multiple random processes that are correlated in both time and spatial domains. In KLE, the auto-covariance functions of random excitations are discretized using orthogonal basis functions. The KLE for multiple correlated random excitations relies on expansions in terms of correlated sets of random variables reflecting the cross-covariance of the random processes. During the response calculations, the eigenfunctions of KLE used to represent excitations are applied as forcing functions to the structure. The proposed algorithm is applied to a 2DOF system, a 2D cantilever beam and a 3D aircraft wing under both stationary and non-stationary correlated random excitations. Two methods are adopted to obtain the structural responses: a) the modal method and b) the direct method. Both the methods provide the statistics of the dynamic response with sufficient accuracy. The structural responses under the same type of correlated random excitations are bounded by the response obtained by perfectly correlated and uncorrelated random excitations. The structural response increases with a decrease in the correlation length and with an increase in the correlation magnitude. The proposed methodology can be applied for the analysis of any complex structure under any type of random excitation.

  10. Nonlinear deterministic structures and the randomness of protein sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Huang Yan Zhao

    2003-01-01

    To clarify the randomness of protein sequences, we make a detailed analysis of a set of typical protein sequences representing each structural classes by using nonlinear prediction method. No deterministic structures are found in these protein sequences and this implies that they behave as random sequences. We also give an explanation to the controversial results obtained in previous investigations.

  11. Does cyberchondria overlap with health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms? An examination of latent structure and scale interrelations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Thomas A; Russell, Laurie H

    2016-03-01

    Searching for medical information online is a widespread activity that increases distress for many individuals. Researchers have speculated that this phenomenon, referred to as cyberchondria, overlaps substantially with both health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. This study sought to examine: (1) the distinguishability of cyberchondria from health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and (2) the components of health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms that cluster most strongly with cyberchondria. The sample consisted of community adults in the United States with no current reported medical problems (N=375). Results from confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) support the idea that cyberchondria is distinct from, yet related to, health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Results from zero-order correlations and regression analyses suggest that cyberchondria clusters with the affective (health worry) component of health anxiety. Regression results diverged from prior findings, as obsessive-compulsive symptoms did not share associations with cyberchondria after accounting for negative affect and health anxiety. The present results indicate that cyberchondria is possibly discernible from both health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, while also providing insight into areas of potential overlap. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Overlapping ion structures in the mid-altitude cusp under northward IMF: signature of dual lobe reconnection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pitout

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available On some rare occasions, data from the Cluster Ion Spectrometer (CIS in the mid-altitude cusp reveal overlapping ion populations under northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. While the poleward part of the cusp exhibits the expected reverse dispersion due to lobe reconnection, its equatorward part shows a second ion population at higher-energy that coexists with the low energy tail of the dispersion. This second population is either dispersionless or slightly dispersed with energies increasing with increasing latitudes, indicative of lobe reconnection as well. Our analysis of a case that occurred 3 September 2002 when the IMF stayed northward for more than two hours suggests that the second population comes from the opposite hemisphere and is very likely on newly-closed field lines. We interpret this overlap of cusp populations as a clear mid-altitude signature of re-closed magnetic field lines by double lobe reconnection (reconnection in both hemispheres under northward IMF. This interpretation is supported by modelling performed with the Cooling model and an MHD model.

  13. Analysis of subsystem randomness effects on the mid-frequency vibrations of built-up structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lin; Huang, Zhenyu

    2013-06-01

    The paper concerns the analysis of subsystem randomness effects on the mid-frequency vibration responses of built-up systems. The system model considered, in the first instance, is a long-wavelength finite element (FE) subsystem connected with a short-wavelength statistical energy analysis (SEA) subsystem via discrete couplings. The randomness effects of the SEA subsystem on both the displacement response of the FE subsystem and the energy response of the SEA subsystem are then investigated under the frame of the hybrid FE/SEA theory [P. Shorter, R. Langley, Vibro-acoustic analysis of complex systems, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 288 (2005) 669-700]. It is found that the subsystem randomness effects may be well indicated by a dimensionless parameter α, which is a function of the number of coupling points, the dynamic mismatch between the FE and SEA subsystems and the modal overlap factor of the SEA subsystem. The smaller the value of α is, the more insignificant the randomness effects are. As a result, a so-called "α-criterion" is derived which states that, if a built-up structure satisfies the condition of α≪1, the randomness effects of the SEA subsystem can be neglected. In this case, the SEA subsystem can be simply treated as an infinite (or semi-infinite as appropriate) structure regardless of its mode count being sufficiently high or not. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the validity of the present theory.

  14. Solution Methods for Structures with Random Properties Subject to Random Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. U.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Cakmak, A. S.

    This paper deals with the lower order statistical moments of the response of structures with random stiffness and random damping properties subject to random excitation. The arising stochastic differential equations (SDE) with random coefficients are solved by two methods, a second order...... perturbation approach and a Markovian method. The second order perturbation approach is grounded on the total probability theorem and can be compactly written. Moreover, the problem to be solved is independent of the dimension of the random variables involved. The Markovian approach suggests transforming...... the SDE with random coefficients with deterministic initial conditions to an equivalent nonlinear SDE with deterministic coefficient and random initial conditions. In both methods, the statistical moment equations are used. Hierarchy of statistical moments in the markovian approach is closed...

  15. OVERLAPPING VIRTUAL CADASTRAL DOCUMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina - Cristina Marian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two cadastrale plans of buildings, can overlap virtual. Overlap is highlighted when digital reception. According to Law no. 7/1996 as amended and supplemented, to solve these problems is by updating the database graphs, the repositioning. This paper addresses the issue of overlapping virtual cadastre in the history of the period 1999-2012.

  16. Geometry, structure and randomness in combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Nešetřil, Jaroslav; Pellegrini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This book collects some surveys on current trends in discrete mathematics and discrete geometry. The areas covered include:  graph representations, structural graphs theory, extremal graph theory, Ramsey theory and constrained satisfaction problems.

  17. A Heuristic Parameterization for the Integrated Vertical Overlap of Cumulus and Stratus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungsu

    2017-10-01

    The author developed a heuristic parameterization to handle the contrasting vertical overlap structures of cumulus and stratus in an integrated way. The parameterization assumes that cumulus is maximum-randomly overlapped with adjacent cumulus; stratus is maximum-randomly overlapped with adjacent stratus; and radiation and precipitation areas at each model interface are grouped into four categories, that is, convective, stratiform, mixed, and clear areas. For simplicity, thermodynamic scalars within individual portions of cloud, radiation, and precipitation areas are assumed to be internally homogeneous. The parameterization was implemented into the Seoul National University Atmosphere Model version 0 (SAM0) in an offline mode and tested over the globe. The offline control simulation reasonably reproduces the online surface precipitation flux and longwave cloud radiative forcing (LWCF). Although the cumulus fraction is much smaller than the stratus fraction, cumulus dominantly contributes to precipitation production in the tropics. For radiation, however, stratus is dominant. Compared with the maximum overlap, the random overlap of stratus produces stronger LWCF and, surprisingly, more precipitation flux due to less evaporation of convective precipitation. Compared with the maximum overlap, the random overlap of cumulus simulates stronger LWCF and weaker precipitation flux. Compared with the control simulation with separate cumulus and stratus, the simulation with a single-merged cloud substantially enhances the LWCF in the tropical deep convection and midlatitude storm track regions. The process-splitting treatment of convective and stratiform precipitation with an independent precipitation approximation (IPA) simulates weaker surface precipitation flux than the control simulation in the tropical region.

  18. Color effects from scattering on random surface structures in dielectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jeppe; Christiansen, Alexander B; Garnæs, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    We show that cheap large area color filters, based on surface scattering, can be fabricated in dielectric materials by replication of random structures in silicon. The specular transmittance of three different types of structures, corresponding to three different colors, have been characterized...

  19. Random generation of RNA secondary structures according to native distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebel Markus E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Random biological sequences are a topic of great interest in genome analysis since, according to a powerful paradigm, they represent the background noise from which the actual biological information must differentiate. Accordingly, the generation of random sequences has been investigated for a long time. Similarly, random object of a more complicated structure like RNA molecules or proteins are of interest. Results In this article, we present a new general framework for deriving algorithms for the non-uniform random generation of combinatorial objects according to the encoding and probability distribution implied by a stochastic context-free grammar. Briefly, the framework extends on the well-known recursive method for (uniform random generation and uses the popular framework of admissible specifications of combinatorial classes, introducing weighted combinatorial classes to allow for the non-uniform generation by means of unranking. This framework is used to derive an algorithm for the generation of RNA secondary structures of a given fixed size. We address the random generation of these structures according to a realistic distribution obtained from real-life data by using a very detailed context-free grammar (that models the class of RNA secondary structures by distinguishing between all known motifs in RNA structure. Compared to well-known sampling approaches used in several structure prediction tools (such as SFold ours has two major advantages: Firstly, after a preprocessing step in time O(n2 for the computation of all weighted class sizes needed, with our approach a set of m random secondary structures of a given structure size n can be computed in worst-case time complexity Om⋅n⋅ log(n while other algorithms typically have a runtime in O(m⋅n2. Secondly, our approach works with integer arithmetic only which is faster and saves us from all the discomforting details of using floating point arithmetic with

  20. Simple Cloning by Prolonged Overlap Extension-PCR with Application to the Preparation of Large-Size Random Gene Mutagenesis Library in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chao; You, Chun; Wei, Ping; Zhang, Yi-Heng Percival

    2017-01-01

    We developed a simple method (simple cloning) for subcloning DNA fragments into any location of a targeted vector without the need of restriction enzyme, ligase, exonuclease, or recombinase in Escherichia coli. This technology can be applied to common E. coli hosts (e.g., DH5α, JM109, TOP10, BL21(DE3)). The protocol includes three steps: (1) generate DNA insert and linear vector backbone by regular high-fidelity PCR, where these two DNA fragments contain 3' and 5' overlapping termini; (2) generate DNA multimers based on these two DNA fragments by using prolonged overlap extension-PCR (POE-PCR) without primers added; and (3) transform POE-PCR product to competent Escherichia coli cells directly, yielding the desired plasmid. Simple cloning provides a new cloning method with great simplicity and flexibility. Furthermore, this new method can be modified for the preparation of a large-size mutant library for directed evolution in E. coli. Using this method, it is very easy to generate a mutant library with a size of more than 10(7) per 50 μL of the POE-PCR product within 1 day.

  1. Structure-function analysis of Escherichia coli DNA helicase I reveals non-overlapping transesterase and helicase domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Devon R; Sampson, Juliana K; Ragonese, Heather M; Matson, Steven W

    2002-11-08

    TraI (DNA helicase I) is an Escherichia coli F plasmid-encoded protein required for bacterial conjugative DNA transfer. The protein is a sequence-specific DNA transesterase that provides the site- and strand-specific nick required to initiate DNA strand transfer and a 5' to 3' DNA helicase that unwinds the F plasmid to provide the single-stranded DNA that is transferred from donor to recipient. Sequence comparisons with other transesterases and helicases suggest that these activities reside in the N- and C-terminal regions of TraI, respectively. Computer-assisted secondary structure probability analysis identified a potential interdomain region spanning residues 304-309. Proteins encoded by segments of traI, whose N or C terminus either flanked or coincided with this region, were purified and assessed for catalytic activity. Amino acids 1-306 contain the transesterase activity, whereas amino acids 309-1504 contain the helicase activity. The C-terminal 252 amino acids of the 1756-amino acid TraI protein are not required for either helicase or transesterase activity. Protein and nucleic acid sequence similarity searches indicate that the occurrence of both transesterase- and helicase-associated motifs in a conjugative DNA transfer initiator protein is rare. Only two examples (other than R100 plasmid TraI) were found: R388 plasmid TrwC and R46 plasmid (pKM101) TraH, belonging to the IncW and IncN groups of broad host range conjugative plasmids, respectively. The most significant structural difference between these proteins and TraI is that TraI contains an additional region of approximately 650 residues between the transesterase domain and the helicase-associated motifs. This region is required for helicase activity.

  2. Asymptotic structural properties of quasi-random saturated structures of RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background RNA folding depends on the distribution of kinetic traps in the landscape of all secondary structures. Kinetic traps in the Nussinov energy model are precisely those secondary structures that are saturated, meaning that no base pair can be added without introducing either a pseudoknot or base triple. In previous work, we investigated asymptotic combinatorics of both random saturated structures and of quasi-random saturated structures, where the latter are constructed by a natural stochastic process. Results We prove that for quasi-random saturated structures with the uniform distribution, the asymptotic expected number of external loops is O(logn) and the asymptotic expected maximum stem length is O(logn), while under the Zipf distribution, the asymptotic expected number of external loops is O(log2n) and the asymptotic expected maximum stem length is O(logn/log logn). Conclusions Quasi-random saturated structures are generated by a stochastic greedy method, which is simple to implement. Structural features of random saturated structures appear to resemble those of quasi-random saturated structures, and the latter appear to constitute a class for which both the generation of sampled structures as well as a combinatorial investigation of structural features may be simpler to undertake. PMID:24156624

  3. Structure-From for Calibration of a Vehicle Camera System with Non-Overlapping Fields-Of in AN Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanel, A.; Stilla, U.

    2017-05-01

    Vehicle environment cameras observing traffic participants in the area around a car and interior cameras observing the car driver are important data sources for driver intention recognition algorithms. To combine information from both camera groups, a camera system calibration can be performed. Typically, there is no overlapping field-of-view between environment and interior cameras. Often no marked reference points are available in environments, which are a large enough to cover a car for the system calibration. In this contribution, a calibration method for a vehicle camera system with non-overlapping camera groups in an urban environment is described. A-priori images of an urban calibration environment taken with an external camera are processed with the structure-frommotion method to obtain an environment point cloud. Images of the vehicle interior, taken also with an external camera, are processed to obtain an interior point cloud. Both point clouds are tied to each other with images of both image sets showing the same real-world objects. The point clouds are transformed into a self-defined vehicle coordinate system describing the vehicle movement. On demand, videos can be recorded with the vehicle cameras in a calibration drive. Poses of vehicle environment cameras and interior cameras are estimated separately using ground control points from the respective point cloud. All poses of a vehicle camera estimated for different video frames are optimized in a bundle adjustment. In an experiment, a point cloud is created from images of an underground car park, as well as a point cloud of the interior of a Volkswagen test car is created. Videos of two environment and one interior cameras are recorded. Results show, that the vehicle camera poses are estimated successfully especially when the car is not moving. Position standard deviations in the centimeter range can be achieved for all vehicle cameras. Relative distances between the vehicle cameras deviate between

  4. STRUCTURE-FROM-MOTION FOR CALIBRATION OF A VEHICLE CAMERA SYSTEM WITH NON-OVERLAPPING FIELDS-OF-VIEW IN AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hanel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle environment cameras observing traffic participants in the area around a car and interior cameras observing the car driver are important data sources for driver intention recognition algorithms. To combine information from both camera groups, a camera system calibration can be performed. Typically, there is no overlapping field-of-view between environment and interior cameras. Often no marked reference points are available in environments, which are a large enough to cover a car for the system calibration. In this contribution, a calibration method for a vehicle camera system with non-overlapping camera groups in an urban environment is described. A-priori images of an urban calibration environment taken with an external camera are processed with the structure-frommotion method to obtain an environment point cloud. Images of the vehicle interior, taken also with an external camera, are processed to obtain an interior point cloud. Both point clouds are tied to each other with images of both image sets showing the same real-world objects. The point clouds are transformed into a self-defined vehicle coordinate system describing the vehicle movement. On demand, videos can be recorded with the vehicle cameras in a calibration drive. Poses of vehicle environment cameras and interior cameras are estimated separately using ground control points from the respective point cloud. All poses of a vehicle camera estimated for different video frames are optimized in a bundle adjustment. In an experiment, a point cloud is created from images of an underground car park, as well as a point cloud of the interior of a Volkswagen test car is created. Videos of two environment and one interior cameras are recorded. Results show, that the vehicle camera poses are estimated successfully especially when the car is not moving. Position standard deviations in the centimeter range can be achieved for all vehicle cameras. Relative distances between the vehicle

  5. Sleep overlap syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Rezaeetalab

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Overlap syndrome, which is known as the coexistence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, was first defined by Flenley. Although it can refer to concomitant occurrence of any of the pulmonary diseases and OSA, overlap syndrome is commonly considered as the coexistence of OSA and COPD. This disease has unique adverse health consequences distinct from either condition alone. Given the high prevalence of each solitary disease, overlap syndrome is also likely to be common and clinically relevant. Despite the fact that overlap syndrome has been described in the literature for nearly 30 years, paucity of evaluations and studies limited the discussion on diagnosis, prevalence, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcomes of this disease. This review article addresses these issues by reviewing several recent studies conducted in Iran or other countries. This review suggests that overlap syndrome has worse outcomes than either disease alone. Our findings accentuated the urgent need for further studies on overlap syndrome and all overlaps between OSA and chronic pulmonary disease to provide a deeper insight into diagnosis and non-invasive treatments of this disease.

  6. Graphene materials having randomly distributed two-dimensional structural defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Harold H; Zhao, Xin; Hayner, Cary M; Kung, Mayfair C

    2013-10-08

    Graphene-based storage materials for high-power battery applications are provided. The storage materials are composed of vertical stacks of graphene sheets and have reduced resistance for Li ion transport. This reduced resistance is achieved by incorporating a random distribution of structural defects into the stacked graphene sheets, whereby the structural defects facilitate the diffusion of Li ions into the interior of the storage materials.

  7. Random walk models of large-scale structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper describes the insights gained from the excursion set approach, in which vari- ous questions about the phenomenology of large-scale structure formation can be mapped to problems associated with the first crossing distribution of appropriately defined barriers by random walks. Much of this is ...

  8. Random Effects Structure for Confirmatory Hypothesis Testing: Keep It Maximal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Dale J.; Levy, Roger; Scheepers, Christoph; Tily, Harry J.

    2013-01-01

    Linear mixed-effects models (LMEMs) have become increasingly prominent in psycholinguistics and related areas. However, many researchers do not seem to appreciate how random effects structures affect the generalizability of an analysis. Here, we argue that researchers using LMEMs for confirmatory hypothesis testing should minimally adhere to the…

  9. Exploring community structure in biological networks with random graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Pratha; Singh, Lisa O; Clauset, Aaron; Bansal, Shweta

    2014-06-25

    Community structure is ubiquitous in biological networks. There has been an increased interest in unraveling the community structure of biological systems as it may provide important insights into a system's functional components and the impact of local structures on dynamics at a global scale. Choosing an appropriate community detection algorithm to identify the community structure in an empirical network can be difficult, however, as the many algorithms available are based on a variety of cost functions and are difficult to validate. Even when community structure is identified in an empirical system, disentangling the effect of community structure from other network properties such as clustering coefficient and assortativity can be a challenge. Here, we develop a generative model to produce undirected, simple, connected graphs with a specified degrees and pattern of communities, while maintaining a graph structure that is as random as possible. Additionally, we demonstrate two important applications of our model: (a) to generate networks that can be used to benchmark existing and new algorithms for detecting communities in biological networks; and (b) to generate null models to serve as random controls when investigating the impact of complex network features beyond the byproduct of degree and modularity in empirical biological networks. Our model allows for the systematic study of the presence of community structure and its impact on network function and dynamics. This process is a crucial step in unraveling the functional consequences of the structural properties of biological systems and uncovering the mechanisms that drive these systems.

  10. Random lasing action in a polydimethylsiloxane wrinkle induced disordered structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Zhenhua; Wu, Leilei; Zhu, Shu; Zheng, Yuanlin; Chen, Xianfeng, E-mail: xfchen@sjtu.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2014-07-14

    This paper presents a chip-scale random lasing action utilizing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wrinkles with random periods as disordered medium. Nanoscale wrinkles with long range disorder structures are formed on the oxidized surface of a PDMS slab and confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Light multiply scattered at each PDMS wrinkle-dye interfaces is optically amplified in the presence of pump gain. The shift of laser emission wavelength when pumping at different regions indicates the randomness of the winkle period. In addition, a relatively low threshold of about 27 μJ/mm{sup 2} is realized, which is comparable with traditional optofluidic dye laser. This is due to the unique sinusoidal Bragg-grating-like random structure. Contrast to conventional microfluidic dye laser that inevitably requires the accurate design and implementation of microcavity to provide optical feedback, the convenience in both fabrication and operation makes PDMS wrinkle based random laser a promising underlying element in lab-on-a-chip systems and integrated microfluidic networks.

  11. Random lasing action in a polydimethylsiloxane wrinkle induced disordered structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhenhua; Wu, Leilei; Zhu, Shu; Zheng, Yuanlin; Chen, Xianfeng

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a chip-scale random lasing action utilizing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wrinkles with random periods as disordered medium. Nanoscale wrinkles with long range disorder structures are formed on the oxidized surface of a PDMS slab and confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Light multiply scattered at each PDMS wrinkle-dye interfaces is optically amplified in the presence of pump gain. The shift of laser emission wavelength when pumping at different regions indicates the randomness of the winkle period. In addition, a relatively low threshold of about 27 μJ/mm2 is realized, which is comparable with traditional optofluidic dye laser. This is due to the unique sinusoidal Bragg-grating-like random structure. Contrast to conventional microfluidic dye laser that inevitably requires the accurate design and implementation of microcavity to provide optical feedback, the convenience in both fabrication and operation makes PDMS wrinkle based random laser a promising underlying element in lab-on-a-chip systems and integrated microfluidic networks.

  12. Response of Launch Pad Structures to Random Acoustic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi N. Margasahayam

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of launch pad structures, particularly those having a large area-to-mass ratio, is governed by launch-induced acoustics, a relatively short transient with random pressure amplitudes having a non-Gaussian distribution. The factors influencing the acoustic excitation and resulting structural responses are numerous and cannot be predicted precisely. Two solutions (probabilistic and deterministic for the random vibration problem are presented in this article from the standpoint of their applicability to predict the response of ground structures exposed to rocket noise. Deficiencies of the probabilistic method, especially to predict response in the low-frequency range of launch transients (below 20 Hz, prompted the development of the deterministic analysis. The relationship between the two solutions is clarified for future implementation in a finite element method (FEM code.

  13. Scleroderma overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbir-Gurman, Alexandra; Braun-Moscovici, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    Overlap syndrome is an entity that satisfies the criteria of at least two connective tissue diseases (CTD). These conditions include systemic sclerosis (SSc), dermatomyositis or polymyositis, Sjogren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. A combined pathology has impact on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment. To analyze the features of SSc patients with overlap syndrome registered in the European (EUSTAR) database at our center and to review the literature focusing on clinical and diagnostic issues and new treatments. We studied the medical records of 165 consecutive SSc patients and reviewed cases with scleroderma overlap syndrome. A PubMed search for the period 1977 to 2009 was conducted using the key words "overlap syndrome", "systemic sclerosis", "connective tissue disease" and "biological agents." Forty patients satisfied the criteria for scleroderma overlap syndrome. The incidence of additional connective tissue diseases in the whole group and in the overlap syndrome group respectively was: dermatomyositis or polymyositis 11.5% and 47.5%, Sjogren's syndrome 10.3% and 42.5%, rheumatoid arthritis 3.6% and 15.4%, and systemic lupus erythematosus 1.2% and 5.0%. Coexistence of SSc and another CTD aggravated the clinical course, especially lung, kidney, digestive, vascular and articular involvement. Coexisting non-rheumatic complications mimicked SSc complications. An additional rheumatic or non-rheumatic disease affected treatment choice. The definition of scleroderma overlap syndrome is important, especially in patients who need high-dose corticosteroids for complications of a CTD. The use of novel biological therapies may be advocated in these patients to avoid the hazardous influences of high-dose steroids, especially renal crisis. In some overlap syndrome cases, biological agents serve both conditions; in others one of the conditions may limit their use. In the absence of formal clinical trials in these patients a

  14. Non-overlapping matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Barcucci, E.; Bernini, A.; Bilotta, S.; Pinzani, R.

    2016-01-01

    Two matrices are said non-overlapping if one of them can not be put on the other one in a way such that the corresponding entries coincide. We provide a set of non-overlapping binary matrices and a formula to enumerate it which involves the k-generalized Fibonacci numbers. Moreover, the generating function for the enumerating sequence is easily seen to be rational.

  15. Overlapping Labour Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Sattinger

    2003-01-01

    Overlapping labour markets arise when some types of workers do not meet employers with some types of jobs. For example, skilled workers could seek high-skill or low-skill jobs, but low skill workers could be limited to low-skill jobs. The paper derives conditions for equilibrium and efficiency, distinguishes reducible from irreducible overlapping labour markets, and describes distributional impacts of proportional demand shifts and technological change. Many labour models incorporate the stru...

  16. Non-random seasonal variation in the structure of a Mediterranean snake community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Filippi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The community structure in relation to habitat type was studied in a Mediterranean community of snakes from Canale Monterano, central Italy. Habitat data for snakes were analysed both overall and divided by season, i.e. spring (April–June and summer (July–September. Community analyses were performed using null models (RA2 and RA3 algorithms and Monte Carlo simulations on habitat niche overlap estimates. Null models suggested that the community was assembled non-randomly (according to RA2 but not RA3, indicating that the generalist-specialist nature (the number of resource states, but not necessarily the types used by each species in the assemblage reduced ecological similarity. Similar results were reached also performing the same null model procedures on the spring datasets, whereas no structure emerged during summer either by RA2 or RA3 algorithms. In general, this study suggests that the community structure of snakes during spring may be shaped by the different eco-physiological needs of the various species (probably, the differential tolerance to cold and the consequent needs of finding suitable hibernacula, whereas the lack of structure during summer may be caused by the between-species similar foraging needs.

  17. POROSIMETRY BY RANDOM NODE STRUCTURING IN VIRTUAL CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Stroeven

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two different porosimetry methods are presented in two successive papers. Inspiration for the development came from the rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT approach used in robotics. The novel methods are applied to virtual cementitious materials produced by a modern concurrent algorithm-based discrete element modeling system, HADES. This would render possible realistically simulating all aspects of particulate matter that influence structure-sensitive features of the pore network structure in maturing concrete, namely size, shape and dispersion of the aggregate and cement particles. Pore space is a complex tortuous entity. Practical methods conventionally applied for assessment of pore size distribution may fail or present biased information. Among them, mercury intrusion porosimetry and 2D quantitative image analysis are popular. The mathematical morphology operator “opening” can be applied to sections and even provide 3D information on pore size distribution, provided isotropy is guaranteed. However, aggregate grain surfaces lead to anisotropy in porosity. The presented methods allow exploration of pore space in the virtual material, after which pore size distribution is derived from star volume measurements. In addition to size of pores their continuity is of crucial importance for durability estimation. Double-random multiple tree structuring (DRaMuTS, introduced earlier in IA&S (Stroeven et al., 2011b and random node structuring (RaNoS provide such information.

  18. Fuzziness and Overlapping Communities in Large-Scale Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qinna; Fleury, Eric

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Overlapping community detection is a popular topic in complex networks. As compared to disjoint community structure, overlapping community structure is more suitable to describe networks at a macroscopic level. Overlaps shared by communities play an important role in combining different communities. In this paper, two methods are proposed to detect overlapping community structure. One is called clique optimization, and the other is named fuzzy detection. Clique optimiz...

  19. Resonance assignment of disordered protein with repetitive and overlapping sequence using combinatorial approach reveals initial structural propensities and local restrictions in the denatured state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Nikita; Kumar, Ashutosh, E-mail: askutoshk@iitb.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Department of Bioscience and Bioengineering (India)

    2016-09-15

    NMR resonance assignment of intrinsically disordered proteins poses a challenge because of the limited dispersion of amide proton chemical shifts. This becomes even more complex with the increase in the size of the system. Residue specific selective labeling/unlabeling experiments have been used to resolve the overlap, but require multiple sample preparations. Here, we demonstrate an assignment strategy requiring only a single sample of uniformly labeled {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-protein. We have used a combinatorial approach, involving 3D-HNN, CC(CO)NH and 2D-MUSIC, which allowed us to assign a denatured centromeric protein Cse4 of 229 residues. Further, we show that even the less sensitive experiments, when used in an efficient manner can lead to the complete assignment of a complex system without the use of specialized probes in a relatively short time frame. The assignment of the amino acids discloses the presence of local structural propensities even in the denatured state accompanied by restricted motion in certain regions that provides insights into the early folding events of the protein.

  20. Exploring biological network structure with clustered random networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Shweta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex biological systems are often modeled as networks of interacting units. Networks of biochemical interactions among proteins, epidemiological contacts among hosts, and trophic interactions in ecosystems, to name a few, have provided useful insights into the dynamical processes that shape and traverse these systems. The degrees of nodes (numbers of interactions and the extent of clustering (the tendency for a set of three nodes to be interconnected are two of many well-studied network properties that can fundamentally shape a system. Disentangling the interdependent effects of the various network properties, however, can be difficult. Simple network models can help us quantify the structure of empirical networked systems and understand the impact of various topological properties on dynamics. Results Here we develop and implement a new Markov chain simulation algorithm to generate simple, connected random graphs that have a specified degree sequence and level of clustering, but are random in all other respects. The implementation of the algorithm (ClustRNet: Clustered Random Networks provides the generation of random graphs optimized according to a local or global, and relative or absolute measure of clustering. We compare our algorithm to other similar methods and show that ours more successfully produces desired network characteristics. Finding appropriate null models is crucial in bioinformatics research, and is often difficult, particularly for biological networks. As we demonstrate, the networks generated by ClustRNet can serve as random controls when investigating the impacts of complex network features beyond the byproduct of degree and clustering in empirical networks. Conclusion ClustRNet generates ensembles of graphs of specified edge structure and clustering. These graphs allow for systematic study of the impacts of connectivity and redundancies on network function and dynamics. This process is a key step in

  1. Exploring biological network structure with clustered random networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Shweta; Khandelwal, Shashank; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2009-12-09

    Complex biological systems are often modeled as networks of interacting units. Networks of biochemical interactions among proteins, epidemiological contacts among hosts, and trophic interactions in ecosystems, to name a few, have provided useful insights into the dynamical processes that shape and traverse these systems. The degrees of nodes (numbers of interactions) and the extent of clustering (the tendency for a set of three nodes to be interconnected) are two of many well-studied network properties that can fundamentally shape a system. Disentangling the interdependent effects of the various network properties, however, can be difficult. Simple network models can help us quantify the structure of empirical networked systems and understand the impact of various topological properties on dynamics. Here we develop and implement a new Markov chain simulation algorithm to generate simple, connected random graphs that have a specified degree sequence and level of clustering, but are random in all other respects. The implementation of the algorithm (ClustRNet: Clustered Random Networks) provides the generation of random graphs optimized according to a local or global, and relative or absolute measure of clustering. We compare our algorithm to other similar methods and show that ours more successfully produces desired network characteristics.Finding appropriate null models is crucial in bioinformatics research, and is often difficult, particularly for biological networks. As we demonstrate, the networks generated by ClustRNet can serve as random controls when investigating the impacts of complex network features beyond the byproduct of degree and clustering in empirical networks. ClustRNet generates ensembles of graphs of specified edge structure and clustering. These graphs allow for systematic study of the impacts of connectivity and redundancies on network function and dynamics. This process is a key step in unraveling the functional consequences of the structural

  2. Spatial Random Sampling: A Structure-Preserving Data Sketching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Mostafa; Atia, George K.

    2017-09-01

    Random column sampling is not guaranteed to yield data sketches that preserve the underlying structures of the data and may not sample sufficiently from less-populated data clusters. Also, adaptive sampling can often provide accurate low rank approximations, yet may fall short of producing descriptive data sketches, especially when the cluster centers are linearly dependent. Motivated by that, this paper introduces a novel randomized column sampling tool dubbed Spatial Random Sampling (SRS), in which data points are sampled based on their proximity to randomly sampled points on the unit sphere. The most compelling feature of SRS is that the corresponding probability of sampling from a given data cluster is proportional to the surface area the cluster occupies on the unit sphere, independently from the size of the cluster population. Although it is fully randomized, SRS is shown to provide descriptive and balanced data representations. The proposed idea addresses a pressing need in data science and holds potential to inspire many novel approaches for analysis of big data.

  3. Connection overlap deviation analysis of pentamode metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohong; Liu, Guangshun; Cai, Chengxin; Chu, Yangyang; Li, Yucheng; Xu, Zhuo

    2017-12-01

    The adjacent double-cones of the pentamode metamaterials form a connection overlap for the non-180° angle connection, and the overlap leads to a connection overlap deviation between the actual effective narrow touch diameters d‧ and the defined narrow touch diameters d. The connection overlap deviation increases with the increasing of wide touch diameters D of the double-cones of the pentamode metamaterials with linear outside profile cones. In order to decrease the influence of the connection overlap deviation on the pentamode metamaterials, three types of pentamode metamaterials with small connection overlap (second and third order polynomial outside profile cones structures and the cones stacked by the cylinders-frustums) are proposed and studied in this paper. The connection overlap deviations of pentamode metamaterials with different outside profile cones are analyzed, the phononic band structures are calculated, and the ratio of bulk modulus B to shear modulus G are analyzed for evaluating fluid property. The results show that the pentamode metamaterials proposed by us have smaller connection overlap deviation and more excellent fluid properties than the pentamode metamaterials with linear outside profile cones. The ratio of bulk modulus to shear modulus can be increased by 7.47%–215.92% with the increasing of D from 1 mm to 9.6 mm.

  4. Moisture diffusivity in structure of random fractal fiber bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Fanglong, E-mail: zhufanglong_168@163.com [College of Textile, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou City (China); The Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces Academy, Langfan City (China); Zhou, Yu; Feng, Qianqian [College of Textile, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou City (China); Xia, Dehong [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2013-11-08

    A theoretical expression related to effective moisture diffusivity to random fiber bed is derived by using fractal theory and considering both parallel and perpendicular channels to diffusion flow direction. In this Letter, macroporous structure of hydrophobic nonwoven material is investigated, and Knudsen diffusion and surface diffusion are neglected. The effective moisture diffusivity predicted by the present fractal model are compared with water vapor transfer rate (WVTR) experiment data and calculated values obtained from other theoretical models. This verifies the validity of the present fractal diffusivity of fibrous structural beds.

  5. The Fatigue Behavior of Steel Structures under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue damage accumulation in steel structures under random loading has been studied in a number of investigations at the Technical University of Denmark. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part...... of the investigation, fatigue test series with a total of 540 fatigue tests have been carried through on various types of welded plate test specimens and full-scale offshore tubular joints. The materials that have been used are either conventional structural steel or high-strength steel. The fatigue tests...... and the fracture mechanics analyses have been carried out using load histories, which are realistic in relation to the types of structures studied, i.e. primarily bridges, offshore structures and chimneys. In general, the test series carried through show a significant difference between constant amplitude...

  6. Scalable overlapping community detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhelw, Ismail; Hofman, Rutger; Li, Wenzhe; Ahn, Sungjin; Welling, Max; Bal, Henri

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in machine learning algorithms have transformed the data analytics domain and provided innovative solutions to inherently difficult problems. However, training models at scale over large data sets remains a daunting challenge. One such problem is the detection of overlapping

  7. Overlapping binding sites of structurally different antiarrhythmics flecainide and propafenone in the subunit interface of potassium channel Kv2.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeja, Michael; Steffen, Wibke; Mesic, Ivana; Garic, Bojan; Zhorov, Boris S

    2010-10-29

    Kv2.1 channels, which are expressed in brain, heart, pancreas, and other organs and tissues, are important targets for drug design. Flecainide and propafenone are known to block Kv2.1 channels more potently than other Kv channels. Here, we sought to explore structural determinants of this selectivity. We demonstrated that flecainide reduced the K(+) currents through Kv2.1 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes in a voltage- and time-dependent manner. By systematically exchanging various segments of Kv2.1 with those from Kv1.2, we determined flecainide-sensing residues in the P-helix and inner helix S6. These residues are not exposed to the inner pore, a conventional binding region of open channel blockers. The flecainide-sensing residues also contribute to propafenone binding, suggesting overlapping receptors for the drugs. Indeed, propafenone and flecainide compete for binding in Kv2.1. We further used Monte Carlo-energy minimizations to map the receptors of the drugs. Flecainide docking in the Kv1.2-based homology model of Kv2.1 predicts the ligand ammonium group in the central cavity and the benzamide moiety in a niche between S6 and the P-helix. Propafenone also binds in the niche. Its carbonyl group accepts an H-bond from the P-helix, the amino group donates an H-bond to the P-loop turn, whereas the propyl group protrudes in the pore and blocks the access to the selectivity filter. Thus, besides the binding region in the central cavity, certain K(+) channel ligands can expand in the subunit interface whose residues are less conserved between K(+) channels and hence may be targets for design of highly desirable subtype-specific K(+) channel drugs.

  8. Overlapping Binding Sites of Structurally Different Antiarrhythmics Flecainide and Propafenone in the Subunit Interface of Potassium Channel Kv2.1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeja, Michael; Steffen, Wibke; Mesic, Ivana; Garic, Bojan; Zhorov, Boris S.

    2010-01-01

    Kv2.1 channels, which are expressed in brain, heart, pancreas, and other organs and tissues, are important targets for drug design. Flecainide and propafenone are known to block Kv2.1 channels more potently than other Kv channels. Here, we sought to explore structural determinants of this selectivity. We demonstrated that flecainide reduced the K+ currents through Kv2.1 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes in a voltage- and time-dependent manner. By systematically exchanging various segments of Kv2.1 with those from Kv1.2, we determined flecainide-sensing residues in the P-helix and inner helix S6. These residues are not exposed to the inner pore, a conventional binding region of open channel blockers. The flecainide-sensing residues also contribute to propafenone binding, suggesting overlapping receptors for the drugs. Indeed, propafenone and flecainide compete for binding in Kv2.1. We further used Monte Carlo-energy minimizations to map the receptors of the drugs. Flecainide docking in the Kv1.2-based homology model of Kv2.1 predicts the ligand ammonium group in the central cavity and the benzamide moiety in a niche between S6 and the P-helix. Propafenone also binds in the niche. Its carbonyl group accepts an H-bond from the P-helix, the amino group donates an H-bond to the P-loop turn, whereas the propyl group protrudes in the pore and blocks the access to the selectivity filter. Thus, besides the binding region in the central cavity, certain K+ channel ligands can expand in the subunit interface whose residues are less conserved between K+ channels and hence may be targets for design of highly desirable subtype-specific K+ channel drugs. PMID:20709754

  9. The Fatigue Behavior of Steel Structures under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning

    2009-01-01

    Fatigue damage accumulation in steel structures under random loading has been studied in a number of investigations at the Technical University of Denmark. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part...... of the investigation, fatigue test series with a total of 540 fatigue tests have been carried through on various types of welded plate test specimens and full-scale offshore tubular joints. The materials that have been used are either conventional structural steel or high-strength steel. The fatigue tests...... and variable amplitude fatigue test results. Both the fracture mechanics analysis and the fatigue test results indicate that Miner’s rule, which is normally used in the design against fatigue in steel structures, may give results, which are unconservative, and that the validity of the results obtained from...

  10. Random field Ising model and community structure in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, S.-W.; Jeong, H.; Noh, J. D.

    2006-04-01

    We propose a method to determine the community structure of a complex network. In this method the ground state problem of a ferromagnetic random field Ising model is considered on the network with the magnetic field Bs = +∞, Bt = -∞, and Bi≠s,t=0 for a node pair s and t. The ground state problem is equivalent to the so-called maximum flow problem, which can be solved exactly numerically with the help of a combinatorial optimization algorithm. The community structure is then identified from the ground state Ising spin domains for all pairs of s and t. Our method provides a criterion for the existence of the community structure, and is applicable equally well to unweighted and weighted networks. We demonstrate the performance of the method by applying it to the Barabási-Albert network, Zachary karate club network, the scientific collaboration network, and the stock price correlation network. (Ising, Potts, etc.)

  11. Active control of tensegrity structures under random excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh Raja, M.; Narayanan, S.

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we consider vibration control of tensegrity structures under stationary and nonstationary random excitations. These excitations may be representative of many physical loading conditions, such as earthquake, wind, aerodynamic and acoustic excitations. The optimal control theory based on H2 and \\mathrm {H}_{\\infty } controller with full state and limited state feedback is used for the control. The response of the tensegrity structure is represented by the zero lag covariance matrix and the same is obtained by solving the matrix Lyapunov equation. The force generated by the electro-mechanical coupling of the piezoelectric actuator is used in the formulation. A tensegrity structure of class-1 comprising of two modules, with 24 pretension cables and six struts with piezoelectric actuators, is considered.

  12. Overlapping genetic codes for overlapping frameshifted genes in Testudines, and Lepidochelys olivacea as special case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2012-12-01

    Mitochondrial genes code for additional proteins after +2 frameshifts by reassigning stops to code for amino acids, which defines overlapping genetic codes for overlapping genes. Turtles recode stops UAR → Trp and AGR → Lys (AGR → Gly in the marine Olive Ridley turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea). In Lepidochelys the +2 frameshifted mitochondrial Cytb gene lacks stops, open reading frames from other genes code for unknown proteins, and for regular mitochondrial proteins after frameshifts according to the overlapping genetic code. Lepidochelys' inversion between proteins coded by regular and overlapping genetic codes substantiates the existence of overlap coding. ND4 differs among Lepidochelys mitochondrial genomes: it is regular in DQ486893; in NC_011516, the open reading frame codes for another protein, the regular ND4 protein is coded by the frameshifted sequence reassigning stops as in other turtles. These systematic patterns are incompatible with Genbank/sequencing errors and DNA decay. Random mixing of synonymous codons, conserving main frame coding properties, shows optimization of natural sequences for overlap coding; Ka/Ks analyses show high positive (directional) selection on overlapping genes. Tests based on circular genetic codes confirm programmed frameshifts in ND3 and ND4l genes, and predicted frameshift sites for overlap coding in Lepidochelys. Chelonian mitochondria adapt for overlapping gene expression: cloverleaf formation by antisense tRNAs with predicted anticodons matching stops coevolves with overlap coding; antisense tRNAs with predicted expanded anticodons (frameshift suppressor tRNAs) associate with frameshift-coding in ND3 and ND4l, a potential regulation of frameshifted overlap coding. Anaeroby perhaps switched between regular and overlap coding genes in Lepidochelys. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Overlapping Consensus in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Monsen, Mats

    2007-01-01

    An empirical study of how Malaysian pluralism is understood through Islam Hadhari, Article 11 and the Inter-faith Commission against the backdrop of current Malaysian political and social history, coupled with a theoretical analysis through John Rawls' Political Liberalism, with particular emphasis on the idea of Overlapping Consensus. The thesis is an attempt at applying Rawls' theory on the practical case of Malaysia, as a plural society, while at the same time using the practical case of M...

  14. HUNTing the Overlap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iancu, Costin; Parry, Husbands; Hargrove, Paul

    2005-07-08

    Hiding communication latency is an important optimization for parallel programs. Programmers or compilers achieve this by using non-blocking communication primitives and overlapping communication with computation or other communication operations. Using non-blocking communication raises two issues: performance and programmability. In terms of performance, optimizers need to find a good communication schedule and are sometimes constrained by lack of full application knowledge. In terms of programmability, efficiently managing non-blocking communication can prove cumbersome for complex applications. In this paper we present the design principles of HUNT, a runtime system designed to search and exploit some of the available overlap present at execution time in UPC programs. Using virtual memory support, our runtime implements demand-driven synchronization for data involved in communication operations. It also employs message decomposition and scheduling heuristics to transparently improve the non-blocking behavior of applications. We provide a user level implementation of HUNT on a variety of modern high performance computing systems. Results indicate that our approach is successful in finding some of the overlap available at execution time. While system and application characteristics influence performance, perhaps the determining factor is the time taken by the CPU to execute a signal handler. Demand driven synchronization at execution time eliminates the need for the explicit management of non-blocking communication. Besides increasing programmer productivity, this feature also simplifies compiler analysis for communication optimizations.

  15. Exponential random graph models for networks with community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczak, Piotr; Fronczak, Agata; Bujok, Maksymilian

    2013-09-01

    Although the community structure organization is an important characteristic of real-world networks, most of the traditional network models fail to reproduce the feature. Therefore, the models are useless as benchmark graphs for testing community detection algorithms. They are also inadequate to predict various properties of real networks. With this paper we intend to fill the gap. We develop an exponential random graph approach to networks with community structure. To this end we mainly built upon the idea of blockmodels. We consider both the classical blockmodel and its degree-corrected counterpart and study many of their properties analytically. We show that in the degree-corrected blockmodel, node degrees display an interesting scaling property, which is reminiscent of what is observed in real-world fractal networks. A short description of Monte Carlo simulations of the models is also given in the hope of being useful to others working in the field.

  16. Maps of random walks on complex networks reveal community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosvall, Martin; Bergstrom, Carl T

    2008-01-29

    To comprehend the multipartite organization of large-scale biological and social systems, we introduce an information theoretic approach that reveals community structure in weighted and directed networks. We use the probability flow of random walks on a network as a proxy for information flows in the real system and decompose the network into modules by compressing a description of the probability flow. The result is a map that both simplifies and highlights the regularities in the structure and their relationships. We illustrate the method by making a map of scientific communication as captured in the citation patterns of >6,000 journals. We discover a multicentric organization with fields that vary dramatically in size and degree of integration into the network of science. Along the backbone of the network-including physics, chemistry, molecular biology, and medicine-information flows bidirectionally, but the map reveals a directional pattern of citation from the applied fields to the basic sciences.

  17. Implications of structural genomics target selection strategies: Pfam5000, whole genome, and random approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandonia, John-Marc; Brenner, Steven E.

    2004-07-14

    The structural genomics project is an international effort to determine the three-dimensional shapes of all important biological macromolecules, with a primary focus on proteins. Target proteins should be selected according to a strategy which is medically and biologically relevant, of good value, and tractable. As an option to consider, we present the Pfam5000 strategy, which involves selecting the 5000 most important families from the Pfam database as sources for targets. We compare the Pfam5000 strategy to several other proposed strategies that would require similar numbers of targets. These include including complete solution of several small to moderately sized bacterial proteomes, partial coverage of the human proteome, and random selection of approximately 5000 targets from sequenced genomes. We measure the impact that successful implementation of these strategies would have upon structural interpretation of the proteins in Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL, and 131 complete proteomes (including 10 of eukaryotes) from the Proteome Analysis database at EBI. Solving the structures of proteins from the 5000 largest Pfam families would allow accurate fold assignment for approximately 68 percent of all prokaryotic proteins (covering 59 percent of residues) and 61 percent of eukaryotic proteins (40 percent of residues). More fine-grained coverage which would allow accurate modeling of these proteins would require an order of magnitude more targets. The Pfam5000 strategy may be modified in several ways, for example to focus on larger families, bacterial sequences, or eukaryotic sequences; as long as secondary consideration is given to large families within Pfam, coverage results vary only slightly. In contrast, focusing structural genomics on a single tractable genome would have only a limited impact in structural knowledge of other proteomes: a significant fraction (about 30-40 percent of the proteins, and 40-60 percent of the residues) of each proteome is classified in small

  18. Conditional Random Fields for Pattern Recognition Applied to Structured Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Burr

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition uses measurements from an input domain, X, to predict their labels from an output domain, Y. Image analysis is one setting where one might want to infer whether a pixel patch contains an object that is “manmade” (such as a building or “natural” (such as a tree. Suppose the label for a pixel patch is “manmade”; if the label for a nearby pixel patch is then more likely to be “manmade” there is structure in the output domain that can be exploited to improve pattern recognition performance. Modeling P(X is difficult because features between parts of the model are often correlated. Therefore, conditional random fields (CRFs model structured data using the conditional distribution P(Y|X = x, without specifying a model for P(X, and are well suited for applications with dependent features. This paper has two parts. First, we overview CRFs and their application to pattern recognition in structured problems. Our primary examples are image analysis applications in which there is dependence among samples (pixel patches in the output domain. Second, we identify research topics and present numerical examples.

  19. A Geometric-Structure Theory for Maximally Random Jammed Packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jianxiang; Xu, Yaopengxiao; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore

    2015-11-16

    Maximally random jammed (MRJ) particle packings can be viewed as prototypical glasses in that they are maximally disordered while simultaneously being mechanically rigid. The prediction of the MRJ packing density ϕMRJ, among other packing properties of frictionless particles, still poses many theoretical challenges, even for congruent spheres or disks. Using the geometric-structure approach, we derive for the first time a highly accurate formula for MRJ densities for a very wide class of two-dimensional frictionless packings, namely, binary convex superdisks, with shapes that continuously interpolate between circles and squares. By incorporating specific attributes of MRJ states and a novel organizing principle, our formula yields predictions of ϕMRJ that are in excellent agreement with corresponding computer-simulation estimates in almost the entire α-x plane with semi-axis ratio α and small-particle relative number concentration x. Importantly, in the monodisperse circle limit, the predicted ϕMRJ = 0.834 agrees very well with the very recently numerically discovered MRJ density of 0.827, which distinguishes it from high-density "random-close packing" polycrystalline states and hence provides a stringent test on the theory. Similarly, for non-circular monodisperse superdisks, we predict MRJ states with densities that are appreciably smaller than is conventionally thought to be achievable by standard packing protocols.

  20. [Dermatopolymyositis and overlap syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović-Rackov, Lj; Mitrović, D; Andjelković, Z; Popović, M; Janković-Mladenovska, S

    1998-01-01

    Clinical characteristics and immunoserological features of patients with overlap myositis treated in Clinic for Rheumatology of Military Medical Academy in the period 1978-1996 are presented in the study. Retrospective and partially prospective study included 16 patients with the diagnosis of dermatopolymyositis associated with some other systemic disease of connective tissue (SDCT) in overlap syndrome. There were 12-females of average age 37.33 years and 4 males of average age 52.25 years. Complete laboratory investigation included the determination of muscular enzymes values. Immunoserological analyses were also performed (RF, Le cells, ANA, ICs, immunoglobulins, cryoglobulins and complement), EMNG examination of pelvis and shoulder and pH examination of skin, subcutaneous tissue and muscles. The combination of the diseases was found in 11 patients, 7 were with PSS, 2 with SLE, 1 with RA and one with PAN. Three diseases were associated in 4 patients, SLE and RA in 2, PSS and RA in 1, thyroiditis and sicca complex in 1. Five-fold combination of disease was found in 1 patient. More frequent occurrence of fever, polyarthritis, skin manifestations, Raynoud's phenomenon, the involvement of serosas, lungs and heart, histological finding of skin and/or muscle vasculitis and larger presence of ANA, ICs, hypergammaglobulinemia and hypocomplementemia pointed out the dominant disorder of humoral immunity which was most probably connected with associated SDCT.

  1. An empirical analysis of overlap publication in Chinese language and English research manuscripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D Tucker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are a number of sound justifications for publishing nearly identical information in Chinese and English medical journals, assuming several conditions are met. Although overlap publication is perceived as undesirable and ethically questionable in Europe and North America, it may serve an important function in some regions where English is not the native tongue. There is no empirical data on the nature and degree of overlap publication in English and Chinese language journals. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A random sample of 100 English manuscripts from Chinese institutions was selected from PubMed. Key words and institutions were searched in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, a comprehensive Chinese language research database. Unacknowledged overlap was a priori defined according to International Committee of Medical Journal Editor (ICMJE guidelines following examination by two individuals. 19% (95% CI 11-27 of English manuscripts from Chinese institutions were found to have substantial overlap with Chinese published work based on full text examination. None of the manuscripts met all of the criteria established by the ICMJE for an acknowledged overlap publication. Individual-level, journal-level, and institutional factors seem to influence overlap publication. Manuscripts associated with an institution outside of China and with more than one institution were significantly less likely to have substantial overlap (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overlap publication was common in this context, but instances of standard ICMJE notations to acknowledge this practice were rare. This research did not cite the identified overlap manuscripts with the hope that these empirical data will inform journal policy changes and structural initiatives to promote clearer policies and manuscripts.

  2. Emergence of patterns in random processes. II. Stochastic structure in random events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William I

    2014-06-01

    Random events can present what appears to be a pattern in the length of peak-to-peak sequences in time series and other point processes. Previously, we showed that this was the case in both individual and independently distributed processes as well as for Brownian walks. In addition, we introduced the use of the discrete form of the Langevin equation of statistical mechanics as a device for connecting the two limiting sets of behaviors, which we then compared with a variety of observations from the physical and social sciences. Here, we establish a probabilistic framework via the Smoluchowski equation for exploring the Langevin equation and its expected peak-to-peak sequence lengths, and we introduce a concept we call "stochastic structure in random events," or SSRE. We extend the Brownian model to include antipersistent processes via autoregressive (AR) models. We relate the latter to describe the behavior of Old Faithful Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, and we devise a further test for the validity of the Langevin and AR models. Given our analytic results, we show how the Langevin equation can be adapted to describe population cycles of three to four years observed among many mammalian species in biology.

  3. Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Şen, Elif; Oğuzülgen, Kıvılcım; Bavbek, Sevim; Günen, Hakan; Kıyan, Esen; Türktaş, Haluk; Yorgancıoğlu, Arzu; Polatlı, Mehmet; Yıldız, Füsun; Çelik, Gülfem; Demir, Tunçalp; Gemicioğlu, Bilun; Mungan, Dilşad; Saryal, Sevgi; Sayıner, Abdullah; Yıldırım, Nurhayat

    2015-01-01

    .... Among patient with COPD and asthma; there is a group of patients with an overlap between clinical, functional characteristics and airway inflammation patterns, named "Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome" (ACOS...

  4. The overlapping of sound and the narrative structure of the audiovisual message / La anticipación del sonido y su relación con la estructura narrativa del mensaje audiovisual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ddo. Luis Fernando Morales Morante - fernando.morales@uab.es

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The delete in sound with respect to the image (overlapping is an expressive resource of the audiovisual editing that is frequently used by directors to introduce a new or relevant action into the story being told. Nevertheless, there are no empirical studies that state this effect as a consequence of the overlapping. In this article, we carry out a qualitative study of 235 overlappings from sequences of films, news and TV commercials, retrieved in the Internet. As a result, we note a use of the overlapping as a coherent semantic structure defining this sort of messages, and a casual relation between variation of intensity of sound and emotional responses such as surprise. This conclusion can be very useful for the development of a method of analysis and the improvement of the audiovisual discourses efficacy based upon emotional stimuli; likewise, this can be very handful for the design of efficient postproduction systems of sound and video.El retraso del sonido respecto de la imagen (overlapping constituye un recurso expresivo del montaje audiovisual utilizado frecuentemente por los realizadores para remarcar el ingreso de una acción nueva o relevante en el desarrollo de las historias. Sin embargo, no existen estudios empíricos que avalen el efecto directamente asociado a este procedimiento en los discursos. En el presente artículo se efectúa un estudio cualitativo mediante el cual se analiza una muestra de 235 overlappings de secuencias de películas, noticias y anuncios de publicidad, registrados de vídeos de Internet. Se advierte un tratamiento fílmico propio del overlapping, la existencia de una estructura semántica coherente que define este tipo de mensajes y una eventual relación entre los cambios de la intensidad del sonido con efectos emocionales como la sorpresa. Los resultados obtenidos pueden ser útiles para desarrollar un método de análisis y mejora de la efectividad de los discursos audiovisuales basados en la

  5. Harnessing data structure for recovery of randomly missing structural vibration responses time history: Sparse representation versus low-rank structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongchao; Nagarajaiah, Satish

    2016-06-01

    Randomly missing data of structural vibration responses time history often occurs in structural dynamics and health monitoring. For example, structural vibration responses are often corrupted by outliers or erroneous measurements due to sensor malfunction; in wireless sensing platforms, data loss during wireless communication is a common issue. Besides, to alleviate the wireless data sampling or communication burden, certain accounts of data are often discarded during sampling or before transmission. In these and other applications, recovery of the randomly missing structural vibration responses from the available, incomplete data, is essential for system identification and structural health monitoring; it is an ill-posed inverse problem, however. This paper explicitly harnesses the data structure itself-of the structural vibration responses-to address this (inverse) problem. What is relevant is an empirical, but often practically true, observation, that is, typically there are only few modes active in the structural vibration responses; hence a sparse representation (in frequency domain) of the single-channel data vector, or, a low-rank structure (by singular value decomposition) of the multi-channel data matrix. Exploiting such prior knowledge of data structure (intra-channel sparse or inter-channel low-rank), the new theories of ℓ1-minimization sparse recovery and nuclear-norm-minimization low-rank matrix completion enable recovery of the randomly missing or corrupted structural vibration response data. The performance of these two alternatives, in terms of recovery accuracy and computational time under different data missing rates, is investigated on a few structural vibration response data sets-the seismic responses of the super high-rise Canton Tower and the structural health monitoring accelerations of a real large-scale cable-stayed bridge. Encouraging results are obtained and the applicability and limitation of the presented methods are discussed.

  6. Perturbation Solutions for Random Linear Structural Systems subject to Random Excitation using Stochastic Differential Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köyluoglu, H.U.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    The paper deals with the first and second order statistical moments of the response of linear systems with random parameters subject to random excitation modelled as white-noise multiplied by an envelope function with random parameters. The method of analysis is basically a second order perturbat......The paper deals with the first and second order statistical moments of the response of linear systems with random parameters subject to random excitation modelled as white-noise multiplied by an envelope function with random parameters. The method of analysis is basically a second order...... for multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems and the method is illustrated for a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillator. The results are compared to those of exact results for a random oscillator subject to white noise excitation with random intensity....

  7. Vertical overlap of probability density functions of cloud and precipitation hydrometeors: CLOUD AND PRECIPITATION PDF OVERLAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Lim, Kyo-Sun Sunny [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon Republic of Korea; Larson, Vincent E. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee Wisconsin USA; Wong, May [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Thayer-Calder, Katherine [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Ghan, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2016-11-05

    Coarse-resolution climate models increasingly rely on probability density functions (PDFs) to represent subgrid-scale variability of prognostic variables. While PDFs characterize the horizontal variability, a separate treatment is needed to account for the vertical structure of clouds and precipitation. When sub-columns are drawn from these PDFs for microphysics or radiation parameterizations, appropriate vertical correlations must be enforced via PDF overlap specifications. This study evaluates the representation of PDF overlap in the Subgrid Importance Latin Hypercube Sampler (SILHS) employed in the assumed PDF turbulence and cloud scheme called the Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB). PDF overlap in CLUBB-SILHS simulations of continental and tropical oceanic deep convection is compared with overlap of PDF of various microphysics variables in cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations of the same cases that explicitly predict the 3D structure of cloud and precipitation fields. CRM results show that PDF overlap varies significantly between different hydrometeor types, as well as between PDFs of mass and number mixing ratios for each species, - a distinction that the current SILHS implementation does not make. In CRM simulations that explicitly resolve cloud and precipitation structures, faster falling species, such as rain and graupel, exhibit significantly higher coherence in their vertical distributions than slow falling cloud liquid and ice. These results suggest that to improve the overlap treatment in the sub-column generator, the PDF correlations need to depend on hydrometeor properties, such as fall speeds, in addition to the currently implemented dependency on the turbulent convective length scale.

  8. The combinatorics of overlapping genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lèbre, Sophie; Gascuel, Olivier

    2017-02-21

    Overlapping genes exist in all domains of life and are much more abundant than expected upon their first discovery in the late 1970s. Assuming that the reference gene is read in frame +0, an overlapping gene can be encoded in two reading frames in the sense strand, denoted by +1 and +2, and in three reading frames in the opposite strand, denoted by -0, -1, and -2. This motivated numerous researchers to study the constraints induced by the genetic code on the various overlapping frames, mostly based on information theory. Our focus in this paper is on the constraints induced on two overlapping genes in terms of amino acids, as well as polypeptides. We show that simple linear constraints bind the amino-acid composition of two proteins encoded by overlapping genes. Novel constraints are revealed when polypeptides are considered, and not just single amino acids. For example, in double-coding sequences with an overlapping reading frame -2, each Tyrosine (denoted as Tyr or Y) in the overlapping frame overlaps a Tyrosine in the reference frame +0 (and reciprocally), whereas specific words (e.g. YY) never occur. We thus distinguish between null constraints (YY = 0 in frame -2) and non-null constraints (Y in frame +0 ⇔ Y in frame -2). Our equivalence-based constraints are symmetrical and thus enable the characterization of the joint composition of overlapping proteins. We describe several formal frameworks and a graph algorithm to characterize and compute these constraints. As expected, the degrees of freedom left by these constraints vary drastically among the different overlapping frames. Interestingly, the biological meaning of constraints induced on two overlapping proteins (hydropathy, forbidden di-peptides, expected overlap length …) is also specific to the reading frame. We study the combinatorics of these constraints for overlapping polypeptides of length n, pointing out that, (i) except for frame -2, non-null constraints are deduced from the amino-acid (length

  9. Understanding COPD-overlap syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Tuang Yeow; Mac Aogáin, Micheál; Chan, Adrian Kwok Wai; Yii, Anthony Chau Ang; Yong, Valerie Fei Lee; Tiew, Pei Yee; Koh, Mariko Siyue; Chotirmall, Sanjay Haresh

    2017-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease accounts for a large burden of lung disease. It can 'overlap' with other respiratory diseases including bronchiectasis, fibrosis and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). While COPD alone confers morbidity and mortality, common features with contrasting clinical outcomes can occur in COPD 'overlap syndromes'. Areas covered: Given the large degree of heterogeneity in COPD, individual variation to treatment is adopted based on its observed phenotype, which in turn overlaps with features of other respiratory disease states such as asthma. This is coined asthma-COPD overlap syndrome ('ACOS'). Other examples of such overlapping clinical states include bronchiectasis-COPD ('BCOS'), fibrosis-COPD ('FCOS') and OSA-COPD ('OCOS'). The objective of this review is to highlight similarities and differences between the COPD-overlap syndromes in terms of risk factors, pathophysiology, diagnosis and potential treatment differences. Expert commentary: As a consequence of COPD overlap syndromes, a transition from the traditional 'one size fits all' treatment approach is necessary. Greater treatment stratification according to clinical phenotype using a precision medicine approach is now required. In this light, it is important to recognize and differentiate COPD overlap syndromes as distinct disease states compared to individual diseases such as asthma, COPD, fibrosis or bronchiectasis.

  10. Non-random seasonal variation in the structure of a Mediterranean snake community

    OpenAIRE

    Filippi, E.; L. Luiselli

    2007-01-01

    The community structure in relation to habitat type was studied in a Mediterranean community of snakes from Canale Monterano, central Italy. Habitat data for snakes were analysed both overall and divided by season, i.e. spring (April–June) and summer (July–September). Community analyses were performed using null models (RA2 and RA3 algorithms) and Monte Carlo simulations on habitat niche overlap estimates. Null models suggested that the community was assem...

  11. Photonic stop bands of two-dimensional quasi-random structures based on macroporous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahbubur; Ferre-Borrull, Josep; Pallares, Josep; Marsal, Lluis F. [Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Nano-electronic and Photonic Systems (NePhoS), Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    The existence of photonic stop bands in macroporous silicon with a quasi-random structure transferred from nanoporous anodic alumina is studied. The quasi-random structure consists of a periodic triangular arrangement broken into domains of random orientation and size. By means of Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulation, transmittance spectra of the structure are calculated which show that stop bands exist for the TE polarization in the same frequency range it exist for periodic photonic crystals. For TM polarization local minima of the transmittance are predicted by the calculations. A general trend of the transmittance to decrease with increasing frequency is observed. The comparison with the transmittance for random structures shows that such trend is due to incoherent scattering caused by the degree of randomness of the structure (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. New tools to analyze overlapping coding regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayegan, Amir H; Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Clote, Peter

    2016-12-13

    Retroviruses transcribe messenger RNA for the overlapping Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins, by using a programmed -1 ribosomal frameshift which requires a slippery sequence and an immediate downstream stem-loop secondary structure, together called frameshift stimulating signal (FSS). It follows that the molecular evolution of this genomic region of HIV-1 is highly constrained, since the retroviral genome must contain a slippery sequence (sequence constraint), code appropriate peptides in reading frames 0 and 1 (coding requirements), and form a thermodynamically stable stem-loop secondary structure (structure requirement). We describe a unique computational tool, RNAsampleCDS, designed to compute the number of RNA sequences that code two (or more) peptides p,q in overlapping reading frames, that are identical (or have BLOSUM/PAM similarity that exceeds a user-specified value) to the input peptides p,q. RNAsampleCDS then samples a user-specified number of messenger RNAs that code such peptides; alternatively, RNAsampleCDS can exactly compute the position-specific scoring matrix and codon usage bias for all such RNA sequences. Our software allows the user to stipulate overlapping coding requirements for all 6 possible reading frames simultaneously, even allowing IUPAC constraints on RNA sequences and fixing GC-content. We generalize the notion of codon preference index (CPI) to overlapping reading frames, and use RNAsampleCDS to generate control sequences required in the computation of CPI. Moreover, by applying RNAsampleCDS, we are able to quantify the extent to which the overlapping coding requirement in HIV-1 [resp. HCV] contribute to the formation of the stem-loop [resp. double stem-loop] secondary structure known as the frameshift stimulating signal. Using our software, we confirm that certain experimentally determined deleterious HCV mutations occur in positions for which our software RNAsampleCDS and RNAiFold both indicate a single possible nucleotide. We

  13. Stochastic model reduction for robust dynamical characterization of structures with random parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghienne, Martin; Blanzé, Claude; Laurent, Luc

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we characterize random eigenspaces with a non-intrusive method based on the decoupling of random eigenvalues from their corresponding random eigenvectors. This method allows us to estimate the first statistical moments of the random eigenvalues of the system with a reduced number of deterministic finite element computations. The originality of this work is to adapt the method used to estimate each random eigenvalue depending on a global accuracy requirement. This allows us to ensure a minimal computational cost. The stochastic model of the structure is thus reduced by exploiting specific properties of random eigenvectors associated with the random eigenfrequencies being sought. An indicator with no additional computation cost is proposed to identify when the method needs to be enhanced. Finally, a simple three-beam frame and an industrial structure illustrate the proposed approach.

  14. Inner structure of vehicular ensembles and random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krbálek, Milan, E-mail: milan.krbalek@fjfi.cvut.cz; Hobza, Tomáš

    2016-05-06

    Highlights: • New class of random matrices (DUE) is proposed and analyzed in detail. • Approximation formula for level spacing distribution in DUE ensembles is analytically derived. • Connection between DUE and vehicular systems (analogical to a well-known link between GUE and Mexico buses) is presented. • It is shown that LS distribution of DUE matrices is the same as clearance distribution measured on expressways. - Abstract: We introduce a special class of random matrices (DUE) whose spectral statistics corresponds to statistics of microscopical quantities detected in vehicular flows. Comparing the level spacing distribution (for ordered eigenvalues in unfolded spectra of DUE matrices) with the time-clearance distribution extracted from various areas of the flux-density diagram (evaluated from original traffic data measured on Czech expressways with high occupancies) we demonstrate that the set of classical systems showing an universality associated with Random Matrix Ensembles can be extended by traffic systems.

  15. Inner structure of vehicular ensembles and random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krbálek, Milan; Hobza, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a special class of random matrices (DUE) whose spectral statistics corresponds to statistics of microscopical quantities detected in vehicular flows. Comparing the level spacing distribution (for ordered eigenvalues in unfolded spectra of DUE matrices) with the time-clearance distribution extracted from various areas of the flux-density diagram (evaluated from original traffic data measured on Czech expressways with high occupancies) we demonstrate that the set of classical systems showing an universality associated with Random Matrix Ensembles can be extended by traffic systems.

  16. 2.5D visualisation of overlapping biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, David C Y; Hong, Seok-Hee; Koschützki, Dirk; Schreiber, Falk; Xu, Kai

    2008-11-10

    Biological data is often structured in the form of complex interconnected networks such as protein interaction and metabolic networks. In this paper, we investigate a new problem of visualising such overlapping biological networks. Two networks overlap if they share some nodes and edges. We present an approach for constructing visualisations of two overlapping networks, based on a restricted three dimensional representation. More specifically, we use three parallel two dimensional planes placed in three dimensions to represent overlapping networks: one for each network (the top and the bottom planes) and one for the overlapping part (in the middle plane). Our method aims to achieve both drawing aesthetics (or conventions) for each individual network, and highlighting the intersection part by them. Using three biological datasets, we evaluate our visualisation design with the aim to test whether overlapping networks can support the visual analysis of heterogeneous and yet interconnected networks.

  17. Overlap Properties of Clouds Generated by a Cloud Resolving Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreopoulos, L.; Khairoutdinov, M.

    2002-01-01

    In order for General Circulation Models (GCMs), one of our most important tools to predict future climate, to correctly describe the propagation of solar and thermal radiation through the cloudy atmosphere a realistic description of the vertical distribution of cloud amount is needed. Actually, one needs not only the cloud amounts at different levels of the atmosphere, but also how these cloud amounts are related, in other words, how they overlap. Currently GCMs make some idealized assumptions about cloud overlap, for example that contiguous cloud layers overlap maximally and non-contiguous cloud layers overlap in a random fashion. Since there are difficulties in obtaining the vertical profile of cloud amount from observations, the realism of the overlap assumptions made in GCMs has not been yet rigorously investigated. Recently however, cloud observations from a relatively new type of ground radar have been used to examine the vertical distribution of cloudiness. These observations suggest that the GCM overlap assumptions are dubious. Our study uses cloud fields from sophisticated models dedicated to simulate cloud formation, maintenance, and dissipation called Cloud Resolving Models . These models are generally considered capable of producing realistic three-dimensional representation of cloudiness. Using numerous cloud fields produced by such a CRM we show that the degree of overlap between cloud layers is a function of their separation distance, and is in general described by a combination of the maximum and random overlap assumption, with random overlap dominating as separation distances increase. We show that it is possible to parameterize this behavior in a way that can eventually be incorporated in GCMs. Our results seem to have a significant resemblance to the results from the radar observations despite the completely different nature of the datasets. This consistency is encouraging and will promote development of new radiative transfer codes that will

  18. Overlap and Differences in Brain Networks Underlying the Processing of Complex Sentence Structures in Second Language Users Compared with Native Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kirsten; Luther, Lisa; Indefrey, Peter; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-05-01

    When we learn a second language later in life, do we integrate it with the established neural networks in place for the first language or is at least a partially new network recruited? While there is evidence that simple grammatical structures in a second language share a system with the native language, the story becomes more multifaceted for complex sentence structures. In this study, we investigated the underlying brain networks in native speakers compared with proficient second language users while processing complex sentences. As hypothesized, complex structures were processed by the same large-scale inferior frontal and middle temporal language networks of the brain in the second language, as seen in native speakers. These effects were seen both in activations and task-related connectivity patterns. Furthermore, the second language users showed increased task-related connectivity from inferior frontal to inferior parietal regions of the brain, regions related to attention and cognitive control, suggesting less automatic processing for these structures in a second language.

  19. Overlap and differences in brain networks underlying the processing of complex sentence structures in second language users compared with native speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, K.M.; Luther, L.M.; Indefrey, P.; Hagoort, P.

    2016-01-01

    When we learn a second language later in life, do we integrate it with the established neural networks in place for the first language or is at least a partially new network recruited? While there is evidence that simple grammatical structures in a second language share a system with the native

  20. Overlapping Community Detection based on Network Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhuanlian; Zhang, Xingyi; Sun, Dengdi; Luo, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Community detection in complex network has become a vital step to understand the structure and dynamics of networks in various fields. However, traditional node clustering and relatively new proposed link clustering methods have inherent drawbacks to discover overlapping communities. Node clustering is inadequate to capture the pervasive overlaps, while link clustering is often criticized due to the high computational cost and ambiguous definition of communities. So, overlapping community detection is still a formidable challenge. In this work, we propose a new overlapping community detection algorithm based on network decomposition, called NDOCD. Specifically, NDOCD iteratively splits the network by removing all links in derived link communities, which are identified by utilizing node clustering technique. The network decomposition contributes to reducing the computation time and noise link elimination conduces to improving the quality of obtained communities. Besides, we employ node clustering technique rather than link similarity measure to discover link communities, thus NDOCD avoids an ambiguous definition of community and becomes less time-consuming. We test our approach on both synthetic and real-world networks. Results demonstrate the superior performance of our approach both in computation time and accuracy compared to state-of-the-art algorithms.

  1. Slepian Simulations of Plastic Displacements of Randomly Excited Hysteretic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov

    2003-01-01

    The object of the study is a fast simulation method for generation and analysis of the plastic response of a randomly excited MDOF oscillatro with several potential elements with elasto-plastic constitutive behavior. The oscillator is statically determinate with linear damping. The external...... that are interesting for the plastic displacement process. These parts are those that are in the vicinity of the points of crossing of the response from the elastic domain to the plastic domain. The principle of the method is to use the known response properties at the crossing points of the stationary Gaussian white...... noise excited linear oscillator obtained from the elasto-plastic oscillator by totally removing the plastic domain. Thus the key to the applicability of the method is that the oscillator has a linear domain within which the response stays for a sufficiently long time to make the random response behave...

  2. Board Overlaps in Mutual Fund Families

    OpenAIRE

    Elif Sisli Ciamarra; Abigail Hornstein

    2015-01-01

    We examine a unique characteristic of mutual fund governance: a common set of di- rectors serving simultaneously on the boards of multiple funds within a fund family. At rst glance, this governance structure appears to bene t investors because it is associated with higher fund returns and better fund manager quality. However, funds with higher degrees of board overlap also charge higher marketing and distribution fees, which have been criticized as being the least transparent cost component f...

  3. Localized surface plasmon enhanced cellular imaging using random metallic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Taehwang; Lee, Wonju; Kim, Donghyun

    2017-02-01

    We have studied fluorescence cellular imaging with randomly distributed localized near-field induced by silver nano-islands. For the fabrication of nano-islands, a 10-nm silver thin film evaporated on a BK7 glass substrate with an adhesion layer of 2-nm thick chromium. Micrometer sized silver square pattern was defined using e-beam lithography and then the film was annealed at 200°C. Raw images were restored using electric field distribution produced on the surface of random nano-islands. Nano-islands were modeled from SEM images. 488-nm p-polarized light source was set to be incident at 60°. Simulation results show that localized electric fields were created among nano-islands and that their average size was found to be 135 nm. The feasibility was tested using conventional total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy while the angle of incidence was adjusted to maximize field enhancement. Mouse microphage cells were cultured on nano-islands, and actin filaments were selectively stained with FITC-conjugated phalloidin. Acquired images were deconvolved based on linear imaging theory, in which molecular distribution was sampled by randomly distributed localized near-field and blurred by point spread function of far-field optics. The optimum fluorophore distribution was probabilistically estimated by repetitively matching a raw image. The deconvolved images are estimated to have a resolution in the range of 100-150 nm largely determined by the size of localized near-fields. We also discuss and compare the results with images acquired with periodic nano-aperture arrays in various optical configurations to excite localized plasmonic fields and to produce super-resolved molecular images.

  4. Random vectorial fields representing the local structure of turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevillard, Laurent [Laboratoire de Physique de l' ENS Lyon, CNRS, Universite de Lyon, 46 allee d' Italie, 69007 Lyon (France); Robert, Raoul [Institut Fourier, CNRS, Universite Grenoble 1, 100 rue des Mathematiques, BP 74, 38402 Saint-Martin d' Heres cedex (France); Vargas, Vincent, E-mail: laurent.chevillard@ens-lyon.fr [Ceremade, CNRS, Universite Paris-Dauphine, F-75016 Paris (France)

    2011-12-22

    We propose a method to build up a random homogeneous, isotropic and incompressible turbulent velocity field that mimics turbulence in the inertial range. The underlying Gaussian field is given by a modified Biot-Savart law. The long range correlated nature of turbulence is then incorporated heuristically using a non linear transformation inspired by the recent fluid deformation imposed by the Euler equations. The resulting velocity field shows a non vanishing mean energy transfer towards the small scales and realistic alignment properties of vorticity with the eigenframe of the deformation rate.

  5. Analytical and Experimental Random Vibration of Nonlinear Aeroelastic Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-28

    dinamics . Sijthoff- Hilton, H H. and Feigen. M. Minimum weight analysis based on structural Noordhoff Co, Netherlands. reliability. J Aerospace Sc, 27...AEROELASTIC STRUCTURES January 28, 1987 ELECT Tpp. AIM" 0OV 7PTCE OF 9r(’TF1CP RESCH JAMi) NOTI-CE OF wIM 1 T AL TO D .TAC’ ..hirte;h-tz’ l rer)t ’(V...freedom aeroelastic structural model in the neighborhood of combination internal resonance condition. The Fokker:Planck equation approach is used to

  6. Mapping of PARK2 and PACRG overlapping regulatory region reveals LD structure and functional variants in association with leprosy in unrelated indian population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Rupali; Ali, Shafat; Srivastava, Amit K; Aggarwal, Shweta; Kumar, Bhupender; Manvati, Siddharth; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Jena, Mamta; Garg, Vijay K; Bhattacharya, Sambit N; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Leprae, where the host genetic background plays an important role toward the disease pathogenesis. Various studies have identified a number of human genes in association with leprosy or its clinical forms. However, non-replication of results has hinted at the heterogeneity among associations between different population groups, which could be due to differently evolved LD structures and differential frequencies of SNPs within the studied regions of the genome. A need for systematic and saturated mapping of the associated regions with the disease is warranted to unravel the observed heterogeneity in different populations. Mapping of the PARK2 and PACRG gene regulatory region with 96 SNPs, with a resolution of 1 SNP per 1 Kb for PARK2 gene regulatory region in a North Indian population, showed an involvement of 11 SNPs in determining the susceptibility towards leprosy. The association was replicated in a geographically distinct and unrelated population from Orissa in eastern India. In vitro reporter assays revealed that the two significantly associated SNPs, located 63.8 kb upstream of PARK2 gene and represented in a single BIN of 8 SNPs, influenced the gene expression. A comparison of BINs between Indian and Vietnamese populations revealed differences in the BIN structures, explaining the heterogeneity and also the reason for non-replication of the associated genomic region in different populations.

  7. Completely random measures for modelling block-structured sparse networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Mørup, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Many statistical methods for network data parameterize the edge-probability by attributing latent traits to the vertices such as block structure and assume exchangeability in the sense of the Aldous-Hoover representation theorem. Empirical studies of networks indicate that many real-world networks...... [2014] proposed the use of a different notion of exchangeability due to Kallenberg [2006] and obtained a network model which admits power-law behaviour while retaining desirable statistical properties, however this model does not capture latent vertex traits such as block-structure. In this work we re......-introduce the use of block-structure for network models obeying allenberg’s notion of exchangeability and thereby obtain a model which admits the inference of block-structure and edge inhomogeneity. We derive a simple expression for the likelihood and an efficient sampling method. The obtained model...

  8. Phonon structures of GaN-based random semiconductor alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mei; Chen, Xiaobin; Li, Gang; Zheng, Fawei; Zhang, Ping

    2017-12-01

    Accurate modeling of thermal properties is strikingly important for developing next-generation electronics with high performance. Many thermal properties are closely related to phonon dispersions, such as sound velocity. However, random substituted semiconductor alloys AxB1-x usually lack translational symmetry, and simulation with periodic boundary conditions often requires large supercells, which makes phonon dispersion highly folded and hardly comparable with experimental results. Here, we adopt a large supercell with randomly distributed A and B atoms to investigate substitution effect on the phonon dispersions of semiconductor alloys systematically by using phonon unfolding method [F. Zheng, P. Zhang, Comput. Mater. Sci. 125, 218 (2016)]. The results reveal the extent to which phonon band characteristics in (In,Ga)N and Ga(N,P) are preserved or lost at different compositions and q points. Generally, most characteristics of phonon dispersions can be preserved with indium substitution of gallium in GaN, while substitution of nitrogen with phosphorus strongly perturbs the phonon dispersion of GaN, showing a rapid disintegration of the Bloch characteristics of optical modes and introducing localized impurity modes. In addition, the sound velocities of both (In,Ga)N and Ga(N,P) display a nearly linear behavior as a function of substitution compositions. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://https://doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2017-80481-0.

  9. QSAR for cholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus esters and CNDO/2 calculations for organophosphorus ester hydrolysis. [quantitative structure-activity relationship, complete neglect of differential overlap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H.; Kenley, R. A.; Rynard, C.; Golub, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships were derived for acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition by various organophosphorus esters. Bimolecular inhibition rate constants correlate well with hydrophobic substituent constants, and with the presence or absence of cationic groups on the inhibitor, but not with steric substituent constants. CNDO/2 calculations were performed on a separate set of organophosphorus esters, RR-primeP(O)X, where R and R-prime are alkyl and/or alkoxy groups and X is fluorine, chlorine or a phenoxy group. For each subset with the same X, the CNDO-derived net atomic charge at the central phosphorus atom in the ester correlates well with the alkaline hydrolysis rate constant. For the whole set of esters with different X, two equations were derived that relate either charge and leaving group steric bulk, or orbital energy and bond order to the hydrolysis rate constant.

  10. High-resolution structure of viruses from random diffraction snapshots

    CERN Document Server

    Hosseinizadeh, A; Dashti, A; Fung, R; D'Souza, R M; Ourmazd, A

    2014-01-01

    The advent of the X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) has made it possible to record diffraction snapshots of biological entities injected into the X-ray beam before the onset of radiation damage. Algorithmic means must then be used to determine the snapshot orientations and thence the three-dimensional structure of the object. Existing Bayesian approaches are limited in reconstruction resolution typically to 1/10 of the object diameter, with the computational expense increasing as the eighth power of the ratio of diameter to resolution. We present an approach capable of exploiting object symmetries to recover three-dimensional structure to high resolution, and thus reconstruct the structure of the satellite tobacco necrosis virus to atomic level. Our approach offers the highest reconstruction resolution for XFEL snapshots to date, and provides a potentially powerful alternative route for analysis of data from crystalline and nanocrystalline objects.

  11. Seeding for pervasively overlapping communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Conrad; Reid, Fergal; McDaid, Aaron; Hurley, Neil

    2011-06-01

    In some social and biological networks, the majority of nodes belong to multiple communities. It has recently been shown that a number of the algorithms specifically designed to detect overlapping communities do not perform well in such highly overlapping settings. Here, we consider one class of these algorithms, those which optimize a local fitness measure, typically by using a greedy heuristic to expand a seed into a community. We perform synthetic benchmarks which indicate that an appropriate seeding strategy becomes more important as the extent of community overlap increases. We find that distinct cliques provide the best seeds. We find further support for this seeding strategy with benchmarks on a Facebook network and the yeast interactome.

  12. Electron avalanche structure determined by random walk theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    A self-consistent avalanche solution which accounts for collective long range Coulomb interactions as well as short range elastic and inelastic collisions between electrons and background atoms is made possible by a random walk technique. Results show that the electric field patterns in the early formation stages of avalanches in helium are close to those obtained from theory based on constant transport coefficients. Regions of maximum and minimum induced electrostatic potential phi are located on the axis of symmetry and within the volume covered by the electron swarm. As formation time continues, however, the region of minimum phi moves to slightly higher radii and the electric field between the extrema becomes somewhat erratic. In the intermediate formation periods the avalanche growth is slightly retarded by the high concentration of ions in the tail which oppose the external electric field. Eventually the formation of ions and electrons in the localized regions of high field strength more than offset this effect causing a very abrupt increase in avalanche growth.

  13. High-Resolution Structure of Viruses from Random Snapshots

    CERN Document Server

    Hosseinizadeh, A; Dashti, A; Fung, R; D'Souza, R M; Ourmazd, A

    2013-01-01

    The advent of the X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) has made it possible to record snapshots of biological entities injected into the X-ray beam before the onset of radiation damage. Algorithmic means must then be used to determine the snapshot orientations and reconstruct the three-dimensional structure of the object. Existing approaches are limited in reconstruction resolution to at best 1/30th of the object diameter, with the computational expense increasing as the eighth power of the ratio of diameter to resolution. We present an approach capable of exploiting object symmetries to recover three-dimensional structure to 1/100th of the object diameter, and thus reconstruct the structure of the satellite tobacco necrosis virus to atomic resolution. Combined with the previously demonstrated capability to operate at ultralow signal, our approach offers the highest reconstruction resolution for XFEL snapshots to date, and provides a potentially powerful alternative route for analysis of data from crystalline and...

  14. Piles, tabs and overlaps in navigation among documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    Navigation among documents is a frequent, but ill supported activity. Overlapping or tabbed documents are widespread, but they offer limited visibility of their content. We explore variations on navigation support: arranging documents with tabs, as overlapping windows, and in piles. In an experim......Navigation among documents is a frequent, but ill supported activity. Overlapping or tabbed documents are widespread, but they offer limited visibility of their content. We explore variations on navigation support: arranging documents with tabs, as overlapping windows, and in piles....... In an experiment we compared 11 participants’ navigation with these variations and found strong task effects. Overall, overlapping windows were preferred and their structured layout worked well with some tasks. Surprisingly, tabbed documents were efficient in tasks requiring simply finding a document. Piled...... on document navigation and its support by piling....

  15. Tata lectures on overlap fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, R

    2011-01-01

    Overlap formalism deals with the construction of chiral gauge theories on the lattice. These set of lectures provide a pedagogical introduction to the subject with emphasis on chiral anomalies and gauge field topology. Subtleties associated with the generating functional for gauge theories coupled to chiral fermions are discussed.

  16. Blood feeding patterns of mosquitoes: random or structured?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Andy M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The foraging behavior of blood-sucking arthropods is the defining biological event shaping the transmission cycle of vector-borne parasites. It is also a phenomenon that pertains to the realm of community ecology, since blood-feeding patterns of vectors can occur across a community of vertebrate hosts. Although great advances in knowledge of the genetic basis for blood-feeding choices have been reported for selected vector species, little is known about the role of community composition of vertebrate hosts in determining such patterns. Methods & Results Here, we present an analysis of feeding patterns of vectors across a variety of locations, looking at foraging patterns of communities of mosquitoes, across communities of hosts primarily comprised of mammals and birds. Using null models of species co-occurrence, which do not require ancillary information about host abundance, we found that blood-feeding patterns were aggregated in studies from multiple sites, but random in studies from a single site. This combination of results supports the idea that mosquito species in a community may rely primarily on host availability in a given landscape, and that contacts with specific hosts will be influenced more by the presence/absence of hosts than by innate mosquito choices. This observation stresses the importance of blood-feeding plasticity as a key trait explaining the emergence of many zoonotic mosquito transmitted diseases. Discussion From an epidemiological perspective our observations support the idea that phenomena promoting synchronization of vectors and hosts can promote the emergence of vector-borne zoonotic diseases, as suggested by observations on the linkages between deforestation and the emergence of several human diseases.

  17. Fast randomized approximate string matching with succinct hash data structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policriti, Alberto; Prezza, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The high throughput of modern NGS sequencers coupled with the huge sizes of genomes currently analysed, poses always higher algorithmic challenges to align short reads quickly and accurately against a reference sequence. A crucial, additional, requirement is that the data structures used should be light. The available modern solutions usually are a compromise between the mentioned constraints: in particular, indexes based on the Burrows-Wheeler transform offer reduced memory requirements at the price of lower sensitivity, while hash-based text indexes guarantee high sensitivity at the price of significant memory consumption. In this work we describe a technique that permits to attain the advantages granted by both classes of indexes. This is achieved using Hamming-aware hash functions--hash functions designed to search the entire Hamming sphere in reduced time--which are also homomorphisms on de Bruijn graphs. We show that, using this particular class of hash functions, the corresponding hash index can be represented in linear space introducing only a logarithmic slowdown (in the query length) for the lookup operation. We point out that our data structure reaches its goals without compressing its input: another positive feature, as in biological applications data is often very close to be un-compressible. The new data structure introduced in this work is called dB-hash and we show how its implementation--BW-ERNE--maintains the high sensitivity and speed of its (hash-based) predecessor ERNE, while drastically reducing space consumption. Extensive comparison experiments conducted with several popular alignment tools on both simulated and real NGS data, show, finally, that BW-ERNE is able to attain both the positive features of succinct data structures (that is, small space) and hash indexes (that is, sensitivity). In applications where space and speed are both a concern, standard methods often sacrifice accuracy to obtain competitive throughputs and memory footprints

  18. Structured Labels in Random Forests for Semantic Labelling and Object Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontschieder, Peter; Bulò, Samuel Rota; Pelillo, Marcello; Bischof, Horst

    2014-10-01

    Ensembles of randomized decision trees, known as Random Forests, have become a valuable machine learning tool for addressing many computer vision problems. Despite their popularity, few works have tried to exploit contextual and structural information in random forests in order to improve their performance. In this paper, we propose a simple and effective way to integrate contextual information in random forests, which is typically reflected in the structured output space of complex problems like semantic image labelling. Our paper has several contributions: We show how random forests can be augmented with structured label information and be used to deliver structured low-level predictions. The learning task is carried out by employing a novel split function evaluation criterion that exploits the joint distribution observed in the structured label space. This allows the forest to learn typical label transitions between object classes and avoid locally implausible label configurations. We provide two approaches for integrating the structured output predictions obtained at a local level from the forest into a concise, global, semantic labelling. We integrate our new ideas also in the Hough-forest framework with the view of exploiting contextual information at the classification level to improve the performance on the task of object detection. Finally, we provide experimental evidence for the effectiveness of our approach on different tasks: Semantic image labelling on the challenging MSRCv2 and CamVid databases, reconstruction of occluded handwritten Chinese characters on the Kaist database and pedestrian detection on the TU Darmstadt databases.

  19. XPS-and-DFT analyses of the Pb 4f — Zn 3s and Pb 5d — O 2s overlapped ambiguity contributions to the final electronic structure of bulk and thin-film Pb-modulated zincite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zatsepin, D.A. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Boukhvalov, D.W., E-mail: danil@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Theoretical Physics and Applied Mathematics Department, Ural Federal University,Mira Street 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Gavrilov, N.V. [Institute of Electrophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kurmaev, E.Z. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Zatsepin, A.F. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Cui, L. [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Shur, V. Ya.; Esin, A.A. [Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 51 Lenin Ave, 620000 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Two modes of ZnO:Pb in the bulk and surface morphologies were established: the high- and low-interaction. • It was shown the ambiguity contribution of Pb 4f − Zn 3s and Pb 5d − O 2s states into final electronic structure. • The main type of defects is PbO-like with some PbO{sub 2}-like contributions. • An applied wurzite-like structural model well agrees with experimental data obtained for zincite. - Abstract: The electronic structures of zincite Pb-modulated bulk and thin-films were studied via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and density functional theory (DFT) techniques. Both XPS data and DFT-calculations allowed the derivation of two different Pb-embedding scenarios into the ZnO-hosts. These included the high-interaction mode of Pb-impurity with initial zinc-oxygen host-lattice for the bulk morphology, accompanied with low Pb-metal losses; and the low-interaction mode for thin-films, where there was intake of Pb-impurities into the hollows of the surface. Despite dissimilar mechanisms of Pb-impurity accumulation and distribution in the bulk and thin-films zincite host-matrices, the strong Pb 4f — Zn 3s and Pb 5d — O 2s overlapped ambiguity contribution to the appropriate core-level structure and valence bands was established by XPS analysis and reproduced with the help of DFT-calculations. It was shown that the microscopic structure of the embedded lead-impurity played a crucial role in the Pb ion-beam stimulated synthesis of secondary lead-oxygen phases via large-area defect fabrication, and the difference among zincite and wurzite polymorphs played almost no role in this case.

  20. Dual resonant structure for energy harvesting from random vibration sources at low frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a design with dual resonant structure which can harvest energy from random vibration sources at low frequency range. The dual resonant structure consists of two spring-mass subsystems with different frequency responses, which exhibit strong coupling and broad bandwidth when the two masses collide with each other. Experiments with piezoelectric elements show that the energy harvesting device with dual resonant structure can generate higher power output than the sum of the two separate devices from random vibration sources.

  1. Spatial location identification of structural nonlinearities from random data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsson, A.; Magnevall, M.; Ahlin, K.; Broman, G.

    2012-02-01

    With growing demands on product performance and growing complexity of engineering structures, efficient tools for analyzing their dynamic behavior are essential. Linear techniques are well developed and often utilized. However, sometimes the errors due to linearization are too large to be acceptable, making it necessary to take nonlinear effects into account. In many practical applications it is common and reasonable to assume that the nonlinearities are highly local and thus only affect a limited set of spatial coordinates. The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to finding the spatial location of nonlinearities from measurement data, as this may not always be known beforehand. This information can be used to separate the underlying linear system from the nonlinear parts and create mathematical models for efficient parameter estimation and simulation. The presented approach builds on the reverse-path methodology and utilizes the coherence functions to determine the location of nonlinear elements. A systematic search with Multiple Input/Single Output models is conducted in order to find the nonlinear functions that best describe the nonlinear restoring forces. The obtained results indicate that the presented approach works well for identifying the location of local nonlinearities in structures. It is verified by simulation data from a cantilever beam model with two local nonlinearities and experimental data from a T-beam experimental set-up with a single local nonlinearity. A possible drawback is that a relatively large amount of data is needed. Advantages of the approach are that it only needs a single excitation point that response data at varying force amplitudes is not needed and that no prior information about the underlying linear system is needed.

  2. Overlapping transcription structure of human cytomegalovirus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-01-21

    Jan 21, 2013 ... Transcription of human cytomegalovirus UL/b′ region has been studied extensively for some genes. In this study, transcripts of the UL140 and UL141, two of the UL/b′ genes, were identified in late RNAs of three HCMV isolates using Northern blot hybridization, cDNA library screening and RACE-PCR.

  3. Overlapping transcription structure of human cytomegalovirus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transcription of human cytomegalovirus UL/b′ region has been studied extensively for some genes. In this study, transcripts of the UL140 and UL141, two of the UL/b′ genes, were identified in late RNAs of three HCMV isolates using Northern blot hybridization, cDNA library screening and RACE-PCR. At least three ...

  4. Surface quasi periodic and random structures based on nanomotor lithography for light trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golghasemi Sorkhabi, Sh.; Ahmadi-Kandjani, S.; Cousseau, F.; Loumaigne, M.; Zielinska, S.; Ortyl, E.; Barille, R.

    2017-07-01

    We compare the characteristics of two types of patterns obtained with two azopolymer materials: a Gaussian random pattern and a quasi-random grating pattern. The surface structurations have been obtained with a simple bottom-up technique, illuminating azopolymer thin films with a single laser beam. We demonstrate the interesting generated properties of these two surfaces. In particular, the surface with quasi-random gratings can address beam splitting for light coupling in different directions in an ultra-thin film. We use these two surfaces as a mold and replicate them on a transparent elastomeric material and demonstrate a very good light entrapment. We also show that the efficiency of light trapping is 20% better with the quasi-random gratings, than with the Gaussian random surface, and is close to 40%.

  5. [Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odler, Balázs; Müller, Veronika

    2016-08-01

    Obstructive lung diseases represent a major health problem worldwide due to their high prevalence associated with elevated socioeconomic costs. Bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are chronic obstructive ventilatory disorders with airway inflammation, however they are separate nosological entities based on thedifferent development, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, and prognostic features. However, these diseases may coexist and can be defined as the coexistence of increased variability of airflow in a patient with incompletely reversible airway obstruction. This phenotype is called asthma - chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome. The syndrome is a clinical and scientific challenge as the majority of these patients have been excluded from the clinical and pharmacological trials, thus well-defined clinical characteristics and therapeutic approaches are lacking. The aim of this review is to summarize the currently available literature focusing on pathophysiological and clinical features, and discuss possible therapeutic approaches of patients with asthma - chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(33), 1304-1313.

  6. Studies on Structural and Resistive Switching Properties of Al/ZnO/Al Structured Resistive Random Access Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongxia; Chen, Yiming; Wu, Xin; Xi, Junhua; Huang, Yanwei; Ji, Zhenguo

    Recently, resistive random access memory has been continuously investigated in order to replace the flash memory. In this paper, Al/ZnO/Al structured device was fabricated by magnetron sputtering and vacuum thermal evaporation. Systematic study has been conducted to explore the structural, morphological, and the resistive switching properties of ZnO films with Al metal as both bottom and top electrodes. The resistive switching mechanism of Al/ZnO/Al device was analyzed based on the above study.

  7. Special quasirandom structures for binary/ternary group IV random alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.

    2010-06-01

    Simulation of defect interactions in binary/ternary group IV semiconductor alloys at the density functional theory level is difficult due to the random distribution of the constituent atoms. The special quasirandom structures approach is a computationally efficient way to describe the random nature. We systematically study the efficacy of the methodology and generate a number of special quasirandom cells for future use. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the technique, the electronic structures of E centers in Si1-xGex and Si1-x -yGexSny alloys are discussed for a range of nearest neighbor environments. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Coupling Neumann development and component mode synthesis methods for stochastic analysis of random structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driss Sarsri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a method to calculate the first two moments (mean and variance of the structural dynamics response of a structure with uncertain variables and subjected to random excitation. For this, Newmark method is used to transform the equation of motion of the structure into a quasistatic equilibrium equation in the time domain. The Neumann development method was coupled with Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the statistical values of the random response. The use of modal synthesis methods can reduce the dimensions of the model before integration of the equation of motion. Numerical applications have been developed to highlight effectiveness of the method developed to analyze the stochastic response of large structures.

  9. Overlap syndrome: a diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kaushal Mahendra; Kanitkar, Sampada

    2012-11-27

    We report an interesting case of a young patient who came with a concern for missing teeth and lack of hair on scalp and body. Examination revealed complete absence of teeth, absence of eyebrows, eyelashes and hair over scalp. He was short-statured, had hyperextensible joints and hyperelastic skin, protuberant lips and many other anomalies such that the overall pattern of defects was not recognisable. A wide array of investigations involving the dental and medical faculties were done; however, the final diagnosis could not be reached, since it appeared to involve features of more than one syndrome, thus the name 'overlap syndrome'.

  10. Multisite Randomized Controlled Trial Examining Intelligent Tutoring of Structure Strategy for Fifth-Grade Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijekumar, Kausalai; Meyer, Bonnie J. F.; Lei, Pui-Wa; Lin, Yu-Chu; Johnson, Lori A.; Spielvogel, James A.; Shurmatz, Kathryn M.; Ray, Melissa; Cook, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a large scale randomized controlled trial to study the efficacy of a web-based intelligent tutoring system for the structure strategy designed to improve content area reading comprehension. The research was conducted with 128 fifth-grade classrooms within 12 school districts in rural and suburban settings. Classrooms within…

  11. High Efficiency Computation of the Variances of Structural Evolutionary Random Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Lin

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available For structures subjected to stationary or evolutionary white/colored random noise, their various response variances satisfy algebraic or differential Lyapunov equations. The solution of these Lyapunov equations used to be very difficult. A precise integration method is proposed in the present paper, which solves such Lyapunov equations accurately and very efficiently.

  12. Intervention for Verb Argument Structure in Children with Persistent SLI: A Randomized Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbels, Susan H.; van der Lely, Heather K. J.; Dockrell, Julie E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The authors aimed to establish whether 2 theoretically motivated interventions could improve use of verb argument structure in pupils with persistent specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Twenty-seven pupils with SLI (ages 11;0-16;1) participated in this randomized controlled trial with "blind" assessment. Participants were randomly…

  13. Generation of non-overlapping fiber architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapelle, Lucie; Lévesque, M.; Brøndsted, Povl

    2015-01-01

    step toward the computation of their physical properties. In this work, a realistic 3D model is developed to describe the architecture of a complex fiber structure. The domain of application of the model could include natural fibers composites, wood fibers materials, papers, mineral and steel wools......Numerical models generating actual fiber architecture by including parameters such as the fiber geometry and arrangement are a powerful tool to explore the relation between the fiber architecture and mechanical properties. The generation of virtual architectures of fibrous materials is the first......: a repulsion force to suppress the overlap between two fibers and a bending and stretching force to ensure that the fiber structure is kept unchanged. The model can be used as the geometrical basis for further finite-element modelling....

  14. The Hidden Flow Structure and Metric Space of Network Embedding Algorithms Based on Random Walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Weiwei; Gong, Li; Lou, Xiaodan; Zhang, Jiang

    2017-10-13

    Network embedding which encodes all vertices in a network as a set of numerical vectors in accordance with it's local and global structures, has drawn widespread attention. Network embedding not only learns significant features of a network, such as the clustering and linking prediction but also learns the latent vector representation of the nodes which provides theoretical support for a variety of applications, such as visualization, link prediction, node classification, and recommendation. As the latest progress of the research, several algorithms based on random walks have been devised. Although those algorithms have drawn much attention for their high scores in learning efficiency and accuracy, there is still a lack of theoretical explanation, and the transparency of those algorithms has been doubted. Here, we propose an approach based on the open-flow network model to reveal the underlying flow structure and its hidden metric space of different random walk strategies on networks. We show that the essence of embedding based on random walks is the latent metric structure defined on the open-flow network. This not only deepens our understanding of random- walk-based embedding algorithms but also helps in finding new potential applications in network embedding.

  15. RESEARCH OF RELIABILITY OF A LONG-SPAN STRUCTURE EXPOSED TO RANDOM SEISMIC IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondrus Vladimir L'vovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the problem of assessment of structural reliability in the course of random seismic impacts. The authors apply the Monte Carlo method and the method of canonical decomposition to generate accelerograms, and explicit time integration methods, by taking account of physical, geometrical and structural nonlinearities. The research results were subjected to statistical post-processing, and the analysis revealed that the structure demonstrated its high reliability. Therefore, the authors believe that the proposed approaches can be used to solve reliability problems that constitute variable processes.

  16. Nonlinear random responses of a structure parametrically coupled with liquid sloshing in a cylindrical tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Ibrahim, R. A.

    2005-06-01

    The nonlinear random interaction of an elastic structure with liquid sloshing dynamics in a cylindrical tank is investigated in the neighborhood of 2:1 internal resonance. Such internal resonance takes place when the natural frequency of the elastic structure is close to twice the natural frequency of the anti-symmetric sloshing mode (1,1). The excitation is generated from the response of a linear shaping filter subjected to a Gaussian white noise. The analytical model involves three sloshing modes (1,1), (0,1) and (2,1). The system response statistics and stability boundaries are numerically estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. The influence of the excitation center frequency, its bandwidth, and the liquid level on the system responses is studied. It is found that there is an irregular energy exchange between the structure and the liquid free surface motion when the center frequency is close to the structure natural frequency. Depending on the excitation power spectral density, the liquid free surface experiences zero motion, uncertain motion (intermittency), partially developed motion, and fully developed random motion. The structure response probability density function is almost Gaussian, while the liquid elevation deviates from normality. The unstable region, where the liquid motion occurs, becomes wider as the excitation intensity increases or as the bandwidth decreases. As the liquid depth or the structure spring stiffness decreases, the region of nonlinear interaction shrinks and is associated with a shift of the peak of the structure mean square response toward the left side of the frequency axis.

  17. Proposal of the Methodology for Analysing the Structural Relationship in the System of Random Process Using the Data Mining Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    German Michaľčonok; Michaela Horalová Kalinová; Martin Németh

    2014-01-01

    .... In this paper, we will approach the area of the random processes, present the process of structural analysis and select suitable circuit data mining methods applicable to the area of structural analysis...

  18. The 3.2 Å resolution structure of a receptor: CheA:CheW signaling complex defines overlapping binding sites and key residue interactions within bacterial chemosensory arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxiao; Fleetwood, Aaron D; Bayas, Camille; Bilwes, Alexandrine M; Ortega, Davi R; Falke, Joseph J; Zhulin, Igor B; Crane, Brian R

    2013-06-04

    Bacterial chemosensory arrays are composed of extended networks of chemoreceptors (also known as methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins, MCPs), the histidine kinase CheA, and the adaptor protein CheW. Models of these arrays have been developed from cryoelectron microscopy, crystal structures of binary and ternary complexes, NMR spectroscopy, mutational, data and biochemical studies. A new 3.2 Å resolution crystal structure of a Thermotoga maritima MCP protein interaction region in complex with the CheA kinase-regulatory module (P4-P5) and adaptor protein CheW provides sufficient detail to define residue contacts at the interfaces formed among the three proteins. As in a previous 4.5 Å resolution structure, CheA-P5 and CheW interact through conserved hydrophobic surfaces at the ends of their β-barrels to form pseudo 6-fold symmetric rings in which the two proteins alternate around the circumference. The interface between P5 subdomain 1 and CheW subdomain 2 was anticipated from previous studies, whereas the related interface between CheW subdomain 1 and P5 subdomain 2 has only been observed in these ring assemblies. The receptor forms an unexpected structure in that the helical hairpin tip of each subunit has "unzipped" into a continuous α-helix; four such helices associate into a bundle, and the tetramers bridge adjacent P5-CheW rings in the lattice through interactions with both P5 and CheW. P5 and CheW each bind a receptor helix with a groove of conserved hydrophobic residues between subdomains 1 and 2. P5 binds the receptor helix N-terminal to the tip region (lower site), whereas CheW binds the same helix with inverted polarity near the bundle end (upper site). Sequence comparisons among different evolutionary classes of chemotaxis proteins show that the binding partners undergo correlated changes at key residue positions that involve the lower site. Such evolutionary analyses argue that both CheW and P5 bind to the receptor tip at overlapping positions

  19. Simulation of quantum chromodynamics with overlap fermions; Simulation der Quantenchromodynamik mit Overlap-Fermionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streuer, T.

    2005-07-15

    In this thesis QCD on the lattice was simulated with overlap fermions in the valence-quark approximation. We haver studied the spectrum of the light hadrons, spectral properties of the Dirac operator as well as hadronic matrix elements. The dependence of the masses of the light hadrons on the quark mass agrees with the prediction of the chiral perturbation theory. especially the artefacts of the valence-quark approximation at small quark masses are clearly recognizable. The values of the hadron masses determined by us exhibit deviations from the experimental values, which lie in the order of magnitude of ten percent. This we interpret as effect of the valence-quark approximation. The spectral properties of the Dirac operator are far reachingly fixed by the chiral symmetry. In order to study this property on the lattice, it is therefore indispensable to work with a lattice discretization, which respects the chiral symmetry, so that between the topology of the gauge field and the zero modes of the Dirac operator the same connection exists as in the continuum - the Atiyah-Singer index theorem. We have used this connection in order to determine the topological susceptibility, which enters the Witten-Veneziano formula for the mass of the {eta}' particle. The spectral density of the Dirac operator, which we have determined, follows the shape predicted by the chiral perturbation theory; from this we could determine the parameters {sigma} and {delta} of the effective Lagangian density. The distribution of the smallest eigenvalues of the Dirac operator agrees with the prediction of the random matrix theory. The value for the axial charge of the nucleon calculated by us deviates by about ten percent from the experimentally determined value g{sub A}=1.26. The order of magnitude of this deviation is typical for the valence-quark approximation. The matrix element v{sub 2b}, which enters the operator-product expansion of the first moment of the unpolarized nucleon structure

  20. A general symplectic method for the response analysis of infinitely periodic structures subjected to random excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available A general symplectic method for the random response analysis of infinitely periodic structures subjected to stationary/non-stationary random excitations is developed using symplectic mathematics in conjunction with variable separation and the pseudo-excitation method (PEM. Starting from the equation of motion for a single loaded substructure, symplectic analysis is firstly used to eliminate the dependent degrees of the freedom through condensation. A Fourier expansion of the condensed equation of motion is then applied to separate the variables of time and wave number, thus enabling the necessary recurrence scheme to be developed. The random response is finally determined by implementing PEM. The proposed method is justified by comparison with results available in the literature and is then applied to a more complicated time-dependent coupled system.

  1. Impact of random safety analyses on structure, process and outcome indicators: multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodí, María; Oliva, Iban; Martín, Maria Cruz; Gilavert, Maria Carmen; Muñoz, Carlos; Olona, Montserrat; Sirgo, Gonzalo

    2017-12-01

    To assess the impact of a real-time random safety tool on structure, process and outcome indicators. Prospective study conducted over a period of 12 months in two adult patient intensive care units. Safety rounds were conducted three days a week ascertaining 37 safety measures (grouped into 10 blocks). In each round, 50% of the patients and 50% of the measures were randomized. The impact of this safety tool was analysed on indicators of structure (safety culture, healthcare protocols), process (improvement proportion related to tool application, IPR) and outcome (mortality, average stay, rate of catheter-related bacteraemias and rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia, VAP). A total of 1214 patient-days were analysed. Structure indicators: the use of the safety tool was associated with an increase in the safety climate and the creation/modification of healthcare protocols (sedation/analgesia and weaning). Process indicators: Twelve of the 37 measures had an IPR > 10%; six showed a progressive decrease in the IPR over the study period. Nursing workloads and patient severity on the day of analysis were independently associated with a higher IPR in half of the blocks of variables. Outcome indicators: A significant decrease in the rate of VAP was observed. The real-time random safety tool improved the care process and adherence to clinical practice guidelines and was associated with an improvement in structure, process and outcome indicators.

  2. POROSIMETRY BY DOUBLE-RANDOM MULTIPLE TREE STRUCTURING IN VIRTUAL CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Stroeven

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Two different porosimetry methods are presented in two successive papers. Inspiration for the development came from the rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT approach used in robotics. The novel methods are applied to virtual cementitious materials produced by a modern concurrent algorithm-based discrete element modeling system, HADES. This would render possible realistically simulating all aspects of particulate matter that influence structure-sensitive features of the pore network structure in maturing concrete, namely size, shape and dispersion of aggregate and cement particles. Pore space is a complex tortuous entity. Practical methods conventionally applied for assessment of pore size distribution may fail or present biased information. Among them, mercury intrusion porosimetry and 2D quantitative image analysis are popular. The mathematical morphology operator “opening” can be applied to sections and even provide 3D information on pore size distribution, provided isotropy is guaranteed. Unfortunately, aggregate grain surfaces lead to pore anisotropy. The presented methods allow exploration of pore space in the virtual material, after which pore size distribution is derived from star volume measurements.  In addition to size of pores their continuity is of crucial importance for durability estimation. Double-random multiple tree structuring (DRaMuTS, presented herein, and random node structuring (RaNoS provide such information. The latter method will be introduced in a next issue of IA&S.

  3. Managing Information Uncertainty in Wave Height Modeling for the Offshore Structural Analysis through Random Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keqin Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents a reliability study for an offshore jacket structure with emphasis on the features of nonconventional modeling. Firstly, a random set model is formulated for modeling the random waves in an ocean site. Then, a jacket structure is investigated in a pushover analysis to identify the critical wave direction and key structural elements. This is based on the ultimate base shear strength. The selected probabilistic models are adopted for the important structural members and the wave direction is specified in the weakest direction of the structure for a conservative safety analysis. The wave height model is processed in a P-box format when it is used in the numerical analysis. The models are applied to find the bounds of the failure probabilities for the jacket structure. The propagation of this wave model to the uncertainty in results is investigated in both an interval analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. The results are compared in context of information content and numerical accuracy. Further, the failure probability bounds are compared with the conventional probabilistic approach.

  4. Analysis of the structure of random packings of powder particles in laser additive technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under consideration are the peculiarities of the computer simulation of random packings of the particles involved in the laser additive technologies of selective laser melting and sintering of powders. The results of definition of random packings of monodisperse solid spheres are presented. Numerical analysis and structural investigations of their morphology are carried out. The peculiar character of the theoretical and computer models used for the analysis of particle packings in real powder media is understood. The technique of ray tracing is proposed for the description of laser radiation absorption and scattering in the layer of the stainless steel powder with the structure of the loose packing of mono-size spherical particles

  5. Random amino acid mutations and protein misfolding lead to Shannon limit in sequence-structure communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Martin Lisewski

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of genomic information from coding sequence to protein structure during protein synthesis is subject to stochastic errors. To analyze transmission limits in the presence of spurious errors, Shannon's noisy channel theorem is applied to a communication channel between amino acid sequences and their structures established from a large-scale statistical analysis of protein atomic coordinates. While Shannon's theorem confirms that in close to native conformations information is transmitted with limited error probability, additional random errors in sequence (amino acid substitutions and in structure (structural defects trigger a decrease in communication capacity toward a Shannon limit at 0.010 bits per amino acid symbol at which communication breaks down. In several controls, simulated error rates above a critical threshold and models of unfolded structures always produce capacities below this limiting value. Thus an essential biological system can be realistically modeled as a digital communication channel that is (a sensitive to random errors and (b restricted by a Shannon error limit. This forms a novel basis for predictions consistent with observed rates of defective ribosomal products during protein synthesis, and with the estimated excess of mutual information in protein contact potentials.

  6. Random amino acid mutations and protein misfolding lead to Shannon limit in sequence-structure communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisewski, Andreas Martin

    2008-09-01

    The transmission of genomic information from coding sequence to protein structure during protein synthesis is subject to stochastic errors. To analyze transmission limits in the presence of spurious errors, Shannon's noisy channel theorem is applied to a communication channel between amino acid sequences and their structures established from a large-scale statistical analysis of protein atomic coordinates. While Shannon's theorem confirms that in close to native conformations information is transmitted with limited error probability, additional random errors in sequence (amino acid substitutions) and in structure (structural defects) trigger a decrease in communication capacity toward a Shannon limit at 0.010 bits per amino acid symbol at which communication breaks down. In several controls, simulated error rates above a critical threshold and models of unfolded structures always produce capacities below this limiting value. Thus an essential biological system can be realistically modeled as a digital communication channel that is (a) sensitive to random errors and (b) restricted by a Shannon error limit. This forms a novel basis for predictions consistent with observed rates of defective ribosomal products during protein synthesis, and with the estimated excess of mutual information in protein contact potentials.

  7. Influence of melt structure on the crystallization behavior and polymorphic composition of polypropylene random copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Polymer Research Institute of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Ecole Normale Supérieure, CNRS-ENS-UPMC UMR 8640, 24 Rue Lhomond, Paris 75005 (France); Chen, Zhengfang [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Polymer Research Institute of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Kang, Jian, E-mail: jiankang@scu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Polymer Research Institute of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Yang, Feng; Chen, Jinyao; Cao, Ya; Xiang, Ming [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Polymer Research Institute of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2015-03-20

    Highlights: • We prepared β-PPR and studied its crystallization behavior with different melt structures. • We observed surprising synergetic effect between β-NA and the ordered structures. • We explored the nature of ordered structures by calculating the equilibrium temperature. - Abstract: Polypropylene random copolymer (PPR) is one of important polypropylene types for the application fields. However, due to the random copolymer chain configuration, it is difficult to obtain high proportion of β-phase even under the influence of β-nucleating agent (β-NA). In this study, the melt structure (namely, the content of ordered structures in the melt) of β-nucleated ethylene-copolymerized PPR (β-PPR) was controlled by tuning the fusion temperature (T{sub f}), and its impact on the crystallization and polymorphic behavior of β-PPR was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), polarized optical microscopy (PLM) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The result revealed that compared with the β-nucleated iPP homo-polymer, it is more difficult for β-PPR to form β-crystals; interestingly, when T{sub f} is in the temperature range of 162–173 °C, the ordered structures survived in melt exhibit high β-nucleation efficiency under the influence of β-NA, resulting in significant increase of β-phase proportion and evident variation of crystalline morphology, which is called the Ordered Structure Effect (OSE). Moreover, through investigating the self-nucleation behavior and equilibrium melting temperature of pure PPR (non-nucleated PPR), the physical nature of the lower and upper limiting T{sub f} temperatures for the occurrence of OSE in β-PPR was explored; the role of ethylene co-monomer in the occurrence of OSE was discussed.

  8. Overlap syndromes among autoimmune liver diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Christian; Beuers, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    The three major immune disorders of the liver are autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Variant forms of these diseases are generally called overlap syndromes, although there has been no standardized definition. Patients with overlap syndromes present with both hepatitic and cholestatic serum liver tests and have histological features of AIH and PBC or PSC. The AIH-PBC overlap syndrome is the most common form, affecting almost 10% of adults with AIH or PBC. Single cases of AIH and autoimmune cholangitis (AMA-negative PBC) overlap syndrome have also been reported. The AIH-PSC overlap syndrome is predominantly found in children, adolescents and young adults with AIH or PSC. Interestingly, transitions from one autoimmune to another have also been reported in a minority of patients, especially transitions from PBC to AIH-PBC overlap syndrome. Overlap syndromes show a progressive course towards liver cirrhosis and liver failure without treatment. Therapy for overlap syndromes is empiric, since controlled trials are not available in these rare disorders. Anticholestatic therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid is usually combined with immunosuppressive therapy with corticosteroids and/or azathioprine in both AIH-PBC and AIH-PSC overlap syndromes. In end-stage disease, liver transplantation is the treatment of choice. PMID:18528934

  9. Presentation of dynamically overlapping auditory messages in user interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, III, Albert Louis [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation describes a methodology and example implementation for the dynamic regulation of temporally overlapping auditory messages in computer-user interfaces. The regulation mechanism exists to schedule numerous overlapping auditory messages in such a way that each individual message remains perceptually distinct from all others. The method is based on the research conducted in the area of auditory scene analysis. While numerous applications have been engineered to present the user with temporally overlapped auditory output, they have generally been designed without any structured method of controlling the perceptual aspects of the sound. The method of scheduling temporally overlapping sounds has been extended to function in an environment where numerous applications can present sound independently of each other. The Centralized Audio Presentation System is a global regulation mechanism that controls all audio output requests made from all currently running applications. The notion of multimodal objects is explored in this system as well. Each audio request that represents a particular message can include numerous auditory representations, such as musical motives and voice. The Presentation System scheduling algorithm selects the best representation according to the current global auditory system state, and presents it to the user within the request constraints of priority and maximum acceptable latency. The perceptual conflicts between temporally overlapping audio messages are examined in depth through the Computational Auditory Scene Synthesizer. At the heart of this system is a heuristic-based auditory scene synthesis scheduling method. Different schedules of overlapped sounds are evaluated and assigned penalty scores. High scores represent presentations that include perceptual conflicts between over-lapping sounds. Low scores indicate fewer and less serious conflicts. A user study was conducted to validate that the perceptual difficulties predicted by

  10. A Statistical Model Updating Method of Beam Structures with Random Parameters under Static Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new statistical model updating method of beam structures with random parameters under static load. The new updating method considers structural parameters and measurement errors to be random. To reduce the unmeasured degrees of freedom in the finite element model, a static condensation technique is used in this method. A statistical model updating equation with respect to element updated factors is established afterwards. The element updated factors are expanded as random multivariate power series. Using a high-order perturbation technique, the statistical model updating equation can be solved to obtain the coefficients of the power series expansions of the element updated factors. The results of two numerical examples show that for the solution of the statistical model updating equation, the accuracy of the proposed method agrees with that of the Monte Carlo simulation method very well. The static responses obtained by the updated finite element model coincide with the measured results very well. Finally, a series of static load tests of the concrete beam are conducted to testify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Monadic structures over an ordered universal random graph and finite automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudakov, Sergey M [Tver' State University, Tver' (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-31

    We continue the investigation of the expressive power of the language of predicate logic for finite algebraic systems embedded in infinite systems. This investigation stems from papers of M. A. Taitslin, M. Benedikt and L. Libkin, among others. We study the properties of a finite monadic system which can be expressed by formulae if such a system is embedded in a random graph that is totally ordered in an arbitrary way. The Buechi representation is used to connect monadic structures and formal languages. It is shown that, if one restricts attention to formulae that are <-invariant in totally ordered random graphs, then these formulae correspond to finite automata. We show that =-invariant formulae expressing the properties of the embedded system itself can express only Boolean combinations of properties of the form 'the cardinality of an intersection of one-place predicates belongs to one of finitely many fixed finite or infinite arithmetic progressions'.

  12. Structural Analysis of Pressurized Small Diameter Lines in a Random Vibration Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark; Ridnour, Andrew; Brethen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The pressurization and propellant feed lines for the Ares 1 Upper Stage Reaction and Roll Control Systems (ReCS and RoCS) were required to be in a high g-load random vibration flight environment. The lines connected the system components and were filled with both liquid hydrazine and gaseous helium. They are considered small and varied between one fourth to one inch in diameter. The random vibration of the lines was considered to be base excitation through the mating components and mounting hardware. It was found that reducing the amount of support structure for the lines added flexibility to the system and improved the line stresses from random vibration, but caused higher stresses from the static g-loads. The locations and number of brackets were optimized by analyzing the mode shapes of the lines causing high stresses. The use of brackets that only constrain motion in the direction of concern further reduced the stresses in the lines. Finite element analysis was used to perform the analysis. The lines were pre-stressed by temperature and internal pressure with fluid and insulation included as non-structural mass. Base excitation was added to the model using Power Spectral Density (PSD) data for the expected flight loads. The random vibration and static g-load cases were combined to obtain the total stress in the lines. This approach advances the state of the art in line analysis by using FEA to predict the stresses in the lines and to optimize the entire system based on the expected flight environment. Adding flexibility to lines has been used in piping system for temperature loads, but in flight environments flexibility has been limited for the static stresses. Adding flexibility to the system in a flight environment by reducing brackets has the benefit of reducing stresses and weight

  13. Random Neighborhood Graphs as Models of Fracture Networks on Rocks: Structural and Dynamical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Estrada, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new model to account for the main structural characteristics of rock fracture networks (RFNs). The model is based on a generalization of the random neighborhood graphs to consider fractures embedded into rectangular spaces. We study a series of 29 real-world RFNs and find the best fit with the random rectangular neighborhood graphs (RRNGs) proposed here. We show that this model captures most of the structural characteristics of the RFNs and allows a distinction between small and more spherical rocks and large and more elongated ones. We use a diffusion equation on the graphs in order to model diffusive processes taking place through the channels of the RFNs. We find a small set of structural parameters that highly correlates with the average diffusion time in the RFNs. In particular, the second smallest eigenvalue of the Laplacian matrix is a good predictor of the average diffusion time on RFNs, showing a Pearson correlation coefficient larger than $0.99$ with the average diffusion time on RFNs. ...

  14. Electrostatic energy harvesting device with dual resonant structure for wideband random vibration sources at low frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Wang, Tianyang; Zhang, Ai; Peng, Zhuoteng; Luo, Dan; Chen, Rui; Wang, Fei

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we present design and test of a broadband electrostatic energy harvester with a dual resonant structure, which consists of two cantilever-mass subsystems each with a mass attached at the free edge of a cantilever. Comparing to traditional devices with single resonant frequency, the proposed device with dual resonant structure can resonate at two frequencies. Furthermore, when one of the cantilever-masses is oscillating at resonance, the vibration amplitude is large enough to make it collide with the other mass, which provides strong mechanical coupling between the two subsystems. Therefore, this device can harvest a decent power output from vibration sources at a broad frequency range. During the measurement, continuous power output up to 6.2-9.8 μW can be achieved under external vibration amplitude of 9.3 m/s2 at a frequency range from 36.3 Hz to 48.3 Hz, which means the bandwidth of the device is about 30% of the central frequency. The broad bandwidth of the device provides a promising application for energy harvesting from the scenarios with random vibration sources. The experimental results indicate that with the dual resonant structure, the vibration-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency can be improved by 97% when an external random vibration with a low frequency filter is applied.

  15. Solution NMR of MPS-1 reveals a random coil cytosolic domain structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Li

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans MPS1 is a single transmembrane helical auxiliary subunit that co-localizes with the voltage-gated potassium channel KVS1 in the nematode nervous system. MPS-1 shares high homology with KCNE (potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E member auxiliary subunits, and its cytosolic domain was reported to have a serine/threonine kinase activity that modulates KVS1 channel function via phosphorylation. In this study, NMR spectroscopy indicated that the full length and truncated MPS-1 cytosolic domain (134-256 in the presence or absence of n-dodecylphosphocholine detergent micelles adopted a highly flexible random coil secondary structure. In contrast, protein kinases usually adopt a stable folded conformation in order to implement substrate recognition and phosphoryl transfer. The highly flexible random coil secondary structure suggests that MPS-1 in the free state is unstructured but may require a substrate or binding partner to adopt stable structure required for serine/threonine kinase activity.

  16. Markov random field-based statistical character structure modeling for handwritten Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jia; Liu, Zhi-Qiang

    2008-05-01

    This paper proposes a statistical-structural character modeling method based on Markov random fields (MRFs) for handwritten Chinese character recognition (HCCR). The stroke relationships of a Chinese character reflect its structure, which can be statistically represented by the neighborhood system and clique potentials within the MRF framework. Based on the prior knowledge of character structures, we design the neighborhood system that accounts for the most important stroke relationships. We penalize the structurally mismatched stroke relationships with MRFs using the prior clique potentials, and derive the likelihood clique potentials from Gaussian mixture models, which encode the large variations of stroke relationships statistically. In the proposed HCCR system, we use the single-site likelihood clique potentials to extract many candidate strokes from character images, and use the pairsite clique potentials to determine the best structural match between the input candidate strokes and the MRF-based character models by relaxation labeling. The experiments on the KAIST character database demonstrate that MRFs can statistically model character structures, and work well in the HCCR system.

  17. Overlap syndromes among autoimmune liver diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rust, Christian; Beuers, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    The three major immune disorders of the liver are autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Variant forms of these diseases are generally called overlap syndromes, although there has been no standardise definition. Patients with overlap

  18. Neural overlap in processing music and speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique; Lagrois, Marie-Élaine; Armony, Jorge L.

    2015-01-01

    Neural overlap in processing music and speech, as measured by the co-activation of brain regions in neuroimaging studies, may suggest that parts of the neural circuitries established for language may have been recycled during evolution for musicality, or vice versa that musicality served as a springboard for language emergence. Such a perspective has important implications for several topics of general interest besides evolutionary origins. For instance, neural overlap is an important premise for the possibility of music training to influence language acquisition and literacy. However, neural overlap in processing music and speech does not entail sharing neural circuitries. Neural separability between music and speech may occur in overlapping brain regions. In this paper, we review the evidence and outline the issues faced in interpreting such neural data, and argue that converging evidence from several methodologies is needed before neural overlap is taken as evidence of sharing. PMID:25646513

  19. Generalized linear longitudinal mixed models with linear covariance structure and multiplicative random effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, René; Jørgensen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a versatile class of multiplicative generalized linear longitudinal mixed models (GLLMM) with additive dispersion components, based on explicit modelling of the covariance structure. The class incorporates a longitudinal structure into the random effects models and retains...... a marginal as well as a conditional interpretation. The estimation procedure is based on a computationally efficient quasi-score method for the regression parameters combined with a REML-like bias-corrected Pearson estimating function for the dispersion and correlation parameters. This avoids...... the multidimensional integral of the conventional GLMM likelihood and allows an extension of the robust empirical sandwich estimator for use with both association and regression parameters. The method is applied to a set of otholit data, used for age determination of fish....

  20. Numerical simulation of fibrous biomaterials with randomly distributed fiber network structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Stanciulescu, Ilinca

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a computational framework to simulate the mechanical behavior of fibrous biomaterials with randomly distributed fiber networks. A random walk algorithm is implemented to generate the synthetic fiber network in 2D used in simulations. The embedded fiber approach is then adopted to model the fibers as embedded truss elements in the ground matrix, which is essentially equivalent to the affine fiber kinematics. The fiber-matrix interaction is partially considered in the sense that the two material components deform together, but no relative movement is considered. A variational approach is carried out to derive the element residual and stiffness matrices for finite element method (FEM), in which material and geometric nonlinearities are both included. Using a data structure proposed to record the network geometric information, the fiber network is directly incorporated into the FEM simulation without significantly increasing the computational cost. A mesh sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the influence of mesh size on various simulation results. The proposed method can be easily combined with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to include the influence of the stochastic nature of the network and capture the material behavior in an average sense. The computational framework proposed in this work goes midway between homogenizing the fiber network into the surrounding matrix and accounting for the fully coupled fiber-matrix interaction at the segment length scale, and can be used to study the connection between the microscopic structure and the macro-mechanical behavior of fibrous biomaterials with a reasonable computational cost.

  1. Randomized Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Structured Educational Program for Patients With Essential Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, Sabine; Niederl, Ella; Kos, Cornelia; Mrak, Peter; Ederer, Herbert; Rakovac, Ivo; Beck, Peter; Kraler, Elisabeth; Stoff, Ingrid; Klima, Gert; Pieske, Burkert M; Pieber, Thomas R; Zweiker, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Adherence to medication and lifestyle interventions are essential keys for the management of hypertension. In this respect, a structured educational program for hypertensive patients has got remarkable merits (herz.leben). In order to determine the isolated effect of participation in the educational program, neglecting the possible impact of more intense care, this prospective multicenter randomized controlled study was designed (NCT00453037). A total of 256 patients in 13 centers were enrolled and randomly assigned to 2 groups (G). G-I (n = 137) underwent the educational program immediately (T-0), G-II (n = 119) after 6 months (T-6). Follow-up visits were done after 6 (T-6) and 12 (T-12) months. Primary endpoint was a difference in office blood pressure (BP) at T-6, when only G-I had undergone the educational program. Patients' baseline characteristics were comparable. At T-6, systolic office and home BP were significantly lower in G-I compared to G-II: office BP systolic 139 (134-150) mm Hg vs. 150 (135-165) mm Hg (P educational program differences in BP disappeared. The results of this multicenter randomized controlled study provide significant evidence for benefit by participation in a structured educational program. Positive effects seem to be mediated by better adherence and life style changes due to higher levels of information and patient empowerment. Therefore, educational strategies should be considered as standard of care for hypertensive patients. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Anatomo-clinical overlapping maps (AnaCOM): a new method to create anatomo-functional maps from neuropsychological tests and structural MRI scan of subjects with brain lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkingnehun, Serge R. J.; du Boisgueheneuc, Foucaud; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Zhang, Sandy X.; Levy, Richard; Dubois, Bruno

    2004-04-01

    We have developed a new technique to analyze correlations between brain anatomy and its neurological functions. The technique is based on the anatomic MRI of patients with brain lesions who are administered neuropsychological tests. Brain lesions of the MRI scans are first manually segmented. The MRI volumes are then normalized to a reference map, using the segmented area as a mask. After normalization, the brain lesions of the MRI are segmented again in order to redefine the border of the lesions in the context of the normalized brain. Once the MRI is segmented, the patient's score on the neuropsychological test is assigned to each voxel in the lesioned area, while the rest of the voxels of the image are set to 0. Subsequently, the individual patient's MRI images are superimposed, and each voxel is reassigned the average score of the patients who have a lesion at that voxel. A threshold is applied to remove regions having less than three overlaps. This process leads to an anatomo-functional map that links brain areas to functional loss. Other maps can be created to aid in analyzing the functional maps, such as one that indicates the 95% confidence interval of the averaged scores for each area. This anatomo-clinical overlapping map (AnaCOM) method was used to obtain functional maps from patients with lesions in the superior frontal gyrus. By finding particular subregions more responsible for a particular deficit, this method can generate new hypotheses to be tested by conventional group methods.

  3. Can log-periodic power law structures arise from random fluctuations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnitza, Jan Henrik; Leker, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Recent research has established log-periodic power law (LPPL) patterns prior to the detonation of the German stock index (DAX) bubble in 1998. The purpose of this article is to explore whether a Langevin equation extracted from real world data can generate synthetic time series with comparable LPPL structures. To this end, we first estimate the stochastic process underlying the DAX log-returns during the period from mid-1997 until end-2003. The employed data set contains about 3.93ṡ106 intraday DAX quotes at a sampling rate of 15 s. Our results indicate that the DAX log-returns can be described as a Markov process. As a consequence, a Langevin equation is derived. Based on this model equation, we run extensive simulations in order to generate 100 synthetic DAX trajectories each covering 3000 trading days. We find LPPL behavior in ten artificial time series. Moreover, we can establish a link between LPPL patterns and ensuing bubble bursts in seven synthetic 600-week windows. However, the LPPL components in most synthetic trajectories differ fundamentally from those LPPL structures that have previously been detected in real financial time series. Summarized, this paper demonstrates that LPPL structures are not necessarily the signature of imitative behavior among investors but can also stem from noise, even though the likelihood of this is extremely low. Thus, our findings confirm with high statistical confidence that the LPPL structures in the DAX development are rooted deeper than only in the random fluctuations of the German stock market.

  4. On the tail of the overlap probability distribution in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model 75.50.Lk Spin glasses and other random magnets; 75.10.Nr Spin-glass and other random models; 75.40.Gb Dynamic properties (dynamic susceptibility, spin waves, spin diffusion, dynamic scaling, etc.);

    CERN Document Server

    Billoire, A; Marinari, E

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the large deviation behaviour of the overlap probability density in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model using the coupled replica scheme, and we compare with the results of a large-scale numerical simulation. In the spin glass phase we show that, generically, for any model with continuous replica symmetry breaking (RSB), 1/N log P sub N (q)approx -A(|q| - q sub E sub A) sup 3 , and we compute the first correction to the expansion of A in powers of T sub c - T for the SK model. We also study the paramagnetic phase, where results are obtained in the replica symmetric scheme that do not involve an expansion in powers of q - q sub E sub A or T sub c - T. Finally we give precise semi-analytical estimates of P(|q| = 1). The overall agreement between the various points of view is very satisfactory.

  5. Influence of overlapping pattern of multiple overlapping uncovered stents on the local mechanical environment: A patient-specific parameter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Yongxue; Feng, Jiaxuan; Huang, Yuan; Tokgoz, Aziz; Sadat, Umar; Gillard, Jonathan H; Lu, Qingsheng; Teng, Zhongzhao

    2017-07-26

    Multiple overlapping uncovered stents (MOUS) system has shown potentials in managing complex aortic aneurysms with side branches involvement. It promotes the development of thrombus by modulating local flow pattern that reduces the wall tension, while maintaining patency of side branches. However the modulation of local hemodynamic parameters depends on various factors that have not been assessed comprehensively. Aneurysm 3D geometry was reconstructed based on CT images. One-way fluid-structure interaction analysis was performed to quantify structural stress concentration in the wall, and changes of blood velocity, wall shear stress (WSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), relative residence time (RRT) and pressure in the sac due to the stent deployment. High structural stress concentration due to stent deployment was found in the landing zone and it increased linearly with the number of stents deployed. The wall tension in the sac was unaffected by the stent deployment. Stress within the wall was insensitive to the different overlapping pattern. After one stent was deployed, the mean flow velocity in the sac reduced by 36.4%. The deployment of the 2nd stent further reduced the mean sac velocity by 10%. WSS decreased while both OSI and RRT increased after stent deployment, however pressure in the sac remained nearly unchanged. Except for the cases with complete stents struts alignment, different overlapping pattern had little effect on flow parameters. Mechanical parameters modulated by the MOUS are insensitive to different overlapping pattern suggesting that endovascular procedure can be performed with less attention to the overlapping pattern. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiple Contingency Table Analyses of the Deviance Syndrome: How Much Overlap Is There?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwyn, Robert Flynn; Benda, Brent B.

    1999-01-01

    Surveys adolescents (N=1,621) attending southern, metropolitan secondary schools to determine how much overlap there is in individuals who smoke, get drunk, use marijuana, and have sexual intercourse; and determine if overlap is according to age, gender, race, and family structure. Reports there are relationships between activities, although most…

  7. Motor protein accumulation on antiparallel microtubule overlaps

    CERN Document Server

    Kuan, Hui-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Biopolymers serve as one-dimensional tracks on which motor proteins move to perform their biological roles. Motor protein phenomena have inspired theoretical models of one-dimensional transport, crowding, and jamming. Experiments studying the motion of Xklp1 motors on reconstituted antiparallel microtubule overlaps demonstrated that motors recruited to the overlap walk toward the plus end of individual microtubules and frequently switch between filaments. We study a model of this system that couples the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) for motor motion with switches between antiparallel filaments and binding kinetics. We determine steady-state motor density profiles for fixed-length overlaps using exact and approximate solutions of the continuum differential equations and compare to kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The center region, far from the overlap ends, has a constant motor density as one would na\\"ively expect. However, rather than following a simple binding equilibrium, the center ...

  8. Overlapping community detection based on link graph using distance dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Cai, Li-Jun

    2018-01-01

    The distance dynamics model was recently proposed to detect the disjoint community of a complex network. To identify the overlapping structure of a network using the distance dynamics model, an overlapping community detection algorithm, called L-Attractor, is proposed in this paper. The process of L-Attractor mainly consists of three phases. In the first phase, L-Attractor transforms the original graph to a link graph (a new edge graph) to assure that one node has multiple distances. In the second phase, using the improved distance dynamics model, a dynamic interaction process is introduced to simulate the distance dynamics (shrink or stretch). Through the dynamic interaction process, all distances converge, and the disjoint community structure of the link graph naturally manifests itself. In the third phase, a recovery method is designed to convert the disjoint community structure of the link graph to the overlapping community structure of the original graph. Extensive experiments are conducted on the LFR benchmark networks as well as real-world networks. Based on the results, our algorithm demonstrates higher accuracy and quality than other state-of-the-art algorithms.

  9. Stable Overlapping Replicator Dynamics for Brain Community Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoldemir, Burak; Ng, Bernard; Abugharbieh, Rafeef

    2016-02-01

    A fundamental means for understanding the brain's organizational structure is to group its spatially disparate regions into functional subnetworks based on their interactions. Most community detection techniques are designed for generating partitions, but certain brain regions are known to interact with multiple subnetworks. Thus, the brain's underlying subnetworks necessarily overlap. In this paper, we propose a technique for identifying overlapping subnetworks from weighted graphs with statistical control over false node inclusion. Our technique improves upon the replicator dynamics formulation by incorporating a graph augmentation strategy to enable subnetwork overlaps, and a graph incrementation scheme for merging subnetworks that might be falsely split by replicator dynamics due to its stringent mutual similarity criterion in defining subnetworks. To statistically control for inclusion of false nodes into the detected subnetworks, we further present a procedure for integrating stability selection into our subnetwork identification technique. We refer to the resulting technique as stable overlapping replicator dynamics (SORD). Our experiments on synthetic data show significantly higher accuracy in subnetwork identification with SORD than several state-of-the-art techniques. We also demonstrate higher test-retest reliability in multiple network measures on the Human Connectome Project data. Further, we illustrate that SORD enables identification of neuroanatomically-meaningful subnetworks and network hubs.

  10. Effects of hormone therapy on brain structure: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarci, Kejal; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Lesnick, Timothy G; Zuk, Samantha M; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Gleason, Carey E; Wharton, Whitney; Dowling, N Maritza; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Senjem, Matthew L; Shuster, Lynne T; Bailey, Kent R; Rocca, Walter A; Jack, Clifford R; Asthana, Sanjay; Miller, Virginia M

    2016-08-30

    To investigate the effects of hormone therapy on brain structure in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in recently postmenopausal women. Participants (aged 42-56 years, within 5-36 months past menopause) in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study were randomized to (1) 0.45 mg/d oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), (2) 50 μg/d transdermal 17β-estradiol, or (3) placebo pills and patch for 48 months. Oral progesterone (200 mg/d) was given to active treatment groups for 12 days each month. MRI and cognitive testing were performed in a subset of participants at baseline, and at 18, 36, and 48 months of randomization (n = 95). Changes in whole brain, ventricular, and white matter hyperintensity volumes, and in global cognitive function, were measured. Higher rates of ventricular expansion were observed in both the CEE and the 17β-estradiol groups compared to placebo; however, the difference was significant only in the CEE group (p = 0.01). Rates of ventricular expansion correlated with rates of decrease in brain volume (r = -0.58; p ≤ 0.001) and with rates of increase in white matter hyperintensity volume (r = 0.27; p = 0.01) after adjusting for age. The changes were not different between the CEE and 17β-estradiol groups for any of the MRI measures. The change in global cognitive function was not different across the groups. Ventricular volumes increased to a greater extent in recently menopausal women who received CEE compared to placebo but without changes in cognitive performance. Because the sample size was small and the follow-up limited to 4 years, the findings should be interpreted with caution and need confirmation. This study provides Class I evidence that brain ventricular volume increased to a greater extent in recently menopausal women who received oral CEE compared to placebo. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Robotic objective structured assessment of technical skills: a randomized multicenter dry laboratory training pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, Megan Elizabeth; Rivard, Colleen; Petzel, Amy E; Summers, Sondra; Mueller, Elizabeth R; Rickey, Leslie M; Denman, Mary A; Harders, Regina; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Kenton, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if a robotic dry laboratory curriculum for gynecology and urology residents improved their basic robotic skills. After the institution-specific institutional review board approval or exemption, 165 residents from 8 gynecology and/or urology programs were enrolled. Residents underwent standardized robotic orientation followed by dry laboratory testing on 4 unique robotic tasks. Residents were block randomized by program to unstructured or structured training programs. Regardless of group, residents were expected to practice for 15 minutes twice monthly over 7 months. Errors, time to completion, and objective structured assessment of technical skills global rating scores were recorded for each task before and after the training period. Statistics were calculated using the Student t tests, Pearson correlation, and analysis of variance with STATA systems (version 11.2). A total of 99 residents completed both the pretraining and posttraining testing. A mean of 4 (range, 0-15) 15-minute training sessions per resident was self-reported. The structured group had faster posttraining times on the transection task, although the unstructured group had higher posttraining scores on the knot-tying task. Overall, the residents' robotic skills improved after participating in a dry laboratory curriculum; however, robotic availability, duty hour restrictions, and clinical responsibilities limit the curriculum implementation.

  12. Network motif identification and structure detection with exponential random graph models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munni Begum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Local regulatory motifs are identified in the transcription regulatory network of the most studied model organism Escherichia coli (E. coli through graphical models. Network motifs are small structures in a network that appear more frequently than expected by chance alone. We apply social network methodologies such as p* models, also known as Exponential Random Graph Models (ERGMs, to identify statistically significant network motifs. In particular, we generate directed graphical models that can be applied to study interaction networks in a broad range of databases. The Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC computational algorithms are implemented to obtain the estimates of model parameters to the corresponding network statistics. A variety of ERGMs are fitted to identify statistically significant network motifs in transcription regulatory networks of E. coli. A total of nine ERGMs are fitted to study the transcription factor - transcription factor interactions and eleven ERGMs are fitted for the transcription factor-operon interactions. For both of these interaction networks, arc (a directed edge in a directed network and k-istar (or incoming star structures, for values of k between 2 and 10, are found to be statistically significant local structures or network motifs. The goodness of fit statistics are provided to determine the quality of these models.

  13. Analysis of tree stand horizontal structure using random point field methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Sekretenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the model approach to analyze the horizontal structure of forest stands. The main types of models of random point fields and statistical procedures that can be used to analyze spatial patterns of trees of uneven and even-aged stands are described. We show how modern methods of spatial statistics can be used to address one of the objectives of forestry – to clarify the laws of natural thinning of forest stand and the corresponding changes in its spatial structure over time. Studying natural forest thinning, we describe the consecutive stages of modeling: selection of the appropriate parametric model, parameter estimation and generation of point patterns in accordance with the selected model, the selection of statistical functions to describe the horizontal structure of forest stands and testing of statistical hypotheses. We show the possibilities of a specialized software package, spatstat, which is designed to meet the challenges of spatial statistics and provides software support for modern methods of analysis of spatial data. We show that a model of stand thinning that does not consider inter-tree interaction can project the size distribution of the trees properly, but the spatial pattern of the modeled stand is not quite consistent with observed data. Using data of three even-aged pine forest stands of 25, 55, and 90-years old, we demonstrate that the spatial point process models are useful for combining measurements in the forest stands of different ages to study the forest stand natural thinning.

  14. The thermodynamic and structural properties of metallocenes-type random ethylene copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simanke, Adriane G.; Mauler, Raquel S.; Galland, Griselda B. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: asimanke@portoweb.com.br; Alamo, Rufina G. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (UNited States). College of Engineering. Dept. of Chemical Engineering]. E-mail: alamo@eng.fsu.edu

    2001-07-01

    The properties of a series of random ethylene copolymers prepared with the metallocenes catalytic system rac-Et[Ind]{sub 2} ZrCl{sub 2}/MAO were studied for a large variety of comonomer types. These include the classical 1-alkene type with length up to 10 carbons and those of the cyclic type such as cyclopentadiene and dicyclopentadiene. Under rapid crystallization, the melting temperatures of the newly synthesized copolymers followed the relation of model random copolymers indicating a behavior that conforms to that predicted by Flory's phase equilibrium theory. The molar entropy of fusion is not significantly altered by the comonomer type including the dicyclopentadiene type. All types of comonomers studied showed, for a fixed comonomer content, the same change in properties during annealing, except the ethylene 1-butenes. These latter copolymers and the hydrogenated poly butadiene showed a faster rate of change in thermal properties. This is consistent with a higher molecular diffusion for the butene comonomer than for the rest of comonomers analyzed. The properties of the inter lamellar region were also studied as a function of comonomer type and content following the variation of the amorphous halo extracted from the WAXS diffractograms. The observed systematic decrease in the peak scattering angle with increasing comonomer content indicates a variation of the intermolecular liquid structure. (author)

  15. Omalizumab treatment in asthma-COPD overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tat, Tugba Songul; Cilli, Aykut

    2016-12-01

    Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS) is a poorly understood disease with an increasing morbidity and mortality. Currently, the most effective treatment for ACOS is unknown and omalizumab for ACOS has not yet been reported. We report our experience with anti-IgE, omalizumab treatment on 3 patients with ACOS as a retrospective case study. After 1 year of omalizumab treatment, patients experienced significantly lower rates of asthma exacerbation and hospitalization and better asthma control test results. Our study shows that omalizumab may be an effective and safe therapy for patients with ACOS. However larger randomized trials are needed.

  16. Lifetime Reliability Estimate and Extreme Permanent Deformations of Randomly Excited Elasto-Plastic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1983-01-01

    A method is presented for life-time reliability' estimates of randomly excited yielding systems, assuming the structure to be safe, when the plastic deformations are confined below certain limits. The accumulated plastic deformations during any single significant loading history are considered...... to be the outcome of identically distributed, independent stochastic variables,for which a model is suggested. Further assuming the interarrival times of the elementary loading histories to be specified by a Poisson process, and the duration of these to be small compared to the designed life-time, the accumulated...... plastic deformation during several loadings can be modelled as a filtered Poisson process. Using the Markov property of this quantity the considered first-passage problem as well as the related extreme distribution problems are then solved numerically, and the results are compared to simulation studies....

  17. Structuring communication relationships for interprofessional teamwork (SCRIPT: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenaszchuk Chris

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a burgeoning interest in using interprofessional approaches to promote effective collaboration in health care, systematic reviews find scant evidence of benefit. This protocol describes the first cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT to design and evaluate an intervention intended to improve interprofessional collaborative communication and patient-centred care. Objectives The objective is to evaluate the effects of a four-component, hospital-based staff communication protocol designed to promote collaborative communication between healthcare professionals and enhance patient-centred care. Methods The study is a multi-centre mixed-methods cluster randomized controlled trial involving twenty clinical teaching teams (CTTs in general internal medicine (GIM divisions of five Toronto tertiary-care hospitals. CTTs will be randomly assigned either to receive an intervention designed to improve interprofessional collaborative communication, or to continue usual communication practices. Non-participant naturalistic observation, shadowing, and semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted to explore existing patterns of interprofessional collaboration in the CTTs, and to support intervention development. Interviews and shadowing will continue during intervention delivery in order to document interactions between the intervention settings and adopters, and changes in interprofessional communication. The primary outcome is the rate of unplanned hospital readmission. Secondary outcomes are length of stay (LOS; adherence to evidence-based prescription drug therapy; patients' satisfaction with care; self-report surveys of CTT staff perceptions of interprofessional collaboration; and frequency of calls to paging devices. Outcomes will be compared on an intention-to-treat basis using adjustment methods appropriate for data from a cluster randomized design. Discussion Pre-intervention qualitative analysis revealed that a

  18. Temporal Proximity Promotes Integration of Overlapping Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeithamova, Dagmar; Preston, Alison R

    2017-08-01

    Events with overlapping elements can be encoded as two separate representations or linked into an integrated representation, yet we know little about the conditions that promote one form of representation over the other. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the proximity of overlapping events would increase the probability of integration. Participants first established memories for house-object and face-object pairs; half of the pairs were learned 24 hr before an fMRI session, and the other half 30 min before the session. During scanning, participants encoded object-object pairs that overlapped with the initial pairs acquired on the same or prior day. Participants were also scanned as they made inference judgments about the relationships among overlapping pairs learned on the same or different day. Participants were more accurate and faster when inferring relationships among memories learned on the same day relative to those acquired across days, suggesting that temporal proximity promotes integration. Evidence for reactivation of existing memories-as measured by a visual content classifier-was equivalent during encoding of overlapping pairs from the two temporal conditions. In contrast, evidence for integration-as measured by a mnemonic strategy classifier from an independent study [Richter, F. R., Chanales, A. J. H., & Kuhl, B. A. Predicting the integration of overlapping memories by decoding mnemonic processing states during learning. Neuroimage, 124, 323-335, 2016]-was greater for same-day overlapping events, paralleling the behavioral results. During inference itself, activation patterns further differentiated when participants were making inferences about events acquired on the same day versus across days. These findings indicate that temporal proximity of events promotes integration and further influences the neural mechanisms engaged during inference.

  19. SAGE: String-overlap Assembly of GEnomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Lucian; Haider, Bahlul; Molnar, Michael; Solis-Oba, Roberto

    2014-09-15

    De novo genome assembly of next-generation sequencing data is one of the most important current problems in bioinformatics, essential in many biological applications. In spite of significant amount of work in this area, better solutions are still very much needed. We present a new program, SAGE, for de novo genome assembly. As opposed to most assemblers, which are de Bruijn graph based, SAGE uses the string-overlap graph. SAGE builds upon great existing work on string-overlap graph and maximum likelihood assembly, bringing an important number of new ideas, such as the efficient computation of the transitive reduction of the string overlap graph, the use of (generalized) edge multiplicity statistics for more accurate estimation of read copy counts, and the improved use of mate pairs and min-cost flow for supporting edge merging. The assemblies produced by SAGE for several short and medium-size genomes compared favourably with those of existing leading assemblers. SAGE benefits from innovations in almost every aspect of the assembly process: error correction of input reads, string-overlap graph construction, read copy counts estimation, overlap graph analysis and reduction, contig extraction, and scaffolding. We hope that these new ideas will help advance the current state-of-the-art in an essential area of research in genomics.

  20. A Deep-Structured Conditional Random Field Model for Object Silhouette Tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Shafiee

    Full Text Available In this work, we introduce a deep-structured conditional random field (DS-CRF model for the purpose of state-based object silhouette tracking. The proposed DS-CRF model consists of a series of state layers, where each state layer spatially characterizes the object silhouette at a particular point in time. The interactions between adjacent state layers are established by inter-layer connectivity dynamically determined based on inter-frame optical flow. By incorporate both spatial and temporal context in a dynamic fashion within such a deep-structured probabilistic graphical model, the proposed DS-CRF model allows us to develop a framework that can accurately and efficiently track object silhouettes that can change greatly over time, as well as under different situations such as occlusion and multiple targets within the scene. Experiment results using video surveillance datasets containing different scenarios such as occlusion and multiple targets showed that the proposed DS-CRF approach provides strong object silhouette tracking performance when compared to baseline methods such as mean-shift tracking, as well as state-of-the-art methods such as context tracking and boosted particle filtering.

  1. The mid-domain effect in ectomycorrhizal fungi: range overlap along an elevation gradient on Mount Fuji, Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miyamoto, Yumiko; Nakano, Takashi; Hattori, Masahira; Nara, Kazuhide

    2014-01-01

    Mid-domain effect (MDE) models predict that the random placement of species' ranges within a bounded geographical area leads to increased range overlap and species richness in the center of the bounded area...

  2. Probing genetic overlap among complex human phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzhetsky, Andrey; Wajngurt, David; Park, Naeun; Zheng, Tian

    2007-07-10

    Geneticists and epidemiologists often observe that certain hereditary disorders cooccur in individual patients significantly more (or significantly less) frequently than expected, suggesting there is a genetic variation that predisposes its bearer to multiple disorders, or that protects against some disorders while predisposing to others. We suggest that, by using a large number of phenotypic observations about multiple disorders and an appropriate statistical model, we can infer genetic overlaps between phenotypes. Our proof-of-concept analysis of 1.5 million patient records and 161 disorders indicates that disease phenotypes form a highly connected network of strong pairwise correlations. Our modeling approach, under appropriate assumptions, allows us to estimate from these correlations the size of putative genetic overlaps. For example, we suggest that autism, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia share significant genetic overlaps. Our disease network hypothesis can be immediately exploited in the design of genetic mapping approaches that involve joint linkage or association analyses of multiple seemingly disparate phenotypes.

  3. On the Response of a Nonlinear Structure to High Kurtosis Non-Gaussian Random Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Przekop, Adam; Turner, Travis L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a follow-on to recent work by the authors in which the response and high-cycle fatigue of a nonlinear structure subject to non-Gaussian loadings was found to vary markedly depending on the nature of the loading. There it was found that a non-Gaussian loading having a steady rate of short-duration, high-excursion peaks produced essentially the same response as would have been incurred by a Gaussian loading. In contrast, a non-Gaussian loading having the same kurtosis, but with bursts of high-excursion peaks was found to elicit a much greater response. This work is meant to answer the question of when consideration of a loading probability distribution other than Gaussian is important. The approach entailed nonlinear numerical simulation of a beam structure under Gaussian and non-Gaussian random excitations. Whether the structure responded in a Gaussian or non-Gaussian manner was determined by adherence to, or violations of, the Central Limit Theorem. Over a practical range of damping, it was found that the linear response to a non-Gaussian loading was Gaussian when the period of the system impulse response is much greater than the rate of peaks in the loading. Lower damping reduced the kurtosis, but only when the linear response was non-Gaussian. In the nonlinear regime, the response was found to be non-Gaussian for all loadings. The effect of a spring-hardening type of nonlinearity was found to limit extreme values and thereby lower the kurtosis relative to the linear response regime. In this case, lower damping gave rise to greater nonlinearity, resulting in lower kurtosis than a higher level of damping.

  4. Lizard assemblage from a sand dune habitat from southeastern Brazil: a niche overlap analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winck, Gisele R; Hatano, Fabio; Vrcibradic, Davor; VAN Sluys, Monique; Rocha, Carlos F D

    2016-01-01

    Communities are structured by interactions of historical and ecological factors, which influence the use of different resources in time and space. We acquired data on time of activity, microhabitat use and diet of a lizard assemblage from a sand dune habitat in a coastal area, southeastern Brazil (Restinga de Jurubatiba). We analyzed the data of niche overlap among species in these three axes (temporal, spatial and trophic) using null models. We found a significant overlap within the trophic niche, whereas the overlap for the other axes did not differ from the expected. Based on this result, we discuss the factors acting on the structure of the local lizard community.

  5. Radiative Impacts of Cloud Heterogeneity and Overlap in an Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreopoulos, L.; Lee, D.; Sud, Y. C.; Suarez, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    The radiative impacts of introducing horizontal heterogeneity of layer cloud condensate, and vertical overlap of condensate and cloud fraction are examined with the aid of a new radiation package operating in the GEOS-5 Atmospheric General Circulation Model. The impacts are examined in terms of diagnostic top-of-the-atmosphere shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) cloud radiative effect (CRE) calculations for a range of assumptions and parameter specifications about the overlap. The investigation is conducted for two distinct cloud schemes, the one that comes with the standard GEOS-5 distribution, and another which has been recently used experimentally for its enhanced GEOS-5 distribution, and another which has been recently used experimentally for its enhanced cloud microphysical capabilities; both are coupled to a cloud generator allowing arbitrary cloud overlap specification. We find that cloud overlap radiative impacts are significantly stronger for the operational cloud scheme for which a change of cloud fraction overlap from maximum-random to generalized results to global changes of SW and LW CRE of approximately 4 Watts per square meter, and zonal changes of up to approximately 10 Watts per square meter. This is because of fewer occurrences compared to the other scheme of large layer cloud fractions and of multi-layer situations with large numbers of atmospheric being simultaneously cloudy, conditions that make overlap details more important. The impact on CRE of the details of condensate distribution overlap is much weaker. Once generalized overlap is adopted, both cloud schemes are only modestly sensitive to the exact values of the overlap parameters. We also find that if one of the CRE components is overestimated and the other underestimated, both cannot be driven towards observed values by adjustments to cloud condensate heterogeneity and overlap alone.

  6. Validation of the k-filtering technique for a signal composed of random-phase plane waves and non-random coherent structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. W. Roberts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations of astrophysical magnetic fields have shown the presence of fluctuations being wave-like (propagating in the plasma frame and those described as being structure-like (advected by the plasma bulk velocity. Typically with single-spacecraft missions it is impossible to differentiate between these two fluctuations, due to the inherent spatio-temporal ambiguity associated with a single point measurement. However missions such as Cluster which contain multiple spacecraft have allowed for temporal and spatial changes to be resolved, using techniques such as k filtering. While this technique does not assume Taylor's hypothesis it requires both weak stationarity of the time series and that the fluctuations can be described by a superposition of plane waves with random phases. In this paper we test whether the method can cope with a synthetic signal which is composed of a combination of non-random-phase coherent structures with a mean radius d and a mean separation λ, as well as plane waves with random phase.

  7. Segmentation of Overlapping Shapes using Test Ray Intersections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan

    into the correct shapes in a postprocessing step. The postprocessing step is unfortunately often both difficult and computationally expensive. Another approach is to incorporate descriptions of the overlapping shapes into a segmentation algorithm which normally only segments the union of all particle profiles...... provide exact information about shape contours which can be exploited for the separation of overlapping shapes. The resulting procedure may be performed either as a separate postprocessing step after a single contour of all particles is segmented or it may be performed in combination with an existing......As the use of digital images have become standard in everyday bioimaging, people are naturally trying to utilize computer algorithms for automating laborious and repetetive image analysis tasks. A preliminary task is the segmentation of structures of interest from digital images. This may in itself...

  8. Genomic and Functional Overlap between Somatic and Germline Chromosomal Rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan van Heesch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Genomic rearrangements are a common cause of human congenital abnormalities. However, their origin and consequences are poorly understood. We performed molecular analysis of two patients with congenital disease who carried de novo genomic rearrangements. We found that the rearrangements in both patients hit genes that are recurrently rearranged in cancer (ETV1, FOXP1, and microRNA cluster C19MC and drive formation of fusion genes similar to those described in cancer. Subsequent analysis of a large set of 552 de novo germline genomic rearrangements underlying congenital disorders revealed enrichment for genes rearranged in cancer and overlap with somatic cancer breakpoints. Breakpoints of common (inherited germline structural variations also overlap with cancer breakpoints but are depleted for cancer genes. We propose that the same genomic positions are prone to genomic rearrangements in germline and soma but that timing and context of breakage determines whether developmental defects or cancer are promoted.

  9. A simple design rule for overlap joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2004-01-01

    For toughened and flexible adhesives it is found that a simple prediction model for overlap joints can be used to calculate the ultimate strength for the static load case. The absolute maximum strength for a lap joint is when the whole of the adhesive layer is at the shear yield strength. An

  10. 47 CFR 73.509 - Prohibited overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited overlap. 73.509 Section 73.509 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES... must be used. (3) The effective radiated power (ERP) that is the maximum ERP for any elevation plane on...

  11. Overlapping domain decomposition methods for elliptic quasi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we provide a maximum norm analysis of an overlapping Schwarz method on non-matching grids for quasi-variational inequalities related to impulse control problem with mixed boundary conditions. We provide that the discretization on every sub-domain converges in uniform norm. Furthermore, a result of ...

  12. Overlapping domain decomposition methods for elliptic quasi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we provide a maximum norm analysis of an overlapping. Schwarz method on non-matching grids for quasi-variational inequalities related to impulse control problem with mixed boundary conditions. We provide that the dis- cretization on every sub-domain converges in uniform norm. Furthermore ...

  13. Overlapping community detection using weighted consensus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-21

    Sep 21, 2016 ... We first eval- uate a reliability measure for each community in all base covers and assign a proportional weight to each one. Then we redefine ... networks, a person may be in several social groups like family, friends and colleagues. .... work G , where the algorithm used should be able to detect overlapping ...

  14. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  15. Stochastic Cooling with Schottky Band Overlap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Valeri; /Fermilab

    2005-12-01

    Optimal use of stochastic cooling is essential to maximize the antiproton stacking rate for Tevatron Run II. Good understanding and characterization of the cooling is important for the optimization. The paper is devoted to derivation of the Fokker-Planck equations justified in the case of near or full Schottky base overlap for both longitudinal and transverse coolings.

  16. Parallelizing SLPA for Scalable Overlapping Community Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Kuzmin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Communities in networks are groups of nodes whose connections to the nodes in a community are stronger than with the nodes in the rest of the network. Quite often nodes participate in multiple communities; that is, communities can overlap. In this paper, we first analyze what other researchers have done to utilize high performance computing to perform efficient community detection in social, biological, and other networks. We note that detection of overlapping communities is more computationally intensive than disjoint community detection, and the former presents new challenges that algorithm designers have to face. Moreover, the efficiency of many existing algorithms grows superlinearly with the network size making them unsuitable to process large datasets. We use the Speaker-Listener Label Propagation Algorithm (SLPA as the basis for our parallel overlapping community detection implementation. SLPA provides near linear time overlapping community detection and is well suited for parallelization. We explore the benefits of a multithreaded programming paradigm and show that it yields a significant performance gain over sequential execution while preserving the high quality of community detection. The algorithm was tested on four real-world datasets with up to 5.5 million nodes and 170 million edges. In order to assess the quality of community detection, at least 4 different metrics were used for each of the datasets.

  17. Non-random correlation structures and dimensionality reduction in multivariate climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejmelka, Martin; Pokorná, Lucie; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Hartman, David; Jajcay, Nikola; Paluš, Milan

    2015-05-01

    It is well established that the global climate is a complex phenomenon with dynamics driven by the interaction of a multitude of identifiable but intertwined subsystems. The identification, at some level, of these subsystems is an important step towards understanding climate dynamics. We present a method to determine the number of principal components representing non-random correlation structures in climate data, or components that cannot be generated by a surrogate model of independent stochastic processes replicating the auto-correlation structure of each time series. The purpose of the method is to automatically reduce the dimensionality of large climate datasets into spatially localised components suitable for further interpretation or, for example, for use as nodes in a complex network analysis of large-scale climate dynamics. We apply the method to two 2.5° resolution NCEP/NCAR reanalysis global datasets of monthly means: the sea level pressure (SLP) and the surface air temperature (SAT), and extract 60 components explaining 87 % variance and 68 components explaining 72 % variance, respectively. The obtained components are in agreement with previous results in that they recover many well-known climate modes previously identified using other approaches including regionally constrained principal component analysis. Selected SLP components are discussed in more detail with respect to their correlation with important climate indices and their relationship to other SLP and SAT components. Finally, we consider a subset of the obtained components that have not yet been explicitly identified by other authors but seem plausible in the context of regional climate observations discussed in literature.

  18. Effect of periodontal therapy on arterial structure and function among aboriginal australians: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapellas, Kostas; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Jamieson, Lisa M; Do, Loc G; O'Dea, Kerin; Brown, Alex; Cai, Tommy Y; Anstey, Nicholas M; Sullivan, David R; Wang, Hao; Celermajer, David S; Slade, Gary D; Skilton, Michael R

    2014-10-01

    Observational studies and nonrandomized trials support an association between periodontal disease and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Both diseases occur frequently in Aboriginal Australians. We hypothesized that nonsurgical periodontal therapy would improve measures of arterial function and structure that are subclinical indicators of atherosclerotic vascular disease. This parallel-group, randomized, open label clinical trial enrolled 273 Aboriginal Australians aged ≥18 years with periodontitis. Intervention participants received full-mouth periodontal scaling during a single visit, whereas controls received no treatment. Prespecified primary end points measured 12-month change in carotid intima-media thickness, an indicator of arterial structure, and 3- and 12-month change in pulse wave velocity, an indicator of arterial function. ANCOVA used complete case data to evaluate treatment group differences. End points could be calculated for 169 participants with follow-up data at 3 months and 168 participants at 12 months. Intima-media thickness decreased significantly after 12 months in the intervention group (mean reduction=-0.023 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -0.038 to -0.008] mm) but not in the control group (mean increase=0.002 [95% CI, -0.017 to 0.022] mm). The difference in intima-media thickness change between treatment groups was statistically significant (-0.026 [95% CI, -0.048 to -0.003] mm; P=0.03). In contrast, there were no significant differences between treatment groups in pulse wave velocity at 3 months (mean difference, 0.06 [95% CI, -0.17 to 0.29] m/s; P=0.594) or 12 months (mean difference, 0.21 [95% CI, -0.01 to 0.43] m/s; P=0.062). Periodontal therapy reduced subclinical arterial thickness but not function in Aboriginal Australians with periodontal disease, suggesting periodontal disease and atherosclerosis are significantly associated. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Modeling and simulation of electronic structure, material interface and random doping in nano electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2010-01-01

    The miniaturization of nano-scale electronic devices, such as metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), has given rise to a pressing demand in the new theoretical understanding and practical tactic for dealing with quantum mechanical effects in integrated circuits. Modeling and simulation of this class of problems have emerged as an important topic in applied and computational mathematics. This work presents mathematical models and computational algorithms for the simulation of nano-scale MOSFETs. We introduce a unified two-scale energy functional to describe the electrons and the continuum electrostatic potential of the nano-electronic device. This framework enables us to put microscopic and macroscopic descriptions in an equal footing at nano scale. By optimization of the energy functional, we derive consistently-coupled Poisson-Kohn-Sham equations. Additionally, layered structures are crucial to the electrostatic and transport properties of nano transistors. A material interface model is proposed for more accurate description of the electrostatics governed by the Poisson equation. Finally, a new individual dopant model that utilizes the Dirac delta function is proposed to understand the random doping effect in nano electronic devices. Two mathematical algorithms, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method and the Dirichlet-to-Neumann mapping (DNM) technique, are introduced to improve the computational efficiency of nano-device simulations. Electronic structures are computed via subband decomposition and the transport properties, such as the I-V curves and electron density, are evaluated via the non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) formalism. Two distinct device configurations, a double-gate MOSFET and a four-gate MOSFET, are considered in our three-dimensional numerical simulations. For these devices, the current fluctuation and voltage threshold lowering effect induced by the discrete dopant model are explored. Numerical convergence

  20. Structured operative reporting: a randomized trial using dictation templates to improve operative reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Lawrence M; Vergis, Ashley; Park, Jason; Minor, Sam; Taylor, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Few studies have addressed the quality of dictated operative reports (ORs). This study documents changes in resident dictation after the introduction of a standardized OR template. Twenty residents dictated an OR based on a surgical procedure video. Residents were randomized to receive an OR template or no intervention. Residents dictated another report 3 months later. Outcomes measures were dictation quality using a previously validated tool and resident comfort with dictation. There was no overall difference in quality in the intervention group as measured by the Structured Assessment Form (SAF) (28.6 vs 30.0, P = .36) and Global Quality Ratings Scale (GQRS) (21.7 vs 21.8, P = .96). However, junior resident subgroup analysis revealed an improvement in the intervention group on both the SAF (23.2 vs 28.3, P = .02) and GQRS (17.1 vs 20.4, P = .02). Subjective comfort level improved in the intervention group (P = .02). The operative dictation template can significantly improve resident comfort level with dictation and has the potential to improve the quality of junior resident dictations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bi-resonant structure with piezoelectric PVDF films for energy harvesting from random vibration sources at low frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Shanshan; Crovetto, Andrea; Peng, Zhuoteng

    2016-01-01

    and experiments with piezoelectric elements show that the energy harvesting device with the bi-resonant structure can generate higher power output than that of the sum of the two separate devices from random vibration sources at low frequency, and hence significantly improves the vibration-to- electricity...

  2. Architecture and dynamics of overlapped RNA regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Christopher P; Preston, Melanie A; Wilinski, Daniel; Saunders, Harriet A J; Campbell, Zachary T; Wickens, Marvin

    2017-11-01

    A single protein can bind and regulate many mRNAs. Multiple proteins with similar specificities often bind and control overlapping sets of mRNAs. Yet little is known about the architecture or dynamics of overlapped networks. We focused on three proteins with similar structures and related RNA-binding specificities-Puf3p, Puf4p, and Puf5p of S. cerevisiae Using RNA Tagging, we identified a "super-network" comprised of four subnetworks: Puf3p, Puf4p, and Puf5p subnetworks, and one controlled by both Puf4p and Puf5p. The architecture of individual subnetworks, and thus the super-network, is determined by competition among particular PUF proteins to bind mRNAs, their affinities for binding elements, and the abundances of the proteins. The super-network responds dramatically: The remaining network can either expand or contract. These strikingly opposite outcomes are determined by an interplay between the relative abundance of the RNAs and proteins, and their affinities for one another. The diverse interplay between overlapping RNA-protein networks provides versatile opportunities for regulation and evolution. © 2017 Lapointe et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  3. Special Quasirandom Structures to Study the (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 Random Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    and Na on the perovskite A-site. Using these structures, local variations in Na-O interactions are suggested to be the driving force behind the R3c to...structure patterns derived from the random distribution of K and Na on the perovskite A-site. Using these structures, local variations in Na-O...representing the physical properties of the ABO3 perovskite compounds PZT [14] and BaTiO3-SrTiO3 [15,16]. Unfortunately, these approaches require extensive

  4. Improvement of hypertension management by structured physician education and feedback system: cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüders, Stefan; Schrader, Joachim; Schmieder, Roland E; Smolka, Wenefrieda; Wegscheider, Karl; Bestehorn, Kurt

    2010-06-01

    We aimed to assess whether hypertension management with a structured physician information program and a feedback system leads to improved blood pressure (BP) control and cardiovascular outcomes. Cluster randomized (3 : 1), open, monitored, multicenter trial in Germany. Primary care-based physicians in the information group (IG) received detailed training on hypertension guidelines, feedback on target-level attainment, and a reminder to intensify treatment after each patient visit, whereas the observation/control group (CG) did not receive any such measures. A three-level mixed model was developed. Time-independent level differences between groups, group-independent changes, and nonparallel group-specific changes over time were tested. A total of 15 041 (78.1%) hypertensive patients were in the IG and 4213 (21.9%) in the CG. By 1-year follow-up, 82.9% of patients in the IG and 81.5% in the CG remained in the study. The guideline-oriented BP target was attained by 56.8% in the IG and 52.5% in the CG (+4.3%, P = 0.03), whereas the individual BP target was attained by 57.0% in the IG and 51% in the CG (P = NS). BP control in the IG was achieved 2 months earlier on average. Clinical inertia, defined as the absence of medication changes, despite noncontrol of BP, occurred significantly less often in the IG group. One-year cardiovascular outcomes did not differ between groups. The delivery of systematic information in connection with a feedback system reduces clinical inertia and improves guideline adherence. Although compared with earlier studies, the hypertension control rates obtained are higher, there is still considerable room for improvement.

  5. [The asthma-COPD overlap syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garelli, V; Petitpierre, N; Nicod, L P

    2015-11-18

    Asthma and COPD are often considered mutually exclusive diseases, mainly because of the inclusion of only typical cases of asthma or COPD in therapeutic clinical trials. However, clinicians are unable to distinguish between both conditions in a substantial number of patients, a situation that may be called the "asthma-COPD overlap syndrome". It is important to recognize this entity, as patients suffering from an asthma-COPD overlap syndrome are more symptomatic, have a poorer quality of life and suffer more exacerbations than patients with asthma or COPD alone. In the absence of studies specifically designed to assess the treatment modalities for these patients, it appears wise to prescribe inhaled corticosteroids early in the course of the disease, considering their established efficacy in asthma.

  6. Structural insights from random mutagenesis of Campylobacter jejuni oligosaccharyltransferase PglB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihssen Julian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein glycosylation is of fundamental importance in many biological systems. The discovery of N-glycosylation in bacteria and the functional expression of the N-oligosaccharyltransferase PglB of Campylobacter jejuni in Escherichia coli enabled the production of engineered glycoproteins and the study of the underlying molecular mechanisms. A particularly promising application for protein glycosylation in recombinant bacteria is the production of potent conjugate vaccines where polysaccharide antigens of pathogenic bacteria are covalently bound to immunogenic carrier proteins. Results In this study capsular polysaccharides of the clinically relevant pathogen Staphylococcus aureus serotype 5 (CP5 were expressed in Escherichia coli and linked in vivo to a detoxified version of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin (EPA. We investigated which amino acids of the periplasmic domain of PglB are crucial for the glycosylation reaction using a newly established 96-well screening system enabling the relative quantification of glycoproteins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A random mutant library was generated by error-prone PCR and screened for inactivating amino acid substitutions. In addition to 15 inactive variants with amino acid changes within the previously known, strictly conserved WWDYG motif of N-oligosaccharyltransferases, 8 inactivating mutations mapped to a flexible loop in close vicinity of the amide nitrogen atom of the acceptor asparagine as revealed in the crystal structure of the homologous enzyme C. lari PglB. The importance of the conserved loop residue H479 for glycosylation was confirmed by site directed mutagenesis, while a change to alanine of the adjacent, non-conserved L480 had no effect. In addition, we investigated functional requirements in the so-called MIV motif of bacterial N-oligosaccharyltransferases. Amino acid residues I571 and V575, which had been postulated to interact with the acceptor peptide, were

  7. Computer games in education: conflicts and overlaps!

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Nuno Sotero Alves da; Costa, Gonçalo Jorge Morais da; Pawlak, Piotr; Fonseca, Tiago Filipe Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Novel educational environments promote an increasing use of technological mash-ups, which include serious games. These games purpose is to facilitate learning and promote behavioural change, so this contribution debates their potential role into education. Beyond this traditional analysis, the authors explore the overlap between serious games and positive psychology as a way to minimise the ethical and social dilemmas of e-education which ...

  8. The overlap between cyberbullying and traditional bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waasdorp, Tracy E; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2015-05-01

    Cyberbullying appears to be on the rise among adolescents due in part to increased access to electronic devices and less online supervision. Less is known about how cyberbullying differs from traditional bullying which occurs in person and the extent to which these two forms overlap. Our first aim was to examine the overlap of traditional bullying (relational, verbal, and physical) with cyberbullying. The second aim examined student- and school-level correlates of cyber victimization as compared to traditional victims. The final aim explored details of the cyberbullying experience (e.g., who sent the message, how was the message sent, and what was the message about). Data came from 28,104 adolescents (grades, 9-12) attending 58 high schools. Approximately 23% of the youth reported being victims of any form of bullying (cyber, relational, physical, and verbal) within the last month, with 25.6% of those victims reporting being cyberbullied. The largest proportion (50.3%) of victims reported they were victimized by all four forms, whereas only 4.6% reported being only cyberbullied. Multilevel analyses indicated that as compared to those who were only traditionally bullied, those who were cyberbullied were more likely to have externalizing (odds ratio = 1.44) and internalizing symptoms (odds ratio = 1.25). Additional analyses examined detailed characteristics of the cyberbullying experiences, indicating a relatively high level of overlap between cyber and traditional bullying. Implications for preventive interventions targeting youth involved with cyberbullying and its overlap with other forms of bullying are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Function approximation using adaptive and overlapping intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    A problem common to many disciplines is to approximate a function given only the values of the function at various points in input variable space. A method is proposed for approximating a function of several to one variable. The model takes the form of weighted averaging of overlapping basis functions defined over intervals. The number of such basis functions and their parameters (widths and centers) are automatically determined using given training data and a learning algorithm. The proposed algorithm can be seen as placing a nonuniform multidimensional grid in the input domain with overlapping cells. The non-uniformity and overlap of the cells is achieved by a learning algorithm to optimize a given objective function. This approach is motivated by the fuzzy modeling approach and a learning algorithms used for clustering and classification in pattern recognition. The basics of why and how the approach works are given. Few examples of nonlinear regression and classification are modeled. The relationship between the proposed technique, radial basis neural networks, kernel regression, probabilistic neural networks, and fuzzy modeling is explained. Finally advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  10. A model for evolution of overlapping community networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Rituraj; Biswal, Bibhu

    2017-05-01

    A model is proposed for the evolution of network topology in social networks with overlapping community structure. Starting from an initial community structure that is defined in terms of group affiliations, the model postulates that the subsequent growth and loss of connections is similar to the Hebbian learning and unlearning in the brain and is governed by two dominant factors: the strength and frequency of interaction between the members, and the degree of overlap between different communities. The temporal evolution from an initial community structure to the current network topology can be described based on these two parameters. It is possible to quantify the growth occurred so far and predict the final stationary state to which the network is likely to evolve. Applications in epidemiology or the spread of email virus in a computer network as well as finding specific target nodes to control it are envisaged. While facing the challenge of collecting and analyzing large-scale time-resolved data on social groups and communities one faces the most basic questions: how do communities evolve in time? This work aims to address this issue by developing a mathematical model for the evolution of community networks and studying it through computer simulation.

  11. Content patterns in topic-based overlapping communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Sebastián A; Muñoz, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the underlying community structure is an important challenge in social network analysis. Most state-of-the-art algorithms only consider structural properties to detect disjoint subcommunities and do not include the fact that people can belong to more than one community and also ignore the information contained in posts that users have made. To tackle this problem, we developed a novel methodology to detect overlapping subcommunities in online social networks and a method to analyze the content patterns for each subcommunities using topic models. This paper presents our main contribution, a hybrid algorithm which combines two different overlapping sub-community detection approaches: the first one considers the graph structure of the network (topology-based subcommunities detection approach) and the second one takes the textual information of the network nodes into consideration (topic-based subcommunities detection approach). Additionally we provide a method to analyze and compare the content generated. Tests on real-world virtual communities show that our algorithm outperforms other methods.

  12. The use of random decrement technique for identification of structural modes of vibration. [tested on a generalized payload and the space shuttle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    An algorithm is developed to obtain the free responses of a structure from its random responses due to some unknown or known random input or inputs, using the random-decrement technique without changing time correlation between signals. The algorithm is tested using random responses from a 'generalized payload' model and from the 'Space Shuttle' model. The resulting free responses are then used to identify the modal characteristics of the two systems.

  13. A maximal clique based multiobjective evolutionary algorithm for overlapping community detection

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Xuyun; Chen, Wei-Neng; Lin, Ying; Gu, Tianlong; Zhang, Huaxiang; Li, Yun; Yin, Yilong; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Detecting community structure has become one im-portant technique for studying complex networks. Although many community detection algorithms have been proposed, most of them focus on separated communities, where each node can be-long to only one community. However, in many real-world net-works, communities are often overlapped with each other. De-veloping overlapping community detection algorithms thus be-comes necessary. Along this avenue, this paper proposes a maxi-mal clique based multiob...

  14. Perceived depth of multi parallel-overlapping-transparent-stereoscopic-surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Saori; Shimono, Koichi; Tam, Wa James

    2012-03-01

    The geometric relational expression of horizontal disparity, viewing distance, and depth magnitude between objects in stereopsis suggests that, for a given viewing distance, the magnitude of perceived depth of objects would be the same as long as the disparity magnitudes are the same. However, we found that this is not necessarily the case for random dot stereograms that depict parallel-overlapping-transparent-stereoscopic-surfaces (POTS). Data from three experiments indicated that, when the stimulus size is relatively large (e.g., 13 x 20 arc deg), the magnitude of reproduced depth between two POTS is larger by 6% than that for an identical pair of stereo-surfaces but with an additional stereo-surface located between the pair. The results are discussed in terms of global stereopsis which "operates" for relatively large stimulus sizes.

  15. Submicron structure random field on granular soil material with retinex algorithm optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Yu; Tao Chenyuan; Zhou Bingcheng; Huang Shuai; Huang Linchong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a Retinex scale optimized image enhancement algorithm is proposed, which can enhance the micro vision image and eliminate the influence of the uneven illumination. Based on that, a random geometric model of the microstructure of granular materials is established with Monte-Carlo method, the numerical simulation including consolidation process of granular materials is compared with the experimental data. The results have proved that the random field method with Retinex image enh...

  16. Randomized controlled trial of teaching practice nurses to carry out structured assessments of patients receiving depot antipsychotic injections.

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, T; Millar, E; Garland, C; Kendrick, T; Chisholm, B; Ross, F

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A third of patients with schizophrenia are out of contact with secondary services. Many of these patients receive maintenance medication as depot antipsychotics from practice nurses, most of whom have negligible training in mental health. AIM: To examine the impact of a structured assessment on the process of care and clinical status of schizophrenia patients by practice nurses who received a one-day training course. METHOD: All identified patients were randomly allocated to struc...

  17. Randomized controlled trial of outpatient mentalization-based treatment versus structured clinical management for borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter

    2009-12-01

    This randomized controlled trial tested the effectiveness of an 18-month mentalization-based treatment (MBT) approach in an outpatient context against a structured clinical management (SCM) outpatient approach for treatment of borderline personality disorder. Patients (N=134) consecutively referred to a specialist personality disorder treatment center and meeting selection criteria were randomly allocated to MBT or SCM. Eleven mental health professionals equal in years of experience and training served as therapists. Independent evaluators blind to treatment allocation conducted assessments every 6 months. The primary outcome was the occurrence of crisis events, a composite of suicidal and severe self-injurious behaviors and hospitalization. Secondary outcomes included social and interpersonal functioning and self-reported symptoms. Outcome measures, assessed at 6-month intervals, were analyzed using mixed effects logistic regressions for binary data, Poisson regression models for count data, and mixed effects linear growth curve models for self-report variables. Substantial improvements were observed in both conditions across all outcome variables. Patients randomly assigned to MBT showed a steeper decline of both self-reported and clinically significant problems, including suicide attempts and hospitalization. Structured treatments improve outcomes for individuals with borderline personality disorder. A focus on specific psychological processes brings additional benefits to structured clinical support. Mentalization-based treatment is relatively undemanding in terms of training so it may be useful for implementation into general mental health services. Further evaluations by independent research groups are now required.

  18. Exploring chiral dynamics with overlap fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Fukaya, Hidenori

    2010-01-01

    This talk presents a lattice study of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking performed by the JLQCD and TWQCD collaborations with dynamical overlap fermions. Our lattice configurations are generated in a fixed topological sector. Since finite volume effects, partly due to the fixed global topology, are mainly induced by pion fields, the dependence on the lattice volume, topological charge and quark masses can be analytically predicted using chiral perturbation theory (ChPT). We find a good agreement of Dirac operator spectrum calculated on the lattice with the ChPT prediction including its finite size scalings, through which the chiral condensate is determined with good accuracy.

  19. Overlapping constraint for variational surface reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Solem, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a counter example, illustrating a shortcoming in most variational formulations for 3D surface estimation, is presented. The nature of this shortcoming is a lack of an overlapping constraint. A remedy for this shortcoming is presented in the form of a penalty function with an analysi...... of the effects of this function on surface motion. For practical purposes, this will only have minor influence on current methods. However, the insight provided in the analysis is likely to influence future developments in the field of variational surface reconstruction....

  20. Phase structure of the O(n) model on a random lattice for n > 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, B.; Kristjansen, C.

    1997-01-01

    We show that coarse graining arguments invented for the analysis of multi-spin systems on a randomly triangulated surface apply also to the O(n) model on a random lattice. These arguments imply that if the model has a critical point with diverging string susceptibility, then either γ = +1...... by (γ̃, γ) = (-1/m, 1/m+1), m = 2, 3, . . . We also show that at the critical points with positive string susceptibility exponent the average number of loops on the surface diverges while the average length of a single loop stays finite....

  1. Analysis of pattern overlaps and exact computation of P-values of pattern occurrences numbers: case of Hidden Markov Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Régnier, Mireille; Furletova, Evgenia; Yakovlev, Victor; Roytberg, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Finding new functional fragments in biological sequences is a challenging problem. Methods addressing this problem commonly search for clusters of pattern occurrences that are statistically significant. A measure of statistical significance is the P-value of a number of pattern occurrences, i.e. the probability to find at least S occurrences of words from a pattern in a random text of length N generated according to a given probability model. All words of the pattern are supposed to be of same length. We present a novel algorithm SufPref that computes an exact P-value for Hidden Markov models (HMM). The algorithm is based on recursive equations on text sets related to pattern occurrences; the equations can be used for any probability model. The algorithm inductively traverses a specific data structure, an overlap graph. The nodes of the graph are associated with the overlaps of words from . The edges are associated to the prefix and suffix relations between overlaps. An originality of our data structure is that pattern need not be explicitly represented in nodes or leaves. The algorithm relies on the Cartesian product of the overlap graph and the graph of HMM states; this approach is analogous to the automaton approach from JBCB 4: 553-569. The gain in size of SufPref data structure leads to significant improvements in space and time complexity compared to existent algorithms. The algorithm SufPref was implemented as a C++ program; the program can be used both as Web-server and a stand alone program for Linux and Windows. The program interface admits special formats to describe probability models of various types (HMM, Bernoulli, Markov); a pattern can be described with a list of words, a PSSM, a degenerate pattern or a word and a number of mismatches. It is available at http://server2.lpm.org.ru/bio/online/sf/. The program was applied to compare sensitivity and specificity of methods for TFBS prediction based on P-values computed for Bernoulli models, Markov

  2. Vertical Overlap of Probability Density Functions of Cloud and Precipitation Hydrometeors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, M.; Lim, K. S. S.; Larson, V. E.; Wong, M.; Thayer-Calder, K.; Ghan, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Coarse-resolution climate models increasingly rely on probability density functions (PDFs) to represent subgrid-scale variability of prognostic variables. While PDFs characterize the horizontal variability, a separate treatment is needed to account for the vertical structure of clouds and precipitation. When sub-columns are drawn from these PDFs for microphysics or radiation parameterizations, appropriate vertical correlations must be enforced via PDF overlap specifications. This study evaluates the representation of PDF overlap in the Subgrid Importance Latin Hypercube Sampler (SILHS) employed in the assumed PDF turbulence and cloud scheme called the Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB). PDF overlap in CLUBB-SILHS simulations of continental and tropical oceanic deep convection is compared with overlap of PDF of various microphysics variables in cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations of the same cases that explicitly predict the 3D structure of cloud and precipitation fields. CRM results show that PDF overlap varies significantly between different hydrometeor types, as well as between PDFs of mass and number mixing ratios for each species, - a distinction that the current SILHS implementation does not make. Specifically, faster falling species, such as rain and graupel, exhibit significantly higher vertical coherence in their distributions than slow falling cloud liquid and ice. Development of a PDF overlap treatment linked to hydrometeor properties, such as fall speeds, in addition to the currently implemented dependency on the turbulent convective length scale will be discussed.

  3. Octave illusion elicited by overlapping narrowband noises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas Brännström, K; Nilsson, Patrik

    2011-05-01

    The octave or Deutsch illusion occurs when two tones, separated by about one octave, are presented simultaneously but alternating between ears, such that when the low tone is presented to the left ear the high tone is presented to the right ear and vice versa. Most subjects hear a single tone that alternates both between ears and in pitch; i.e., they hear a low pitched tone in one ear alternating with a high pitched tone in the other ear. The present study examined whether the illusion can be elicited by aperiodic signals consisting of low-frequency band-pass filtered noises with overlapping spectra. The amount of spectral overlap was held constant, but the high- and low-frequency content of the signals was systematically varied. The majority of subjects perceived an auditory illusion in terms of a dominant ear for pitch and lateralization by frequency, as proposed by Deutsch [(1975a) Sci. Am. 233, 92-104]. Furthermore, the salience of the illusion increased as the high frequency of the content in the signal increased. Since no harmonics were present in the stimuli, it is highly unlikely that this illusion is perceived on the basis of binaural diplacusis or harmonic binaural fusion.

  4. Myasthenia gravis Lambert-Eaton overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Shin J

    2016-01-01

    To assess whether a myasthenia gravis (MG) Lambert-Eaton overlap syndrome (MLOS) exists. Case reports that met the universally accepted diagnostic criteria for MG and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) were sought through a PubMed search. Fifty-five possible cases of MLOS were identified. Thirty-nine cases met the diagnostic criteria for MG and LEMS. Analysis of clinical features showed that these patients have common MG and LEMS symptoms: oculo-bulbar paresis and good response to anti-cholinesterase for MG and limb weakness and decreased or absent reflexes for LEMS. All had the classical LEMS pattern in the repetitive nerve stimulation test: low compound muscle action potential amplitude and incremental response > 60% with brief exercise or at high rate of stimulation. Eight patients had combined positive acetylcholine receptor antibody (AChR-ab) or muscle-specific kinase-ab and voltage-gated calcium channel- ab tests. A myasthenia gravis Lambert-Eaton overlap syndrome (MLOS) does exist. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Heterogeneity of asthma-COPD overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hyonsoo; Han, Deokjae; Lee, Jae Ha; Rhee, Chin Kook

    2017-01-01

    Many patients suffering from asthma or COPD have overlapping features of both diseases. However, a phenotypical approach for evaluating asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) has not been established. In this report, we examined the phenotypes in patients with ACOS. Patients diagnosed with ACOS between 2011 and 2015 were identified and classified into four phenotype groups. Group A was composed of patients who smoked <10 pack years and had blood eosinophil counts ≥300. Group B was composed of patients who smoked <10 pack years and had blood eosinophil counts <300. Group C was composed of patients who smoked ≥10 pack years and had blood eosinophil counts ≥300. Group D was composed of patients who smoked <10 pack years and had blood eosinophil counts <300. Clinical characteristics were analyzed and compared among groups. Comparisons were made among 103 ACOS patients. Patients in group D were oldest, while patients in group A were youngest. There were relatively more female patients in groups A and B; the majority of patients in groups C and D were male. The degree of airflow obstruction was most severe in group C. The rate of being free of severe exacerbation was significantly lower in group C than in the other groups. In this study, each ACOS phenotype showed different characteristics. The proportion of patients free of severe exacerbation differed significantly among groups. At this time, further studies on the phenotypes of ACOS are required.

  6. Activation of words with phonological overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia K. Friedrich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple lexical representations overlapping with the input (cohort neighbors are temporarily activated in the listener’s mental lexicon when speech unfolds in time. Activation for cohort neighbors appears to rapidly decline as soon as there is mismatch with the input. However, it is a matter of debate whether or not they are completely excluded from further processing. We recorded behavioral data and event-related brain potentials (ERPs in auditory-visual word onset priming during a lexical decision task. As primes we used the first two syllables of spoken German words. In a carrier word condition, the primes were extracted from spoken versions of the target words (ano-ANORAK 'anorak'. In a cohort neighbor condition, the primes were taken from words that overlap with the target word up to the second nucleus (ana- taken from ANANAS 'pineapple'. Relative to a control condition, where primes and targets were unrelated, lexical decision responses for cohort neighbors were delayed. This reveals that cohort neighbors are disfavored by the decision processes at the behavioral front end. In contrast, left-anterior ERPs reflected long-lasting facilitated processing of cohort neighbors. We interpret these results as evidence for extended parallel processing of cohort neighbors. That is, in parallel to the preparation and elicitation of delayed lexical decision responses to cohort neighbors, aspects of the processing system appear to keep track of those less efficient candidates.

  7. Symptom overlap in anxiety and multiple sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O Donnchadha, Seán

    2013-02-14

    BACKGROUND: The validity of self-rated anxiety inventories in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) is unclear. However, the appropriateness of self-reported depression scales has been widely examined. Given somatic symptom overlap between depression and MS, research emphasises caution when using such scales. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates symptom overlap between anxiety and MS in a group of 33 individuals with MS, using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). METHODS: Participants underwent a neurological examination and completed the BAI. RESULTS: A novel procedure using hierarchical cluster analysis revealed three distinct symptom clusters. Cluster one (\\'wobbliness\\' and \\'unsteady\\') grouped separately from all other BAI items. These symptoms are well-recognised MS-related symptoms and we question whether their endorsement in pwMS can be considered to reflect anxiety. A modified 19-item BAI (mBAI) was created which excludes cluster one items. This removal reduced the number of MS participants considered \\'anxious\\' by 21.21% (low threshold) and altered the level of anxiety severity for a further 27.27%. CONCLUSION: Based on these data, it is suggested that, as with depression measures, researchers and clinicians should exercise caution when using brief screening measures for anxiety in pwMS.

  8. Phonological and Orthographic Overlap Effects in Fast and Masked Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisson, Steven; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how orthographic and phonological information is activated during reading, using a fast priming task, and during single word recognition, using masked priming. Specifically, different types of overlap between prime and target were contrasted: high orthographic and high phonological overlap (track-crack), high orthographic and low phonological overlap (bear-gear), or low orthographic and high phonological overlap (fruit-chute). In addition, we examined whether (orthographic) beginning overlap (swoop-swoon) yielded the same priming pattern as end (rhyme) overlap (track-crack). Prime durations were 32 and 50ms in the fast priming version, and 50ms in the masked priming version, and mode of presentation (prime and target in lower case) was identical. The fast priming experiment showed facilitatory priming effects when both orthography and phonology overlapped, with no apparent differences between beginning and end overlap pairs. Facilitation was also found when prime and target only overlapped orthographically. In contrast, the masked priming experiment showed inhibition for both types of end overlap pairs (with and without phonological overlap), and no difference for begin overlap items. When prime and target only shared principally phonological information, facilitation was only found with a long prime duration in the fast priming experiment, while no differences were found in the masked priming version. These contrasting results suggest that fast priming and masked priming do not necessarily tap into the same type of processing. PMID:24365065

  9. Overlap Syndromes: An Emerging Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Pooja; Malhotra, Sharad

    2014-01-01

    Overlap syndrome in hepatology is emerging as a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, which is further complicated by the present gaps in the information regarding the immunopathogenesis of these diseases. The present review represents a concise review of literature on overlap syndromes with emphasis on prevalence, etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of true overlap syndromes. PMID:25434314

  10. Impacts of cloud overlap assumptions on radiative budgets and heating fields in convective regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, XiaoCong; Liu, YiMin; Bao, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Impacts of cloud overlap assumptions on radiative budgets and heating fields are explored with the aid of a cloud-resolving model (CRM), which provided cloud geometry as well as cloud micro and macro properties. Large-scale forcing data to drive the CRM are from TRMM Kwajalein Experiment and the Global Atmospheric Research Program's Atlantic Tropical Experiment field campaigns during which abundant convective systems were observed. The investigated overlap assumptions include those that were traditional and widely used in the past and the one that was recently addressed by Hogan and Illingworth (2000), in which the vertically projected cloud fraction is expressed by a linear combination of maximum and random overlap, with the weighting coefficient depending on the so-called decorrelation length Lcf. Results show that both shortwave and longwave cloud radiative forcings (SWCF/LWCF) are significantly underestimated under maximum (MO) and maximum-random (MRO) overlap assumptions, whereas remarkably overestimated under the random overlap (RO) assumption in comparison with that using CRM inherent cloud geometry. These biases can reach as high as 100 Wm- 2 for SWCF and 60 Wm- 2 for LWCF. By its very nature, the general overlap (GenO) assumption exhibits an encouraging performance on both SWCF and LWCF simulations, with the biases almost reduced by 3-fold compared with traditional overlap assumptions. The superiority of GenO assumption is also manifested in the simulation of shortwave and longwave radiative heating fields, which are either significantly overestimated or underestimated under traditional overlap assumptions. The study also pointed out the deficiency of constant assumption on Lcf in GenO assumption. Further examinations indicate that the CRM diagnostic Lcf varies among different cloud types and tends to be stratified in the vertical. The new parameterization that takes into account variation of Lcf in the vertical well reproduces such a relationship and

  11. Structure-Related Optical Fingerprints in the Absorption Spectra of Colloidal Quantum Dots: Random Alloy vs. Core/Shell Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mourad, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the experimentally easily accessible optical absorption spectrum can often be used to distinguish between a random alloy phase and a stoichiometrically equivalent core/shell realization of ensembles of monodisperse colloidal semiconductor quantum dots without the need for more advanced structural characterization tools. Our proof-of-concept is performed by conceptually straightforward exact-disorder tight-binding calculations. The underlying stochastical tight-binding scheme only parametrizes bulk band structure properties and does not employ additional free parameters to calculate the optical absorption spectrum, which is an easily accessible experimental property. The method is applied to selected realizations of type-I Cd(Se,S) and type-II (Zn,Cd)(Se,S) alloyed quantum dots with an underlying zincblende crystal structure and the corresponding core/shell counterparts.

  12. An inverse method for the identification of a distributed random excitation acting on a vibrating structure. Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granger, S.; Perotin, L. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France)

    1997-12-31

    Maintaining the PWR components under reliable operating conditions requires a complex design to prevent various damaging processes, including fatigue and wear problems due to flow-induced vibration. In many practical situations, it is difficult, if not impossible, to perform direct measurements or calculations of the external forces acting on vibrating structures. Instead, vibrational responses can often be conveniently measured. This paper presents an inverse method for estimating a distributed random excitation from the measurement of the structural response at a number of discrete points. This paper is devoted to the presentation of the theoretical development. The force identification method is based on a modal model for the structure and a spatial orthonormal decomposition of the excitation field. The estimation of the Fourier coefficients of this orthonormal expansion is presented. As this problem turns out to be ill-posed, a regularization process is introduced. The minimization problem associated to this process is then formulated and its solutions is developed. (author) 17 refs.

  13. Submicron structure random field on granular soil material with retinex algorithm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Tao, Chenyuan; Zhou, Bingcheng; Huang, Shuai; Huang, Linchong

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a Retinex scale optimized image enhancement algorithm is proposed, which can enhance the micro vision image and eliminate the influence of the uneven illumination. Based on that, a random geometric model of the microstructure of granular materials is established with Monte-Carlo method, the numerical simulation including consolidation process of granular materials is compared with the experimental data. The results have proved that the random field method with Retinex image enhancement algorithm is effective, the image of microstructure of granular materials becomes clear and the contrast ratio is improved, after using Retinex image enhancement algorithm to enhance the CT image. The fidelity of enhanced image is higher than that dealing with other method, which have explained that the algorithm can preserve the microstructure information of the image well. The result of numerical simulation is similar with the one obtained from conventional three axis consolidation test, which proves that the simulation result is reliable.

  14. Submicron structure random field on granular soil material with retinex algorithm optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Retinex scale optimized image enhancement algorithm is proposed, which can enhance the micro vision image and eliminate the influence of the uneven illumination. Based on that, a random geometric model of the microstructure of granular materials is established with Monte-Carlo method, the numerical simulation including consolidation process of granular materials is compared with the experimental data. The results have proved that the random field method with Retinex image enhancement algorithm is effective, the image of microstructure of granular materials becomes clear and the contrast ratio is improved, after using Retinex image enhancement algorithm to enhance the CT image. The fidelity of enhanced image is higher than that dealing with other method, which have explained that the algorithm can preserve the microstructure information of the image well. The result of numerical simulation is similar with the one obtained from conventional three axis consolidation test, which proves that the simulation result is reliable.

  15. Finding Hierarchical and Overlapping Dense Subgraphs using Nucleus Decompositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshadhri, Comandur [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Pinar, Ali [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sariyuce, Ahmet Erdem [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catalyurek, Umit [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Finding dense substructures in a graph is a fundamental graph mining operation, with applications in bioinformatics, social networks, and visualization to name a few. Yet most standard formulations of this problem (like clique, quasiclique, k-densest subgraph) are NP-hard. Furthermore, the goal is rarely to nd the \\true optimum", but to identify many (if not all) dense substructures, understand their distribution in the graph, and ideally determine a hierarchical structure among them. Current dense subgraph nding algorithms usually optimize some objective, and only nd a few such subgraphs without providing any hierarchy. It is also not clear how to account for overlaps in dense substructures. We de ne the nucleus decomposition of a graph, which represents the graph as a forest of nuclei. Each nucleus is a subgraph where smaller cliques are present in many larger cliques. The forest of nuclei is a hierarchy by containment, where the edge density increases as we proceed towards leaf nuclei. Sibling nuclei can have limited intersections, which allows for discovery of overlapping dense subgraphs. With the right parameters, the nuclear decomposition generalizes the classic notions of k-cores and k-trusses. We give provable e cient algorithms for nuclear decompositions, and empirically evaluate their behavior in a variety of real graphs. The tree of nuclei consistently gives a global, hierarchical snapshot of dense substructures, and outputs dense subgraphs of higher quality than other state-of-theart solutions. Our algorithm can process graphs with tens of millions of edges in less than an hour.

  16. Self-consistent electronic structure and segregation profiles of the Cu-Ni (001) random-alloy surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Abrikosov, I. A.; Kats, D. Ya.

    1994-01-01

    We have calculated the electronic structure and segregation profiles of the (001) surface of random Cu-Ni alloys with varying bulk concentrations by means of the coherent potential approximation and the linear muffin-tin-orbitals method. Exchange and correlation were included within the local......-density approximation. Temperature effects were accounted for by means of the cluster-variation method and, for comparison, by mean-field theory. The necessary interaction parameters were calculated by the Connolly-Williams method generalized to the case of a surface of a random alloy. We find the segregation profiles...... to be oscillatory with a strong preference for Cu to segregate towards the surface of the alloy....

  17. Structure and Randomness of Continuous-Time, Discrete-Event Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzen, Sarah E.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2017-10-01

    Loosely speaking, the Shannon entropy rate is used to gauge a stochastic process' intrinsic randomness; the statistical complexity gives the cost of predicting the process. We calculate, for the first time, the entropy rate and statistical complexity of stochastic processes generated by finite unifilar hidden semi-Markov models—memoryful, state-dependent versions of renewal processes. Calculating these quantities requires introducing novel mathematical objects (ɛ -machines of hidden semi-Markov processes) and new information-theoretic methods to stochastic processes.

  18. Attention and attribute overlap in preferential choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sudeep

    2017-07-01

    Attributes that are common, or overlapping, across alternatives in two-alternative forced preferential choice tasks are often non-diagnostic. In many settings, attending to and evaluating these attributes does not help the decision maker determine which of the available alternatives is the most desirable. For this reason, many existing behavioural theories propose that decision makers ignore common attributes while deliberating. Across six experiments, we find that decision makers do direct their attention selectively and ignore attributes that are not present in or associated with either of the available alternatives. However, they are as likely to attend to common attributes as they are to attend to attributes that are unique to a single alternative. These results suggest the need for novel theories of attention in preferential choice.

  19. Overlapped Fourier coding for optical aberration removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmeyer, Roarke; Ou, Xiaoze; Chung, Jaebum; Zheng, Guoan; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    We present an imaging procedure that simultaneously optimizes a camera’s resolution and retrieves a sample’s phase over a sequence of snapshots. The technique, termed overlapped Fourier coding (OFC), first digitally pans a small aperture across a camera’s pupil plane with a spatial light modulator. At each aperture location, a unique image is acquired. The OFC algorithm then fuses these low-resolution images into a full-resolution estimate of the complex optical field incident upon the detector. Simultaneously, the algorithm utilizes redundancies within the acquired dataset to computationally estimate and remove unknown optical aberrations and system misalignments via simulated annealing. The result is an imaging system that can computationally overcome its optical imperfections to offer enhanced resolution, at the expense of taking multiple snapshots over time. PMID:25321982

  20. Competitive STDP Learning of Overlapping Spatial Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krunglevicius, Dalius

    2015-08-01

    Spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is a set of Hebbian learning rules firmly based on biological evidence. It has been demonstrated that one of the STDP learning rules is suited for learning spatiotemporal patterns. When multiple neurons are organized in a simple competitive spiking neural network, this network is capable of learning multiple distinct patterns. If patterns overlap significantly (i.e., patterns are mutually inclusive), however, competition would not preclude trained neuron's responding to a new pattern and adjusting synaptic weights accordingly. This letter presents a simple neural network that combines vertical inhibition and Euclidean distance-dependent synaptic strength factor. This approach helps to solve the problem of pattern size-dependent parameter optimality and significantly reduces the probability of a neuron's forgetting an already learned pattern. For demonstration purposes, the network was trained for the first ten letters of the Braille alphabet.

  1. A cluster randomized controlled trial of a structured training programme for caregivers of inpatients after stroke (TRACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Anne; Young, John; Nixon, Jane; Kalra, Lalit; Smithard, David; Patel, Anita; Knapp, Martin; Monaghan, Josie; Breen, Rachel; Anwar, Shamaila; Farrin, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    The majority of stroke patients are discharged home dependent on informal caregivers, usually family members, to provide assistance with activities of daily living, including bathing, dressing, and toileting. Many caregivers feel unprepared for this role, and this may have a detrimental effect on both the patient and caregiver. To evaluate whether a structured, competency-based training programme for caregivers improves physical and psychological outcomes for patients and their caregivers after disabling stroke, and to determine if such a training programme is cost-effective. A cluster randomized controlled trial. The trial aims to recruit 25 patient and caregiver dyads from each of the 36 participating stroke rehabilitation units. Stroke units have been randomized to either the intervention or control group with randomization stratified by geographical region and quality of care. The intervention is the London Stroke Carer Training Course developed and evaluated in a previous single-centre study. The London Stroke Carer Training Course comprises a number of caregiver training sessions and competency assessment delivered while the patient is in the hospital and one follow-up session after discharge. The multidisciplinary teams in the units randomized to the intervention group have been trained to incorporate delivery of the London Stroke Carer Training Course into ward practice, while those randomized to the control group have continued to provide usual care according to national guidelines. The primary outcomes are extended activities of daily living for the patient and caregiver burden measured at six-months after recruitment. Secondary outcomes include mood and cost-effectiveness, with final follow-up at 12 months. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2011 World Stroke Organization.

  2. Overlap of symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease, dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sanne; Jensen, Trine Holm; Henriksen, Susanne Lund; Haastrup, Peter Fentz; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Søndergaard, Jens; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2015-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common functional gastrointestinal conditions with significant impact on the daily lives of individuals. The objective was to investigate the prevalence and overlap of the three conditions in a Western general population. A nationwide study of 100,000 individuals 20 years and above, randomly selected in the general population. A web-based questionnaire survey formed the basis of this study. Questions regarding FD and IBS were extracted from the ROME III adult questionnaire. Questions regarding GERD were developed based on the Montreal definition. Prevalence estimates for GERD, FD IBS were calculated in total and for each sex separately and for four age groups. A Venn diagram was constructed, illustrating the overlap between the three conditions. The overall response rate was 52.2%. The prevalence of GERD, FD and IBS was 11.2%, 7.7% and 10.5%, respectively, and overlap between two or three of these conditions was seen among 6.5% of the respondents. Among individuals meeting the criteria of one or more of the conditions GERD, FD and IBS, 30.7% had overlap between two or all three conditions. GERD, FD and IBS are common conditions in the general population and the overlap between these conditions is also quite common. When diagnosing patients with GERD, FD and IBS, physicians should keep in mind that these patients could be suffering from more than one of these conditions.

  3. Effects due to overlapping large impact basins on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Herbert; Reidy, Anne Marie; Roark, James H.; Stockman, Stephanie

    1994-01-01

    Many ancient, highly degraded large impact basins exist on Mars. In many cases these basins overlap or are overlapped by more easily observed, presumably younger, impact basins. While impact basin overlap is becoming more recognized, the effects of such overlap have only occassionally been described. Such effects will depend on a variety of factors including the absolute and relative size of the basins, the degree of overlap, the state of the lithosphere and its thermal gradient at the time of impact, and the time between impacts. There now exists enough evidence for overlapping basins of different sizes that some of these can be discussed. This paper highlights some examples of the obvious effects of basin overlap.

  4. Protein Ordered Sequences are Formed by Random Joining of Amino Acids in Protein 0th-Order Structure, Followed by Evolutionary Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Only random processes should occur on the primitive Earth. In contrast, many ordered sequences are synthesized according to genetic information on the present Earth. In this communication, I have proposed an idea that protein 0th-order structures or specific amino acid compositions would mediate the transfer from random process to formation of ordered sequences, after formation of double-stranded genes.

  5. Full-field, high-spatial-resolution detection of local structural damage from low-resolution random strain field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongchao; Sun, Peng; Nagarajaiah, Satish; Bachilo, Sergei M.; Weisman, R. Bruce

    2017-07-01

    Structural damage is typically a local phenomenon that initiates and propagates within a limited area. As such high spatial resolution measurement and monitoring is often needed for accurate damage detection. This requires either significantly increased costs from denser sensor deployment in the case of global simultaneous/parallel measurements, or increased measurement time and labor in the case of global sequential measurements. This study explores the feasibility of an alternative approach to this problem: a computational solution in which a limited set of randomly positioned, low-resolution global strain measurements are used to reconstruct the full-field, high-spatial-resolution, two-dimensional (2D) strain field and rapidly detect local damage. The proposed approach exploits the implicit low-rank and sparse data structure of the 2D strain field: it is highly correlated without many edges and hence has a low-rank structure, unless damage-manifesting itself as sparse local irregularity-is present and alters such a low-rank structure slightly. Therefore, reconstruction of the full-field, high-spatial-resolution strain field from a limited set of randomly positioned low-resolution global measurements is modeled as a low-rank matrix completion framework and damage detection as a sparse decomposition formulation, enabled by emerging convex optimization techniques. Numerical simulations on a plate structure are conducted for validation. The results are discussed and a practical iterative global/local procedure is recommended. This new computational approach should enable the efficient detection of local damage using limited sets of strain measurements.

  6. Effect of Periodontal Therapy on Arterial Structure and Function Among Aboriginal Australians: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kapellas, Kostas; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Jamieson, Lisa M; Do, Loc G; O’Dea, Kerin; Brown, Alex; Cai, Tommy Y; Anstey, Nicholas M; Sullivan, David R; Wang, Hao; Celermajer, David S; Slade, Gary D; Skilton, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    .... Both diseases occur frequently in Aboriginal Australians. We hypothesized that nonsurgical periodontal therapy would improve measures of arterial function and structure that are subclinical indicators of atherosclerotic vascular disease...

  7. Secondary structure prediction of protein constructs using random incremental truncation and vacuum-ultraviolet CD spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Pukáncsik, M; Matsuo, K; Gekko, K; Hart, D; Kézsmárki, I; Vértessy, B G

    2014-01-01

    A novel uracil-DNA degrading protein factor (termed UDE) was identified in Drosophila melanogaster with no significant structural and functional homology to other uracil-DNA binding or processing factors. Determination of the 3D structure of UDE will be a true breakthrough in description of the molecular mechanism of action of UDE catalysis, as well as in general uracil-recognition and nuclease action. The revolutionary ESPRIT technology was applied to the novel protein UDE to overcome problems in identifying soluble expressing constructs given the absence of precise information on domain content and arrangement. Nine specimen from the created numerous truncated constructs of UDE were choosen to dechiper structural and functional relationships. VUVCD with neural network was performed to define the secondary structure content and location of UDE and its truncated variants. The quantitative analysis demonstrated exclusive {\\alpha}-helical content for the full-length protein, which is preserved in the truncated ...

  8. Explaining the structure of inter-organizational networks using exponential random graph models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekel, T.; Hartog, M.

    2013-01-01

    A key question raised in recent years is what factors determine the structure of interorganizational networks. Most research so far has focused on different forms of proximity between organizations, namely geographical, cognitive, social, institutional and organizational proximity, which are

  9. Effect of structured physical activity on prevention of serious fall injuries in adults aged 70-89: randomized clinical trial (LIFE Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: To test whether a long term, structured physical activity program compared with a health education program reduces the risk of serious fall injuries among sedentary older people with functional limitations. DESIGN: Multicenter, single blinded randomized trial (Lifestyle Interventions and ...

  10. Large deviations for random trees and the branching of RNA secondary structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtin, Yuri; Heitsch, Christine E

    2009-01-01

    We give a Large Deviation Principle (LDP) with explicit rate function for the distribution of vertex degrees in plane trees, a combinatorial model of RNA secondary structures. We calculate the typical degree distributions based on nearest neighbor free energies, and compare our results with the branching configurations found in two sets of large RNA secondary structures. We find substantial agreement overall, with some interesting deviations which merit further study.

  11. Recombinant azurin-CdSe/ZnS hybrid structures for nanoscale resistive random access memory device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagati, Ajay Kumar; Kim, Sang-Uk; Lee, Taek; Min, Junhong; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2017-04-15

    In the present study, we developed a biohybrid material composed of recombinant azurin and CdSe-ZnS quantum dot to perform as a resistive random access memory (ReRAM) device. Site specific amino acid sequences were introduced in azurin to bind with the surface of CdSe-ZnS nanoparticle allowing the formation of a hybrid and voltage-driven switching enabled to develop a resistive random access memory (ReRAM) device. The analytical measurements confirmed that the azurin and CdSe-ZnS nanoparticles were well conjugated and formed into a single hybrid. Further, reversible, bistable switching along with repeatable writing-reading-erasing processes on individual azurin/CdSe-ZnS hybrid at nanoscale was achieved on the hybrid device. The device was programmed tested for 50 cycles with an ON/OFF ratio and measured to be of three orders of magnitude. The developed device shown good stability and repeatability and operates at low voltages thus makes it promising candidate for future memory device applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiation breakage of DNA: a model based on random-walk chromatin structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, A. L.; Sachs, R. K.

    2001-01-01

    Monte Carlo computer software, called DNAbreak, has recently been developed to analyze observed non-random clustering of DNA double strand breaks in chromatin after exposure to densely ionizing radiation. The software models coarse-grained configurations of chromatin and radiation tracks, small-scale details being suppressed in order to obtain statistical results for larger scales, up to the size of a whole chromosome. We here give an analytic counterpart of the numerical model, useful for benchmarks, for elucidating the numerical results, for analyzing the assumptions of a more general but less mechanistic "randomly-located-clusters" formalism, and, potentially, for speeding up the calculations. The equations characterize multi-track DNA fragment-size distributions in terms of one-track action; an important step in extrapolating high-dose laboratory results to the much lower doses of main interest in environmental or occupational risk estimation. The approach can utilize the experimental information on DNA fragment-size distributions to draw inferences about large-scale chromatin geometry during cell-cycle interphase.

  13. A potentially novel overlapping gene in the genomes of Israeli acute paralysis virus and its relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Nicholas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV is a honeybee-infecting virus that was found to be associated with colony collapse disorder. The IAPV genome contains two genes encoding a structural and a nonstructural polyprotein. We applied a recently developed method for the estimation of selection in overlapping genes to detect purifying selection and, hence, functionality. We provide evolutionary evidence for the existence of a functional overlapping gene, which is translated in the +1 reading frame of the structural polyprotein gene. Conserved orthologs of this putative gene, which we provisionally call pog (predicted overlapping gene, were also found in the genomes of a monophyletic clade of dicistroviruses that includes IAPV, acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, and Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant virus 1.

  14. Depression-Burnout Overlap in Physicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Wurm

    Full Text Available Whether burnout is a distinct phenomenon rather than a type of depression and whether it is a syndrome, limited to three "core" components (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment are subjects of current debate. We investigated the depression-burnout overlap, and the pertinence of these three components in a large, representative sample of physicians.In a cross-sectional study, all Austrian physicians were invited to answer a questionnaire that included the Major Depression Inventory (MDI, the Hamburg Burnout Inventory (HBI, as well as demographic and job-related parameters. Of the 40093 physicians who received an invitation, a total of 6351 (15.8% participated. The data of 5897 participants were suitable for analysis.Of the participants, 10.3% were affected by major depression. Our study results suggest that potentially 50.7% of the participants were affected by symptoms of burnout. Compared to physicians unaffected by burnout, the odds ratio of suffering from major depression was 2.99 (95% CI 2.21-4.06 for physicians with mild, 10.14 (95% CI 7.58-13.59 for physicians with moderate, 46.84 (95% CI 35.25-62.24 for physicians with severe burnout and 92.78 (95% CI 62.96-136.74 for the 3% of participants with the highest HBI_sum (sum score of all ten HBI components. The HBI components Emotional Exhaustion, Personal Accomplishment and Detachment (representing depersonalization tend to correlate more highly with the main symptoms of major depression (sadness, lack of interest and lack of energy than with each other. A combination of the HBI components Emotional Exhaustion, Helplessness, Inner Void and Tedium (adj.R2 = 0.92 explained more HBI_sum variance than the three "core" components (adj.R2 = 0.85 of burnout combined. Cronbach's alpha for Emotional Exhaustion, Helplessness, Inner Void and Tedium combined was 0.90 compared to α = 0.54 for the combination of the three "core" components.This study demonstrates the

  15. Depression-Burnout Overlap in Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, Walter; Vogel, Katrin; Holl, Anna; Ebner, Christoph; Bayer, Dietmar; Mörkl, Sabrina; Szilagyi, Istvan-Szilard; Hotter, Erich; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Hofmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether burnout is a distinct phenomenon rather than a type of depression and whether it is a syndrome, limited to three “core” components (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment) are subjects of current debate. We investigated the depression-burnout overlap, and the pertinence of these three components in a large, representative sample of physicians. Methods In a cross-sectional study, all Austrian physicians were invited to answer a questionnaire that included the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), the Hamburg Burnout Inventory (HBI), as well as demographic and job-related parameters. Of the 40093 physicians who received an invitation, a total of 6351 (15.8%) participated. The data of 5897 participants were suitable for analysis. Results Of the participants, 10.3% were affected by major depression. Our study results suggest that potentially 50.7% of the participants were affected by symptoms of burnout. Compared to physicians unaffected by burnout, the odds ratio of suffering from major depression was 2.99 (95% CI 2.21–4.06) for physicians with mild, 10.14 (95% CI 7.58–13.59) for physicians with moderate, 46.84 (95% CI 35.25–62.24) for physicians with severe burnout and 92.78 (95% CI 62.96–136.74) for the 3% of participants with the highest HBI_sum (sum score of all ten HBI components). The HBI components Emotional Exhaustion, Personal Accomplishment and Detachment (representing depersonalization) tend to correlate more highly with the main symptoms of major depression (sadness, lack of interest and lack of energy) than with each other. A combination of the HBI components Emotional Exhaustion, Helplessness, Inner Void and Tedium (adj.R2 = 0.92) explained more HBI_sum variance than the three “core” components (adj.R2 = 0.85) of burnout combined. Cronbach’s alpha for Emotional Exhaustion, Helplessness, Inner Void and Tedium combined was 0.90 compared to α = 0.54 for the combination of the three

  16. A STRUCTURED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND HEALTH CARE EDUCATION BEATS POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION FOR PRIMIPARA MOTHERS: A PILOT RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Thiruppathi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: First time mothers in particular may feel anxious about how they are going to cope with looking after themselves and their newborn. Most Indian women believe that they have little or no control over their pregnancies or outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a Structured Physical Activity and Health Care Education program on the psychological well-being for Primipara mothers in postpartum period. Methods: This study was a Randomized Controlled Trail. Primipara mothers who were ready for discharge from The Narayana Medical College & General Hospital in postnatal ward were eligible for this study. Forty one (41 Primipara mothers randomized onto the trail. The experimental group(n=20 received an 4 week “Structured Physical Activity” (SPA program, including Structured Physical Activity provided by a team of health care professionals combined with parenting education & counseling. The other group (n=21 Health Care Education Only (HCEO received only the same educational material as the experimental group. In pre and post schedule outcome measures of both SPA&HCEO groups were assessed with Psychological well-being (Positive Affect Balance Scale, Depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, and Physical activity were assessed at baseline, 4th week and then 8th week later. Results: The improvement was significantly high in well-being scores, depressive symptoms and physical activity of the (SPA group compared with the (HCEO group over the study period and this effect was maintained 8 weeks after completion of the program. Conclusion: A Structured Physical Activity and Health Care Education program is effective in improving the well-being for Primipara mothers in postpartum period. Continuous use of this program may reduce long-term problems such as postpartum depression and it will change the women’s Physical, emotional and social health.

  17. A density based link clustering algorithm for overlapping community detection in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu; Liu, Yanheng; Wang, Jian; Li, Chun

    2017-11-01

    Overlapping is an interesting and common characteristic of community structure in networks. Link clustering method for overlapping community detection has attracted a lot of attention in the area of social networks applications. However, it may make the clustering result with excessive overlap and cluster bridge edge and border edge mistakenly to adjacent communities. To solve this problem, a density based link clustering algorithm is proposed to improve the accuracy of detecting overlapping communities in networks in this study. It creates a number of clusters containing core edges only based on concept named as core density reachable during the expansion. Then an updating strategy for unclassified edges is designed to assign them to the closest cluster. In addition, a similarity measure for computing the similarity between two edges is presented. Experiments on synthetic networks and real networks have been conducted. The experimental results demonstrate that our method performs better than other algorithms on detecting community structure and overlapping nodes, it can get nearly 15% higher than the NMI value of other algorithms on some synthetic networks.

  18. Evaluation of vaccination strategies for SIR epidemics on random networks incorporating household structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the analysis of vaccination strategies in a stochastic SIR (susceptible $\\to$ infected $\\to$ removed) model for the spread of an epidemic amongst a population of individuals with a random network of social contacts that is also partitioned into households. Under various vaccine action models, we consider both household-based vaccination schemes, in which the way in which individuals are chosen for vaccination depends on the size of the households in which they reside, and acquaintance vaccination, which targets individuals of high degree in the social network. For both types of vaccination scheme, assuming a large population with few initial infectives, we derive a threshold parameter which determines whether or not a large outbreak can occur and also the probability and fraction of the population infected by such an outbreak. The performance of these schemes is studied numerically, focusing on the influence of the household size distribution and the degree distribution of the soc...

  19. Workshop on Strategic Behavior and Phase Transitions in Random and Complex Combinatorial Structures : Extended Abstracts

    CERN Document Server

    Kirousis, Lefteris; Ortiz-Gracia, Luis; Serna, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This book is divided into two parts, the first of which seeks to connect the phase transitions of various disciplines, including game theory, and to explore the synergies between statistical physics and combinatorics. Phase Transitions has been an active multidisciplinary field of research, bringing together physicists, computer scientists and mathematicians. The main research theme explores how atomic agents that act locally and microscopically lead to discontinuous macroscopic changes. Adopting this perspective has proven to be especially useful in studying the evolution of random and usually complex or large combinatorial objects (like networks or logic formulas) with respect to discontinuous changes in global parameters like connectivity, satisfiability etc. There is, of course, an obvious strategic element in the formation of a transition: the atomic agents “selfishly” seek to optimize a local parameter. However, up to now this game-theoretic aspect of abrupt, locally triggered changes had not been e...

  20. Overlapping Neural Endophenotypes in Addiction and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Andréanne; Vainik, Uku; Garcia-Garcia, Isabel; Dagher, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Impulsivity refers to a tendency to act rapidly without full consideration of consequences. The trait is thought to result from the interaction between high arousal responses to potential rewards and poor self-control. Studies have suggested that impulsivity confers vulnerability to both addiction and obesity. However, results in this area are unclear, perhaps due to the high phenotypic complexity of addictions and obesity. Focusing on impulsivity, the aim of this review is to tackle the putative overlaps between addiction and obesity in four domains: (1) personality research, (2) neurocognitive tasks, (3) brain imaging, and (4) clinical evidence. We suggest that three impulsivity-related domains are particularly relevant for our understanding of similarities between addiction and obesity: lower self-control (high Disinhibition/low Conscientiousness), reward sensitivity (high Extraversion/Positive Emotionality), and negative affect (high Neuroticism/Negative Emotionality). Neurocognitive studies have shown that obesity and addiction are both associated with increased impulsive decision-making and attention bias in response to drug or food cues, respectively. Mirroring this, obesity and different forms of addiction seem to exhibit similar alterations in functional MRI brain activity in response to reward processing and during self-control tasks. Overall, our review provides an integrative approach to understand those facets of obesity that present similarities to addictive behaviors. In addition, we suggest that therapeutic interventions targeting inhibitory control may represent a promising approach for the prevention and/or treatment of obesity. PMID:28659866

  1. Edges and Overlaps in Northwest Atlantic Phylogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Byers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As marine environments change, the greatest ecological shifts—including resource usage and species interactions—are likely to take place in or near regions of biogeographic and phylogeographic transition. However, our understanding of where these transitional regions exist depends on the defining criteria. Here we evaluate phylogeographic transitions using a bootstrapping procedure that allows us to focus on either the strongest genetic transitions between a pair of contiguous populations, versus evaluation of transitions inclusive of the entire overlap between two intraspecific genetic lineages. We compiled data for the Atlantic coast of the United States, and evaluate taxa with short- and long-dispersing larval phases separately. Our results are largely concordant with previous biogeographic and phylogeographic analyses, indicating strong biotic change associated with the regions near Cape Cod, the Delmarva Peninsula, and eastern Florida. However, inclusive analysis of the entire range of sympatry for intraspecific lineages suggests that broad regions—the Mid-Atlantic Bight and eastern Florida–already harbor divergent intraspecific lineages, suggesting the potential for ecological evaluation of resource use between these lineages. This study establishes baseline information for tracking how such patterns change as predicted environmental changes take place.

  2. Overlapping Neural Endophenotypes in Addiction and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréanne Michaud

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Impulsivity refers to a tendency to act rapidly without full consideration of consequences. The trait is thought to result from the interaction between high arousal responses to potential rewards and poor self-control. Studies have suggested that impulsivity confers vulnerability to both addiction and obesity. However, results in this area are unclear, perhaps due to the high phenotypic complexity of addictions and obesity. Focusing on impulsivity, the aim of this review is to tackle the putative overlaps between addiction and obesity in four domains: (1 personality research, (2 neurocognitive tasks, (3 brain imaging, and (4 clinical evidence. We suggest that three impulsivity-related domains are particularly relevant for our understanding of similarities between addiction and obesity: lower self-control (high Disinhibition/low Conscientiousness, reward sensitivity (high Extraversion/Positive Emotionality, and negative affect (high Neuroticism/Negative Emotionality. Neurocognitive studies have shown that obesity and addiction are both associated with increased impulsive decision-making and attention bias in response to drug or food cues, respectively. Mirroring this, obesity and different forms of addiction seem to exhibit similar alterations in functional MRI brain activity in response to reward processing and during self-control tasks. Overall, our review provides an integrative approach to understand those facets of obesity that present similarities to addictive behaviors. In addition, we suggest that therapeutic interventions targeting inhibitory control may represent a promising approach for the prevention and/or treatment of obesity.

  3. Gaussian Mixture Random Coefficient model based framework for SHM in structures with time-dependent dynamics under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño-Valencia, Luis David; Fassois, Spilios D.

    2017-12-01

    The problem of vibration-based damage diagnosis in structures characterized by time-dependent dynamics under significant environmental and/or operational uncertainty is considered. A stochastic framework consisting of a Gaussian Mixture Random Coefficient model of the uncertain time-dependent dynamics under each structural health state, proper estimation methods, and Bayesian or minimum distance type decision making, is postulated. The Random Coefficient (RC) time-dependent stochastic model with coefficients following a multivariate Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) allows for significant flexibility in uncertainty representation. Certain of the model parameters are estimated via a simple procedure which is founded on the related Multiple Model (MM) concept, while the GMM weights are explicitly estimated for optimizing damage diagnostic performance. The postulated framework is demonstrated via damage detection in a simple simulated model of a quarter-car active suspension with time-dependent dynamics and considerable uncertainty on the payload. Comparisons with a simpler Gaussian RC model based method are also presented, with the postulated framework shown to be capable of offering considerable improvement in diagnostic performance.

  4. Improving the quality of life of geriatric cancer patients with a structured multidisciplinary intervention: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapid, Maria I; Rummans, Teresa A; Brown, Paul D; Frost, Marlene H; Johnson, Mary E; Huschka, Mashele M; Sloan, Jeff A; Richardson, Jarrett W; Hanson, Jean M; Clark, Matthew M

    2007-06-01

    To examine the potential impact of elderly age on response to participation in a structured, multidisciplinary quality-of-life (QOL) intervention for patients with advanced cancer undergoing radiation therapy. Study design was a randomized stratified, two group, controlled clinical trial in the setting of a tertiary care comprehensive cancer center. Subjects with newly diagnosed cancer and an estimated 5-year survival rate of 0%-50% who required radiation therapy were recruited and randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a standard care group. The intervention consisted of eight 90-min sessions designed to address the five QOL domains of cognitive, physical, emotional, spiritual, and social functioning. QOL was measured using Spitzer uniscale and linear analogue self-assessment (LASA) at baseline and weeks 4, 8, and 27. Of the 103 study participants, 33 were geriatric (65 years or older), of which 16 (mean age 72.4 years) received the intervention and 17 (mean age 71.4 years) were assigned to the standard medical care. The geriatric participants who completed the intervention had higher QOL scores at baseline, at week 4 and at week 8, compared to the control participants. Our results demonstrate that geriatric patients with advanced cancer undergoing radiation therapy will benefit from participation in a structured multidisciplinary QOL intervention. Therefore, geriatric individuals should not be excluded from participating in a cancer QOL intervention, and, in fact, elderly age may be an indicator of strong response to a QOL intervention. Future research should further explore this finding.

  5. The effect of implant overlap on the mechanical properties of the femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Timothy; Ruth, John T; Szivek, John; Haywood, Brett

    2003-05-01

    The most biomechanically stable relationship between the side plate of a compression hip screw (CHS) and retrograde intramedullary (IM) femoral nail has not been described in the literature. This becomes a clinical issue when treating supracondylar femur fractures with a retrograde nail in patients with a history of compression hip screw fixation of intertrochanteric fractures. The proximal end of the nail and the interlocking screws may act as a stress riser in the femoral diaphysis. The purpose of this study is to determine the biomechanical consequences of the amount of implant overlap between a CHS plate and retrograde IM femoral nail. Nine paired fresh-frozen cadaver femora from elderly donors were cleaned of soft tissue and fixed with uniaxial strain gauges. Each femur was loaded three times in a fall-loading configuration to 50 kg at a rate of 1 Hz. The study consisted of two phases. In phase 1, six pair were randomly divided into a control and test femur from each pair. Three states were compared on each test femur: uninstrumented, instrumented with CHS, and instrumented with CHS and retrograde nail. The control femur consisted of the matched femur tested in two states: uninstrumented and instrumented with a CHS. The femora were then loaded to failure. The tests were performed with the retrograde nail and CHS gapped 3 cm, kissing, and overlapping by two screw holes (two pair for each state). In phase 2, each of the remaining three pair were instrumented with a CHS and retrograde nail overlapping in one femur and gapped in the matched femur and tested in the same manner. Data analysis was performed using Pearson's correlation coefficients between groups. Paired samples t tests were used to compare differences within test states and independent samples t tests were used to compare differences between femora. Mean strain at 50-kg load, load-versus-strain patterns, failure patterns, and load and strain at failure were recorded. RESULTS; Correlation coefficients

  6. The Influence of Family Structure on Sexual Activity in a Randomized Effectiveness Trial for Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherr, Michael E.; Crow, Janet; Stamey, James; Jones, Johnny; Dyer, Preston

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of family structure on the outcomes of a sex education program in Miami, Florida. Using an experimental design, data collection occurred at pretest, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up with a sample of teenagers from high schools with a large majority of minority youth, assigned into treatment (n = 549) and control (n…

  7. Bayesian exponential random graph modeling of whole-brain structural networks across lifespan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, Michel R T; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Caimo, Alberto; Stam, Cornelis J; Otte, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Descriptive neural network analyses have provided important insights into the organization of structural and functional networks in the human brain. However, these analyses have limitations for inter-subject or between-group comparisons in which network sizes and edge densities may differ, such as

  8. Therapeutic approaches to asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edmund M T; Roche, Nicole A; Reddel, Helen K

    2017-05-01

    Patients with features of both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) ('asthma-COPD overlap') experience greater symptom burden and higher risk of adverse health outcomes than those with asthma or COPD alone. However, virtually no pharmacotherapy studies have been performed in this overlap population, leading to confusion amongst clinicians regarding therapeutic approaches. Areas covered: A pragmatic approach is suggested to identify patients with typical asthma, typical COPD, and those with overlap features. Interim clinical guidance on the treatment of asthma-COPD overlap is provided, acknowledging that these recommendations are based on expert opinion given the paucity of available evidence. Expert commentary: There is an urgent need for new studies in patients with asthma-COPD overlap to evaluate the efficacy and safety of existing pharmacotherapeutic options. Multiple underlying mechanisms are likely to contribute to the development of asthma-COPD overlap and a greater understanding of these mechanisms may allow a personalised approach to therapy in the future.

  9. Overlap syndrome: autoimmune hepatitis with primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulprakash, S; Sasi, Anand D; Bala, Murali R; Pugazhendhi, T; Kumar, S Jeevan

    2010-07-01

    "Overlap syndrome" is used to describe variant forms of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) which present with characteristics of AIH and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) or primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Patients with overlap syndromes present with both hepatitic and cholestatic serum liver tests and have histological features of AIH and PBC or PSC. AIH-PBC is the most common form of overlap syndrome, affecting almost 10% of adults with AIH or PBC. Transitions from PBC to AIH-PBC overlap syndrome have also been reported. Overlap syndromes show a progressive course without treatment, and therapy is empiric. Ursodeoxycholic acid is usually combined with immunosuppressive therapy but end-stage disease requires liver transplantation. We report a case of AIH/PBC overlap with relevant discussion of literature.

  10. Investigation of the Relationship between Increased Vertical Overlap with Minimum Horizontal Overlap and the Signs of Temporomandibular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinastepe, Neslihan; Oral, Koray

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the null hypothesis that there was no relationship between increased vertical overlap (vertical overlap ≥4 mm) with minimal horizontal overlap (horizontal overlap ≤2 mm) and the signs of temporomandibular disorders. Thirty participants (20 women, aged 20 to 45 years) with increased vertical overlap and minimal horizontal overlap, and 30 participants (20 women, aged 20 to 45 years) with no contact between the anterior teeth (control group) were examined. Diagnoses, psychological status (depression and nonspesific physical symptoms), and chronic pain severity were judged according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders and then compared. For statistical analysis of quantitative data, along with the descriptive statistical methods (mean, standard deviation, frequency), Student's t-test was used to compare parameters that reflected a normal distribution. Comparison of qualitative data between groups was performed using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. The level of significance was set at p palpation of lateral pterygoid muscles was observed more often in the increased vertical overlap group compared with the control group (p muscles (upon palpation), and opening-closing joint sounds occurred more often in the increased vertical overlap occlusions with minimum horizontal overlap compared to the control groups. These results indicated that clinicians should pay special attention to the tempormandibuar joint status of patients with significant vertical overlap anteriorly and position of the incisors when performing dental treatments that require reestablishment of incisor relationships. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  11. Genome classification by gene distribution: An overlapping subspace clustering approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halgamuge Saman K

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomes of lower organisms have been observed with a large amount of horizontal gene transfers, which cause difficulties in their evolutionary study. Bacteriophage genomes are a typical example. One recent approach that addresses this problem is the unsupervised clustering of genomes based on gene order and genome position, which helps to reveal species relationships that may not be apparent from traditional phylogenetic methods. Results We propose the use of an overlapping subspace clustering algorithm for such genome classification problems. The advantage of subspace clustering over traditional clustering is that it can associate clusters with gene arrangement patterns, preserving genomic information in the clusters produced. Additionally, overlapping capability is desirable for the discovery of multiple conserved patterns within a single genome, such as those acquired from different species via horizontal gene transfers. The proposed method involves a novel strategy to vectorize genomes based on their gene distribution. A number of existing subspace clustering and biclustering algorithms were evaluated to identify the best framework upon which to develop our algorithm; we extended a generic subspace clustering algorithm called HARP to incorporate overlapping capability. The proposed algorithm was assessed and applied on bacteriophage genomes. The phage grouping results are consistent overall with the Phage Proteomic Tree and showed common genomic characteristics among the TP901-like, Sfi21-like and sk1-like phage groups. Among 441 phage genomes, we identified four significantly conserved distribution patterns structured by the terminase, portal, integrase, holin and lysin genes. We also observed a subgroup of Sfi21-like phages comprising a distinctive divergent genome organization and identified nine new phage members to the Sfi21-like genus: Staphylococcus 71, phiPVL108, Listeria A118, 2389, Lactobacillus phi AT3, A2

  12. Synthesis of the human VEGF 165 gene based on overlap PCR and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis of the human VEGF165 gene based on overlap PCR and recombinant expression in stable transfected CHO cells. J Zhang, T Wang, B Yang, Y Lin, Z Li. Abstract. Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are a member of a family of structurally related proteins that mediate angiogenesis, and vascular ...

  13. Synthesis of a criss-cross overlapped tetrathiafulvalenophane and a topologically new [2]catenane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Brønsted; Thorup, Niels; Becher, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Using stepwise cyclization reactions followed by an intramolecular coupling., a criss-cross overlapped tetrathiafulvalenophane was prepared. The structure of the cis,cis isomer was elucidated by X-ray crystallography which revealed a host-guest complex with chloroform. This electron donor was use...

  14. [Clinical immunological diagnostics of overlap syndrome during autoimmune hepatic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagynbaeva, V É; Lazebnik, L B; Gudkova, R B; Efremov, L I; Vinnitskaia, E V; Dorofeev, A S

    2014-01-01

    The complex determination of serum autoantibodies to hepatic antigens using enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot allows to increase the frequency of overlap syndrome identification during autoimmune hepatic disorders and its early diagnostics, that has a big clinical, diagnostic and prognostic importance. The levels of overlap autoantibodies combine with biochemical index and with disease activity and intensity of autoimmune processes during overlap syndrome of primary biliary cirrhosis/autoimmune hepatitis (PBC/AIH).

  15. A novel function prediction approach using protein overlap networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shide; Zheng, Dandan; Standley, Daron M; Guo, Huarong; Zhang, Chi

    2013-07-17

    Construction of a reliable network remains the bottleneck for network-based protein function prediction. We built an artificial network model called protein overlap network (PON) for the entire genome of yeast, fly, worm, and human, respectively. Each node of the network represents a protein, and two proteins are connected if they share a domain according to InterPro database. The function of a protein can be predicted by counting the occurrence frequency of GO (gene ontology) terms associated with domains of direct neighbors. The average success rate and coverage were 34.3% and 43.9%, respectively, for the test genomes, and were increased to 37.9% and 51.3% when a composite PON of the four species was used for the prediction. As a comparison, the success rate was 7.0% in the random control procedure. We also made predictions with GO term annotations of the second layer nodes using the composite network and obtained an impressive success rate (>30%) and coverage (>30%), even for small genomes. Further improvement was achieved by statistical analysis of manually annotated GO terms for each neighboring protein. The PONs are composed of dense modules accompanied by a few long distance connections. Based on the PONs, we developed multiple approaches effective for protein function prediction.

  16. Optimum seismic structural design based on random vibration and fuzzy graded damages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Franklin Y.; Ou, Jin-Ping

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the fuzzy dynamical reliability and failure probability as well as the basic principles and the analytical method of loss assessment for nonlinear seismic steel structures. Also presented is the optimization formulation and a numerical example for double objectives, initial construction cost and expected failure loss, and dynamical reliability constraints. The earthquake ground motion is based on a stationary filtered non-white noise and the fuzzy damage grade is described by damage index.

  17. New eco-friendly random copolyesters based on poly(propylene cyclohexanedicarboxylate: Structure-properties relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Genovese

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel random copolymers of poly(propylene 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate (PPCE containing neo -pentyl glycol sub-unit (P(PCExNCEy were synthesized and characterized in terms of molecular and solid-state properties. In addition, biodegradability studies in compost have been conducted. The copolymers displayed a high and similar thermal stability with respect to PPCE. At room temperature, all the copolymers appeared as semicrystalline materials: the main effect of copolymerization was a lowering of crystallinity degree (χc and a decrease of the melting temperature compared to the parent homopolymer. In particular, Wide Angle X-Ray diffraction (WAXD measurements indicated that P(PCExNCEy copolymers are characterized by cocrystallization, PNCE counits cocrystallizing in PPCE crystalline phase. Final properties and biodegradation rate of the materials under study were strictly dependent on copolymer composition and χc. As a matter of fact, the elastic modulus and the elongation at break decreased and increased, respectively, as neopentyl glycol cyclohexanedicarboxylate (NCE unit content was increased. The presence of a rigid-amorphous phase was evidenced by means of Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA analysis in all the samples under investigation. Lastly, the biodegradation rate of P(PCExNCEy copolymers was found to slightly increase with the increasing of NCE molar content.

  18. Existence Results for a Michaud Fractional, Nonlocal, and Randomly Position Structured Fragmentation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Franc Doungmo Goufo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Until now, classical models of clusters’ fission remain unable to fully explain strange phenomena like the phenomenon of shattering (Ziff and McGrady, 1987 and the sudden appearance of infinitely many particles in some systems having initial finite number of particles. That is why there is a need to extend classical models to models with fractional derivative order and use new and various techniques to analyze them. In this paper, we prove the existence of strongly continuous solution operators for nonlocal fragmentation models with Michaud time derivative of fractional order (Samko et al., 1993. We focus on the case where the splitting rate is dependent on size and position and where new particles generating from fragmentation are distributed in space randomly according to some probability density. In the analysis, we make use of the substochastic semigroup theory, the subordination principle for differential equations of fractional order (Prüss, 1993, Bazhlekova, 2000, the analogy of Hille-Yosida theorem for fractional model (Prüss, 1993, and useful properties of Mittag-Leffler relaxation function (Berberan-Santos, 2005. We are then able to show that the solution operator to the full model is positive and contractive.

  19. PairWise Neighbours database: overlaps and spacers among prokaryote genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Vallvé Santiago

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although prokaryotes live in a variety of habitats and possess different metabolic and genomic complexity, they have several genomic architectural features in common. The overlapping genes are a common feature of the prokaryote genomes. The overlapping lengths tend to be short because as the overlaps become longer they have more risk of deleterious mutations. The spacers between genes tend to be short too because of the tendency to reduce the non coding DNA among prokaryotes. However they must be long enough to maintain essential regulatory signals such as the Shine-Dalgarno (SD sequence, which is responsible of an efficient translation. Description PairWise Neighbours is an interactive and intuitive database used for retrieving information about the spacers and overlapping genes among bacterial and archaeal genomes. It contains 1,956,294 gene pairs from 678 fully sequenced prokaryote genomes and is freely available at the URL http://genomes.urv.cat/pwneigh. This database provides information about the overlaps and their conservation across species. Furthermore, it allows the wide analysis of the intergenic regions providing useful information such as the location and strength of the SD sequence. Conclusion There are experiments and bioinformatic analysis that rely on correct annotations of the initiation site. Therefore, a database that studies the overlaps and spacers among prokaryotes appears to be desirable. PairWise Neighbours database permits the reliability analysis of the overlapping structures and the study of the SD presence and location among the adjacent genes, which may help to check the annotation of the initiation sites.

  20. Two independent transcription initiation codes overlap on vertebrate core promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Vanja; Li, Nan; Hadzhiev, Yavor; Plessy, Charles; Previti, Christopher; Nepal, Chirag; Gehrig, Jochen; Dong, Xianjun; Akalin, Altuna; Suzuki, Ana Maria; van Ijcken, Wilfred F. J.; Armant, Olivier; Ferg, Marco; Strähle, Uwe; Carninci, Piero; Müller, Ferenc; Lenhard, Boris

    2014-03-01

    their expression in the two regulatory environments. The dissection of overlapping core promoter determinants represents a framework for future studies of promoter structure and function across different regulatory contexts.

  1. LHON/MELAS overlap syndrome associated with a mitochondrial MTND1 gene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Emma L; de Silva, Rajith; King, Andrew; Schwarzer, Verena; Harrower, Tim; Dawidek, Gervase; Turnbull, Douglass M; Taylor, Robert W

    2005-05-01

    Pathogenic point mutations in the mitochondrial MTND1 gene have previously been described in association with two distinct clinical phenotypes -- Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). Here we report the first heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutation (3376G>A) in the MTND1 gene associated with an overlap syndrome comprising the clinical features of both LHON and MELAS. Muscle histochemistry revealed subtle mitochondrial abnormalities, while biochemical analysis showed an isolated complex I deficiency. Our findings serve to highlight the growing importance of mutations in mitochondrial complex I structural genes in MELAS and its associated overlap syndromes.

  2. Multiscale modeling of interwoven Kevlar fibers based on random walk to predict yarn structural response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Stephen

    Kevlar is the most common high-end plastic filament yarn used in body armor, tire reinforcement, and wear resistant applications. Kevlar is a trade name for an aramid fiber. These are fibers in which the chain molecules are highly oriented along the fiber axis, so the strength of the chemical bond can be exploited. The bulk material is extruded into filaments that are bound together into yarn, which may be chorded with other materials as in car tires, woven into a fabric, or layered in an epoxy to make composite panels. The high tensile strength to low weight ratio makes this material ideal for designs that decrease weight and inertia, such as automobile tires, body panels, and body armor. For designs that use Kevlar, increasing the strength, or tenacity, to weight ratio would improve performance or reduce cost of all products that are based on this material. This thesis computationally and experimentally investigates the tenacity and stiffness of Kevlar yarns with varying twist ratios. The test boundary conditions were replicated with a geometrically accurate finite element model, resulting in a customized code that can reproduce tortuous filaments in a yarn was developed. The solid model geometry capturing filament tortuosity was implemented through a random walk method of axial geometry creation. A finite element analysis successfully recreated the yarn strength and stiffness dependency observed during the tests. The physics applied in the finite element model was reproduced in an analytical equation that was able to predict the failure strength and strain dependency of twist ratio. The analytical solution can be employed to optimize yarn design for high strength applications.

  3. Random vibration of linear and nonlinear structural systems with singular matrices: A frequency domain approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougioumtzoglou, I. A.; Fragkoulis, V. C.; Pantelous, A. A.; Pirrotta, A.

    2017-09-01

    A frequency domain methodology is developed for stochastic response determination of multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) linear and nonlinear structural systems with singular matrices. This system modeling can arise when a greater than the minimum number of coordinates/DOFs is utilized, and can be advantageous, for instance, in cases of complex multibody systems where the explicit formulation of the equations of motion can be a nontrivial task. In such cases, the introduction of additional/redundant DOFs can facilitate the formulation of the equations of motion in a less labor intensive manner. Specifically, relying on the generalized matrix inverse theory, a Moore-Penrose (M-P) based frequency response function (FRF) is determined for a linear structural system with singular matrices. Next, relying on the M-P FRF a spectral input-output (excitation-response) relationship is derived in the frequency domain for determining the linear system response power spectrum. Further, the above methodology is extended via statistical linearization to account for nonlinear systems. This leads to an iterative determination of the system response mean vector and covariance matrix. Furthermore, to account for singular matrices, the generalization of a widely utilized formula that facilitates the application of statistical linearization is proved as well. The formula relates to the expectation of the derivatives of the system nonlinear function and is based on a Gaussian response assumption. Several linear and nonlinear MDOF structural systems with singular matrices are considered as numerical examples for demonstrating the validity and applicability of the developed frequency domain methodology.

  4. The role of a structured exercise training program on cardiac structure and function after acute myocardial infarction: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes-Carvalho, Ricardo; Sampaio, Francisco; Teixeira, Madalena; Gama, Vasco; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F

    2015-03-12

    Exercise training is effective in improving functional capacity and quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease, but its effects on left ventricular systolic and diastolic function are controversial. Diastolic dysfunction is a major determinant of adverse outcome after myocardial infarction and, contrary to systolic function, no therapy or intervention has proved to significantly improve diastolic function. Data from animal studies and from patients with diastolic heart failure has suggested that exercise training can have a positive effect on diastolic function parameters. This trial aims to evaluate if a structured exercise training program can improve resting left ventricular diastolic and systolic function in patients who have had an acute myocardial infarction. This is a phase II, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint trial that will include at least 96 consecutive patients who have had an acute myocardial infarction one month previously. Patients will be randomized (1:1) to an exercise training program or a control group, receiving standard of care. At enrolment, and at the end of the follow-up period, patients will be submitted to an echocardiography (with detailed assessment of diastolic and systolic function using recent consensus guidelines), cardiopulmonary exercise testing, an anthropometric assessment, blood testing, and clinical evaluation. Patients randomized to the intervention group will be submitted to an eight-week outpatient exercise program, combining endurance and resistance training, for three sessions per week. The primary endpoint will be the change in lateral E' velocity immediately after the eight-week exercise training program. Secondary endpoints will include other echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular diastolic and systolic function, cardiac structure, metabolic and inflammation biomarkers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and pro-BNP), functional capacity (peak oxygen consumption and

  5. Random lock-in intervals for tubular structural elements subject to simulated natural wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus F.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1999-01-01

    The paper reports on wind tunnel experiments with an elastically suspended circular cylinder vibrating under the excitation of natural wind of high turbulence degree. The natural wind turbulence was simulated bysuperposing the low frequency part of the natural wind turbulence on the background high...... structural elements subject to thenatural wind. The engineering relevance of the investigation is supported by comparing with the unrealistic highlyconservative rules of wind induced fatique commonly given in codes of practice. The stochastic lock-in model aswell as the related fatigue calculation procedure...

  6. Structure and mechanical properties of supramolecular random copolymer hydrogels cross linked by hydrophobic aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Bryan; Wiener, Clinton; Wang, Chao; Weiss, Bob

    Stress dissipation mechanisms are critical to improving the toughness of hydrogels. The use of reversible hydrophobic associations for crosslnking of hydrogels provides such a mechanism for toughening, but can also lead to the creep of the hydrogel as the crosslinks break and reform. The morphology of the hydrophobic aggregates thus is critical to the mechanical properties of the hydrogels. In this work, we will demonstrate how the processing of these copolymers impacts the hydrogel structure and this structure is correlated with the mechanical properties through a combination of small angle scattering, rheology, and tensile measurements. The hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemistries in the copolymer can be used to tune the water content and strength of the crosslinks, while the copolymer composition provides the number density of crosslinks and also acts to modulate the swelling of the hydrogel. These copolymers as well as their hydrogels can in general use traditional polymer processing, but the details of this processing impacts both the nanoscale morphology and the resultant mechanical properties of the hydrogels. This work was financially supported by the Civil, Mechanical and Manufacturing Innovation (CMMI) Division in the Directorate for Engineering of the National Science Foundation, Grant. CMMI-1300212.

  7. Experimental estimation of in vacuo structural admittance using random sources in a non-anechoic room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Earl G; Tippmann, Jeffery D; Rakotonarivo, Sandrine T; Waters, Zachary J; Roux, Philippe; Kuperman, W A

    2017-07-01

    Identification of unexploded ordinance buried in the sediment in the littoral waters throughout the world is a problem of great concern. When illuminated by low-frequency sonar some of these targets exhibit an elastic response that can be used to identify them. This elastic behavior is embodied and identified by a quantity called the in vacuo structural admittance matrix Ys, a relationship between the sonar-induced forces and resulting vibration on its surface. When it is known it can be combined with surface impedances to predict the three-dimensional bistatic scattering in any fluid-like media and for any burial state (depth and orientation). At the heart of this is the measurement of Ys and it is demonstrated in this paper that this can be accomplished by studying the target in a simple (acoustically unaltered) in-air laboratory environment. The target chosen in this study is a thick spherical shell that was illuminated by a nearly spatially isotropic array of remote loudspeakers. Ys is constructed from ensemble averages of the cross-correlations of eight collocated accelerometers and microphones placed on the surface of the object. The structural admittance determined from the data showed excellent agreement with theory.

  8. An overlap of Brugada syndrome and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Kataoka, MD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Overlapping characteristics of Brugada syndrome (BrS and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D have been reported in recent studies, but little is known about the overlapping disease state of BrS and ARVC/D. A 36-year-old man, hospitalized at our institution for syncope, presented with this overlapping disease state. The electrocardiogram showed spontaneous coved-type ST-segment elevation, and ventricular fibrillation was induced by right ventricular outflow tract stimulation in an electrophysiological study. BrS was subsequently diagnosed; additionally, the presence of epsilon-like waves and right ventricular structural abnormalities met with the 2010 revised task force criteria for ARVC/D. After careful investigation for both BrS and ARVC/D, an implantable cardioverter defibrillator was inserted in the patient. This case revealed 2 important clinical findings: (1 BrS and ARVC/D clinical features can coexist in a single patient, and EPS might be useful for determining the phenotype of overlapping disease (e.g., BrS-like or ARVC/D-like. (2 An overlapping disease state of BrS and ARVC/D can change phenotypically during its clinical course. Therefore, careful examination and attentive follow-up are required for patients with BrS or ARVC/D.

  9. Finding Oxygen Reservoir by Using Extremely Small Test Cell Structure for Resistive Random Access Memory with Replaceable Bottom Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Kentaro; Koh, Sang-Gyu; Moriyama, Takumi; Kishida, Satoru

    2015-12-22

    Although the presence of an oxygen reservoir (OR) is assumed in many models that explain resistive switching of resistive random access memory (ReRAM) with electrode/metal oxide (MO)/electrode structures, the location of OR is not clear. We have previously reported a method, which involved the use of an AFM cantilever, for preparing an extremely small ReRAM cell that has a removable bottom electrode (BE). In this study, we used this cell structure to specify the location of OR. Because an anode is often assumed to work as OR, we investigated the effect of changing anodes without changing the MO layer and the cathode on the occurrence of reset. It was found that the reset occurred independently of the catalytic ability and Gibbs free energy (ΔG) of the anode. Our proposed structure enabled to determine that the reset was caused by repairing oxygen vacancies of which a filament consists due to the migration of oxygen ions from the surrounding area when high ΔG anode metal is used, whereas by oxidizing the anode due to the migration of oxygen ions from the MO layer when low ΔG anode metal is used, suggesting the location of OR depends on ΔG of the anode.

  10. Effects of Hebbian learning on the dynamics and structure of random networks with inhibitory and excitatory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri, Benoît; Quoy, Mathias; Delord, Bruno; Cessac, Bruno; Berry, Hugues

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to study the effects of Hebbian learning in random recurrent neural networks with biological connectivity, i.e. sparse connections and separate populations of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We furthermore consider that the neuron dynamics may occur at a (shorter) time scale than synaptic plasticity and consider the possibility of learning rules with passive forgetting. We show that the application of such Hebbian learning leads to drastic changes in the network dynamics and structure. In particular, the learning rule contracts the norm of the weight matrix and yields a rapid decay of the dynamics complexity and entropy. In other words, the network is rewired by Hebbian learning into a new synaptic structure that emerges with learning on the basis of the correlations that progressively build up between neurons. We also observe that, within this emerging structure, the strongest synapses organize as a small-world network. The second effect of the decay of the weight matrix spectral radius consists in a rapid contraction of the spectral radius of the Jacobian matrix. This drives the system through the "edge of chaos" where sensitivity to the input pattern is maximal. Taken together, this scenario is remarkably predicted by theoretical arguments derived from dynamical systems and graph theory.

  11. A microstructure-guided constitutive modeling approach for random heterogeneous materials: Application to structural binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sumanta; Maroli, Amit; Singh, Sudhanshu S.; Stannard, Tyler; Xiao, Xianghui; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Neithalath, Narayanan

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a microstructure-guided modeling approach to predict the effective elastic response of heterogeneous materials, and demonstrates its application toward two highly heterogeneous, uncon- ventional structural binders, i.e., iron carbonate and fly ash geopolymer. Microstructural information from synchrotron X-ray tomography (XRT) and intrinsic elastic properties of component solid phases from statistical nanoindentation are used as the primary inputs. The virtual periodic 3D microstructure reconstructed using XRT, along with periodic boundary conditions is used as a basis for strain- controlled numerical simulation scheme in the linear elastic range to predict the elastic modulus as well as the stresses in the microstructural phases. The elastic modulus of the composite material predicted from the microstructure-based constitutive modeling approach correlates very well with experimental measurements for both the materials considered. This technique efficiently links the microstructure to mechanical properties of interest and helps develop material design guidelines for novel heterogeneous composites

  12. Structure of Sn1−xGex random alloys as obtained from the coherent potential approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Pulikkotil, J. J.

    2011-08-09

    The structure of the Sn1−xGex random alloys is studied using density functional theory and the coherent potential approximation. We report on the deviation of the Sn1−xGex alloys from Vegard’s law, addressing their full compositional range. The findings are compared to the related Si1−xGex alloys and to experimental results. Interestingly, the deviation from Vegard’s law is quantitatively and qualitatively different between the Sn1−xGex and Si1−xGex alloys. An almost linear dependence of the bulk modulus as a function of composition is found for Si1−xGex, whereas for Sn1−xGex the dependence is strongly nonlinear.

  13. A novel multiplexer-based structure for random access memory cell in quantum-dot cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji Asfestani, Mazaher; Rasouli Heikalabad, Saeed

    2017-09-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is a new technology in scale of nano and perfect replacement for CMOS circuits in the future. Memory is one of the basic components in any digital system, so designing the random access memory (RAM) with high speed and optimal in QCA is important. In this paper, by employing the structure of multiplexer, a novel RAM cell architecture is proposed. The proposed architecture is implemented without the coplanar crossover approach. The proposed architecture is simulated using the QCADesigner version 2.0.3 and QCAPro. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed QCA RAM architecture has the best performance in terms of delay, circuit complexity, area, cell count and energy consumption in comparison with other QCA RAM architectures.

  14. Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship study of the Anti-Hepatitis Peptides employing Random Forests and Extra-trees regressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Gunjan; Sehgal, Deepak; Valadi, Jayaraman K

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are host defense peptides being viewed as replacement to broad-spectrum antibiotics due to varied advantages. Hepatitis is the commonest infectious disease of liver, affecting 500 million globally with reported adverse side effects in treatment therapy. Antimicrobial peptides active against hepatitis are called as anti-hepatitis peptides (AHP). In current work, we present Extratrees and Random Forests based Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) regression modeling using extracted sequence based descriptors for prediction of the anti-hepatitis activity. The Extra-trees regression model yielded a very high performance in terms coefficient of determination (R2) as 0.95 for test set and 0.7 for the independent dataset. We hypothesize that the developed model can further be used to identify potentially active anti-hepatitis peptides with a high level of reliability.

  15. Ultrathin wide bandwidth metamaterial absorber using randomly distributed scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Farzad; Ida, Nathan

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a broadband, ultrathin metamaterial absorber (MA) using randomly distributed scatterers is presented. Each scattering element consists of two parallel strips. These elements can either be isolated or they may overlap with nearby elements. Three different randomly positioned structures are investigated for normal incident angle as well as oblique incident angles showing that these MAs can provide broadband absorption for all cases. The results presented here coincide with some previous works. Each structure obviously has different absorption spectrum and FWHM since the coupling between the randomly positioned scatterers is different in each case. The coupling between neighboring isolated and clustered scatterers form many resonating modes resulting in broadband absorption. The distribution of the electromagnetic fields are analyzed to obtain the physical behavior of the absorber. This shows that promising results can still be obtained for MAs when there is a significant tolerance distance between scatterers due to fabrication errors in micro and nanoscale metadevices.

  16. Effects of structured exercise and pharmacotherapy vs. pharmacotherapy for adults with depressive symptoms: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Lara S F; Fonseca, António Manuel; Vieira-Coelho, Maria Augusta; Mota, Maria Paula; Vasconcelos-Raposo, José

    2015-12-01

    Physical exercise has been consistently documented as a complementary therapy in the treatment of depressive disorders. However, despite a higher prevalence among women compared to men, the trials developed in women are scarce. In addition, the optimal dosage of exercise capable of producing benefits that reduce depressive symptoms remains unclear. This clinical trial is designed to measure the effect of a structured physical exercise program as a complement to antidepressant medication in the treatment of women with depression. From July 2013 to May 2014, we implemented a randomized controlled trial (HAPPY BRAIN study). A total of 26 women (aged 50.16 ± 12.08) diagnosed with clinical depression were randomized either to a supervised aerobic exercise group (45-50 min/week three times a week for four months) plus pharmacotherapy (intervention group), or only antidepressant medication (control group). The exercise group presented a decrease in BDI-II and DASS-21 total score scales. Relatively to DASS-21, it showed a significant decrease in anxiety and stress. The exercise group when compared to a control group showed improvement in relation to physical functioning parameters between baseline and post-intervention. Moreover, anthropometric parameters presented only significant differences between groups in fat mass percentage. Nonetheless, no differences were found between groups in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and self-esteem. Our results showed that supervised structured aerobic exercise training could be an effective adjuvant therapy for treating women with depression, reducing depressive symptomatology and improving physical fitness. A key factor of this improvement included strict control of exercise workload parameters and adjustment to each subject's capacity. In our study, due to the sample size there is an increase in the probability of type II errors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structure-Based and Random Mutagenesis Approaches Increase the Organophosphate-Degrading Activity of a Phosphotriesterase Homologue from Deinococcus radiodurans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawwa, Renda; Larsen, Sonia D.; Ratia, Kiira; Mesecar, Andrew D.; (UIC)

    2010-11-09

    An enzyme from the amidohydrolase family from Deinococcus radiodurans (Dr-OPH) with homology to phosphotriesterase has been shown to exhibit activity against both organophosphate (OP) and lactone compounds. We have characterized the physical properties of Dr-OPH and have found it to be a highly thermostable enzyme, remaining active after 3 h of incubation at 60 C and withstanding incubation at temperatures up to 70 C. In addition, it can withstand concentrations of at least 200 mg/mL. These properties make Dr-OPH a promising candidate for development in commercial applications. However, compared to the most widely studied OP-degrading enzyme, that from Pseudomonas diminuta, Dr-OPH has low hydrolytic activity against certain OP substrates. Therefore, we sought to improve the OP-degrading activity of Dr-OPH, specifically toward the pesticides ethyl and methyl paraoxon, using structure-based and random approaches. Site-directed mutagenesis, random mutagenesis, and site-saturation mutagenesis were utilized to increase the OP-degrading activity of Dr-OPH. Out of a screen of more than 30,000 potential mutants, a total of 26 mutant enzymes were purified and characterized kinetically. Crystal structures of w.t. Dr-OPH, of Dr-OPH in complex with a product analog, and of 7 mutant enzymes were determined to resolutions between 1.7 and 2.4 {angstrom}. Information from these structures directed the design and production of 4 additional mutants for analysis. In total, our mutagenesis efforts improved the catalytic activity of Dr-OPH toward ethyl and methyl paraoxon by 126- and 322-fold and raised the specificity for these two substrates by 557- and 183-fold, respectively. Our work highlights the importance of an iterative approach to mutagenesis, proving that large rate enhancements are achieved when mutations are made in already active mutants. In addition, the relationship between the kinetic parameters and the introduced mutations has allowed us to hypothesize on those

  18. Combination therapy of ursodeoxycholic acid and budesonide for PBC–AIH overlap syndrome: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huawei; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Rong; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Yuqing; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; Chen, Kan; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Chengfen; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Abudumijiti, Huerxidan; Zhou, Zheng; Wang, Jianrong; Lu, Wenxia; Wang, Junshan; Xia, Yujing; Zhou, Yingqun; Lu, Jie; Guo, Chuanyong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) monotherapy with combination therapies utilizing UDCA and budesonide was performed. We found that combination therapy with UDCA and budesonide was more effective than UDCA monotherapy for primary biliary cirrhosis–autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome. Moreover, compared to prednisone, budesonide has fewer side effects. PMID:25632224

  19. Combination therapy of ursodeoxycholic acid and budesonide for PBC-AIH overlap syndrome: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huawei; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Rong; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Yuqing; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; Chen, Kan; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Chengfen; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Abudumijiti, Huerxidan; Zhou, Zheng; Wang, Jianrong; Lu, Wenxia; Wang, Junshan; Xia, Yujing; Zhou, Yingqun; Lu, Jie; Guo, Chuanyong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) monotherapy with combination therapies utilizing UDCA and budesonide was performed. We found that combination therapy with UDCA and budesonide was more effective than UDCA monotherapy for primary biliary cirrhosis-autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome. Moreover, compared to prednisone, budesonide has fewer side effects.

  20. Influence of line isolation overlappings on formation of lightning overvoltages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antropov I. M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The model of substation protection against lightning waves with considered multiple overlappings of line isolation has been presented. Influence of multiple overlapping of isolation on line support on formation of lightning overvoltages has been shown. Ambiguity of determination of lightning current dangerous parameters at the fixed length of its front has been revealed

  1. Overlap syndrome of autoimmune chronic liver diseases: MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop, W Brian; Kierans, Andrea S; Leonardou, Polytimi; Fritchie, Karen; Darling, Jama; Elazazzi, Mohamed; Semelka, Richard C

    2010-02-01

    To describe the MR findings of overlap syndromes of autoimmune chronic liver diseases. Review of clinical and radiological databases between March 2001 and July 2008 for patients with a clinical diagnosis and liver biopsy features compatible with overlap syndrome who had also undergone an abdominal MRI yielded 15 adult patients. MR features of overlap syndrome were reviewed by two radiologists by consensus. Two radiologists independently reviewed the studies in a blinded fashion for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)-type or non-PSC-type features to assess interobserver agreement. PSC-type and non-PSC-type overlap syndrome had distinctive MR features. In the consensus review, all 12 patients with PSC-type overlap syndrome were correctly identified. Imaging findings included central macroregeneration (N = 9), peripheral atrophy (N = 7), biliary duct beading (N = 12), biliary dilation (N = 10), or a combination of all four findings (N = 7). The presence of any of the first three features had 100% specificity for a PSC-type overlap syndrome. Patients with non-PSC-type overlap (N = 3) showed relatively normal liver morphology (N = 3) and minimal biliary ductal dilatation in one patient. There was good interobserver agreement (kappa = 0.76). Patients with serologic or pathologic evidence of AIH or PBC with imaging features of PSC may have PSC-type overlap syndrome.

  2. Direct and indirect effects in the regulation of overlapping promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Erdossy, Janos; Csiszovski, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    promoter database we found that ~14% of the identified 'forward' promoters overlap with a promoter oriented in the opposite direction. In this article we combine a mathematical model with experimental analysis of synthetic regulatory regions to investigate interference of overlapping promoters. We find...

  3. Non-random food-web assembly at habitat edges increases connectivity and functional redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Guadalupe; Frost, Carol M; Didham, Raphael K; Rand, Tatyana A; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2017-04-01

    Habitat fragmentation dramatically alters the spatial configuration of landscapes, with the creation of artificial edges affecting community structure and dynamics. Despite this, it is not known how the different food webs in adjacent habitats assemble at their boundaries. Here we demonstrate that the composition and structure of herbivore-parasitoid food webs across edges between native and plantation forests are not randomly assembled from those of the adjacent communities. Rather, elevated proportions of abundant, interaction-generalist parasitoid species at habitat edges allowed considerable interaction rewiring, which led to higher linkage density and less modular networks, with higher parasitoid functional redundancy. This was despite high overlap in host composition between edges and interiors. We also provide testable hypotheses for how food webs may assemble between habitats with lower species overlap. In an increasingly fragmented world, non-random assembly of food webs at edges may increasingly affect community dynamics at the landscape level. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Low-Quality Structural and Interaction Data Improves Binding Affinity Prediction via Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjian Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Docking scoring functions can be used to predict the strength of protein-ligand binding. It is widely believed that training a scoring function with low-quality data is detrimental for its predictive performance. Nevertheless, there is a surprising lack of systematic validation experiments in support of this hypothesis. In this study, we investigated to which extent training a scoring function with data containing low-quality structural and binding data is detrimental for predictive performance. We actually found that low-quality data is not only non-detrimental, but beneficial for the predictive performance of machine-learning scoring functions, though the improvement is less important than that coming from high-quality data. Furthermore, we observed that classical scoring functions are not able to effectively exploit data beyond an early threshold, regardless of its quality. This demonstrates that exploiting a larger data volume is more important for the performance of machine-learning scoring functions than restricting to a smaller set of higher data quality.

  5. Compressed Sensing Inspired Image Reconstruction from Overlapped Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The key idea discussed in this paper is to reconstruct an image from overlapped projections so that the data acquisition process can be shortened while the image quality remains essentially uncompromised. To perform image reconstruction from overlapped projections, the conventional reconstruction approach (e.g., filtered backprojection (FBP algorithms cannot be directly used because of two problems. First, overlapped projections represent an imaging system in terms of summed exponentials, which cannot be transformed into a linear form. Second, the overlapped measurement carries less information than the traditional line integrals. To meet these challenges, we propose a compressive sensing-(CS- based iterative algorithm for reconstruction from overlapped data. This algorithm starts with a good initial guess, relies on adaptive linearization, and minimizes the total variation (TV. Then, we demonstrated the feasibility of this algorithm in numerical tests.

  6. Transforming Static Data Structures to Dynamic Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-03

    transform. An interesting open problem is to examine other counting schemes (such as Fibonacci counting) for their properties as transforms. 9 9 3 3 1...any strategy which permits such overlapping structures can be improved by omitting the shared elements from all but one of the overlapping structures...also forbid overlapping structures on the grounds that transformations which allow them cannot be optimal for space in the worst case. An even more

  7. Multiband Operation and Performance Enhancement of the PIFA Antenna by Using Particle Swarm Optimization and Overlapping Method

    OpenAIRE

    Wakrim, L.; Ibnyaich, S; Hassani,M. M.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the demand for wireless devices that support multiband frequency has increased. The integration of such technology in mobile communication system has led to a great demand in developing small size antenna with multiband operation, which is able to operate in the required system. In this paper, a novel type planar inverted F antenna (PIFA) with gridded ground plane structure and overlapping cells is presented. By controlling the overlapping size, we improve the characteristics of the...

  8. Effect of Structured and Unstructured Physical Activity Training on Cognitive Functions in Adolescents - A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Arunachalam, Vinayathan; Radhakrishnan, Krishnakumar; Ramamurthy, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Regular physical activity in children and adolescents promotes not only their physical health but also improves their cognition. Paper and pencil Neurocognitive tests (NCT) are commonly used to assess the various cognitive domains of a person and can be used as simple tests to assess improvements, if any, in the cognitive abilities of growing adolescents who practice regular physical activity. To study the effect of six months of structured and unstructured physical activity on cognitive functions in adolescents. We recruited 439 healthy adolescent volunteers in the age group of 12 to 17 years (boys 250, girls 189) from a residential school (Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Pondicherry). The following paper and pencil neuropsychological cognitive tests were administered: Two Target Letter Cancellation test, Trail Making test A and B, Ruff Figural Fluency test (RFFT). These participants were then divided into Structured Physical Activity (SPA: n=219; boys 117, girls 102) and Unstructured Physical Activity (USPA: n=220; boys 119, girls 101) groups based on age and gender block randomization method. Six-month intervention was successfully completed by 347 participants only (SPA group: n= 136; boys 77, girls 59; USPA group: n = 139; boys 75, girls 64) and the tests were repeated. The data were recorded and statistically analysed by per-protocol analysis method, using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 19. After six months of intervention, both SPA and USPA group participants showed significant improvements in all the tested neurocognitive parameters. On inter-group comparison, participants in SPA group showed significantly better improvements. Physical activity training in adolescents is more beneficial when structured as per WHO guidelines, probably due to higher cognitive loading.

  9. Influences of overlap index on Fourier ptychography imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honghong; Rong, Lu; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Xu; Zhai, Changchao; Panezai, Spozmai; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Fourier ptychography is a new type of synthetic aperture imaging technique based on phase retrieval method which can improve microscopeic imaging performance beyond the diffraction limit of the employed optical components by illuminating the object with oblique waves of different incident angles where the field of view remains unchanged. illumination angle and the overlap rate of spectrum will have a certain impact on the quality of reconstruction. In this paper, we study the effects of illumination angle and spectral overlap rate on the image quality of Fourier ptychography. The simulation results show that increasing the illumination angle and spectral overlap can improve the resolution, but there is a threshold for the key parameters of spectral overlap rate. The convergence rate decreases when the overlap rate exceeds 70%, and the reconstruction process is more time-consuming due to the high overlap rate. However the results of proposed study shows that an overlap of 60% is the optimal choice to acquire a high-quality recovery with high speed.

  10. Characteristics and self-rated health of overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jung Wha; Kong, Kyoung Ae; Lee, Jin Hwa; Lee, Seok Jeong; Ryu, Yon Ju; Chang, Jung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Overlap syndrome shares features of both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of overlap syndrome and their effect on self-rated health (SRH). We analyzed data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2007-2009. Subjects with acceptable spirometry and available wheezing history were included. Subjects were classified into four groups based on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) results and the presence or absence of self-reported wheezing for the previous 12 months: 1) COPD group, defined as having FEV1/FVC overlap syndrome group, having both FEV1/FVC overlap syndrome group, and 7,634 to the NOD group. Compared to the other groups, subjects in the overlap syndrome group were more likely to have low lung function, a high proportion of smokers, low socioeconomic status, short education duration, lower SRH, and past diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis or bronchiectasis. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that both overlap syndrome and asthma groups were independently associated with lower SRH after adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, education level, smoking status, comorbidities, and lung function. Female, old age, low education level, low economic status, smoker and other comorbidities were also associated with lower SRH. Overlap syndrome was accompanied by high morbidity and was associated with lower SRH, which needs more appropriate care.

  11. Liver transplantation for overlap syndromes of autoimmune liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanji, Rahima A; Mason, Andrew L; Girgis, Safwat; Montano-Loza, Aldo J

    2013-02-01

    The term overlap syndrome describes variant forms of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) that present in combination with either characteristics of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), or primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). This study analysed the outcomes and evidence of recurrent liver disease after liver transplantation in patients with overlap syndromes compared with patients transplanted for single autoimmune liver disease. We evaluated 231 adult patients who received a liver transplant as a result of autoimmune liver diseases; including 103 with PBC, 84 with PSC, 32 with AIH and 12 with overlap syndrome (7 AIH-PBC and 5 AIH-PSC). Patients with overlap syndromes had a higher probability of recurrence than patients with a single autoimmune liver disease (5 years: 53% vs. 17%; 10 years 69% vs. 29%, P = 0.001). Furthermore, median time for recurrence in overlap syndrome was shorter when compared with patients with single autoimmune liver disease (67 ± 20 vs. 172 ± 9 months, P = 0.001). The diagnosis of overlap syndrome was independently associated with a higher risk to develop recurrent disease than patients transplanted with a single disease (HR 3.39, P = 0.007). Median graft survival for overlap syndrome was 123 ± 16 months and 180 ± 8 months in patients with single autoimmune liver diseases (P = 0.9), and median patient survival for overlap syndrome was 135 ± 13 months and 193 ± 8 months in patients with single autoimmune liver disease (P = 0.6). Patients that received an allograft for end-stage liver disease secondary to overlap syndrome had a higher rate of disease recurrence when compared with transplant recipients with single autoimmune liver disorders, but the overall survival was comparable. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Warming effect of dust aerosols modulated by overlapping clouds below

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Guo, Jianping; Wang, Yuan; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Zhang, Zhibo; Min, Min; Miao, Yucong; Liu, Huan; He, Jing; Zhou, Shunwu; Zhai, Panmao

    2017-10-01

    Due to the substantial warming effect of dust aerosols overlying clouds and its poor representation in climate models, it is imperative to accurately quantify the direct radiative forcing (DRF) of above-cloud dust aerosols. When absorbing aerosol layers are located above clouds, the warming effect of aerosols strongly depends on the cloud macro- and micro-physical properties underneath, such as cloud optical depth and cloud fraction at visible wavelength. A larger aerosol-cloud overlap is believed to cause a larger warming effect of absorbing aerosols, but the influence of overlapping cloud fraction and cloud optical depth remains to be explored. In this study, the impact of overlapping cloud properties on the shortwave all-sky DRF due to springtime above-cloud dust aerosols is quantified over northern Pacific Ocean based on 10-year satellite measurements. On average, the DRF is roughly 0.62 Wm-2. Furthermore, the warming effect of dust aerosols linearly increases with both overlapping cloud fraction and cloud optical depth. An increase of 1% in overlapping cloud fraction will amplify this warming effect by 1.11 Wm-2τ-1. For the springtime northern Pacific Ocean, top-of-atmosphere cooling by dust aerosols turns into warming when overlapping cloud fraction is beyond 0.20. The variation of critical cloud optical depth beyond which dust aerosols switch from exerting a net cooling to a net warming effect depends on the concurrent overlapping cloud fraction. When the overlapping cloud coverage range increases from 0.2 to -0.4 to 0.6-0.8, the corresponding critical cloud optical depth reduces from 6.92 to 1.16. Our results demonstrate the importance of overlapping cloud properties for determining the springtime warming effect of dust aerosols.

  13. Quantifying entanglement of overlapping indistinguishable particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittings, Joseph R.

    This thesis develops the quantitative study of quantum entanglement in systems of identical particles. Understanding this topic is essential for the construction of quantum information processing devices involving identical particles. A brief overview of necessary concepts and methods, such as the density matrix, the entanglement in pure and mixed states of distinguishable particles, and some common applications of entanglement is given in the introduction. Some competing methods of calculating the entanglement in bipartite pure states of indistinguishable particles are examined. It is shown that only the 'site entropy' measure introduced by Zanardi satisfies all the criteria for a correct entanglement measure. A teleportation protocol which utilizes all the entanglement carried (in both the spin and space degrees of freedom) in a doubly- occupied molecular bonding orbital is presented. The output from an interferometer in a thought experiment described by Omar et al. is studied as an example to see whether entanglement can be separated into space-only, spin-only, and space-spin components. A similar exercise is performed for a doubly-occupied molecular bonding orbital. The relationship between these results and the application of superselection rules (SSRs) to the quantification of useful entanglement is discussed. A numerical method for estimating the entanglement of formation of a mixed state of arbitrary dimension by a conjugate gradient algorithm is described. The results of applying an implementation of the algorithm to both random and isotropic states of 2 qutrits (i.e. two three-dimensional systems) is described. Existing work on calculating entanglement between two sites in various spin systems is outlined. New methods for calculating the entanglement between two sites in various types of degenerate quantum gas - a Fermi gas, a Bose condensate, and a BCS superconductor - are described. The results of numerical studies of the entanglement in a normal metal

  14. On the interpretation of wave function overlaps in quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stobbe, Søren; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Lodahl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The spontaneous emission rate of excitons strongly confined in quantum dots (QDs) is proportional to the overlap integral of electron and hole envelope wave functions. A common and intuitive interpretation of this result is that the spontaneous emission rate is proportional to the probability...... that the electron and the hole are located at the same point or region in space, i.e., they must coincide spatially to recombine. Here, we show that this interpretation is not correct even loosely speaking. By general mathematical considerations we compare the envelope wave function overlap, the exchange overlap...

  15. CRISPR Detection From Short Reads Using Partial Overlap Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Bassat, Ilan; Chor, Benny

    2016-06-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are structured regions in bacterial and archaeal genomes, which are part of an adaptive immune system against phages. CRISPRs are important for many microbial studies and are playing an essential role in current gene editing techniques. As such, they attract substantial research interest. The exponential growth in the amount of bacterial sequence data in recent years enables the exploration of CRISPR loci in more and more species. Most of the automated tools that detect CRISPR loci rely on fully assembled genomes. However, many assemblers do not handle repetitive regions successfully. The first tool to work directly on raw sequence data is Crass, which requires reads that are long enough to contain two copies of the same repeat. We present a method to identify CRISPR repeats from raw sequence data of short reads. The algorithm is based on an observation differentiating CRISPR repeats from other types of repeats, and it involves a series of partial constructions of the overlap graph. This enables us to avoid many of the difficulties that assemblers face, as we merely aim to identify the repeats that belong to CRISPR loci. A preliminary implementation of the algorithm shows good results and detects CRISPR repeats in cases where other existing tools fail to do so.

  16. Diagnosis and Management of the Overlap Syndromes of Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert J Czaja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hepatitis may have cholestatic features that are outside the classical phenotype and that resemble findings in other immune-mediated liver diseases. These cholestatic phenotypes have been designated ‘overlap syndromes’.

  17. Utilization of Novel Overlap Functions in Wireless Sensor Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rama Murthy

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of high-speed wireless networks and with their increased computational capabilities, distributed sensor networks (DSNs have a wide range of real time applications in automation, defense, medical imaging, robotics, whether predictions, etc. Since the early 1990s, DSNs have been an active research area. In this research paper, various well known overlap functions utilized in wireless sensor fusion are briefly summarized. Novel overlap functions, namely the dual of W, N Functions are defined. By associating a overlap probability distribution function with the W Function, novel performance measures related to the sensor fusion problem are discussed. Other interesting approaches for defining novel overlap functions are discussed. The relationship between existing theories (such as rough set theory, detection theory and fuzzy set theory and wireless sensor fusion problem is discussed.

  18. Genetic overlap among intelligence and other candidate endophenotypes for schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukes, Maartje F; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Sitskoorn, Margriet M; Kemner, Chantal; Ophoff, Roel A; Kahn, René S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A strategy to improve genetic studies of schizophrenia involves the use of endophenotypes. Information on overlapping genetic contributions among endophenotypes may provide additional power, reveal biological pathways, and have practical implications for genetic research. Several

  19. Multiple Volume Scattering in Random Media and Periodic Structures with Applications in Microwave Remote Sensing and Wave Functional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shurun

    The objective of my research is two-fold: to study wave scattering phenomena in dense volumetric random media and in periodic wave functional materials. For the first part, the goal is to use the microwave remote sensing technique to monitor water resources and global climate change. Towards this goal, I study the microwave scattering behavior of snow and ice sheet. For snowpack scattering, I have extended the traditional dense media radiative transfer (DMRT) approach to include cyclical corrections that give rise to backscattering enhancements, enabling the theory to model combined active and passive observations of snowpack using the same set of physical parameters. Besides DMRT, a fully coherent approach is also developed by solving Maxwell's equations directly over the entire snowpack including a bottom half space. This revolutionary new approach produces consistent scattering and emission results, and demonstrates backscattering enhancements and coherent layer effects. The birefringence in anisotropic snow layers is also analyzed by numerically solving Maxwell's equation directly. The effects of rapid density fluctuations in polar ice sheet emission in the 0.5˜2.0 GHz spectrum are examined using both fully coherent and partially coherent layered media emission theories that agree with each other and distinct from incoherent approaches. For the second part, the goal is to develop integral equation based methods to solve wave scattering in periodic structures such as photonic crystals and metamaterials that can be used for broadband simulations. Set upon the concept of modal expansion of the periodic Green's function, we have developed the method of broadband Green's function with low wavenumber extraction (BBGFL), where a low wavenumber component is extracted and results a non-singular and fast-converging remaining part with simple wavenumber dependence. We've applied the technique to simulate band diagrams and modal solutions of periodic structures, and to

  20. Carbon nanotubes randomly decorated with gold clusters: from nano{sup 2}hybrid atomic structures to gas sensing prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlier, J-C; Zanolli, Z [Unite de Physico-Chimie et de Physique des Materiaux (PCPM), European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF), Universite Catholique de Louvain, Place Croix du Sud 1, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Arnaud, L; Avilov, I V; Felten, A; Pireaux, J-J [Centre de Recherche en Physique de la Matiere et du Rayonnement (PMR-LISE), Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, 61 Rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Delgado, M [Sensotran, s.l., Avenida Remolar 31, E-08820 El Prat de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Demoisson, F; Reniers, F [Service de Chimie Analytique et Chimie des Interfaces (CHANI), Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Faculte des Sciences, CP255, Boulevard du Triomphe 2, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Espinosa, E H; Ionescu, R; Leghrib, R; Llobet, E [Department of Electronic Engineering, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Avenida Paisos Catalans 26, E-43007 Tarragona (Spain); Ewels, C P; Suarez-Martinez, I [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Universite de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere-BP 32229, F-44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Guillot, J; Mansour, A; Migeon, H-N [Departement Science et Analyse des Materiaux, Centre de Recherche Public-Gabriel Lippmann, rue du Brill 41, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Watson, G E, E-mail: jean-jacques.pireaux@fundp.ac.b [Vega Science Trust, Unit 118, Science Park SQ, Brighton, BN1 9SB (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-16

    Carbon nanotube surfaces, activated and randomly decorated with metal nanoclusters, have been studied in uniquely combined theoretical and experimental approaches as prototypes for molecular recognition. The key concept is to shape metallic clusters that donate or accept a fractional charge upon adsorption of a target molecule, and modify the electron transport in the nanotube. The present work focuses on a simple system, carbon nanotubes with gold clusters. The nature of the gold-nanotube interaction is studied using first-principles techniques. The numerical simulations predict the binding and diffusion energies of gold atoms at the tube surface, including realistic atomic models for defects potentially present at the nanotube surface. The atomic structure of the gold nanoclusters and their effect on the intrinsic electronic quantum transport properties of the nanotube are also predicted. Experimentally, multi-wall CNTs are decorated with gold clusters using (1) vacuum evaporation, after activation with an RF oxygen plasma and (2) colloid solution injected into an RF atmospheric plasma; the hybrid systems are accurately characterized using XPS and TEM techniques. The response of gas sensors based on these nano{sup 2}hybrids is quantified for the detection of toxic species like NO{sub 2}, CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}.

  1. Causal Inference for Meta-Analysis and Multi-Level Data Structures, with Application to Randomized Studies of Vioxx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Michael; Madigan, David; Wang, Wei

    2017-06-01

    We construct a framework for meta-analysis and other multi-level data structures that codifies the sources of heterogeneity between studies or settings in treatment effects and examines their implications for analyses. The key idea is to consider, for each of the treatments under investigation, the subject's potential outcome in each study or setting were he to receive that treatment. We consider four sources of heterogeneity: (1) response inconsistency, whereby a subject's response to a given treatment would vary across different studies or settings, (2) the grouping of nonequivalent treatments, where two or more treatments are grouped and treated as a single treatment under the incorrect assumption that a subject's responses to the different treatments would be identical, (3) nonignorable treatment assignment, and (4) response-related variability in the composition of subjects in different studies or settings. We then examine how these sources affect heterogeneity/homogeneity of conditional and unconditional treatment effects. To illustrate the utility of our approach, we re-analyze individual participant data from 29 randomized placebo-controlled studies on the cardiovascular risk of Vioxx, a Cox-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug approved by the FDA in 1999 for the management of pain and withdrawn from the market in 2004.

  2. Can dialectical behavior therapy be learned in highly structured learning environments? Results from a randomized controlled dissemination trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeff, Linda A; Woodcock, Eric A; Harned, Melanie S; Beadnell, Blair

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of methods of training community mental health providers (N=132) in dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) distress tolerance skills, including (a) Linehan's (1993a) Skills Training Manual for Borderline Personality Disorder (Manual), (b) a multimedia e-Learning course covering the same content (e-DBT), and (c) a placebo control e-Learning course (e-Control). Participants were randomized to a condition, and the training took place in a highly structured and controlled learning environment. Assessments were completed at baseline, post-training, and 2, 7, 11, and 15 weeks following training. The results indicate that one or both of the active DBT conditions outperformed the control condition on all outcomes except motivation to learn and use the treatment. While clinicians preferred e-DBT over the Manual and found it more helpful and engaging, the active DBT conditions generally did not differ on the primary outcomes of knowledge and self-efficacy, with the exception that e-DBT significantly outperformed the Manual on knowledge at the 15-week follow-up. E-DBT also produced the highest rate of applying and teaching the newly learned skills in clinical practice. Overall, results from this study support the efficacy of e-Learning in disseminating knowledge of empirically supported treatments to clinicians, while also indicating that treatment manuals can be effective training tools. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Carbon nanotubes randomly decorated with gold clusters: from nano2hybrid atomic structures to gas sensing prototypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, J-C; Arnaud, L; Avilov, I V; Delgado, M; Demoisson, F; Espinosa, E H; Ewels, C P; Felten, A; Guillot, J; Ionescu, R; Leghrib, R; Llobet, E; Mansour, A; Migeon, H-N; Pireaux, J-J; Reniers, F; Suarez-Martinez, I; Watson, G E; Zanolli, Z

    2009-09-16

    Carbon nanotube surfaces, activated and randomly decorated with metal nanoclusters, have been studied in uniquely combined theoretical and experimental approaches as prototypes for molecular recognition. The key concept is to shape metallic clusters that donate or accept a fractional charge upon adsorption of a target molecule, and modify the electron transport in the nanotube. The present work focuses on a simple system, carbon nanotubes with gold clusters. The nature of the gold-nanotube interaction is studied using first-principles techniques. The numerical simulations predict the binding and diffusion energies of gold atoms at the tube surface, including realistic atomic models for defects potentially present at the nanotube surface. The atomic structure of the gold nanoclusters and their effect on the intrinsic electronic quantum transport properties of the nanotube are also predicted. Experimentally, multi-wall CNTs are decorated with gold clusters using (1) vacuum evaporation, after activation with an RF oxygen plasma and (2) colloid solution injected into an RF atmospheric plasma; the hybrid systems are accurately characterized using XPS and TEM techniques. The response of gas sensors based on these nano(2)hybrids is quantified for the detection of toxic species like NO(2), CO, C(2)H(5)OH and C(2)H(4).

  4. Market Correlation Structure Changes Around the Great Crash: A Random Matrix Theory Analysis of the Chinese Stock Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rui-Qi; Xie, Wen-Jie; Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    The correlation structure of a stock market contains important financial contents, which may change remarkably due to the occurrence of financial crisis. We perform a comparative analysis of the Chinese stock market around the occurrence of the 2008 crisis based on the random matrix analysis of high-frequency stock returns of 1228 Chinese stocks. Both raw correlation matrix and partial correlation matrix with respect to the market index in two time periods of one year are investigated. We find that the Chinese stocks have stronger average correlation and partial correlation in 2008 than in 2007 and the average partial correlation is significantly weaker than the average correlation in each period. Accordingly, the largest eigenvalue of the correlation matrix is remarkably greater than that of the partial correlation matrix in each period. Moreover, each largest eigenvalue and its eigenvector reflect an evident market effect, while other deviating eigenvalues do not. We find no evidence that deviating eigenvalues contain industrial sectorial information. Surprisingly, the eigenvectors of the second largest eigenvalues in 2007 and of the third largest eigenvalues in 2008 are able to distinguish the stocks from the two exchanges. We also find that the component magnitudes of the some largest eigenvectors are proportional to the stocks’ capitalizations.

  5. Structural Integration as an Adjunct to Outpatient Rehabilitation for Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Randomized Pilot Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric E. Jacobson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural Integration (SI is an alternative method of manipulation and movement education. To obtain preliminary data on feasibility, effectiveness, and adverse events (AE, 46 outpatients from Boston area with chronic nonspecific low back pain (CNSLBP were randomized to parallel treatment groups of SI plus outpatient rehabilitation (OR versus OR alone. Feasibility data were acceptable except for low compliance with OR and lengthy recruitment time. Intent-to-treat data on effectiveness were analyzed by Wilcoxon rank sum, n=23 per group. Median reductions in VAS Pain, the primary outcome, of -26 mm in SI + OR versus 0 in OR alone were not significantly different (P=0.075. Median reductions in RMDQ, the secondary outcome, of -2 points in SI + OR versus 0 in OR alone were significantly different (P=0.007. Neither the proportions of participants with nor the seriousness of AE were significantly different. SI as an adjunct to OR for CNSLBP is not likely to provide additional reductions in pain but is likely to augment short term improvements in disability with a low additional burden of AE. A more definitive trial is feasible, but OR compliance and recruitment might be challenging. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01322399.

  6. Galvanic deposition of Rh and Ru on randomly structured Ti felts for the electrochemical NH3 synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Kurt; Luhn, Mareike; Schramm, Jean André; Rahimi, Khosrow; Wessling, Matthias

    2015-02-07

    Nowadays NH3 is exclusively synthesized by the Haber process. Unfortunately, the energy demand and the CO2 emissions due to H2 production are high. Hydrogen production utilizes precious carbon sources such as coal and natural gas. In the past we proposed an alternative process concept using a membrane electrode assembly in an electrochemical membrane reactor (ecMR). At the anode H2O is oxidized at an IrMMO catalyst to form protons. By applying an external potential to the ecMR N2 is reduced to NH3 at the cathode. Just recently Rh and Ru were identified as possible cathodic electrocatalysts by DFT calculations. We present an easy and highly efficient method for galvanic coatings of Rh and Ru on randomly structured Ti felts to be used in a membrane electrode assembly. Linear sweep voltammetry measurements give a slightly higher activity of Ru for the liquid phase electrochemical NH3 synthesis. The NH4(+) concentration reached is 8 times higher for Ru than for Rh. From an economical point of view, Ru is also more feasible for an electrochemical NH3 synthesis process. Such electrodes can now be evaluated in an ecMR in comparison to recently demonstrated Ti-based electrodes.

  7. Overlap Areas of a Square Box on a Square Mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    ARL-TN-0818 ● APR 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Overlap Areas of a Square Box on a Square Mesh by James U Cazamias...originator. ARL-TN-0818 ● APR 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Overlap Areas of a Square Box on a Square Mesh by James U Cazamias...no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control

  8. Overlapping illusions by transformation optics without any negative refraction material

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Sun; Sailing He

    2016-01-01

    A novel method to achieve an overlapping illusion without any negative refraction index material is introduced with the help of the optic-null medium (ONM) designed by an extremely stretching spatial transformation. Unlike the previous methods to achieve such an optical illusion by transformation optics (TO), our method can achieve a power combination and reshape the radiation pattern at the same time. Unlike the overlapping illusion with some negative refraction index material, our method is...

  9. Continuum-limit scaling of overlap fermions as valence quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, Krzysztof [Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Herdoiza, Gregorio; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2009-10-15

    We present the results of a mixed action approach, employing dynamical twisted mass fermions in the sea sector and overlap valence fermions, with the aim of testing the continuum limit scaling behaviour of physical quantities, taking the pion decay constant as an example. To render the computations practical, we impose for this purpose a fixed finite volume with lattice size L{approx}1.3 fm. We also briefly review the techniques we have used to deal with overlap fermions. (orig.)

  10. Two Efficient Techniques to Find Approximate Overlaps between Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Maan Haj Rachid

    2017-01-01

    The next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology outputs a huge number of sequences (reads) that require further processing. After applying prefiltering techniques in order to eliminate redundancy and to correct erroneous reads, an overlap-based assembler typically finds the longest exact suffix-prefix match between each ordered pair of the input reads. However, another trend has been evolving for the purpose of solving an approximate version of the overlap problem. The main benefit of this di...

  11. Overlapping Community Detection Using Neighborhood-Inflated Seed Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Whang, Joyce Jiyoung; Gleich, David F.; Dhillon, Inderjit S.

    2015-01-01

    Community detection is an important task in network analysis. A community (also referred to as a cluster) is a set of cohesive vertices that have more connections inside the set than outside. In many social and information networks, these communities naturally overlap. For instance, in a social network, each vertex in a graph corresponds to an individual who usually participates in multiple communities. In this paper, we propose an efficient overlapping community detection algorithm using a s...

  12. Features of surfaces with random structure variations: Poster at Strategic Workshop "Principles and Development of Bio-Inspired Materials", 13 - 15 April 2010; Vienna, Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Mölders, N.; Nellesen, A.; Bertling, J.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the precision requested in industrial processing, biological structures only seem to possess a perfect, uniform regularity. Within the recurring patterns and periodic self-similar structures a randomly acting variation appears to be present. The main goal of this work is to elucidate whether these variations are irrelevant or related to the particular functionality of a surface or if they are just a result of stimulus- environmental interaction and genetical predisposition. The...

  13. Asymmetric activation spreading in the multiplication associative network due to asymmetric overlap between numerosities semantic representations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didino, Daniele; Knops, André; Vespignani, Francesco; Kornpetpanee, Suchada

    2015-08-01

    Simple multiplication facts are thought to be organised in a network structure in which problems and solutions are associated. Converging evidence suggests that the ability for solving symbolic arithmetic problems is based on an approximate number system (ANS). Most theoretical stances concerning the metric underlying the ANS converge on the assumption that the representational overlap between two adjacent numbers increases as the numerical magnitude of the numbers increases. Given a number N, the overlap between N and N+1 is larger than the overlap between N and N-1. Here, we test whether this asymmetric overlap influences the activation spreading within the multiplication associative network (MAN). When verifying simple multiplication problems such as 8×4 participants were slower in rejecting false but related outcomes that were larger than the actual outcome (e.g., 8×4=36) than rejecting smaller related outcomes (e.g., 8×4=28), despite comparable numerical distance from the correct result (here: 4). This effect was absent for outcomes which are not part of either operands table (e.g., 8×4=35). These results suggest that the metric of the ANS influences the activation spreading within the MAN, further substantiating the notion that symbolic arithmetic is grounded in the ANS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Novel Method for the Separation of Overlapping Pollen Species for Automated Detection and Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello-Mijares, Santiago; Flores, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The identification of pollen in an automated way will accelerate different tasks and applications of palynology to aid in, among others, climate change studies, medical allergies calendar, and forensic science. The aim of this paper is to develop a system that automatically captures a hundred microscopic images of pollen and classifies them into the 12 different species from Lagunera Region, Mexico. Many times, the pollen is overlapping on the microscopic images, which increases the difficulty for its automated identification and classification. This paper focuses on a method to segment the overlapping pollen. First, the proposed method segments the overlapping pollen. Second, the method separates the pollen based on the mean shift process (100% segmentation) and erosion by H-minima based on the Fibonacci series. Thus, pollen is characterized by its shape, color, and texture for training and evaluating the performance of three classification techniques: random tree forest, multilayer perceptron, and Bayes net. Using the newly developed system, we obtained segmentation results of 100% and classification on top of 96.2% and 96.1% in recall and precision using multilayer perceptron in twofold cross validation.

  15. A Novel Method for the Separation of Overlapping Pollen Species for Automated Detection and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Tello-Mijares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of pollen in an automated way will accelerate different tasks and applications of palynology to aid in, among others, climate change studies, medical allergies calendar, and forensic science. The aim of this paper is to develop a system that automatically captures a hundred microscopic images of pollen and classifies them into the 12 different species from Lagunera Region, Mexico. Many times, the pollen is overlapping on the microscopic images, which increases the difficulty for its automated identification and classification. This paper focuses on a method to segment the overlapping pollen. First, the proposed method segments the overlapping pollen. Second, the method separates the pollen based on the mean shift process (100% segmentation and erosion by H-minima based on the Fibonacci series. Thus, pollen is characterized by its shape, color, and texture for training and evaluating the performance of three classification techniques: random tree forest, multilayer perceptron, and Bayes net. Using the newly developed system, we obtained segmentation results of 100% and classification on top of 96.2% and 96.1% in recall and precision using multilayer perceptron in twofold cross validation.

  16. Segmentation, Splitting, and Classification of Overlapping Bacteria in Microscope Images for Automatic Bacterial Vaginosis Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youyi; He, Liang; Zhou, Feng; Chen, Siping; Ni, Dong; Lei, Baiying; Wang, Tianfu

    2017-07-01

    Quantitative analysis of bacterial morphotypes in the microscope images plays a vital role in diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) based on the Nugent score criterion. However, there are two main challenges for this task: 1) It is quite difficult to identify the bacterial regions due to various appearance, faint boundaries, heterogeneous shapes, low contrast with the background, and small bacteria sizes with regards to the image. 2) There are numerous bacteria overlapping each other, which hinder us to conduct accurate analysis on individual bacterium. To overcome these challenges, we propose an automatic method in this paper to diagnose BV by quantitative analysis of bacterial morphotypes, which consists of a three-step approach, i.e., bacteria regions segmentation, overlapping bacteria splitting, and bacterial morphotypes classification. Specifically, we first segment the bacteria regions via saliency cut, which simultaneously evaluates the global contrast and spatial weighted coherence. And then Markov random field model is applied for high-quality unsupervised segmentation of small object. We then decompose overlapping bacteria clumps into markers, and associate a pixel with markers to identify evidence for eventual individual bacterium splitting. Next, we extract morphotype features from each bacterium to learn the descriptors and to characterize the types of bacteria using an Adaptive Boosting machine learning framework. Finally, BV diagnosis is implemented based on the Nugent score criterion. Experiments demonstrate that our proposed method achieves high accuracy and efficiency in computation for BV diagnosis.

  17. Genetics, Cognition and Neurobiology of Schizotypal Personality: A Review of the Overlap with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich eEttinger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Schizotypy refers to a set of temporally stable traits that are observed in the general population and that resemble the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia. Here, we review evidence from studies on genetics, cognition, perception, motor and oculomotor control, brain structure, brain function and psychopharmacology in schizotypy. We specifically focused on identifying areas of overlap between schizotypy and schizophrenia. Evidence was corroborated that significant overlap exists between the two, covering the behavioural, brain structural and functional as well molecular levels. In particular, several studies showed that individuals with high levels of schizotypal traits exhibit alterations in neurocognitive task performance and underlying brain function similar to the deficits seen in patients with schizophrenia. Studies of brain structure have shown both volume reductions and increases in schizotypy, pointing to schizophrenia-like deficits as well as possible protective or compensatory mechanisms. Experimental pharmacological studies have shown that high levels of schizotypy are associated with (i enhanced dopaminergic response in striatum following administration of amphetamine and (ii improvement of cognitive performance following administration of antipsychotic compounds. Together, this body of work suggests that schizotypy shows overlap with schizophrenia across multiple behavioural and neurobiological domains, suggesting that the study of schizotypal traits may be useful in improving our understanding of the aetiology of schizophrenia.

  18. Detecting overlapping protein complexes by rough-fuzzy clustering in protein-protein interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wu

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel rough-fuzzy clustering (RFC method to detect overlapping protein complexes in protein-protein interaction (PPI networks. RFC focuses on fuzzy relation model rather than graph model by integrating fuzzy sets and rough sets, employs the upper and lower approximations of rough sets to deal with overlapping complexes, and calculates the number of complexes automatically. Fuzzy relation between proteins is established and then transformed into fuzzy equivalence relation. Non-overlapping complexes correspond to equivalence classes satisfying certain equivalence relation. To obtain overlapping complexes, we calculate the similarity between one protein and each complex, and then determine whether the protein belongs to one or multiple complexes by computing the ratio of each similarity to maximum similarity. To validate RFC quantitatively, we test it in Gavin, Collins, Krogan and BioGRID datasets. Experiment results show that there is a good correspondence to reference complexes in MIPS and SGD databases. Then we compare RFC with several previous methods, including ClusterONE, CMC, MCL, GCE, OSLOM and CFinder. Results show the precision, sensitivity and separation are 32.4%, 42.9% and 81.9% higher than mean of the five methods in four weighted networks, and are 0.5%, 11.2% and 66.1% higher than mean of the six methods in five unweighted networks. Our method RFC works well for protein complexes detection and provides a new insight of network division, and it can also be applied to identify overlapping community structure in social networks and LFR benchmark networks.

  19. Validation of a structured training and assessment curriculum for technical skill acquisition in minimally invasive surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palter, Vanessa N; Orzech, Neil; Reznick, Richard K; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    2013-02-01

    : To develop and validate an ex vivo comprehensive curriculum for a basic laparoscopic procedure. : Although simulators have been well validated as tools to teach technical skills, their integration into comprehensive curricula is lacking. Moreover, neither the effect of ex vivo training on learning curves in the operating room (OR), nor the effect on nontechnical proficiency has been investigated. : This randomized single-blinded prospective trial allocated 20 surgical trainees to a structured training and assessment curriculum (STAC) group or conventional residency training. The STAC consisted of case-based learning, proficiency-based virtual reality training, laparoscopic box training, and OR participation. After completion of the intervention, all participants performed 5 sequential laparoscopic cholecystectomies in the OR. The primary outcome measure was the difference in technical performance between the 2 groups during the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Secondary outcome measures included differences with respect to learning curves in the OR, technical proficiency of each sequential laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and nontechnical skills. : Residents in the STAC group outperformed residents in the conventional group in the first (P = 0.004), second (P = 0.036), third (P = 0.021), and fourth (P = 0.023) laparoscopic cholecystectomies. The conventional group demonstrated a significant learning curve in the OR (P = 0.015) in contrast to the STAC group (P = 0.032). Residents in the STAC group also had significantly higher nontechnical skills (P = 0.027). : Participating in the STAC shifted the learning curve for a basic laparoscopic procedure from the operating room into the simulation laboratory. STAC-trained residents had superior technical proficiency in the OR and nontechnical skills compared with conventionally trained residents. (The study registration ID is NCT01560494.).

  20. Contrasting seasonal overlaps between primary and secondary growth are linked to wood anatomy in Mediterranean sub-shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, J J; Palacio, S; Montserrat-Martí, G

    2013-09-01

    Whole-plant approaches allow quantification of the temporal overlap between primary and secondary growth. If the amount of time available to grow is short, there may be a high temporal overlap between shoot growth and wood formation. We hypothesise that such overlap depends on the duration of the growing season and relates to wood anatomy. We evaluated wood anatomy, shoot longitudinal and radial growth rates, fine root production and the concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in the wood of six sub-shrub species growing in sites with contrasting climatic conditions (Lepidium subulatum, Linum suffruticosum, Salvia lavandulifolia, Satureja montana, Ononis fruticosa, Echinospartum horridum). Sub-shrub species living in sites with a short growing season displayed a high overlap between aboveground primary and secondary growth and formed wide vessels, whereas species from the warmest and driest sites presented the reverse characteristics. The highest overlap was linked to a rapid shoot extension and thickening through the enhanced hydraulic conductivity provided by wide vessels. The reductions in NSC concentrations when growth peaked were low or moderate, indicating that sub-shrubs accumulate NSC in excess, as do trees. The temporal overlap among primary and secondary growth in woody plants may be connected to the duration and rates of shoot and wood growth, which in turn depend on the vessel lumen area. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Prediction of conformational B-cell epitopes from 3D structures by random forests with a distance-based feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Xiong, Yi; Zhao, Meng; Zou, Hua; Ye, Xinghuo; Liu, Juan

    2011-08-17

    Antigen-antibody interactions are key events in immune system, which provide important clues to the immune processes and responses. In Antigen-antibody interactions, the specific sites on the antigens that are directly bound by the B-cell produced antibodies are well known as B-cell epitopes. The identification of epitopes is a hot topic in bioinformatics because of their potential use in the epitope-based drug design. Although most B-cell epitopes are discontinuous (or conformational), insufficient effort has been put into the conformational epitope prediction, and the performance of existing methods is far from satisfaction. In order to develop the high-accuracy model, we focus on some possible aspects concerning the prediction performance, including the impact of interior residues, different contributions of adjacent residues, and the imbalanced data which contain much more non-epitope residues than epitope residues. In order to address above issues, we take following strategies. Firstly, a concept of 'thick surface patch' instead of 'surface patch' is introduced to describe the local spatial context of each surface residue, which considers the impact of interior residue. The comparison between the thick surface patch and the surface patch shows that interior residues contribute to the recognition of epitopes. Secondly, statistical significance of the distance distribution difference between non-epitope patches and epitope patches is observed, thus an adjacent residue distance feature is presented, which reflects the unequal contributions of adjacent residues to the location of binding sites. Thirdly, a bootstrapping and voting procedure is adopted to deal with the imbalanced dataset. Based on the above ideas, we propose a new method to identify the B-cell conformational epitopes from 3D structures by combining conventional features and the proposed feature, and the random forest (RF) algorithm is used as the classification engine. The experiments show that our

  2. Prediction of conformational B-cell epitopes from 3D structures by random forests with a distance-based feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Hua

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antigen-antibody interactions are key events in immune system, which provide important clues to the immune processes and responses. In Antigen-antibody interactions, the specific sites on the antigens that are directly bound by the B-cell produced antibodies are well known as B-cell epitopes. The identification of epitopes is a hot topic in bioinformatics because of their potential use in the epitope-based drug design. Although most B-cell epitopes are discontinuous (or conformational, insufficient effort has been put into the conformational epitope prediction, and the performance of existing methods is far from satisfaction. Results In order to develop the high-accuracy model, we focus on some possible aspects concerning the prediction performance, including the impact of interior residues, different contributions of adjacent residues, and the imbalanced data which contain much more non-epitope residues than epitope residues. In order to address above issues, we take following strategies. Firstly, a concept of 'thick surface patch' instead of 'surface patch' is introduced to describe the local spatial context of each surface residue, which considers the impact of interior residue. The comparison between the thick surface patch and the surface patch shows that interior residues contribute to the recognition of epitopes. Secondly, statistical significance of the distance distribution difference between non-epitope patches and epitope patches is observed, thus an adjacent residue distance feature is presented, which reflects the unequal contributions of adjacent residues to the location of binding sites. Thirdly, a bootstrapping and voting procedure is adopted to deal with the imbalanced dataset. Based on the above ideas, we propose a new method to identify the B-cell conformational epitopes from 3D structures by combining conventional features and the proposed feature, and the random forest (RF algorithm is used as the

  3. Reappraising and Redirecting Research on the Victim-Offender Overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Mark T; Mulford, Carrie F

    2017-01-01

    The strong positive association between offending and victimization, or the victim-offender overlap, has received considerable amount of research attention in recent years. Empirical research has made important strides in unpacking the sources of the phenomenon, but important questions remain unanswered. Ambiguity surrounds the utility of certain theoretical explanations for the overlap, the nature of the phenomenon, and the methodological tools used to examine its etiology. Owing to these knowledge gaps, the scientific meaning of the victim-offender overlap is unclear. Moreover, a number of potentially important theoretical arguments are rarely subject to empirical testing in this line of research. The purpose of this article is to use a narrative review methodology to provide a critical reappraisal of the theoretical, empirical, and methodological research on the victim-offender overlap and offer directions for ways forward to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon. This review includes critical analysis of 78 academic publications, along with a table that summarizes the key findings and conclusions from 18 critical empirical studies that have contributed to our understanding of the victim-offender overlap. We offer recommendations for the continued development of theoretical and methodological tools to better understand this complex phenomenon.

  4. [Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome among patients with stable COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, M-S; Nguyen Dang, D; Schleich, F; Manise, M; Corhay, J-L; Louis, R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to describe the frequency and characteristics of the overlap syndrome among stable COPD patients (stage 2 to 4 according to GOLD). Material and method: We studied 46 patients with stable COPD recruited from the outpatient clinic of the CHU of Liege from May 2013 to April 2014. Definition of the overlap syndrome was based on the coexistence of post-bronchodilation FEV1/FVC /= 200 ml and >/= 12% after bronchodilation), 2) eosinophilic inflammation : sputum eosinophils ≥ 3%,blood eosinophils ≥ 400/μl, or FENO ≥ 45 ppb, 3) clinical history of airway allergy, or total serum IgE ≥ 113 KU/l, or RAST ≥ 0,35 KU/l against major aeroallergens. 37% patients had the COPD-asthma overlap syndrome and this group had a higher CAT score reflecting more severe symptoms (24,6 ± 8,1 vs 19,4 ± 8, p overlap group (97 ± 24%), but altered in the pure COPD group (80 ± 20%), p overlap syndrome and they are more symptomatic without any evidence of more severe airway obstruction.

  5. Efficient sampling of complex network with modified random walk strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunya; Chang, Shuhua; Zhang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Mi; Yang, Lei

    2018-02-01

    We present two novel random walk strategies, choosing seed node (CSN) random walk and no-retracing (NR) random walk. Different from the classical random walk sampling, the CSN and NR strategies focus on the influences of the seed node choice and path overlap, respectively. Three random walk samplings are applied in the Erdös-Rényi (ER), Barabási-Albert (BA), Watts-Strogatz (WS), and the weighted USAir networks, respectively. Then, the major properties of sampled subnets, such as sampling efficiency, degree distributions, average degree and average clustering coefficient, are studied. The similar conclusions can be reached with these three random walk strategies. Firstly, the networks with small scales and simple structures are conducive to the sampling. Secondly, the average degree and the average clustering coefficient of the sampled subnet tend to the corresponding values of original networks with limited steps. And thirdly, all the degree distributions of the subnets are slightly biased to the high degree side. However, the NR strategy performs better for the average clustering coefficient of the subnet. In the real weighted USAir networks, some obvious characters like the larger clustering coefficient and the fluctuation of degree distribution are reproduced well by these random walk strategies.

  6. Overlapped flowers yield detection using computer-based interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Sharma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture has always dealt with the accuracy and timely information about agricultural products. With the help of computer hardware and software technology designing a decision support system that could generate flower yield information and serve as base for management and planning of flower marketing is made so easy. Despite such technologies, some problem still arise, for example, a colour homogeneity of a specimen which cannot be obtained similar to actual colour of image and overlapping of image. In this paper implementing a new ‘counting algorithm’ for overlapped flower is being discussed. For implementing this algorithm, some techniques and operations such as colour image segmentation technique, image segmentation, using HSV colour space and morphological operations have been used. In this paper used two most popular colour space; those are RGB and HSV. HSV colour space decouples brightness from a chromatic component in the image, by which it provides better result in case for occlusion and overlapping.

  7. The eigSUMR inverter for overlap fermion

    CERN Document Server

    Cundy, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the usage and applicability of deflation methods for the overlap lattice Dirac operator, focussing on calculating the eigenvalues using a method similar to the eigCG algorithm used for other Dirac operators. The overlap operator, which contains several theoretical advantages over other formulations of lattice Quantum Chromodynamics, is more computationally expensive because it requires the computation of the matrix sign function. The principle change made compared to deflation methods for other formulations of lattice QCD is that it is necessary for best performance to tune or relax the accuracy of the matrix sign function as the computation proceeds. We adapt the eigCG algorithm for two inversion algorithms for overlap fermions, GMRESR(relCG) and GMRESR(relSUMR). Before deflation, the rate of convergence of these routines in terms of iterations is similar, but, since the Shifted Unitary Minimal Residual (SUMR) algorithm only requires one call to the matrix sign function compared to the two calls r...

  8. Overlap Functions for Measures in Conformal Iterated Function Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailescu, Eugen; Urbański, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    We employ thermodynamic formalism for the study of conformal iterated function systems (IFS) S = {φ _i}_{i in I} with arbitrary overlaps, and of measures μ on limit sets Λ , which are projections of equilibrium measures hat{μ } with respect to a certain lift map Φ on Σ _I^+ × Λ . No type of Open Set Condition is assumed. We introduce a notion of overlap function and overlap number for such a measure hat{μ } with respect to S; and, in particular a notion of (topological) overlap number o(S). These notions take in consideration the n-chains between points in the limit set. We prove that o(S, hat{μ }) is related to a conditional entropy of hat{μ } with respect to the lift Φ . Various types of projections to Λ of invariant measures are studied. We obtain upper estimates for the Hausdorff dimension HD(μ ) of μ on Λ , by using pressure functions and o(S, hat{μ }). In particular, this applies to projections of Bernoulli measures on Σ _I^+. Next, we apply the results to Bernoulli convolutions ν _λ for λ in (1/2, 1), which correspond to self-similar measures determined by composing, with equal probabilities, the contractions of an IFS with overlaps S_λ . We prove that for all λ in (1/2, 1), there exists a relation between HD(ν _λ ) and the overlap number o(S_λ ). We also estimate o(S_λ ) for certain values of λ.

  9. High hospital burden in overlap syndrome of asthma and COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersén, Heidi; Lampela, Pekka; Nevanlinna, Antti; Säynäjäkangas, Olli; Keistinen, Timo

    2013-10-01

    Overlap syndrome of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common condition, which is not well understood. This study describes the characteristics and hospital impact of patients suffering from this condition. The data are comprised of the hospital discharge registry data maintained by National Institute for Health and Welfare [Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitos (THL)] between 1972 and 2009 covering the entire Finnish population (5.35 million inhabitants in 2009). In THL, treatment periods for patients with the primary or secondary diagnosis of asthma or COPD were selected. From that data, patients over 34 years and their treatment periods starting and ending 2000-2009 with a principal or secondary diagnosis of asthma [International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10: J45-J46] or COPD (ICD 10: J41-J44) were picked up. There were 105 122 such patients who had 343 420 treatment periods altogether. Patients with asthma were younger than patients with COPD and overlap syndrome, while COPD and overlap syndrome patients' age distribution was very similar. Patients with both asthma and COPD had 30.4% of all treatment periods, even though the percentage of all patients in this group was only 16.1%. These patients had an increased number of hospitalisation episodes across all age groups. Average number of treatment periods during 2000-2009 was 2.1 in asthma, 3.4 in COPD and 6.0 in overlap syndrome. Hospital impact of the same period in asthma was 939 900 days in COPD 1 517 308 and 1 000 724 days in overlap syndrome. Overlap syndrome of asthma and COPD is a common condition with high hospital impact for patients with this condition. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Diagnosis and management of the overlap syndromes of autoimmune hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Albert J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hepatitis may have cholestatic features that are outside the classical phenotype and that resemble findings in other immune-mediated liver diseases. These cholestatic phenotypes have been designated ‘overlap syndromes’. OBJECTIVES: To recognize the overlap syndromes in adults and manage them appropriately. METHODS: The MEDLINE database was reviewed for published experiences from 1984 to 2013. RESULTS: Patients with autoimmune hepatitis may exhibit features of primary biliary cirrhosis (7% to 13%), primary sclerosing cholangitis (6% to 11%) or a cholestatic syndrome without other diagnostic features (5% to 11%). These mixed phenotypes may represent classical autoimmune hepatitis with atypical features, transition states in the evolution of classical cholestatic syndromes, concurrent separate diseases or pathogenically distinct disorders. The ‘Paris criteria’ have been endorsed for the diagnosis of the overlap syndrome with primary biliary cirrhosis, and treatment with conventional immunosuppressive therapy alone or in combination with low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid can be guided by the serum alkaline phosphatase level. The overlap syndrome with primary sclerosing cholangitis or with cholestasis without diagnostic features is commonly treated with immunosuppressive therapy and ursodeoxycholic acid. Responses are variable and commonly incomplete (20% to 100% improvement) depending on the degree of cholestasis. DISCUSSION: The overlap syndromes are clinical descriptions rather than pathological entities, and the dominant component of the disease determines its designation and therapy. Cholestatic findings in autoimmune hepatitis influence the response to immunosuppressive therapy. CONCLUSION: The overlap syndromes must be considered in patients with autoimmune hepatitis and cholestatic findings, concurrent inflammatory bowel disease or steroid-refractory disease. PMID:23862175

  11. Overlap syndrome of COPD and OSA in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Mee; Thomas, Robert J; Kim, Jinkwan; Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Shin, Chol

    2017-07-01

    Overlap syndrome of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) leads to increased morbidity and mortality. There have been no reports available on the overlap syndrome for Koreans. Our primary aim was to identify prevalence and predictors of the overlap syndrome in Koreans.This is a cross-sectional study with a community-based sample of 1298 participants (mean age, 59.7 ± 6.7) from the cohort of Korean Genomic and Epidemiologic Study during 2013 to 2014. OSA and COPD were assessed by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC syndrome. The prevalence of COPD remained the same as 10.8% regardless of the presence of OSA. The mean ratio of FEV1/FVC for those with COPD was 0.77, regardless of OSA. The OR increased for age (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1) and smokers (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 2.0-6.4), but decreased for body mass index (BMI) (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.8-0.9) and overweight state (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.7). Risk factors of the overlap syndrome differed by OSA severity, that is, BMI in those with moderate-to-severe OSA, whereas sex (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 2.1-10.6) and age (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1) in those with mild OSA.In a population study from Korea, 10.8% of OSA patients had an overlap syndrome with COPD. Although BMI is a well-known risk factor of OSA, it is likely that being overweight may be protective for moderate-to-severe OSA patients from the risk of COPD (i.e., overlap syndrome).

  12. Toxic epidermal necrolysis, DRESS, AGEP: Do overlap cases exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouvresse Sophie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe cutaneous adverse reactions to drugs (SCARs include acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS and epidermal necrolysis (Stevens-Johnson syndrome–toxic epidermal necrolysis [SJS-TEN]. Because of the varied initial presentation of such adverse drug reactions, diagnosis may be difficult and suggests overlap among SCARs. Overlapping SCARs are defined as cases fulfilling the criteria for definite or probable diagnosis of at least 2 ADRs according to scoring systems for AGEP, DRESS and SJS-TEN. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of overlap among SCARs among cases in the referral hospital in France. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data for 216 patients hospitalized in the referral centre over 7 years with a discharge diagnosis of AGEP (n = 45, DRESS (n = 47, SJS-TEN (n = 80 or “drug rash” (n = 44. Each case with detailed clinical data and a skin biopsy specimen was scored for AGEP, DRESS and SJS-TEN by use of diagnostic scores elaborated by the RegiSCAR group. Results In total, 45 of 216 cases (21% had at least 2 possible diagnoses: 35 had a single predominant diagnosis (definite or probable, 7 had several possible diagnoses and 3 (2.1% of 145 confirmed SCARs were overlap SCARs. Conclusions Despite ambiguities among SCARs, confirmed overlap cases are rare. This study did not avoid pitfalls linked to its retrospective nature and selection bias. In the acute stage of disease, early identification of severe ADRs can be difficult because of clinical or biologic overlapping features and missing data on histology, biology and evolution. Retrospectively analyzing cases by use of diagnostic algorithms can lead to reliable discrimination among AGEP, DRESS and SJS-TEN.

  13. Symptomatic overlap between microscopic colitis and irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Rami; Pardi, Darrell S; Tremaine, William J; Kammer, Patricia P; Sandborn, William J; Loftus, Edward V

    2013-03-01

    Microscopic colitis and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are the common causes of watery diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, and other gastrointestinal symptoms. Previous retrospective data and post hoc analysis of information from a randomized controlled trial have suggested that there is considerable overlap between the symptoms seen in patients with microscopic colitis and the symptom-based criteria for IBS. We sought to study this overlap in a prospective cohort. A random cohort of patients with biopsy-proven microscopic colitis seen at our institution were administered a symptom questionnaire. Based on their responses, the proportion of patients who met various definitions for IBS was determined. Clinical characteristics of those meeting IBS criteria were compared with those who did not. In the 120 patients who were included, 38% to 58% met the diagnostic criteria for IBS. These patients tended to be younger and more likely female than those who did not meet IBS criteria. Patients with microscopic colitis frequently meet the diagnostic criteria for IBS. Therefore, these criteria are not specific enough to exclude the presence of microscopic colitis. In patients with watery diarrhea, colonoscopy with mucosal biopsies should be performed if symptoms are not controlled by antidiarrheal medications.

  14. Finite Size Corrections to the Parisi Overlap Function in the GREM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, Bernard; Mottishaw, Peter

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the effects of finite size corrections on the overlap probabilities in the Generalized Random Energy Model in two situations where replica symmetry is broken in the thermodynamic limit. Our calculations do not use replicas, but shed some light on what the replica method should give for finite size corrections. In the gradual freezing situation, which is known to exhibit full replica symmetry breaking, we show that the finite size corrections lead to a modification of the simple relations between the sample averages of the overlaps Y_k between k configurations predicted by replica theory. This can be interpreted as fluctuations in the replica block size with a negative variance. The mechanism is similar to the one we found recently in the random energy model in Derrida and Mottishaw (J Stat Mech 2015(1): P01021, 2015). We also consider a simultaneous freezing situation, which is known to exhibit one step replica symmetry breaking. We show that finite size corrections lead to full replica symmetry breaking and give a more complete derivation of the results presented in Derrida and Mottishaw (Europhys Lett 115(4): 40005, 2016) for the directed polymer on a tree.

  15. Overlapping illusions by transformation optics without any negative refraction material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; He, Sailing

    2016-01-01

    A novel method to achieve an overlapping illusion without any negative refraction index material is introduced with the help of the optic-null medium (ONM) designed by an extremely stretching spatial transformation. Unlike the previous methods to achieve such an optical illusion by transformation optics (TO), our method can achieve a power combination and reshape the radiation pattern at the same time. Unlike the overlapping illusion with some negative refraction index material, our method is not sensitive to the loss of the materials. Other advantages over existing methods are discussed. Numerical simulations are given to verify the performance of the proposed devices.

  16. Reconstructing genome trees of prokaryotes using overlapping genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Hsien-Tai

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overlapping genes (OGs are defined as adjacent genes whose coding sequences overlap partially or entirely. In fact, they are ubiquitous in microbial genomes and more conserved between species than non-overlapping genes. Based on this property, we have previously implemented a web server, named OGtree, that allows the user to reconstruct genome trees of some prokaryotes according to their pairwise OG distances. By analogy to the analyses of gene content and gene order, the OG distance between two genomes we defined was based on a measure of combining OG content (i.e., the normalized number of shared orthologous OG pairs and OG order (i.e., the normalized OG breakpoint distance in their whole genomes. A shortcoming of using the concept of breakpoints to define the OG distance is its inability to analyze the OG distance of multi-chromosomal genomes. In addition, the amount of overlapping coding sequences between some distantly related prokaryotic genomes may be limited so that it is hard to find enough OGs to properly evaluate their pairwise OG distances. Results In this study, we therefore define a new OG order distance that is based on more biologically accurate rearrangements (e.g., reversals, transpositions and translocations rather than breakpoints and that is applicable to both uni-chromosomal and multi-chromosomal genomes. In addition, we expand the term "gene" to include both its coding sequence and regulatory regions so that two adjacent genes whose coding sequences or regulatory regions overlap with each other are considered as a pair of overlapping genes. This is because overlapping of regulatory regions of distinct genes suggests that the regulation of expression for these genes should be more or less interrelated. Based on these modifications, we have reimplemented our OGtree as a new web server, named OGtree2, and have also evaluated its accuracy of genome tree reconstruction on a testing dataset consisting of 21

  17. Overlap of Myasthenia Gravis and Miller Fisher Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuji; Satomi, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    In this case report, we describe a patient with myasthenia gravis (MG) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) overlap. A 69-year-old woman presented with acute bilateral ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, ataxic gait, and areflexia. The MFS diagnosis was confirmed with by a positive anti-GQ1b IgG antibody test result. MG was diagnosed from electrophysiological, edrophonium, and serological test results. Although intravenous immunoglobulin therapy is effective for both diseases, two courses of the therapy did not improve the patient's symptoms. However, steroid therapy was effective. Although the overlap of MG and MFS is very rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neuro-ophthalmic diseases.

  18. Overlap syndromes of autoimmune hepatitis: diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Aguilar-Nájera

    2015-04-01

    Whether overlap syndromes are distinct entities or the presence of 2 concurrent diseases is still a subject of debate. They should be suspected in autoimmune hepatitis patients that present with signs of cholestasis, as it is known that overlap behavior tends to be more aggressive, with higher rates of cirrhosis and the need for liver transplantation. Treatment response is also poorer and should be directed at the predominant component. Standardized definitions are necessary so that these syndromes can be studied in controlled clinical trials.

  19. Room acoustic transition time based on reflection overlap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas; Jacobsen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    at time t, which is mainly controlled by the absorption characteristics of the boundary surfaces of the room. Scattering, diffuse reflections, and diffraction, which facilitate the overlapping process, have not been taken into account. Measured impulse responses show that the transition occurs earlier......A transition time is defined based on the temporal overlap of reflected pulses in room impulse responses. Assuming specular reflections only, the temporal distance between adjacent reflections, which is proportional to the volume of a room, is compared with the characteristic width of a pulse...... in a room with nonuniform absorption and furniture than in a room that satisfies the underlying assumptions....

  20. Room acoustic transition time based on reflection overlap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas; Jacobsen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    at time t, which is mainly controlled by the absorption characteristics of the boundary surfaces of the room. Scattering, diffuse reflections, and diffraction, which facilitate the overlapping process, have not been taken into account. Measured impulse responses show that the transition occurs earlier......A transition time is defined based on the temporal overlap of reflected pulses in room impulse responses. Assuming specular reflections only, the temporal distance between adjacent reflections, which is proportional to the volume of a room, is compared with the characteristic width of a pulse...... in a room with nonuniform absorption and furniture than in a room that satisfies the underlying assumptions....

  1. Evaluation of the overlapping of posterior teeth in two techniques of improved interproximal panoramic program and standard panoramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarzi pour D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Overlapping of the proximal surfaces of posterior teeth in the panoramic radiography is a major concern. Therefore, an option has been developed in the panoramic unit of Planmeca Promax, namely improved interproximal mode. This mode causes lower horizental angle with the teeth contact region during the unit rotation decreasing overlapping of the panoramic images of the posterior teeth especially premolar teeth. The present study was done to compare the overlapping of posterior teeth using two techniques of improved interproximal panoramic program and standard panoramic. "nMaterials and Methods: In this diagnostic study, 32 patients requiring panoramic radiographies at their posterior teeth during their routine diagnosis and treatment process with the mean age of 27.3 years were participated. No patients showed crowding of posterior teeth or missed and restored posterior teeth. The participants' panoramic radiographies were randomly taken by two techniques of improved interproximal panoramic and standard panoramic using Planmeca Promax device. The overlapping of the panoramic images was blindly assessed by an oral radiologist. The overlapping in both techniques was reported by frequency and percentage. The comparisons were done by Chi-square test between two techniques and the odds ratio of overlapping was estimated using regression analysis. "nResults: In standard panoramic techniques, 38.5% (148 contacts of 384 contacts of the proximal surfaces overlapped while the overlapping of the proximal surfaces was observed in 18.8% (72 contacts of 384 overall contacts in improved interproximal technique. Significant differences were noted between two techniques regarding overlapping (P<0.001. Also 66.4% and 39.1% of 4-5 teeth contacts overlapped in standard and improved techniques. The values were reported to be 39.1% and 12.5% in contacts of 5-6 teeth and 10.2% and 4.7% in the contacts of 6-7 teeth in both techniques

  2. Does pragmatically structured outpatient dietary counselling reduce sodium intake in hypertensive patients? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Marcel; Ramsay, Tim; Bugeja, Ann; Edwards, Cedric; Fodor, George; Kirby, Anne; Magner, Peter; McCormick, Brendan; van der Hoef, Gigi; Wagner, Jessica; Hiremath, Swapnil

    2015-06-17

    Hypertension is highly prevalent among adults, and is the most important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular events, in particular stroke. Decreasing sodium intake has the potential to prevent or delay the development of hypertension and improve blood pressure control, independently of blood pressure lowering drugs, among hypertensive patients. Despite guidelines recommending a low sodium diet, especially for hypertensive individuals, sodium intake remains higher than recommended. A recent systematic review indicated that the efficacious counselling methods described in published trials are not suitable for hypertension management by primary care providers in Canada in the present form. The primary reason for the lack of feasibility is that interventions for sodium restriction in these trials was not limited to counselling, but included provision of food, prepared meals, or intensive inpatient training sessions. This is a parallel, randomized, controlled, open-label trial with blinded endpoints. Inclusion criteria are adult patients with hypertension with high dietary sodium intake (defined as ≥ 100 mmol/day). The control arm will receive usual care, and the intervention arm will receive usual care and an additional structured counselling session by a registered dietitian, with four follow-up telephone support sessions over four weeks. The two primary outcomes are change in sodium intake from baseline, as measured by a change in 24-hour urinary sodium measurements at four weeks and one year. Secondary outcomes include change in blood pressure (as measured by 24-hour ambulatory monitoring), change in 24-hour urinary potassium, and change in body weight at the same time points. Though decreasing sodium intake has been reported to be efficacious in lowering blood pressure, there exists a gap in the evidence for an effective intervention that could be easily translated into clinical practice. If successful, our intervention would be suitable for outpatient

  3. Imaging gastric structuring of lipid emulsions and its effect on gastrointestinal function: a randomized trial in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingoetter, Andreas; Radovic, Tijana; Buetikofer, Simon; Curcic, Jelena; Menne, Dieter; Fried, Michael; Schwizer, Werner; Wooster, Tim J

    2015-04-01

    Efficient fat digestion requires fat processing within the stomach and fat sensing in the intestine. Both processes also control gastric emptying and gastrointestinal secretions. We aimed to visualize the influence of the intragastric stability of fat emulsions on their dynamics of gastric processing and structuring and to assess the effect this has on gastrointestinal motor and secretory functions. Eighteen healthy subjects with normal body mass index (BMI) were studied on 4 separate occasions in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of the gastrointestinal tract and blood triglycerides were recorded before and for 240 min after the consumption of the following 4 different fat emulsions: lipid emulsion 1 (LE1; acid stable, 0.33 μm), lipid emulsion 2 (LE2; acid stable, 52 μm), lipid emulsion 3 (LE3; acid unstable, solid fat, 0.32 μm), and lipid emulsion 4 (LE4; acid unstable, liquid fat, 0.38 μm). Intragastric emulsion instability was associated with a change in gastric emptying. Acid-unstable emulsions exhibited biphasic and faster emptying profiles than did the 2 acid-stable emulsions (P ≤ 0.0001). When combined with solid fat (LE3), different dynamics of postprandial gallbladder volume were induced (P ≤ 0.001). For acid-stable emulsions, a reduction of droplet size by 2 orders of magnitude [LE1 (0.33 μm) compared with LE2 (52 μm)] delayed gastric emptying by 38 min. Although acid-stable (LE1 and LE2) and redispersible (LE4) emulsions caused a constant increase in blood triglycerides, no increase was detectable for LE3 (P emulsions. The acute effects of lipid emulsions on gastric emptying, gallbladder volume, and triglyceride absorption are dependent on microstructural changes undergone during consumption. Gastric peristalsis and secretion were effective at redispersing pools of liquid fat in the stomach. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01253005. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparison Between Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and Structured Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Intervention for Children with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadzaheri, Fereshteh; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Rezaee,Mohammad; Rafiee, Seyed Majid

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating studies are documenting specific motivational variables that, when combined into a naturalistic teaching paradigm, can positively influence the effectiveness of interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this study was to compare two ABA intervention procedures, a naturalistic approach, Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) with a structured ABA approach in a school setting. A Randomized Clinical Trial design using two groups of children, matched ac...

  5. A Mechanistic Analysis of Oxygen Vacancy Driven Conductive Filament Formation in Resistive Random Access Memory Metal/NiO/Metal Structures (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-10

    metal -induced gap states to the electronic density of states were identified, accommodating oxygen vacancy states, and showing that the interface region...Electrically switchable resistive random access memories have drawn much interest as nonvolatile memory device candidates, based also metal -insulator... metal (MIM) structure concepts. However, atomic-level mechanisms that lead to conductive filament (CF) formation in MIMs are often lacking, such as

  6. Efficacy of strength and aerobic exercise on patient-reported outcomes and structural changes in patients with knee osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Øiestad, Britt Elin; Østerås, Nina; Frobell, Richard; Grotle, Margreth; Brøgger, Helga; Risberg, May Arna

    2013-01-01

    Open Access Highly Accessed Study protocol Efficacy of strength and aerobic exercise on patient-reported outcomes and structural changes in patients with knee osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial Britt Elin Øiestad1*, Nina Østerås2, Richard Frobell3, Margreth Grotle4, Helga Brøgger5 and May Arna Risberg16 * Corresponding author: Britt E Øiestad Author Affiliations 1 Norwegian Research Center for Active Rehabilitation ...

  7. Coeliac disease and autoimmune disease-genetic overlap and screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundin, Knut E. A.; Wijmenga, Cisca

    Coeliac disease is a treatable, gluten-induced disease that often occurs concurrently with other autoimmune diseases. In genetic studies since 2007, a partial genetic overlap between these diseases has been revealed and further insights into the pathophysiology of coeliac disease and autoimmunity

  8. Headed tone spans: Binarity and minimal overlap | Key | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a theoretical framework for tone that builds on the Headed Spans theory of assimilation. We propose that spans have two important properties, which we term binarity and minimal overlap. Cilungu (Bantu, Zambia) exhibits a process of binary H tone spreading onto the following mora, and then onto the following ...

  9. Farber disease overlapping with stiff skin syndrome: Expanding the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stiff skin syndrome (SSS) (MIM %184900)1 was fi rst described by Esterly and McKusick as a disorder characterized by thickened and indurated skin of the entire body and limitation of joint mobility with fl exion contractures. Aim of the Study: Diagnosis and clarifi cation of overlapping in the clinical presentation of the studied ...

  10. Anxiety, fainting and gagging in dentistry: Separate or overlapping constructs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houtem, C.M.H.H.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aimed to increase the knowledge about severe forms of anxiety, gagging and fainting in dentistry and to investigate whether these phenomena are overlapping or separate constructs. In Chapter 2 a literature review of twin studies showed that the estimated heritability of specific phobias

  11. [Impact of the Overlap Region Between Acoustic and Electric Stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Uwe; Mocka, Moritz

    2017-06-01

    Patients with residual hearing in the low frequencies and ski-slope hearing loss with partial deafness at medium and high frequencies receive a cochlear implant treatment with electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS, "hybrid" stimulation). In the border region between electric and acoustic stimulation a superposition of the 2 types of stimulation is expected. The area of overlap is determined by the insertion depth of the stimulating electrode and the lower starting point of signal transmission provided by the CI speech processor. The study examined the influence of the variation of the electric-acoustic overlap area on speech perception in noise, whereby the width of the "transmission gap" between the 2 different stimulus modalities was varied by 2 different methods. The results derived from 9 experienced users of the MED-EL Duet 2 speech processor show that the electric-acoustic overlapping area and with it the crossover frequency between the acoustic part and the CI should be adjusted individually. Overall, speech reception thresholds (SRT) showed a wide variation of results in between subjects. Further studies shall investigate whether generalized procedures about the setting of the overlap between electric and acoustic stimulation are reasonable, whereby an increased number of subjects and a longer period of acclimatization prior to the conduction of hearing tests deemed necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Handover Incentives for Self-Interested WLANs with Overlapping Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Siris, Vasilios A.

    2012-01-01

    We consider an environment where self-interested IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) have overlapping coverage, and investigate the incentives that can trigger handovers between the WLANs. Our focus is on the incentives for supporting handovers due solely to the improved performance ...

  13. Two Efficient Techniques to Find Approximate Overlaps between Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maan Haj Rachid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The next-generation sequencing (NGS technology outputs a huge number of sequences (reads that require further processing. After applying prefiltering techniques in order to eliminate redundancy and to correct erroneous reads, an overlap-based assembler typically finds the longest exact suffix-prefix match between each ordered pair of the input reads. However, another trend has been evolving for the purpose of solving an approximate version of the overlap problem. The main benefit of this direction is the ability to skip time-consuming error-detecting techniques which are applied in the prefiltering stage. In this work, we present and compare two techniques to solve the approximate overlap problem. The first adapts a compact prefix tree to efficiently solve the approximate all-pairs suffix-prefix problem, while the other utilizes a well-known principle, namely, the pigeonhole principle, to identify a potential overlap match in order to ultimately solve the same problem. Our results show that our solution using the pigeonhole principle has better space and time consumption over an FM-based solution, while our solution based on prefix tree has the best space consumption between all three solutions. The number of mismatches (hamming distance is used to define the approximate matching between strings in our work.

  14. Unsupervised Learning of Overlapping Image Components Using Divisive Input Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratling, M. W.; De Meyer, K.; Kompass, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that nonnegative matrix factorisation is mathematically related to a class of neural networks that employ negative feedback as a mechanism of competition. This observation inspires a novel learning algorithm which we call Divisive Input Modulation (DIM). The proposed algorithm provides a mathematically simple and computationally efficient method for the unsupervised learning of image components, even in conditions where these elementary features overlap considerably. To test the proposed algorithm, a novel artificial task is introduced which is similar to the frequently-used bars problem but employs squares rather than bars to increase the degree of overlap between components. Using this task, we investigate how the proposed method performs on the parsing of artificial images composed of overlapping features, given the correct representation of the individual components; and secondly, we investigate how well it can learn the elementary components from artificial training images. We compare the performance of the proposed algorithm with its predecessors including variations on these algorithms that have produced state-of-the-art performance on the bars problem. The proposed algorithm is more successful than its predecessors in dealing with overlap and occlusion in the artificial task that has been used to assess performance. PMID:19424442

  15. A fuzzy approach to the Weighted Overlap Dominance model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Rios, Camilo Andres; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Nielsen, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    in an interactive way, where input data can take the form of uniquely-graded or interval-valued information. Here we explore the Weighted Overlap Dominance (WOD) model from a fuzzy perspective and its outranking approach to decision support and multidimensional interval analysis. Firstly, imprecision measures...

  16. Inhaled steroids reduce apnea-hypopnea index in overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeetalab, Fariba; Rezaeitalab, Fariborz; Dehestani, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two of the most common chronic respiratory disorders. Co-existence of both conditions, referred as overlap syndrome (OLS), is associated with substantially high rates of mortality and morbidity. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) on apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), an indicator for diagnosis and identifying the severity of OSA, in overlap syndrome. We conducted a clinical trial on 60 patients diagnosed with overlap syndrome by employing overnight polysomnography before and after receiving ICS. Tstudent test and Mann-Whitney test were applied to analyze the gathered data including age, AHI, nocturnal oxygen desaturation index and SaO2, (saturated arterial oxygen), daytime (pressure of arterial carbon dioxide) PaCO, level, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), body mass index (BMI), and waist and neck circumferences. By 3-month ICS administration, this study demonstrated significant reduction of mean AHI and nocturnal oxygen desaturation index along with remarkable improvement of FEV1, diurnal PaCO2, level and nocturnal SaO2, (Poverlap syndrome. Because of a remarkable improvement in obstructive sleep apneas, this study suggests that ICS might be beneficial in treatment of overlap syndrome.

  17. The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-asthma overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braman, Sidney S

    2015-01-01

    When asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) occur together the term COPD-asthma overlap syndrome has been applied. To date, there is no universally accepted definition of this overlap syndrome, just as there is no blood test or other technologic assessment that provides a simple way to distinguish asthma from COPD. One practical approach to the overlap diagnosis has been to include patients with a diagnosis of COPD by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria and asthma defined by subject report of a physician diagnosis of asthma before the age of 40 years. Alternatively, it includes patients who meet criteria for COPD (fixed airflow obstruction) and who also have typical features of asthma (wheezing, atopy, eosinophilia, and positive bronchodilator response on spirometry). Compared with patients with COPD alone, the overlap patients are younger with less smoking intensity, have higher health-care utilization, have a worse disease-related quality of life, and have a higher mortality. Treatment with corticosteroids earlier in the course of the disease compared with the patient with only COPD has been recommended.

  18. Two-fractal overlap time series: Earthquakes and market crashes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    203–210. Two-fractal overlap time series: Earthquakes and market crashes. BIKAS K CHAKRABARTI1,2,∗, ARNAB CHATTERJEE1,3 and. PRATIP BHATTACHARYYA1,4. 1Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics Division and Centre for Applied Mathematics and. Computational Science, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, ...

  19. Two-fractal overlap time series: Earthquakes and market crashes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We find prominent similarities in the features of the time series for the (model earthquakes or) overlap of two Cantor sets when one set moves with uniform relative velocity over the other and time series of stock prices. An anticipation method for some of the crashes have been proposed here, based on these observations.

  20. A walkthrough solution to the boundary overlap problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ducey; Jeffrey H. Gove; Harry T. Valentine

    2004-01-01

    Existing methods for eliminating bias due to boundary overlap suffer some disadvantages in practical use, including the need to work outside the tract, restrictions on the kinds of boundaries to which they are applicable, and the possibility of significantly increased variance as a price for unbiasedness. We propose a new walkthrough method for reducing boundary...

  1. Overlap of Patau and Pierre Robin syndromes along with abnormal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 93; Issue 3. Overlap of Patau and Pierre Robin syndromes along with abnormal metabolism: an interesting case study. Sushil Kumar Jaiswal Krishna Kishore Sukla Vineeta Gupta Amit Kumar Rai. Research Note Volume 93 Issue 3 December 2014 pp 865-868 ...

  2. Interference management with partial uplink/downlink spectrum overlap

    KAUST Repository

    Randrianantenaina, Itsikiantsoa

    2016-07-26

    Simultaneous reuse of spectral resources by uplink and downlink, denoted as in-band full duplex (FD) communication, is promoted to double the spectral efficiency when compared to its half-duplex (HD) counterpart. Interference management, however, remains challenging in FD cellular networks, especially when high disparity between uplink and downlink transmission powers exists. The uplink performance can be particularly deteriorated when operating on channels that are simultaneously occupied with downlink transmission. This paper considers a cellular wireless system with partial spectrum overlap between the downlink and uplink. The performance of the system becomes, therefore, a function of the overlap fraction, as well as the power levels of both the uplink and downlink transmissions. The paper considers the problem of maximizing an overall network utility to find the uplink/downlink transmission powers and the spectrum overlap fraction between the uplink and downlink spectrum in each cell, and proposes solving the problem using interior point method. Simulations results confirm the vulnerability of the uplink performance to the FD operation, and show the superiority of the proposed scheme over the FD and HD schemes. The results further show that explicit uplink and downlink performance should be considered for efficient design of cellular networks with overlapping uplink/downlink resources. © 2016 IEEE.

  3. Possible Overlaps Between Blobs, Grism Apertures, and Dithers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R. E.; McCullough, P. R.

    2017-06-01

    We present a investigation into possible overlaps between the known IR blobs with the grism aperture reference positions and the IR dither patterns. Each aperture was designed to place the science target (e.g. a specific star) on a cosmetically clean area of the IR detector. Similarly, the dither patterns were designed to mitigate cosmetic defects by rarely (or ideally never) placing such targets on known defects. Because blobs accumulate with time, the originally defined apertures and dither patterns may no longer accomplish their goals, it is important to reverify these combinations. We find two potential overlaps between the blob, aperture, and dither combinations, but do not recommend any changes to the current suite of aperture references positions and/or dither patterns for two reasons. First, one of the overlaps occurs with a dither/aperture combination that is seldom used for high-value science operations, but rather more common for wide-field surveys/mosaics. Second, the other overlap is 8.7 pix from a blob that has a fiducial radius of 10 pix, which already represents a very conservative distance. We conclude that a similar analysis should be repeated as new blobs occur, to continue to ensure ideal operations for high-value science targets. The purpose of this report is to document the analysis in order to facilitate its repetition in the future.

  4. Resonance Overlap Is Responsible for Ejecting Planets in Binary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudryk, Lawrence R.; Wu, Yanqin

    2006-03-01

    A planet orbiting around a star in a binary system experiences both secular and resonant perturbations from the companion star. It may be dislodged from its host star if it is simultaneously affected by two or more resonances. We find that overlap between subresonances lying within mean-motion resonances (mostly of the j:1 type) can account for the boundary of orbital stability within binary systems first observed in numerical studies (e.g., Holman & Wiegert). Strong secular forcing from the companion displaces the centroids of different subresonances, producing large regions of resonance overlap. Planets lying within these overlapping regions experience chaotic diffusion, which in most cases leads to their eventual ejection. The overlap region extends to shorter period orbits as either the companion's mass or its eccentricity increase, with boundaries largely agreeing with those obtained by Holman & Wiegert. Furthermore, we find the following two results: First, at a given binary mass ratio, the instability boundary as a function of eccentricity appears jagged, with jutting peninsulas and deep inlets corresponding to islands of instability and stability, respectively; as a result, the largest stable orbit could be reduced from the Holman & Wiegert values by as much as 20%. Second, very high-order resonances (e.g., 50:3) do not significantly modify the instability boundary; these weak resonances, while producing slow chaotic diffusion that may be missed by finite-duration numerical integrations, do not contribute markedly to planet instability. We present some numerical evidence for the first result. More extensive experiments are called for to confirm these conclusions. For the special case of circular binaries, we are intrigued to find that the Hill criterion (based on the critical Jacobi integral) yields an instability boundary that is very similar to that obtained by resonance overlap arguments, making the former both a necessary and a sufficient condition for

  5. Individual foraging strategies reveal niche overlap between endangered galapagos pinnipeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Villegas-Amtmann

    Full Text Available Most competition studies between species are conducted from a population-level approach. Few studies have examined inter-specific competition in conjunction with intra-specific competition, with an individual-based approach. To our knowledge, none has been conducted on marine top predators. Sympatric Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis and sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki share similar geographic habitats and potentially compete. We studied their foraging niche overlap at Cabo Douglas, Fernandina Island from simultaneously collected dive and movement data to examine spatial and temporal inter- and intra-specific competition. Sea lions exhibited 3 foraging strategies (shallow, intermediate and deep indicating intra-specific competition. Fur seals exhibited one foraging strategy, diving predominantly at night, between 0-80 m depth and mostly at 19-22 h. Most sea lion dives also occurred at night (63%, between 0-40 m, within fur seals' diving depth range. 34% of sea lions night dives occurred at 19-22 h, when fur seals dived the most, but most of them occurred at dawn and dusk, when fur seals exhibited the least amount of dives. Fur seals and sea lions foraging behavior overlapped at 19 and 21 h between 0-30 m depths. Sea lions from the deep diving strategy exhibited the greatest foraging overlap with fur seals, in time (19 h, depth during overlapping time (21-24 m, and foraging range (37.7%. Fur seals foraging range was larger. Cabo Douglas northwest coastal area, region of highest diving density, is a foraging "hot spot" for both species. Fur seals and sea lions foraging niche overlap occurred, but segregation also occurred; fur seals primarily dived at night, while sea lions exhibited night and day diving. Both species exploited depths and areas exclusive to their species. Niche breadth generally increases with environmental uncertainty and decreased productivity. Potential competition between these species could be greater during

  6. Finite Element Analysis of Composite Joint Configurations with Gaps and Overlaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the current study is to identify scenarios for which thermal and moisture effects become significant in the loading of a composite structure. In the current work, a simple configuration was defined, and material properties were selected. A Fortran routine was created to automate the mesh generation process. The routine was used to create the models for the initial mesh refinement study. A combination of element length and width suitable for further studies was identified. Also, the effect of the overlap length and gap length on computed shear and through-thickness stresses along the bondline of the joints was studied for the mechanical load case. Further, the influence of neighboring gaps and overlaps on these joint stresses was studied and was found to be negligible. The results suggest that for an initial study it is sufficient to focus on one configuration with fixed overlap and gap lengths to study the effects of mechanical, thermal and moisture loading and combinations thereof on computed joint stresses

  7. Recursive Factorization of the Inverse Overlap Matrix in Linear-Scaling Quantum Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negre, Christian F A; Mniszewski, Susan M; Cawkwell, Marc J; Bock, Nicolas; Wall, Michael E; Niklasson, Anders M N

    2016-07-12

    We present a reduced complexity algorithm to compute the inverse overlap factors required to solve the generalized eigenvalue problem in a quantum-based molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Our method is based on the recursive, iterative refinement of an initial guess of Z (inverse square root of the overlap matrix S). The initial guess of Z is obtained beforehand by using either an approximate divide-and-conquer technique or dynamical methods, propagated within an extended Lagrangian dynamics from previous MD time steps. With this formulation, we achieve long-term stability and energy conservation even under the incomplete, approximate, iterative refinement of Z. Linear-scaling performance is obtained using numerically thresholded sparse matrix algebra based on the ELLPACK-R sparse matrix data format, which also enables efficient shared-memory parallelization. As we show in this article using self-consistent density-functional-based tight-binding MD, our approach is faster than conventional methods based on the diagonalization of overlap matrix S for systems as small as a few hundred atoms, substantially accelerating quantum-based simulations even for molecular structures of intermediate size. For a 4158-atom water-solvated polyalanine system, we find an average speedup factor of 122 for the computation of Z in each MD step.

  8. Extracting protein dynamics information from overlapped NMR signals using relaxation dispersion difference NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konuma, Tsuyoshi [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Structural and Chemical Biology (United States); Harada, Erisa [Suntory Foundation for Life Sciences, Bioorganic Research Institute (Japan); Sugase, Kenji, E-mail: sugase@sunbor.or.jp, E-mail: sugase@moleng.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kyoto University, Department of Molecular Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Protein dynamics plays important roles in many biological events, such as ligand binding and enzyme reactions. NMR is mostly used for investigating such protein dynamics in a site-specific manner. Recently, NMR has been actively applied to large proteins and intrinsically disordered proteins, which are attractive research targets. However, signal overlap, which is often observed for such proteins, hampers accurate analysis of NMR data. In this study, we have developed a new methodology called relaxation dispersion difference that can extract conformational exchange parameters from overlapped NMR signals measured using relaxation dispersion spectroscopy. In relaxation dispersion measurements, the signal intensities of fluctuating residues vary according to the Carr-Purcell-Meiboon-Gill pulsing interval, whereas those of non-fluctuating residues are constant. Therefore, subtraction of each relaxation dispersion spectrum from that with the highest signal intensities, measured at the shortest pulsing interval, leaves only the signals of the fluctuating residues. This is the principle of the relaxation dispersion difference method. This new method enabled us to extract exchange parameters from overlapped signals of heme oxygenase-1, which is a relatively large protein. The results indicate that the structural flexibility of a kink in the heme-binding site is important for efficient heme binding. Relaxation dispersion difference requires neither selectively labeled samples nor modification of pulse programs; thus it will have wide applications in protein dynamics analysis.

  9. Neuroanatomic overlap between intelligence and cognitive factors: morphometry methods provide support for the key role of the frontal lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Roberto; Burgaleta, Miguel; Román, Francisco J; Karama, Sherif; Alvarez-Linera, Juan; Abad, Francisco J; Martínez, Kenia; Quiroga, Ma Ángeles; Haier, Richard J

    2013-05-15

    Evidence from neuroimaging studies suggests that intelligence differences may be supported by a parieto-frontal network. Research shows that this network is also relevant for cognitive functions such as working memory and attention. However, previous studies have not explicitly analyzed the commonality of brain areas between a broad array of intelligence factors and cognitive functions tested in the same sample. Here fluid, crystallized, and spatial intelligence, along with working memory, executive updating, attention, and processing speed were each measured by three diverse tests or tasks. These twenty-one measures were completed by a group of one hundred and four healthy young adults. Three cortical measures (cortical gray matter volume, cortical surface area, and cortical thickness) were regressed against psychological latent scores obtained from a confirmatory factor analysis for removing test and task specific variance. For cortical gray matter volume and cortical surface area, the main overlapping clusters were observed in the middle frontal gyrus and involved fluid intelligence and working memory. Crystallized intelligence showed an overlapping cluster with fluid intelligence and working memory in the middle frontal gyrus. The inferior frontal gyrus showed overlap for crystallized intelligence, spatial intelligence, attention, and processing speed. The fusiform gyrus in temporal cortex showed overlap for spatial intelligence and attention. Parietal and occipital areas did not show any overlap across intelligence and cognitive factors. Taken together, these findings underscore that structural features of gray matter in the frontal lobes support those aspects of intelligence related to basic cognitive processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatial Overlap of Grey Seals and Fisheries in Irish Waters, Some New Insights Using Telemetry Technology and VMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cronin

    Full Text Available Seals and humans often target the same food resource, leading to competition. This is of mounting concern with fish stocks in global decline. Grey seals were tracked from southeast Ireland, an area of mixed demersal and pelagic fisheries, and overlap with fisheries on the Celtic Shelf and Irish Sea was assessed. Overall, there was low overlap between the tagged seals and fisheries. However, when we separate active (e.g. trawls and passive gear (e.g. nets, lines fisheries, a different picture emerged. Overlap with active fisheries was no different from that expected under a random distribution, but overlap with passive fisheries was significantly higher. This suggests that grey seals may be targeting the same areas as passive fisheries and/or specifically targeting passive gear. There was variation in foraging areas between individual seals suggesting habitat partitioning to reduce intra-specific competition or potential individual specialisation in foraging behaviour. Our findings support other recent assertions that seal/fisheries interactions in Irish waters are an issue in inshore passive fisheries, most likely at the operational and individual level. This suggests that seal population management measures would be unjustifiable, and mitigation is best focused on minimizing interactions at nets.

  11. Overlap in Eating Disorders and Obesity in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, Diana; McCullough, Mary Beth

    2015-10-01

    While eating disorders and obesity have traditionally been conceptualized as separate conditions, recent research suggests important overlap in several areas including etiology, comorbidity, risk factors, and prevention approaches. Examining the commonality among these conditions is particularly important as adolescents who present with both eating disorder symptomology and obesity demonstrate poorer outcomes within weight control treatments and are at greater risk for future development of full threshold eating disorders and additional weight gain. The purpose of this paper is to review the research examining the overlap in prevalence rates for eating disorders and obesity in adolescents, as well as shared etiology, risk factors, and psychiatric and medical comorbidities. Current preventive and treatment approaches also will be discussed, while highlighting the need for more integrated assessment, prevention, and treatment efforts that focus on maladaptive eating and activity patterns shared by both eating disorders and obesity.

  12. From domain wall to overlap in 2+1d

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Hands

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The equivalence of domain wall and overlap fermion formulations is demonstrated for lattice gauge theories in 2+1 spacetime dimensions with parity-invariant mass terms. Even though the domain wall approach distinguishes propagation along a third direction with projectors 12(1±γ3, the truncated overlap operator obtained for finite wall separation Ls is invariant under interchange of γ3 and γ5. In the limit Ls→∞ the resulting Ginsparg–Wilson relations recover the expected U(2Nf global symmetry up to O(a corrections. Finally it is shown that finite-Ls corrections to bilinear condensates associated with dynamical mass generation are characterised by whether even powers of the symmetry-breaking mass are present; such terms are absent for antihermitian bilinears such as iψ¯γ3ψ, markedly improving the approach to the large-Ls limit.

  13. Overlapping coalition formation games in wireless communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tianyu; Saad, Walid; Han, Zhu

    2017-01-01

    This brief introduces overlapping coalition formation games (OCF games), a novel mathematical framework from cooperative game theory that can be used to model, design and analyze cooperative scenarios in future wireless communication networks. The concepts of OCF games are explained, and several algorithmic aspects are studied. In addition, several major application scenarios are discussed. These applications are drawn from a variety of fields that include radio resource allocation in dense wireless networks, cooperative spectrum sensing for cognitive radio networks, and resource management for crowd sourcing. For each application, the use of OCF games is discussed in detail in order to show how this framework can be used to solve relevant wireless networking problems. Overlapping Coalition Formation Games in Wireless Communication Networks provides researchers, students and practitioners with a concise overview of existing works in this emerging area, exploring the relevant fundamental theories, key techniqu...

  14. Phenotype of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Chin Kook

    2015-07-01

    Many patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have overlapping characteristics of both diseases. By spirometric definition, patients with both fixed airflow obstruction (AO) and bronchodilator reversibility or fixed AO and bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be considered to have asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, patients regarded to have ACOS by spirometric criteria alone are heterogeneous and can be classified by phenotype. Eosinophilic inflammation, a history of allergic disease, and smoke exposure are important components in the classification of ACOS. Each phenotype has a different underlying pathophysiology, set of characteristics, and prognosis. Medical treatment for ACOS should be tailored according to phenotype. A narrower definition of ACOS that includes both spirometric and clinical criteria is needed.

  15. Experimental characterization of Raman overlaps between mode-groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Nicolai; Koefoed, Jacob Gade; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk

    2016-01-01

    Mode-division multiplexing has the potential to further increase data transmission capacity through optical fibers. In addition, distributed Raman amplification is a promising candidate for multi-mode signal amplification due to its desirable noise properties and the possibility of mode......-equalized gain. In this paper, we present an experimental characterization of the intermodal Raman intensity overlaps of a few-mode fiber using backward-pumped Raman amplification. By varying the input pump power and the degree of higher order mode-excitation for the pump and the signal in a 10km long two-mode...... fiber, we are able to characterize all intermodal Raman intensity overlaps. Using these results, we perform a Raman amplification measurement and demonstrate a mode-differential gain of only 0.25dB per 10dB overall gain. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest mode differential gain achieved...

  16. Phenotype of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Many patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have overlapping characteristics of both diseases. By spirometric definition, patients with both fixed airflow obstruction (AO) and bronchodilator reversibility or fixed AO and bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be considered to have asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, patients regarded to have ACOS by spirometric criteria alone are heterogeneous and can be classified by phenotype. Eosinophilic inflammation, a history of allergic disease, and smoke exposure are important components in the classification of ACOS. Each phenotype has a different underlying pathophysiology, set of characteristics, and prognosis. Medical treatment for ACOS should be tailored according to phenotype. A narrower definition of ACOS that includes both spirometric and clinical criteria is needed. PMID:26161009

  17. Asthma COPD overlap syndrome: Nothing new under the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis The debate about whether asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are distinct clinical syndromes is not new, but there has been a heightened interest in recent years in understanding the group of individuals with obstructive lung disease who appear to have elements of both asthma and COPD. These patients are of interest because of recent studies which have demonstrated increased risk for respiratory events and exacerbations in this group. We describe the clinical characteristics of this subtype of disease and suggest 4 working definitions of individuals who would fall into the asthma/COPD overlap category. These definitions shed light on the clinical and inflammatory characteristics surrounding the group with overlap syndrome in order to better understand the biologic mechanisms for their worsened outcomes. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these subtypes will hopefully lead into a better understanding of therapeutic strategies that can target specific pathobiologic pathways. PMID:27401623

  18. Sleep-Disordered Breathing and COPD: The Overlap Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Robert L; Malhotra, Atul

    2012-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (mainly obstructive sleep apnea [OSA]) and COPD are among the most common pulmonary diseases, so a great number of patients have both disorders; this “overlap syndrome” causes more severe nocturnal hypoxemia than either disease alone. This common combination of OSA and COPD has important implications for diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. Specifically, patients with COPD and OSA have a substantially greater risk of morbidity and mortality, compared to those with either COPD or OSA alone. Only now are the interactions between these 2 systemic diseases being determined and appreciated. Many questions remain, however, with regard to disease definition, prognosis, and optimal treatment. Treatment currently consists of continuous positive airway pressure, and oxygen as needed. Noninvasive ventilation may be helpful in overlap syndrome patients, but this has not yet been well studied. PMID:20875160

  19. 'Pharyngocise': Randomized Controlled Trial of Preventative Exercises to Maintain Muscle Structure and Swallowing Function During Head-and-Neck Chemoradiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnaby-Mann, Giselle, E-mail: gmann@phhp.ufl.edu [Department of Behavioral Science and Community Health, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Crary, Michael A. [Department of Speech Language and Hearing Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Schmalfuss, Ilona [Department of Radiology, North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Health System, Gainesville, FL (Georgia); Amdur, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia after chemoradiotherapy is common. The present randomized clinical trial studied the effectiveness of preventative behavioral intervention for dysphagia compared with the 'usual care.' Methods and Materials: A total of 58 head-and-neck cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy were randomly assigned to usual care, sham swallowing intervention, or active swallowing exercises (pharyngocise). The intervention arms were treated daily during chemoradiotherapy. The primary outcome measure was muscle size and composition (determined by T{sub 2}-weighted magnetic resonance imaging). The secondary outcomes included functional swallowing ability, dietary intake, chemosensory function, salivation, nutritional status, and the occurrence of dysphagia-related complications. Results: The swallowing musculature (genioglossus, hyoglossuss, and mylohyoid) demonstrated less structural deterioration in the active treatment arm. The functional swallowing, mouth opening, chemosensory acuity, and salivation rate deteriorated less in the pharyngocise group. Conclusion: Patients completing a program of swallowing exercises during cancer treatment demonstrated superior muscle maintenance and functional swallowing ability.

  20. Clinical characteristics of scleroderma overlap syndromes: comparisons with pure scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foocharoen, Chingching; Netwijitpan, Sittichai; Mahakkanukrauh, Ajanee; Suwannaroj, Siraphop; Nanagara, Ratanavadee

    2016-09-01

    Scleroderma with characteristics of other connective tissue diseases is called scleroderma overlap syndrome (SOV); the clinical features of which have yet to be investigated among Thai patients. To determine the clinical differences between pure scleroderma and SOV. A historical cohort study was conducted among patients with pure scleroderma versus those with SOV. Subjects were over 18 years of age and followed up at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University, Thailand, between January 2006 and December 2011. Four hundred and three medical records were included (276 female vs. 127 male). SOV was found in 68 cases (16.9%): (i) scleroderma-polymyositis overlap (SOV-PM), the most common type of SOV (48 cases; 70.6%); (ii) scleroderma-systemic lupus erythematosus overlap (11 cases; 16.2%); and (iii) scleroderma-rheumatoid arthritis overlap (nine cases; 13.2%). Mean age at onset of non-systemic sclerosis symptoms was 46.9 ± 11.8 years (range, 19.8-74.3). Characteristically, sufferers of SOV as against pure scleroderma were younger, had less frequent anti-topoisomerase I (ATA) and needed moderate- to high-dose steroid and immunosuppressant therapy during follow-up. SOV-PM presented the clinical features of scleroderma at onset and during follow-up looks like pure scleroderma having vasculopathy, severity of skin tightness, and gastrointestinal, cardiopulmonary and renal involvement. Anti-Ro52 was the most common serology among sufferers of SOV (31.6%). ATA was associated with pure scleroderma patients (P = 0.047). SOV rather than pure scleroderma presented in younger Thai scleroderma patients and SOV-PM was the most common subtype and its clinical features were similar to those of pure scleroderma. ATA was strongly associated with the latter. © 2016 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF RELIABILITY OF OVERLAPPINGS IN THE COURSE OF THE WAREHOUSE RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolganov Andrey Ivanovich

    2012-07-01

    As a result of a specialized analysis, the authors have identified that the probability of compliance of the steel beams with the requirements of the first group of limit states, with account for the identified damages, is equal to 5σ. The analysis of the structure of the overlapping and the columns demonstrates that their bearing capacity and rigidity are sufficient to resist the principal combinations of load, including the loads that come from the two allied loaded loaders of Doosan series (48B AC that represent a short term load.

  2. Segmentation, Inference and Classification of Partially Overlapping Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Chiwoo Park,

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a method that enables automated morphology analysis of partially overlapping nanoparticles in electron micrographs. In the undertaking of morphology analysis, three tasks appear necessary: separate individual particles from an agglomerate of overlapping nano-objects; infer the particle\\'s missing contours; and ultimately, classify the particles by shape based on their complete contours. Our specific method adopts a two-stage approach: the first stage executes the task of particle separation, and the second stage conducts simultaneously the tasks of contour inference and shape classification. For the first stage, a modified ultimate erosion process is developed for decomposing a mixture of particles into markers, and then, an edge-to-marker association method is proposed to identify the set of evidences that eventually delineate individual objects. We also provided theoretical justification regarding the separation capability of the first stage. In the second stage, the set of evidences become inputs to a Gaussian mixture model on B-splines, the solution of which leads to the joint learning of the missing contour and the particle shape. Using twelve real electron micrographs of overlapping nanoparticles, we compare the proposed method with seven state-of-the-art methods. The results show the superiority of the proposed method in terms of particle recognition rate.

  3. On the Measurement of Niche Breadth and Overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Robert K; Futuyma, Douglas J

    1971-07-01

    Measures of niche breadth and overlap that depend on the distribution of individual among resource states (ecological categories) should be independent of the relative abundance of the species and of the number of resource states considered. Such measures should also take into account the degree of distinctness of the resource states from the point of view of the organisms concerned. An ecoassay of the distinctness of resource states may well be easier and more meaningful than measurements of physical and chemical factors. We propose that the species composition of communities utilizing different resource states may be used to develop weighting factors with which each state may be weighted in proportion to its degree of distinctness. The weighting factors are used in the development of indices of niche breadth and overlap that correct for variation in the range and distinctness of resource states and that suffer less from human subjectivity than do the measures used to date. The use of such indices and the relationship of niche overlap to competition are discussed. © 1971 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakawah, Mohammad Obadah; Hawkins, Clare; Barbandi, Farouk

    2013-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are highly prevalent chronic diseases in the general population. Both are characterized by heterogeneous chronic airway inflammation and airway obstruction. In both conditions, chronic inflammation affects the whole respiratory tract, from central to peripheral airways, with different inflammatory cells recruited, different mediators produced, and thus differing responses to therapy. Airway obstruction is typically intermittent and reversible in asthma but is progressive and largely irreversible in COPD. However, there is a considerable pathologic and functional overlap between these 2 heterogeneous disorders, particularly among the elderly, who may have components of both diseases (asthma-COPD overlap syndrome). The definitions for asthma and COPD recommended by current guidelines are useful but limited because they do not illustrate the full spectrum of obstructive airway diseases that is encountered in clinical practice. Defining asthma and COPD as separate entities neglects a considerable proportion of patients with overlapping features and is largely based on expert opinion rather than on the best current evidence. The presence of different phenotypes or components of obstructive airway diseases, therefore, needs to be addressed to individualize and optimize treatment to achieve the best effect with the fewest side effects for the patient. Although specific interventions vary by disease, the treatment goals of obstructive airway diseases are similar and driven primarily by the need to control symptoms, optimize health status, and prevent exacerbations.

  5. Overlap syndromes of autoimmune hepatitis: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Nájera, O; Velasco-Zamora, J A; Torre, A

    2015-01-01

    Some patients with autoimmune liver disease have characteristics of cholestasis, as well as of autoimmune hepatitis. Despite the fact that this is a relatively frequent clinical condition seen in referral centers for liver diseases, there is little evidence as regards the clinical management of these syndromes due to their low prevalence and the lack of standardized definitions and diagnostic criteria. This is relevant, given that published studies report that there is a lower therapeutic response and poorer outcome in patients with overlap syndrome than in those presenting solely with autoimmune hepatitis. Whether overlap syndromes are distinct entities or the presence of 2 concurrent diseases is still a subject of debate. They should be suspected in autoimmune hepatitis patients that present with signs of cholestasis, as it is known that overlap behavior tends to be more aggressive, with higher rates of cirrhosis and the need for liver transplantation. Treatment response is also poorer and should be directed at the predominant component. Standardized definitions are necessary so that these syndromes can be studied in controlled clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Overlapping Cognitive Patterns in Schizophrenia and Methamphetamine Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Ruth; Ravizza, Susan; Fassbender, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine whether overlapping cognitive deficits exist in currently drug-abstinent chronic methamphetamine (MA) abusers and schizophrenia (SZ) patients. Background Both SZ and chronic MA abuse are associated with frontostriatal disruption as well as deficits in cognitive control such as selective attention. To identify overlapping cognitive profiles, we compared performance of the two groups on the Stroop attention task. Method Data were analyzed from 69 MA abusers who had been MA-abstinent for differing periods of time and from 23 SZ patients and 38 non-substance-abusing controls. Results The MA abusers in early abstinence displayed more Stroop interference than the SZ patients (p= 0.004), long-term abstinent MA abusers (p= 0.009), and controls (p = 0.002). In the MA abusers, the magnitude of Stroop interference correlated positively with longer drug use [p = 0.01] and negatively with longer drug abstinence [p= 0.04]. No correlations were found between psychotic symptoms and task performance. Conclusions On this task of attentional selection, only the MA abusers in early stages of abstinence showed performance deficits compared to controls. More research is needed to further elucidate overlapping patterns between MA abuse and SZ. PMID:22123586

  7. Adaptive k-means algorithm for overlapped graph clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Orgaz, Gema; Menéndez, Héctor D; Camacho, David

    2012-10-01

    The graph clustering problem has become highly relevant due to the growing interest of several research communities in social networks and their possible applications. Overlapped graph clustering algorithms try to find subsets of nodes that can belong to different clusters. In social network-based applications it is quite usual for a node of the network to belong to different groups, or communities, in the graph. Therefore, algorithms trying to discover, or analyze, the behavior of these networks needed to handle this feature, detecting and identifying the overlapped nodes. This paper shows a soft clustering approach based on a genetic algorithm where a new encoding is designed to achieve two main goals: first, the automatic adaptation of the number of communities that can be detected and second, the definition of several fitness functions that guide the searching process using some measures extracted from graph theory. Finally, our approach has been experimentally tested using the Eurovision contest dataset, a well-known social-based data network, to show how overlapped communities can be found using our method.

  8. The Evaluation of Diastolic Hypertention in Sleep Overlap Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Rezaeetalab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The overlap syndrome, consisting ofobstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS and chronic obstructvie pulmonary disease (COPD is a major problem in COPD patients. OSHAS corresponds to the likelihood of systemic hypertension.The present study was aimed to evaluate the association between apnea-hypopnea index and diastolic blood presssure (DBP in overlap  patients. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study involving overnight polysomnography after measurment of resting diastolic blood pressure (DBP in patients with overlap syndrome in Sleep Laboartory of Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran from October 2011 to December 2012. Participants were divided into four subgroups regarding to their Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI (AHI 30.Descriptive statistics included age, body mass index (BMI, OSA, Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI, DBP, and neck circumference. Results: Sixty participants ranged between from 46 to 82 years old were entered into this study. There was statistically significant difference in mean DBP among different AHI subgroups (80±0.50, 95±0.60, and 105±0.65, respectively (p

  9. STITCHER 2.0: primer design for overlapping PCR applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Damien M; Uriagereka-Herburger, Isabel; Bode, Katrin

    2017-03-30

    Overlapping polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a common technique used by researchers in very diverse fields that enables the user to 'stitch' individual pieces of DNA together. Previously, we have reported a web based tool called STITCHER that provides a platform for researchers to automate the design of primers for overlapping PCR applications. Here we present STITCHER 2.0, which represents a substantial update to STITCHER. STITCHER 2.0 is a newly designed web tool that automates the design of primers for overlapping PCR. Unlike STITCHER, STITCHER 2.0 considers diverse algorithmic parameters, and returns multiple result files that include a facility for the user to draw their own primers as well as comprehensive visual guides to the user's input, output, and designed primers. These result files provide greater control and insight during experimental design and troubleshooting. STITCHER 2.0 is freely available to all users without signup or login requirements and can be accessed at the following webpage: www.ohalloranlab.net/STITCHER2.html.

  10. Securely measuring the overlap between private datasets with cryptosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamidass, S Joshua; Matlock, Matthew; Rozenblit, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Many scientific questions are best approached by sharing data--collected by different groups or across large collaborative networks--into a combined analysis. Unfortunately, some of the most interesting and powerful datasets--like health records, genetic data, and drug discovery data--cannot be freely shared because they contain sensitive information. In many situations, knowing if private datasets overlap determines if it is worthwhile to navigate the institutional, ethical, and legal barriers that govern access to sensitive, private data. We report the first method of publicly measuring the overlap between private datasets that is secure under a malicious model without relying on private protocols or message passing. This method uses a publicly shareable summary of a dataset's contents, its cryptoset, to estimate its overlap with other datasets. Cryptosets approach "information-theoretic" security, the strongest type of security possible in cryptography, which is not even crackable with infinite computing power. We empirically and theoretically assess both the accuracy of these estimates and the security of the approach, demonstrating that cryptosets are informative, with a stable accuracy, and secure.

  11. Force limited random vibration testing: the computation of the semi-empirical constant $C(2) $ C 2 for a real test article and unknown supporting structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijker, J. J.; Ellenbroek, M. H. M.; Boer, A. de

    2015-09-01

    To prevent over-testing of the test-item during random vibration testing Scharton proposed and discussed the force limited random vibration testing (FLVT) in a number of publications. Besides the random vibration specification, the total mass and the turn-over frequency of the test article (load), C^2 is a very important parameter for FLVT. A number of computational methods to estimate C^2 are described in the literature, i.e. the simple and the complex two degree of freedom system, STDFS and CTDFS, respectively. The motivation of this work is to evaluate the method for the computation of a realistic value of C^2 to perform a representative random vibration test based on force limitation, when the description of the supporting structure (source) is more or less unknown. Marchand discussed the formal description of obtaining C^2, using the maximum PSD of the acceleration and maximum PSD of the force, both at the interface between test article and supporting structure. Stevens presented the coupled systems modal approach (CSMA), where simplified asparagus patch models (parallel-oscillator representation) of load and source are connected. The asparagus patch model consists of modal effective masses and spring stiffnesses associated with the natural frequencies. When the random acceleration vibration specification is given the CSMA method is suitable to compute the value of the parameter C^2. When no mathematical model of the source can be made available, estimations of the value C^2 can be find in literature. In this paper a probabilistic mathematical representation of the unknown source is proposed, such that the asparagus patch model of the source can be approximated. The chosen probabilistic design parameters have a uniform distribution. The computation of the value C^2 can be done in conjunction with the CSMA method, knowing the apparent mass of the load and the random acceleration specification at the interface between load and source, respectively. Data of two

  12. Objective structured assessment of technical skills evaluation of theoretical compared with hands-on training of shoulder dystocia management: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerkle, Bernd; Pueth, Julia; Hefler, Lukas A; Tempfer-Bentz, Eva-Katrin; Tempfer, Clemens B

    2012-10-01

    To compare the skills of performing a shoulder dystocia management algorithm after hands-on training compared with demonstration. We randomized medical students to a 30-minute hands-on (group 1) and a 30-minute demonstration (group 2) training session teaching a standardized shoulder dystocia management scheme on a pelvic training model. Participants were tested with a 22-item Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills scoring system after training and 72 hours thereafter. Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills scores were the primary outcome. Performance time, self-assessment, confidence, and global rating scale were the secondary outcomes. Statistics were performed using Mann-Whitney U test, χ test, and multiple linear regression analysis. Two hundred three participants were randomized. Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills scores were significantly higher in group 1 (n=103) compared with group 2 (n=100) (17.95±3.14 compared with 15.67±3.18, respectively; PTechnical Skills scores were still significantly higher in group 1 (n=67) compared with group 2 (n=60) (18.17±2.76 compared with 14.98±3.03, respectively; PTechnical Skills scores. Hands-on training helps to achieve a significant improvement of shoulder dystocia management on a pelvic training model. www.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01618565. I.

  13. Structured pharmacist-led intervention programme to improve medication adherence in COPD patients: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulsalim, Suhaj; Unnikrishnan, Mazhuvancherry Kesavan; Manu, Mohan K; Alrasheedy, Alian A; Godman, Brian; Morisky, Donald E

    2017-10-26

    COPD is characterised by a progressive airflow limitation in the lungs. However, adherence to therapy improves management of symptoms and delays disease progression. Therefore, patients' knowledge and awareness about the disease are important. Hence, pharmacist-led educational interventions could achieve this and improve medication adherence. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a clinical pharmacist-led intervention on medication adherence in COPD patients in a teaching hospital. In an open-labelled randomized controlled study at Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Manipal, India, patients were randomly assigned to two groups (Intervention group [IG] and Control group [CG]), and were matched for socio-demographics and clinical characteristics. Medication adherence was assessed by the Morisky, Green and Levine Medication Adherence Questionnaire (MAQ). In IG, pharmacist intervention placed emphasis on (1) compliance, (2) smoking cessation, (3) exercise, (4) inhaler use and (5) need for timely follow up. The MAQ assessment was repeated at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Data were analysed statistically by SPSS version 20.0. Out of 328 patients screened during March 2012 to June 2013, 260 were recruited. Of these, 206 completed the follow-up (98 in CG and 104 in IG). Medication adherence improved significantly after pharmacist intervention in IG at all follow-up time points (P adherence in COPD patients, but was effectively reduced by the intervention. This is the first randomized controlled trial in India that demonstrates the pivotal role of pharmacist-led educational intervention in improving medication adherence in COPD. Involving non-physician health professionals could be the best strategy, for resource-poor nations like India, because the current physician-centric healthcare has no emphasis on patient education and counselling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess Pain and Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based (MRI-Based) Structural Spine Changes in Low Back Pain Patients After Yoga Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Telles, Shirley; Bhardwaj, Abhishek K.; Gupta, Ram K.; Sharma, Sachin K.; Monro, Robin; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study aimed at determining whether 12 weeks of yoga practice in patients with chronic LBP and MRI-based degenerative changes would result in differences in: (i) self-reported pain, anxiety, and spinal flexibility; and (ii) the structure of the discs or vertebrae. Material/Methods Sixty-two persons with MRI-proven degenerative intervertebral discs (group mean ?S.D., 36.2?6.4 years; 30 females) were randomly assigned to yoga and control groups. However, testing was conduc...

  15. A novel approach for efficient extrication of overlapping chromosomes in automated karyotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munot, Mousami V; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Joshi, Madhuri

    2013-12-01

    Since the introduction of the automated karyotyping systems, segmentation and classification of touching and overlapping chromosomes in the metaphase images are major challenges. The earlier reported techniques for disentangling the chromosome overlaps have limited success and use only color information in case of multispectral imaging. Most of them are restricted to separation of single overlap of two chromosomes. This paper introduces a novel algorithm to extricate overlapping chromosomes in a metaphase image. The proposed technique uses Delaunay triangulation to automatically identify the number of overlaps in a cluster followed by the detection of the appropriate cut-points. The banding information on the overlapped region further resolves the set of overlapping chromosomes with the identified cut-points. The proposed algorithm has been tested with four data sets of 60 overlapping cases, obtained from publically available databases and private genetic labs. The experimental results provide an overall accuracy of 75–100 % for resolving the cluster of 1–6 overlaps.

  16. Overlapping mechanisms of stress-induced relapse to opioid use disorder and chronic pain: Clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udi E Ghitza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, a steeply growing number of persons with chronic non-cancer pain have been using opioid analgesics chronically to treat it, accompanied by a markedly increased prevalence of individuals with opioid-related misuse, opioid use disorders, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, admissions to drug treatment programs, and drug overdose deaths. This opioid misuse and overdose epidemic calls for well-designed randomized-controlled clinical trials into more skillful and appropriate pain management and for developing effective analgesics which have lower abuse liability and are protective against stress induced by chronic non-cancer pain. However, incomplete knowledge regarding effective approaches to treat various types of pain has been worsened by an under-appreciation of overlapping neurobiological mechanisms of stress, stress-induced relapse to opioid use, and chronic non-cancer pain in patients presenting for care for these conditions. This insufficient knowledge base has unfortunately encouraged common prescription of conveniently-available opioid pain-relieving drugs with abuse liability, as opposed to treating underlying problems using team-based multidisciplinary, patient-centered, collaborative-care approaches for addressing pain and co-occurring stress and risk for opioid use disorder. This paper reviews recent neurobiological findings regarding overlapping mechanisms of stress-induced relapse to opioid misuse and chronic non-cancer pain, and then discusses these in the context of key outstanding evidence gaps and clinical-treatment research directions which may be pursued to fill these gaps. Such research directions, if conducted through well-designed randomized controlled trials, may substantively inform clinical practice in general medical settings on how to effectively care for patients presenting with pain-related distress and these common co-occurring conditions.

  17. Overlapping Leaves Covering Flowers in the Alpine Species Eriophyton wallichii (Lamiaceae: Key Driving Factors and Their Potential Impact on Pollination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Li Peng

    Full Text Available Extrafloral structures are supposed to have evolved to protect flowers from harsh physical environments but might have effects on pollination. Overlapping leaves cover flowers in Eriophyton wallichii, an alpine perennial endemic to the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains. In previous study, it has showed that these extrafloral leaves can protect interior flowers from temperature fluctuations caused by drastic solar radiation fluctuations, but these leaves may also protect interior flowers from rain wash and UVB damage, and we do not know which one is the main function. In this study, we investigated whether rain and UVB protection are the main functions of overlapping leaves covering flowers and their potential impact on pollination. We first measured the intensities of UVB radiation in open air, beneath leaves and corollas, and then examined pollen susceptibility to different intensities of UVB and rain in the laboratory to estimate whether corollas per se protect interior pollen from UVB and rain damage. We also carried out pollination treatments and observed pollinator visitation of flowers with and without leaves in the field to assess whether the overlapping leaves covering flowers impair pollinator attraction. Our results showed that (1 water and strong UVB significantly decreased pollen germinability, but corollas per se could protect pollen from UVB and rain damage; (2 no autonomous self-pollination and apomixis occurred, and pollinators were essential for the reproduction of E. wallichii; however, flower coverage by overlapping leaves did not limit pollination. We suggested that rain and UVB protection was not the main function of overlapping leaves covered flowers, given that this protection can be provided by corollas per se. Alternatively, this extrafloral structure in E. wallichii may have evolved in response to extreme high temperatures associated with the strong solar radiation fluctuations. This indicates that, even in alpine plants

  18. Overlapping Leaves Covering Flowers in the Alpine Species Eriophyton wallichii (Lamiaceae): Key Driving Factors and Their Potential Impact on Pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, De-Li; Song, Bo; Yang, Yang; Niu, Yang; Sun, Hang

    2016-01-01

    Extrafloral structures are supposed to have evolved to protect flowers from harsh physical environments but might have effects on pollination. Overlapping leaves cover flowers in Eriophyton wallichii, an alpine perennial endemic to the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains. In previous study, it has showed that these extrafloral leaves can protect interior flowers from temperature fluctuations caused by drastic solar radiation fluctuations, but these leaves may also protect interior flowers from rain wash and UVB damage, and we do not know which one is the main function. In this study, we investigated whether rain and UVB protection are the main functions of overlapping leaves covering flowers and their potential impact on pollination. We first measured the intensities of UVB radiation in open air, beneath leaves and corollas, and then examined pollen susceptibility to different intensities of UVB and rain in the laboratory to estimate whether corollas per se protect interior pollen from UVB and rain damage. We also carried out pollination treatments and observed pollinator visitation of flowers with and without leaves in the field to assess whether the overlapping leaves covering flowers impair pollinator attraction. Our results showed that (1) water and strong UVB significantly decreased pollen germinability, but corollas per se could protect pollen from UVB and rain damage; (2) no autonomous self-pollination and apomixis occurred, and pollinators were essential for the reproduction of E. wallichii; however, flower coverage by overlapping leaves did not limit pollination. We suggested that rain and UVB protection was not the main function of overlapping leaves covered flowers, given that this protection can be provided by corollas per se. Alternatively, this extrafloral structure in E. wallichii may have evolved in response to extreme high temperatures associated with the strong solar radiation fluctuations. This indicates that, even in alpine plants, extreme high

  19. Snoezelen, structured reminiscence therapy and 10-minutes activation in long term care residents with dementia (WISDE): study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Almuth; Sadowski, Katharina; Beyrodt, Melanie; Hanns, Stephanie; Zimmermann, Markus; Langer, Gero; Becker, Christiane; Lautenschläger, Christine; Behrens, Johann

    2010-01-31

    People with dementia are often inapproachable due to symptoms of their illness. Therefore nurses should establish relationships with dementia patients via their remaining resources and facilitate communication. In order to achieve this, different targeted non-pharmacological interventions are recommended and practiced. However there is no sufficient evidence about the efficacy of most of these interventions. A number of publications highlight the urgent need for methodological sound studies so that more robust conclusions may be drawn. The trial is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial with 20 nursing homes in Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt (Germany) as the units of randomization. Nursing homes will be randomly allocated into 4 study groups consisting of 5 clusters and 90 residents: snoezelen, structured reminiscence therapy, 10-minutes activation or unstructured verbal communication (control group). The purpose is to determine whether the interventions are effective to reduce apathy in long-term care residents with dementia (N = 360) as the main outcome measure. Assessments will be done at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months after beginning of the interventions. This trial will particularly contribute to the evidence on efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions in dementia care. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00653731.

  20. Snoezelen, structured reminiscence therapy and 10-minutes activation in long term care residents with dementia (WISDE: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Christiane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with dementia are often inapproachable due to symptoms of their illness. Therefore nurses should establish relationships with dementia patients via their remaining resources and facilitate communication. In order to achieve this, different targeted non-pharmacological interventions are recommended and practiced. However there is no sufficient evidence about the efficacy of most of these interventions. A number of publications highlight the urgent need for methodological sound studies so that more robust conclusions may be drawn. Methods/Design The trial is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial with 20 nursing homes in Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt (Germany as the units of randomization. Nursing homes will be randomly allocated into 4 study groups consisting of 5 clusters and 90 residents: snoezelen, structured reminiscence therapy, 10-minutes activation or unstructured verbal communication (control group. The purpose is to determine whether the interventions are effective to reduce apathy in long-term care residents with dementia (N = 360 as the main outcome measure. Assessments will be done at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months after beginning of the interventions. Discussion This trial will particularly contribute to the evidence on efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions in dementia care. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00653731

  1. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  2. Differences in overlapping meta-analyses of vitamin D supplements and falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolland, Mark J; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R

    2014-11-01

    Overlapping meta-analyses on the same topic are common and often report discordant results. An Endocrine Society (ES) meta-analysis reported that vitamin D with calcium reduced the risk of falls, whereas vitamin D monotherapy had no effect. Despite meta-analyzing an overlapping set of trials, we concluded that vitamin D with or without calcium had no effect on falls. The objective of the study was to determine the reasons for the different conclusions from the two meta-analyses. We extracted raw data from the 25 randomized controlled trials included in the ES meta-analysis, calculated the treatment effect for each trial, compared them with the published ES meta-analysis, and determined the reason for any differences. Of the 25 trials, there were differences in 14 results (56%) between the two meta-analyses. In the ES meta-analysis, data were used from a subset of falls or participants (four trials), from trial completers (three trials), or were imputed from fracture data (one trial). Other differences resulted from use of adjusted results from original papers (two trials), differences in incorporating data from multiarm and factorial studies (three trials), and inconsistent group numbers reported in original papers (two trials). In a reanalysis of the ES meta-analysis using unadjusted analyses and all randomized participants, there was a marginal effect of vitamin D with or without calcium on falls [relative risk (RR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90-1.00], with the subgroup analysis showing no effect of vitamin D monotherapy (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.92-1.08) or vitamin D with calcium vs the placebo/controls (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.88-1.02), but a modest effect of vitamin D with calcium vs calcium (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.76-0.92) was shown. Methodological differences in utilizing data from the same trials directly led to substantially different conclusions between meta-analyses about the efficacy of vitamin D supplements on falls. More detailed reporting of meta-analyses is

  3. A mathematical analysis of the effects of Hebbian learning rules on the dynamics and structure of discrete-time random recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri, Benoît; Berry, Hugues; Cessac, Bruno; Delord, Bruno; Quoy, Mathias

    2008-12-01

    We present a mathematical analysis of the effects of Hebbian learning in random recurrent neural networks, with a generic Hebbian learning rule, including passive forgetting and different timescales, for neuronal activity and learning dynamics. Previous numerical work has reported that Hebbian learning drives the system from chaos to a steady state through a sequence of bifurcations. Here, we interpret these results mathematically and show that these effects, involving a complex coupling between neuronal dynamics and synaptic graph structure, can be analyzed using Jacobian matrices, which introduce both a structural and a dynamical point of view on neural network evolution. Furthermore, we show that sensitivity to a learned pattern is maximal when the largest Lyapunov exponent is close to 0. We discuss how neural networks may take advantage of this regime of high functional interest.

  4. Creative music therapy to promote brain structure, function, and neurobehavioral outcomes in preterm infants: a randomized controlled pilot trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslbeck, Friederike Barbara; Bucher, Hans-Ulrich; Bassler, Dirk; Hagmann, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with increased risk of neurological impairment and deficits in cognition, motor function, and behavioral problems. Limited studies indicate that multi-sensory experiences support brain development in preterm infants. Music appears to promote neurobiological processes and neuronal learning in the human brain. Creative music therapy (CMT) is an individualized, interactive therapeutic approach based on the theory and methods of Nordoff and Robbins. CMT may promote brain development in preterm infants via concurrent interaction and meaningful auditory stimulation. We hypothesize that preterm infants who receive creative music therapy during neonatal intensive care admission will have developmental benefits short- and long-term brain function. A prospective, randomized controlled single-center pilot trial involving 60 clinically stable preterm infants under 32 weeks of gestational age is conducted in preparation for a multi-center trial. Thirty infants each are randomized to either standard neonatal intensive care or standard care with CMT. Music therapy intervention is approximately 20 min in duration three times per week. A trained music therapist sings for the infants in lullaby style, individually entrained and adjusted to the infant's rhythm and affect. Primary objectives of this study are feasibility of protocol implementation and investigating the potential mechanism of efficacy for this new intervention. To examine the effect of this new intervention, non-invasive, quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods at corrected age and standardized neurodevelopmental assessments using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development third edition at a corrected age of 24 months and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children at 5 years will be performed. All assessments will be performed and analyzed by blinded experts. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled clinical trial to systematically examine possible

  5. Manual therapy in joint and nerve structures combined with exercises in the treatment of recurrent ankle sprains: A randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Vergara-Vila, Marta; Val-Otero, Sandra; Rivera-Prieto, Cristina; Pecos-Martin, Daniel; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomás; Ferragut-Garcías, Alejandro; Romero-Franco, Natalia

    2016-12-01

    Recurrent ankle sprains often involve residual symptoms for which subjects often perform proprioceptive or/and strengthening exercises. However, the effectiveness of mobilization to influence important nerve structures due to its anatomical distribution like tibial and peroneal nerves is unclear. To analyze the effects of proprioceptive/strengthening exercises versus the same exercises and manual therapy including mobilizations to influence joint and nerve structures in the management of recurrent ankle sprains. A randomized single-blind controlled clinical trial. Fifty-six patients with recurrent ankle sprains and regular sports practice were randomly assigned to experimental or control group. The control group performed 4 weeks of proprioceptive/strengthening exercises; the experimental group performed 4 weeks of the same exercises combined with manual therapy (mobilizations to influence joint and nerve structures). Pain, self-reported functional ankle instability, pressure pain threshold (PPT), ankle muscle strength, and active range of motion (ROM) were evaluated in the ankle joint before, just after and one month after the interventions. The within-group differences revealed improvements in all of the variables in both groups throughout the time. Between-group differences revealed that the experimental group exhibited lower pain levels and self-reported functional ankle instability and higher PPT, ankle muscle strength and ROM values compared to the control group immediately after the interventions and one month later. A protocol involving proprioceptive and strengthening exercises and manual therapy (mobilizations to influence joint and nerve structures) resulted in greater improvements in pain, self-reported functional joint stability, strength and ROM compared to exercises alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural changes and conductance thresholds in metal-free intrinsic SiO{sub x} resistive random access memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehonic, Adnan, E-mail: a.mehonic@ee.ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: t.kenyon@ucl.ac.uk; Buckwell, Mark; Montesi, Luca; Garnett, Leon; Hudziak, Stephen; Kenyon, Anthony J., E-mail: a.mehonic@ee.ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: t.kenyon@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, UCL, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Fearn, Sarah; Chater, Richard; McPhail, David [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-28

    We present an investigation of structural changes in silicon-rich silicon oxide metal-insulator-metal resistive RAM devices. The observed unipolar switching, which is intrinsic to the bulk oxide material and does not involve movement of metal ions, correlates with changes in the structure of the oxide. We use atomic force microscopy, conductive atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy to examine the structural changes occurring as a result of switching. We confirm that protrusions formed at the surface of samples during switching are bubbles, which are likely to be related to the outdiffusion of oxygen. This supports existing models for valence-change based resistive switching in oxides. In addition, we describe parallel linear and nonlinear conduction pathways and suggest that the conductance quantum, G{sub 0}, is a natural boundary between the high and low resistance states of our devices.

  7. Comparison of structured and unstructured physical activity training on predicted VO2max and heart rate variability in adolescents - a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Radhakrishnan, Krishnakumar; Rajendran, Rajathi; Ravindran, Balasubramanian Sulur; Arunachalam, Vinayathan

    2017-05-01

    Physical inactivity contributes to many health issues. The WHO-recommended physical activity for adolescents encompasses aerobic, resistance, and bone strengthening exercises aimed at achieving health-related physical fitness. Heart rate variability (HRV) and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) are considered as noninvasive measures of cardiovascular health. The objective of this study is to compare the effect of structured and unstructured physical training on maximal aerobic capacity and HRV among adolescents. We designed a single blinded, parallel, randomized active-controlled trial (Registration No. CTRI/2013/08/003897) to compare the physiological effects of 6 months of globally recommended structured physical activity (SPA), with that of unstructured physical activity (USPA) in healthy school-going adolescents. We recruited 439 healthy student volunteers (boys: 250, girls: 189) in the age group of 12-17 years. Randomization across the groups was done using age and gender stratified randomization method, and the participants were divided into two groups: SPA (n=219, boys: 117, girls: 102) and USPA (n=220, boys: 119, girls: 101). Depending on their training status and gender the participants in both SPA and USPA groups were further subdivided into the following four sub-groups: SPA athlete boys (n=22) and girls (n=17), SPA nonathlete boys (n=95) and girls (n=85), USPA athlete boys (n=23) and girls (n=17), and USPA nonathlete boys (n=96) and girls (n=84). We recorded HRV, body fat%, and VO2 max using Rockport Walk Fitness test before and after the intervention. Maximum aerobic capacity and heart rate variability increased significantly while heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and body fat percentage decreased significantly after both SPA and USPA intervention. However, the improvement was more in SPA as compared to USPA. SPA is more beneficial for improving cardiorespiratory fitness, HRV, and reducing body fat percentage in terms of

  8. Treating acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder with cognitive behavioral therapy or structured writing therapy: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Emmerik, A.A.P.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Writing assignments have shown promising results in treating traumatic symptomatology. Yet no studies have compared their efficacy to the current treatment of choice, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The present study evaluated the efficacy of structured writing therapy (SWT) and CBT as

  9. Changes in Self-Schema Structure in Cognitive Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozois, David J. A.; Bieling, Peter J.; Patelis-Siotis, Irene; Hoar, Lori; Chudzik, Susan; McCabe, Katie; Westra, Henny A.

    2009-01-01

    Negative cognitive structure (particularly for interpersonal content) has been shown in some research to persist past a current episode of depression and potentially to be a stable marker of vulnerability for depression (D. J. A. Dozois, 2007; D. J. A. Dozois & K. S. Dobson, 2001a). Given that cognitive therapy (CT) is highly effective for…

  10. Headaches and myofascial temporomandibular disorders: overlapping entities, separate managements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, P C R; Costa, Y M; Gonçalves, D A; Svensson, P

    2016-09-01

    There are relevant clinical overlaps between some of the painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and headache conditions that may hamper the diagnostic process and treatment. A non-systematic search for studies on the relationship between TMD and headaches was carried out in the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase. Important pain mechanisms contributing to the close association and complex relationship between TMD and headache disorders are as follows: processes of peripheral and central sensitisation which take place in similar anatomical areas, the possible impairment of the descending modulatory pain pathways and the processes of referred pain. In addition, the clinical examination does not always provide distinguishing information to differentiate between headaches and TMD. So, considering the pathophysiology and the clinical presentation of some types of headache and myofascial TMD, such overlap can be considered not only a matter of comorbid relationship, but rather a question of disorders where the distinction lines are sometimes hard to identify. These concerns are certainly reflected in the current classification systems of both TMD and headache where the clinical consequences of diagnosis such as headache attributed to or associated with TMD are uncertain. There are several similarities in terms of therapeutic strategies used to manage myofascial TMD and headaches. Considering all these possible levels of interaction, we reinforce the recommendation for multidisciplinary approaches, by a team of oro-facial pain specialists and a neurologist (headache specialist), to attain the most precise differential diagnosis and initiate the best and most efficient treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effect of spatial spectrum overlap on Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulan Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM is a newly developed imaging technique which stands out by virtue of its high-resolution and wide FOV. It improves a microscope’s imaging performance beyond the diffraction limit of the employed optical components by illuminating the sample with oblique waves of different incident angles, similar to the concept of synthetic aperture. We propose to use an objective lens with high-NA to generate oblique illuminating waves in FPM. We demonstrate utilizing an objective lens with higher NA to illuminate the sample leads to better resolution by simulations, in which a resolution of 0.28μm is achieved by using a high-NA illuminating objective lens (NA=1.49 and a low-NA collecting objective lens (NA=0.2 in coherent imaging (λ=488nm. We then deeply study FPM’s exact relevance of convergence speed to spatial spectrum overlap in frequency domain. The simulation results show that an overlap of about 60% is the optimal choice to acquire a high-quality recovery (520*520 pixels with about 2 min’s computing time. In addition, we testify the robustness of the algorithm of FPM to additive noises and its suitability for phase objects, which further proves FPM’s potential application in biomedical imaging.

  12. Home range overlap as a driver of intelligence in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueter, Cyril C

    2015-04-01

    Various socioecological factors have been suggested to influence cognitive capacity in primates, including challenges associated with foraging and dealing with the complexities of social life. Alexander [Alexander, 1989]. Evolution of the human psyche. In: Mellars P, Stringer C, editors. The human revolution: Behavioural and biological perspectives on the origins of modern humans. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p 455-513] proposed an integrative model for the evolution of human cognitive abilities and complex sociality that incorporates competition among coalitions of conspecifics (inter-group conflict) as a major selective pressure. However, one of the premises of this model, i.e., that when confronted with inter-group conflict selection should favor enhanced cognition, has remained empirically untested. Using a comparative approach on species data, I aimed to test the prediction that primate species (n = 104) that face greater inter-group conflict have higher cognitive abilities (indexed by endocranial volume). The degree of inter-group conflict/complexity was approximated via the variable home range overlap among groups. I found a significant relationship between home range overlap and endocranial volume, even after controlling for other predictor variables and covariates such as group size and body mass. I conclude that brain size evolution cannot be attributed exclusively to social factors such as group size, but likely reflects a variety of social and ecological determinants including inter-group conflict which poses cognitive demands on monitoring both the wider social milieu as well as spatial attributes of the habitat. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Overlapping neural systems represent cognitive effort and reward anticipation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Vassena

    Full Text Available Anticipating a potential benefit and how difficult it will be to obtain it are valuable skills in a constantly changing environment. In the human brain, the anticipation of reward is encoded by the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC and Striatum. Naturally, potential rewards have an incentive quality, resulting in a motivational effect improving performance. Recently it has been proposed that an upcoming task requiring effort induces a similar anticipation mechanism as reward, relying on the same cortico-limbic network. However, this overlapping anticipatory activity for reward and effort has only been investigated in a perceptual task. Whether this generalizes to high-level cognitive tasks remains to be investigated. To this end, an fMRI experiment was designed to investigate anticipation of reward and effort in cognitive tasks. A mental arithmetic task was implemented, manipulating effort (difficulty, reward, and delay in reward delivery to control for temporal confounds. The goal was to test for the motivational effect induced by the expectation of bigger reward and higher effort. The results showed that the activation elicited by an upcoming difficult task overlapped with higher reward prospect in the ACC and in the striatum, thus highlighting a pivotal role of this circuit in sustaining motivated behavior.

  14. Prediction of essential proteins based on overlapping essential modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bihai; Wang, Jianxin; Li, Min; Wu, Fang-Xiang; Pan, Yi

    2014-12-01

    Many computational methods have been proposed to identify essential proteins by using the topological features of interactome networks. However, the precision of essential protein discovery still needs to be improved. Researches show that majority of hubs (essential proteins) in the yeast interactome network are essential due to their involvement in essential complex biological modules and hubs can be classified into two categories: date hubs and party hubs. In this study, combining with gene expression profiles, we propose a new method to predict essential proteins based on overlapping essential modules, named POEM. In POEM, the original protein interactome network is partitioned into many overlapping essential modules. The frequencies and weighted degrees of proteins in these modules are employed to decide which categories does a protein belong to? The comparative results show that POEM outperforms the classical centrality measures: Degree Centrality (DC), Information Centrality (IC), Eigenvector Centrality (EC), Subgraph Centrality (SC), Betweenness Centrality (BC), Closeness Centrality (CC), Edge Clustering Coefficient Centrality (NC), and two newly proposed essential proteins prediction methods: PeC and CoEWC. Experimental results indicate that the precision of predicting essential proteins can be improved by considering the modularity of proteins and integrating gene expression profiles with network topological features.

  15. Overlaps and uncertainties of smoking-related idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bak SH

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available So Hyeon Bak,1,2 Ho Yun Lee1 1Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, 2Department of Radiology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon, Korea Abstract: Smoking-related interstitial lung disease (ILD consists of a heterogeneous group of disorders that are considered a distinct entity. The 2013 American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society recommendations classified respiratory bronchiolitis (RB/RB-ILD and desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP as smoking-related idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs. The overlapping histopathological and radiological patterns of smoking-related IIPs must be considered. Overlap patterns of smoking-related IIPs are not easily classified as a single disorder. The initial radiological manifestation and follow-up changes are heterogeneous, even when diagnosed pathologically as RB or DIP. Therefore, a clinical–radiological–pathological consensus is important in the diagnosis of smoking-related IIPs, and long-term evaluation is essential to monitor the morphological changes in these patients. In this article, we reviewed the clinical, radiological, and pathological findings, and also the changes in radiological manifestations of smoking-related IIPs over time. Keywords: smoking, diagnosis, biopsy, computed tomography

  16. An analysis of printing conditions for wavefront overlapping printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihashi, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Wakunami, K.; Oi, R.; Okui, M.; Senoh, T.

    2017-03-01

    Wavefront printing for a digitally-designed hologram has got attentions recently. In this printing, a spatial light modulator (SLM) is used for displaying a hologram data and the wavefront is reproduced by irradiating the hologram with a reference light the same way as electronic holography. However, a pixel count of current SLM devices is not enough to display an entire hologram data. To generate a practical digitally-designed hologram, the entire hologram data is divided into a set of sub-hologram data and wavefront reproduced by each sub-hologram is sequentially recorded in tiling manner by using X-Y motorized stage. Due to a lack of positioning an accuracy of X-Y motorized stage and the temporal incoherent recording, phase continuity of recorded/reproduced wavefront is lost between neighboring subholograms. In this paper, we generate the holograms that have different size of sub-holograms with an overlap or nonoverlap, and verify the size of sub-holograms effect on the reconstructed images. In the result, the reconstructed images degrade with decreasing the size of sub-holograms and there is little or no degradation of quality by the wavefront printing with the overlap.

  17. Overlapping of duties and technical autonomy among nurses of the Family Health Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Katia Virginia de Oliveira; Kovacs, Maria Helena; Sarinho, Silvia Wanick

    2010-06-01

    To understand how Estratégia Saúde da Família (Family Health Strategy) nurses experience the overlapping of duties and building of technical autonomy. This was a qualitative study performed with 22 nurses, in the city of Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between August 2005 and November 2006. Based on management evaluation (geographic access; conflicts in the team, between team and district and between team and community; and public violence in the area), four teams were selected in each of the six health districts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. The main themes in the interview guide were about work expectations and relevance, its organization and process, and feelings towards these practices. The results were interpreted under the perspective of burnout. The nurses' opinion on the excessive number of families, insufficient organizational support and pressures from user demands that had not been met was recurrent. Overlapping of health care and management caused work overload, creating anxiety, impotence, frustration and the feeling of being treated unfairly when tasks were divided among team members. The clinical dimension of practice led to a feeling of insecurity of a technical and ethical nature, in addition to the satisfaction for the power and prestige achieved by the professional category. Specialized medical training represented an obstacle to autonomy and responsibility becoming interdependent. Stress, dissatisfaction, becoming physically and mentally ill, recognition of the relevance of work and importance of one's performance, and low work involvement were reported. In view of the lack of expectation of changes in the short term, the overlapping of low professional satisfaction and work overload causes negative attitudes, indicating the importance of health promotion to increase the possibility of influencing and changing work conditions.

  18. Discovery of GPX4 inhibitory peptides from random peptide T7 phage display and subsequent structural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kotaro; Sogabe, Satoshi; Kamada, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Shin-Ichi; Kadotani, Akito; Sakamoto, Jun-Ichi; Tani, Akiyoshi

    2017-01-08

    The phospholipid hydroperoxidase glutathione peroxidase (GPX4) is an enzyme that reduces lipid hydroperoxides in lipid membranes. Recently, GPX4 has been investigated as a target molecule that induces iron-dependent cell death (ferroptosis) selectively in cancer cells that express mutant Ras. GPX4 inhibitors have the potential to become novel anti-cancer drugs. However, there are no druggable pockets for conventional small molecules on the molecular surface of GPX4. To generate GPX4 inhibitors, we examined the use of peptides as an alternative to small molecules. By screening peptide libraries displayed on T7 phages, and analyzing the X-ray crystal structures of the peptides, we successfully identified one peptide that binds to near Sec73 of catalytic site and two peptides that bind to another site on GPX4. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting GPX4 inhibitory peptides and their structural information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Stochastic Simulation of Chloride Ingress into Reinforced Concrete Structures by Means of Multi-Dimensional Gaussian Random Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Christian; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2005-01-01

    For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of the reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. Further, a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity can occur. One mode of corrosion initiation occurs when the chloride content....... As an example a bridge pier in a marine environment is considered and the results are given in terms of the distribution of the time for initialization of corrosion...

  20. Independent and combined effects of calcium-vitamin D3 and exercise on bone structure and strength in older men: an 18-month factorial design randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuljan, Sonja; Nowson, Caryl A; Sanders, Kerrie M; Nicholson, Geoff C; Seibel, Markus J; Salmon, Jo; Daly, Robin M

    2011-04-01

    Exercise and calcium-vitamin D are independently recognized as important strategies to prevent osteoporosis, but their combined effects on bone strength and its determinants remain uncertain. To assess whether calcium-vitamin D(3) fortified milk could enhance the effects of exercise on bone strength, structure, and mineral density in middle-aged and older men. An 18-month factorial design randomized controlled trial in which 180 men aged 50-79 years were randomized to the following: exercise + fortified milk; exercise; fortified milk; or controls. Exercise consisted of progressive resistance training with weight-bearing impact activities performed 3 d/week. Men assigned to fortified milk consumed 400 ml/d of 1% fat milk containing 1000 mg/d calcium and 800 IU/d vitamin D(3). Changes in bone mineral density (BMD), bone structure, and strength at the lumbar spine (LS), proximal femur, mid-femur, and mid-tibia measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and/or quantitative computed tomography. There were no exercise-by-fortified milk interactions at any skeletal site. Main effect analysis showed that exercise led to a 2.1% (95% confidence interval, 0.5-3.6) net gain in femoral neck section modulus, which was associated with an approximately 1.9% gain in areal BMD and cross-sectional area. Exercise also improved LS trabecular BMD [net gain 2.2% (95% confidence interval, 0.2-4.1)], but had no effect on mid-femur or mid-tibia BMD, structure, or strength. There were no main effects of the fortified milk at any skeletal site. A community-based multi-component exercise program successfully improved LS and femoral neck BMD and strength in healthy older men, but providing additional calcium-vitamin D(3) to these replete men did not enhance the osteogenic response.

  1. Comparison of Overlap Methods for Quantitatively Synthesizing Single-Subject Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolery, Mark; Busick, Matthew; Reichow, Brian; Barton, Erin E.

    2010-01-01

    Four overlap methods for quantitatively synthesizing single-subject data were compared to visual analysts' judgments. The overlap methods were percentage of nonoverlapping data, pairwise data overlap squared, percentage of data exceeding the median, and percentage of data exceeding a median trend. Visual analysts made judgments about 160 A-B data…

  2. On frequency domain adaptive filters using the overlap-add method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommen, P.C.W.; Jayasinghe, J.A.K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The authors introduce a frequency-domain adaptive filter (FDAF) configuration using the overlap-add method which has the same complexity and convergence behavior as the overlap-save configuration. It is shown that an FDAF using the overlap-add method can be realized with the same number of DFTs

  3. Classification of Overlapped Audio Events Based on AT, PLSA, and the Combination of Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Leng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Audio event classification, as an important part of Computational Auditory Scene Analysis, has attracted much attention. Currently, the classification technology is mature enough to classify isolated audio events accurately, but for overlapped audio events, it performs much worse. While in real life, most audio documents would have certain percentage of overlaps, and so the overlap classification problem is an important part of audio classification. Nowadays, the work on overlapped audio event classification is still scarce, and most existing overlap classification systems can only recognize one audio event for an overlap. In this paper, in order to deal with overlaps, we innovatively introduce the author-topic (AT model which was first proposed for text analysis into audio classification, and innovatively combine it with PLSA (Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis. We propose 4 systems, i.e. AT, PLSA, AT-PLSA and PLSA-AT, to classify overlaps. The 4 proposed systems have the ability to recognize two or more audio events for an overlap. The experimental results show that the 4 systems perform well in classifying overlapped audio events, whether it is the overlap in training set or the overlap out of training set. Also they perform well in classifying isolated audio events.

  4. A fading-based method for checking the presence of closely overlapping peaks in thermoluminescent (TL) materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furetta, C.

    The paper describes a method, based on fading experiment, for determining the presence of a complex structure in the thermoluminescent glow curve emission from herbs, e.g. oregano and nopal. Because of the polymineral content of the inorganic part of these herbs, the emitted glow curve is the result of several overlapping glow peaks, each one corresponding to another mineral. The initial rise method is also used for determining the activation energy of each component.

  5. Federally Funded Programs Related to Building Energy Use: Overlaps, Challenges, and Opportunities for Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Butner, Ryan S.; Hostick, Donna J.

    2010-10-01

    As energy efficiency in buildings continues to move from discreet technology development to an integrated systems approach, the need to understand and integrate complementary goals and targets becomes more pronounced. Whether within Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Technologies Program (BTP), across the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), or throughout DOE and the Federal government, mutual gains and collaboration synergies exist that are not easily achieved because of organizational and time constraints. There also cases where federal agencies may be addressing similar issues, but with different (and sometimes conflicting) outcomes in mind. This report conducts a comprehensive inventory across all EERE and other relevant Federal agencies of potential activities with synergistic benefits. A taxonomy of activities with potential interdependencies is presented. The report identifies a number of federal program objectives, products, and plans related to building energy efficiency and characterizes the current structure and interactions related to these plans and programs. Areas where overlap occurs are identified as are the challenges of addressing issues related to overlapping goals and programs. Based on the input gathered from various sources, including 20 separate interviews with federal agency staff and contractor staff supporting buildings programs, this study identifies a number of synergistic opportunities and makes recommends a number of areas where further collaboration could be beneficial.

  6. 3D Maize Plant Reconstruction Based on Georeferenced Overlapping LiDAR Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Garrido

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 3D crop reconstruction with a high temporal resolution and by the use of non-destructive measuring technologies can support the automation of plant phenotyping processes. Thereby, the availability of such 3D data can give valuable information about the plant development and the interaction of the plant genotype with the environment. This article presents a new methodology for georeferenced 3D reconstruction of maize plant structure. For this purpose a total station, an IMU, and several 2D LiDARs with different orientations were mounted on an autonomous vehicle. By the multistep methodology presented, based on the application of the ICP algorithm for point cloud fusion, it was possible to perform the georeferenced point clouds overlapping. The overlapping point cloud algorithm showed that the aerial points (corresponding mainly to plant parts were reduced to 1.5%–9% of the total registered data. The remaining were redundant or ground points. Through the inclusion of different LiDAR point of views of the scene, a more realistic representation of the surrounding is obtained by the incorporation of new useful information but also of noise. The use of georeferenced 3D maize plant reconstruction at different growth stages, combined with the total station accuracy could be highly useful when performing precision agriculture at the crop plant level.

  7. Analysis of the stress-strain state in single overlap joints using piezo-ceramic actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pǎltânea, Veronica; Pǎltânea, Gheorghe; Popovici, Dorina; Jiga, Gabriel; Papanicolaou, George

    2014-05-01

    In this paper is presented a 2D approach to finite element modeling and an analytical calculus of a single lap bonded joint. As adherent material were selected a sheet of wood, aluminum and titanium. For adhesive part were selected Bison Super Wood D3 in case of the wood single lap joint and an epoxy resin type DGEBA-TETA for gluing together aluminum and titanium parts. In the article is described a combined method, which consists in the placement of the piezoelectric actuator inside of the adhesive part, in order to determine the tensile stress in the overlap joint. A comparison between the analytical and numerical results has been achieved through a multiphysics modeling - electrical and mechanical coupled problem. The technique used to calculate the mechanical parameters (First Principal Stress, displacements) was the three-point bending test, where different forces were applied in the mid-span of the structure, in order to maintain a constant displacement rate. The length of the overlap joint was modified from 20 to 50 mm.

  8. Extrinsic Calibration of Camera and 2D Laser Sensors without Overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil M. Ahmad Yousef

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Extrinsic calibration of a camera and a 2D laser range finder (lidar sensors is crucial in sensor data fusion applications; for example SLAM algorithms used in mobile robot platforms. The fundamental challenge of extrinsic calibration is when the camera-lidar sensors do not overlap or share the same field of view. In this paper we propose a novel and flexible approach for the extrinsic calibration of a camera-lidar system without overlap, which can be used for robotic platform self-calibration. The approach is based on the robot–world hand–eye calibration (RWHE problem; proven to have efficient and accurate solutions. First, the system was mapped to the RWHE calibration problem modeled as the linear relationship AX = ZB , where X and Z are unknown calibration matrices. Then, we computed the transformation matrix B , which was the main challenge in the above mapping. The computation is based on reasonable assumptions about geometric structure in the calibration environment. The reliability and accuracy of the proposed approach is compared to a state-of-the-art method in extrinsic 2D lidar to camera calibration. Experimental results from real datasets indicate that the proposed approach provides better results with an L2 norm translational and rotational deviations of 314 mm and 0 . 12 ∘ respectively.

  9. Feeding ecology and niche overlap of Lake Ontario offshore forage fish assessed with stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumby, James; Johson, Timothy; Stewart, Thomas; Halfyard, Edward; Walsh, Maureen; Weidel, Brian C.; Lantry, Jana; Fisk, Aarron

    2017-01-01

    The forage fish communities of the Laurentian Great Lakes continue to experience changes that have altered ecosystem structure, yet little is known about how they partition resources. Seasonal, spatial and body size variation in δ13C and δ15N was used to assess isotopic niche overlap and resource and habitat partitioning among the five common offshore Lake Ontario forage fish species (n = 2037) [Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax), Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus), and Deepwater (Myoxocephalus thompsonii) and Slimy (Cottus cognatus) Sculpin]. Round Goby had the largest isotopic niche (6.1‰2, standard ellipse area (SEAC)), followed by Alewife (3.4‰2) while Rainbow Smelt, Slimy Sculpin and Deepwater Sculpin had the smallest and similar niche size (1.7-1.8‰2), with only the Sculpin species showing significant isotopic niche overlap (>63%). Stable isotopes in Alewife, Round Goby and Rainbow Smelt varied with location, season and size, but did not in the Sculpin spp. Lake Ontario forage fish species have partitioned food and habitat resources, and non-native Alewife and Round Goby have the largest isotopic niche, suggestive of a boarder ecological niche, and may contribute to their current high abundance.

  10. A cooperative game framework for detecting overlapping communities in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Annapurna; Kuppusamy, Lakshmanan

    2018-02-01

    Community detection in social networks is a challenging and complex task, which received much attention from researchers of multiple domains in recent years. The evolution of communities in social networks happens merely due to the self-interest of the nodes. The interesting feature of community structure in social networks is the multi membership of the nodes resulting in overlapping communities. Assuming the nodes of the social network as self-interested players, the dynamics of community formation can be captured in the form of a game. In this paper, we propose a greedy algorithm, namely, Weighted Graph Community Game (WGCG), in order to model the interactions among the self-interested nodes of the social network. The proposed algorithm employs the Shapley value mechanism to discover the inherent communities of the underlying social network. The experimental evaluation on the real-world and synthetic benchmark networks demonstrates that the performance of the proposed algorithm is superior to the state-of-the-art overlapping community detection algorithms.

  11. Extrinsic Calibration of Camera and 2D Laser Sensors without Overlap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Widyan, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    Extrinsic calibration of a camera and a 2D laser range finder (lidar) sensors is crucial in sensor data fusion applications; for example SLAM algorithms used in mobile robot platforms. The fundamental challenge of extrinsic calibration is when the camera-lidar sensors do not overlap or share the same field of view. In this paper we propose a novel and flexible approach for the extrinsic calibration of a camera-lidar system without overlap, which can be used for robotic platform self-calibration. The approach is based on the robot–world hand–eye calibration (RWHE) problem; proven to have efficient and accurate solutions. First, the system was mapped to the RWHE calibration problem modeled as the linear relationship AX=ZB, where X and Z are unknown calibration matrices. Then, we computed the transformation matrix B, which was the main challenge in the above mapping. The computation is based on reasonable assumptions about geometric structure in the calibration environment. The reliability and accuracy of the proposed approach is compared to a state-of-the-art method in extrinsic 2D lidar to camera calibration. Experimental results from real datasets indicate that the proposed approach provides better results with an L2 norm translational and rotational deviations of 314 mm and 0.12∘ respectively. PMID:29036905

  12. Stochastic Maximum Likelihood (SML parametric estimation of overlapped Doppler echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Boyer

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the area of overlapped echo data processing. In such cases, classical methods, such as Fourier-like techniques or pulse pair methods, fail to estimate the first three spectral moments of the echoes because of their lack of resolution. A promising method, based on a modelization of the covariance matrix of the time series and on a Stochastic Maximum Likelihood (SML estimation of the parameters of interest, has been recently introduced in literature. This method has been tested on simulations and on few spectra from actual data but no exhaustive investigation of the SML algorithm has been conducted on actual data: this paper fills this gap. The radar data came from the thunderstorm campaign that took place at the National Astronomy and Ionospheric Center (NAIC in Arecibo, Puerto Rico, in 1998.

  13. Myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative neoplasms: updates on the overlap syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, Swapna; Gerds, Aaron T

    2018-04-01

    Myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) is a rare and distinct group of myeloid neoplasms with overlapping MDS and MPN features. Next generation sequencing studies have led to an improved understanding of MDS/MPN disease biology by identifying recurrent somatic mutations. Combining the molecular findings to patho-morphologic features has improved the precision of diagnosis and prognostic models in MDS/MPN. We discuss and highlight these updates in MDS/MPN nomenclature and diagnostic criteria per revised 2016 WHO classification of myeloid neoplasms in this article. There is an ongoing effort for data integration allowing for comprehensive genomic characterization, development of improved prognostic tools, and investigation for novel therapies using an international front specific for MDS/MPN. In this article, we discuss updates in prognostic models and current state of treatment for MDS/MPN.

  14. Simultaneous Combined Myositis, Inflammatory Polyneuropathy, and Overlap Myasthenic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Mathis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune-mediated neuromuscular disorders include pathologies of the peripheral nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscles. If overlap syndromes (or the association of almost two autoimmune disorders are recognized, the simultaneous occurrence of several autoimmune neuromuscular disorders is rare. We describe two patients presenting the simultaneous occurrence of inflammatory neuropathy, myositis, and myasthenia gravis (with positive acetylcholine receptor antibodies. For each patient, we carried out a pathological analysis (nerve and muscle and an electrophysiological study (and follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first description of such a triple immune-mediated neuromuscular syndrome. We compared our observations with a few other cases of simultaneous diagnosis of two inflammatory neuromuscular disorders.

  15. Voriconazole-induced periostitis in a patient with overlap syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Keisho; Yasoda, Akihiro; Fujii, Toshihito; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2014-03-05

    A 52-year-old woman with overlap syndrome and interstitial pneumonia underwent immunosuppressive therapy and she was suspected to suffer from pulmonary aspergillosis. Oral voriconazole was initiated, and a rapid elevation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) occurred after 4 weeks. After 2 months, the patient presented diffuse pain in bilateral skeletal regions, and bone scintigraphy revealed bilateral multiple areas of increased radiotracer uptake. We suspected the skeletal involvement as voriconazole-induced periostitis. Actually, the plasma fluoride level was increased. Voriconazole was replaced with itraconazole, and after 3 weeks, the patient stopped complaining of bone pain concomitant with the decrease in ALP. Voriconazole-induced periostitis is a rare condition but had previously been reported in solid organ or patients with bone marrow transplant who received a long-term voriconazole therapy. Our present case is distinctive of previous ones, because it occurred in a patient with connective tissue disease which had its rapid progression.

  16. Excited baryons from Bayesian priors and overlap fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.X. Lee; S.J. Dong; T. Draper; I. Horvath; K.F. Liu; N. Mathur; J.B. Zhang

    2003-05-01

    Using the constrained-fitting method based on Bayesian priors, we extract the masses of the two lowest states of octet and decouplet baryons with both parities. The calculation is done on quenched 163 x 28 lattices of a = 0.2 fm using an improved gauge action and overlap fermions, with the pion mass as low as 180 MeV. The Roper state N(1440)+ is clearly observed for the first time as the 1st-excited state of the nucleon from the standard interpolating field. Together with other baryons, our preliminary results indicate that the level-ordering of the low-lying baryon states on the lattice is largely consistent with experiment. The realization is helped by cross-overs between the excited + and - states in the region of mp 300 to 400 MeV.

  17. Some considerations on disciplinary liability overlapping criminal liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefania DUMITRACHE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the various forms of legal liability there are many points of contact reflected in their common goal - the encouragement of active members of society. Starting from the statement - the independent nature of the various forms of legal liability does not mean they are excluded - in what follows, given the legal autonomy of spheres of social relations protected by various laws, we will consider disciplinary overlapping with other forms of legal liability - criminal liability. Of course, this is possible only if the act committed by the employee is both disciplinary and criminal. This form of accumulation are possible without violating the principle of non bis in idem that since each of the envisaged legal rules protect different social relations. In addition of this applying the same principle prohibits two or more same kind sanctions for an unlawful action

  18. Overlapping Clinical Features Between NAFLD and Metabolic Syndrome in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Alisi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a cluster of pathological liver conditions of emerging importance in overweight and obese children. NAFLD is associated with central obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidaemia, which are considered to be the main features of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Prevention of the adverse outcomes of NAFLD, as well as the risk of MetS, depends on the identification of genetic background and environmental factors that modulate susceptibility to these diseases. However, several lines of evidence highlight the strong correlation and co-currency of these two chronic diseases, both in children and in adults. In the present review, we provide an overview of the current clinical proofs on the link between NAFLD and MetS in children, with particular focus on all the possible overlapping features that connect them at paediatric age.

  19. Measuring the arrival times of overlapped photo-events

    CERN Document Server

    Stoyanov, D V; Kolarov, G V

    2000-01-01

    We have developed and tested experimentally and by computer simulations a novel method for measuring the individual arrival times of temporally non-resolved (overlapped) single-photon detector pulses in high-intensity streams. The method is based on a set of linear transformations of photo-event pulses into a deconvolution, a transformation to standardized functions, a non-linear Chi-square fitting, etc. The retrieving accuracy varies within the range of 2-4 ns at an ADC sampling interval of 50 ns. The simultaneous measurement without dead time effects of the main photon statistics distributions as the distribution of intraevent intervals and the charge distributions has been demonstrated. The method covers the intermediate scale of intensities, where other well-known techniques for processing of photo-events are ineffective. It can be effectively applied in nuclear experiments, time-resolved spectroscopy, optical remote sensing, etc.

  20. Contrasting Diversity Values: Statistical Inferences Based on Overlapping Confidence Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor-Fors, Ian; Payton, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Ecologists often contrast diversity (species richness and abundances) using tests for comparing means or indices. However, many popular software applications do not support performing standard inferential statistics for estimates of species richness and/or density. In this study we simulated the behavior of asymmetric log-normal confidence intervals and determined an interval level that mimics statistical tests with P(α) = 0.05 when confidence intervals from two distributions do not overlap. Our results show that 84% confidence intervals robustly mimic 0.05 statistical tests for asymmetric confidence intervals, as has been demonstrated for symmetric ones in the past. Finally, we provide detailed user-guides for calculating 84% confidence intervals in two of the most robust and highly-used freeware related to diversity measurements for wildlife (i.e., EstimateS, Distance). PMID:23437239

  1. A convergent overlapping domain decomposition method for total variation minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Fornasier, Massimo

    2010-06-22

    In this paper we are concerned with the analysis of convergent sequential and parallel overlapping domain decomposition methods for the minimization of functionals formed by a discrepancy term with respect to the data and a total variation constraint. To our knowledge, this is the first successful attempt of addressing such a strategy for the nonlinear, nonadditive, and nonsmooth problem of total variation minimization. We provide several numerical experiments, showing the successful application of the algorithm for the restoration of 1D signals and 2D images in interpolation/inpainting problems, respectively, and in a compressed sensing problem, for recovering piecewise constant medical-type images from partial Fourier ensembles. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Acetaminophen induced Steven Johnson syndrome-toxic epidermal necrolysis overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Ali; Shahab, Ahmed; Hussain, Syed Ather

    2012-05-01

    Steven Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis are rare but severe form of hypersensitivity inflammatory reactions to multiple offending agents including drugs. Acetaminophen is extensively used due to its analgesic and anti-pyretic properties. It is rendered to be relatively safe, with hepatotoxicity considered to be the major adverse effect. However, very few cases of Steven Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis have been reported with acetaminophen usage in the past. We present the case of a 40 years old lady who developed an overlap of the two condition after taking several doses of acetaminophen for fever. She presented with widespread maculopapular rash, stinging in the eyes, oral mucosal ulcerations and high grade fever. She was successfully treated with corticosteroid therapy along with the supportive treatment. This case addresses the fact, that severe hypersensitivity reactions can occur with acetaminophen which can be potentially life threatening.

  3. Overlap Algorithms in Flexible Job-shop Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Gutierrez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The flexible Job-shop Scheduling Problem (fJSP considers the execution of jobs by a set of candidate resources while satisfying time and technological constraints. This work, that follows the hierarchical architecture, is based on an algorithm where each objective (resource allocation, start-time assignment is solved by a genetic algorithm (GA that optimizes a particular fitness function, and enhances the results by the execution of a set of heuristics that evaluate and repair each scheduling constraint on each operation. The aim of this work is to analyze the impact of some algorithmic features of the overlap constraint heuristics, in order to achieve the objectives at a highest degree. To demonstrate the efficiency of this approach, experimentation has been performed and compared with similar cases, tuning the GA parameters correctly.

  4. Eosinophilic Enteritis with Ascites in a Patient with Overlap Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Aslanidis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal involvement is frequent in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis, however, has only rarely been described in rheumatological conditions, despite its reported connection to autoimmune diseases, such as hypereosinophilic syndrome, vasculitides, and systemic mastoidosis. It presents typically with abdominal pain and diarrhea and is only exceptionally associated with ascites. Diagnosis can be problematic, as several other clinical conditions (malignancies, infection/tuberculosis, and inflammatory bowel diseases have to be ruled out. It is basically a nonsurgical disease, with excellent recovery on conservative treatment. We report the rare case of a young woman with overlap syndrome who presented with abdominal pain and ascites. The diagnosis of eosinophilic enteritis was made based on clinical, radiological, and laboratory criteria. The patient was treated with corticosteroids with excellent response.

  5. Pollution and economic growth in a model of overlapping generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Eric O`N. [Department of Economics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Van Marrewijk, Charles [Department of Economics, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1994-01-22

    We analyze a model of overlapping generations in which clean air, a pure public consumption good, is used as a private input into production. Although production exhibits constant returns to scale, endogenous growth can occur because the economy has tWO sectors. In a laissez-faire equilibrium, there is no market for pollution rights, and firms appropriate clean air in an arbitrary manner. Growth occurs only if the marginal propensity to save is high enough and the asymptotic share of pollution in the investment sector is zero. Firms generate quasi-rents that are the value of pollution rights. These quasi-rents crowd out investment and slow economic growth. A laissez- faire equilibrium may not support Pareto optimal allocations, but a Pigouvian tax with lump-sum distribution of the resulting revenues does. Hence, a pollution lax yields a double dividend because it can increase both the static efficiency of the economy and its growth rate. 1 fig., 20 refs.

  6. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Multiple Sclerosis Overlap: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Trojsi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concurrence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and multiple sclerosis (MS is extremely rare. We reported the case of a 33-year-old woman with a past history of paresthesias at the right hand, who developed progressive quadriparesis with muscular atrophy of limbs and, finally, bulbar signs and dyspnea. Clinical and neurophysiologic investigations revealed upper and lower motor neuron signs in the bulbar region and extremities, suggesting the diagnosis of ALS. Moreover, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis demonstrated 3 periventricular and juxtacortical lesions, hyperintense in T2 and FLAIR sequences, and 3 liquoral immunoglobulin G (IgG oligoclonal bands, consistent with diagnosis of primary progressive MS (PPMS. This unusual overlap of ALS and MS leads to the discussion of a hypothetical common pathological process of immunological dysfunction in these two disorders, although the role of immune response in ALS remains ambivalent and unclear.

  7. Schizophrenia, ketamine and cannabis: evidence of overlapping memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Paul C; Honey, Garry D

    2006-04-01

    Drug models of mental illness are considered useful if they provoke its characteristic symptoms. In this respect, ketamine and tetrahydrocannabinol (cannabis) are coming under increasing scrutiny as models for schizophrenia. However, although both undoubtedly produce psychotic symptoms characteristic of the disorder, we argue here that, because schizophrenia is also accompanied by cognitive deficits, a full understanding of the impact of these drugs on cognition will be crucial in taking these models further. Memory deficits are pronounced in schizophrenia and we focus upon patterns of working and episodic memory impairment produced by ketamine and cannabis, identifying overlaps between drug and illness. We suggest that close attention to these deficits can offer insights into core pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  8. Townes-Brocks syndrome with overlapping features of hemifacial microsomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadavalli Guruprasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS is an autosomal dominant disorder with multiple malformations and variable expression. Major findings include external ear anomalies, hearing loss, limb deformity, imperforate anus, and renal malformations. Intelligence is usually normal, although mild moderate mental retardation has been reported. It can be difficult to differentiate clinically between hemifacial microsomia (HFM and Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS. The distinction is important because TBS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, whereas HFM is sporadic. We report a classical case of TBS with overlapping features of hemifacial microsomia in an 11 year old boy who presented with unilateral anotia with hearing defect, renal agenesis and imperforate anus by birth.

  9. The overlap between binge eating disorder and substance use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Grant, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Binge eating disorder (BED) is a relatively common condition, especially in young adult females, and is characterized by chronic over-consumption of food resulting in embarrassment, distress, and potential health problems. It is formally included as a disorder in DSM-5...... for the first time, an acknowledgement to its debilitating nature. This article explores the overlap between binge eating disorder and substance use disorders (SUD). METHODS: The bibliographic search was a computerized screen of PubMed databases from January 1990 to the present. Binge eating disorder, substance...... use disorder, binging, obesity, food addiction, comorbidity, dopamine, opioid, serotonin, glutamate, and pharmacological treatment were the keywords used in searching. RESULTS: BED shares similar phenomenology to SUD, including significant urges to engage in binging episodes, resulting in distress...

  10. The overlap between anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Guy M

    2015-09-01

    The anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder. In addition to the specific symptoms of these disorders, there may be a common experience of anxiety and even dysphoria across the conditions, and of course recourse to the same drug or choice of drugs for treatment. This overlap probably occurs because of universal dimensions of distress or negative affectivity, a shared genetic predisposition, and a common neurobiology Evidence of shared genes is still based mainly on twin studies, but the shared neurobiology can be investigated directly by the investigation of emotional or cognitive bias either behaviorally or using functional brain imaging. This intermediate phenotype can then provide a substrate for understanding and developing medicines and psychological treatments.

  11. Definition and diagnosis of asthma-COPD overlap (ACO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Satoru; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2018-02-09

    It is now widely recognized that asthma and COPD can coexist as asthma-COPD overlap (ACO), but the preliminary attempts at providing universal guidelines for the diagnosis of ACO still need to be improved. We believe that a case can be made for devising guidelines for the diagnosis of this increasingly common disease that are specific to Japan. In this paper, we present our consensus-based description of ACO which we believe is realistic for use in our country. In addition, we cite the scientific evidence for our own "objective" features used to develop the criteria for COPD and asthma diagnosis. We acknowledge that they will need to be validated and updated over time, but hope the results will encourage further research on the characteristics and treatment of this commonly encountered clinical problem. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. GEOMETRIC QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF LIDAR DATA BASED ON SWATH OVERLAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sampath

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides guidelines on quantifying the relative horizontal and vertical errors observed between conjugate features in the overlapping regions of lidar data. The quantification of these errors is important because their presence quantifies the geometric quality of the data. A data set can be said to have good geometric quality if measurements of identical features, regardless of their position or orientation, yield identical results. Good geometric quality indicates that the data are produced using sensor models that are working as they are mathematically designed, and data acquisition processes are not introducing any unforeseen distortion in the data. High geometric quality also leads to high geolocation accuracy of the data when the data acquisition process includes coupling the sensor with geopositioning systems. Current specifications (e.g. Heidemann 2014 do not provide adequate means to quantitatively measure these errors, even though they are required to be reported. Current accuracy measurement and reporting practices followed in the industry and as recommended by data specification documents also potentially underestimate the inter-swath errors, including the presence of systematic errors in lidar data. Hence they pose a risk to the user in terms of data acceptance (i.e. a higher potential for Type II error indicating risk of accepting potentially unsuitable data. For example, if the overlap area is too small or if the sampled locations are close to the center of overlap, or if the errors are sampled in flat regions when there are residual pitch errors in the data, the resultant Root Mean Square Differences (RMSD can still be small. To avoid this, the following are suggested to be used as criteria for defining the inter-swath quality of data: a Median Discrepancy Angle b Mean and RMSD of Horizontal Errors using DQM measured on sloping surfaces c RMSD for sampled locations from flat areas (defined as areas with less than 5

  13. A randomized controlled clinical trial of a nurse-led structured psychosocial intervention program for people with first-onset mental illness in psychiatric outpatient clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wai-Tong; Bressington, Daniel

    2015-09-30

    This study aimed to test the effectiveness of a nurse-led structured psychosocial intervention program in Chinese patients with first-onset mental illness. A single-blind, parallel group, randomized controlled trial design was used. The study involved 180 participants with mild to moderate-severe symptoms of psychotic or mood disorders who were newly referred to two psychiatric outpatient clinics in Hong Kong. Patients were randomly assigned to either an eight-session nurse-led psychosocial intervention program (plus usual care) or usual psychiatric outpatient care (both n=90). The primary outcome was psychiatric symptoms. Outcomes were measured at recruitment, one week and 12 months post-intervention. Patients in the psychosocial intervention group reported statistically significant improvements in symptoms compared to treatment as usual. There were also significant improvements in illness insight and perceived quality of life and reduction in length of re-hospitalizations over the 12-month follow-up. The findings provide evidence that the nurse-led psychosocial intervention program resulted in improved health outcomes in Chinese patients with first-onset mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A randomized comparison of video demonstration versus hands-on training of medical students for vacuum delivery using Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Ziad; Kumpernatz, Anne K; Rezniczek, Günther A; Cetin, Cem; Tempfer-Bentz, Eva-Katrin; Tempfer, Clemens B

    2017-03-01

    To compare medical students' skills for vaginal operative delivery by vacuum extraction (VE) after hands-on training versus video demonstration. We randomized medical students to an expert demonstration (group 1) or a hands-on (group 2) training using a standardized VE algorithm on a pelvic training model. Students were tested with a 40-item Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scoring system after training and 4 days later. OSATS scores were the primary outcome. Performance time, self-assessment, confidence, and global rating scale were secondary outcomes. We assessed the constructive validity of OSATS in this VE model comparing metric scores of experts and students. In all, 137 students were randomized. OSATS scores were higher in group 2 (n = 63) compared with group 1 (n = 74) (32.89 ± 6.39 vs 27.51 ± 10.27, respectively; P video demonstration for teaching VE on a pelvic model.

  15. Overlap of movement planning and movement execution reduces reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Legrain, Valéry; Lefèvre, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Motor planning is the process of preparing the appropriate motor commands in order to achieve a goal. This process has largely been thought to occur before movement onset and traditionally has been associated with reaction time. However, in a virtual line bisection task we observed an overlap between movement planning and execution. In this task performed with a robotic manipulandum, we observed that participants (n = 30) made straight movements when the line was in front of them (near target) but often made curved movements when the same target was moved sideways (far target, which had the same orientation) in such a way that they crossed the line perpendicular to its orientation. Unexpectedly, movements to the far targets had shorter reaction times than movements to the near targets (mean difference: 32 ms, SE: 5 ms, max: 104 ms). In addition, the curvature of the movement modulated reaction time. A larger increase in movement curvature from the near to the far target was associated with a larger reduction in reaction time. These highly curved movements started with a transport phase during which accuracy demands were not taken into account. We conclude that an accuracy demand imposes a reaction time penalty if processed before movement onset. This penalty is reduced if the start of the movement consists of a transport phase and if the movement plan can be refined with respect to accuracy demands later in the movement, hence demonstrating an overlap between movement planning and execution. In the planning of a movement, the brain has the opportunity to delay the incorporation of accuracy requirements of the motor plan in order to reduce the reaction time by up to 100 ms (average: 32 ms). Such shortening of reaction time is observed here when the first phase of the movement consists of a transport phase. This forces us to reconsider the hypothesis that motor plans are fully defined before movement onset. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Do clinical incidents, complaints and medicolegal claims overlap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Paul; Moon, Jackie; Anderson, Paul; Kirkup, Steve; Williams, Susan; Gray, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Error reporting by healthcare staff, patient-derived complaints and patient-derived medico-legal claims are three separate processes present in most healthcare systems. It is generally assumed that all relate to the same cases. Given the high costs associated with these processes and strong desire to maximise quality and standards, the purpose of this paper is to see whether it was indeed the case that most complaints and claims related to medical errors and the relative resource allocation to each group. Electronic databases for clinical error recording, patient complaints and medico-legal claims in a large NHS healthcare provider organisation were reviewed and case overlap analysed. Most complaints and medico-legal claims do not associate with a prior clinical error. Disproportionate resource is required for a small number of complaints and the medico-legal claims process. Most complaints and claims are not upheld. The authors have only looked at data from one healthcare provider and for one period. It would be useful to analyse other healthcare organisations over a longer time period. The authors were unable to access data on secondary staffing costs, which would have been informative. As the medico-legal process can go on for many years, the authors do not know the ultimate outcomes for all cases. The authors also do not know how many medico-legal cases were settled out of court pragmatically to minimise costs. Practical implications - Staff error reporting systems and patient advisory services seem to be efficient and working well. However, the broader complaints and claims process is costing considerable time and money, yet may not be useful in driving up standards. System changes to maximise helpful complaints and claims, from a quality and standards perspective, and minimise unhelpful ones are recommended. This study provides important data on the lack of overlap between errors, complaints and claims cases.

  17. Optimizing Bandwidth Limited Problems Using One-SidedCommunication and Overlap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Christian; Bonachea, Dan; Nishtala, Rajesh; Yelick, Katherine

    2005-10-14

    Partitioned Global Address Space languages like Unified Parallel C (UPC) are typically valued for their expressiveness, especially for computations with fine-grained random accesses. In this paper we show that the one-sided communication model used in these languages also has a significant performance advantage for bandwidth-limited applications. We demonstrate this benefit through communication microbenchmarks and a case-study that compares UPC and MPI implementations of the NAS Fourier Transform (FT) benchmark. Our optimizations rely on aggressively overlapping communication with computation but spreading communication events throughout the course of the local computation. This alleviates the potential communication bottleneck that occurs when the communication is packed into a single phase (e.g., the large all-to-all in a multidimensional FFT). Even though the new algorithms require more messages for the same total volume of data, the resulting overlap leads to speedups of over 1.75x and 1.9x for the two-sided and one-sided implementations, respectively, when compared to the default NAS Fortran/MPI release. Our best one-sided implementations show an average improvement of 15 percent over our best two-sided implementations. We attribute this difference to the lower software overhead of one-sided communication, which is partly fundamental to the semantic difference between one-sided and two-sided communication. Our UPC results use the Berkeley UPC compiler with the GASNet communication system, and demonstrate the portability and scalability of that language and implementation, with performance approaching 0.5TFlop/s on the FT benchmark running on 512 processors.

  18. Systematic review with meta-analysis: diagnostic overlap of microscopic colitis and functional bowel disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagnozzi, D; Arias, Á; Lucendo, A J

    2016-04-01

    Microscopic colitis shares certain common clinical manifestations with functional bowel disorders, especially diarrhoea-dominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional diarrhoea. However, the exact relationship between microscopic colitis and functional bowel disorders has not been systematically assessed. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the diagnostic overlap between functional bowel disorders and microscopic colitis. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and SCOPUS databases, as well as the abstract books of the major gastroenterology meetings, to investigate the prevalence of microscopic colitis among patients with functional bowel disorders (considering all subtypes of both disorders) and vice versa. Data were pooled with a random-effects model. Of 227 references identified, data were collected from 26 studies and a total of 5,099 adult patients. The pooled prevalence any type of functional bowel disorders in patients who present diagnostic criteria of microscopic colitis was 39.1% (95% CI: 22.8-56.6%; I2 : 97%) and was higher for lymphocytic colitis than for collagenous colitis (40.7% vs. 28.4%, respectively; P = 0.58). The prevalence of microscopic colitis in functional bowel disorders patients was 7% (95% CI: 3.6-11.4%), reaching 9.8% (95% CI: 4.4-17.1%; I2 : 95%) in patients exhibiting diarrhoea-dominant IBS, nonsignificantly higher than microscopic colitis rates among patients with constipation-dominant IBS (1.3%) or mixed-dominant IBS (1.9%). There is a significant overlap of symptoms between microscopic colitis and functional bowel disorders, especially in diarrhoeal subtypes. The high proportion of microscopic colitis among diarrhoea-dominant functional syndromes should serve as a call for more active diagnosis in selected patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Longer and less overlapping food webs in anthropogenically disturbed marine ecosystems: confirmations from the past.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Saporiti

    Full Text Available The human exploitation of marine resources is characterised by the preferential removal of the largest species. Although this is expected to modify the structure of food webs, we have a relatively poor understanding of the potential consequences of such alteration. Here, we take advantage of a collection of ancient consumer tissues, using stable isotope analysis and SIBER to assess changes in the structure of coastal marine food webs in the South-western Atlantic through the second half of the Holocene as a result of the sequential exploitation of marine resources by hunter-gatherers, western sealers and modern fishermen. Samples were collected from shell middens and museums. Shells of both modern and archaeological intertidal herbivorous molluscs were used to reconstruct changes in the stable isotopic baseline, while modern and archaeological bones of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens, South American fur seal Arctocephalus australis and Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus were used to analyse changes in the structure of the community of top predators. We found that ancient food webs were shorter, more redundant and more overlapping than current ones, both in northern-central Patagonia and southern Patagonia. These surprising results may be best explained by the huge impact of western sealing on pinnipeds during the fur trade period, rather than the impact of fishing on fish populations. As a consequence, the populations of pinnipeds at the end of the sealing period were likely well below the ecosystem's carrying capacity, which resulted in a release of intraspecific competition and a shift towards larger and higher trophic level prey. This in turn led to longer and less overlapping food webs.

  20. Longer and Less Overlapping Food Webs in Anthropogenically Disturbed Marine Ecosystems: Confirmations from the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saporiti, Fabiana; Bearhop, Stuart; Silva, Laura; Vales, Damián G.; Zenteno, Lisette; Crespo, Enrique A.; Aguilar, Alex; Cardona, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The human exploitation of marine resources is characterised by the preferential removal of the largest species. Although this is expected to modify the structure of food webs, we have a relatively poor understanding of the potential consequences of such alteration. Here, we take advantage of a collection of ancient consumer tissues, using stable isotope analysis and SIBER to assess changes in the structure of coastal marine food webs in the South-western Atlantic through the second half of the Holocene as a result of the sequential exploitation of marine resources by hunter-gatherers, western sealers and modern fishermen. Samples were collected from shell middens and museums. Shells of both modern and archaeological intertidal herbivorous molluscs were used to reconstruct changes in the stable isotopic baseline, while modern and archaeological bones of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens, South American fur seal Arctocephalus australis and Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus were used to analyse changes in the structure of the community of top predators. We found that ancient food webs were shorter, more redundant and more overlapping than current ones, both in northern-central Patagonia and southern Patagonia. These surprising results may be best explained by the huge impact of western sealing on pinnipeds during the fur trade period, rather than the impact of fishing on fish populations. As a consequence, the populations of pinnipeds at the end of the sealing period were likely well below the ecosystem's carrying capacity, which resulted in a release of intraspecific competition and a shift towards larger and higher trophic level prey. This in turn led to longer and less overlapping food webs. PMID:25076042