WorldWideScience

Sample records for random order exposures

  1. Exposure Order Effects and Advertising Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Loginova

    2008-01-01

    This paper applies the theories of exposure order effects, developed in the psychology literature, to an industrial organization model to explore their role in advertising competition. There are two firms and infinitely many identical consumers. The firms produce a homogeneous product and distribute their brands through a common retailer. Consumers randomly arrive at the retailer and buy their most preferred brands. The order in which a consumer sees the advertising messages affects his brand...

  2. Cloud Macroscopic Organization: Order Emerging from Randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tianle

    2011-01-01

    Clouds play a central role in many aspects of the climate system and their forms and shapes are remarkably diverse. Appropriate representation of clouds in climate models is a major challenge because cloud processes span at least eight orders of magnitude in spatial scales. Here we show that there exists order in cloud size distribution of low-level clouds, and that it follows a power-law distribution with exponent gamma close to 2. gamma is insensitive to yearly variations in environmental conditions, but has regional variations and land-ocean contrasts. More importantly, we demonstrate this self-organizing behavior of clouds emerges naturally from a complex network model with simple, physical organizing principles: random clumping and merging. We also demonstrate symmetry between clear and cloudy skies in terms of macroscopic organization because of similar fundamental underlying organizing principles. The order in the apparently complex cloud-clear field thus has its root in random local interactions. Studying cloud organization with complex network models is an attractive new approach that has wide applications in climate science. We also propose a concept of cloud statistic mechanics approach. This approach is fully complementary to deterministic models, and the two approaches provide a powerful framework to meet the challenge of representing clouds in our climate models when working in tandem.

  3. Periodic boundary value problems of second order random differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapurao Dhage

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an existence and the existence of extremal random solutions are proved for a periodic boundary value problem of second order ordinary random differential equations. Our investigations have been placed in the space of real-valued functions defined and continuous on closed and bounded intervals of real line together with the applications of the random version of a nonlinear alternative of Leray-Schauder type and an algebraic random fixed point theorem of Dhage. An example is also indicated for demonstrating the realizations of the abstract theory developed in this paper.

  4. Fast, Randomized Join-Order Selection - Why Use Transformations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Galindo-Legaria; A.J. Pellenkoft (Jan); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe study the effectiveness of probabilistic selection of join-query evaluation plans, without reliance on tree transformation rules. Instead, each candidate plan is chosen uniformly at random from the space of valid evaluation orders. This leads to a transformation-free strategy where a

  5. Ground-state properties of ordered, partially ordered, and random Cu-Au and Ni-Pt alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Abrikosov, I. A.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the ground-state properties of ordered, partially ordered, and random Cu-Au and Ni-Pt alloys at the stoichiometric 1/4, 1/2, and 3/4 compositions in the framework of the multisublattice single-site (SS) coherent potential approximation (CPA). Charge-transfer effects in the random...

  6. Ordering of random walks: the leader and the laggard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Avraham, D [Department of Physics, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5820, USA (United States); Johnson, B M [Department of Physics, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5820, USA (United States); Monaco, C A [Department of Physics, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5820, USA (United States); Krapivsky, P L [Center for BioDynamics, Center for Polymer Studies, and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA (United States); Redner, S [Center for BioDynamics, Center for Polymer Studies, and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA (United States)

    2003-02-21

    We investigate two complementary problems related to maintaining the relative positions of N random walks on the line: (i) the leader problem, that is, the probability L{sub N}(t) that the leftmost particle remains the leftmost as a function of time and (ii) the laggard problem, the probability R{sub N}(t) that the rightmost particle never becomes the leftmost. We map these ordering problems onto an equivalent (N - 1)-dimensional electrostatic problem. From this construction we obtain a very accurate estimate for L{sub N}(t) for N = 4, the first case that is not exactly solvable: L{sub 4}(t) {proportional_to} t{sup -{beta}{sub 4}}, with {beta}{sub 4} = 0.91342(8). The probability of being the laggard also decays algebraically, R{sub N}(t) {proportional_to} t{sup -{gamma}{sub N}}; we derive {gamma}{sub 2} = 1/2, {gamma}{sub 3} = 3/8, and argue that {gamma}{sub N} {yields} N{sup -1} ln N as N {yields} {infinity}.

  7. Ordering and phase transitions in random-field Ising systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritan, Amos; Swift, Michael R.; Cieplak, Marek; Chan, Moses H. W.; Cole, Milton W.; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1991-01-01

    An exact analysis of the Ising model with infinite-range interactions in a random field and a local mean-field theory in three dimensions is carried out leading to a phase diagram with several coexistence surfaces and lines of critical points. The results show that the phase diagram depends crucially on whether the distribution of random fields is symmetric or not. Thus, Ising-like phase transitions in a porous medium (the asymmetric case) are in a different universality class from the conventional random-field model (symmetric case).

  8. Introducing Randomness into First-Order and Second-Order Deterministic Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Moxnes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We incorporate randomness into deterministic theories and compare analytically and numerically some well-known stochastic theories: the Liouville process, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, and a process that is Gaussian and exponentially time correlated (Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise. Different methods of achieving the marginal densities for correlated and uncorrelated noise are discussed. Analytical results are presented for a deterministic linear friction force and a stochastic force that is uncorrelated or exponentially correlated.

  9. Permutation Test Approach for Ordered Alternatives in Randomized Complete Block Design: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    GOKPINAR, Esra; GUL, Hasan; GOKPINAR, Fikri; BAYRAK, Hülya; OZONUR, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Randomized complete block design is one of the most used experimental designs in statistical analysis. For testing ordered alternatives in randomized complete block design, parametric tests are used if random sample are drawn from Normal distribution. If normality assumption is not provide, nonparametric methods are used. In this study, we are interested nonparametric tests and we introduce briefly the nonparametric tests, such as Page, Modified Page and Hollander tests. We also give Permutat...

  10. Exponential ratio-product type estimators under second order approximation in stratified random sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rajesh; Sharma, Prayas; Smarandache, Florentin

    2014-01-01

    Singh et al (20009) introduced a family of exponential ratio and product type estimators in stratified random sampling. Under stratified random sampling without replacement scheme, the expressions of bias and mean square error (MSE) of Singh et al (2009) and some other estimators, up to the first- and second-order approximations are derived. Also, the theoretical findings are supported by a numerical example.

  11. The Continuous Spin Random Field Model : Ferromagnetic Ordering in d ≥ 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Külske, Christof

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the Gibbs-measures of ferromagnetically coupled continuous spins in double-well potentials subjected to a random field (our specific example being the φ4 theory), showing ferromagnetic ordering in d ≥ 3 dimensions for weak disorder and large energy barriers. We map the random

  12. Robust Fuzzy Control for Fractional-Order Uncertain Hydroturbine Regulating System with Random Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengjiao Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The robust fuzzy control for fractional-order hydroturbine regulating system is studied in this paper. First, the more practical fractional-order hydroturbine regulating system with uncertain parameters and random disturbances is presented. Then, on the basis of interval matrix theory and fractional-order stability theorem, a fuzzy control method is proposed for fractional-order hydroturbine regulating system, and the stability condition is expressed as a group of linear matrix inequalities. Furthermore, the proposed method has good robustness which can process external random disturbances and uncertain parameters. Finally, the validity and superiority are proved by the numerical simulations.

  13. Study on the Business Cycle Model with Fractional-Order Time Delay under Random Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifei Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Time delay of economic policy and memory property in a real economy system is omnipresent and inevitable. In this paper, a business cycle model with fractional-order time delay which describes the delay and memory property of economic control is investigated. Stochastic averaging method is applied to obtain the approximate analytical solution. Numerical simulations are done to verify the method. The effects of the fractional order, time delay, economic control and random excitation on the amplitude of the economy system are investigated. The results show that time delay, fractional order and intensity of random excitation can all magnify the amplitude and increase the volatility of the economy system.

  14. Protein Ordered Sequences are Formed by Random Joining of Amino Acids in Protein 0th-Order Structure, Followed by Evolutionary Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Only random processes should occur on the primitive Earth. In contrast, many ordered sequences are synthesized according to genetic information on the present Earth. In this communication, I have proposed an idea that protein 0th-order structures or specific amino acid compositions would mediate the transfer from random process to formation of ordered sequences, after formation of double-stranded genes.

  15. Variances as order parameter and complexity measure for random Boolean networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luque, Bartolo [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y EstadIstica, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Plaza Cardenal Cisneros 3, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Ballesteros, Fernando J [Observatori Astronomic, Universitat de Valencia, Ed. Instituts d' Investigacio, Pol. La Coma s/n, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Fernandez, Manuel [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y EstadIstica, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Plaza Cardenal Cisneros 3, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2005-02-04

    Several order parameters have been considered to predict and characterize the transition between ordered and disordered phases in random Boolean networks, such as the Hamming distance between replicas or the stable core, which have been successfully used. In this work, we propose a natural and clear new order parameter: the temporal variance. We compute its value analytically and compare it with the results of numerical experiments. Finally, we propose a complexity measure based on the compromise between temporal and spatial variances. This new order parameter and its related complexity measure can be easily applied to other complex systems.

  16. Residual and Past Entropy for Concomitants of Ordered Random Variables of Morgenstern Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Mohie EL-Din

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For a system, which is observed at time t, the residual and past entropies measure the uncertainty about the remaining and the past life of the distribution, respectively. In this paper, we have presented the residual and past entropy of Morgenstern family based on the concomitants of the different types of generalized order statistics (gos and give the linear transformation of such model. Characterization results for these dynamic entropies for concomitants of ordered random variables have been considered.

  17. Firm-Related Training Tracks: A Random Effects Ordered Probit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, Wim; van den Brink, Henriette Maassen

    2003-01-01

    A random effects ordered response model of training is estimated to analyze the existence of training tracks and time varying coefficients in training frequency. Two waves of a Dutch panel survey of workers are used covering the period 1992-1996. The amount of training received by workers increased during the period 1994-1996 compared to…

  18. Non-Parametric Inference for Ordered Alternatives in a Randomized Block Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettmansperger, Thomas P.

    1975-01-01

    Treats the problem of testing an ordered hypothesis based on the ranks of the data. Statistical procedures for the randomized block design with more than one observation per cell are derived. Multiple comparisions and estimation procedures are included. (Author/RC)

  19. A generalized Jonckheere test against ordered alternatives for repeated measures in randomized blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Cabilio, Paul

    2013-05-10

    Focusing on statistical methods in patient-reported outcomes, we propose and develop a generalized Jonckheere test against ordered alternatives for repeated measures in a randomized block design. We derive its asymptotic null distribution properties and describe methods for estimating the null distribution for testing the hypothesis. We present a numerical example to illustrate the test procedure. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Stationary and nonstationary random vibrations of laminated composite plates via a higher order theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elishakoff, Isaac; Librescu, Liviu; Cederbaum, Gabriel

    1990-01-01

    Higher order shear deformation theory is utilized to study he weakly stationary and nonstationary random vibrations of cross-ply laminated plates. Normal mode method, in conjunction with the biorthogonality condition, for the nonsymmetric differential equations is applied. Detailed derivation is given for the governing equations, biorthogonality condition, the generalized mass and the generalized forces. Results are listed for a plate which is simply supported at all the edges, and subjected to a point load which is either timewise stationary or nonstationary random process.

  1. Random walker in temporally deforming higher-order potential forces observed in a financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kota; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2009-11-01

    Basic peculiarities of market price fluctuations are known to be well described by a recently developed random-walk model in a temporally deforming quadratic potential force whose center is given by a moving average of past price traces [M. Takayasu, T. Mizuno, and H. Takayasu, Physica A 370, 91 (2006)]. By analyzing high-frequency financial time series of exceptional events, such as bubbles and crashes, we confirm the appearance of higher-order potential force in the markets. We show statistical significance of its existence by applying the information criterion. This time series analysis is expected to be applied widely for detecting a nonstationary symptom in random phenomena.

  2. Random walker in temporally deforming higher-order potential forces observed in a financial crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kota; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2009-11-01

    Basic peculiarities of market price fluctuations are known to be well described by a recently developed random-walk model in a temporally deforming quadratic potential force whose center is given by a moving average of past price traces [M. Takayasu, T. Mizuno, and H. Takayasu, Physica A 370, 91 (2006)]. By analyzing high-frequency financial time series of exceptional events, such as bubbles and crashes, we confirm the appearance of higher-order potential force in the markets. We show statistical significance of its existence by applying the information criterion. This time series analysis is expected to be applied widely for detecting a nonstationary symptom in random phenomena.

  3. Estimating overall exposure effects for the clustered and censored outcome using random effect Tobit regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Griswold, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    The random effect Tobit model is a regression model that accommodates both left- and/or right-censoring and within-cluster dependence of the outcome variable. Regression coefficients of random effect Tobit models have conditional interpretations on a constructed latent dependent variable and do not provide inference of overall exposure effects on the original outcome scale. Marginalized random effects model (MREM) permits likelihood-based estimation of marginal mean parameters for the clustered data. For random effect Tobit models, we extend the MREM to marginalize over both the random effects and the normal space and boundary components of the censored response to estimate overall exposure effects at population level. We also extend the ‘Average Predicted Value’ method to estimate the model-predicted marginal means for each person under different exposure status in a designated reference group by integrating over the random effects and then use the calculated difference to assess the overall exposure effect. The maximum likelihood estimation is proposed utilizing a quasi-Newton optimization algorithm with Gauss-Hermite quadrature to approximate the integration of the random effects. We use these methods to carefully analyze two real datasets. PMID:27449636

  4. Monadic structures over an ordered universal random graph and finite automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudakov, Sergey M [Tver' State University, Tver' (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-31

    We continue the investigation of the expressive power of the language of predicate logic for finite algebraic systems embedded in infinite systems. This investigation stems from papers of M. A. Taitslin, M. Benedikt and L. Libkin, among others. We study the properties of a finite monadic system which can be expressed by formulae if such a system is embedded in a random graph that is totally ordered in an arbitrary way. The Buechi representation is used to connect monadic structures and formal languages. It is shown that, if one restricts attention to formulae that are <-invariant in totally ordered random graphs, then these formulae correspond to finite automata. We show that =-invariant formulae expressing the properties of the embedded system itself can express only Boolean combinations of properties of the form 'the cardinality of an intersection of one-place predicates belongs to one of finitely many fixed finite or infinite arithmetic progressions'.

  5. Transmission performance improvement using random DFB laser based Raman amplification and bidirectional second-order pumping

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, M.; Rosa, P; Le, S.T.; Iqbal, Md A.; Phillips, I.D.; Harper, P.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that a distributed Raman amplification scheme based on random distributed feedback (DFB) fiber laser enables bidirectional second-order Raman pumping without increasing relative intensity noise (RIN) of the signal. This extends the reach of 10 × 116 Gb/s DP-QPSK WDM transmission up to 7915 km, compared with conventional Raman amplification schemes. Moreover, this scheme gives the longest maximum transmission distance among all the Raman amplification schemes presented in this p...

  6. Virtual reality exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Page L; Price, Matthew; Edwards, Shannan M; Obasaju, Mayowa A; Schmertz, Stefan K; Zimand, Elana; Calamaras, Martha R

    2013-10-01

    This is the first randomized trial comparing virtual reality exposure therapy to in vivo exposure for social anxiety disorder. Participants with a principal diagnosis of social anxiety disorder who identified public speaking as their primary fear (N = 97) were recruited from the community, resulting in an ethnically diverse sample (M age = 39 years) of mostly women (62%). Participants were randomly assigned to and completed 8 sessions of manualized virtual reality exposure therapy, exposure group therapy, or wait list. Standardized self-report measures were collected at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 12-month follow-up, and process measures were collected during treatment. A standardized speech task was delivered at pre- and posttreatment, and diagnostic status was reassessed at 3-month follow-up. Analysis of covariance showed that, relative to wait list, people completing either active treatment significantly improved on all but one measure (length of speech for exposure group therapy and self-reported fear of negative evaluation for virtual reality exposure therapy). At 12-month follow-up, people showed significant improvement from pretreatment on all measures. There were no differences between the active treatments on any process or outcome measure at any time, nor differences on achieving partial or full remission. Virtual reality exposure therapy is effective for treating social fears, and improvement is maintained for 1 year. Virtual reality exposure therapy is equally effective as exposure group therapy; further research with a larger sample is needed, however, to better control and statistically test differences between the treatments.

  7. Is the order of the New Testament books in the canon random?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Marek Mucha

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Decretum de canonicis Scripturis (Council of Trent gives the following list of the canonical books of the New Testament: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Acts of the Apostles, Pauline Epistles, Catholic Epistles, Revelation. This order is based on many manuscripts, but is not the only one known. The Apostolic Fathers cite the books of the New Testament, but never give their titles. The books were only given titles in the late second century. The Muratorian fragment is the oldest document (the second half of the 2nd century which enumerates canonical books in an appropriate order. The important fact is that this list was prepared in the Roman Church and the order is in accordance with our canon. The Muratorian fragment presents the list of books in the reverse alphabetical order (from Z to A. It is a consequence of the tendency to order books alphabetically (not only in codices. Due to the fact that the oldest list of canonical books enlists them in the same order as we do in our canon and this order is not random, the order in our canon seems to be authentic.

  8. Is Exposure Necessary? A Randomized Clinical Trial of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, John C; Petkova, Eva; Neria, Yuval; Van Meter, Page E; Zhao, Yihong; Hembree, Elizabeth; Lovell, Karina; Biyanova, Tatyana; Marshall, Randall D

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to trauma reminders has been considered imperative in psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors tested interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), which has demonstrated antidepressant efficacy and shown promise in pilot PTSD research as a non-exposure-based non-cognitive-behavioral PTSD treatment. The authors conducted a randomized 14-week trial comparing IPT, prolonged exposure (an exposure-based exemplar), and relaxation therapy (an active control psychotherapy) in 110 unmedicated patients who had chronic PTSD and a score >50 on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Randomization stratified for comorbid major depression. The authors hypothesized that IPT would be no more than minimally inferior (a difference CAPS score) to prolonged exposure. All therapies had large within-group effect sizes (d values, 1.32-1.88). Rates of response, defined as an improvement of >30% in CAPS score, were 63% for IPT, 47% for prolonged exposure, and 38% for relaxation therapy (not significantly different between groups). CAPS outcomes for IPT and prolonged exposure differed by 5.5 points (not significant), and the null hypothesis of more than minimal IPT inferiority was rejected (p=0.035). Patients with comorbid major depression were nine times more likely than nondepressed patients to drop out of prolonged exposure therapy. IPT and prolonged exposure improved quality of life and social functioning more than relaxation therapy. This study demonstrated noninferiority of individual IPT for PTSD compared with the gold-standard treatment. IPT had (nonsignificantly) lower attrition and higher response rates than prolonged exposure. Contrary to widespread clinical belief, PTSD treatment may not require cognitive-behavioral exposure to trauma reminders. Moreover, patients with comorbid major depression may fare better with IPT than with prolonged exposure.

  9. Role of Educational Exposure in the Association Between Myopia and Birth Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, Jeremy A; Williams, Cathy

    2015-12-01

    Visual impairment due to myopia is an important public health issue. A prior analysis of population-based cohorts aged 15 to 22 years recruited from the United Kingdom and Israel suggested myopia and high myopia were approximately 10% more common in first-born compared with later-born children. To examine whether myopia was associated with birth order in an earlier generation than studied previously and, if so, whether the association was attenuated after adjusting for education exposure, as predicted by the hypothesis that the education of children with later birth orders is less intense. Cross-sectional study of UK Biobank participants recruited from 2006 to 2010. Analysis was restricted to participants aged 40 to 69 years who had a vision assessment, self-reported white ethnicity, and no history of eye disorders (N = 89,120). Myopia and high myopia were defined as autorefraction of -0.75 diopters (D) or less and -6.00 D or less, respectively. Birth order and information on potential confounders including highest educational qualification ascertained using a structured questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) for myopia and high myopia by birth order, using logistic regression and adjusting for age and sex (model 1) or age, sex, and highest educational qualification (model 2). In model 1 (no adjustment for education), birth order was associated with both myopia and high myopia (eg, comparing first- vs second-born individuals; OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.08-1.16; P = 1.40E-11 and OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.11-1.30; P = 3.60E-06 for myopia and high myopia, respectively). The risk for myopia became progressively lower for later birth orders, suggesting a dose response. In model 2 (after adjusting for education), the effect sizes were attenuated by approximately 25% (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.05-1.12; P = 1.30E-06 and OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.25; P = 4.60E-04 for myopia and high myopia, respectively) and the apparent dose response was abolished. These data suggest that the

  10. A novel single-order diffraction grating: Random position rectangle grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhua, Yang; Qiangqiang, Zhang; Jing, Wang; Quanping, Fan; Yuwei, Liu; Lai, Wei; Leifeng, Cao

    2016-05-01

    Spectral diagnosis of radiation from laser plasma interaction and monochromation of radiation source are hot and important topics recently. Grating is one of the primary optical elements to do this job. Although easy to fabricate, traditional diffraction grating suffers from multi-order diffraction contamination. On the other hand, sinusoidal amplitude grating has the nonharmonic diffraction property, but it is too difficult to fabricate, especially for x-ray application. A novel nonharmonic diffraction grating named random position rectangle grating (RPRG) is proposed in this paper. Theoretical analysis and experiment results show that the RPRG is both higher order diffraction suppressing and not difficult to fabricate. Additionally, it is highly efficient; its first order absolute theoretical diffraction efficiency reaches 4.1%. Our result shows that RPRG is a novel tool for radiation diagnosis and monochromation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11375160) and the National Science Instruments Major Project of China (Grant No. 2012YQ130125).

  11. Reduced-Order Monte Carlo Modeling of Radiation Transport in Random Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Aaron

    The ability to perform radiation transport computations in stochastic media is essential for predictive capabilities in applications such as weather modeling, radiation shielding involving non-homogeneous materials, atmospheric radiation transport computations, and transport in plasma-air structures. Due to the random nature of such media, it is often not clear how to model or otherwise compute on many forms of stochastic media. Several approaches to evaluation of transport quantities for some stochastic media exist, though such approaches often either yield considerable error or are quite computationally expensive. We model stochastic media using the Karhunen-Loeve (KL) expansion, seek to improve efficiency through use of stochastic collocation (SC), and provide higher-order information of output values using the polynomial chaos expansion (PCE). We study and demonstrate method convergence and apply the new methods to both spatially continuous and spatially discontinuous stochastic media. New methods are shown to produce accurate solutions for reasonable computational cost for several problem when compared with existing solution methods. Spatially random media are modeled using transformations of the Gaussian-distributed KL expansion-continuous random media with a lognormal transformation and discontinuous random media with a Nataf transformation. Each transformation preserves second-order statistics for the quantity-atom density or material index, respectively-being modeled. The Nystrom method facilitates numerical solution of the KL eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and a variety of methods are investigated for sampling KL eigenfunctions as a function of solved eigenvectors. The infinite KL expansion is truncated to a finite number of terms each containing a random variable, and material realizations are created by either randomly or deterministically sampling from the random variables. Deterministic sampling is performed with either isotropic or anisotropic

  12. Reciprocal effects of pesticides and pathogens on amphibian hosts: The importance of exposure order and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochini, Katherine M; Hoverman, Jason T

    2017-02-01

    Ecological communities are increasingly exposed to natural and anthropogenic stressors. While the effects of individual stressors have been broadly investigated, there is growing evidence that multiple stressors are frequently encountered underscoring the need to examine interactive effects. Pesticides and infectious diseases are two common stressors that regularly occur together in nature. Given the documented lethal and sublethal effects of each stressor on individuals, there is the potential for interactive effects that alter disease outcomes and pesticide toxicity. Using larval wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus), we examined the reciprocal interaction between insecticides (carbaryl and thiamethoxam) and the viral pathogen ranavirus by testing whether: (1) prior ranavirus infection influences pesticide toxicity and (2) sublethal pesticide exposure increases susceptibility to and transmission of ranavirus. We found that prior infection with ranavirus increased pesticide toxicity; median lethal concentration (LC50) estimates were reduced by 72 and 55% for carbaryl and thiamethoxam, respectively. Importantly, LC50 estimates were reduced to concentrations found in natural systems. This is the first demonstration that an infection can alter pesticide toxicity. We also found that prior pesticide exposure exacerbated disease-induced mortality by increasing mortality rates, but effects on infection prevalence and transmission of the pathogen were minimal. Collectively, our results underscore the importance of incorporating complexity (i.e. order and timing of exposures) into research examining the interactions between natural and anthropogenic stressors. Given the environmental heterogeneity present in nature, such research will provide a more comprehensive understanding of how stressors affect wildlife. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A model for a correlated random walk based on the ordered extension of pseudopodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J M Van Haastert

    Full Text Available Cell migration in the absence of external cues is well described by a correlated random walk. Most single cells move by extending protrusions called pseudopodia. To deduce how cells walk, we have analyzed the formation of pseudopodia by Dictyostelium cells. We have observed that the formation of pseudopodia is highly ordered with two types of pseudopodia: First, de novo formation of pseudopodia at random positions on the cell body, and therefore in random directions. Second, pseudopod splitting near the tip of the current pseudopod in alternating right/left directions, leading to a persistent zig-zag trajectory. Here we analyzed the probability frequency distributions of the angles between pseudopodia and used this information to design a stochastic model for cell movement. Monte Carlo simulations show that the critical elements are the ratio of persistent splitting pseudopodia relative to random de novo pseudopodia, the Left/Right alternation, the angle between pseudopodia and the variance of this angle. Experiments confirm predictions of the model, showing reduced persistence in mutants that are defective in pseudopod splitting and in mutants with an irregular cell surface.

  14. The Effect of Interference on Temporal Order Memory for Random and Fixed Sequences in Nondemented Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolentino, Jerlyn C.; Pirogovsky, Eva; Luu, Trinh; Toner, Chelsea K.; Gilbert, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments tested the effect of temporal interference on order memory for fixed and random sequences in young adults and nondemented older adults. The results demonstrate that temporal order memory for fixed and random sequences is impaired in nondemented older adults, particularly when temporal interference is high. However, temporal order…

  15. Exposure to virtual social interactions in the treatment of social anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampmann, I.L.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Hartanto, D.; Brinkman, W.P.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.; Morina, N.

    2016-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of a stand-alone virtual reality exposure intervention comprising verbal interaction with virtual humans to target heterogeneous social fears in participants with social anxiety disorder. Sixty participants (Mage = 36.9 years; 63.3% women)

  16. Internet-based exposure and behavioral activation for complicated grief and rumination: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, M.C.; Boelen, P.A.; van den Bout, J.; Stroebe, W.; Schut, H.A.; Lancee, J.; Stroebe, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness and feasibility of therapist-guided Internet-delivered exposure (EX) and behavioral activation (BA) for complicated grief and rumination. Forty-seven bereaved individuals with elevated levels of complicated grief and grief rumination were randomly assigned to

  17. Internet-Based Exposure and Behavioral Activation for Complicated Grief and Rumination : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, M.C.; Boelen, P.A.; van den Bout, J.; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Schut, H.A.W.; Lancee, Jaap; Stroebe, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness and feasibility of therapist-guided Internet-delivered exposure (EX) and behavioral activation (BA) for complicated grief and rumination. Forty-seven bereaved individuals with elevated levels of complicated grief and grief rumination were randomly assigned to

  18. Transmission performance improvement using random DFB laser based Raman amplification and bidirectional second-order pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M; Rosa, P; Le, S T; Iqbal, Md A; Phillips, I D; Harper, P

    2016-02-08

    We demonstrate that a distributed Raman amplification scheme based on random distributed feedback (DFB) fiber laser enables bidirectional second-order Raman pumping without increasing relative intensity noise (RIN) of the signal. This extends the reach of 10 × 116 Gb/s DP-QPSK WDM transmission up to 7915 km, compared with conventional Raman amplification schemes. Moreover, this scheme gives the longest maximum transmission distance among all the Raman amplification schemes presented in this paper, whilst maintaining relatively uniform and symmetric signal power distribution, and is also adjustable in order to be highly compatible with different nonlinearity compensation techniques, including mid-link optical phase conjugation (OPC) and nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT).

  19. Will electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks undergo first-order transition under random attacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xingpei; Wang, Bo; Liu, Dichen; Dong, Zhaoyang; Chen, Guo; Zhu, Zhenshan; Zhu, Xuedong; Wang, Xunting

    2016-10-01

    Whether the realistic electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks will undergo first-order transition under random failures still remains a question. To reflect the reality of Chinese electrical cyber-physical system, the "partial one-to-one correspondence" interdependent networks model is proposed and the connectivity vulnerabilities of three realistic electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks are analyzed. The simulation results show that due to the service demands of power system the topologies of power grid and its cyber network are highly inter-similar which can effectively avoid the first-order transition. By comparing the vulnerability curves between electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks and its single-layer network, we find that complex network theory is still useful in the vulnerability analysis of electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks.

  20. A Randomized Trial of Displaying Paid Price Information on Imaging Study and Procedure Ordering Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Alyna T; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Hatfield, Laura A; Koplan, Kate E; Petty, Carter R; Sinaiko, Anna D; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Sequist, Thomas D

    2017-04-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated how price transparency lowers the test-ordering rates of trainees in hospitals, and physician-targeted price transparency efforts have been viewed as a promising cost-controlling strategy. To examine the effect of displaying paid-price information on test-ordering rates for common imaging studies and procedures within an accountable care organization (ACO). Block randomized controlled trial for 1 year. A total of 1205 fully licensed clinicians (728 primary care, 477 specialists). Starting January 2014, clinicians in the Control arm received no price display; those in the intervention arms received Single or Paired Internal/External Median Prices in the test-ordering screen of their electronic health record. Internal prices were the amounts paid by insurers for the ACO's services; external paid prices were the amounts paid by insurers for the same services when delivered by unaffiliated providers. Ordering rates (orders per 100 face-to-face encounters with adult patients): overall, designated to be completed internally within the ACO, considered "inappropriate" (e.g., MRI for simple headache), and thought to be "appropriate" (e.g., screening colonoscopy). We found no significant difference in overall ordering rates across the Control, Single Median Price, or Paired Internal/External Median Prices study arms. For every 100 encounters, clinicians in the Control arm ordered 15.0 (SD 31.1) tests, those in the Single Median Price arm ordered 15.0 (SD 16.2) tests, and those in the Paired Prices arms ordered 15.7 (SD 20.5) tests (one-way ANOVA p-value 0.88). There was no difference in ordering rates for tests designated to be completed internally or considered to be inappropriate or appropriate. Displaying paid-price information did not alter how frequently primary care and specialist clinicians ordered imaging studies and procedures within an ACO. Those with a particular interest in removing waste from the health care system may want to

  1. A stochastic collocation method for the second order wave equation with a discontinuous random speed

    KAUST Repository

    Motamed, Mohammad

    2012-08-31

    In this paper we propose and analyze a stochastic collocation method for solving the second order wave equation with a random wave speed and subjected to deterministic boundary and initial conditions. The speed is piecewise smooth in the physical space and depends on a finite number of random variables. The numerical scheme consists of a finite difference or finite element method in the physical space and a collocation in the zeros of suitable tensor product orthogonal polynomials (Gauss points) in the probability space. This approach leads to the solution of uncoupled deterministic problems as in the Monte Carlo method. We consider both full and sparse tensor product spaces of orthogonal polynomials. We provide a rigorous convergence analysis and demonstrate different types of convergence of the probability error with respect to the number of collocation points for full and sparse tensor product spaces and under some regularity assumptions on the data. In particular, we show that, unlike in elliptic and parabolic problems, the solution to hyperbolic problems is not in general analytic with respect to the random variables. Therefore, the rate of convergence may only be algebraic. An exponential/fast rate of convergence is still possible for some quantities of interest and for the wave solution with particular types of data. We present numerical examples, which confirm the analysis and show that the collocation method is a valid alternative to the more traditional Monte Carlo method for this class of problems. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Effectiveness of a Multidimensional Randomized Control Intervention to Reduce Quartz Exposure Among Construction Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deurssen, Erik; Meijster, Tim; Oude Hengel, Karen M; Boessen, Ruud; Spaan, Suzanne; Tielemans, Erik; Heederik, Dick; Pronk, Anjoeka

    2015-10-01

    There is little evidence with respect to the effectiveness of intervention programs that focus on the reduction of occupational quartz exposure in the construction industry. This article evaluates the effectiveness of a multidimensional intervention which was aimed at reducing occupational quartz exposure among construction workers by increasing the use of technical control measures. Eight companies participating in the cluster randomized controlled trial were randomly allocated to the intervention (four companies) or control condition (four companies). The multidimensional intervention included engineering, organizational, and behavioural elements at both organizational and individual level. Full-shift personal quartz exposure measurements and detailed observations were conducted before and after the intervention among bricklayers, carpenters, concrete drillers, demolishers, and tuck pointers (n = 282). About 59% of these workers measured at baseline were reassessed during follow-up. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to evaluate the intervention effect on exposure levels. Concrete drillers in the intervention group used technical control measures, particularly water suppression, for a significantly greater proportion of the time spent on abrasive tasks during follow-up compared to baseline (93 versus 62%; P quartz exposure (73 versus 40% in the intervention and control group respectively; P quartz exposure among high exposed construction workers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  3. Adjunctive graded body image exposure for eating disorders: A randomized controlled initial trial in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottier, Kathryn; Carter, Jacqueline C; MacDonald, Danielle E; McFarlane, Traci; Olmsted, Marion P

    2015-07-01

    Graded body image exposure is a key component of CBT for eating disorders (EDs). However, despite being a highly anxiety-provoking intervention, its specific effectiveness is unknown. The aims of this initial study were to investigate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of individualized graded body image exposure to a range of feared/avoided body image-related situations in a sample of partially remitted ED patients. Forty-five female adult participants were randomly assigned to maintenance treatment as usual (MTAU) only or MTAU plus five sessions of graded body image exposure. The graded body image exposure intervention led to large improvements in body avoidance as measured by two different methods. In addition, there was evidence of a significant impact of body image exposure on the overvaluation of shape, but not weight, 5 months after treatment. Taken together, the current results provide evidence of the feasibility of adjunctive individualized graded body image exposure within a clinical treatment program and suggest that graded body image exposure reduces body avoidance behaviors in partially remitted ED patients. Our findings suggest that individualized graded body image exposure shows promise as an intervention targeting the overvaluation of shape in EDs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Systemic effects of controlled exposure to diesel exhaust: a meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Jefferson Luis; Macedo, Francisco Yuri; Benjo, Alexandre Miguel; Guimarães, Guilherme V; Contreras, Johanna Paola; Bocchi, Edimar A

    2017-03-01

    Ambient air pollution is associated with adverse cardiovascular events. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the short-term association between air pollution and cardiovascular effects on healthy volunteers. We searched databases to identify randomized trials with controlled human exposures to either of two models for studying ambient particulate matter: diesel-exhaust or concentrated ambient particles. Estimates of size effect were performed using standardized mean difference (SMD). Heterogeneity was assessed with I2 statistics. Outcomes were vascular function estimated by forearm blood flow (FBF), blood pressure, heart rate, and blood analysis. Database searches yielded 17 articles (n = 342) with sufficient information for meta-analyses. High levels of heterogeneity for the some outcomes were analyzed using random-effects model. The pooled effect estimate showed that short-term exposure to air pollution impaired FBF response from 2.7 to 2.5 mL/100 mL tissue/min (SMD 0.404; p = .006). There was an increase in 5000 platelet/mm3 following pollution exposure (SMD 0.390; p = .050) but no significant differences for other outcomes. Controlled human exposures to air pollution are associated with the surrogates of vascular dysfunction and increase in platelet count, which might be related to adverse cardiovascular events. Given the worldwide prevalence of exposure to air pollution, these findings are relevant for public health. KEY MESSAGES Controlled exposure to air pollution impairs vasomotor response, which is a surrogate for adverse cardiovascular events. This is the first meta-analysis from randomized clinical trials showing short-term association between air pollution and cardiovascular effects on healthy volunteers. Given the worldwide prevalence of exposure to air pollution, this finding is important for public health.

  5. A randomized controlled study of exposure therapy as aftercare for alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellentin, Angelina Isabella; Nielsen, Bent; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard

    2016-01-01

    Background It is well documented that individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) respond well during evidence-based psychological treatment, but also that a large proportion relapses when discharged from treatment and confronted with alcohol in real life. Cue Exposure Treatment (CET) focuses...... as an investigator-blinded randomized controlled trial. A total of 300 consecutively enrolled alcohol use disorder individuals recruited from an alcohol outpatient clinic will be randomized into one of the three following aftercare groups after concluding primary treatment: (1) CET as a smartphone application; (2...... psychological treatment whenever and wherever the patient finds it convenient....

  6. Comparing cost effects of two quality strategies to improve test ordering in primary care: a randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, W.H.; Merode, F. van; Grimshaw, J.; Dubois, W.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Weijden, T. van der

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the costs and cost reductions of an innovative strategy aimed at improving test ordering routines of primary care physicians, compared with a traditional strategy. DESIGN: Multicenter randomized controlled trial with randomization at the local primary care physicians group

  7. Reducing Underserved Children's Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Randomized Counseling Trial With Maternal Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Bradley N; Nair, Uma S; Hovell, Melbourne F; DiSantis, Katie I; Jaffe, Karen; Tolley, Natalie M; Wileyto, E Paul; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2015-10-01

    Addressing maternal smoking and child tobacco smoke exposure is a public health priority. Standard care advice and self-help materials to help parents reduce child tobacco smoke exposure is not sufficient to promote change in underserved populations. We tested the efficacy of a behavioral counseling approach with underserved maternal smokers to reduce infant's and preschooler's tobacco smoke exposure. A two-arm randomized trial: enhanced behavior counseling (experimental) versus enhanced standard care (control). Assessment staff members were blinded. Three hundred randomized maternal smokers were recruited from low-income urban communities. Participants had a child aged Smoke-free Homes (FRESH) included 16 weeks of counseling. Using a behavioral shaping approach within an individualized cognitive-behavioral therapy framework, counseling reinforced efforts to adopt increasingly challenging tobacco smoke exposure-protective behaviors with the eventual goal of establishing a smoke-free home. Primary outcomes were end-of-treatment child cotinine and reported tobacco smoke exposure (maternal cigarettes/day exposed). Secondary outcomes were end-of-treatment 7-day point-prevalence self-reported cigarettes smoked/day and bioverified quit status. Participation in FRESH behavioral counseling was associated with lower child cotinine (β=-0.18, p=0.03) and reported tobacco smoke exposure (β=-0.57, p=0.03) at the end of treatment. Mothers in behavioral counseling smoked fewer cigarettes/day (β=-1.84, p=0.03) and had higher bioverified quit rates compared with controls (13.8% vs 1.9%, χ(2)=10.56, psmoke exposure and promotes smoking quit rates in a highly distressed and vulnerable population. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02117947. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. REGULAR METHOD FOR SYNTHESIS OF BASIC BENT-SQUARES OF RANDOM ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sokolov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the class construction of the most non-linear Boolean bent-functions of any length N = 2k (k = 2, 4, 6…, on the basis of their spectral representation – Agievich bent squares. These perfect algebraic constructions are used as a basis to build many new cryptographic primitives, such as generators of pseudo-random key sequences, crypto graphic S-boxes, etc. Bent-functions also find their application in the construction of C-codes in the systems with code division multiple access (CDMA to provide the lowest possible value of Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR k = 1, as well as for the construction of error-correcting codes and systems of orthogonal biphasic signals. All the numerous applications of bent-functions relate to the theory of their synthesis. However, regular methods for complete class synthesis of bent-functions of any length N = 2k are currently unknown. The paper proposes a regular synthesis method for the basic Agievich bent squares of any order n, based on a regular operator of dyadic shift. Classification for a complete set of spectral vectors of lengths (l = 8, 16, … based on a criterion of the maximum absolute value and set of absolute values of spectral components has been carried out in the paper. It has been shown that any spectral vector can be a basis for building bent squares. Results of the synthesis for the Agievich bent squares of order n = 8 have been generalized and it has been revealed that there are only 3 basic bent squares for this order, while the other 5 can be obtained with help the operation of step-cyclic shift. All the basic bent squares of order n = 16 have been synthesized that allows to construct the bent-functions of length N = 256. The obtained basic bent squares can be used either for direct synthesis of bent-functions and their practical application or for further research in order to synthesize new structures of bent squares of orders n = 16, 32, 64, …

  9. A higher order conditional random field model for simultaneous classification of land cover and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Lena; Rottensteiner, Franz; Heipke, Christian

    2017-08-01

    We propose a new approach for the simultaneous classification of land cover and land use considering spatial as well as semantic context. We apply a Conditional Random Fields (CRF) consisting of a land cover and a land use layer. In the land cover layer of the CRF, the nodes represent super-pixels; in the land use layer, the nodes correspond to objects from a geospatial database. Intra-layer edges of the CRF model spatial dependencies between neighbouring image sites. All spatially overlapping sites in both layers are connected by inter-layer edges, which leads to higher order cliques modelling the semantic relation between all land cover and land use sites in the clique. A generic formulation of the higher order potential is proposed. In order to enable efficient inference in the two-layer higher order CRF, we propose an iterative inference procedure in which the two classification tasks mutually influence each other. We integrate contextual relations between land cover and land use in the classification process by using contextual features describing the complex dependencies of all nodes in a higher order clique. These features are incorporated in a discriminative classifier, which approximates the higher order potentials during the inference procedure. The approach is designed for input data based on aerial images. Experiments are carried out on two test sites to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The experiments show that the classification results are improved compared to the results of a non-contextual classifier. For land cover classification, the result is much more homogeneous and the delineation of land cover segments is improved. For the land use classification, an improvement is mainly achieved for land use objects showing non-typical characteristics or similarities to other land use classes. Furthermore, we have shown that the size of the super-pixels has an influence on the level of detail of the classification result, but also on the

  10. In-Car Nocturnal Blue Light Exposure Improves Motorway Driving: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Taillard; Aurore Capelli; Patricia Sagaspe; Anna Anund; Torbjorn Akerstedt; Pierre Philip

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged wakefulness greatly decreases nocturnal driving performance. The development of in-car countermeasures is a future challenge to prevent sleep-related accidents. The aim of this study is to determine whether continuous exposure to monochromatic light in the short wavelengths (blue light), placed on the dashboard, improves night-time driving performance. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 48 healthy male participants (aged 20–50 years) drove 400 km...

  11. Effect of Acute Noise Exposure on Salivary Cortisol: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouryaghoub, Gholamreza; Mehrdad, Ramin; Valipouri, Alireza

    2016-10-01

    Cardiovascular adverse effects are interesting aspects of occupational noise exposure. One possible mechanism of these effects is an alternation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Our aim was to measure salivary cortisol response to relatively high-intensity noise exposure in a controlled randomized trial study. We exposed 50 male volunteers to 90 dBA noise for 20 minutes and compared their level of salivary cortisol with 50 non-exposed controls. Salivary samples obtained before and after exposure. Before intervention means (SD) salivary cortisol level were 3.24 (0.47)ng/ml and 3.25 (0.41)ng/ml for exposed and non-exposed groups respectively. Mean salivary cortisol level increased to 4.17 ng/mlafter intervention in exposure group. This increment was statistically significant (P=0.00). Mean salivary cortisol level of the non-exposed group had statistically non-significant decrement after this period (0.2 ng/ml). The difference between salivary cortisol level of non-exposed and exposed groups after the intervention was statistically significant. Noise exposure may affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, and this may be one of the mechanisms of noise exposure cardiovascular effects.

  12. Order-to-chaos transition in the hardness of random Boolean satisfiability problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Melinda; Sumi, Róbert; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária

    2016-05-01

    Transient chaos is a ubiquitous phenomenon characterizing the dynamics of phase-space trajectories evolving towards a steady-state attractor in physical systems as diverse as fluids, chemical reactions, and condensed matter systems. Here we show that transient chaos also appears in the dynamics of certain efficient algorithms searching for solutions of constraint satisfaction problems that include scheduling, circuit design, routing, database problems, and even Sudoku. In particular, we present a study of the emergence of hardness in Boolean satisfiability (k -SAT), a canonical class of constraint satisfaction problems, by using an analog deterministic algorithm based on a system of ordinary differential equations. Problem hardness is defined through the escape rate κ , an invariant measure of transient chaos of the dynamical system corresponding to the analog algorithm, and it expresses the rate at which the trajectory approaches a solution. We show that for a given density of constraints and fixed number of Boolean variables N , the hardness of formulas in random k -SAT ensembles has a wide variation, approximable by a lognormal distribution. We also show that when increasing the density of constraints α , hardness appears through a second-order phase transition at αχ in the random 3-SAT ensemble where dynamical trajectories become transiently chaotic. A similar behavior is found in 4-SAT as well, however, such a transition does not occur for 2-SAT. This behavior also implies a novel type of transient chaos in which the escape rate has an exponential-algebraic dependence on the critical parameter κ ˜NB |α - αχ|1-γ with 0 <γ <1 . We demonstrate that the transition is generated by the appearance of metastable basins in the solution space as the density of constraints α is increased.

  13. Loss of long-range magnetic order in a nanoparticle assembly due to random anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, C.; Howes, P. B.; Baker, S. H.; Marchetto, H.; Potenza, A.; Steadman, P.; Dhesi, S. S.; Roy, M.; Everard, M. J.; Rushforth, A.

    2008-02-01

    We have used soft x-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM) combined with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and DC SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometry to probe the magnetic ground state in Fe thin films produced by depositing size-selected gas-phase Fe nanoparticles with a diameter of 1.7 nm (~200 atoms) onto Si substrates. The depositions were carried out in ultrahigh vacuum conditions and thicknesses of the deposited film in the range 5-50 nm were studied. The magnetometry data are consistent with the film forming a correlated super-spin glass with a magnetic correlation length ~5 nm. The XPEEM magnetic maps from the cluster-assembled films were compared to those for a conventional thin Fe film with a thickness of 20 nm produced by a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) source. Whereas a normal magnetic domain structure is observed in the conventional MBE thin film, no domain structure could be observed in any of the nanoparticle films down to the resolution limit of the XMCD based XPEEM (100 nm) confirming the ground state indicated by the magnetometry measurements. This observation is consistent with the theoretical prediction that an arbitrarily weak random anisotropy field will destroy long-range magnetic order.

  14. Higher-order cognitive training effects on processing speed-related neural activity: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motes, Michael A; Yezhuvath, Uma S; Aslan, Sina; Spence, Jeffrey S; Rypma, Bart; Chapman, Sandra B

    2017-10-12

    Higher-order cognitive training has shown to enhance performance in older adults, but the neural mechanisms underlying performance enhancement have yet to be fully disambiguated. This randomized trial examined changes in processing speed and processing speed-related neural activity in older participants (57-71 years of age) who underwent cognitive training (CT, N = 12) compared with wait-listed (WLC, N = 15) or exercise-training active (AC, N = 14) controls. The cognitive training taught cognitive control functions of strategic attention, integrative reasoning, and innovation over 12 weeks. All 3 groups worked through a functional magnetic resonance imaging processing speed task during 3 sessions (baseline, mid-training, and post-training). Although all groups showed faster reaction times (RTs) across sessions, the CT group showed a significant increase, and the WLC and AC groups showed significant decreases across sessions in the association between RT and BOLD signal change within the left prefrontal cortex (PFC). Thus, cognitive training led to a change in processing speed-related neural activity where faster processing speed was associated with reduced PFC activation, fitting previously identified neural efficiency profiles. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme Based on Cyclic Automorphism Subgroups of Random Orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Group-based cryptography is viewed as a modern cryptographic candidate solution to blocking quantum computer attacks, and key exchange protocols on the Internet are one of the primitives to ensure the security of communication. In 2016 Habeeb et al proposed a “textbook” key exchange protocol based on the semidirect product of two groups, which is insecure for use in real-world applications. In this paper, after discarding the unnecessary disguising notion of semidirect product in the protocol, we establish a simplified yet enhanced authenticated key agreement scheme based on cyclic automorphism subgroups of random orders by making hybrid use of certificates and symmetric-key encryption as challenge-and-responses in the public-key setting. Its passive security is formally analyzed, which is relative to the cryptographic hardness assumption of a computational number-theoretic problem. Cryptanalysis of this scheme shows that it is secure against the intruder-in-the-middle attack even in the worst case of compromising the signatures, and provides explicit key confirmation to both parties.

  16. Loss of long-range magnetic order in a nanoparticle assembly due to random anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binns, C [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Howes, P B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Baker, S H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Marchetto, H [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Potenza, A [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Steadman, P [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Dhesi, S S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Roy, M [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Everard, M J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Rushforth, A [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-06

    We have used soft x-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM) combined with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and DC SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometry to probe the magnetic ground state in Fe thin films produced by depositing size-selected gas-phase Fe nanoparticles with a diameter of 1.7 nm ({approx}200 atoms) onto Si substrates. The depositions were carried out in ultrahigh vacuum conditions and thicknesses of the deposited film in the range 5-50 nm were studied. The magnetometry data are consistent with the film forming a correlated super-spin glass with a magnetic correlation length {approx}5 nm. The XPEEM magnetic maps from the cluster-assembled films were compared to those for a conventional thin Fe film with a thickness of 20 nm produced by a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) source. Whereas a normal magnetic domain structure is observed in the conventional MBE thin film, no domain structure could be observed in any of the nanoparticle films down to the resolution limit of the XMCD based XPEEM (100 nm) confirming the ground state indicated by the magnetometry measurements. This observation is consistent with the theoretical prediction that an arbitrarily weak random anisotropy field will destroy long-range magnetic order.

  17. A Randomized, Head-to-Head Study of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLay, Robert N; Baird, Alicia; Webb-Murphy, Jennifer; Deal, William; Tran, Lily; Anson, Heather; Klam, Warren; Johnston, Scott

    2017-04-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is one of the few interventions supported by randomized controlled trials for the treatment of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in active duty service members. A comparative effectiveness study was conducted to determine if virtual reality technology itself improved outcomes, or if similar results could be achieved with a control exposure therapy (CET) condition. Service members with combat-related PTSD were randomly selected to receive nine weeks of VRET or CET. Assessors, but not therapists, were blinded. PTSD symptom improvement was assessed one week and 3 months after the conclusion of treatment using the clinician-administered PTSD scale (CAPS). A small crossover component was included. Results demonstrated that PTSD symptoms improved with both treatments, but there were no statistically significant differences between groups. Dropout rates were higher in VRET. Of those who received VRET, 13/42 (31%) showed >30% improvement on the CAPS, versus 16/43 (37%) who received CET. Three months after treatment, >30% improvement was seen in 10/33 (30%) of VRET participants and 12/33 (36%) in CET. Participants who crossed over (n = 11) showed no statistically significant improvements in a second round of treatment, regardless of condition. This study supported the utility of exposure therapy for PTSD, but did not support additional benefit by the inclusion of virtual reality.

  18. Exposure to virtual social interactions in the treatment of social anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, Isabel L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Hartanto, Dwi; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Zijlstra, Bonne J H; Morina, Nexhmedin

    2016-02-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of a stand-alone virtual reality exposure intervention comprising verbal interaction with virtual humans to target heterogeneous social fears in participants with social anxiety disorder. Sixty participants (Mage = 36.9 years; 63.3% women) diagnosed with social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to individual virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), individual in vivo exposure therapy (iVET), or waiting-list. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that both treatment groups improved from pre-to postassessment on social anxiety symptoms, speech duration, perceived stress, and avoidant personality disorder related beliefs when compared to the waiting-list. Participants receiving iVET, but not VRET, improved on fear of negative evaluation, speech performance, general anxiety, depression, and quality of life relative to those on waiting-list. The iVET condition was further superior to the VRET condition regarding decreases in social anxiety symptoms at post- and follow-up assessments, and avoidant personality disorder related beliefs at follow-up. At follow-up, all improvements were significant for iVET. For VRET, only the effect for perceived stress was significant. VRET containing extensive verbal interaction without any cognitive components can effectively reduce complaints of generalized social anxiety disorder. Future technological and psychological improvements of virtual social interactions might further enhance the efficacy of VRET for social anxiety disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Internet-based Exposure Therapy for Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman-Lagerlöf, Maria; Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik; Axelsson, Erland; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Engelbrektsson, Johanna; Hultkrantz, Sofia; Lundbäck, Karolina; Björkander, Daniel; Wicksell, Rikard; Flink, Ida; Andersson, Erik

    2017-10-26

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common and disabling chronic pain disorder, for which existing pharmacological and psychological treatments have yet yielded insufficient effects. Previous literature has shown that exposure therapy may be an effective treatment for chronic pain. This study constitutes the first randomized controlled trial evaluating exposure therapy for FM. One hundred and forty participants with diagnosed FM were randomized to a 10-week internet-based exposure treatment (iExp; n=70) or a waitlist control condition (WLC; n=70). Primary outcome measure were FM symptoms and impact, and secondary outcome measures were fatigue, disability, quality of life, pain-related distress and avoidance behaviors, insomnia, depression and anxiety. Data retention was high (100% data completion at post-treatment for primary outcome, 96% at 6-month follow-up and 94% at 12-month follow-up). Results showed that participants in the iExp group made large and superior improvements compared to WLC on FM symptoms and impact (B =-1.93, z =-10.14, P <0.001, between-group Cohen's d = 0.90), as well as all secondary outcomes (between-group Cohen's d ranging from 0.44 to 1.38) with sustained results. We conclude that iExp seems to be an efficacious treatment for FM compared with no treatment, and the results also highlight the potential increase of accessibility by using the internet format to deliver psychological treatments for these patients. Future trials with active control conditions are warranted.

  20. Mitigating aflatoxin exposure to improve child growth in Eastern Kenya: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Vivian; Jones, Kelly; Leroy, Jef

    2015-01-01

    Background While the few studies that have looked at the association between stunting and aflatoxin exposure have found surprisingly large effects, the results remain inconclusive due to a lack of randomized controlled studies. This protocol describes a non-blinded, cluster-randomized controlled trial with the specific objective of testing the impact of reduced aflatoxin exposure on (individual) child linear growth. Methods/Design Participants were recruited from among households containing w...

  1. Statistical mechanics of random geometric graphs: Geometry-induced first-order phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostilli, Massimo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2015-04-01

    Random geometric graphs (RGGs) can be formalized as hidden-variables models where the hidden variables are the coordinates of the nodes. Here we develop a general approach to extract the typical configurations of a generic hidden-variables model and apply the resulting equations to RGGs. For any RGG, defined through a rigid or a soft geometric rule, the method reduces to a nontrivial satisfaction problem: Given N nodes, a domain D, and a desired average connectivity 〈k〉, find, if any, the distribution of nodes having support in D and average connectivity 〈k〉. We find out that, in the thermodynamic limit, nodes are either uniformly distributed or highly condensed in a small region, the two regimes being separated by a first-order phase transition characterized by a O(N) jump of 〈k〉. Other intermediate values of 〈k〉 correspond to very rare graph realizations. The phase transition is observed as a function of a parameter a∈[0,1] that tunes the underlying geometry. In particular, a=1 indicates a rigid geometry where only close nodes are connected, while a=0 indicates a rigid antigeometry where only distant nodes are connected. Consistently, when a=1/2 there is no geometry and no phase transition. After discussing the numerical analysis, we provide a combinatorial argument to fully explain the mechanism inducing this phase transition and recognize it as an easy-hard-easy transition. Our result shows that, in general, ad hoc optimized networks can hardly be designed, unless to rely to specific heterogeneous constructions, not necessarily scale free.

  2. In-car nocturnal blue light exposure improves motorway driving: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillard, Jacques; Capelli, Aurore; Sagaspe, Patricia; Anund, Anna; Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Philip, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged wakefulness greatly decreases nocturnal driving performance. The development of in-car countermeasures is a future challenge to prevent sleep-related accidents. The aim of this study is to determine whether continuous exposure to monochromatic light in the short wavelengths (blue light), placed on the dashboard, improves night-time driving performance. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 48 healthy male participants (aged 20-50 years) drove 400 km (250 miles) on motorway during night-time. They randomly and consecutively received either continuous blue light exposure (GOLite, Philips, 468 nm) during driving or 2*200 mg of caffeine or placebo of caffeine before and during the break. Treatments were separated by at least 1 week. The outcomes were number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC) and mean standard deviation of the lateral position (SDLP). Eight participants (17%) complained about dazzle during blue light exposure and were removed from the analysis. Results from the 40 remaining participants (mean age ± SD: 32.9±11.1) showed that countermeasures reduced the number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC) (F(2,91.11) = 6.64; pblue light (14.58 [CI, 8.75 to 22.58], p = 0.003) than with placebo (26.42 [CI, 19.90 to 33.71]). Similar results were found for SDLP. Treatments did not modify the quality, quantity and timing of 3 subsequent nocturnal sleep episodes. Despite a lesser tolerance, a non-inferior efficacy of continuous nocturnal blue light exposure compared with caffeine suggests that this in-car countermeasure, used occasionally, could be used to fight nocturnal sleepiness at the wheel in blue light-tolerant drivers, whatever their age. More studies are needed to determine the reproducibility of data and to verify if it can be generalized to women. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01070004.

  3. Sunlight exposure or vitamin D supplementation for vitamin D-deficient non-western immigrants: a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, I.S.; Boeke, A.J.P.; van der Meer, I.M.; van Schoor, N.M.; Knol, D.L.; Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Vitamin D deficiency is very common in non-western immigrants. In this randomized clinical trial, vitamin D 800 IU/day or 100,000 IU/3 months were compared with advised sunlight exposure. Vitamin D supplementation was more effective than advised sunlight exposure in improving vitamin D

  4. Randomized and quantum algorithms for solving initial-value problems in ordinary differential equations of order k

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Goćwin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of initial-value problems is well studied for systems of equations of first order. In this paper, we study the \\(\\varepsilon\\-complexity for initial-value problems for scalar equations of higher order. We consider two models of computation, the randomized model and the quantum model. We construct almost optimal algorithms adjusted to scalar equations of higher order, without passing to systems of first order equations. The analysis of these algorithms allows us to establish upper complexity bounds. We also show (almost matching lower complexity bounds. The \\(\\varepsilon\\-complexity in the randomized and quantum setting depends on the regularity of the right-hand side function, but is independent of the order of equation. Comparing the obtained bounds with results known in the deterministic case, we see that randomized algorithms give us a speed-up by \\(1/2\\, and quantum algorithms by \\(1\\ in the exponent. Hence, the speed-up does not depend on the order of equation, and is the same as for the systems of equations of first order. We also include results of some numerical experiments which confirm theoretical results.

  5. Implementation guide for use with DOE Order 440.1: Occupational exposure assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-30

    DOE O 440.1, Worker Protection Management for DOE Federal and Contractor Employees, establishes the framework for an effective worker protection program that will reduce or prevent accidental injuries and illnesses. One element of the worker protection program in DOE O 440.1 is Exposure Assessment (EA). This Guide provides acceptable methodologies for conducting EA for workers. Exposure assessment should be included in the DOE and contractor written worker protection program, as required by DOE O 440.1. EA documentation should describe the methods and rationale a site uses to characterize and monitor workers` potential and actual exposures to hazardous agents. DOE O 440.1 applies to all activities (including design, construction, operation, maintenance, decontamination and decommissioning, research and development, and environmental restoration activities) performed by DOE and its contractors (and their subcontractors).

  6. Yohimbine enhancement of exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Jasper A J; Rosenfield, David; Davis, Michelle L; Julian, Kristin; Handelsman, Pamela R; Otto, Michael W; Tuerk, Peter; Shiekh, Michael; Rosenfield, Ben; Hofmann, Stefan G; Powers, Mark B

    2014-06-01

    Preclinical and clinical trials suggest that yohimbine may augment extinction learning without significant side effects. However, previous clinical trials have only examined adults with specific phobias. Yohimbine has not yet been investigated in the augmentation of exposure therapy for other anxiety disorders. Adults (n = 40) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of social anxiety disorder were randomized to placebo or yohimbine HCl (10.8 mg) 1 hour before each of four exposure sessions. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, each treatment session, posttreatment, and 1-month follow-up. Yohimbine was well tolerated. Yohimbine augmentation, relative to placebo augmentation, resulted in faster improvement and better outcomes on self-report measures of social anxiety disorder severity (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, d = .53) and depressed mood severity (Beck Depression Inventory, d = .37) but not on the clinician-rated measures (Clinical Global Impressions-Severity Scale, d = .09; Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement Scale, d = .25). Between-group differences on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale were moderated by the level of fear reported at the end of an exposure exercise (end fear), such that the advantage of yohimbine over placebo was only evident among patients who reported low end fear. The results provide moderate support for yohimbine as a therapeutic augmentation strategy for exposure therapy in social anxiety disorder, one that may be especially effective when coupled with successful exposure experiences. Beneficial effects for yohimbine were readily evident for self-report measures but not for clinician-rated outcomes of social anxiety severity and improvement. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  7. Higher order moments of a sum of random variables: remarks and applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Tibiletti

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available The moments of a sum of random variables depend on both the pure moments of each random addendum and on the addendum mixed moments. In this note we introduce a simple measure to evaluate the relative impedance to attach to the latter. Once the pure moments are fixed, the functional relation between the random addenda leading to the extreme values is also provided. Applications to Finance, Decision Theory and Actuarial Sciences are also suggested.

  8. Effect of a dilute random field on a continuous-symmetry order parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, T. C.; Chudnovsky, E. M.

    2015-04-01

    X Y and Heisenberg spins, subjected to strong random fields acting at a few points in space with a concentration cr≪1 , are studied numerically on three-dimensional lattices containing over 4 ×106 sites. Glassy behavior with a strong dependence on initial conditions is found. Beginning with a random initial orientation of spins, the system evolves into ferromagnetic domains inversely proportional to cr in size. The area of the hysteresis loop m (H ) scales as cr2. These findings are explained by mapping the effect of a strong dilute random field onto the effect of a weak continuous random field. Our theory applies directly to ferromagnets with magnetic impurities, and is conceptually relevant to strongly pinned vortex lattices in superconductors and pinned charge-density waves.

  9. Block design allowed for control of the Hawthorne effect in a randomized controlled trial of test ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, Wim H. J. M.; van der Weijden, Trudy; ter Riet, Gerben; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Winkens, Ron; Grol, Richard P. T. M.

    2004-01-01

    Background and Objective: To evaluate the value of balanced incomplete block designs in quality improvement research, and their capacity to control for the Hawthorne effect. Methods: General practitioners teams were randomized into three arms and received an intervention on test ordering, relating

  10. Block design allowed for control of the Hawthorne effect in a randomized controlled trial of test ordering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, W.H.; Weijden, T. van der; Riet, G. ter; Grimshaw, J.; Winkens, R.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of balanced incomplete block designs in quality improvement research, and their capacity to control for the Hawthorne effect. METHODS: General practitioners teams were randomized into three arms and received an intervention on test ordering, relating

  11. Prenatal alcohol exposure and offspring cognition and school performance. A 'Mendelian randomization' natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccolo, Luisa; Lewis, Sarah J; Smith, George Davey; Sayal, Kapil; Draper, Elizabeth S; Fraser, Robert; Barrow, Margaret; Alati, Rosa; Ring, Sue; Macleod, John; Golding, Jean; Heron, Jon; Gray, Ron

    2013-10-01

    There is substantial debate as to whether moderate alcohol use during pregnancy could have subtle but important effects on offspring, by impairing later cognitive function and thus school performance. The authors aimed to investigate the unconfounded effect of moderately increased prenatal alcohol exposure on cognitive/educational performance. We used mother-offspring pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and performed both conventional observational analyses and Mendelian randomization using an ADH1B variant (rs1229984) associated with reduced alcohol consumption. Women of White European origin with genotype and self-reported prenatal alcohol consumption, whose offspring's IQ score had been assessed in clinic (N=4061 pairs) or Key Stage 2 (KS2) academic achievement score was available through linkage to the National Pupil Database (N=6268), contributed to the analyses. Women reporting moderate drinking before and during early pregnancy were relatively affluent compared with women reporting lighter drinking, and their children had higher KS2 and IQ scores. In contrast, children whose mothers' genotype predisposes to lower consumption or abstinence during early pregnancy had higher KS2 scores (mean difference +1.7, 95% confidence interval +0.4, +3.0) than children of mothers whose genotype predisposed to heavier drinking, after adjustment for population stratification. Better offspring cognitive/educational outcomes observed in association with prenatal alcohol exposure presumably reflected residual confounding by factors associated with social position and maternal education. The unconfounded Mendelian randomization estimates suggest a small but potentially important detrimental effect of small increases in prenatal alcohol exposure, at least on educational outcomes.

  12. Order acceptance in food processing systems with random raw material requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, Onur A.; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Wijngaard, Jacob; Tarim, S. Armagan

    This study considers a food production system that processes a single perishable raw material into several products having stochastic demands. In order to process an order, the amount of raw material delivery from storage needs to meet the raw material requirement of the order. However, the amount

  13. Exposure to suicide and identification as survivor. Results from a random-digit dial survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerel, Julie; Maple, Myfanwy; Aldrich, Rosalie; van de Venne, Judy

    2013-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence regarding lifetime exposure to suicide or identification of those impacted by suicide deaths. Studies previously conducted used only convenience samples. To determine the prevalence of suicide exposure in the community and those affected by suicide deaths. A random digit dial sample of 302 adults. 64% of the sample knew someone who had attempted or died by suicide, and 40% knew someone who died by suicide. No demographic variables differentiated exposed versus unexposed, indicating that exposure to suicide cuts across demographics. Almost 20% said they were a "survivor" and had been significantly affected by a suicide death. Demographic variables did not differentiate groups. The relationship to the decedent was not related to self-identified survivor status; what did differentiate those individuals impacted by the death from those who did not was their perception of their relationship with the decedent. Kinship proximity and relationship category to the deceased appeared to be unrelated to survivor status, but perceived psychological closeness to the deceased showed a robust association with self-identified survivor status. We need an expanded definition of "suicide survivor" to account for the profound impact of suicide in the community.

  14. A whale better adjusts the biosonar to ordered rather than to random changes in the echo parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supin, Alexander Ya; Nachtigall, Paul E; Breese, Marlee

    2012-09-01

    A false killer whale's (Pseudorca crassidens) sonar clicks and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded during echolocation with simulated echoes in two series of experiments. In the first, both the echo delay and transfer factor (which is the dB-ratio of the echo sound-pressure level to emitted pulse source level) were varied randomly from trial to trial until enough data were collected (random presentation). In the second, a combination of the echo delay and transfer factor was kept constant until enough data were collected (ordered presentation). The mean click level decreased with shortening the delay and increasing the transfer factor, more at the ordered presentation rather than at the random presentation. AEPs to the self-heard emitted clicks decreased with shortening the delay and increasing the echo level equally in both series. AEPs to echoes increased with increasing the echo level, little dependent on the echo delay at random presentations but much more dependent on delay with ordered presentations. So some adjustment of the whale's biosonar was possible without prior information about the echo parameters; however, the availability of prior information about echoes provided additional whale capabilities to adjust both the transmitting and receiving parts of the biosonar.

  15. In-car nocturnal blue light exposure improves motorway driving: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Taillard

    Full Text Available Prolonged wakefulness greatly decreases nocturnal driving performance. The development of in-car countermeasures is a future challenge to prevent sleep-related accidents. The aim of this study is to determine whether continuous exposure to monochromatic light in the short wavelengths (blue light, placed on the dashboard, improves night-time driving performance. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 48 healthy male participants (aged 20-50 years drove 400 km (250 miles on motorway during night-time. They randomly and consecutively received either continuous blue light exposure (GOLite, Philips, 468 nm during driving or 2*200 mg of caffeine or placebo of caffeine before and during the break. Treatments were separated by at least 1 week. The outcomes were number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC and mean standard deviation of the lateral position (SDLP. Eight participants (17% complained about dazzle during blue light exposure and were removed from the analysis. Results from the 40 remaining participants (mean age ± SD: 32.9±11.1 showed that countermeasures reduced the number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC (F(2,91.11 = 6.64; p<0.05. Indeed, ILC were lower with coffee (12.51 [95% CI, 5.86 to 19.66], p = 0.001 and blue light (14.58 [CI, 8.75 to 22.58], p = 0.003 than with placebo (26.42 [CI, 19.90 to 33.71]. Similar results were found for SDLP. Treatments did not modify the quality, quantity and timing of 3 subsequent nocturnal sleep episodes. Despite a lesser tolerance, a non-inferior efficacy of continuous nocturnal blue light exposure compared with caffeine suggests that this in-car countermeasure, used occasionally, could be used to fight nocturnal sleepiness at the wheel in blue light-tolerant drivers, whatever their age. More studies are needed to determine the reproducibility of data and to verify if it can be generalized to women.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01070004.

  16. Efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy for treatment of dental phobia: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Kumar; Van Wijk, A J; Abdullah, Fawzia; Islam, Md Nurul; Bernatchez, Marc; De Jongh, Ad

    2016-02-27

    Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) is found to be a promising and a viable alternative for in vivo exposure in the treatment of specific phobias. However, its usefulness for treating dental phobia is unexplored. The aims of the present study are to determine: (a) the efficacy of VRET versus informational pamphlet (IP) control group in terms of dental trait and state anxiety reductions at 1 week, 3 months and 6 months follow-up (b) the real-time physiological arousal [heart rate (HR)] of VRET group participants during and following therapy (c) the relation between subjective (presence) and objective (HR) measures during VRET. This study is a single blind, randomized controlled trial with two parallel arms in which participants will be allocated to VRET or IP with a ratio of 1:1. Thirty participants (18-50 years) meeting the Phobia Checklist criteria of dental phobia will undergo block randomization with allocation concealment. The primary outcome measures include participants' dental trait anxiety (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale and Dental Fear Survey) and state anxiety (Visual Analogue Scale) measured at baseline (T0), at intervention (T1), 1-week (T2), 3 months (T3) and 6 months (T4) follow-up. A behavior test will be conducted before and after the intervention. The secondary outcome measures are real-time evaluation of HR and VR (Virtual Reality) experience (presence, realism, nausea) during and following the VRET intervention respectively. The data will be analyzed using intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis. This study uses novel non-invasive VRET, which may provide a possible alternative treatment for dental anxiety and phobia. ISRCTN25824611 , Date of registration: 26 October 2015.

  17. Randomized Exposure to Food Advertisements and Eating in the Absence of Hunger Among Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansigan, Reina K.; Ramanujam, Archana; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preschoolers in the United States are heavily exposed to unhealthy food advertisements. Whether such exposure promotes cued eating has not been documented in this age group. METHODS: Randomized experiment among 60 children, aged 2 to 5 years, recruited in 2015–2016 from New Hampshire and Vermont. Children completed the experiment at a behavioral laboratory. Children were provided with a healthy snack to consume upon arrival then randomized to view a 14-minute TV program embedded with advertisements for either a food or a department store. Children were provided 2 snack foods to consume ad libitum while viewing the TV program; 1 of those snacks was the food advertised. Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) was operationalized as the kilocalories of snack foods consumed. t tests were used to compare EAH by advertisement condition; linear regression models assessed effect modification by the child’s age, sex, BMI percentile, and parental feeding restriction. RESULTS: Mean age was 4.1 (SD 0.9) years, 55% of children were male, 80% were non-Hispanic white, and 20% were overweight or obese. There were no differences in child or socioeconomic characteristics by advertisement condition. Child BMI was not related to EAH. Mean kilocalories consumed during the EAH phase was greater among children exposed to the food advertisements (126.8, SD: 58.5) versus those exposed to the nonfood advertisements (97.3, SD: 52.3; P = .04), an effect driven by greater consumption of the advertised food (P advertisement exposure may encourage obesogenic-eating behaviors among the very young. PMID:27940713

  18. Randomized Exposure to Food Advertisements and Eating in the Absence of Hunger Among Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Jennifer A; Lansigan, Reina K; Ramanujam, Archana; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2016-12-01

    Preschoolers in the United States are heavily exposed to unhealthy food advertisements. Whether such exposure promotes cued eating has not been documented in this age group. Randomized experiment among 60 children, aged 2 to 5 years, recruited in 2015-2016 from New Hampshire and Vermont. Children completed the experiment at a behavioral laboratory. Children were provided with a healthy snack to consume upon arrival then randomized to view a 14-minute TV program embedded with advertisements for either a food or a department store. Children were provided 2 snack foods to consume ad libitum while viewing the TV program; 1 of those snacks was the food advertised. Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) was operationalized as the kilocalories of snack foods consumed. t tests were used to compare EAH by advertisement condition; linear regression models assessed effect modification by the child's age, sex, BMI percentile, and parental feeding restriction. Mean age was 4.1 (SD 0.9) years, 55% of children were male, 80% were non-Hispanic white, and 20% were overweight or obese. There were no differences in child or socioeconomic characteristics by advertisement condition. Child BMI was not related to EAH. Mean kilocalories consumed during the EAH phase was greater among children exposed to the food advertisements (126.8, SD: 58.5) versus those exposed to the nonfood advertisements (97.3, SD: 52.3; P = .04), an effect driven by greater consumption of the advertised food (P advertisement exposure may encourage obesogenic-eating behaviors among the very young. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Speaking order predicts memory conformity after accounting for exposure to misinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Lauren Y; Kane, Robert; Garry, Maryanne

    2013-06-01

    When people discuss their experiences, they can later report seeing things that they never saw, simply because they heard about those things in the discussion. One factor that may contribute to this effect is the order in which people speak; some research has investigated this issue, but it remains unclear whether a relationship exists between memory conformity and speaking order. We explored this question using data from five previous memory conformity experiments. The results provide evidence of an association between speaking order and memory conformity, such that people who spoke first in a discussion were misled less often than people who did not. These results build on previous research by demonstrating that the association could not have been caused by differences in opportunities to be misled. We could not draw conclusions about causality from the exploratory analyses, but ruled out several simple explanations of the results, and considered a variety of social and cognitive mechanisms that might account for the association. Further investigation will be required to tease apart the possible mechanisms that underlie the relationship between speaking order and memory conformity.

  20. Triclosan and triclocarban exposure and thyroid function during pregnancy-A randomized intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Catherine; Pischel, Lauren; Parsonnet, Julie

    2017-09-20

    Triclosan and triclocarban (TCs) are broad-spectrum microbicides found in household and personal wash products. We sought to determine whether TC exposure from wash products or urinary triclosan level modified thyroid function during pregnancy or anthropometric measurements at birth. A randomized intervention of wash products with or without TCs, including toothpaste, enrolled pregnant women from 20 weeks' gestation. Urinary triclosan, TSH, T4 and T3 were assessed at enrollment, 36weeks' gestation and/or post-delivery; anthropometric measures at birth were ascertained from medical records. 78 and 76 mothers were assigned to the TC-containing and no-TC-containing product arms, respectively. No differences were observed in any thyroid function measure at any time point or in any anthropometric measurement at birth between either exposure arms or lowest and highest urinary triclosan quartile groups. TCs from wash products, primarily liquid and bar soaps, did not affect thyroid function measures during pregnancy or babies' anthropometric measures at delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Randomized trial of a secondhand smoke exposure reduction intervention among hospital-based pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Ying-Chen; Wu, Chen-Long; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Lyu, Shu-Yu; Lo, Feng-En; Morisky, Donald E

    2015-02-01

    This study sought to assess the effectiveness of a secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) prevention program based on an expanded Health Belief Model (HBM) incorporating self-efficacy among pregnant women in a hospital setting in Taiwan. This study utilized a two-group longitudinal randomized controlled trial design. Participants in the intervention group (n=50) enrolled in a SHS prevention program based on the HBM, while participants in the comparison group (n=50) received standard government-mandated counseling care. Both groups were given questionnaires as a pre-test, two weeks into the intervention, and one month following the conclusion of the intervention. The questionnaire and intervention were developed based on the understanding gained through a series of in-depth interviews and a focus-group conducted among pregnant women. Exhaled carbon monoxide was also measured and used as a proxy for SHS exposure. Intervention group scores were all significantly higher than comparison group scores (pwomen regarding the harms of SHS while both empowering and equipping them with the tools to confront their family members and effectively reduce their SHS exposure while promoting smoke-free social norms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Internet-Based Exposure and Behavioral Activation for Complicated Grief and Rumination: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisma, Maarten C; Boelen, Paul A; van den Bout, Jan; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Schut, Henk A W; Lancee, Jaap; Stroebe, Margaret S

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the effectiveness and feasibility of therapist-guided Internet-delivered exposure (EX) and behavioral activation (BA) for complicated grief and rumination. Forty-seven bereaved individuals with elevated levels of complicated grief and grief rumination were randomly assigned to three conditions: EX (N=18), BA (N=17), or a waiting-list (N=12). Treatment groups received 6 homework assignments over 6 to 8weeks. Intention-to-treat analyses showed that EX reduced complicated grief, posttraumatic stress, depression, grief rumination, and brooding levels relative to the control group at posttreatment (d=0.7-1.2). BA lowered complicated grief, posttraumatic stress, and grief rumination levels at posttreatment (d=0.8-0.9). At 3-month follow-up, effects of EX were maintained on complicated grief and grief rumination (d=0.6-1.2), and for BA on complicated grief, posttraumatic stress, and grief rumination (d=0.8-0.9). EX reduced depression more strongly than BA (d=0.6). Completers analyses corroborated results for EX, and partially those for BA, but no group differences were detected. BA suffered from high dropout (59%), relative to EX (33%) and the waiting-list (17%). Feasibility appeared higher for EX than BA. Results supported potential applicability of online exposure but not behavioral activation to decrease complicated grief and rumination. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. An MGF-based Unified Framework to Determine the Joint Statistics of Partial Sums of Ordered Random Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Nam, Sung Sik; Yang, Hong-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    Order statistics find applications in various areas of communications and signal processing. In this paper, we introduce an unified analytical framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables (RVs). With the proposed approach, we can systematically derive the joint statistics of any partial sums of ordered statistics, in terms of the moment generating function (MGF) and the probability density function (PDF). Our MGF-based approach applies not only when all the K ordered RVs are involved but also when only the Ks (Ks < K) best RVs are considered. In addition, we present the closed-form expressions for the exponential RV special case. These results apply to the performance analysis of various wireless communication systems over fading channels.

  4. An MGF-based unified framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungsik

    2010-11-01

    Order statistics find applications in various areas of communications and signal processing. In this paper, we introduce an unified analytical framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables (RVs). With the proposed approach, we can systematically derive the joint statistics of any partial sums of ordered statistics, in terms of the moment generating function (MGF) and the probability density function (PDF). Our MGF-based approach applies not only when all the K ordered RVs are involved but also when only the Ks(Ks < K) best RVs are considered. In addition, we present the closed-form expressions for the exponential RV special case. These results apply to the performance analysis of various wireless communication systems over fading channels. © 2006 IEEE.

  5. Subjective Well-Being and the Family: Results from an Ordered Probit Model with Multiple Random Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Winkelmann, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    The previous literature on the determinants of individual well-being has failed to fully account for the interdependencies in well-being at the family level. This paper develops an ordered probit model with multiple random effects that allows to identify the intrafamily correlation in well-being. The parameters of the model can be estimated with panel data using Maximum Marginal Likelihood. The approach is illustrated in an application using panel data for the period 1984-1997 from the German...

  6. Random balance designs for the estimation of first order global sensitivity indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarantola, S. [Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Institute of the Protection and Security of the Citizen, TP 361, Via E. Fermi 1, 21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)]. E-mail: stefano.tarantola@jrc.it; Gatelli, D. [Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Institute of the Protection and Security of the Citizen, TP 361, Via E. Fermi 1, 21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Mara, T.A. [Laboratory of Industrial engineering, University of Reunion Island, BP 7151, 15 avenue Rene Cassin, 97 715 Saint-Denis (France)

    2006-06-15

    We present two methods for the estimation of main effects in global sensitivity analysis. The methods adopt Satterthwaite's application of random balance designs in regression problems, and extend it to sensitivity analysis of model output for non-linear, non-additive models. Finite as well as infinite ranges for model input factors are allowed. The methods are easier to implement than any other method available for global sensitivity analysis, and reduce significantly the computational cost of the analysis. We test their performance on different test cases, including an international benchmark on safety assessment for nuclear waste disposal originally carried out by OECD/NEA.

  7. On solving large-scale polynomial convex problems by randomized first order algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben-Tal, A.; Nemirovski, A.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most attractive recent approaches to processing well-structured large-scale convex optimization problems is based on smooth convex-concave saddle point reformulation of the problem of interest and solving the resulting problem by a fast first order saddle point method utilizing smoothness

  8. Finding Order in Randomness: Single-Molecule Studies Reveal Stochastic RNA Processing | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producing a functional eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) requires the coordinated activity of several large protein complexes to initiate transcription, elongate nascent transcripts, splice together exons, and cleave and polyadenylate the 3’ end. Kinetic competition between these various processes has been proposed to regulate mRNA maturation, but this model could lead to multiple, randomly determined, or stochastic, pathways or outcomes. Regulatory checkpoints have been suggested as a means of ensuring quality control. However, current methods have been unable to tease apart the contributions of these processes at a single gene or on a time scale that could provide mechanistic insight. To begin to investigate the kinetic relationship between transcription and splicing, Daniel Larson, Ph.D., of CCR’s Laboratory of Receptor Biology and Gene Expression, and his colleagues employed a single-molecule RNA imaging approach to monitor production and processing of a human β-globin reporter gene in living cells.

  9. On the temporal order of first-passage times in one-dimensional lattice random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, J. B.; Temme, N. M.

    2005-10-01

    A random walk problem with particles on discrete double infinite linear grids is discussed. The model is based on the work of Montroll and others. A probability connected with the problem is given in the form of integrals containing modified Bessel functions of the first kind. By using several transformations, simpler integrals are obtained from which for two and three particles asymptotic approximations are derived for large values of the parameters. Expressions of the probability for n particles are also derived.I returned and saw under the sun, that the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favour to men of skill; but time and chance happeneth to them all. George Orwell, Politics and the English Language, Selected Essays, Penguin Books, 1957. (The citation is from Ecclesiastes 9:11.)

  10. In Vivo versus Augmented Reality Exposure in the Treatment of Small Animal Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Cristina; Pérez-Ara, M Ángeles; Bretón-López, Juana; Quero, Soledad; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Although in vivo exposure is the treatment of choice for specific phobias, some acceptability problems have been associated with it. Virtual Reality exposure has been shown to be as effective as in vivo exposure, and it is widely accepted for the treatment of specific phobias, but only preliminary data are available in the literature about the efficacy of Augmented Reality. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy and acceptance of two treatment conditions for specific phobias in which the exposure component was applied in different ways: In vivo exposure (N = 31) versus an Augmented Reality system (N = 32) in a randomized controlled trial. "One-session treatment" guidelines were followed. Participants in the Augmented Reality condition significantly improved on all the outcome measures at post-treatment and follow-ups. When the two treatment conditions were compared, some differences were found at post-treatment, favoring the participants who received in vivo exposure. However, these differences disappeared at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Regarding participants' expectations and satisfaction with the treatment, very positive ratings were reported in both conditions. In addition, participants from in vivo exposure condition considered the treatment more useful for their problem whereas participants from Augmented Reality exposure considered the treatment less aversive. Results obtained in this study indicate that Augmented Reality exposure is an effective treatment for specific phobias and well accepted by the participants.

  11. In Vivo versus Augmented Reality Exposure in the Treatment of Small Animal Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Botella

    Full Text Available Although in vivo exposure is the treatment of choice for specific phobias, some acceptability problems have been associated with it. Virtual Reality exposure has been shown to be as effective as in vivo exposure, and it is widely accepted for the treatment of specific phobias, but only preliminary data are available in the literature about the efficacy of Augmented Reality. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy and acceptance of two treatment conditions for specific phobias in which the exposure component was applied in different ways: In vivo exposure (N = 31 versus an Augmented Reality system (N = 32 in a randomized controlled trial. "One-session treatment" guidelines were followed. Participants in the Augmented Reality condition significantly improved on all the outcome measures at post-treatment and follow-ups. When the two treatment conditions were compared, some differences were found at post-treatment, favoring the participants who received in vivo exposure. However, these differences disappeared at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Regarding participants' expectations and satisfaction with the treatment, very positive ratings were reported in both conditions. In addition, participants from in vivo exposure condition considered the treatment more useful for their problem whereas participants from Augmented Reality exposure considered the treatment less aversive. Results obtained in this study indicate that Augmented Reality exposure is an effective treatment for specific phobias and well accepted by the participants.

  12. Evaluation of dysprosia aerogels as drug delivery systems: a comparative study with random and ordered mesoporous silicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Abhishek; Sadekar, Anand G; Buback, Clayton; Curtin, Brice; Acar, Selin; Kolasinac, Damir; Yin, Wei; Rubenstein, David A; Lu, Hongbing; Leventis, Nicholas; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia

    2014-04-09

    Biocompatible dysprosia aerogels were synthesized from DyCl3·6H2O and were reinforced mechanically with a conformal nano-thin-polyurea coating applied over their skeletal framework. The random mesoporous space of dysprosia aerogels was filled up to about 30% v/v with paracetamol, indomethacin, or insulin, and the drug release rate was monitored spectrophotometrically in phosphate buffer (pH = 7.4) or 0.1 M aqueous HCl. The drug uptake and release study was conducted comparatively with polyurea-crosslinked random silica aerogels, as well as with as-prepared (native) and polyurea-crosslinked mesoporous silica perforated with ordered 7 nm tubes in hexagonal packing. Drug uptake from random nanostructures (silica or dysprosia) was higher (30-35% w/w) and the release rate was slower (typically >20 h) relative to ordered silica (19-21% w/w, Drug release data from dysprosia aerogels were fitted with a flux equation consisting of three additive terms that correspond to drug stored successively in three hierarchical pore sites on the skeletal framework. The high drug uptake and slow release from dysprosia aerogels, in combination with their low toxicity, strong paramagnetism, and the possibility for neutron activation render those materials attractive multifunctional vehicles for site-specific drug delivery.

  13. A randomized controlled study of exposure therapy as aftercare for alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellentin, Angelina Isabella; Nielsen, Bent; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard

    2016-01-01

    Background It is well documented that individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) respond well during evidence-based psychological treatment, but also that a large proportion relapses when discharged from treatment and confronted with alcohol in real life. Cue Exposure Treatment (CET) focuses...... on exposing individuals to alcohol cues in order to reduce cravings as well as the likelihood of relapse. The aims of the study are: 1) to investigate whether CET aftercare delivered via a smartphone or in group sessions increases the effect of Cognitive Behavioural Treatment in groups of alcohol dependent...... individuals; 2) to investigate whether CET as a smartphone application is as or more effective than CET group therapy, and 3) to investigate whether CET as a smartphone application is more cost-effective than CET group aftercare and Aftercare as Usual. Design and methods The study will be implemented...

  14. Widespread sucralose exposure in a randomized clinical trial in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Walter, Peter J; Garraffo, H Martin; Robien, Kim; Rother, Kristina I

    2017-04-01

    Background : Low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) are found in many foods and beverages, but consumers may not realize their presence, and their role in appetite, weight, and health is controversial. Although consumption limits based on toxicologic safety are well established, the threshold required to exert clinically relevant metabolic effects is unknown. Objectives: This study aimed to determine whether individuals who do not report consumption of LCSs can be correctly characterized as "unexposed" and to investigate whether instructions to avoid LCSs are effective in minimizing exposure. Design: Eighteen healthy 18- to 35-y-old "nonconsumers" (sucralose or carbonated water (control) 3 times/d for 1 wk. Food diaries were maintained throughout the study, and a spot urine sample was collected at each visit. Results: At baseline, 8 participants had sucralose in their urine (29.9-239.0 ng/mL; mean ± SD: 111.4 ± 91.5 ng/mL). After the run-in, sucralose was found in 8 individuals (2 of whom did not have detectable sucralose at baseline) and ranged from 25.0 to 1062.0 ng/mL (mean ± SD: 191.7 ± 354.2 ng/mL). Only 1 participant reported consumption of an LCS-containing food before her visit. After the intervention, sucralose was detected in 3 individuals randomly assigned to receive carbonated water (26-121 ng/mL; mean ± SD: 60.7 ± 52.4 ng/mL). Conclusions: Despite the selection of healthy volunteers with minimal reported LCS consumption, more than one-third were exposed to sucralose at baseline and/or before randomization, and nearly half were exposed after assignment to the control. This shows that instructions to avoid LCSs are not effective and that nondietary sources (e.g., personal care products) may be important contributors to overall exposure. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02877186. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Prenatal ultrasound exposure and children's school performance at age 15-16: follow-up of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålberg, K; Axelsson, O; Haglund, B; Hultman, C M; Lambe, M; Kieler, H

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the association between prenatal ultrasound exposure and school performance at 15-16 years of age. The study population consisted of children born to women who participated in a randomized controlled trial on the second-trimester ultrasound examination in Sweden from 1985 to 1987. Information about the children's grades when graduating from primary school and information on socioeconomic factors was obtained from Swedish nationwide registers. Comparisons were made using linear and logistic regression analyses according to randomization to ultrasound, ultrasound exposure in the second trimester and ultrasound exposure at any time during pregnancy. Boys and girls were analyzed separately. Of the 4756 singleton children from the randomized trial, we identified 4458 (94%) in the National School Register. There were no statistically significant differences in school performance for boys or girls according to randomization or exposure to ultrasound in the second trimester. Compared to those who were unexposed, boys exposed to ultrasound at least once at any time during fetal life had a tendency towards lower mean school grades in general (-4.39 points; 95% CI, -9.59 to 0.81 (max possible, 320) points) and in physical education (-0.45 points; 95% CI, -0.91 to 0.01 (max possible, 20) points), but the differences did not reach significance. In general, routine ultrasound examination in the second trimester had no effect on overall school performance in teenagers.

  16. Randomized Controlled Trial of Sertraline, Prolonged Exposure Therapy and Their Combination in OEF/OIF with PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    include exposure therapy (such as PE) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; such as SERT). To date, there have been no randomized, direct... Depression and Anxiety, 2004. 19(2): p. 112-120. 9. Cahill, S.P., et al. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adults, in Effective treatments for PTSD

  17. A randomized controlled study of power posing before public speaking exposure for social anxiety disorder: No evidence for augmentative effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, M.L.; Papini, S.; Rosenfield, D.; Roelofs, K.; Kolb, S.; Powers, M.B.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript details a randomized controlled study designed to test the efficacy of power posing (i.e., briefly holding postures associated with dominance and power) as an augmentative strategy for exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Seventy-three individuals diagnosed with SAD

  18. Becoming a written word: eye movements reveal order of acquisition effects following incidental exposure to new words during silent reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Holly S S L; Wonnacott, Elizabeth; Forbes, Paul; Nation, Kate

    2014-10-01

    We know that from mid-childhood onwards most new words are learned implicitly via reading; however, most word learning studies have taught novel items explicitly. We examined incidental word learning during reading by focusing on the well-documented finding that words which are acquired early in life are processed more quickly than those acquired later. Novel words were embedded in meaningful sentences and were presented to adult readers early (day 1) or later (day 2) during a five-day exposure phase. At test adults read the novel words in semantically neutral sentences. Participants' eye movements were monitored throughout exposure and test. Adults also completed a surprise memory test in which they had to match each novel word with its definition. Results showed a decrease in reading times for all novel words over exposure, and significantly shorter [corrected] total reading times at test for early than late novel words. Early-presented novel words were also remembered better in the offline test. Our results show that order of presentation influences processing time early in the course of acquiring a new word, consistent with partial and incremental growth in knowledge occurring as a function of an individual's experience with each word. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Arterial blood pressure responses to short-term exposure to fine and ultrafine particles from indoor sources - A randomized sham-controlled exposure study of healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soppa, Vanessa J; Schins, Roel P F; Hennig, Frauke; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Hellack, Bryan; Quass, Ulrich; Kaminski, Heinz; Sasse, Birgitta; Shinnawi, Samir; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    Particulate air pollution is linked to adverse cardiovascular effects. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of short-term exposure to indoor particles on blood pressure (BP). We analyzed the association of particle emissions from indoor sources (candle burning, toasting bread, frying sausages) with BP changes in 54 healthy volunteers in a randomized cross-over controlled exposure study. Particle mass concentration (PMC), size-specific particle number concentration (PNC) and lung-deposited particle surface area concentration (PSC) were measured during the 2h exposure. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured before, during, directly, 2, 4 and 24h after exposure. We performed multiple mixed linear regression analyses of different particle metrics and BP. BP significantly increased with increasing PMC, PSC and PNC resulting from toasting bread. For example, an increase per 10µg/m(3) PM10 and PM2.5, systolic BP increased at all time points with largest changes 1h after exposure initiation of 1.5mmHg (95%-CI: 1.1; 1.9) and of 2.2mmHg (95%-CI: 1.3; 3.1), respectively. Our study suggests an association of short-term exposure to fine and ultrafine particles emitted from toasting bread with increases in BP. Particles emitted from frying sausages and candle burning did not consistently affect BP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Sequential sampling model for multiattribute choice alternatives with random attention time and processing order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Adele; Oswald, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A sequential sampling model for multiattribute binary choice options, called multiattribute attention switching (MAAS) model, assumes a separate sampling process for each attribute. During the deliberation process attention switches from one attribute consideration to the next. The order in which attributes are considered as well for how long each attribute is considered-the attention time-influences the predicted choice probabilities and choice response times. Several probability distributions for the attention time with different variances are investigated. Depending on the time and order schedule the model predicts a rich choice probability/choice response time pattern including preference reversals and fast errors. Furthermore, the difference between finite and infinite decision horizons for the attribute considered last is investigated. For the former case the model predicts a probability p 0 > 0 of not deciding within the available time. The underlying stochastic process for each attribute is an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process approximated by a discrete birth-death process. All predictions are also true for the widely applied Wiener process.

  1. Sequential sampling model for multiattribute choice alternatives with random attention time and processing order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele eDiederich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A sequential sampling model for multiattribute binary choice options, called Multiattribute attention switching (MAAS model, assumes a separate sampling process for each attribute. During the deliberation process attention switches from one attribute consideration to the next. The order in which attributes are considered as well for how long each attribute is considered - the attention time - influences the predicted choice probabilities and choice response times. Several probability distributions for the attention time including deterministic, Poisson, binomial, geometric, and uniform with different variances are investigated. Depending on the time and order schedule the model predicts a rich choice probability/choice response time pattern including preference reversals and fast errors. Furthermore, the difference between a finite and infinite decision horizons for the attribute considered last is investigated. For the former case the model predicts a probability $p_0> 0$ of not deciding within the available time. The underlying stochastic process for each attribute is an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process approximated by a discrete birth-death process. All predictions are also true for the widely applied Wiener process.

  2. Randomness in preference orderings, outcomes and attribute tastes: An application to journey time risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batley, Richard; Ibáñez Rivas, Juan Nicolás

    2012-01-01

    orderings, in outcomes, and in attribute tastes. Second, we apply this theoretical modelling framework to the domain of journey time risk (or ‘reliability’), a subject which has acquired prominence in the transportation policies of many countries. Third, we apply the modelling framework empirically, based...... upon a Stated Preference experiment of 2395 rail travellers choosing between alternative journeys embodying different levels of journey time risk. Across the sample of travellers, we estimate a mean value of scheduled journey time of 25.62pence/min, against a median of 18.55pence/min. We further...... estimate a mean ‘reliability ratio’ (ratio of the value of standard deviation of journey time to the value of scheduled journey time) of 2.07, against a median of 0.85. The properties of the distribution of the reliability ratio suggest a predominant behaviour of aversion to journey time risk....

  3. Single-session gamified virtual reality exposure therapy for spider phobia vs. traditional exposure therapy: study protocol for a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloff, Alexander; Lindner, Philip; Hamilton, William; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-02-02

    Traditional one-session exposure therapy (OST) in which a patient is gradually exposed to feared stimuli for up to 3 h in a one-session format has been found effective for the treatment of specific phobias. However, many individuals with specific phobia are reluctant to seek help, and access to care is lacking due to logistic challenges of accessing, collecting, storing, and/or maintaining stimuli. Virtual reality (VR) exposure therapy may improve upon existing techniques by facilitating access, decreasing cost, and increasing acceptability and effectiveness. The aim of this study is to compare traditional OST with in vivo spiders and a human therapist with a newly developed single-session gamified VR exposure therapy application with modern VR hardware, virtual spiders, and a virtual therapist. Participants with specific phobia to spiders (N = 100) will be recruited from the general public, screened, and randomized to either VR exposure therapy (n = 50) or traditional OST (n = 50). A behavioral approach test using in vivo spiders will serve as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures will include spider phobia questionnaires and self-reported anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Outcomes will be assessed using a non-inferiority design at baseline and at 1, 12, and 52 weeks after treatment. VR exposure therapy has previously been evaluated as a treatment for specific phobias, but there has been a lack of high-quality randomized controlled trials. A new generation of modern, consumer-ready VR devices is being released that are advancing existing technology and have the potential to improve clinical availability and treatment effectiveness. The VR medium is also particularly suitable for taking advantage of recent phobia treatment research emphasizing engagement and new learning, as opposed to physiological habituation. This study compares a market-ready, gamified VR spider phobia exposure application, delivered using consumer VR hardware, with

  4. Waiting time analysis for MX/G/1 priority queues with/without vacations under random order of service discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norikazu Kawasaki

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We study MX/G/1 nonpreemptive and preemptive-resume priority queues with/without vacations under random order of service (ROS discipline within each class. By considering the conditional waiting times given the states of the system, which an arbitrary message observes upon arrival, we derive the Laplace-Stieltjes transforms of the waiting time distributions and explicitly obtain the first two moments. The relationship for the second moments under ROS and first-come first-served disciplines extends the one found previously by Takacs and Fuhrmann for non-priority single arrival queues.

  5. A randomized trial to promote health belief and to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila; Nekoei-Zahraei, Nafiseh Sadat

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is widespread among women in Iran. This study aimed to explore the impact of education on health belief and environmental tobacco smoke exposure in pregnant women. This randomized trial was administrated to 130 pregnant women exposed to ETS. The face-to-face education was provided for the intervention group after completing the questionnaire compiled on the constructs of the health belief model and self-reports of weekly ETS exposure. The theoretical constructs and weekly ETS exposure were compared in the study groups at the intake, third, fourth and fifth sections. In the intervention group, perceived susceptibility/severity and perceived benefits increased and the weekly ETS exposure decreased on the third as opposed to the first section (P education about the impacts of ETS exposure of pregnant women is an effective way to increase the theoretical constructs according to the health belief model and is associated with a reduction of ETS exposure. But this is not sufficient for making smoke-free homes.

  6. A behavioral strategy to minimize air pollution exposure in pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araban, Marzieh; Tavafian, Sedigheh Sadat; Zarandi, Saeed Motesaddi; Hidarnia, Ali Reza; Burri, Andrea; Montazeri, Ali

    2017-04-04

    Pregnant women and their fetus belong to a sensitive group in response to air pollution hazards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based educational program to change pollution exposure behavior in pregnant women. In this randomized controlled trial, pregnant women attending a prenatal clinic in Tehran, Iran were selected and randomized into the experimental and control groups. The inclusion criteria were age between 18 and 35 years, having a history of pregnancies without adverse outcomes and not suffering from chronic diseases. Data collected at baseline and 2-month follow-up. At baseline face-to-face interviews were conducted using a valid and reliable questionnaire including items on demographic characteristics, stages of change, self-efficacy, decisional balance and practice regarding air pollution preventive behaviors. The intervention composed of three parts: motivational interviewing, a booklet and daily small message service (SMS). The control group received no intervention except receiving usual care. Follow-up data were collected after the intervention. Data were analyzed performing t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and chi-squared. In all the data for 104 pregnant women (53 in the intervention and 51 in the control group) were analyzed. The mean age of participants was 27.2 (SD = 4.11) years and it was 22.89 (SD = 8.75) weeks for gestational age. At baseline there were no significant statistical differences between intervention and control groups on the study measures while we found significant group differences in terms of stages of change, self-efficacy, perceived benefits and practice regarding air pollution preventive behaviors at follow-up assessment (P pollution preventive behaviors among pregnant women. This study provided a framework to modify some psychosocial determinants of air pollution preventive behavior other than knowledge using constructs of Transtheoretical model of behavior change, additionally

  7. Spatiotemporal prediction of daily ambient ozone levels across China using random forest for human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yu; Luo, Yuzhou; Deng, Xunfei; Grieneisen, Michael L; Zhang, Minghua; Di, Baofeng

    2017-11-01

    In China, ozone pollution shows an increasing trend and becomes the primary air pollutant in warm seasons. Leveraging the air quality monitoring network, a random forest model is developed to predict the daily maximum 8-h average ozone concentrations ([O3]MDA8) across China in 2015 for human exposure assessment. This model captures the observed spatiotemporal variations of [O3]MDA8 by using the data of meteorology, elevation, and recent-year emission inventories (cross-validation R(2) = 0.69 and RMSE = 26 μg/m(3)). Compared with chemical transport models that require a plenty of variables and expensive computation, the random forest model shows comparable or higher predictive performance based on only a handful of readily-available variables at much lower computational cost. The nationwide population-weighted [O3]MDA8 is predicted to be 84 ± 23 μg/m(3) annually, with the highest seasonal mean in the summer (103 ± 8 μg/m(3)). The summer [O3]MDA8 is predicted to be the highest in North China (125 ± 17 μg/m(3)). Approximately 58% of the population lives in areas with more than 100 nonattainment days ([O3]MDA8>100 μg/m(3)), and 12% of the population are exposed to [O3]MDA8>160 μg/m(3) (WHO Interim Target 1) for more than 30 days. As the most populous zones in China, the Beijing-Tianjin Metro, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Sichuan Basin are predicted to be at 154, 141, 124, and 98 nonattainment days, respectively. Effective controls of O3 pollution are urgently needed for the highly-populated zones, especially the Beijing-Tianjin Metro with seasonal [O3]MDA8 of 140 ± 29 μg/m(3) in summer. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first statistical modeling work of ambient O3 for China at the national level. This timely and extensively validated [O3]MDA8 dataset is valuable for refining epidemiological analyses on O3 pollution in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Biomarkers of Exposure in Smokers Switching to a Carbon-Heated Tobacco Product: A Controlled, Randomized, Open-Label 5-Day Exposure Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdicke, Frank; Haziza, Christelle; Weitkunat, Rolf; Magnette, John

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco harm reduction aims to provide reduced risk alternatives to adult smokers who would otherwise continue smoking combustible cigarettes (CCs). This randomized, open-label, three-arm, parallel-group, single-center, short-term confinement study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to selected harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) of cigarette smoke in adult smokers who switched to a carbon-heated tobacco product (CHTP) compared with adult smokers who continued to smoke CCs and those who abstained from smoking for 5 days. Biomarkers of exposure to HPHCs, including nicotine and urinary excretion of mutagenic material, were measured in 24-hour urine and blood samples in 112 male and female Caucasian smokers switching from CCs to the CHTP ad libitum use. Puffing topography was assessed during product use. Switching to the CHTP or smoking abstinence (SA) resulted in marked decreases from baseline to Day 5 in all biomarkers of exposure measured, including carboxyhemoglobin (43% and 55% decrease in the CHTP and SA groups, respectively). The urinary excretion of mutagenic material was also markedly decreased on Day 5 compared with baseline (89% and 87% decrease in the CHTP and SA groups, respectively). No changes in biomarkers of exposure to HPHCs or urinary mutagenic material were observed between baseline and Day 5 in the CC group. Our results provide clear evidence supporting a reduction in the level of exposure to HPHCs of tobacco smoke in smokers who switch to CHTP under controlled conditions, similar to that observed in SA. The reductions observed in biomarkers of exposure to HPHCs of tobacco smoke in this short-term study could potentially also reduce the incidence of cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in those smokers who switch to a heated tobacco product. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

  9. Encouraging GPs to undertake screening and a brief intervention in order to reduce problem drinking: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Jørgen; Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Beich, Anders

    1999-01-01

    intervention, problem drinking, randomized controlled trial, family practice, marketing of health services......intervention, problem drinking, randomized controlled trial, family practice, marketing of health services...

  10. On the statistical implications of certain Random permutations in Markovian Arrival Processes (MAPs) and second order self-similar processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan T.; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2000-01-01

    . The implications for the correlation structure when shuffling an exactly second-order self-similar process are examined. We apply the Markovian arrival process (MAP) as a tool to investigate whether general conclusions can be made with regard to the statistical implications of the shuffling experiments......In this paper, we examine the implications of certain random permutations in an arrival process that have gained considerable interest in recent literature. The so-called internal and external shuffling have been used to explain phenomena observed in traffic traces from LANs. Loosely, the internal...... shuffling can be viewed as a way of performing local permutations in the arrival stream, while the external shuffling is a way of performing global permutations. We derive formulas for the correlation structures of the shuffled processes in terms of the original arrival process in great generality...

  11. Higher-order singular value decomposition-based discrete fractional random transform for simultaneous compression and encryption of video images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingzhu; Chen, Xiaoming; Zhu, Yihai

    2017-09-01

    Existing image compression and encryption methods have several shortcomings: they have low reconstruction accuracy and are unsuitable for three-dimensional (3D) images. To overcome these limitations, this paper proposes a tensor-based approach adopting tensor compressive sensing and tensor discrete fractional random transform (TDFRT). The source video images are measured by three key-controlled sensing matrices. Subsequently, the resulting tensor image is further encrypted using 3D cat map and the proposed TDFRT, which is based on higher-order singular value decomposition. A multiway projection algorithm is designed to reconstruct the video images. The proposed algorithm can greatly reduce the data volume and improve the efficiency of the data transmission and key distribution. The simulation results validate the good compression performance, efficiency, and security of the proposed algorithm.

  12. A randomized controlled study of power posing before public speaking exposure for social anxiety disorder: No evidence for augmentative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michelle L; Papini, Santiago; Rosenfield, David; Roelofs, Karin; Kolb, Sarah; Powers, Mark B; Smits, Jasper A J

    2017-09-18

    This manuscript details a randomized controlled study designed to test the efficacy of power posing (i.e., briefly holding postures associated with dominance and power) as an augmentative strategy for exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Seventy-three individuals diagnosed with SAD were assigned to one of three conditions: power posing, submissive posing, or rest (no posing) prior to participating in an exposure therapy session. Participants were assessed for between-group differences in pre- and post-manipulation salivary hormone levels, within-session subjective experiences of fear, and pre- and 1-week post-treatment SAD severity outcome measures. Though the intervention resulted in decreased SAD symptom severity one week later, analyses revealed no significant between-group differences on any tested variables. Accordingly, this study provides no evidence to suggest that power posing impacts hormone levels or exposure therapy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A randomized controlled trial comparing treatment regimens for acute pain for topical oleoresin capsaicin (pepper spray) exposure in adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, James D; Hennessy, Robert; McManus, John G

    2008-01-01

    Several topical therapies have been proposed to treat acute pain from exposure to oleoresin capsaicin (OC). The purpose of this study was to determine the most beneficial topical treatment for relieving contact dermatitis pain caused by OC exposure. We performed a single-blind, randomized human experiment evaluating the effectiveness of five different regimens for the treatment of topical facial OC exposure. Forty-nine volunteer, adult law enforcement trainees were exposed to OC during a routine training exercise and were randomized to one of five treatment groups (aluminum hydroxide-magnesium hydroxide [Maalox], 2% lidocaine gel, baby shampoo, milk, or water). After initial self-decontamination with water, subjects rated their pain using a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) and then every 10 minutes, for a total of 60 minutes. Subjects were blinded to previous VAS recordings. A two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) (treatment, time) with repeated measures on one factor (time) was performed using a 1.3-cm difference as clinically significant. Forty-four men and five women, with an average age of 24 years, participated in the study. There was a significant difference in pain with respect to time (p 0.05). There was no significant difference in pain between treatment groups (p > 0.05). In this study, there was no significant difference in pain relief provided by five different treatment regimens. Time after exposure appeared to be the best predictor for decrease in pain.

  14. The effect of a test ordering software intervention on the prescription of unnecessary laboratory tests - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carlos Manuel Silva; da Costa Teixeira, Andreia Sofia; de Azevedo, Luís Filipe Ribeiro; Sá, Luísa Maria Barbosa; Santos, Paulo Alexandre Azevedo Pereira; do Couto, Maria Luciana Gomes Domingues; da Costa Pereira, Altamiro Manuel Rodrigues; Hespanhol, Alberto Augusto Oliveira Pinto; da Costa Santos, Cristina Maria Nogueira

    2017-02-20

    The way software for electronic health records and laboratory tests ordering systems are designed may influence physicians' prescription. A randomised controlled trial was performed to measure the impact of a diagnostic and laboratory tests ordering system software modification. Participants were family physicians working and prescribing diagnostic and laboratory tests. The intervention group had a modified software with a basic shortcut menu changes, where some tests were withdrawn or added, and with the implementation of an evidence-based decision support based on United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations. This intervention group was compared with usual software (control group). The outcomes were the number of tests prescribed from those: withdrawn from the basic menu; added to the basic menu; marked with green dots (USPSTF's grade A and B); and marked with red dots (USPSTF's grade D). Comparing the monthly average number of tests prescribed before and after the software modification, from those tests that were withdrawn from the basic menu, the control group prescribed 33.8 tests per 100 consultations before and 30.8 after (p = 0075); the intervention group prescribed 31.3 before and 13.9 after (p menu, the intervention group prescribed a monthly average of 14.0 vs. 29.3 tests per 100 consultations in the control group (p menu of the diagnosis and laboratory tests ordering system had a significant impact and reduced unnecessary prescription of tests. The fact that it was not possible to perform the randomization at the family physicians' level, but only of the computer servers is a limitation of our study. Future research should assess the impact of different tests ordering systems during longer periods. ISRCTN45427977 , May 1st 2014 (retrospectively registered).

  15. A multi-tier higher order Conditional Random Field for land cover classification of multi-temporal multi-spectral Landsat imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Salmon, BP

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present a 2-tier higher order Conditional Random Field which is used for land cover classification. The Conditional Random Field is based on probabilistic messages being passed along a graph to compute efficiently...

  16. Prolonged exposure therapy for combat- and terror-related posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized control comparison with treatment as usual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacasch, Nitzah; Foa, Edna B; Huppert, Jonathan D; Tzur, Dana; Fostick, Leah; Dinstein, Yula; Polliack, Michael; Zohar, Joseph

    2011-09-01

    Empirically based studies have demonstrated that prolonged exposure therapy effectively reduces posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a vast range of traumas, yet reports of the efficacy of such therapies in combat- and terror-related PTSD are scarce. In this article, we examine the efficacy of prolonged exposure therapy in combat- and terror-related PTSD in comparison to treatment as usual (TAU). Between July 2002 and October 2005, 30 patients of a trauma unit within a psychiatric outpatient clinic were recruited and randomized into prolonged exposure versus TAU therapies. Patients were diagnosed with chronic PTSD (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview criteria) related to combat- (n = 19) or terror-related (n = 11) trauma. Main outcome measures included symptoms of PTSD and depression, as measured by the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview Version and the Beck Depression Inventory. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity was significantly lower in patients who received prolonged exposure therapy in comparison to patients who received TAU (F(1,24) = 35.3, P terror-related PTSD symptoms. In addition, prolonged exposure was superior to TAU in the short- and long-term reduction of PTSD and depression symptoms. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00229372. © Copyright 2011 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  17. Influence of Teaching Strategies and its Order of Exposure on Pre-Clinical Teeth Arrangement - A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyapalan, Karthigeyan; Mani, Uma Maheswari; Christian, Jayanth; Seenivasan, Madhan Kumar; Natarajan, Parthasarathy; Vaidhyanathan, Anand Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Teeth arrangement is a vital skill for the undergraduate dental student. The attainment of skills depends largely on the methodology of teaching. In a dental curriculum, the students are exposed to a wide variety of inputs and teaching methodologies from different sources. The educational unit in dental school must identify the sequence of teaching methods that enhance the learning and practising ability of students. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of three different teaching methodologies for teeth arrangement and compare the differences between the orders of exposure to each teaching methodology on the development of teeth arrangement skills. The first year B.D.S students were study participants and were divided into three groups A, B, C. They were exposed to three teaching patterns namely live demonstration with video assisted teaching, group discussion with hand-outs and lectures with power point presentation. After each teaching methodology, their skill was assessed. The groups were exposed to three methodologies in different order for three arrangements. The scores obtained were analysed using Kruskal Wallis rank sum test and Dunn test for statistical significance. Significantly higher scores in the teeth arrangement procedure were obtained by the Group A students who were exposed initially to live demonstration with video-assisted teaching. Difference in the scores was noted among and within the groups. The difference between Group A and Group C was statistically significant after both first and third teeth arrangement (p=0.0031, p=0.0057). The study suggests each pre-clinical practice should begin with a live demonstration to enhance immediate learning absorption followed by lectures with power point presentation and group discussion for retention of knowledge and memory retrieval.

  18. Transient modeling of non-Fickian transport and first-order reaction using continuous time random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnell, Daniel K.; Hansen, Scott K.; Xu, Jie

    2017-09-01

    Contaminants in groundwater may experience a broad spectrum of velocities and multiple rates of mass transfer between mobile and immobile zones during transport. These conditions may lead to non-Fickian plume evolution which is not well described by the advection-dispersion equation (ADE). Simultaneously, many groundwater contaminants are degraded by processes that may be modeled as first-order decay. It is now known that non-Fickian transport and reaction are intimately coupled, with reaction affecting the transport operator. However, closed-form solutions for these important scenarios have not been published for use in applications. In this paper, we present four new Green's function analytic solutions in the uncoupled, uncorrelated continuous time random walk (CTRW) framework for reactive non-Fickian transport, corresponding to the quartet of conservative tracer solutions presented by Kreft and Zuber (1978) for Fickian transport. These consider pulse injection for both resident and flux concentration combined with detection in both resident and flux concentration. A pair of solutions for resident concentration temporal pulses with detection in both flux and resident concentration is also presented. We also derive the relationship between flux and resident concentration for non-Fickian transport with first-order reaction for this CTRW formulation. An explicit discussion of employment of the new solutions to model transport with arbitrary upgradient boundary conditions as well as mobile-immobile mass transfer is then presented. Using the new solutions, we show that first-order reaction has no effect on the anomalous spatial spreading rate of concentration profiles, but produces breakthrough curves at fixed locations that appear to have been generated by Fickian transport. Under the assumption of a Pareto CTRW transition distribution, we present a variety of numerical simulations including results showing coherence of our analytic solutions and CTRW particle

  19. Mitigating aflatoxin exposure to improve child growth in Eastern Kenya: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Vivian; Jones, Kelly; Leroy, Jef

    2015-12-03

    While the few studies that have looked at the association between stunting and aflatoxin exposure have found surprisingly large effects, the results remain inconclusive due to a lack of randomized controlled studies. This protocol describes a non-blinded, cluster-randomized controlled trial with the specific objective of testing the impact of reduced aflatoxin exposure on (individual) child linear growth. Participants were recruited from among households containing women in the last 5 months of pregnancy in 28 maize-growing villages within Meru and Tharaka-Nithi Counties in Kenya. Households in villages assigned to the intervention group are offered rapid testing of their stored maize for the presence of aflatoxin each month; any maize found to contain more than 10 ppb aflatoxin is replaced with an equal amount of maize that contains less than this concentration of the toxin. They are also offered the opportunity to buy maize that has been tested and found to contain less than 10 ppb aflatoxin at local shops. Clusters (villages) were allocated to the intervention group (28 villages containing 687 participating households) or control group (28 villages containing 536 participating households) using a random number generator. The trial, which is funded by United Kingdom (UK) aid from the UK government, the Global Food Security Portal, and the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland, is currently ongoing. This study is the first randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test for a causal impact of aflatoxin exposure on child growth. Whether or not this relationship is found, its results will have implications for the prioritization of aflatoxin control efforts by governments in affected regions, as well as international donors. American Economic Association RCT Registry # 0000105 . Initial registration date: 6 November 2013, last updated 30 December 2014.

  20. Proteus: a random forest classifier to predict disorder-to-order transitioning binding regions in intrinsically disordered proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sankar; Söderquist, Fredrik; Wallner, Björn

    2017-05-01

    The focus of the computational structural biology community has taken a dramatic shift over the past one-and-a-half decades from the classical protein structure prediction problem to the possible understanding of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDP) or proteins containing regions of disorder (IDPR). The current interest lies in the unraveling of a disorder-to-order transitioning code embedded in the amino acid sequences of IDPs/IDPRs. Disordered proteins are characterized by an enormous amount of structural plasticity which makes them promiscuous in binding to different partners, multi-functional in cellular activity and atypical in folding energy landscapes resembling partially folded molten globules. Also, their involvement in several deadly human diseases (e.g. cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases) makes them attractive drug targets, and important for a biochemical understanding of the disease(s). The study of the structural ensemble of IDPs is rather difficult, in particular for transient interactions. When bound to a structured partner, an IDPR adapts an ordered conformation in the complex. The residues that undergo this disorder-to-order transition are called protean residues, generally found in short contiguous stretches and the first step in understanding the modus operandi of an IDP/IDPR would be to predict these residues. There are a few available methods which predict these protean segments from their amino acid sequences; however, their performance reported in the literature leaves clear room for improvement. With this background, the current study presents `Proteus', a random forest classifier that predicts the likelihood of a residue undergoing a disorder-to-order transition upon binding to a potential partner protein. The prediction is based on features that can be calculated using the amino acid sequence alone. Proteus compares favorably with existing methods predicting twice as many true positives as the second best method (55

  1. Mendelian randomization analysis of a time-varying exposure for binary disease outcomes using functional data analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Rajan, Suja S; Wei, Peng

    2016-12-01

    A Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis is performed to analyze the causal effect of an exposure variable on a disease outcome in observational studies, by using genetic variants that affect the disease outcome only through the exposure variable. This method has recently gained popularity among epidemiologists given the success of genetic association studies. Many exposure variables of interest in epidemiological studies are time varying, for example, body mass index (BMI). Although longitudinal data have been collected in many cohort studies, current MR studies only use one measurement of a time-varying exposure variable, which cannot adequately capture the long-term time-varying information. We propose using the functional principal component analysis method to recover the underlying individual trajectory of the time-varying exposure from the sparsely and irregularly observed longitudinal data, and then conduct MR analysis using the recovered curves. We further propose two MR analysis methods. The first assumes a cumulative effect of the time-varying exposure variable on the disease risk, while the second assumes a time-varying genetic effect and employs functional regression models. We focus on statistical testing for a causal effect. Our simulation studies mimicking the real data show that the proposed functional data analysis based methods incorporating longitudinal data have substantial power gains compared to standard MR analysis using only one measurement. We used the Framingham Heart Study data to demonstrate the promising performance of the new methods as well as inconsistent results produced by the standard MR analysis that relies on a single measurement of the exposure at some arbitrary time point. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  2. Associations between urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress and air pollutants observed in a randomized crossover exposure to steel mill emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Guillaume; Rigden, Marc; Kauri, Lisa Marie; Shutt, Robin; Mahmud, Mamun; Cakmak, Sabit; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Thomson, Errol M; Vincent, Renaud; Broad, Gayle; Liu, Ling; Dales, Robert

    2017-04-01

    The effects of industrial air pollution on human health have not been as thoroughly investigated as those of urban air pollution which originates mostly from automotive transport. To better assess the health impacts of point sources of industrial air pollution, a randomized crossover exposure study was conducted. Sixty one young and healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to spend five consecutive eight-hour days near a steel mill or at a location five kilometres away. After a nine or sixteen-day washout period, volunteers spent another five consecutive days at the second site. Meteorological conditions and air pollutants were monitored at both exposure sites. On each exposure day, the first morning urine was collected along with a second urine sample obtained immediately before leaving the exposure site at the end of the day. Urinary levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage), malondialdehyde (MDA, a biomarker of lipid peroxidation), 8-isoprostane (8-IsoP, a bioactive metabolite resulting from the peroxidation of arachidonic acid) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF, involved in response to oxidative stress) were measured. According to mixed-effects linear regression models, intra-individual variations in 8-OHdG urinary levels were significantly associated with exposure site, but surprisingly, lower levels were observed at the steel mill site. Delayed, temporally-defined associations with specific air pollutants were observed for 8-OHdG, 8-IsoP and VEGF. However, these associations were subtle, presented complex patterns and their biological consequences remain unclear. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Reduction of seizure occurrence from exposure to auditory stimulation in individuals with neurological handicaps: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bodner

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine in a clinical trial the efficacy of reducing or preventing seizures in patients with neurological handicaps through sustained cortical activation evoked by passive exposure to a specific auditory stimulus (particular music. The specific type of stimulation had been determined in previous studies to evoke anti-epileptiform/anti-seizure brain activity.The study was conducted at the Thad E. Saleeby Center in Harstville, South Carolina, which is a permanent residence for individuals with heterogeneous neurological impairments, many with epilepsy. We investigated the ability to reduce or prevent seizures in subjects through cortical stimulation from sustained passive nightly exposure to a specific auditory stimulus (music in a three-year randomized controlled study. In year 1, baseline seizure rates were established. In year 2, subjects were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Treatment group subjects were exposed during sleeping hours to specific music at regular intervals. Control subjects received no music exposure and were maintained on regular anti-seizure medication. In year 3, music treatment was terminated and seizure rates followed. We found a significant treatment effect (p = 0.024 during the treatment phase persisting through the follow-up phase (p = 0.002. Subjects exposed to treatment exhibited a significant 24% decrease in seizures during the treatment phase, and a 33% decrease persisting through the follow-up phase. Twenty-four percent of treatment subjects exhibited a complete absence of seizures during treatment.Exposure to specific auditory stimuli (i.e. music can significantly reduce seizures in subjects with a range of epilepsy and seizure types, in some cases achieving a complete cessation of seizures. These results are consistent with previous work showing reductions in epileptiform activity from particular music exposure and offers potential for achieving a non

  4. Yohimbine Enhancement of Exposure Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.A.J.; Rosenfield, D.; Davis, M.L.; Julian, K.; Handelsman, P.R.; Otto, M.W.; Tuerk, P.; Shiekh, M.; Rosenfield, B.; Hofmann, S.G.; Powers, M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preclinical and clinical trials suggest that yohimbine may augment extinction learning without significant side effects. However, previous clinical trials have only examined adults with specific phobias. Yohimbine has not yet been investigated in the augmentation of exposure therapy for

  5. Mailed outreach and facilitated test ordering to promote cholesterol screening in community health centers: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persell, Stephen D; Brown, Tiffany; Lee, Ji Young; Henley, Eric; Long, Timothy; Sanchez, Thomas; Knight, Regina

    2017-06-01

    Lipid screening is central to cardiovascular risk assessment. We sought to determine whether a simple mailed outreach message and facilitated test ordering increase cholesterol screening among federally qualified community health center patients with no recent cholesterol screening test performed. Using a patient-randomized controlled trial, we examined the effects of delivering a simple mailed outreach intervention promoting cholesterol testing and facilitated test ordering (without requiring an office visit). Participants were adult patients 50 to 75 years old, with no diagnosed cardiovascular disease or diabetes, and no cholesterol test within 5 years who had received care from community health centers in Illinois and Arizona. The intervention took place in 2014 and was powered to detect a 10% increase in screening due to the intervention. Participants' (n = 480) mean age was 57.5 years, 51.0% were male, and 43.8% were smokers. There was no significant difference between groups in the primary study outcome-completion of total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol tests or complete lipid panel within 3 months; 32 participants (13.3%) in intervention group versus 26 (10.8%) in control group met the primary outcome, with absolute difference of 2.5 percentage points (95% confidence interval -6.6 to 11.6). This outreach intervention promoting cholesterol screening was ineffective. Interventions that attempt to minimize barriers to cholesterol screening on multiple fronts and that are more compelling to patients are needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Whole Body Vibration Exposure on Markers of Bone Turnover in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sarah; Torode, Margaret; Climstein, Mike; Naughton, Geraldine; Greene, David; Baker, Michael K.; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the effects of two doses of low-frequency (12 Hz), low-magnitude (0.3 g), whole body vibration on markers of bone formation and resorption in postmenopausal women. Methods. Women were recruited and randomized into a sham vibration control group, one time per week vibration group (1×/week), or three times per week vibration group (3×/week). Vibration exposure consisted of 20 minutes of intermittent vibration for the 1×/week and 3×/week groups, and sham vibration (vibration group but not in the 1×/wk vibration group compared with sham control (P vibration 3×/week for eight weeks in postmenopausal women results in a significant reduction in NTx/Cr, a marker of bone resorption, when compared with sham vibration exposure. PMID:21772975

  7. Therapist-Aided Exposure for Women with Lifelong Vaginismus: Mediators of Treatment Outcome: A Randomized Waiting List Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Kuile, Moniek M; Melles, Reinhilde J; Tuijnman-Raasveld, Charlotte C; de Groot, Helen E; van Lankveld, Jacques J D M

    2015-08-01

    Therapist-aided exposure seems an effective treatment for lifelong vaginismus, but mechanisms of action have not yet been established. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether treatment outcome of a therapist-aided exposure treatment was mediated by changes in positive and negative penetration beliefs or feelings of sexual disgust. Participants with lifelong vaginismus were allocated at random to a 3-month exposure (n = 35) or a waiting list control condition (n = 35). Full intercourse was assessed daily during 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures (complaints about vaginismus and coital pain) were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Possible mediators: penetration beliefs (catastrophic pain beliefs, genital incompatibility beliefs, perceived control beliefs) and feelings of sexual disgust were assessed at baseline and 6 weeks. Treatment outcome (coital frequency, symptoms of vaginismus, and coital pain) at 12 weeks was mediated by changes in negative and positive penetration beliefs at 6 weeks, in particular by more pronounced reduction of catastrophic pain penetration beliefs. No evidence was found that changes in feelings of sexual disgust mediated treatment outcome. The results strongly suggest that therapist-aided exposure affects negative penetration beliefs and that these changes in negative penetration beliefs mediate treatment outcome in women with lifelong vaginismus. Implications for treatment are discussed. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  8. Ultraviolet radiation after exposure to a low-fluence IPL home-use device: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaysen-Petersen, Daniel; Erlendsson, Andres M; Nash, J F; Beerwerth, Frank; Philipsen, Peter A; Wulf, Hans C; Haedersdal, Merete

    2015-11-01

    The prevailing advice is to avoid sun exposure after intense pulsed light (IPL) hair removal. However, no systematic evaluation of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) after IPL hair removal exits. Therefore, we investigated the occurrence of side effects in subjects receiving solar-simulated UVR after a low-fluence IPL treatment with a home-use device. Sixteen subjects with Fitzpatrick skin types (FST) II-V were enrolled. Three constitutive buttock blocks (4.4 × 6.4 cm) were each subdivided into four sites, randomized to one IPL exposure of 0, 7, 8, or 10 J/cm2 (spectral output 530-1100 nm). Blocks were randomized to no UVR or three standard erythema doses (SEDs) UVR either 30 min or 24 h after IPL. Follow-up visits were 48 h, 1 week, and 4 weeks after IPL. Outcome measures were (i) clinical skin reactions, (ii) reflectance measurements of erythema and pigmentation, and (iii) pain. Subjects with FST II-IV experienced no skin reactions up to 4 weeks after IPL, neither erythema, edema, blisters, crusting, textual, nor pigment changes. Reflectance confirmed no change in erythema and pigmentation (p ≥ 0.090). UVR exposure induced erythema and increased pigmentation. The combination of IPL and UVR induced skin reactions not different to responses from UVR (IPL-UVR vs. UVR, p ≥ 0.164). Pain was generally low (median 1, range 0-4) and correlated positively with fluence and pigmentation (Spearman's rho ≥ 0.394, p IPL and slightly more intense when exposed to UVR. A single UVR exposure of three SEDs either shortly or 1 day after low-fluence IPL causes no amplification of skin responses in constitutive skin of individuals with FST II-IV.

  9. A randomized controlled Alzheimer's disease prevention trial's evolution into an exposure trial: the PREADViSE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryscio, R J; Abner, E L; Schmitt, F A; Goodman, P J; Mendiondo, M; Caban-Holt, A; Dennis, B C; Mathews, M; Klein, E A; Crowley, J J

    2013-01-01

    To summarize the ongoing prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by vitamin E and selenium (PREADViSE) trial as an ancillary study to SELECT (a large prostate cancer prevention trial) and to present the blinded results of the first year as an exposure study. PREADViSE was designed as a double blind randomized controlled trial (RCT). SELECT terminated after median of 5.5 years of exposure to supplements due to a futility analysis. Both trials then converted into an exposure study. In the randomized component PREADViSE enrolled 7,547 men age 62 or older (60 if African American). Once the trial terminated 4,246 of these men volunteered for the exposure study. Demographics were similar for both groups with exposure volunteers having baseline mean age 67.3 ± 5.2 years, 15.3 ± 2.4 years of education, 9.8% African Americans, and 22.0% reporting a family history of dementia. In the RCT men were randomly assigned to either daily doses of 400 IU of vitamin E or placebo and 200 µg of selenium or placebo using a 2x2 factorial structure. In the RCT, participants completed the memory impairment screen (MIS), and if they failed, underwent a longer screening (based on an expanded Consortium to Establish a Registry in AD [CERAD] battery). CERAD failure resulted in visits to their clinician for medical examination with records of these examinations forwarded to the PREADViSE center for further review. In the exposure study, men are contacted by telephone and complete the telephone version of the memory impairment screen (MIS-T) screen. If they fail the MIS-T, a modified telephone interview of cognitive status (TICS-M) exam is given. A failed TICS-M exam also leads to a visit to their clinician for an in-depth examination and forwarding of records for a centralized consensus diagnosis by expert clinicians. A subgroup of the men who pass the MIS-T also take the TICS-M exam for validation purposes. While this ancillary trial was open to all 427 SELECT clinical sites, only 130 (30

  10. A Stochastic Simulation Framework for the Prediction of Strategic Noise Mapping and Occupational Noise Exposure Using the Random Walk Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, Zaiton; Bakar, Suhaimi Abu; Dimon, Mohamad Ngasri

    2015-01-01

    Strategic noise mapping provides important information for noise impact assessment and noise abatement. However, producing reliable strategic noise mapping in a dynamic, complex working environment is difficult. This study proposes the implementation of the random walk approach as a new stochastic technique to simulate noise mapping and to predict the noise exposure level in a workplace. A stochastic simulation framework and software, namely RW-eNMS, were developed to facilitate the random walk approach in noise mapping prediction. This framework considers the randomness and complexity of machinery operation and noise emission levels. Also, it assesses the impact of noise on the workers and the surrounding environment. For data validation, three case studies were conducted to check the accuracy of the prediction data and to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of this approach. The results showed high accuracy of prediction results together with a majority of absolute differences of less than 2 dBA; also, the predicted noise doses were mostly in the range of measurement. Therefore, the random walk approach was effective in dealing with environmental noises. It could predict strategic noise mapping to facilitate noise monitoring and noise control in the workplaces. PMID:25875019

  11. The relationship of dynamical heterogeneity to the Adam-Gibbs and random first-order transition theories of glass formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Francis W; Douglas, Jack F; Sastry, Srikanth

    2013-03-28

    We carefully examine common measures of dynamical heterogeneity for a model polymer melt and test how these scales compare with those hypothesized by the Adam and Gibbs (AG) and random first-order transition (RFOT) theories of relaxation in glass-forming liquids. To this end, we first analyze clusters of highly mobile particles, the string-like collective motion of these mobile particles, and clusters of relative low mobility. We show that the time scale of the high-mobility clusters and strings is associated with a diffusive time scale, while the low-mobility particles' time scale relates to a structural relaxation time. The difference of the characteristic times for the high- and low-mobility particles naturally explains the well-known decoupling of diffusion and structural relaxation time scales. Despite the inherent difference of dynamics between high- and low-mobility particles, we find a high degree of similarity in the geometrical structure of these particle clusters. In particular, we show that the fractal dimensions of these clusters are consistent with those of swollen branched polymers or branched polymers with screened excluded-volume interactions, corresponding to lattice animals and percolation clusters, respectively. In contrast, the fractal dimension of the strings crosses over from that of self-avoiding walks for small strings, to simple random walks for longer, more strongly interacting, strings, corresponding to flexible polymers with screened excluded-volume interactions. We examine the appropriateness of identifying the size scales of either mobile particle clusters or strings with the size of cooperatively rearranging regions (CRR) in the AG and RFOT theories. We find that the string size appears to be the most consistent measure of CRR for both the AG and RFOT models. Identifying strings or clusters with the "mosaic" length of the RFOT model relaxes the conventional assumption that the "entropic droplets" are compact. We also confirm the

  12. Law & Order, CSI, and NCIS: The Association Between Exposure to Crime Drama Franchises, Rape Myth Acceptance, and Sexual Consent Negotiation Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hust, Stacey J T; Marett, Emily Garrigues; Lei, Ming; Ren, Chunbo; Ran, Weina

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has identified that exposure to the crime drama genre lowers rape myth acceptance and increases sexual assault prevention behaviors such as bystander intervention. However, recent content analyses have revealed marked differences in the portrayal of sexual violence within the top three crime drama franchises. Using a survey of 313 college freshmen, this study explores the influence of exposure to the three most popular crime drama franchises: Law & Order, CSI, and NCIS. Findings indicate that exposure to the Law & Order franchise is associated with decreased rape myth acceptance and increased intentions to adhere to expressions of sexual consent and refuse unwanted sexual activity; whereas exposure to the CSI franchise is associated with decreased intentions to seek consent and decreased intentions to adhere to expressions of sexual consent. Exposure to the NCIS franchise was associated with decreased intentions to refuse unwanted sexual activity. These results indicate that exposure to the specific content of each crime drama franchise may have differential results on sexual consent negotiation behaviors.

  13. Prenatal alcohol exposure and offspring cognition and school performance. A ?Mendelian randomization? natural experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Zuccolo, Luisa; Lewis, Sarah J.; Davey Smith, George; Sayal, Kapil; Draper, Elizabeth S; Fraser, Robert; Barrow, Margaret; Alati, Rosa; Ring, Sue; Macleod, John; Golding, Jean; Heron, Jon; Gray, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Background There is substantial debate as to whether moderate alcohol use during pregnancy could have subtle but important effects on offspring, by impairing later cognitive function and thus school performance. The authors aimed to investigate the unconfounded effect of moderately increased prenatal alcohol exposure on cognitive/educational performance. Methods We used mother-offspring pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and performed both conv...

  14. Therapist-aided exposure for women with lifelong vaginismus: a randomized waiting-list control trial of efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Kuile, Moniek M; Melles, Reinhilde; de Groot, H Ellen; Tuijnman-Raasveld, Charlotte C; van Lankveld, Jacques J D M

    2013-12-01

    Vaginismus is commonly described as a persistent difficulty in allowing vaginal entry of a penis or other "objects" (e.g., tampons, fingers, speculum). Lifelong vaginismus is diagnosed when a woman has never been able to have intercourse. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of therapist-aided exposure for lifelong vaginismus. Seventy women and their partners were randomly allocated to exposure or a waiting-list control period of 3 months. The main outcome measure (intercourse ability) was assessed daily during 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures were complaints about vaginismus, coital pain, coital fear, sexual distress, and sexual functioning. The exposure treatment consisted of a maximum of three 2-hr sessions during 1 week at a university hospital. Each participant performed vaginal penetration exercises herself, in the presence of her partner and a female therapist. Two follow-up sessions were scheduled over a 5-week period. Thirty-one out of 35 (89%; 95% CI [72%, 96%]) participants reported having had sexual intercourse at posttreatment compared with 4 out of 35 (11%; 95% CI [4%, 28%]) participants in the control condition. In most of the successfully treated women (90%), intercourse was possible within the first 2 weeks of treatment. Moreover, treatment resulted in clinical improvement regarding other symptoms related to vaginismus, coital fear, coital pain, and sexual distress. No treatment effects were found regarding other aspects of sexual functioning in women or their partners. This study provides evidence of the efficacy of therapist-aided exposure therapy for women with lifelong vaginismus.

  15. Cerebral activation related to skills practice in a double serial reaction time task : striatal involvement in random-order sequence learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, FHCE; de Jong, BM; Maguire, RP; Meiners, LC; Leenders, KL

    We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to examine the distribution of cerebral activation related to prolonged skill practice. In a bimanual variant of the Serial Reaction Time Task (SRT), simultaneous finger movements of the two hands were made in response to randomly ordered pairs of

  16. Operator radiation exposure and physical discomfort during a right versus left radial approach for coronary interventions: a randomized evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, Herman; Patel, Ambar M; Suryadevara, Siva; Zenni, Martin M; Box, Lyndon C; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Bass, Theodore A; Guzman, Luis A

    2014-07-01

    This study sought to assess radiation exposure and operator discomfort when using left radial approach (LRA) versus right radial approach (RRA) for coronary diagnostic and percutaneous interventions. The transradial approach is increasingly being adopted as the preferred vascular access for coronary interventions. Currently, most are performed using an RRA. This is in part due to the perceived increased operator physical discomforts as well increased radiation exposure with an LRA. One hundred patients were randomized to an LRA or RRA. Each operator (n = 5) had an independent randomization process, and patients were stratified according to obesity status. Operator radiation was measured using separate sets of radiation dosimeter badges placed externally on the head and thyroid and internally on the sternum. Operator physical discomfort was surveyed at 2 time points: during vascular access and at the end of the procedure. Moderate to severe physical discomfort was defined as a score of >4. There were no significant differences in baseline and procedural variables between groups. There was a significant increase in external radiation exposure using the RRA versus LRA (head: median: 6.12 [interquartile range (IQR): 2.6 to 16.6] mRems vs. median: 12.0 [IQR: 6.4 to 22.0] mRems, p = 0.02; thyroid: median: 10.10 [IQR: 4.3 to 25] mRems vs. median: 18.70 [IQR: 11.0 to 38] mRems, p = 0.001). More discomfort was reported with the LRA during access (LRA: 22% vs. RRA: 4%; p = 0.017), but not during the procedure (LRA: 10.0% vs. RRA: 4.0%, p = 0.43). This difference was almost entirely noted in obese patients (LRA: 30.0% vs. RRA: 3.7%, p = 0.005). LRA is as effective as RRA, showing a safer profile with decreased radiation exposure to the operator, at the expense of more operator discomfort only during vascular access and limited to obese patients. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rayleigh scatter based order of magnitude increase in distributed temperature and strain sensing by simple UV exposure of optical fibre

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loranger, Sébastien; Gagné, Mathieu; Lambin-Iezzi, Victor; Kashyap, Raman

    2015-01-01

    ...) using Frequency domain Rayleigh scatter. A simple UV exposure of a hydrogen loaded standard SMF-28 fibre core is shown to enhance the Rayleigh back-scattered light dramatically by ten-fold, independent of the presence of a Bragg grating...

  18. Effects of smartphone diaries and personal dosimeters on behavior in a randomized study of methods to document sunlight exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Brian; Søndergaard, Jens; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2016-01-01

    Dosimeters and diaries have previously been used to evaluate sun-related behavior and UV exposure in local samples. However, wearing a dosimeter or filling in a diary may cause a behavioral change. The aim of this study was to examine possible confounding factors for a questionnaire validation...... study. We examined the effects of wearing dosimeters and filling out diaries, measurement period and recall effect on the sun-related behavior in Denmark in 2012.Our sample included 240 participants eligible by smartphone status and who took a vacation during weeks 26-32 in 2012, randomized by gender......, age, education and skin type to six groups: 1) Control + diary, 2) Control, 3) 1-week dosimetry measurement, 4) 1-week dosimetry measurement + diary, 5) 3-week dosimetry measurement and 6) 1-week dosimetry measurement with 4 week delayed questionnaire.Correlation coefficients between reported outdoor...

  19. Effect of heat exposure and exercise on food intake regulation: A randomized crossover study in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Cécile; Charlot, Keyne; Henri, Stéphane; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Hue, Olivier; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    The effect of physical activity on food intake regulation may be moderated by environmental temperature. The aim of the study was to determine the single and combined effects of metabolic activity and temperature on energy intake and its hormonal regulation. A randomized crossover study was conducted in the laboratory. Ten healthy and physically active young Afro-Caribbean men participated in four experimental sessions (rest at 22°C and 31°C and cycling at 60% of their maximal oxygen uptake at 22°C and 31°C, all for 40 min). Each test period was followed by a 30-min recovery period and then an ad libitum meal. The main outcome measures were energy balance, subjective appetite, and plasma pancreatic polypeptide (PP), cholecystokinin (CCK) and ghrelin concentrations. Relative energy intake was significantly decreased whereas plasma PP was increased in the exercise conditions (p=0.004 and p=0.002, respectively). Postprandial levels of CCK were elevated only in the rest conditions. Exposure to heat induced a decrease in plasma ghrelin (p=0.031). Exercise induced a short-term energy deficit. However, modifications in the hormonal regulation of food intake in response to short-term heat or heat and exercise exposure seem to be minor and did not induce changes in energy intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02157233. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Trauma management therapy with virtual-reality augmented exposure therapy for combat-related PTSD: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidel, Deborah C; Frueh, B Christopher; Neer, Sandra M; Bowers, Clint A; Trachik, Benjamin; Uhde, Thomas W; Grubaugh, Anouk

    2017-08-23

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) realistically incorporates traumatic cues into exposure therapy and holds promise in the treatment of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In a randomized controlled trial of 92 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans and active duty military personnel with combat-related PTSD, we compared the efficacy of Trauma Management Therapy (TMT; VRET plus a group treatment for anger, depression, and social isolation) to VRET plus a psychoeducation control condition. Efficacy was evaluated at mid- and post-treatment, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. Consistent with our hypothesis, VRET resulted in significant decreases on the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale and the PTSD Checklist-Military version for both groups. Also consistent with our hypothesis, significant decreases in social isolation occurred only for those participants who received the TMT group component. There were significant decreases for depression and anger for both groups, although these occurred after VRET and before group treatment. All treatment gains were maintained six-months later. Although not part of the original hypotheses, sleep was not improved by either intervention and remained problematic. The results support the use of VRET as an efficacious treatment for combat-related PTSD, but suggest that VRET alone does not result in optimal treatment outcomes across domains associated with PTSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Treatment of traumatized victims of war and torture: a randomized controlled comparison of narrative exposure therapy and stress inoculation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel-Dittmann, D; Schauer, M; Ruf, M; Catani, C; Odenwald, M; Elbert, T; Neuner, F

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present randomized controlled trial was to compare the outcome of 2 active treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a consequence of war and torture: narrative exposure therapy (NET) and stress inoculation training (SIT). Twenty-eight PTSD patients who had experienced war and torture, most of them asylum seekers, received 10 treatment sessions of either NET or SIT at the Outpatient Clinic for Refugees, University of Konstanz, Germany. Posttests were carried out 4 weeks after treatment, and follow-up tests were performed 6 months and 1 year after treatment. The main outcome measure was the PTSD severity score according to the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) at each time point. A significant reduction in PTSD severity was found for NET, but not for SIT. A symptom reduction in the NET group occurred between pretest and the 6-month follow-up examination, the effect size being d = 1.42 (for SIT: d = 0.12), and between pretest and the 1-year follow-up, the effect size being d = 1.59 (for SIT: d = 0.19). The rates and scores of major depression and other comorbid disorders did not decrease significantly over time in either of the 2 treatment groups. The results indicate that exposure treatments like NET lead to a significant PTSD symptom reduction even in severely traumatized refugees and asylum seekers. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Effect of verapamil on systemic exposure and safety of umeclidinium and vilanterol: a randomized and open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rashmi; Kelleher, Dennis; Preece, Andrew; Hughes, Stephen; Crater, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    The combination of umeclidinium (UMEC), a long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist, and vilanterol (VI), a selective long-acting β₂ agonist, is in development for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability, and pharmacodynamics of once-daily, inhaled UMEC and UMEC/VI when co-administered with oral verapamil, a moderate P-glycoprotein transporter and moderate cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitor frequently used by patients with COPD and cardiovascular comorbidities. Subjects were randomized to one of two 13-day treatment regimens: UMEC 500 μg or UMEC 500 μg/VI 25 μg. All subjects received a single tablet containing 240 mg verapamil on each of days 9-13. Repeat doses of UMEC and UMEC/VI in combination with and without verapamil were safe and well tolerated. There was no increase in systemic exposure of UMEC when administered in combination with VI compared to UMEC alone. UMEC maximum concentration was similar with or without verapamil; a moderate increase in UMEC area under the curve (approximately 1.4-fold) was observed with verapamil. Verapamil did not increase systemic exposure to VI following administration of the UMEC/VI combination. Administration of UMEC and UMEC/VI combination was well tolerated and did not show clinically relevant increases in systemic exposure for either drug. The UMEC/VI combination is unlikely to have a clinically meaningful drug-drug interaction with moderate P-glycoprotein transporter and CYP3A4 inhibitor drugs.

  3. Gender differences in first and secondhand smoke exposure, spirometric lung function and cardiometabolic health in the old order Amish: A novel population without female smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert M; Dransfield, Mark T; Eberlein, Michael; Miller, Michael; Netzer, Giora; Pavlovich, Mary; Pollin, Toni I; Scharf, Steven M; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sin, Don; Mitchell, Braxton D

    2017-01-01

    Due to their relatively homogeneous lifestyle and living environment, the Amish offer a novel opportunity to study the health associations of tobacco smoke exposure, particularly secondhand smoke. We hypothesized that secondhand smoke exposure is associated with worse pulmonary and cardiometabolic health. We examined cross-sectional data on 3568 Amish study participants, including tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure from family members included in the study. Thirty-four percent of Amish men reported ever smoking. Of this proportion, 64% used cigars, 46% cigarettes, and 21% pipes. Less than 1% of women reported ever smoking. Smoking was associated with lower spirometric lung function, higher body mass index, lower HDL cholesterol, higher heart rate, lower ankle-brachial index, and larger aortic diameter in men. A greater number of sources of secondhand smoke exposure (defined from the total of spouses, parents, and siblings who smoke) was associated with higher body mass index (p = 0.03) and with higher fasting glucose in men (p = 0.01), but not in women (p = 0.007 for sex*secondhand smoke interaction). Secondhand smoke exposure was also associated with reduced HDL cholesterol only in women (p = 0.002) and a lower heart rate only in men (p = 0.006). Smoking habits among the Old Order Amish are notable for the absence of female participation and a high proportion of cigar and pipe use. Smoking is associated with decreased spirometric indices of lung function and increased cardiovascular risk in this population and secondhand smoke exposure is associated with a greater burden of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Sex differences in correlations could reflect differences in exposure patterns, mechanisms, or susceptibilities.

  4. Proteome Analysis of Thyroid Cancer Cells After Long-Term Exposure to a Random Positioning Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Jessica; Bauer, Johann; Weber, Gerhard; Nissum, Mikkel; Westphal, Kriss; Egli, Marcel; Grosse, Jirka; Schönberger, Johann; Eilles, Christoph; Infanger, Manfred; Grimm, Daniela

    2011-11-01

    Annulling gravity during cell culturing triggers various types of cells to change their protein expression in a time dependent manner. We therefore decided to determine gravity sensitive proteins and their period of sensitivity to the effects of gravity. In this study, thyroid cancer cells of the ML-1 cell line were cultured under normal gravity (1 g) or in a random positioning machine (RPM), which simulated near weightlessness for 7 and 11 days. Cells were then sonicated and proteins released into the supernatant were separated from those that remained attached to the cell fragments. Subsequently, both types of proteins were fractionated by free-flow isoelectric focussing (FF-IEF). The fractions obtained were further separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to which comparable FF-IEF fractions derived from cells cultured either under 1 g or on the RPM had been applied side by side. The separation resulted in pairs of lanes, on which a number of identical bands were observed. Selected gel pieces were excised and their proteins determined by mass spectrometry. Equal proteins from cells cultured under normal gravity and the RPM, respectively, were detected in comparable gel pieces. However, many of these proteins had received different Mascot scores. Quantifying heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, glutathione S-transferase P, nucleoside diphosphate kinase A and annexin-2 by Western blotting using whole cell lysates indicated usefulness of Mascot scores for selecting the most efficient antibodies.

  5. Effects of a Safe Transportation Educational Program for Older Drivers on Driving Exposure and Community Participation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxon, Kristy; Chevalier, Anna; Brown, Julie; Clarke, Elizabeth; Billot, Laurent; Boufous, Soufiane; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    To ascertain whether a safe-transportation program can change driving exposure while maintaining community participation of older drivers. Randomized controlled trial. Northwest Sydney. Drivers aged 75 and older (mean 80 ± 4) (n = 380). Intervention group participated in an individualized, one-on-one safe-transportation program adapted from the Knowledge Enhances Your Safety curriculum. A registered occupational therapist delivered the intervention in two sessions held approximately 1 month apart. An in-vehicle monitoring device hardwired into participants' vehicles measured driving exposure. Community participation was measured using the Keele Assessment of Participation. A staging algorithm based on the Precaution Adoption Process Model measured behavior change toward increased and sustained driving self-regulation. Main outcomes were distance driven per week over 12 months and community participation. Secondary outcomes were behavior change, depressive symptoms, and alternate transportation use. Generalized estimating equations were used to model effect on driving exposure, adjusting for weekly measures, and ordinal regression was used to analyze differences in behavior change profiles between groups using an intention-to-treat approach. Participants were randomized after baseline assessment-190 each to the intervention and control groups. One hundred eighty-three of 190 completed the intervention and 366 of 380 completed the study. On average, participants drove 140 ± 167 km/wk. Although there was no significant difference between the groups in distance driven per week over 12 months (between-group difference -5.5 km, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -24.5-13.5 km, p = .57), intervention group participants showed greater readiness to engage in self-regulatory driving practices, such as reporting avoiding driving at night or at rush hours, than control group participants (odds ratio (OR) = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1-2.3, P = .02). At 12 months, use of alternate

  6. Narrative exposure therapy versus interpersonal psychotherapy. A pilot randomized controlled trial with Rwandan genocide orphans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Susanne; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of treatment modules for trauma spectrum disorders in a sample of Rwandan genocide orphans. Twenty-six orphans (originally 27) who presented with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at first assessment continued to meet a PTSD DSM-IV diagnosis 6 months after their initial assessment. They were offered participation in a controlled treatment trial. A group adaptation of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT, n = 14) was compared to individual narrative exposure therapy (NET, n = 12). The last NET session involved guided mourning. Each treatment program consisted of 4 weekly sessions. Main outcome measures were diagnostic status and symptoms of PTSD and depression assessed before treatment, at 3 months post-test and at 6 months follow-up using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and Hamilton Rating Scale. At post-test, there were no significant group differences between NET and IPT on any of the examined outcome measures. At 6-month follow-up, only 25% of NET, but 71% of IPT participants still fulfilled PTSD criteria. There was a significant time x treatment interaction in the severity of PTSD [Wilks' Lambda = 0.75, F(2,23) = 3.93; p < 0.05] and depression symptoms [Wilks' Lambda = 0.23, F(2,23) = 3.40; p = 0.05]. At follow-up, NET participants were significantly more improved than IPT participants with respect to both the severity of symptoms of PTSD and depression. Individual NET in combination with group-based mourning comprises an effective treatment for traumatized survivors who have to bear the loss of loved ones and have been suffering from symptoms of PTSD and depression. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Response-Order Effects in Survey Methods: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Study in the Context of Sport Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Derwin K; Ivarsson, Andreas; Stenling, Andreas; Yang, Sophie X; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L; Hagger, Martin S

    2015-12-01

    Consistency tendency is characterized by the propensity for participants responding to subsequent items in a survey consistent with their responses to previous items. This method effect might contaminate the results of sport psychology surveys using cross-sectional design. We present a randomized controlled crossover study examining the effect of consistency tendency on the motivational pathway (i.e., autonomy support → autonomous motivation → intention) of self-determination theory in the context of sport injury prevention. Athletes from Sweden (N = 341) responded to the survey printed in either low interitem distance (IID; consistency tendency likely) or high IID (consistency tendency suppressed) on two separate occasions, with a one-week interim period. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups, and they received the survey of different IID at each occasion. Bayesian structural equation modeling showed that low IID condition had stronger parameter estimates than high IID condition, but the differences were not statistically significant.

  8. Approximate Forward Difference Equations for the Lower Order Non-Stationary Statistics of Geometrically Non-Linear Systems subject to Random Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. U.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Cakmak, A. S.

    Geometrically non-linear multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems subject to random excitation are considered. New semi-analytical approximate forward difference equations for the lower order non-stationary statistical moments of the response are derived from the stochastic differential equations...... of motion, and, the accuracy of these equations is numerically investigated. For stationary excitations, the proposed method computes the stationary statistical moments of the response from the solution of non-linear algebraic equations....

  9. An MGF-based unified framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered i.n.d. random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungsik

    2014-08-01

    The joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables (RVs) are often needed for the accurate performance characterization of a wide variety of wireless communication systems. A unified analytical framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables was recently presented. However, the identical distribution assumption may not be valid in several real-world applications. With this motivation in mind, we consider in this paper the more general case in which the random variables are independent but not necessarily identically distributed (i.n.d.). More specifically, we extend the previous analysis and introduce a new more general unified analytical framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered i.n.d. RVs. Our mathematical formalism is illustrated with an application on the exact performance analysis of the capture probability of generalized selection combining (GSC)-based RAKE receivers operating over frequency-selective fading channels with a non-uniform power delay profile. © 1991-2012 IEEE.

  10. Internet-delivered exposure-based treatment vs. stress management for irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljótsson, Brjánn; Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Erik; Hesser, Hugo; Lindfors, Perjohan; Hursti, Timo; Rydh, Sara; Rück, Christian; Lindefors, Nils; Andersson, Gerhard

    2011-08-01

    Our research group has developed an internet-delivered cognitive behavioral treatment (ICBT) for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We compared ICBT with internet-delivered stress management (ISM) for IBS to assess whether the effects of ICBT are specific. This was a randomized controlled trial, including 195 self-referred participants diagnosed with IBS. The treatment interventions lasted for 10 weeks and included an online therapist contact. The ICBT emphasized acceptance of symptoms through exposure to IBS symptoms and related negative feelings. The ICBT also included mindfulness training. The ISM emphasized symptom control through relaxation techniques, dietary adjustments, and problem-solving skills. Severity of IBS symptoms was measured with the gastrointestinal symptom rating scale-IBS version (GSRS-IBS). Credibility of the treatments and expectancy of improvement were assessed with the treatment credibility scale. The participants' perceived therapeutic alliance with their online therapist was measured with the working alliance inventory. At post-treatment and 6-month follow-up, 192 (99%) and 169 (87%) participants returned data, respectively. At post-treatment and 6-month follow-up, we found significant differences on the GSRS-IBS, favoring ICBT. The difference on GSRS-IBS scores was 4.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-8.4) at post-treatment and 5.9 (95% CI: 1.9-9.9) at 6-month follow-up. There were no significant differences on the treatment credibility scale or the working alliance inventory between the groups. Internet-delivered CBT has specific effects that cannot be attributed only to treatment credibility, expectancy of improvement, therapeutic alliance, or attention. Furthermore, a treatment based on exposure exercises specifically tailored for IBS may be a better treatment option than general stress and symptom management for IBS patients. ICBT is a promising treatment modality for IBS as it can be offered to IBS patients in much larger scale than

  11. Integrated exposure-based therapy for co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder and substance dependence: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Katherine L; Teesson, Maree; Back, Sudie E; Brady, Kathleen T; Baker, Amanda L; Hopwood, Sally; Sannibale, Claudia; Barrett, Emma L; Merz, Sabine; Rosenfeld, Julia; Ewer, Philippa L

    2012-08-15

    There is concern that exposure therapy, an evidence-based cognitive-behavioral treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be inappropriate because of risk of relapse for patients with co-occurring substance dependence. To determine whether an integrated treatment for PTSD and substance dependence, Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and Substance Use Disorders Using Prolonged Exposure (COPE), can achieve greater reductions in PTSD and substance dependence symptom severity compared with usual treatment for substance dependence. Randomized controlled trial enrolling 103 participants who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for both PTSD and substance dependence. Participants were recruited from 2007-2009 in Sydney, Australia; outcomes were assessed at 9 months postbaseline, with interim measures collected at 6 weeks and 3 months postbaseline. Participants were randomized to receive COPE plus usual treatment (n = 55) or usual treatment alone (control) (n = 48). COPE consists of 13 individual 90-minute sessions (ie, 19.5 hours) with a clinical psychologist. Change in PTSD symptom severity as measured by the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS; scale range, 0-240) and change in severity of substance dependence as measured by the number of dependence criteria met according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI; range, 0-7), from baseline to 9-month follow-up. A change of 15 points on the CAPS scale and 1 dependence criterion on the CIDI were considered clinically significant. From baseline to 9-month follow-up, significant reductions in PTSD symptom severity were found for both the treatment group (mean difference, -38.24 [95% CI, -47.93 to -28.54]) and the control group (mean difference, -22.14 [95% CI, -30.33 to -13.95]); however, the treatment group demonstrated a significantly greater reduction in PTSD symptom severity (mean difference, -16.09 [95% CI, -29.00 to -3.19]). No significant between-group difference was found in relation to

  12. Prolonged exposure vs eye movement desensitization and reprocessing vs waiting list for post traumatic stress disorder in patients with a psychotic disorder: A randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, D.P.G.; de Bont, P.A.J.M.; van der Vleugel, B.M.; Roos, C.; de Jongh, A.; van Minnen, A.; van der Gaag, M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The efficacy of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatments in psychosis has not been examined in a randomized clinical trial to our knowledge. Psychosis is an exclusion criterion in most PTSD trials. OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy and safety of prolonged exposure (PE) therapy

  13. The reinforcing value of vegetables does not increase with repeated exposure during a randomized controlled provided vegetable intervention among overweight and obese adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine whether the relative reinforcing value (RRV) of vegetables compared to a snack food can be increased through repeated exposure (incentive sensitization) to amounts of vegetables recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for A...

  14. Influence of second-order random wave kinematics on the design loads of offshore wind turbine support structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    The impact of wave model nonlinearities on the design loads of wind turbine monopile foundations is delineated based on a second-order nonlinear randomwave model that satisfies the boundary conditions at the free surface and by including the effects of convective acceleration in the inertial load...

  15. Effect of verapamil on systemic exposure and safety of umeclidinium and vilanterol: a randomized and open-label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta R

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rashmi Mehta,1 Dennis Kelleher,1 Andrew Preece,2 Stephen Hughes,3 Glenn Crater4 1Respiratory Medicines Development Center, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2Respiratory Medicines Development Center, GlaxoSmithKline, Stockley Park West, UK; 3GlaxoSmithKline R&D, Bioanalytical Sciences and Toxicokinetics, Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Ware, UK; 4Respiratory Medicine Development Center, GlaxoSmithKline, Mississauga, ON, Canada Background: The combination of umeclidinium (UMEC, a long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist, and vilanterol (VI, a selective long-acting ß2 agonist, is in development for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability, and pharmacodynamics of once-daily, inhaled UMEC and UMEC/VI when co-administered with oral verapamil, a moderate P-glycoprotein transporter and moderate cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4 inhibitor frequently used by patients with COPD and cardiovascular comorbidities. Methods: Subjects were randomized to one of two 13-day treatment regimens: UMEC 500 µg or UMEC 500 µg/VI 25 µg. All subjects received a single tablet containing 240 mg verapamil on each of days 9–13. Results: Repeat doses of UMEC and UMEC/VI in combination with and without verapamil were safe and well tolerated. There was no increase in systemic exposure of UMEC when administered in combination with VI compared to UMEC alone. UMEC maximum concentration was similar with or without verapamil; a moderate increase in UMEC area under the curve (approximately 1.4-fold was observed with verapamil. Verapamil did not increase systemic exposure to VI following administration of the UMEC/VI combination. Conclusion: Administration of UMEC and UMEC/VI combination was well tolerated and did not show clinically relevant increases in systemic exposure for either drug. The UMEC/VI combination is unlikely to have a clinically meaningful drug

  16. Remarks on a dynamical higher-order theory of laminated plates and its application in random vibration response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederbaum, G.; Librescu, L.; Elishakoff, I.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the equations governing the dynamics of shear-deformable composite plates, without recourse to a variational procedure. It is noted that the operator associated with the governing equations is nonsymmetric; using a first-order perturbation technique, it is shown to be positive-definite. In addition, using the biorthogonality condition, the dynamic response of the plate is formulated.

  17. Respiratory Filter Reduces the Cardiovascular Effects Associated With Diesel Exhaust Exposure: A Randomized, Prospective, Double-Blind, Controlled Study of Heart Failure: The FILTER-HF Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Jefferson L; Guimaraes, Guilherme V; de Andre, Paulo A; Cruz, Fátima D; Saldiva, Paulo H Nascimento; Bocchi, Edimar A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effects of a respiratory filter intervention (filter) during controlled pollution exposure. Air pollution is considered a risk factor for heart failure (HF) decompensation and mortality. This study was a double-blind, randomized to order, controlled, 3-way crossover, single-center clinical trial. It enrolled 26 patients with HF and 15 control volunteers. Participants were exposed in 3 separate sessions to clean air, unfiltered diesel exhaust exposure (DE), or filtered DE. Endpoints were endothelial function assessed by using the reactive hyperemia index (RHi), arterial stiffness, serum biomarkers, 6-min walking distance, and heart rate variability. In patients with HF, DE was associated with a worsening in RHi from 2.17 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.8 to 2.5) to 1.72 (IQR: 1.5 to 2.2; p = 0.002) and an increase in B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) from 47.0 pg/ml (IQR: 17.3 to 118.0 pg/ml) to 66.5 pg/ml (IQR: 26.5 to 155.5 pg/ml; p = 0.004). Filtration reduced the particulate concentration (325 ± 31 μg/m(3) vs. 25 ± 6 μg/m(3); p HF, filter was associated with an improvement in RHi from 1.72 (IQR: 1.5 to 2.2) to 2.06 (IQR: 1.5 to 2.6; p = 0.019) and a decrease in BNP from 66.5 pg/ml (IQR: 26.5 to 155.5 pg/ml) to 44.0 pg/ml (IQR: 20.0 to 110.0 pg/ml; p = 0.015) compared with DE. In both groups, DE decreased the 6-min walking distance and arterial stiffness, although filter did not change these responses. DE had no effect on heart rate variability or exercise testing. To our knowledge, this trial is the first to show that a filter can reduce both endothelial dysfunction and BNP increases in patients with HF during DE. Given these potential benefits, the widespread use of filters in patients with HF exposed to traffic-derived air pollution may have beneficial public health effects and reduce the burden of HF. (Effects of Air Pollution Exposure Reduction by Filter Mask on Heart Failure; NCT01960920). Copyright © 2016

  18. Probability calculus of fractional order and fractional Taylor's series application to Fokker-Planck equation and information of non-random functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumarie, Guy [Department of Mathematics, University of Quebec at Montreal, P.O. Box 8888, Downtown Station, Montreal, Qc, H3C 3P8 (Canada)], E-mail: jumarie.guy@uqam.ca

    2009-05-15

    A probability distribution of fractional (or fractal) order is defined by the measure {mu}{l_brace}dx{r_brace} = p(x)(dx){sup {alpha}}, 0 < {alpha} < 1. Combining this definition with the fractional Taylor's series f(x+h)=E{sub {alpha}}(D{sub x}{sup {alpha}}h{sup {alpha}})f(x) provided by the modified Riemann Liouville definition, one can expand a probability calculus parallel to the standard one. A Fourier's transform of fractional order using the Mittag-Leffler function is introduced, together with its inversion formula; and it provides a suitable generalization of the characteristic function of fractal random variables. It appears that the state moments of fractional order are more especially relevant. The main properties of this fractional probability calculus are outlined, it is shown that it provides a sound approach to Fokker-Planck equation which are fractional in both space and time, and it provides new results in the information theory of non-random functions.

  19. Infectious exposure in the first years of life and risk of central nervous system tumours in children: analysis of birth order, childcare attendance and seasonality of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, L S; Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Schmiegelow, K; Johansen, C; Lähteenmäki, P; Träger, C; Stokland, T; Grell, K; Gustafson, G; Kogner, P; Sehested, A; Schüz, J

    2010-05-25

    An infective, mostly viral basis has been found in different human cancers. To test the hypothesis of a possible infectious aetiology for central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children, we investigated the associations with proxy measures of exposure to infectious disease. In a large case-control study nested in the populations of Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland of 4.4 million children, we studied the association of birth order and seasonal variation of birth with subsequent risk for CNS tumours. We identified 3983 children from the national cancer registries, and information on exposure was obtained from the high-quality national administrative health registries. We investigated the association between childcare attendance during the first 2 years of life and the risk for CNS tumours in a subset of Danish children with CNS tumours, using information from the Danish Childcare database. We observed no association between birth order and risk of CNS tumours overall (odds ratio (OR) for second born or later born vs first born, 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.10) or by histological subgroup, and children with CNS tumours did not show a seasonal variation of birth that was distinct from that of the background population. Childcare attendance compared with homecare showed a slightly increased OR (1.29; 95% CI, 0.90-1.86) for CNS tumours, with the highest risk observed in children attending a crèche. The strongest association was observed for embryonal CNS tumours. We found no effect of age at enrolment or duration of enrolment in childcare. These results do not support the hypothesis that the burden of exposure to infectious disease in early childhood has an important role in the aetiology of paediatric CNS tumours.

  20. Randomized controlled trial demonstrates that exposure to mercury from dental amalgam does not adversely affect neurological development in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, J Rodway

    2010-03-01

    The study subjects were 507 children (228 females and 279 males) from the Casa Pia school system in Lisbon, Portugal; the same cohort of children used in a previous study. The children were 8 to 12 years old at the time of enrollment in the study, which began in January of 1997. To be included in the study, a child must have had at baseline at least one carious lesion in a permanent tooth, no previous exposure to amalgam treatments, urinary mercury level less than 10 mg/L, blood lead level less than 15 mg/dL, IQ greater than or equal to 67 as obtained with the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, and no interfering health condition. Study subjects were randomly assigned to receive dental treatment with either amalgam or resin-based composite for posterior restorations (and composite for all anterior restorations). By the end of year 1, the participants had a mean of 8.3 surfaces restored with amalgam, and the mean number of surfaces restored varied between 7.7 and 10.7 during the 7 years of follow-up. The primary outcome measures for the study were the presence of neurological hard signs (NHSs), such as tremor, and the presence and severity of neurological soft signs (NSSs), such as synkinesias. NHSs were scored as present or absent. Tremor was reported separately from other NHSs because of its relationship to mercury toxicity. Observation of NSSs did not begin until follow-up year 2, so there were no baseline data for NSSs. NSSs were evaluated using the examination described by Peters et al, and each item was scored from 0 (absent) to 3 (maximum deviation). Over the 7-year duration of the study, there were slight differences in the percentages of subjects exhibiting any NHSs (including tremor, which was reported separately) between the 2 treatment groups, but the directions of the differences were not consistent from year to year, and the differences were not statistically significant in any year. No statistically significant difference in NSSs

  1. Evaluation and implementation of graded in vivo exposure for chronic low back pain in a German outpatient setting: a study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, Jenny; Holzapfel, Sebastian; Rief, Winfried; Glombiewski, Julia Anna

    2013-07-09

    The purpose of the present study is to introduce an adapted protocol of in vivo exposure for fear avoidant back pain patients and its implementation in the German health care system without multidisciplinary teams. Case studies demonstrated promising effects but three preceding randomized controlled trials (RCTs) could not support the former results. More empirical support is necessary to further substantiate the effectiveness of in vivo exposure. A total of 108 chronic low back pain patients are randomly assigned to one out of three conditions (A: exposure_long (15 sessions), B: exposure_short (10 sessions) or C: control condition cognitive behavioral therapy (15 sessions)). The inclusion criteria are: back pain ≥3 months and a sufficient level of fear-avoidance. An effect evaluation, a process evaluation and an economic evaluation are conducted. Primary outcomes are pain-related disability and pain intensity. Secondary outcomes are: emotional distress, fear avoidance, catastrophizing and costs. Data are collected at baseline, upon completion of the intervention, after 10 sessions, and at six months following completion of treatment. Besides the comparison of exposure in vivo and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), we additionally compare a short and a long version of exposure to analyze dose response effects. This is, to our knowledge, the first RCT comparing in vivo exposure to psychological treatment as usual in terms of cognitive behavioral therapy. Results will help to find out whether a tailored treatment for fear avoidant back pain patients is more effective than a general pain management treatment. The trial has been registered to ClinicalTrial.gov. The trial registration number is NCT01484418.

  2. A cluster randomized controlled trial aimed at implementation of local quality improvement collaboratives to improve prescribing and test ordering performance of general practitioners: Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkens Ron

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of guidelines in general practice is not optimal. Although evidence-based methods to improve guideline adherence are available, variation in physician adherence to general practice guidelines remains relatively high. The objective for this study is to transfer a quality improvement strategy based on audit, feedback, educational materials, and peer group discussion moderated by local opinion leaders to the field. The research questions are: is the multifaceted strategy implemented on a large scale as planned?; what is the effect on general practitioners' (GPs test ordering and prescribing behaviour?; and what are the costs of implementing the strategy? Methods In order to evaluate the effects, costs and feasibility of this new strategy we plan a multi-centre cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT with a balanced incomplete block design. Local GP groups in the south of the Netherlands already taking part in pharmacotherapeutic audit meeting groups, will be recruited by regional health officers. Approximately 50 groups of GPs will be randomly allocated to two arms. These GPs will be offered two different balanced sets of clinical topics. Each GP within a group will receive comparative feedback on test ordering and prescribing performance. The feedback will be discussed in the group and working agreements will be created after discussion of the guidelines and barriers to change. The data for the feedback will be collected from existing and newly formed databases, both at baseline and after one year. Discussion We are not aware of published studies on successes and failures of attempts to transfer to the stakeholders in the field a multifaceted strategy aimed at GPs' test ordering and prescribing behaviour. This pragmatic study will focus on compatibility with existing infrastructure, while permitting a certain degree of adaptation to local needs and routines. Trial registration Nederlands Trial Register ISRCTN40008171

  3. Effect of a Price Transparency Intervention in the Electronic Health Record on Clinician Ordering of Inpatient Laboratory Tests: The PRICE Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedrak, Mina S; Myers, Jennifer S; Small, Dylan S; Nachamkin, Irving; Ziemba, Justin B; Murray, Dana; Kurtzman, Gregory W; Zhu, Jingsan; Wang, Wenli; Mincarelli, Deborah; Danoski, Daniel; Wells, Brian P; Berns, Jeffrey S; Brennan, Patrick J; Hanson, C William; Dine, C Jessica; Patel, Mitesh S

    2017-07-01

    Many health systems are considering increasing price transparency at the time of order entry. However, evidence of its impact on clinician ordering behavior is inconsistent and limited to single-site evaluations of shorter duration. To test the effect of displaying Medicare allowable fees for inpatient laboratory tests on clinician ordering behavior over 1 year. The Pragmatic Randomized Introduction of Cost data through the electronic health record (PRICE) trial was a randomized clinical trial comparing a 1-year intervention to a 1-year preintervention period, and adjusting for time trends and patient characteristics. The trial took place at 3 hospitals in Philadelphia between April 2014 and April 2016 and included 98 529 patients comprising 142 921 hospital admissions. Inpatient laboratory test groups were randomly assigned to display Medicare allowable fees (30 in intervention) or not (30 in control) in the electronic health record. Primary outcome was the number of tests ordered per patient-day. Secondary outcomes were tests performed per patient-day and Medicare associated fees. The sample included 142 921 hospital admissions representing patients who were 51.9% white (74 165), 38.9% black (55 526), and 56.9% female (81 291) with a mean (SD) age of 54.7 (19.0) years. Preintervention trends of order rates among the intervention and control groups were similar. In adjusted analyses of the intervention group compared with the control group over time, there were no significant changes in overall test ordering behavior (0.05 tests ordered per patient-day; 95% CI, -0.002 to 0.09; P = .06) or associated fees ($0.24 per patient-day; 95% CI, -$0.42 to $0.91; P = .47). Exploratory subset analyses found small but significant differences in tests ordered per patient-day based on patient intensive care unit (ICU) stay (patients with ICU stay: -0.16; 95% CI, -0.31 to -0.01; P = .04; patients without ICU stay: 0.13; 95% CI, 0.08-0.17; P < .001) and the

  4. The Effects of Affect Exposure in Short-term Dynamic Psychoterapy and Cognitive Therapy for Patients with Cluster C Personality Disorder: A randomized controlled process study

    OpenAIRE

    Nyjordet, Randi Fagerli

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined if the amount of exposure to anger/assertiveness, grief, positive feelings for self or closeness in the early stages of treatment could predict treatment outcome in the different Cluster C personality disorders (PDs) independently of treatment modality. Method: The sample consisted of patients who met the criteria for one or more Cluster C PDs (N=50), and was taken from a randomized controlled trial comparing 40 sessions of either short-term dynamic psychotherap...

  5. Respiratory effects of fine and ultrafine particles from indoor sources--a randomized sham-controlled exposure study of healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soppa, Vanessa J; Schins, Roel P F; Hennig, Frauke; Hellack, Bryan; Quass, Ulrich; Kaminski, Heinz; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Hoffmann, Barbara; Weinmayr, Gudrun

    2014-07-04

    Particulate air pollution is linked to impaired respiratory health. We analyzed particle emissions from common indoor sources (candles burning (CB), toasting bread (TB), frying sausages (FS)) and lung function in 55 healthy volunteers (mean age 33.0 years) in a randomized cross-over controlled exposure study. Lung-deposited particle surface area concentration (PSC), size-specific particle number concentration (PNC) up to 10 µm, and particle mass concentration (PMC) of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were determined during exposure (2 h). FEV1, FVC and MEF25%-75% was measured before, 4 h and 24 h after exposure. Wilcoxon-rank sum tests (comparing exposure scenarios) and mixed linear regression using particle concentrations and adjusting for personal characteristics, travel time and transportation means before exposure sessions were performed. While no effect was seen comparing the exposure scenarios and in the unadjusted model, inverse associations were found for PMC from CB and FS in relation to FEV1 and MEF25%-75%. with a change in 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 from CB being associated with a change in FEV1 of -19 mL (95%-confidence interval:-43; 5) after 4 h. PMC from TB and PNC of UFP were not associated with lung function changes, but PSC from CB was. Elevated indoor fine particles from certain sources may be associated with small decreases in lung function in healthy adults.

  6. Respiratory Effects of Fine and Ultrafine Particles from Indoor Sources—A Randomized Sham-Controlled Exposure Study of Healthy Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soppa, Vanessa J.; Schins, Roel P. F.; Hennig, Frauke; Hellack, Bryan; Quass, Ulrich; Kaminski, Heinz; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A. J.; Hoffmann, Barbara; Weinmayr, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    Particulate air pollution is linked to impaired respiratory health. We analyzed particle emissions from common indoor sources (candles burning (CB), toasting bread (TB), frying sausages (FS)) and lung function in 55 healthy volunteers (mean age 33.0 years) in a randomized cross-over controlled exposure study. Lung-deposited particle surface area concentration (PSC), size-specific particle number concentration (PNC) up to 10 µm, and particle mass concentration (PMC) of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were determined during exposure (2 h). FEV1, FVC and MEF25%–75% was measured before, 4 h and 24 h after exposure. Wilcoxon-rank sum tests (comparing exposure scenarios) and mixed linear regression using particle concentrations and adjusting for personal characteristics, travel time and transportation means before exposure sessions were performed. While no effect was seen comparing the exposure scenarios and in the unadjusted model, inverse associations were found for PMC from CB and FS in relation to FEV1 and MEF25%–75%. with a change in 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 from CB being associated with a change in FEV1 of −19 mL (95%-confidence interval:−43; 5) after 4 h. PMC from TB and PNC of UFP were not associated with lung function changes, but PSC from CB was. Elevated indoor fine particles from certain sources may be associated with small decreases in lung function in healthy adults. PMID:25000149

  7. Respiratory Effects of Fine and Ultrafine Particles from Indoor Sources—A Randomized Sham-Controlled Exposure Study of Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa J. Soppa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Particulate air pollution is linked to impaired respiratory health. We analyzed particle emissions from common indoor sources (candles burning (CB, toasting bread (TB, frying sausages (FS and lung function in 55 healthy volunteers (mean age 33.0 years in a randomized cross-over controlled exposure study. Lung-deposited particle surface area concentration (PSC, size-specific particle number concentration (PNC up to 10 µm, and particle mass concentration (PMC of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were determined during exposure (2 h. FEV1, FVC and MEF25%–75% was measured before, 4 h and 24 h after exposure. Wilcoxon-rank sum tests (comparing exposure scenarios and mixed linear regression using particle concentrations and adjusting for personal characteristics, travel time and transportation means before exposure sessions were performed. While no effect was seen comparing the exposure scenarios and in the unadjusted model, inverse associations were found for PMC from CB and FS in relation to FEV1 and MEF25%–75%. with a change in 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 from CB being associated with a change in FEV1 of −19 mL (95%-confidence interval:−43; 5 after 4 h. PMC from TB and PNC of UFP were not associated with lung function changes, but PSC from CB was. Elevated indoor fine particles from certain sources may be associated with small decreases in lung function in healthy adults.

  8. Effect of calorie or exercise labels on menus on calories and macronutrients ordered and calories from specific foods in Hispanic participants: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Meena; Bouza, Brooke; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Jaffery, Manall; Esposito, Phil; Dart, Lyn

    2016-12-01

    The effect of menu labels on food choices is unknown in Hispanics. This study evaluated the impact of menu labels on calories and macronutrients ordered in Hispanics. 372 Hispanics (18-65 years) were randomly assigned to menus with no labels (NL) (n=127), rank-ordered calorie labels plus a statement on energy needs per meal (CL) (n=123), or rank-ordered exercise labels showing minutes of brisk walking necessary to burn the food calories (EL) (n=122). The menus had identical food choices. Participants were instructed to select foods from the assigned menu as if having lunch in a fast food restaurant. One-way analysis of variance found no difference in calories ordered (median (25th and 75th centiles)) by menu condition (NL: 785.0 (465.0, 1010.0) kcal; CL: 790.0 (510.0, 1020.0) kcal; EL: 752.5 (520.0, 1033.8) kcal; p=0.75). Calories from specific foods and macronutrient intake were not different by menu condition. Menu label use was 26.8% in the CL and 25.4% in the EL condition. Calories ordered were not different between those who used and those who did not use the labels. Regression analysis showed that perception of being overweight (p=0.02), selecting foods based on health value (pcalories ordered. Logistic regression showed that selecting foods based on health value (p=0.01) was associated with higher food label use. Menu labels did not affect food choices in Hispanic participants. Future studies should determine if nutrition, exercise, and weight perception counseling prior to menu labels intervention would result in better food choices. NCT02804503; post-results. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  9. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from 3D multilayer random rough surfaces based on the second-order small perturbation method: energy conservation, reflectivity, and emissivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanamzadeh, Mohammadreza; Tsang, Leung; Johnson, Joel T; Burkholder, Robert J; Tan, Shurun

    2017-03-01

    A theoretical investigation of energy conservation, reflectivity, and emissivity in the scattering of electromagnetic waves from 3D multilayer media with random rough interfaces using the second-order small perturbation method (SPM2) is presented. The approach is based on the extinction theorem and develops integral equations for surface fields in the spectral domain. Using the SPM2, we calculate the scattered and transmitted coherent fields and incoherent fields. Reflected and transmitted powers are then found in the form of 2D integrations over wavenumber in the spectral domain. In the integrand, there is a summation over the spectral densities of each of the rough interfaces with each weighted by a corresponding kernel function. We show in this paper that there exists a "strong" condition of energy conservation in that the kernel functions multiplying the spectral density of each interface obey energy conservation exactly. This means that energy is conserved independent of the roughness spectral densities of the rough surfaces. Results of this strong condition are illustrated numerically for up to 50 rough interfaces without requiring specification of surface roughness properties. Two examples are illustrated. One is a multilayer configuration having weak contrasts between adjacent layers, random layer thicknesses, and randomly generated permittivity profiles. The second example is a photonic crystal of periodically alternating permittivities of larger dielectric contrast. The methodology is applied to study the effect of roughness on the brightness temperatures of the Antarctic ice sheet, which is characterized by layers of ice with permittivity fluctuations in addition to random rough interfaces. The results show that the influence of roughness can significantly increase horizontally polarized thermal emission while leaving vertically polarized emissions relatively unaffected.

  10. Impact of Exposure to Electronic Cigarette Advertising on Susceptibility and Trial of Electronic Cigarettes and Cigarettes in US Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie F; Pearson, Jennifer L; Richardson, Amanda; Abrams, David B; Niaura, Raymond S; Vallone, Donna M

    2016-05-01

    This study assessed the impact of brief exposure to four electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) print advertisements (ads) on perceptions, intention, and subsequent use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes in US young adults. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in a national sample of young adults from an online panel survey in 2013. Participants were randomized to ad exposure or control. Curiosity, intentions, and perceptions regarding e-cigarettes were assessed post-exposure and e-cigarette and cigarette use at 6-month follow-up. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Approximately 6% of young adults who had never used an e-cigarette at baseline tried an e-cigarette at 6-month follow-up, half of whom were current cigarette smokers at baseline. Compared to the control group, ad exposure was associated with greater curiosity to try an e-cigarette (18.3% exposed vs. 11.3% unexposed, AOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.18, 2.26) among never e-cigarette users and greater likelihood of e-cigarette trial at follow-up (3.6% exposed vs. 1.2% unexposed, AOR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.07, 7.61) among never users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Exploratory analyses did not find an association between ad exposure and cigarette trial or past 30-day use among never users, nor cigarette use among smokers over time. Curiosity mediated the relationship between ad exposure and e-cigarette trial among e-cigarette never users. Exposure to e-cigarette ads may enhance curiosity and limited trial of e-cigarettes in never users. Future studies are needed to examine the net effect of curiosity and trial of e-cigarettes on longer-term patterns of tobacco use. This randomized trial provides the first evidence of the effect of e-cigarette advertising on a behavioral outcome in young adults. Compared to the control group, ad exposure was associated with greater curiosity to try an e-cigarette among never e-cigarette users and greater likelihood of e-cigarette trial at follow-up in a small number of never e

  11. Can a minimal intervention reduce secondhand smoke exposure among children with asthma from low income minority families? Results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streja, Leanne; Crespi, Catherine M; Bastani, Roshan; Wong, Glenn C; Jones, Craig A; Bernert, John T; Tashkin, Donald; Hammond, S Katharine; Berman, Barbara A

    2014-04-01

    We report on the results of a low-intensity behavioral intervention to reduce second hand smoke (SHS) exposure of children with asthma from low income minority households in Los Angeles, California. In this study, 242 child/adult dyads were randomized to a behavioral intervention (video, workbook, minimal counseling) or control condition (brochure). Main outcome measures included child's urine cotinine and parental reports of child's hours of SHS exposure and number of household cigarettes smoked. Implementation of household bans was also considered. No differences in outcomes were detected between intervention and control groups at follow-up. Limitations included high attrition and low rates of collection of objective measures (few children with urine cotinine samples). There continues to be a need for effective culturally and linguistically appropriate strategies that support reduction of household SHS exposure among children with asthma in low income, minority households.

  12. Neurological outcomes in children with and without amalgam-related mercury exposure: seven years of longitudinal observations in a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Martin; Martins, Isabel P; Castro-Caldas, Alexandre; Bernardo, Mario; Luis, Henrique; Amaral, Helena; Leitão, Jorge; Martin, Michael D; Townes, Brenda; Rosenbaum, Gail; Woods, James S; Derouen, Timothy

    2008-02-01

    Although large-scale, randomized trials involving children have been completed and their results demonstrate an absence of neurobehavioral effects from clinical exposure to mercury amalgam, neurological findings from such studies have not been reported. The authors conducted a randomized, prospective trial examining the safety of dental amalgam in which 507 children aged 8 through 12 years were assigned to treatment with either amalgam or resin-based composite. During seven years of follow-up, the authors performed annual clinical neurological examinations, including an evaluation of neurological hard signs (NHSs), presence of tremor and neurological soft signs (NSSs). The authors found no significant differences between treatment groups in any of the neurological measures. Groups did not differ with respect to the presence or absence of NHSs or tremor, nor the presence or absence or severity of NSSs at any point. As expected, NSS severity scores diminished with increasing age. Even at the levels of amalgam exposure in this study (a mean of 7.7-10.7 amalgam surfaces per subject across the seven years of follow-up), the authors conclude that exposure to mercury from dental amalgam does not adversely affect neurological status. The current evidence is that potential neurobehavioral or neurological effects from dental amalgam mercury exposure in children are inconsequential.

  13. The impact of multiple interventions to reduce household exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke among women: a cluster randomized controlled trial in Kalutara district, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagiyawanna, A M A A P; Rajapaksa-Hewageegana, N; Gunawardena, N

    2017-10-16

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) in households remains a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka, partly due to a lack of voluntary prohibitions of tobacco smoking inside houses. Women are especially at risk of being exposed. Effective community based interventions to reduce the SHS in households targeting women is scarce. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of a multi-component intervention on household SHS exposure among Sri Lankan women. Thirty clusters of 25 women (aged 18-65) from 750 households were randomized into the intervention and control groups. Women in the intervention group were exposed to activities which focused on improving knowledge on the health effects of SHS, attitudes towards SHS exposure, right to a smoke-free living and women empowerment against smoking. The duration of the intervention was six months. The comparison group received no intervention. The primary outcome of interest was self-reported SHS exposure in the household within 7 days prior to data collection. The secondary outcomes were exposure in the past 30 days, knowledge of the health risks of exposure, attitudes towards exposure, right to smoke-free living, women empowerment against smoking, and smoking inside the homes. Final assessment was in 329 (89.6%) in the intervention group and 309 (85.8%) in the comparison group. Following the intervention, significantly lower proportion of women in the intervention group as compared to the control group reported SHS exposure in their households within 7-days (9.2% vs. 15.3%, p = 0.02) and 30-days (13.6% vs. 21.6%, p = 0.008) prior to the post survey. As compared to the control group, significantly higher median scores were observed in the intervention group on the knowledge of the health risks of exposure to SHS (p Sri Lanka Clinical Trials Registry SLCTR/2014/033.

  14. Pregnancy Incidence and Outcomes among Women Receiving Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugo, Nelly R.; Hong, Ting; Celum, Connie; Donnell, Deborah; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; John-Stewart, Grace; Wangisi, Jonathan; Were, Edwin; Heffron, Renee; Matthews, Lynn T.; Morrison, Susan; Ngure, Kenneth; Baeten, Jared M.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), using tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and combination tenofovir disoproxil fumarate / emtricitabine, is efficacious for prevention of HIV acquisition. PrEP could reduce periconception HIV risk, but the effect on pregnancy outcomes is not well defined. Objective To assess pregnancy incidence and outcomes among women using PrEP during the periconception period. Design Randomized trial among 1785 HIV serodiscordant heterosexual couples (the Partners PrEP Study) in which the female partner was HIV uninfected that demonstrated that PrEP was efficacious for HIV prevention, conducted between July 2008 and June 2013 at 9 sites in Kenya and Uganda. Intervention Daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) (n=598), combination tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) (n=566), or placebo (n=621) through July 2011, when PrEP demonstrated efficacy for HIV prevention; thereafter, participants continued receiving active PrEP, without placebo. Pregnancy testing occurred monthly and study medication was discontinued upon pregnancy detection. Main Outcomes Pregnancy incidence, birth outcomes (pregnancy loss, preterm birth, congenital anomalies), infant growth. Results A total of 431 pregnancies occurred. Pregnancy incidence was 10.0 per 100 person-years among women assigned placebo, 11.9 among those assigned TDF (incidence difference 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] −1.1–4.9, p=0.22 versus placebo), and 8.8 among those assigned TDF-FTC (incidence difference −1.3, 95% CI −4.1–1.5, p=0.39 versus placebo). Prior to discontinuation of the placebo treatment group in July 2011, the occurrence of pregnancy loss (96 of 288 pregnancies), was 42.5% for women receiving TDF-FTC compared with 32.3% for those receiving placebo (difference for TDF-FTC versus placebo 10.2%, 95% CI −5.3–25.7, p=0.16) and was 27.7% for those receiving TDF alone (difference versus placebo −4.6%, 95% CI −18.1–8.9, p=0

  15. Influence of inhomogeneous static magnetic field-exposure on patients with erosive gastritis: a randomized, self- and placebo-controlled, double-blind, single centre, pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Márk; Nagy, Viktor L; Székely, Hajnal; Kocsis, Dorottya; Tulassay, Zsolt; László, János F

    2014-09-06

    This pilot study was devoted to the effect of static magnetic field (SMF)-exposure on erosive gastritis. The randomized, self- and placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot study included 16 patients of the 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University diagnosed with erosive gastritis. The instrumental analysis followed a qualitative (pre-intervention) assessment of the symptoms by the patient: lower heartburn (in the ventricle), upper heartburn (in the oesophagus), epigastric pain, regurgitation, bloating and dry cough. Medical diagnosis included a double-line upper panendoscopy followed by 30 min local inhomogeneous SMF-exposure intervention at the lower sternal region over the stomach with peak-to-peak magnetic induction of 3 mT and 30 mT m(-1) gradient at the target site. A qualitative (post-intervention) assessment of the same symptoms closed the examination. Sham- or SMF-exposure was used in a double-blind manner. The authors succeeded in justifying the clinically and statistically significant beneficial effect of the SMF- over sham-exposure on the symptoms of erosive gastritis, the average effect of inhibition was 56% by p = 0.001, n = 42 + 96. This pilot study was aimed to encourage gastroenterologists to test local, inhomogeneous SMF-exposure on erosive gastritis patients, so this intervention may become an evidence-based alternative or complementary method in the clinical use especially in cases when conventional therapy options are contraindicated. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of factors affecting the injury severity of single-vehicle rollover crashes: A random-effects generalized ordered probit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anarkooli, Alireza Jafari; Hosseinpour, Mehdi; Kardar, Adele

    2017-09-01

    Rollover crashes are responsible for a notable number of serious injuries and fatalities; hence, they are of great concern to transportation officials and safety researchers. However, only few published studies have analyzed the factors associated with severity outcomes of rollover crashes. This research has two objectives. The first objective is to investigate the effects of various factors, of which some have been rarely reported in the existing studies, on the injury severities of single-vehicle (SV) rollover crashes based on six-year crash data collected on the Malaysian federal roads. A random-effects generalized ordered probit (REGOP) model is employed in this study to analyze injury severity patterns caused by rollover crashes. The second objective is to examine the performance of the proposed approach, REGOP, for modeling rollover injury severity outcomes. To this end, a mixed logit (MXL) model is also fitted in this study because of its popularity in injury severity modeling. Regarding the effects of the explanatory variables on the injury severity of rollover crashes, the results reveal that factors including dark without supplemental lighting, rainy weather condition, light truck vehicles (e.g., sport utility vehicles, vans), heavy vehicles (e.g., bus, truck), improper overtaking, vehicle age, traffic volume and composition, number of travel lanes, speed limit, undulating terrain, presence of central median, and unsafe roadside conditions are positively associated with more severe SV rollover crashes. On the other hand, unpaved shoulder width, area type, driver occupation, and number of access points are found as the significant variables decreasing the probability of being killed or severely injured (i.e., KSI) in rollover crashes. Land use and side friction are significant and positively associated only with slight injury category. These findings provide valuable insights into the causes and factors affecting the injury severity patterns of rollover

  17. Sniff to see. Comparing sniffing position versus simple head extension position for glottic exposure - A prospective, randomized cross over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Sahay

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Sniffing position provides better glottis exposure and it is easier to intubate a patient in the sniffing position as compared to simple head extension position. Sniffing position should therefore be used as initial position when attempting intubation.

  18. The impact of multiple interventions to reduce household exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke among women: a cluster randomized controlled trial in Kalutara district, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. A. A. P. Alagiyawanna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second-hand smoke (SHS in households remains a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka, partly due to a lack of voluntary prohibitions of tobacco smoking inside houses. Women are especially at risk of being exposed. Effective community based interventions to reduce the SHS in households targeting women is scarce. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of a multi-component intervention on household SHS exposure among Sri Lankan women. Methods Thirty clusters of 25 women (aged 18–65 from 750 households were randomized into the intervention and control groups. Women in the intervention group were exposed to activities which focused on improving knowledge on the health effects of SHS, attitudes towards SHS exposure, right to a smoke-free living and women empowerment against smoking. The duration of the intervention was six months. The comparison group received no intervention. The primary outcome of interest was self-reported SHS exposure in the household within 7 days prior to data collection. The secondary outcomes were exposure in the past 30 days, knowledge of the health risks of exposure, attitudes towards exposure, right to smoke-free living, women empowerment against smoking, and smoking inside the homes. Results Final assessment was in 329 (89.6% in the intervention group and 309 (85.8% in the comparison group. Following the intervention, significantly lower proportion of women in the intervention group as compared to the control group reported SHS exposure in their households within 7-days (9.2% vs. 15.3%, p = 0.02 and 30-days (13.6% vs. 21.6%, p = 0.008 prior to the post survey. As compared to the control group, significantly higher median scores were observed in the intervention group on the knowledge of the health risks of exposure to SHS (p < 0.001, attitudes on exposure to SHS (p = 0.004, right to smoke free living (p = 0.001 and women empowerment (p < 0.001. Conclusion Multi

  19. A randomized-controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression with integrated techniques from emotion-focused and exposure therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse Holtforth, Martin; Krieger, Tobias; Zimmermann, Johannes; Altenstein-Yamanaka, David; Dörig, Nadja; Meisch, Laurence; Hayes, Adele M

    2017-11-12

    Emotional processing (EP) is hypothesized to be a key mechanism of change in psychotherapy that may enhance its long-term efficacy. To study the effects of fostering EP in psychotherapy for depression, this randomized-controlled clinical trial compares the efficacy and pattern of change of a cognitive-behavioral therapy that integrates emotion-focused techniques within an exposure framework (Exposure-Based Cognitive Therapy for depression; EBCT-R) to a standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). One hundred and forty-nine depressed outpatients were randomized to a maximum of 22 sessions of manualized EBCT-R (N = 77) or CBT (N = 72). Primary outcomes were self-reported and clinician-rated depressive symptoms at posttreatment and 12-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes were self-esteem, interpersonal problems, and avoidance thoughts and behaviors. Depressive symptoms improved significantly over therapy in both treatments, with large within-group effect sizes for CBT (d = -1.95) and EBCT-R (d = -1.77). The pattern of depression change during treatment did not differ between treatments. Symptom relief lasted over 12 months and did not differ between EBCT-R and CBT. Results suggest that both treatments produced significant short- and long-term improvement in depression symptoms, but the integration of emotion-focused techniques within an exposure framework did not have added benefit. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01012856.

  20. New Closed-Form Results on Ordered Statistics of Partial Sums of Gamma Random Variables and its Application to Performance Evaluation in the Presence of Nakagami Fading

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik

    2017-06-19

    Complex wireless transmission systems require multi-dimensional joint statistical techniques for performance evaluation. Here, we first present the exact closed-form results on order statistics of any arbitrary partial sums of Gamma random variables with the closedform results of core functions specialized for independent and identically distributed Nakagami-m fading channels based on a moment generating function-based unified analytical framework. These both exact closed-form results have never been published in the literature. In addition, as a feasible application example in which our new offered derived closed-form results can be applied is presented. In particular, we analyze the outage performance of the finger replacement schemes over Nakagami fading channels as an application of our method. Note that these analysis results are directly applicable to several applications, such as millimeter-wave communication systems in which an antenna diversity scheme operates using an finger replacement schemes-like combining scheme, and other fading scenarios. Note also that the statistical results can provide potential solutions for ordered statistics in any other research topics based on Gamma distributions or other advanced wireless communications research topics in the presence of Nakagami fading.

  1. Effect of Educational Intervention on the Rate of Rarely Appropriate Outpatient Echocardiograms Ordered by Attending Academic Cardiologists: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzinski, David M; Bhatia, R Sacha; Mi, Michael Y; Isselbacher, Eric M; Picard, Michael H; Weiner, Rory B

    2016-10-01

    Appropriate use criteria-based educational initiatives have been shown to improve transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) ordering practices of physicians in training. Whether such an intervention is successful with attending cardiologists remains unknown. To prospectively investigate the effect of an appropriate use criteria-based educational intervention on ordering of outpatient TTEs by attending academic cardiologists. We conducted a prospective, randomized clinical trial of an educational intervention designed to reduce the number of outpatient TTEs that were deemed to be rarely appropriate by published appropriate use criteria. Investigators classifying TTEs were blinded to participant groupings. The study was conducted within the cardiology division at the Massachusetts General Hospital, an academic quaternary care hospital. Staff members of the cardiology division were included; 66 cardiologists were randomized. The study was conducted from November 19, 2013, to June 1, 2014. An analysis of the evaluable population was performed. The appropriate use criteria-based educational intervention consisted of a review lecture and electronic information card, as well as monthly individual physician feedback via email. The email described the percentage of rarely appropriate TTEs as well as the appropriate use criteria rationale for classifying studies as rarely appropriate. We hypothesized a priori that the educational intervention would reduce the number of rarely appropriate TTEs. The primary outcome was the rate of rarely appropriate TTEs. Of the 66 cardiologists enrolled in the study, 65 were included in the analysis (1 intervention cardiologist retired from practice during the study). The participants' mean (SD) age was 50.6 (10.5) years; 48 (73%) were men. Following intervention, the proportion of rarely appropriate TTEs was significantly lower in the intervention vs control group (143 of 1359 [10.5%] vs 285 of 1728 [16.5%]; odds ratio [OR], 0.59 [95% CI, 0

  2. Axitinib dose titration: analyses of exposure, blood pressure and clinical response from a randomized phase II study in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rini, B I; Melichar, B; Fishman, M N; Oya, M; Pithavala, Y K; Chen, Y; Bair, A H; Grünwald, V

    2015-07-01

    In a randomized, double-blind phase II trial in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), axitinib versus placebo titration yielded a significantly higher objective response rate. We evaluated pharmacokinetic and blood pressure (BP) data from this study to elucidate relationships among axitinib exposure, BP change, and efficacy. Patients received axitinib 5 mg twice daily during a lead-in period. Patients who met dose-titration criteria were randomized 1:1 to stepwise dose increases with axitinib or placebo. Patients ineligible for randomization continued without dose increases. Serial 6-h and sparse pharmacokinetic sampling were carried out; BP was measured at clinic visits and at home in all patients, and by 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in a subset of patients. Area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h throughout the course of treatment (AUCstudy) was higher in patients with complete or partial responses than those with stable or progressive disease in the axitinib-titration arm, but comparable between these groups in the placebo-titration and nonrandomized arms. In the overall population, AUCstudy and efficacy outcomes were not strongly correlated. Mean BP across the population was similar when measured in clinic, at home, or by 24-h ABPM. Weak correlations were observed between axitinib steady-state exposure and diastolic BP. When grouped by change in diastolic BP from baseline, patients in the ≥10 and ≥15 mmHg groups had longer progression-free survival. Optimal axitinib exposure may differ among patients with mRCC. Pharmacokinetic or BP measurements cannot be used exclusively to guide axitinib dosing. Individualization of treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including axitinib, is thus more complex than anticipated and cannot be limited to a single clinical factor. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical

  3. Exposure assessment models for elemental components of particulate matter in an urban environment: A comparison of regression and random forest approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokamp, Cole; Jandarov, Roman; Rao, M. B.; LeMasters, Grace; Ryan, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    Exposure assessment for elemental components of particulate matter (PM) using land use modeling is a complex problem due to the high spatial and temporal variations in pollutant concentrations at the local scale. Land use regression (LUR) models may fail to capture complex interactions and non-linear relationships between pollutant concentrations and land use variables. The increasing availability of big spatial data and machine learning methods present an opportunity for improvement in PM exposure assessment models. In this manuscript, our objective was to develop a novel land use random forest (LURF) model and compare its accuracy and precision to a LUR model for elemental components of PM in the urban city of Cincinnati, Ohio. PM smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and eleven elemental components were measured at 24 sampling stations from the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS). Over 50 different predictors associated with transportation, physical features, community socioeconomic characteristics, greenspace, land cover, and emission point sources were used to construct LUR and LURF models. Cross validation was used to quantify and compare model performance. LURF and LUR models were created for aluminum (Al), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), vanadium (V), zinc (Zn), and total PM2.5 in the CCAAPS study area. LURF utilized a more diverse and greater number of predictors than LUR and LURF models for Al, K, Mn, Pb, Si, Zn, TRAP, and PM2.5 all showed a decrease in fractional predictive error of at least 5% compared to their LUR models. LURF models for Al, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Pb, Si, Zn, TRAP, and PM2.5 all had a cross validated fractional predictive error less than 30%. Furthermore, LUR models showed a differential exposure assessment bias and had a higher prediction error variance. Random forest and other machine learning methods may provide more accurate exposure assessment.

  4. Energy Contents of Frequently Ordered Restaurant Meals and Comparison with Human Energy Requirements and US Department of Agriculture Database Information: A Multisite Randomized Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Lorien E.; Weber, Judith L.; Heyman, Melvin B.; Schichtl, Rachel L.; Verstraete, Sofia; Lowery, Nina S.; Das, Sai Krupa; Schleicher, Molly M.; Rogers, Gail; Economos, Christina; Masters, William A.; Roberts, Susan B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Excess energy intake from meals consumed away from home is implicated as a major contributor to obesity, and ~50% of US restaurants are individual or small-chain (non–chain) establishments that do not provide nutrition information. Objective To measure the energy content of frequently ordered meals in non–chain restaurants in three US locations, and compare with the energy content of meals from large-chain restaurants, energy requirements, and food database information. Design A multisite random-sampling protocol was used to measure the energy contents of the most frequently ordered meals from the most popular cuisines in non–chain restaurants, together with equivalent meals from large-chain restaurants. Setting Meals were obtained from restaurants in San Francisco, CA; Boston, MA; and Little Rock, AR, between 2011 and 2014. Main outcome measures Meal energy content determined by bomb calorimetry. Statistical analysis performed Regional and cuisine differences were assessed using a mixed model with restaurant nested within region×cuisine as the random factor. Paired t tests were used to evaluate differences between non–chain and chain meals, human energy requirements, and food database values. Results Meals from non–chain restaurants contained 1,205±465 kcal/meal, amounts that were not significantly different from equivalent meals from large-chain restaurants (+5.1%; P=0.41). There was a significant effect of cuisine on non–chain meal energy, and three of the four most popular cuisines (American, Italian, and Chinese) had the highest mean energy (1,495 kcal/meal). Ninety-two percent of meals exceeded typical energy requirements for a single eating occasion. Conclusions Non–chain restaurants lacking nutrition information serve amounts of energy that are typically far in excess of human energy requirements for single eating occasions, and are equivalent to amounts served by the large-chain restaurants that have previously been criticized

  5. Energy Contents of Frequently Ordered Restaurant Meals and Comparison with Human Energy Requirements and U.S. Department of Agriculture Database Information: A Multisite Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Lorien E; Weber, Judith L; Heyman, Melvin B; Schichtl, Rachel L; Verstraete, Sofia; Lowery, Nina S; Das, Sai Krupa; Schleicher, Molly M; Rogers, Gail; Economos, Christina; Masters, William A; Roberts, Susan B

    2016-04-01

    Excess energy intake from meals consumed away from home is implicated as a major contributor to obesity, and ∼50% of US restaurants are individual or small-chain (non-chain) establishments that do not provide nutrition information. To measure the energy content of frequently ordered meals in non-chain restaurants in three US locations, and compare with the energy content of meals from large-chain restaurants, energy requirements, and food database information. A multisite random-sampling protocol was used to measure the energy contents of the most frequently ordered meals from the most popular cuisines in non-chain restaurants, together with equivalent meals from large-chain restaurants. Meals were obtained from restaurants in San Francisco, CA; Boston, MA; and Little Rock, AR, between 2011 and 2014. Meal energy content determined by bomb calorimetry. Regional and cuisine differences were assessed using a mixed model with restaurant nested within region×cuisine as the random factor. Paired t tests were used to evaluate differences between non-chain and chain meals, human energy requirements, and food database values. Meals from non-chain restaurants contained 1,205±465 kcal/meal, amounts that were not significantly different from equivalent meals from large-chain restaurants (+5.1%; P=0.41). There was a significant effect of cuisine on non-chain meal energy, and three of the four most popular cuisines (American, Italian, and Chinese) had the highest mean energy (1,495 kcal/meal). Ninety-two percent of meals exceeded typical energy requirements for a single eating occasion. Non-chain restaurants lacking nutrition information serve amounts of energy that are typically far in excess of human energy requirements for single eating occasions, and are equivalent to amounts served by the large-chain restaurants that have previously been criticized for providing excess energy. Restaurants in general, rather than specific categories of restaurant, expose patrons to

  6. Effect of long-term exposure to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol beginning early in life on the risk of coronary heart disease: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ference, Brian A; Yoo, Wonsuk; Alesh, Issa; Mahajan, Nitin; Mirowska, Karolina K; Mewada, Abhishek; Kahn, Joel; Afonso, Luis; Williams, Kim Allan; Flack, John M

    2012-12-25

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of long-term exposure to lower plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). LDL-C is causally related to the risk of CHD. However, the association between long-term exposure to lower LDL-C beginning early in life and the risk of CHD has not been reliably quantified. We conducted a series of meta-analyses to estimate the effect of long-term exposure to lower LDL-C on the risk of CHD mediated by 9 polymorphisms in 6 different genes. We then combined these Mendelian randomization studies in a meta-analysis to obtain a more precise estimate of the effect of long-term exposure to lower LDL-C and compared it with the clinical benefit associated with the same magnitude of LDL-C reduction during treatment with a statin. All 9 polymorphisms were associated with a highly consistent reduction in the risk of CHD per unit lower LDL-C, with no evidence of heterogeneity of effect (I(2) = 0.0%). In a meta-analysis combining nonoverlapping data from 312,321 participants, naturally random allocation to long-term exposure to lower LDL-C was associated with a 54.5% (95% confidence interval: 48.8% to 59.5%) reduction in the risk of CHD for each mmol/l (38.7 mg/dl) lower LDL-C. This represents a 3-fold greater reduction in the risk of CHD per unit lower LDL-C than that observed during treatment with a statin started later in life (p = 8.43 × 10(-19)). Prolonged exposure to lower LDL-C beginning early in life is associated with a substantially greater reduction in the risk of CHD than the current practice of lowering LDL-C beginning later in life. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Comparison of Dual Attention, Eye Movements, and Exposure Only during Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Martin; Zehl, Stefanie; Otti, Alexander; Lahmann, Claas; Henningsen, Peter; Kruse, Johannes; Stingl, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is controversy on the possible benefits of dual-attention tasks during eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A total of 139 consecutive patients (including 85 females) suffering from PTSD were allocated randomly among 3 different treatment conditions: exposure with eyes moving while fixating on the therapist's moving hand (EM), exposure with eyes fixating on the therapist's nonmoving hand (EF), and exposure without explicit visual focus of attention as control condition (EC). Except for the variation in stimulation, treatment strictly followed the standard EMDR manual. Symptom changes from pre- to posttreatment were measured with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) by an investigator blinded to treatment allocation. In total, 116 patients completed the treatment, with an average of 4.6 sessions applied. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed a significant improvement in PTSD symptoms with a high overall effect size (Cohen's d = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.67-2.24) and a high remission rate of PTSD diagnosis (79.8%). In comparison to the control condition, EM and EF were associated with significantly larger pre-post symptom decrease (ΔCAPS: EM = 35.8, EF = 40.5, EC = 31.0) and significantly larger effect sizes (EM: d = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.55-2.57, EF: d = 2.58, 95% CI: 2.01-3.11, EC: d = 1.44, 95% CI: 0.97-1.91). No significant differences in symptom decrease and effect size were found between EM and EF. Exposure in combination with an explicit external focus of attention leads to larger PTSD symptom reduction than exposure alone. Eye movements have no advantage compared to visually fixating on a nonmoving hand. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Evaluating counseling outcome on adherence to prophylaxis and follow-up after sexual HIV-risk exposure: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, L; Enel, P; Dunais, B; Durant, J; Poizot-Martin, I; Tourette-Turgis, C; Rebillon, M; Le Duff, F; Dellamonica, P; Pradier, C

    2010-12-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is recommended for the management of sexual HIV-risk exposure. However, a high percentage of exposed patients discontinue both their 28-day prophylaxis course before 15 days and HIV testing follow-up before M3. The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of a counseling intervention in enhancing both adherence to PEP and HIV testing follow-up. Between 1 June 2004 and 31 December 2005, 54 patients exposed to sexual HIV-risk exposure were included in a multicenter, prospective, controlled, randomized trial, comparing a group receiving a counseling intervention in addition to traditional medical management (intervention group (IG), n=28) vs. a control group (CG, n=26). Patients in the IG received interactive counseling interventions focused on adherence to PEP and to HIV testing follow-up, led by specially trained nurses. The main outcome measures were proportion of patients achieving 100% adherence to PEP as evaluated on D15 by a self-completed patient questionnaire and on HIV testing on D45 and M3. Groups were well balanced at baseline for age, sex, and circumstances of exposure. The proportion of 100% adherent patients to PEP was significantly higher in the IG compared to the CG (54% vs. 23%, p=0.036). Patients in the IG were more likely to complete the HIV testing follow-up at D45 (86% vs. 54%, p=0.023) and M3 (68% vs. 38%, p=0.056). This study suggests the effectiveness of a counseling program to enhance adherence to both PEP and HIV testing follow-up after sexual exposure.

  9. Reducing environmental tobacco smoke exposure of preschool children: a randomized controlled trial of class-based health education and smoking cessation counseling for caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Huang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Mei; Wang, Fuzhi; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-13

    To assess counseling to caregivers and classroom health education interventions to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure of children aged 5-6 years in China. In a randomized controlled trial in two preschools in Changsha, China, 65 children aged 5-6 years old and their smoker caregivers (65) were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 33) and control (no intervention) groups (n = 32). In the intervention group, caregivers received self-help materials and smoking cessation counseling from a trained counselor, while their children were given classroom-based participatory health education. Children's urinary cotinine level and the point prevalence of caregiver quitting were measured at baseline and after 6 months. At the 6-month follow-up, children's urinary cotinine was significantly lower (Z = -3.136; p = 0.002) and caregivers' 7-day quit rate was significantly higher (34.4% versus 0%) (p Helping caregivers quitting smoke combined with classroom-based health education was effective in reducing children's environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Larger-scale trials are warranted.

  10. Serological markers of sand fly exposure to evaluate insecticidal nets against visceral leishmaniasis in India and Nepal: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlesh Gidwani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is the world' second largest vector-borne parasitic killer and a neglected tropical disease, prevalent in poor communities. Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LNs are a low cost proven vector intervention method for malaria control; however, their effectiveness against visceral leishmaniasis (VL is unknown. This study quantified the effect of LNs on exposure to the sand fly vector of VL in India and Nepal during a two year community intervention trial.As part of a paired-cluster randomized controlled clinical trial in VL-endemic regions of India and Nepal we tested the effect of LNs on sand fly biting by measuring the antibody response of subjects to the saliva of Leishmania donovani vector Phlebotomus argentipes and the sympatric (non-vector Phlebotomus papatasi. Fifteen to 20 individuals above 15 years of age from 26 VL endemic clusters were asked to provide a blood sample at baseline, 12 and 24 months post-intervention.A total of 305 individuals were included in the study, 68 participants provided two blood samples and 237 gave three samples. A random effect linear regression model showed that cluster-wide distribution of LNs reduced exposure to P. argentipes by 12% at 12 months (effect 0.88; 95% CI 0.83-0.94 and 9% at 24 months (effect 0.91; 95% CI 0.80-1.02 in the intervention group compared to control adjusting for baseline values and pair. Similar results were obtained for P. papatasi.This trial provides evidence that LNs have a limited effect on sand fly exposure in VL endemic communities in India and Nepal and supports the use of sand fly saliva antibodies as a marker to evaluate vector control interventions.

  11. Cerebrospinal-fluid exposure of efavirenz and its major metabolites when dosed at 400 and 600 mg once daily; a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Winston

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The optimal penetration of antiretroviral agents into central nervous system (CNS may be a balance between providing adequate drug exposure to inhibit HIV-replication whilst avoiding concentrations associated with toxicities. Methods: Cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF exposure of efavirenz and metabolites 7-hydroxy (7OH- and 8OH-efavirenz were assessed after at least 12 weeks of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected subjects randomized to commence antiretroviral regimens containing efavirenz at either 400 mg or 600 mg once daily. Clinical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenomic factors associated with CSF efavirenz and its metabolite concentrations were assessed. Results: Of 28 subjects who completed all study procedures (14/14 on efavirenz 400 mg/600 mg, CSF HIV RNA was below 20 copies/mL in all at the time of examination. Concentrations of efavirenz and 7OH-efavirenz in the CSF were slightly lower when dosed at 400 mg versus 600 mg, although this was not statistically significant. A different trend was observed regarding 8OH-efavirenz concentrations where CSF exposure was slightly increased in the 400 mg efavirenz arm (see Table 1. Efavirenz concentration in the CSF was above 0.51 ng/mL (proposed CSF IC50 for WT virus in all subjects and 8OH-efavirenz concentration in the CSF was above 3.3 ng/mL (a proposed toxicity threshold, reference in 11/14 and 7/14 subjects randomized to the 400 mg and 600 mg doses of efavirenz, respectively. Whilst CSF efavirenz concentration was significantly associated with plasma concentration (P<0.001 and CYP2B6 genotype (CSF efavirenz GG to GT/TT GM ratio 0.56, 90% CI 0.42–0.74, CSF 8OH-efavirenz concentration was not (P=0.242 for association with plasma concentration and CSF 8OH-efavirenz GG to GT/TT GM ratio 1.52, 90% CI 0.97–2.36. Lastly, CSF 8OH-efavirenz concentration was associated with efavirenz symptom questionnaire results at one year (Spearman's correlation 0.13, P=0.05. Conclusions: With both

  12. Higher order optical aberrations and visual acuity in a randomized controlled trial comparing transepithelial versus epithelium-off corneal crosslinking for progressive keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godefrooij DA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Daniel A Godefrooij, Mustapha El Kandoussi, Nienke Soeters, Robert PL Wisse Utrecht Cornea Research Group, Department of Ophthalmology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of transepithelial crosslinking (trans-CXL versus epithelium-off crosslinking (epi-off CXL for progressive keratoconus with respect to the development of higher order aberrations (HOAs and their effects on visual acuity.Materials and methods: A total of 61 patients were randomized and examined preoperatively and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively in an academic referral center. Total corneal HOAs were compared between the two treatment groups using mixed linear modeling. Types of HOAs (coma, trefoil, and spherical aberration that differed between groups were entered in a multivariable analysis to test their effect on uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA.Results: The epi-off CXL group had more flattening in maximal keratometry compared to the trans-CXL group (P=0.02. UDVA did not differ significantly between the groups (P=0.59; however, CDVA was significantly more improved in the trans-CXL group (P=0.02. Horizontal trefoil improved more in the epi-off group compared to the trans-CXL group (P=0.04, whereas the other HOAs were virtually unchanged in both groups. Differences in changes in HOAs between the two groups had no effect on either UCVA (P=0.76 or CDVA (P=0.96.Conclusion: Although HOAs are clinically relevant determinants of vision quality in keratoconus patients, the change in total HOAs post treatment did not differ between the trans-CXL and epi-off CXL groups. Only horizontal trefoil differed significantly post treatment between the trans-CXL and epi-off CXL groups. However, this difference did not independently affect either UDVA or CDVA. Trans-CXL provides no benefit over epi-off CXL regarding visual relevant HOAs. Keywords

  13. Internet-based self-help with therapist feedback and in vivo group exposure for social phobia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per; Holmström, Annelie; Sparthan, Elisabeth; Furmark, Tomas; Nilsson-Ihrfelt, Elisabeth; Buhrman, Monica; Ekselius, Lisa

    2006-08-01

    Sixty-four individuals with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) were assigned to a multimodal cognitive-behavioral treatment package or to a waiting list control group. Treatment consisted of a 9-week, Internet-delivered, self-help program that was combined with 2 group exposure sessions in real life and minimal therapist contact via e-mail. Results were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis, including all randomized participants. From pre- to posttest, treated participants in contrast to controls showed significant improvement on most measured dimensions (social anxiety scales, general anxiety and depression levels, quality of life). The overall within- and between-groups effect sizes were Cohen's d = 0.87 and 0.70, respectively. Treatment gains were maintained at 1-year follow-up. The results from this study support the continued use and development of Internet-distributed, self-help programs for people diagnosed with social phobia.

  14. Teaching medical students exposure therapy for phobia/panic - randomized, controlled comparison of face-to-face tutorial in small groups vs. solo computer instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Michael; Marks, Isaac M

    2002-05-01

    To compare the teaching value of one session of computer-guided solo instruction in exposure therapy for phobias with that of one face-to-face small-group tutorial. Non-blind, randomized, controlled study. King's College Hospital Medical School, London. Thirty-seven third-year medical students and 11 behaviour therapists. Seventy-five true/false multiple choice questions relating to (b) below answered at pre- and post-teaching by students and just once by behaviour therapists to obtain 'expert' scores; pre- and post-teaching ratings of interest in behaviour therapy and post-teaching ratings of educational and enjoyment value. EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTIONS: (a) All students had a 20-minute group lecture on basic concepts and historical aspects just before randomization to: (b) 90 min of either solo computer or group face-to-face tutorial teaching. Computer instruction used a short version of 'FearFighter'- a self-help computer system for people suffering from phobias. Solo computer instruction taught exposure therapy principles effectively but improved multiple choice question scores marginally less than did small-group tutorial teaching. Tutorial teaching required 5 times more teacher time but led to knowledge scores that did not differ significantly from those of behaviour therapists. Students clearly rated face-to-face small-group tutorial teaching as more enjoyable. The knowledge gain from a solo computer session resembled that from a small-group face-to-face tutorial, and required far less teacher time, but was less enjoyable. Enjoyment might rise if the computer session was group-oriented and aimed at students rather than patients. In general computer teaching might be best used to complement rather than replace conventional teaching.

  15. A randomized, double-blind evaluation of D-cycloserine or alprazolam combined with virtual reality exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; Price, Matthew; Jovanovic, Tanja; Norrholm, Seth D; Gerardi, Maryrose; Dunlop, Boadie; Davis, Michael; Bradley, Bekh; Duncan, Erica J; Rizzo, Albert; Ressler, Kerry J

    2014-06-01

    The authors examined the effectiveness of virtual reality exposure augmented with D-cycloserine or alprazolam, compared with placebo, in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to military trauma. After an introductory session, five sessions of virtual reality exposure were augmented with D-cycloserine (50 mg) or alprazolam (0.25 mg) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial for 156 Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans with PTSD. PTSD symptoms significantly improved from pre- to posttreatment across all conditions and were maintained at 3, 6, and 12 months. There were no overall differences in symptoms between D-cycloserine and placebo at any time. Alprazolam and placebo differed significantly on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale score at posttreatment and PTSD diagnosis at 3 months posttreatment; the alprazolam group showed a higher rate of PTSD (82.8%) than the placebo group (47.8%). Between-session extinction learning was a treatment-specific enhancer of outcome for the D-cycloserine group only. At posttreatment, the D-cycloserine group had the lowest cortisol reactivity and smallest startle response during virtual reality scenes. A six-session virtual reality treatment was associated with reduction in PTSD diagnoses and symptoms in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans, although there was no control condition for the virtual reality exposure. There was no advantage of D-cycloserine for PTSD symptoms in primary analyses. In secondary analyses, alprazolam impaired recovery and D-cycloserine enhanced virtual reality outcome in patients who demonstrated within-session learning. D-cycloserine augmentation reduced cortisol and startle reactivity more than did alprazolam or placebo, findings that are consistent with those in the animal literature.

  16. Ultrasound simulator-assisted teaching of cardiac anatomy to preclinical anatomy students: A pilot randomized trial of a three-hour learning exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canty, David Jeffrey; Hayes, Jenny A; Story, David Andrew; Royse, Colin Forbes

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound simulation allows students to virtually explore internal anatomy by producing accurate, moving, color, three-dimensional rendered slices from any angle or approach leaving the organs and their relationships intact without requirement for consumables. The aim was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of self-directed learning of cardiac anatomy with an ultrasound simulator compared to cadavers and plastic models. After a single cardiac anatomy lecture, fifty university anatomy students participated in a three-hour supervised self-directed learning exposure in groups of five, randomized to an ultrasound simulator or human cadaveric specimens and plastic models. Pre- and post-tests were conducted using pictorial and non-pictorial multiple-choice questions (MCQs). Simulator students completed a survey on their experience. Four simulator and seven cadaver group students did not attend after randomization. Simulator use in groups of five students was feasible and feedback from participants was very positive. Baseline test scores were similar (P = 0.9) between groups. After the learning intervention, there was no difference between groups in change in total test score (P = 0.37), whether they were pictorial (P = 0.6) or non-pictorial (P = 0.21). In both groups there was an increase in total test scores (simulator +19.8 ±12.4%% and cadaver: +16.4% ± 10.2, P human cadaveric prosections for learning cardiac anatomy. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Prolonged exposure, paroxetine and the combination in the treatment of PTSD following a motor vehicle accident. A randomized clinical trial - The "TRAKT" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiel, Agnieszka; Zawadzki, Bogdan; Pragłowska, Ewa; Teichman, Yona

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about direct comparisons of the efficacy of trauma-focused psychotherapies and SSRIs. This is the first randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of prolonged exposure (PE), paroxetine (Ph) and their combination (Comb) in a sample of adults diagnosed with PTSD following motor vehicle accidents (MVA). A total of 228 people were randomly assigned to a twelve-week treatment of PE (N = 114), Ph (N = 57) or Comb (N = 57). The ITT analyses showed that the remission rate of PTSD was significantly greater after PE (65.5%) compared with Ph (43.3%), whereas Comb (51.2%) did not differ from either. The differences in dropout rates were not significant between treatments (18.4% - PE; 12.2% - Ph; 22.8% - Comb), while the differences in numbers of refusers were significant (3.5% PE paroxetine and combination treatment in PTSD PE was more effective than Ph in achieving remission of PTSD. The additive effect of Comb over any monotherapy was not shown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Infectious exposure in the first years of life and risk of central nervous system tumours in children: analysis of birth order, childcare attendance and seasonality of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L S; Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Schmiegelow, K

    2010-01-01

    An infective, mostly viral basis has been found in different human cancers. To test the hypothesis of a possible infectious aetiology for central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children, we investigated the associations with proxy measures of exposure to infectious disease....

  19. Image quality and radiation exposure with prospectively ECG-triggered axial scanning for coronary CT angiography: the multicenter, multivendor, randomized PROTECTION-III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausleiter, Jörg; Meyer, Tanja S; Martuscelli, Eugenio; Spagnolo, Pietro; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Carrascosa, Patricia; Anger, Thomas; Lehmkuhl, Lukas; Alkadhi, Hatem; Martinoff, Stefan; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hein, Franziska; Bischoff, Bernhard; Kuse, Miriam; Schömig, Albert; Achenbach, Stephan

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate image quality and radiation dose using a prospectively electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered axial scan protocol compared with standard retrospective ECG-gated helical scanning for coronary computed tomography angiography. Concerns have been raised regarding radiation exposure during coronary computed tomography angiography. Although the use of prospectively ECG-triggered axial scan protocols may effectively lower radiation dose compared with helical scanning, it is unknown whether image quality is maintained in a clinical setting. In a prospective, multicenter, multivendor trial, 400 patients with low and stable heart rates were randomized to either an axial or a helical coronary computed tomography angiography scan protocol. The primary endpoint was to demonstrate noninferiority in image quality with the axial scan protocol, which was assessed on a 4-point scale (1 = nondiagnostic, 4 = excellent image quality). Secondary endpoints included radiation dose and the rate of downstream testing during 30-day follow-up. Image quality in patients scanned with the axial scan protocol (score 3.36 ± 0.59) was not inferior compared with helical scan protocols (3.37 ± 0.59) (p for noninferiority <0.004). Axial scanning was associated with a 69% reduction in radiation exposure (dose-length product [estimated effective dose] 252 ± 147 mGy · cm [3.5 ± 2.1 mSv] vs. 802 ± 419 mGy · cm [11.2 ± 5.9 mSv] for axial vs. helical scan protocols, p < 0.001). The rate of downstream testing did not differ (13.8% vs. 15.9% for axial vs. helical scan protocols, p = 0.555). In patients with stable and low heart rates, the prospectively ECG-triggered axial scan protocol maintained image quality but reduced radiation exposure by 69% compared with helical scanning. Axial computed tomography data acquisition should be strongly recommended in suitable patients to avoid unnecessarily high radiation exposure. Copyright © 2012 American College of

  20. Effects of patient-directed music intervention on anxiety and sedative exposure in critically ill patients receiving mechanical-ventilatory support: a randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlan, Linda L.; Weinert, Craig R.; Heiderscheit, Annie; Tracy, Mary Fran; Skaar, Debra J.; Guttormson, Jill L.; Savik, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Context Alternatives to sedative medications are needed to reduce anxiety in mechanically ventilated patients. Music is an integrative therapy without adverse effects that may alleviate the anxiety associated with ventilatory support. Objective To test whether patient-directed, self-initiated music listening can reduce anxiety and sedative exposure during ventilatory support in critically ill patients as compared with 2 control conditions. Design, Setting, and Patients Randomized, controlled trial that enrolled 373 ICU patients from the Minneapolis-St. Paul area receiving acute mechanical-ventilatory support for respiratory failure between September 2006 and March 2011. Patients were Caucasian (86%), female (52%), with mean age 59 (SD 14), APACHE III 63 (SD 21.6), on protocol 5.7 (SD 6.4) days. Intervention Patients (1) self-initiated music listening (patient-directed music; PDM) with preferred selections tailored by a music therapist whenever desired while receiving ventilatory support, (2) self-initiated use of noise-abating headphones (HP), or (3) received usual ICU care (UC). Main Outcome Measures Daily assessments of anxiety (100-mm visual analog scale) and two aggregate measure of sedative exposure (sedation intensity and sedation frequency). Results Mixed-models analysis showed that PDM patients had decreased levels of anxiety compared with the UC group of −19.5 (p=.003). By the fifth study day anxiety was reduced by 36.5% in PDM patients. The interaction between treatment and time showed PDM significantly reduced both measures of sedative exposure. PDM reduced sedation intensity by −.18 (−.36, −.004) points per day and frequency by −.21 (−.37, −.05) points per day compared to UC (p = .05, .01 respectively). PDM reduced sedation frequency by −.18 (−.36, −.004) points per day compared to HP (p = .04). By the fifth study day, PDM patients received two fewer sedative doses (reduction of 38%) and had a reduction of 36% in sedation intensity

  1. Effects of a liquefied petroleum gas stove intervention on pollutant exposure and adult cardiopulmonary outcomes (CHAP): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño-Del-Rio, Magdalena; Goodman, Dina; Kephart, Josiah L; Miele, Catherine H; Williams, Kendra N; Moazzami, Mitra; Fung, Elizabeth C; Koehler, Kirsten; Davila-Roman, Victor G; Lee, Kathryn A; Nangia, Saachi; Harvey, Steven A; Steenland, Kyle; Gonzales, Gustavo F; Checkley, William

    2017-11-03

    Biomass fuel smoke is a leading risk factor for the burden of disease worldwide. International campaigns are promoting the widespread adoption of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in resource-limited settings. However, it is unclear if the introduction and use of LPG stoves, in settings where biomass fuels are used daily, reduces pollution concentration exposure, improves health outcomes, or how cultural and social barriers influence the exclusive adoption of LPG stoves. We will conduct a randomized controlled, field intervention trial of LPG stoves and fuel distribution in rural Puno, Peru, in which we will enroll 180 female participants aged 25-64 years and follow them for 2 years. After enrollment, we will collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, household characteristics, and cooking practices. During the first year of the study, LPG stoves and fuel tanks will be delivered to the homes of 90 intervention participants. During the second year, participants in the intervention arm will keep their LPG stoves, but the gas supply will stop. Control participants will receive LPG stoves and vouchers to obtain free fuel from distributors at the beginning of the second year, but gas will not be delivered. Starting at baseline, we will collect longitudinal measurements of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, blood pressure, endothelial function, carotid artery intima-media thickness, 24-h dietary recalls, exhaled carbon monoxide, quality-of-life indicators, and stove-use behaviors. Environmental exposure assessments will occur six times over the 2-year follow-up period, consisting of 48-h personal exposure and kitchen concentration measurements of fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide, and 48-h kitchen concentrations of nitrogen dioxide for a subset of 100 participants. Findings from this study will allow us to better understand behavioral patterns, environmental exposures, and cardiovascular and pulmonary outcomes resulting from the adoption of

  2. Internally Randomized Control Trial of Radiation Exposure Using Ultra-low Radiation Imaging Versus Traditional C-arm Fluoroscopy for Patients Undergoing Single-level Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Timothy Y; Farber, S Harrison; Perkins, Scott S; Back, Adam G; Byrd, Sarah A; Chi, Debbie; Vincent, David; Karikari, Isaac O

    2017-02-15

    Randomized controlled trial. To compare radiation exposure between ultra-low radiation imaging (ULRI) with image enhancement and standard-dose fluoroscopy for patients undergoing minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF). Although the benefits of MIS are lauded by many, there is a significant amount of radiation exposure to surgeon and operating room personnel. Our goal with this work was to see if by using ultra-low dose radiation settings coupled with image enhancement, this exposure could be minimized. An institutional review board approved, prospective, internally randomized controlled trial was performed comparing ultra-low dose settings coupled with image enhancement software to conventional fluoroscopic imaging. In this study, each patient served as their own control, randomly assigning one side of MIS-TLIF for cannulation and K-wire placement using each imaging modality. Further, the case was also randomly divided into screw placement and cage placement/final images to allow further comparisons amongst patients. Radiation production from the C-arm fluoroscope and radiation exposure to all operating room personnel were recorded. Twenty-four patients were randomly assigned to undergo a single level MIS-TLIF. In no case was low radiation imaging abandoned, and no patient had a neurologic decline or required hardware repositioning. Everyone in the operating room-the physician, scrub nurse, circulator, and anesthesiologist-all benefited with 61.6% to 83.5% reduction in radiation exposure during cannulation and K-wire placement to screw insertion aided by ULRI. In every case but the anesthesiologist dose, this was statistically significant (P < 0.05). This benefit required no additional time (P = 0.78 for K-wire placement). ULRI, when aided by image enhancement software, affords the ability for all parties in the operating room to substantially decrease their radiation exposure compared with standard-dose C-arm fluoroscopy

  3. Effect of Prolonged Exposure Therapy Delivered Over 2 Weeks vs 8 Weeks vs Present-Centered Therapy on PTSD Symptom Severity in Military Personnel: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foa, Edna B; McLean, Carmen P; Zang, Yinyin; Rosenfield, David; Yadin, Elna; Yarvis, Jeffrey S; Mintz, Jim; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Borah, Elisa V; Dondanville, Katherine A; Fina, Brooke A; Hall-Clark, Brittany N; Lichner, Tracey; Litz, Brett T; Roache, John; Wright, Edward C; Peterson, Alan L

    2018-01-23

    Effective and efficient treatment is needed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in active duty military personnel. To examine the effects of massed prolonged exposure therapy (massed therapy), spaced prolonged exposure therapy (spaced therapy), present-centered therapy (PCT), and a minimal-contact control (MCC) on PTSD severity. Randomized clinical trial conducted at Fort Hood, Texas, from January 2011 through July 2016 and enrolling 370 military personnel with PTSD who had returned from Iraq, Afghanistan, or both. Final follow-up was July 11, 2016. Prolonged exposure therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy involving exposure to trauma memories/reminders, administered as massed therapy (n = 110; 10 sessions over 2 weeks) or spaced therapy (n = 109; 10 sessions over 8 weeks); PCT, a non-trauma-focused therapy involving identifying/discussing daily stressors (n = 107; 10 sessions over 8 weeks); or MCC, telephone calls from therapists (n = 40; once weekly for 4 weeks). Outcomes were assessed before and after treatment and at 2-week, 12-week, and 6-month follow-up. Primary outcome was interviewer-assessed PTSD symptom severity, measured by the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview (PSS-I; range, 0-51; higher scores indicate greater PTSD severity; MCID, 3.18), used to assess efficacy of massed therapy at 2 weeks posttreatment vs MCC at week 4; noninferiority of massed therapy vs spaced therapy at 2 weeks and 12 weeks posttreatment (noninferiority margin, 50% [2.3 points on PSS-I, with 1-sided α = .05]); and efficacy of spaced therapy vs PCT at posttreatment. Among 370 randomized participants, data were analyzed for 366 (mean age, 32.7 [SD, 7.3] years; 44 women [12.0%]; mean baseline PSS-I score, 25.49 [6.36]), and 216 (59.0%) completed the study. At 2 weeks posttreatment, mean PSS-I score was 17.62 (mean decrease from baseline, 7.13) for massed therapy and 21.41 (mean decrease, 3.43) for MCC (difference in decrease, 3.70 [95% CI,0.72 to 6.68]; P = .02

  4. Morphine delays and attenuates ticagrelor exposure and action in patients with myocardial infarction: the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled IMPRESSION trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubica, Jacek; Adamski, Piotr; Ostrowska, Małgorzata; Sikora, Joanna; Kubica, Julia Maria; Sroka, Wiktor Dariusz; Stankowska, Katarzyna; Buszko, Katarzyna; Navarese, Eliano Pio; Jilma, Bernd; Siller-Matula, Jolanta Maria; Marszałł, Michał Piotr; Rość, Danuta; Koziński, Marek

    2016-01-14

    The currently available data indicate a drug-drug interaction between morphine and oral P2Y12 receptor inhibitors, when administered together. The aim of this trial was to assess the influence of infused morphine on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ticagrelor and its active metabolite (AR-C124910XX) in patients with acute myocardial infarction. In a single-centre, randomized, double-blind trial, patients were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive intravenously either morphine (5 mg) or placebo, followed by a 180 mg loading dose of ticagrelor. Pharmacokinetics was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and ticagrelor antiplatelet effects were measured with up to three different platelet function tests: vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation assay, multiple electrode aggregometry and VerifyNow. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessment was performed in 70 patients (35 in each study group). Morphine lowered the total exposure to ticagrelor and its active metabolite by 36% (AUC(0-12): 6307 vs. 9791 ng h/mL; P = 0.003), and 37% (AUC(0-12): 1503 vs. 2388 ng h/mL; P = 0.008), respectively, with a concomitant delay in maximal plasma concentration of ticagrelor (4 vs. 2 h; P = 0.004). Multiple regression analysis showed that lower AUC(0-12) values for ticagrelor were independently associated with the administration of morphine (P = 0.004) and the presence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (P = 0.014). All three methods of platelet reactivity assessment showed a stronger antiplatelet effect in the placebo group and a greater prevalence of high platelet reactivity in patients receiving morphine. Morphine delays and attenuates ticagrelor exposure and action in patients with myocardial infarction. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02217878. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  5. Effect of virtual reality exposure therapy on social participation in people with a psychotic disorder (VRETp): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot-Kolder, Roos; Veling, Wim; Geraets, Chris; van der Gaag, Mark

    2016-01-13

    Many patients with a psychotic disorder participate poorly in society. When psychotic disorders are in partial remission, feelings of paranoia, delusions of reference, social anxiety and self-stigmatization often remain at diminished severity and may lead to avoidance of places and people. Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is an evidence-based treatment for several anxiety disorders. For patients with a psychotic disorder, the VRETp was developed to help them experience exposure to feared social situations. The present study aims to investigate the effects of VRETp on social participation in real life among patients with a psychotic disorder. The study is a single-blind randomized controlled trial with two conditions: the active condition, in which participants receive the virtual reality treatment together with treatment as usual (TAU), and the waiting list condition, in which participants receive TAU only. The two groups are compared at baseline, at 3 months posttreatment and at 6 months follow-up. All participants on the waiting list are also offered the virtual reality treatment after the follow-up measurements are completed. The primary outcome is social participation. Secondary outcomes are quality of life, interaction anxiety, depression and social functioning in general. Moderator and mediator analyses are conducted with stigma, cognitive schemata, cognitive biases, medication adherence, simulator sickness and presence in virtual reality. If effective, a cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted. Results from the posttreatment measurement can be considered strong empirical indicators of the effectiveness of VRETp. The 6-month follow-up data may provide reliable documentation of the long-term effects of the treatment on the outcome variables. Data from pre-treatment and mid-treatment can be used to reveal possible pathways of change. Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN12929657 . Date of registration: 8 September 2015.

  6. Using Mendelian randomization to determine causal effects of maternal pregnancy (intrauterine exposures on offspring outcomes: Sources of bias and methods for assessing them [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Lawlor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mendelian randomization (MR, the use of genetic variants as instrumental variables (IVs to test causal effects, is increasingly used in aetiological epidemiology. Few of the methodological developments in MR have considered the specific situation of using genetic IVs to test the causal effect of exposures in pregnant women on postnatal offspring outcomes. In this paper, we describe specific ways in which the IV assumptions might be violated when MR is used to test such intrauterine effects. We highlight the importance of considering the extent to which there is overlap between genetic variants in offspring that influence their outcome with genetic variants used as IVs in their mothers. Where there is overlap, and particularly if it generates a strong association of maternal genetic IVs with offspring outcome via the offspring genotype, the exclusion restriction assumption of IV analyses will be violated. We recommend a set of analyses that ought to be considered when MR is used to address research questions concerned with intrauterine effects on post-natal offspring outcomes, and provide details of how these can be undertaken and interpreted. These additional analyses include the use of genetic data from offspring and fathers, examining associations using maternal non-transmitted alleles, and using simulated data in sensitivity analyses (for which we provide code. We explore the extent to which new methods that have been developed for exploring violation of the exclusion restriction assumption in the two-sample setting (MR-Egger and median based methods might be used when exploring intrauterine effects in one-sample MR. We provide a list of recommendations that researchers should use when applying MR to test the effects of intrauterine exposures on postnatal offspring outcomes and use an illustrative example with real data to demonstrate how our recommendations can be applied and subsequent results appropriately interpreted.

  7. Family intervention for co-occurring substance use and severe psychiatric disorders: participant characteristics and correlates of initial engagement and more extended exposure in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueser, Kim T; Glynn, Shirley M; Cather, Corinne; Zarate, Roberto; Fox, Lindy; Feldman, James; Wolfe, Rosemarie; Clark, Robin E

    2009-10-01

    Clients with severe mental illness and substance use disorder (i.e., dual disorders) frequently have contact with family members, who may provide valuable emotional and material support, but have limited skills and knowledge to promote recovery. Furthermore, high levels of family conflict and stress are related to higher rates of relapse. The present study was a two-site randomized controlled trial comparing a comprehensive, behaviorally-based family intervention for dual disorders program (FIDD) to a shorter-term family psychoeducational program (FPE). The modal family was a single male son in his early 30s diagnosed with both alcohol and drug problems and a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder participating with his middle-aged mother, with whom he lived. Initial engagement rates following consent to participate in the study and the family intervention programs were moderately high for both programs (88% and 84%, respectively), but rates of longer term retention and exposure to the core elements of each treatment model were lower (61% and 55%, respectively). Characteristics of the relatives were the strongest predictors of successful initial engagement in the family programs with the most important predictor being relatives who reported higher levels of benefit related to the relationship with the client. Subsequent successful exposure to the family treatment models was more strongly associated with client factors, including less severity of drug abuse and male client gender. The results suggest that attention to issues of motivating relatives to participate in family intervention, and more focused efforts to address the disruptive effects of drug abuse on the family could improve rates of engagement and retention in family programs for dual disorders.

  8. Improved cortisol exposure-time profile and outcome in patients with adrenal insufficiency: a prospective randomized trial of a novel hydrocortisone dual-release formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsson, G; Nilsson, A G; Bergthorsdottir, R; Burman, P; Dahlqvist, P; Ekman, B; Engström, B E; Olsson, T; Ragnarsson, O; Ryberg, M; Wahlberg, J; Biller, B M K; Monson, J P; Stewart, P M; Lennernäs, H; Skrtic, S

    2012-02-01

    Patients with treated adrenal insufficiency (AI) have increased morbidity and mortality rate. Our goal was to improve outcome by developing a once-daily (OD) oral hydrocortisone dual-release tablet with a more physiological exposure-time cortisol profile. The aim was to compare pharmacokinetics and metabolic outcome between OD and the same daily dose of thrice-daily (TID) dose of conventional hydrocortisone tablets. We conducted an open, randomized, two-period, 12-wk crossover multicenter trial with a 24-wk extension at five university hospital centers. The trial enrolled 64 adults with primary AI; 11 had concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM). The same daily dose of hydrocortisone was administered as OD dual-release or TID. We evaluated cortisol pharmacokinetics. Compared with conventional TID, OD provided a sustained serum cortisol profile 0-4 h after the morning intake and reduced the late afternoon and the 24-h cortisol exposure. The mean weight (difference = -0.7 kg, P = 0.005), systolic blood pressure (difference = -5.5 mm Hg, P = 0.0001) and diastolic blood pressure (difference: -2.3 mm Hg; P = 0.03), and glycated hemoglobin (absolute difference = -0.1%, P = 0.0006) were all reduced after OD compared with TID at 12 wk. Compared with TID, a reduction in glycated hemoglobin by 0.6% was observed in patients with concomitant DM during OD (P = 0.004). The OD dual-release tablet provided a more circadian-based serum cortisol profile. Reduced body weight, reduced blood pressure, and improved glucose metabolism were observed during OD treatment. In particular, glucose metabolism improved in patients with concomitant DM.

  9. Narrative exposure therapy for immigrant children traumatized by war: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of effectiveness and mechanisms of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangaslampi, Samuli; Garoff, Ferdinand; Peltonen, Kirsi

    2015-06-17

    Millions of children worldwide suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and other mental health problems due to repeated exposure to war or organized violence. Forms of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are the most commonly used treatment for PTSD and appear to be effective for children as well, but little is known about the mechanisms of change through which they achieve their effectiveness. Here we present the study protocol of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) studying the effectiveness and mechanisms of change of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET), a CBT-based, manualized, short-term intervention for PTSD symptoms resulting from repeated traumatization, in immigrant children traumatized by war. We are conducting a multicentre, pragmatic RCT in a usual care setting. Up to 80 9-17-year-old immigrant children who have experienced war and suffer from PTSD symptoms will be randomized into intervention (NET) and control (treatment as usual, TAU) groups of equal sizes. The effectiveness of NET treatment will be compared to both a waiting list and the parallel TAU positive control group, on the primary outcomes of PTSD and depressive symptoms, psychological distress, resilience, and level of cognitive performance. The effects of the intervention on traumatic memories and posttraumatic cognitions will be studied as potential mechanisms of change mediating overall treatment effectiveness. The possible moderating effects of peritraumatic dissociation, level of cognitive performance, and gender on treatment effectiveness will also be considered. We hypothesize that NET will be more effective than a waitlist condition or TAU in reducing PTSD and other symptoms and improving resilience, and that these effects will be mediated by changes in traumatic memories and posttraumatic cognitions. The results of this trial will provide evidence for the effectiveness of NET in treating trauma-related symptoms in immigrant children affected by war. The trial will also

  10. Development of a Virtual Reality Exposure Tool as Psychological Preparation for Elective Pediatric Day Care Surgery: Methodological Approach for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijlers, Robin; Legerstee, Jeroen S; Dierckx, Bram; Staals, Lonneke M; Berghmans, Johan; van der Schroeff, Marc P; Wijnen, Rene Mh; Utens, Elisabeth Mwj

    2017-09-11

    Preoperative anxiety in children is highly prevalent and is associated with adverse outcomes. Existing psychosocial interventions to reduce preoperative anxiety are often aimed at distraction and are of limited efficacy. Gradual exposure is a far more effective way to reduce anxiety. Virtual reality (VR) provides a unique opportunity to gradually expose children to all aspects of the operating theater. The aims of our study are (1) to develop a virtual reality exposure (VRE) tool to prepare children psychologically for surgery; and (2) to examine the efficacy of the VRE tool in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which VRE will be compared to care as usual (CAU). The VRE tool is highly realistic and resembles the operating room environment accurately. With this tool, children will not only be able to explore the operating room environment, but also get accustomed to general anesthesia procedures. The PREoperative Virtual reality Intervention to Enhance Wellbeing (PREVIEW) study will be conducted. In this single-blinded RCT, 200 consecutive patients (aged 4 to 12 years) undergoing elective day care surgery for dental, oral, or ear-nose-throat problems, will be randomly allocated to the preoperative VRE intervention or CAU. The primary outcome is change in child state anxiety level between baseline and induction of anesthesia. Secondary outcome measures include child's postoperative anxiety, emergence delirium, postoperative pain, use of analgesics, health care use, and pre- and postoperative parental anxiety. The VRE tool has been developed. Participant recruitment began March 2017 and is expected to be completed by September 2018. To our knowledge, this is the first RCT evaluating the effect of a VRE tool to prepare children for surgery. The VRE intervention is expected to significantly diminish preoperative anxiety, postoperative pain, and the use of postoperative analgesics in pediatric patients. The tool could create a less stressful experience for both

  11. Effect of audit and feedback with peer review on general practitioners' prescribing and test ordering performance: a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trietsch, J; Steenkiste, B. van; Grol, R.P; Winkens, B; Ulenkate, H; Metsemakers, J; Weijden, T.T. van der

    2017-01-01

    .... In this study a large-scale implementation of a peer review strategy was tested on both test ordering and prescribing behaviour in primary care in the normal quality improvement setting. METHODS...

  12. Prolonged exposure vs eye movement desensitization and reprocessing vs waiting list for posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with a psychotic disorder: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, David P G; de Bont, Paul A J M; van der Vleugel, Berber M; de Roos, Carlijn; de Jongh, Ad; Van Minnen, Agnes; van der Gaag, Mark

    2015-03-01

    The efficacy of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatments in psychosis has not been examined in a randomized clinical trial to our knowledge. Psychosis is an exclusion criterion in most PTSD trials. To examine the efficacy and safety of prolonged exposure (PE) therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in patients with psychotic disorders and comorbid PTSD. A single-blind randomized clinical trial with 3 arms (N = 155), including PE therapy, EMDR therapy, and waiting list (WL) of 13 outpatient mental health services among patients with a lifetime psychotic disorder and current chronic PTSD. Baseline, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up assessments were made. Participants were randomized to receive 8 weekly 90-minute sessions of PE (n = 53), EMDR (n = 55), or WL (n = 47). Standard protocols were used, and treatment was not preceded by stabilizing psychotherapeutic interventions. Clinician-rated severity of PTSD symptoms, PTSD diagnosis, and full remission (on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) were primary outcomes. Self-reported PTSD symptoms and posttraumatic cognitions were secondary outcomes. Data were analyzed as intent to treat with linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations. Participants in the PE and EMDR conditions showed a greater reduction of PTSD symptoms than those in the WL condition. Between-group effect sizes were 0.78 (P EMDR. Participants in the PE condition (56.6%; odds ratio [OR], 3.41; P = .006) or the EMDR condition (60.0%; OR, 3.92; P EMDR condition (16.4%; OR, 2.87; P = .10), were more likely to gain full remission than those in the WL condition (6.4%). Treatment effects were maintained at the 6-month follow-up in PE and EMDR. Similar results were obtained regarding secondary outcomes. There were no differences in severe adverse events between conditions (2 in PE, 1 in EMDR, and 4 in WL). The PE therapy and EMDR therapy showed no difference in any of the

  13. Feasibility of Training Frontline Therapists in Prolonged Exposure: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study of Treatment of Complex Trauma in Diverse Victims of Crime and Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoori, Bita; Hansen, Marissa C; Garibay, Erika; Korosteleva, Olga

    2017-04-01

    The study aims were to determine whether prolonged exposure (PE) improved mental health and was feasible to implement by frontline clinicians in a culturally diverse sample with complex trauma. Seventy-one individuals were randomly assigned to PE or person-centered therapy (PCT). Outcome measures were administered at baseline and sessions 3, 6, 9, and 12. Mixed modeling was used to regress outcome measures on time, treatment group, and number of visits. Individuals who received PE showed significant moderate association with decline in reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as noted by the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (p = 0.05) compared with PCT. Results indicated improved scores on all measures at each follow-up time point compared with baseline (p ≤ 0.01). PE was feasible, shown by positive recruitment and ability of clinicians to effectively implement and maintain treatment fidelity. Findings suggest that PE can be effective for treating complex trauma when used by clinicians in community settings.

  14. Study protocol for a three-armed randomized controlled trial to assess whether house screening can reduce exposure to malaria vectors and reduce malaria transmission in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milligan Paul J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquito-proofing homes was one of the principal methods of environmental management in the early 1900s. House screening provides protection against malaria by reducing exposure to malaria parasites and has the added benefit of protecting everyone sleeping in the house, avoiding issues of inequity within the household. The aim of this study is to determine whether house screening protects people against malaria in Africa. It is hoped that this study will mark the beginning of a series of trials assessing a range of environmental interventions for malaria control in Africa. Design A 3-armed randomised-controlled trial will be conducted in and around Farafenni town in The Gambia, West Africa, to assess whether screening windows, doors and closing eaves or installing netting ceilings in local houses can substantially reduce malaria transmission and anaemia compared to homes with no screening. Eligible houses will be sorted and stratified by location and the number of children in each house, then randomly allocated to the interventions in blocks of 5 houses (2 with full screening, 2 with screened ceilings and 1 control house without screening. Risk of malaria transmission will be assessed in each house by routine collections of mosquitoes using light traps and an anaemia prevalence study in children at the end of the main transmission period. Discussion Practical issues concerning intervention implementation, as well as the potential benefits and risks of the study, are discussed. Trial Registration ISRCTN51184253 – Screening-homes to prevent malaria

  15. Effect of Exposure to an Authentic Pedagogical Task on Student Academic Performance, Student Perceptions of Pedagogical Authenticity and Higher Order Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Marlin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an authentic pedagogical (AP) task on measurements of student academic performance, student perceptions of pedagogical authenticity, and higher order thinking in undergraduate psychology courses. In this quasi-experimental design, comprehensive final exam scores, student ratings on the…

  16. Heart dose exposure as prognostic marker after radiotherapy for resectable stage IIIA/B non-small-cell lung cancer: secondary analysis of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guberina, M; Eberhardt, W; Stuschke, M; Gauler, T; Heinzelmann, F; Cheufou, D; Kimmich, M; Friedel, G; Schmidberger, H; Darwiche, K; Jendrossek, V; Schuler, M; Stamatis, G; Pöttgen, C

    2017-05-01

    Heart exposure to ionizing irradiation can cause ischaemic heart disease. The partial heart volume receiving ≥5 Gy (heartV5) was supposed to be an independent prognostic factor for survival after radiochemotherapy for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). But validation of the latter hypothesis is needed under the concurrent risks of lung cancer patients. The ESPATUE phase III trial recruited patients with potentially operable IIIA(N2)/selected IIIB NSCLC between 01/2004 and 01/2013. Cisplatin/paclitaxel induction chemotherapy was given followed by neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (RT/CT) to 45 Gy (1.5 Gy bid/concurrent cisplatin/vinorelbine). Operable patients were randomized to definitive RT/CT(arm A) or surgery (arm B) and therefore were treated at two different total dose levels of radiotherapy. HeartV5 and mean heart dose (MHD) were obtained from the 3D radiotherapy plans, the prognostic value was analysed using multivariable proportional hazard analysis. A total of 161 patients were randomized in ESPATUE, heartV5 and MHD were obtained from the 3D radiotherapy plans for 155 of these [male/female:105/50, median age 58 (33-74) years, stage IIIA/IIIB: 54/101]. Power analysis revealed a power of 80% of this dataset to detect a prognostic value of heartV5 of the size found in RTOG 0617. Multivariable analysis did not identify heartV5 as an independent prognostic factor for survival adjusting for tumour and clinical characteristics with [hazard ratio 1.005 (0.995-1.015), P = 0.30] or without lower lobe tumour location [hazard ratio 0.999 (0.986-1.012), P = 0.83]. There was no influence of heartV5 on death without tumour progression. Tumour progression, and pneumonia were the leading causes of death representing 65% and 14% of the observed deaths. HeartV5 could not be validated as an independent prognostic factor for survival after neoadjuvant or definitive conformal radiochemotherapy. Tumour progression was the predominant cause of death

  17. The "Don't smoke in our home" randomized controlled trial to protect children from second-hand smoke exposure at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellini, Elisabetta; Gorini, Giuseppe; Carreras, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    Increasing smoke-free homes is an important public health goal, but only few interventions have yielded positive results. The aim of the "Don't smoke in our home" trial was to evaluate a counseling intervention focused on promoting totally smoke-free homes and cars (TSFHC) delivered to women with children resident in four Tuscan towns. We used a two-group randomized controlled trial design. Participants were asked about their smoking habits and about restrictions on smoking in their homes and cars. All women received a self-help booklet promoting TSFHC, and 110 women randomized to the intervention also attended brief counseling on second-hand smoke exposure protection and received three gifts to remember the commitment to TSFHC. Follow-up was conducted by phone after four months. We recruited 218 women, 64 of whom had a university degree and 131 of whom were smokers; 62% reported smoking indoors and 58% in cars. Before the intervention, nonsmokers were more likely to report totally smoke-free homes (TSFH, 52%) and cars (TSFC, 53%) than smokers (26% and 17% respectively; P <0.001). Participants of the experimental arm had similar odds as controls of having implemented TSFH after the intervention, and nonsignificantly increased odds of having introduced TSFC (odds ratio [OR] 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69-3.11), particularly among smokers (OR 2.24, 95%CI 0.69-7.26). All participants independently of the study arm recorded significant increases of 12 and 15 percentage points in TSFH and TSFC, respectively. Few smokers quit smoking (7%), stopped smoking indoors (5%), and stopped smoking in cars (7%), with no differences between the intervention and control groups. Adding brief counseling to written materials did not significantly increase TSFHC. However, delivering written materials only may produce modest but noteworthy TSFHC increases at the population level, even though the participants in the study did not represent a population-based sample, given the

  18. Babies Living Safe & Smokefree: randomized controlled trial of a multilevel multimodal behavioral intervention to reduce low-income children’s tobacco smoke exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley N. Collins

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Addressing children’s tobacco smoke exposure (TSE remains a public health priority. However, there is low uptake and ineffectiveness of treatment, particularly in low-income populations that face numerous challenges to smoking behavior change. A multilevel intervention combining system-level health messaging and advice about TSE delivered at community clinics that disseminate the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC, combined with nicotine replacement and intensive multimodal, individual-level behavioral intervention may improve TSE control efforts in such high-risk populations. Methods/Design This trial uses a randomized two-group design with three measurement points: baseline, 3-month and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome is bioverified child TSE; the secondary outcome is bioverified maternal quit status. Smoking mothers of children less than 6 years old are recruited from WIC clinics. All participants receive WIC system-level intervention based on the “Ask, Advise, Refer (AAR” best practices guidelines for pediatrics clinics. It includes training all WIC staff about the importance of maternal tobacco control; and detailing clinics with AAR intervention prompts in routine work flow to remind WIC nutrition counselors to ask all mothers about child TSE, advise about TSE harms and benefits of protection, and refer smokers to cessation services. After receiving the system intervention, mothers are randomized to receive 3 months of additional treatment or an attention control intervention: (1 The multimodal behavioral intervention (MBI treatment includes telephone counseling sessions about child TSE reduction and smoking cessation, provision of nicotine replacement therapy, a mobile app to support cessation efforts, and multimedia text messages about TSE and smoking cessation; (2 The attention control intervention offers equivalent contact as the MBI and includes nutrition

  19. The Effect of Solvent, Hydrogen Peroxide and Dioxide Titanium on Degradation of PCBs, Using Microwave Radiation in Order to Reduce Occupational Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajik Reza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are one group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs that are of international concern because of global distribution, persistence, and toxicity. Removal of these compounds from the environment remains a very difficult challenge because the compounds are highly hydrophobic and have very low solubility in water. A 900 W domestic microwave oven, pyrex vessel reactor, pyrex tube connector and condensing system were used in this experiment. Radiation was discontinuous and ray powers were 540, 720 and 900 W. The PCBS were analyzed by GC-ECD. The application of microwave radiation and H2O2/TiO2 agents for the degradation of polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated oil was explored in this study. PCB – contaminated oil was treated in a pyrex reactor by microwave irradiation at 2450 MHz with the addition of H2O2/TiO2. A novel grain TiO2 (GT01 was used. The determination of PCB residues in oil by gas chromatography (GC revealed that rates of PCB decomposition were highly dependent on microwave power, exposure time, ratio to solvent with transformer oil in 3:1, the optimal amount of GT01 (0.2 g and 0.116 mol of H2O2 were used in the study. It was suggested that microwave irradiation with the assistance of H2O2/TiO2 might be a potential technology for the degradation of PCB – contaminated oil. The experiments show that MW irradiation, H2O2 oxidant and TiO2 catalyst lead to a degradation efficiency of PCBs only in the presence of ethanol. The results showed that the addition of ethanol significantly enhanced degradation efficiency of PCBs.

  20. Effects of patient-directed music intervention on anxiety and sedative exposure in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilatory support: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlan, Linda L; Weinert, Craig R; Heiderscheit, Annie; Tracy, Mary Fran; Skaar, Debra J; Guttormson, Jill L; Savik, Kay

    2013-06-12

    Alternatives to sedative medications, such as music, may alleviate the anxiety associated with ventilatory support. To test whether listening to self-initiated patient-directed music (PDM) can reduce anxiety and sedative exposure during ventilatory support in critically ill patients. Randomized clinical trial that enrolled 373 patients from 12 intensive care units (ICUs) at 5 hospitals in the Minneapolis-St Paul, Minnesota, area receiving acute mechanical ventilatory support for respiratory failure between September 2006 and March 2011. Of the patients included in the study, 86% were white, 52% were female, and the mean (SD) age was 59 (14) years. The patients had a mean (SD) Acute Physiology, Age and Chronic Health Evaluation III score of 63 (21.6) and a mean (SD) of 5.7 (6.4) study days. Self-initiated PDM (n = 126) with preferred selections tailored by a music therapist whenever desired while receiving ventilatory support, self-initiated use of noise-canceling headphones (NCH; n = 122), or usual care (n = 125). Daily assessments of anxiety (on 100-mm visual analog scale) and 2 aggregate measures of sedative exposure (intensity and frequency). Patients in the PDM group listened to music for a mean (SD) of 79.8 (126) (median [range], 12 [0-796]) minutes/day. Patients in the NCH group wore the noise-abating headphones for a mean (SD) of 34.0 (89.6) (median [range], 0 [0-916]) minutes/day. The mixed-models analysis showed that at any time point, patients in the PDM group had an anxiety score that was 19.5 points lower (95% CI, -32.2 to -6.8) than patients in the usual care group (P = .003). By the fifth study day, anxiety was reduced by 36.5% in PDM patients. The treatment × time interaction showed that PDM significantly reduced both measures of sedative exposure. Compared with usual care, the PDM group had reduced sedation intensity by -0.18 (95% CI, -0.36 to -0.004) points/day (P = .05) and had reduced frequency by -0.21 (95% CI, -0.37 to -0.05) points/day (P

  1. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an exposure-based return-to-work programme for patients on sick leave due to common mental disorders: design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieuwenhuijsen Karen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the duration of sick leave and loss of productivity due to common mental disorders (CMDs, we developed a return-to-work programme to be provided by occupational physicians (OPs based on the principles of exposure in vivo (RTW-E programme. This study evaluates this programme's effectiveness and cost-effectiveness by comparing it with care as usual (CAU. The three research questions we have are: 1 Is an RTW-E programme more effective in reducing the sick leave of employees with common mental disorders, compared with care as usual? 2 Is an RTW-E programme more effective in reducing sick leave for employees with anxiety disorders compared with employees with other common mental disorders? 3 From a societal perspective, is an RTW-E programme cost-effective compared with care as usual? Methods/design This study was designed as a pragmatic cluster-randomized controlled trial with a one-year follow-up and randomization on the level of OPs. We aimed for 60 OPs in order to include 200 patients. Patients in the intervention group received the RTW-E programme. Patients in the control group received care as usual. Eligible patients had been on sick leave due to common mental disorders for at least two weeks and no longer than eight weeks. As primary outcome measures, we calculated the time until full return to work and the duration of sick leave. Secondary outcome measures were time until partial return to work, prevalence rate of sick leave at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months' follow-up, and scores of symptoms of distress, anxiety, depression, somatization, and fatigue; work capacity; perceived working conditions; self-efficacy for return to work; coping behaviour; avoidance behaviour; patient satisfaction; and work adaptations. As process measures, we used indices of compliance with the intervention in the intervention group and employee-supervisor communication in both groups. Economic costs were calculated from a societal perspective

  2. In a randomized trial, the live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine TV003 is well-tolerated and highly immunogenic in subjects with flavivirus exposure prior to vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Stephen S.; Durbin, Anna P.; Pierce, Kristen K.; Elwood, Dan; McElvany, Benjamin D.; Fraser, Ellen A.; Carmolli, Marya P.; Tibery, Cecilia M.; Hynes, Noreen A.; Jo, Matthew; Lovchik, Janece M.; Larsson, Catherine J.; Doty, Elena A.; Dickson, Dorothy M.; Luke, Catherine J.; Subbarao, Kanta; Kirkpatrick, Beth D.

    2017-01-01

    Infection caused by the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1-4) is a leading cause of mosquito-borne disease. Clinically-severe dengue disease is more common when secondary dengue infection occurs following prior infection with a heterologous dengue serotype. Other flaviviruses such as yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and Zika virus, can also elicit antibodies which are cross-reactive to DENV. As candidate dengue vaccines become available in endemic settings and for individuals who have received other flavivirus vaccines, it is important to examine vaccine safety and immunogenicity in these flavivirus-experienced populations. We performed a randomized, controlled trial of the National Institutes of Health live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (TV003) in fifty-eight individuals with prior exposure to flavivirus infection or vaccine. As in prior studies of this vaccine in flavivirus-naive volunteers, flavivirus-experienced subjects received two doses of vaccine six months apart and were followed closely for clinical events, laboratory changes, viremia, and neutralizing antibody titers. TV003 was well tolerated with few adverse events other than rash, which was predominately mild. Following one dose, 87% of vaccinees had an antibody response to all four serotypes (tetravalent response), suggesting a robust immune response. In addition, 76% of vaccinees were viremic; mean peak titers ranged from 0.68–1.1 log10 PFU/mL and did not differ by serotype. The second dose of TV003 was not associated with viremia, rash, or a sustained boost in antibody titers indicating that a single dose of the vaccine is likely sufficient to prevent viral replication and thus protect against disease. In comparison to the viremia and neutralizing antibody response elicited by TV003 in flavivirus-naïve subjects from prior studies, we found that subjects who were flavivirus-exposed prior to vaccination exhibited slightly higher DENV-3 viremia, higher

  3. Vectorcardiographic Results of Human Exposures to +3GZ, +5GZ, and +7GZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    subendocardial hemorrhage, during,and for 15 min after exposures to +36’, +5Gz,and +7dfl. The order of acceleration exposure was randomized, with the...during and after 45-s exposures to +3Gz, +5Gz, and +7Gz stress. Since the initial observations of subendocardial hemorrhage and minor car...W. F. MacKenzie. Cardiac pathology associated with high sustained +Gz: I. Subendocardial hemorrhage. Aviat Space Environ Med 47:711-717 (1967). 6

  4. Psychological Treatment for Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Examine the Role of Therapist-Guided Exposure in situ in CBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, Andrew T.; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Einsle, Franziska; Lang, Thomas; Helbig-Lang, Sylvia; Fydrich, Thomas; Fehm, Lydia; Hamm, Alfons O.; Richter, Jan; Alpers, George W.; Gerlach, Alexander L.; Strohle, Andreas; Kircher, Tilo; Deckert, Jurgen; Zwanzger, Peter; Hofler, Michael; Arolt, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a first-line treatment for panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/AG). Nevertheless, an understanding of its mechanisms and particularly the role of therapist-guided exposure is lacking. This study was aimed to evaluate whether therapist-guided exposure in situ is associated with more pervasive and…

  5. Intensified hand-hygiene campaign including soap-and-water wash may prevent acute infections in office workers, as shown by a recognized-exposure -adjusted analysis of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovi, Tapani; Ollgren, Jukka; Savolainen-Kopra, Carita

    2017-01-09

    Variable exposure to causative agents of acute respiratory (RTI) or gastrointestinal tract infections (GTI) is a significant confounding factor in the analysis of the efficacy of interventions concerning these infections. We had an exceptional opportunity to reanalyze a previously published dataset from a trial assessing the effect of enhanced hand hygiene on the occurrence of RTI or GTI in adults, after adjustment for reported exposure and other covariates. Twenty-one working units (designated clusters) each including at least 50 office employees, totaling 1,270 persons, were randomized into two intervention arms (either using water-and-soap or alcohol-rub in hand cleansing), or in the control arm. Self-reported data was collected through weekly emails and included own symptoms of RTI or GTI, and exposures to other persons with similar symptoms. Differences in the weekly occurrences of RTI and GTI symptoms between the arms were analyzed using multilevel binary regression model with log link with personal and cluster specific random effects, self-reported exposure to homologous disease, randomization triplet, and seasonality as covariates in the Bayesian framework. Over the 16 months duration of the trial, 297 persons in the soap and water arm, 238 persons in the alcohol-based hand rub arm, and 230 controls sent reports. The arms were similar in age distribution and gender ratios. A temporally-associated reported exposure strongly increased the risk of both types of infection in all trial arms. Persons in the soap-and-water arm reported a significantly - about 24% lower weekly prevalence of GTI than the controls whether they had observed an exposure or not during the preceding week, while for RTI, this intervention reduced the prevalence only during weeks without a reported exposure. Alcohol-rub did not affect the symptom prevalence. We conclude that while frequent and careful hand washing with soap and water partially protected office-working adults from GTI, the

  6. Word Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The way constituents are ordered in a linguistic expression is determined by general principles and language specific rules. This article is mostly concerned with general ordering principles and the three main linguistic categories that are relevant for constituent order research: formal......, functional and semantic categories. The general principles appear to be motivated by cognitive considerations, which are deemed to facilitate language processing and which can all be regarded as manifestations of iconicity: non-arbitrary relations between the form and the content of a linguistic expression....... Three major iconic ordering principles are the principles of Domain Integrity, Scope, and Head Proximity....

  7. Order patterns and chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amigo, Jose M. [Centro de Investigacion Operativa, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, E-03202 Elche (Spain)]. E-mail: jm.amigo@umh.es; Kocarev, Ljupco [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0402 (United States); Szczepanski, Janusz [Institute for Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Swietokrzyska 21, PL-00-049 Warsaw (Poland)

    2006-06-19

    Chaotic maps can mimic random behavior in a quite impressive way. In particular, those possessing a generating partition can produce any symbolic sequence by properly choosing the initial state. We study in this Letter the ability of chaotic maps to generate order patterns and come to the conclusion that their performance in this respect falls short of expectations. This result reveals some basic limitation of a deterministic dynamic as compared to a random one. This being the case, we propose a non-statistical test based on 'forbidden' order patterns to discriminate chaotic from truly random time series with, in principle, arbitrarily high probability. Some relations with discrete chaos and chaotic cryptography are also discussed.

  8. Partially ordered models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, R.; Deveaux, V.

    2010-01-01

    We provide a formal definition and study the basic properties of partially ordered chains (POC). These systems were proposed to model textures in image processing and to represent independence relations between random variables in statistics (in the later case they are known as Bayesian networks).

  9. Group and Individual Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Using Cognitive Therapy and Exposure Plus Response Prevention: A 2-Year Follow-Up of Two Randomized Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittal, Maureen L.; Robichaud, Melisa; Thordarson, Dana S.; McLean, Peter D.

    2008-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the long-term durability of group treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and contemporary cognitive treatments. The current study investigated the 2-year follow-up results for participants who completed randomized trials of group or individual treatment and received either cognitive therapy (CT) or…

  10. Prospective, randomized, fellow eye comparison of WaveLight® Allegretto Wave® Eye-Q versus VISX CustomVueTM STAR S4 IRTM in photorefractive keratectomy: analysis of visual outcomes and higher-order aberrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikder S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar1, Daniel S Churgin2, Brent S Betts3, Maylon Hsu1, Shameema Sikder4, Marcus Neuffer1, Dane Church5, Mark D Mifflin11University of Utah, John A Moran Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix, AZ; 3Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to compare differences in visual outcomes, higher-order aberrations, contrast sensitivity, and dry eye in patients undergoing photorefractive keratectomy using wavefront-guided VISX CustomVue™ and wavefront-optimized WaveLight® Allegretto platforms.Methods: In this randomized, prospective, single-masked, fellow-eye study, photorefractive keratectomy was performed on 46 eyes from 23 patients, with one eye randomized to WaveLight Allegretto, and the fellow eye receiving VISX CustomVue. Three-month postoperative outcome measures included uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, refractive error, root mean square of total and grouped higher-order aberrations, contrast sensitivity, and Schirmer’s testing.Results: Mean values for uncorrected distance visual acuity (logMAR were —0.03 ± 0.07 and —0.06 ± 0.09 in the wavefront-optimized and wavefront-guided groups, respectively (P = 0.121. Uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better was achieved in 91% of eyes receiving wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy, and 87% of eyes receiving wavefront-optimized photorefractive keratectomy, whereas uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/15 was achieved in 35% of the wavefront-optimized group and 64% of the wavefront-guided group (P ≥ 0.296. While root mean square of total higher-order aberration, coma, and trefoil tended to increase in the wavefront

  11. Effects of reducing exposure to air pollution on submaximal cardiopulmonary test in patients with heart failure: Analysis of the randomized, double-blind and controlled FILTER-HF trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Jefferson L; Guimaraes, Guilherme V; de Andre, Paulo A; Saldiva, Paulo H Nascimento; Bocchi, Edimar A

    2016-07-15

    Air pollution exposure could mitigate the health benefits of exercise in patients with heart failure (HF). We tested the effects of a respiratory filter on HF patients exposed to air pollution during exercise. Ancillary analysis of the FILTER-HF trial, focused on the exercise outcomes. In a randomized, double-blind, 3-way crossover design, 26 HF patients and 15 control volunteers were exposed to clean air, unfiltered dilute diesel engine exhaust (DE), or filtered DE for 6min during a submaximal cardiopulmonary testing in a controlled-exposure facility. Prospectively collected data included six-minute walking test [6mwt], VO2, VE/VCO2 Slope, O2Pulse, pulmonary ventilation [VE], tidal volume, VD/Vt, oxyhemoglobin saturation and CO2-rebreathing. Compared to clean air, DE adversely affected VO2 (11.0±3.9 vs. 8.4±2.8ml/kg/min; peffects of pollution on VO2 and O2Pulse. Given the worldwide prevalence of exposure to traffic-related air pollution, these findings are relevant for public health especially in this highly susceptible population. The filter intervention holds great promise that needs to be tested in future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aperiodic order

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Quasicrystals are non-periodic solids that were discovered in 1982 by Dan Shechtman, Nobel Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2011. The mathematics that underlies this discovery or that proceeded from it, known as the theory of Aperiodic Order, is the subject of this comprehensive multi-volume series. This second volume begins to develop the theory in more depth. A collection of leading experts, among them Robert V. Moody, cover various aspects of crystallography, generalising appropriately from the classical case to the setting of aperiodically ordered structures. A strong focus is placed upon almost periodicity, a central concept of crystallography that captures the coherent repetition of local motifs or patterns, and its close links to Fourier analysis. The book opens with a foreword by Jeffrey C. Lagarias on the wider mathematical perspective and closes with an epilogue on the emergence of quasicrystals, written by Peter Kramer, one of the founders of the field.

  13. Investigation of Resonance Effect Caused by Local Exposure of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field on Brain Signals: A Randomize Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasul Zadeh Tabataba’ei K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Some studies have investigated the effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs on brain signals, but only few of them have reported that humans exposed to magnetic fields exhibit changes in brain signals at the frequency of stimulation, i.e. resonance effect. In most investigations, researchers usually take advantage of a uniform field which encompasses the head. The aim of present study was to expose different parts of the brain to ELF-MFs locally and to investigate variation of brain signal and resonance effect.Methods: The subjects consisting of 19 male-students with the mean age of 25.6±1.6 years participated in this study. Local ELF-MFs with 3, 5, 10, 17 and 45Hz frequencies and 240 μT intensity was applied on five points (T3, T4, Cz, F3 and F4 of participants scalp Separately in 10-20 system. In the end, relative power over this points in common frequency bands and at the frequency of magnetic fields was evaluated by paired t-test.Results: Exposure of Central area by local magnetic field caused significant change (p<0.05 in the forehead alpha band. Reduction in the alpha band over central area was observed when temporal area was exposed to ELF MF.Conclusion: The results showed that resonance effect in the brain signals caused by local magnetic field exposure was not observed and change in every part of the relative power spectrum might occur. The changes in the EEG bands were not limited necessarily to the exposure point.

  14. A randomized non-inferiority clinical study to assess post-exposure prophylaxis by a new purified vero cell rabies vaccine (Rabivax-S) administered by intramuscular and intradermal routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Anuradha; Munshi, Renuka; Tripathy, Radha Madhab; Madhusudana, Shampur N; Harish, B R; Thaker, Saket; Mahendra, B J; Gunale, Bhagwat; Gogtay, Nithya J; Thatte, Urmila M; Mani, Reeta Subramaniam; Manjunath, K; George, Kuryan; Yajaman, Ashwin Belludi; Sahai, Ashish; Dhere, Rajeev M; Alex, Reginald G; Adhikari, Debasis Das; Abhilash; Raghava, Venkata; Kumbhar, Dipti; Behera, Tapas Ranjan; Kulkarni, Prasad S

    2016-09-14

    Rabies is a 100% fatal disease but preventable with vaccines and immunoglobulins. We have developed a new purified vero cell rabies vaccine (Rabivax-S) and evaluated its safety and immunogenicity in post-exposure prophylaxis by intramuscular (IM) and intradermal (ID) routes. This was a randomized active-controlled non-inferiority study in 180 individuals (age 5years and above) with suspected rabies exposure (90 each with WHO Category II and Category III exposures). The participants received either Rabivax-S (1mL IM; five doses), Rabivax-S (0.1mL ID; eight doses) or purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCEC, Rabipur®) (1mL IM; five doses). The IM doses were given on Day 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28 while the ID doses were given on days 0, 3, 7 and 28. Category III patients also received a human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG) on Day 0. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded with diary cards till day 42. Rabies neutralizing antibody levels were measured on day 0, 7, 14, 28 and 42. In both the category II and III patients, the geometric mean concentration (GMC) ratios of Rabivax-S IM and Rabivax-S ID groups to PCEC IM were more than 1, thus proving the non-inferiority. GMCs were similar or higher in Rabivax-S groups at all the time points. Seroresponse against rabies (RFFIT titre⩾0.5IU/mL) was achieved in all participants. Mostly mild local and systemic adverse events were reported across the three groups and all resolved without sequelae. Rabivax-S was well tolerated and showed immunogenicity comparable to a licensed rabies vaccine by both IM and ID routes in post-exposure prophylaxis. Registry No.: CTRI/2012/11/003135. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficacy of Aloe vera/olive oil cream versus betamethasone cream for chronic skin lesions following sulfur mustard exposure: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Davoudi, Seyyed Masoud; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Dadjo, Yahya; Feizi, Iraj; Amirchoopani, Golnoush; Zamani, Ali

    2012-06-01

    Chronic pruritic skin lesions are among the common late complications of sulfur mustard intoxication. In the present randomized double-blind clinical trial, therapeutic efficacy of Aloe vera/olive oil combination cream in the alleviation of these lesions was evaluated and compared to that of betamethasone 0.1% cream. Sixty-seven Iranian chemical warfare-injured veterans were randomized to apply A. vera/olive oil (n=34, completers=31) or betamethasone 0.1% (n=33, completers=32) cream twice daily for 6 weeks. Evaluation of pruritus severity was performed using a pruritic score questionnaire and visual analogue scale (VAS). Both treatments were associated with significant reductions in the frequency of pruritus (polive oil and betamethasone group, respectively), scaling (pskin (p0.05). Mean pruritus (p0.05). A. vera/olive oil cream was at least as effective as betamethasone 0.1% in the treatment of sulfur mustard-induced chronic skin complications and might serve as a promising therapeutic option for the alleviation of symptoms in mustard gas-exposed patients.

  16. Photodynamic therapy of actinic keratoses with 8% and 16% methyl aminolaevulinate and home-based daylight exposure: a double-blinded randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S.R.; Haedersdal, M.; Eriksen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective but time-consuming and often painful treatment for actinic keratosis (AK). Home-based daylight-PDT has the potential to facilitate treatment procedure and to reduce associated pain due to continuous activation of small amounts of porphyrins....... Moreover, a reduced methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL) concentration may reduce associated inflammation, making the treatment more tolerable for the patients. Objectives To compare response rates and adverse effects after PDT using conventional 16% and 8% MAL with home-based daylight exposure in treatment of AK....... Methods Thirty patients with mostly thin-grade AK of the face or scalp were treated with 16% and 8% MAL-PDT in two symmetrical areas after application of sunscreen. Immediately after, patients left the hospital with instructions to spend the remaining day outside at home in daylight. Patients scored pain...

  17. Prevention of Exposure Keratopathy in Critically Ill Patients: A Single-Center, Randomized, Pilot Trial Comparing Ocular Lubrication With Bandage Contact Lenses and Punctal Plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendavid, Itai; Avisar, Inbal; Serov Volach, Irena; Sternfeld, Amir; Dan Brazis, Idit; Umar, Lewaa; Yassur, Yiftach; Singer, Pierre; Cohen, Jonathan David

    2017-11-01

    To compare the effectiveness of bandage contact lenses and punctal plugs with ocular lubricants in preventing corneal damage in mechanically ventilated and sedated critically ill patients. Single-center, prospective, randomized, pilot study. Sixteen-bed, general ICU at a tertiary academic medical center. Adults admitted to the ICU and anticipated to require mechanical ventilation and continuous sedation for greater than or equal to 4 days. Patients were randomized to receive eye care with ocular lubricants (n = 38), bandage contact lenses (n = 33), or punctal plugs (n = 33). The bandage contact lenses were changed every 4 days, whereas the punctal plugs remained in situ for the entire study. The primary endpoint was the presence or absence of corneal damage as assessed by the grade of keratopathy. Patients were examined by an ophthalmologist blinded to the study group every 4 days and at the time of withdrawal from the study, due to cessation of sedation, discharge from the ICU, or death. The mean duration of the study was 8.6 ± 6.2 days. The grade of keratopathy in the ocular lubricant group increased significantly in both eyes (p = 0.01 for both eyes) while no worsening was noted in either the lens or punctal plugs groups. In a post hoc analysis of patients with an initially abnormal ophthalmic examination, significant healing of keratopathy was noted in the lens group (p = 0.02 and 0.018 for left and right eyes, respectively) and in the right eye of the plugs group (p = 0.005); no improvement was noted in the ocular lubricant group. Compared with ocular lubrication, bandage contact lenses and punctal plugs were more effective in limiting keratopathy, and their use, particularly of bandage contact lenses, was associated with significant healing of existing lesions.

  18. Sustained decreases in risk exposure and youth problem behaviors after installation of the Communities That Care prevention system in a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, J David; Oesterle, Sabrina; Brown, Eric C; Monahan, Kathryn C; Abbott, Robert D; Arthur, Michael W; Catalano, Richard F

    2012-02-01

    To test whether the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system reduced levels of risk and adolescent problem behaviors community-wide 6 years after installation of CTC and 1 year after study-provided resources ended. A community randomized trial. Twenty-four small towns in 7 states, matched within state, randomly assigned to control or intervention condition in 2003. A panel of 4407 fifth-grade students was surveyed annually through 10th grade from 2004 to 2009. A coalition of community stakeholders received training and technical assistance to install CTC, used epidemiologic data to identify elevated risk factors and depressed protective factors in the community, and implemented programs to address their community's elevated risks from a menu of tested and effective programs for youths aged 10 to 14 years, their families, and schools. Levels of risk and incidence and prevalence of tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use; delinquency; and violent behavior by grade 10. Mean levels of targeted risks increased less rapidly between grades 5 and 10 in CTC than in control communities and were significantly lower in CTC than control communities in grade 10. The incidence of delinquent behavior, alcohol use, and cigarette use and the prevalence of current cigarette use and past-year delinquent and violent behavior were significantly lower in CTC than in control communities in grade 10. Using the CTC system can produce enduring reductions in community-wide levels of risk factors and problem behaviors among adolescents beyond the years of supported implementation, potentially contributing to long-term public health benefits. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01088542.

  19. D-cycloserine does not improve but might slightly speed up the outcome of in-vivo exposure therapy in patients with severe agoraphobia and panic disorder in a randomized double blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Anja; Golfels, Fabian; Finck, Claudia; Halisch, Anna; Räth, Daniela; Plag, Jens; Ströhle, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    D-cycloserine (DCS)-augmented exposure therapy has proven efficacy in the treatment of acrophobia, social phobia, panic disorder and OCD. Here we studied whether DCS can also improve the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with agoraphobia and panic disorder. To this end, 39 patients with the diagnoses of agoraphobia and panic disorder were treated with 11 sessions of CBT including three individual in-vivo exposure sessions (flooding), augmented with either 50mg of DCS (N=20) or placebo (N=19) in a randomized double blind design. Primary outcome was the total score of the panic and agoraphobia scale. Both groups profited considerably from therapy and DCS did not significantly improve this outcome (p=0.475; η(2)p = 0.01). However, there was a statistical trend (p=0.075; η(2)p = 0.17) in the more severely ill patients that DCS accelerated symptom reduction in the primary outcome at post-therapy. No serious adverse effects occurred during the trial. We conclude that in patients with agoraphobia and panic disorder, DCS seems to lack an additional benefit to efficient cbt, probably due to a floor effect. Nonetheless, the acceleration of symptom reduction in severely ill patients might represent a valuable treatment option deserving further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A randomized study comparing the use of a pelvic lead shield during trans-radial interventions: Threefold decrease in radiation to the operator but double exposure to the patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musallam, Anees; Volis, Ina; Dadaev, Svetlana; Abergel, Eitan; Soni, Amit; Yalonetsky, Sergey; Kerner, Arthur; Roguin, Ariel

    2015-06-01

    To determine the efficacy of a 0.5-mm lead apron across the patient's abdomen in addition to standard operator protection for the reduction of scatter radiation on operator and patient radiation exposure Cardiac angiography using the radial access compared to the femoral approach is associated with reduced complication rate and improved patient comfort but has significantly increased radiation dose. Improvements in radiation protection are needed We randomly assigned 332 patients undergoing coronary angiography to a group with pelvic lead shielding and a group with standard protection. In each procedure, eight digital dosimeters were used to measure operator radiation dose [under the lead apron, outside the thyroid shield, and at the left side of the head], patient dose at the level of the umbilicus [above and beneath the lead apron], and two on the acrylic shielding and one on the image receptor to measure scattered radiation Both groups were similar in BMI, procedures performed, and number of sequences. Usage of lead shielding statistically significantly reduced the radiation dose of the operator at all three sites measured: under lead apron [all in µSv]: 0.53 ± 1.4 vs. 0.17 ± 0.6, on thyroid collar 5.9 ± 7.7 vs. 2.9 ± 3.4, and left side of head 3.3 ± 3.4 vs. 2.1 ± 2.2, Plead shield during radial angiography reduced the operator radiation exposure at multiple measurement sites. However there was an increased exposure to the patient. This balance should be further investigated before the widespread adoption of this method. . © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A serum-free, purified vero cell rabies vaccine is safe and as immunogenic as the reference vaccine Verorab for pre-exposure use in healthy adults: results from a randomized controlled phase-II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon, Sylvie; Guinet-Morlot, Françoise; Minutello, Maria; Donazzolo, Yves; Rouzier, Regine; Chassard, Didier; Fitoussi, Serge; Hou, Victor

    2013-04-26

    Verorab was licensed in 1985 for both pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis of rabies. The next generation purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV-NG) is a highly purified vaccine. We performed a phase II clinical study in adults in France to assess its immunological non-inferiority and clinical safety for pre-exposure prophylaxis. In a randomized phase-II trial, 384 healthy adult subjects were randomized (2:1) to receive a three-dose primary series of PVRV-NG or Verorab. One year later, the PVRV-NG group received a PVRV-NG booster while the Verorab group participants were randomized to receive a booster of PVRV-NG or Verorab for. Rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) were evaluated on days 0, 28 (subgroup), 42, months 6, 12 and 12+14 days. Safety was evaluated for seven days after each dose. Adverse event between doses, until 28 days after the final dose was recorded. Serious adverse events were recorded up to 6 months after the last dose. The criterion for non-inferiority was met in the per-protocol analysis set and confirmed in the full analysis set (FAS). In the FAS, 99.6% and 100% of subjects had RVNA titers ≥0.5 IU/mL in PVRV-NG and Verorab groups, respectively. While RVNA levels gradually decreased over the 12-month period, at 6 and 12 months after vaccination >89% and >77%, respectively, in both groups had RVNA titers ≥0.5 IU/mL. The PVRV-NG booster induced a strong response, irrespective of the vaccine given for the primary series. PVRV-NG was safe and well tolerated and its safety profile was similar to Verorab for unsolicited adverse events and solicited systemic reactions. The incidence of solicited injection-site reactions was lower with PVRV-NG than with Verorab after the primary series and the booster dose. PVRV-NG was shown to be at least as immunogenic as Verorab and to present a similar safety profile. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exposure Forecaster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Exposure Forecaster Database (ExpoCastDB) is EPA's database for aggregating chemical exposure information and can be used to help with chemical exposure...

  3. Challenges in higher order mode Raman amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Nielsen, Kristian; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk

    2015-01-01

    A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed......A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed...

  4. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  5. Does the therapy manual or the therapist matter most in treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder? A randomized controlled trial of exposure with response or ritual prevention in 118 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oppen, Patricia; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Smit, Johannes H; Schuurmans, Josien; van Dyck, Richard; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2010-09-01

    The importance of the therapist's education and experience for the successful behavior treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has not been investigated. Data on the relative effectiveness of self-controlled versus therapist-controlled in vivo exposure with response or ritual prevention (ERP) have yielded conflicting results. The present study compared the effectiveness of 4 different modes of delivery of ERP in a referred sample of OCD patients. Of the 146 eligible OCD outpatients, 118 patients enrolled in this randomized controlled trial and were randomly assigned to (1) therapist-controlled ERP performed by experienced behavior therapists; (2) therapist-controlled ERP performed by master's students of clinical psychology; (3) self-controlled ERP performed by experienced behavior therapists; and (4) self-controlled ERP performed by master's students of clinical psychology. This trial was performed from January 1999 to January 2005. Our analyses revealed no significant differences in clinical outcome between any of the different modes of delivery of ERP at posttreatment. The different ERP modes of delivery were associated with significant pretreatment to posttreatment improvement on all measurements, with large effect sizes on the primary outcome measure, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Our results indicate that clinically inexperienced master's students with no postgraduate training can be as capable as experienced and certified behavior therapists in treating OCD patients, as long as therapists adhere to a standardized treatment manual and adequate training and supervision is provided. In contrast to other studies, we did not find a supposed benefit of therapist-controlled ERP versus self-controlled ERP in patients with OCD. www.trialregister.nl Identifier: NTR1444. © Copyright 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  6. Random walks on random Koch curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, S; Hoffmann, K H [Institut fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Essex, C [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2009-06-05

    Diffusion processes in porous materials are often modeled as random walks on fractals. In order to capture the randomness of the materials random fractals are employed, which no longer show the deterministic self-similarity of regular fractals. Finding a continuum differential equation describing the diffusion on such fractals has been a long-standing goal, and we address the question of whether the concepts developed for regular fractals are still applicable. We use the random Koch curve as a convenient example as it provides certain technical advantages by its separation of time and space features. While some of the concepts developed for regular fractals can be used unaltered, others have to be modified. Based on the concept of fibers, we introduce ensemble-averaged density functions which produce a differentiable estimate of probability explicitly and compare it to random walk data.

  7. Healthy families: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment intervention for caregivers to reduce secondhand smoke exposure among pediatric emergency patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabee-Gittens, E Melinda; Ammerman, Robert T; Khoury, Jane C; Stone, Lara; Meyers, Gabe T; Witry, John K; Merianos, Ashley L; Mancuso, Tierney F; Stackpole, Kristin M W; Bennett, Berkeley L; Akers, Laura; Gordon, Judith S

    2017-05-02

    Involuntary exposure to secondhand smoke (SHSe) is an important cause of morbidity in children who present to the pediatric emergency department (PED) and urgent care (UC). SHSe interventions delivered in the PED and UC would benefit both the smoker and child, but there have been no large trials testing the efficacy of such interventions. The Healthy Families program is the first randomized controlled trial to test whether a screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) intervention delivered in the PED and UC will be effective in decreasing SHSe in children and increasing cessation in smokers. This trial uses a randomized, two-group design in which caregiver-smokers of children 0-17 years old are recruited from the PED and UC. Eligible caregiver-smokers are randomized to either the: 1) SBIRT Condition with face-to-face, tailored counseling that focuses on the child's illness, the importance of reducing child SHSe, caregiver smoking cessation, and the option to receive nicotine replacement therapy; or 2) Healthy Habits Control Condition which includes face-to-face, tailored attention control "5-2-1-0" counseling that focuses on improving the child's health. Dyadic assessments are conducted in-person at baseline, and via email, phone, or in-person at 6-weeks and 6-months. The primary outcomes are biochemically-verified, 7-day point prevalence and prolonged smoking abstinence. Secondary outcomes are cigarettes smoked per week, 24 h quit attempts, and biochemically validated child SHSe at each time point. The costs of this intervention will also be analyzed. This study will test an innovative, multilevel intervention designed to reduce child SHSe and increase smoking cessation in caregivers. If effective and routinely used, this SBIRT model could reach at least one million smokers a year in the U.S., resulting in significant reductions in caregivers' tobacco use, SHSe-related pediatric illness, and healthcare costs in this population of children

  8. Healthy families: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment intervention for caregivers to reduce secondhand smoke exposure among pediatric emergency patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Melinda Mahabee-Gittens

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Involuntary exposure to secondhand smoke (SHSe is an important cause of morbidity in children who present to the pediatric emergency department (PED and urgent care (UC. SHSe interventions delivered in the PED and UC would benefit both the smoker and child, but there have been no large trials testing the efficacy of such interventions. The Healthy Families program is the first randomized controlled trial to test whether a screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT intervention delivered in the PED and UC will be effective in decreasing SHSe in children and increasing cessation in smokers. Methods/design This trial uses a randomized, two-group design in which caregiver-smokers of children 0–17 years old are recruited from the PED and UC. Eligible caregiver-smokers are randomized to either the: 1 SBIRT Condition with face-to-face, tailored counseling that focuses on the child’s illness, the importance of reducing child SHSe, caregiver smoking cessation, and the option to receive nicotine replacement therapy; or 2 Healthy Habits Control Condition which includes face-to-face, tailored attention control “5–2–1-0” counseling that focuses on improving the child’s health. Dyadic assessments are conducted in-person at baseline, and via email, phone, or in-person at 6-weeks and 6-months. The primary outcomes are biochemically-verified, 7-day point prevalence and prolonged smoking abstinence. Secondary outcomes are cigarettes smoked per week, 24 h quit attempts, and biochemically validated child SHSe at each time point. The costs of this intervention will also be analyzed. Discussion This study will test an innovative, multilevel intervention designed to reduce child SHSe and increase smoking cessation in caregivers. If effective and routinely used, this SBIRT model could reach at least one million smokers a year in the U.S., resulting in significant reductions in caregivers’ tobacco use, SHSe

  9. A pilot randomized controlled trial of Dialectical Behavior Therapy with and without the Dialectical Behavior Therapy Prolonged Exposure protocol for suicidal and self-injuring women with borderline personality disorder and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, Melanie S; Korslund, Kathryn E; Linehan, Marsha M

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of integrating PTSD treatment into Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for women with borderline personality disorder, PTSD, and intentional self-injury. Participants were randomized to DBT (n=9) or DBT with the DBT Prolonged Exposure (DBT PE) protocol (n=17) and assessed at 4-month intervals during the treatment year and 3-months post-treatment. Treatment expectancies, satisfaction, and completion did not differ by condition. In DBT+DBT PE, the DBT PE protocol was feasible to implement for a majority of treatment completers. Compared to DBT, DBT+DBT PE led to larger and more stable improvements in PTSD and doubled the remission rate among treatment completers (80% vs. 40%). Patients who completed the DBT PE protocol were 2.4 times less likely to attempt suicide and 1.5 times less likely to self-injure than those in DBT. Among treatment completers, moderate to large effect sizes favored DBT+DBT PE for dissociation, trauma-related guilt cognitions, shame, anxiety, depression, and global functioning. DBT with the DBT PE protocol is feasible, acceptable, and safe to administer, and may lead to larger improvements in PTSD, intentional self-injury, and other outcomes than DBT alone. The findings require replication in a larger sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A pilot randomized controlled trial of Dialectical Behavior Therapy with and without the Dialectical Behavior Therapy Prolonged Exposure protocol for suicidal and self-injuring women with borderline personality disorder and PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, Melanie S.; Korslund, Kathryn E.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study evaluates the efficacy of integrating PTSD treatment into Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for women with borderline personality disorder, PTSD, and intentional self-injury. Methods Participants were randomized to DBT (n=9) or DBT with the DBT Prolonged Exposure (DBT PE) protocol (n=17) and assessed at 4-month intervals during the treatment year and 3-months post-treatment. Results Treatment expectancies, satisfaction, and completion did not differ by condition. In DBT + DBT PE, the DBT PE protocol was feasible to implement for a majority of treatment completers. Compared to DBT, DBT + DBT PE led to larger and more stable improvements in PTSD and doubled the remission rate among treatment completers (80% vs. 40%). Patients who completed the DBT PE protocol were 2.4 times less likely to attempt suicide and 1.5 times less likely to self-injure than those in DBT. Among treatment completers, moderate to large effect sizes favored DBT + DBT PE for dissociation, trauma-related guilt cognitions, shame, anxiety, depression, and global functioning. Conclusions DBT with the DBT PE protocol is feasible, acceptable, and safe to administer, and may lead to larger improvements in PTSD, intentional self-injury, and other outcomes than DBT alone. The findings require replication in a larger sample. PMID:24562087

  11. Design of a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy and biological mechanisms of web-prolonged exposure and present-centered therapy for PTSD among active-duty military personnel and veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Carmen P; Rauch, Sheila A M; Foa, Edna B; Sripada, Rebecca K; Tannahill, Hallie S; Mintz, Jim; Yarvis, Jeffrey; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Dondanville, Katherine A; Hall-Clark, Brittany N; Fina, Brooke A; Keane, Terence M; Peterson, Alan L

    2017-11-08

    Improved accessibility of effective and efficient evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for military personnel suffering with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an urgent need to meet the growing demand for timely care. In addition, a better understanding of the mechanism of action of behavioral therapy can inform the delivery of care to meet accessibility demands. Effective EBTs for PTSD are available, but logistical and stigma-related barriers to accessing behavioral healthcare can deter military personnel from receiving these treatments. Web-based treatments represent an innovative way to overcome these barriers. The efficacy of previously developed web-based treatments for PTSD appears promising; however, they were not developed based on treatment protocols with strong empirical support for their efficacy. No study to date has examined web-based treatment of PTSD using a well-established evidence-based treatment, nor delineated the biological mechanisms through which a web-based treatment exerts its effects. This paper describes the rationale and methods of a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy and potential biological mediators of 10 sessions of a web-version of Prolonged Exposure (PE), "Web-PE," delivered over 8weeks compared to 10 sessions of in-person Present-Centered Therapy (PCT) delivered over 8weeks by a therapist in 120 active duty military personnel and veterans with PTSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhalation exposure methodology.

    OpenAIRE

    Phalen, R F; Mannix, R C; Drew, R T

    1984-01-01

    Modern man is being confronted with an ever-increasing inventory of potentially toxic airborne substances. Exposures to these atmospheric contaminants occur in residential and commercial settings, as well as in the workplace. In order to study the toxicity of such materials, a special technology relating to inhalation exposure systems has evolved. The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of the techniques which are used in exposing laboratory subjects to airborne particles and ga...

  13. Outcomes of Direct Pulp Capping by Using Either ProRoot Mineral Trioxide Aggregate or Biodentine in Permanent Teeth with Carious Pulp Exposure in 6- to 18-Year-Old Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parinyaprom, Nuttaporn; Nirunsittirat, Areerat; Chuveera, Patchanee; Na Lampang, Sakarat; Srisuwan, Tanida; Sastraruji, Thanapat; Bua-On, Puangporn; Simprasert, Sophon; Khoipanich, Issaraporn; Sutharaphan, Thitida; Theppimarn, Suthida; Ue-Srichai, Narumol; Tangtrakooljaroen, Waritorn; Chompu-Inwai, Papimon

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the success rates of direct pulp capping (DPC) by using either ProRoot Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) or Biodentine in the cariously exposed permanent teeth of 6- to 18-year-old patients. Gray discoloration was also evaluated. Fifty-nine cariously exposed permanent teeth, including teeth with diagnosis of normal pulp, reversible pulpitis, or irreversible pulpitis, early periapical involvement, and exposure size of up to 2.5 mm, were included. Each patient with only 1 cariously exposed tooth was randomly allocated to DPC with either ProRoot MTA (n = 30) or Biodentine (n = 29). Patients were recalled every 6 months. Clinical and radiographic examinations were used to determine success. Fifty-five patients (mean age, 10 ± 2 years), 27 treated with ProRoot MTA and 28 with Biodentine, were included in the analysis. At mean follow-up of 18.9 ± 12.9 months, the success rate was 92.6% with ProRoot MTA and 96.4% with Biodentine (P > .05; difference, 4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -8% to 16%). Biodentine was non-inferior to ProRoot MTA. Failures were distributed equally in all categories of pulpal diagnosis and occurred in teeth with no periapical involvement and small exposures (0.5 mm). The survival probabilities of DPC with ProRoot MTA and Biodentine were 0.92 (95% CI, 0.73-0.98) and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.80-0.99). No significant difference was observed between them (P > .05). Gray discoloration was observed only with ProRoot MTA (55%). Biodentine was non-inferior to ProRoot MTA when used as a DPC material for cariously exposed permanent teeth of 6- to 18-year-old patients. However, Biodentine did not cause any gray discoloration in this study. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Randomized, double-blind, active-controlled study evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of three vaccination schedules and two dose levels of AV7909 vaccine for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Robert J; Kalsi, Gurdyal; Montalvo-Lugo, Victor M; Sharma, Mona; Wu, Yukun; Muse, Derek D; Sheldon, Eric A; Hampel, Frank C; Lemiale, Laurence

    2016-04-19

    AV7909 vaccine being developed for post-exposure prophylaxis of anthrax disease may require fewer vaccinations and reduced amount of antigen to achieve an accelerated immune response over BioThrax(®) (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed). A phase 2, randomized, double-blind, BioThrax vacccine-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of three intramuscular vaccination schedules and two dose levels of AV7909 in 168 healthy adults. Subjects were randomized at a 4:3:2:4:2 ratio to 5 groups: (1) AV7909 on Days 0/14; (2) AV7909 on Days 0/28; (3) AV7909 on Days 0/14/28; (4) half dose AV7909 on Days 0/14/28; and (5) BioThrax vaccine on Days 0/14/28. Vaccinations in all groups were well tolerated. The incidences of adverse events (AEs) were 79% for AV7909 subjects and 65% for BioThrax subjects; 92% of AV7909 subjects and 87% of BioThrax subjects having AEs reported Grade 1-2 AEs. No serious AEs were assessed as potentially vaccine-related, and no AEs of potential autoimmune etiology were reported. There was no discernible pattern indicative of a safety concern across groups in the incidence or severity of reactogenicity events. Groups 2-4 achieved success for the primary endpoint, demonstrated by a lower 95% confidence limit of the percentage of subjects with protective toxin neutralizing antibody NF50 values (≥0.56) to be ≥40% at Day 63. Group 1 marginally missed the criterion (lower bound 95% confidence limit of 39.5%). Immune responses were above this threshold for Groups 1, 3 and 4 at Day 28 and all groups at Day 42. Further study of an AV7909 two-dose schedule given 2 weeks apart is warranted in light of the favorable tolerability profile and immunogenicity response relative to three doses of BioThrax vaccine, as well as preliminary data from nonclinical studies indicating similar immune responses correlate with higher survival for AV7909 than BioThrax vaccine. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. To vape or not to vape? Effects of exposure to conflicting news headlines on beliefs about harms and benefits of electronic cigarette use: Results from a randomized controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy S L; Lee, Chul-Joo; Nagler, Rebekah H; Bigman, Cabral A

    2017-12-01

    News coverage of novel tobacco products including e-cigarettes has framed the use of these products with both positive and negative slants. Conflicting information may shape public knowledge, perceptions of e-cigarettes, and their harms. The objective of this study is to assess effects of exposure to conflicting news coverage on US adults' beliefs about harms and benefits of e-cigarette use. We conducted a one-way between-subjects randomized controlled experiment in 2016 to compare the effects of viewing either 1) positive, 2) negative, 3) both positive and negative (conflicting) news headlines about the safety of using e-cigarettes, or 4) no-message. Participants were 2056 adults aged 18 and older from an online survey panel. Outcomes were beliefs about harms (3-item scale, α=0.76) and benefits (3-item scale, α=0.82) of using e-cigarettes. Participants who viewed negative headlines reported increased beliefs about harms (B=0.164, p=0.039) and lower beliefs about benefits of e-cigarette use (B=-0.216, p=0.009), compared with those in the positive headlines condition. These differences were replicated in subgroup analyses among never e-cigarette users. In addition, never e-cigarette users who viewed conflicting headlines reported lower beliefs about benefits of e-cigarette use (B=-0.221, p=0.030) than the positive headlines condition. Valence of news coverage about e-cigarettes (positive, negative, or conflicting) could influence people's beliefs about harms and benefits of e-cigarette use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical trial of modulatory effects of oxytocin treatment on higher-order social cognition in autism spectrum disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind and crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preckel, Katrin; Kanske, Philipp; Singer, Tania; Paulus, Frieder M; Krach, Sören

    2016-09-21

    Autism spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental conditions with severe impairments in social communication and interaction. Pioneering research suggests that oxytocin can improve motivation, cognition and attention to social cues in patients with autism spectrum disorder. The aim of this clinical trial is to characterize basic mechanisms of action of acute oxytocin treatment on neural levels and to relate these to changes in different levels of socio-affective and -cognitive functioning. This clinical study is a randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled, multicenter functional magnetic resonance imaging study with two arms. A sample of 102 male autism spectrum disorder patients, diagnosed with Infantile Autistic Disorder (F84.0 according to ICD-10), Asperger Syndrome (F84.5 according to ICD-10), or Atypical Autism (F84.1 according to ICD-10) will be recruited and will receive oxytocin and placebo nasal spray on two different days. Autism spectrum disorder patients will be randomized to determine who receives oxytocin on the first and who on the second visit. Healthy control participants will be recruited and case-control matched to the autism spectrum disorder patients. The primary outcome will be neural network activity, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants perform socio-affective and -cognitive tasks. Behavioral markers such as theory of mind accuracy ratings and response times will be assessed as secondary outcomes in addition to physiological measures such as skin conductance. Trait measures for alexithymia, interpersonal reactivity, and social anxiety will also be evaluated. Additionally, we will analyze the effect of oxytocin receptor gene variants and how these potentially influence the primary and secondary outcome measures. Functional magnetic resonance imaging assessments will take place at two time points which will be scheduled at least two weeks apart to ensure a sufficient wash-out time after oxytocin

  17. PrEP Chicago: A randomized controlled peer change agent intervention to promote the adoption of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among young Black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lindsay E; Schumm, Phil; Alon, Leigh; Bouris, Alida; Ferreira, Matthew; Hill, Brandon; Khanna, Aditya S; Valente, Thomas W; Schneider, John A

    2018-02-01

    Advances in biomedical prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) represent a new opportunity for reducing HIV incidence among young Black men who have sex with men, for whom the number of new HIV infections continues to rise. However, studies have documented low rates of PrEP uptake in this community. Research suggests that the peer networks of young Black men who have sex with men play important roles in their sexual health decisions. PrEP Chicago is a randomized controlled trial network intervention designed to increase PrEP uptake among young Black men who have sex with men living in Chicago. The aims of this study are twofold. Aim 1 is to estimate the effectiveness of a peer change agent intervention for (1) increasing the number of referrals made to a PrEP information line, (2) increasing the rate of PrEP adoption among non-participant peers, and (3) increasing PrEP knowledge, attitudes, and intentions among participants. Aim 2 is to determine the individual and network variables that explain peer change agent effectiveness. PrEP Chicago is a social network intervention that utilizes the influence of peer change agents to link young Black men who have sex with men in Chicago to PrEP. Young Black men who have sex with men were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Once screened for eligibility, participants were randomly assigned to either one of two treatment sequences: (1) intervention treatment in Year 1 followed by a minimal contact attention control in Year 2 or (2) the minimal contact attention control in Year 1 followed by treatment in Year 2. The treatment consists of a PrEP/peer change agent training workshop followed by booster calls for 12 months. The attention control consists of a sex diary activity designed to help participants assess sexual risk. Psychosocial, sexual health, and network data are collected from all participants at baseline and at 12- and 24-month follow-ups. In total, 423 participants aged 18-35 have

  18. Occupational Exposure Assessment of Tehran Metro Drivers to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad reza Monazzam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Occupational exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields (ELF-MFs in train drivers is an integral part of the driving task and creates concern about driving jobs. The present study was designed to investigate the occupational exposure of Tehran train drivers to extremely low frequency magnetic fields. Methods: In order to measure the driver’s exposure, from each line, a random sample in AC and DC type trains was selected and measurements were done according to the IEEE std 644-1994 using a triple axis TES-394 device. Train drivers were then compared with national occupational exposure limit guidelines. Results: The maximum and minimum mean exposure was found in AC external city trains (1.2±1.5 μT and DC internal city trains (0.31±0.2 μT, respectively. The maximum and minimum exposure was 9 μT and 0.08 μT in AC trains of line 5, respectively. In the internal train line, maximum and minimum values were 5.4 μT and 0.08 μT in AC trains. Conclusions: In none of the exposure scenarios in different trains, the exposure exceeded the national or international occupational exposure limit guidelines. However, this should not be the basis of safety in these fields

  19. Virtual reality exposure on nicotine craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Baptista, André; Pereira, Edgar; Morais, Diogo; Saraiva, Tomaz; Santos, Nuno; Soares, Fábio

    2011-01-01

    Several forms of treatment for nicotine dependence that combine the classical smoking cessation strategies with new Virtual Reality (VR) exposure techniques to smoking-related cues are in development. In this line, the main goal of our study was to develop a virtual platform in order to induce cravings in smokers. Sixty undergraduate students were randomly assigned to two different virtual environments (high-arousal cues and low-arousal cues). Both environments were based on a three-room apartment with commercial music playing and virtual characters interacting in a social event. The assessment was carried out before and after exposure through psychophysiological activation and self-report data for craving and nicotine dependence levels. No statistical differences were observed between smokers and non-smokers in psychophysiological activation. As far as self-report data is concerned, smokers revealed a significant increase in craving after the VR exposure to high arousal environments. Overall results were in line with previous studies suggesting the use of virtual environments as a tool for the existing smoking cessation programs.

  20. Semen and reproductive parameters during some abstinence periods after cigarette smoke exposure in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Kimie Sankako; Patricia Carvalho Garcia; Renata Carolina Piffer; Oduvaldo Câmara Marques Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is very widespread globally and can also be implicated in male and female infertility. This study aimed to evaluate the testicular function throughout a complete spermatic cycle during abstinence from cigarette smoke exposure in order to identify a possible residual damage and whether the parameters could recover spontaneously. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and cigarette smoke-exposed (20 cigarettes/day/2 months) groups. After finishing the treatment, a...

  1. Hepatitis B virus exposure in human immunodeficiency virus seropositive Cuban patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licel Rodríguez

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the prevalence of serological markers of exposure to Hepatitis B Virus (HBV, 295 subjects were selected at random from the National Registry of human immunodeficiency virus positive subjects. Evidence of exposure to HBV was defined as: testing Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and anti-Hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc positive or anti-HBc positive only. Overall, 133 (45.5% were positive for anti-HBc and 15 (5.1% resulted positive to HBsAg. Significant statistical association was found between male sex and exposure to HBV (p<0.01. Homosexual or bisexual behavior was found to be strongly associated to HBV exposure (p<0.001. In conclusion, the prevalence of HBV serological markers is higher in Cuban HIV positive subjects compared to the Cuban general population.

  2. Semen and reproductive parameters during some abstinence periods after cigarette smoke exposure in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Kimie Sankako

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is very widespread globally and can also be implicated in male and female infertility. This study aimed to evaluate the testicular function throughout a complete spermatic cycle during abstinence from cigarette smoke exposure in order to identify a possible residual damage and whether the parameters could recover spontaneously. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and cigarette smoke-exposed (20 cigarettes/day/2 months groups. After finishing the treatment, according to the number of days after the last cigarette exposure (0, 15, 30, or 60 days, the rats were euthanized and analyzed for compromised sperm count and quality. Results showed residual damage on sperm concentration, motility and morphology; the recovery of these parameters occurred only at 60th days of abstinence. The study showed that cigarette smoke exposure damaged the semen and reproductive parameters and that the spontaneous recovery of some parameters occurred only after a complete spermatic cycle subsequent to stopping smoke exposure.

  3. Random eigenvalue problems revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The description of real-life engineering structural systems is associated with some amount of uncertainty in specifying material properties, geometric parameters, boundary conditions and applied loads. In the context of structural dynamics it is necessary to consider random eigenvalue problems in order to account for these ...

  4. Order aggressiveness and order book dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Anthony D.; Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    employing a six-dimensional autoregressive conditional intensity model. Using order book data from the Australian Stock Exchange, we find that market depth, the queued volume, the bid-ask spread, recent volatility, as well as recent changes in both the order flow and the price play an important role...

  5. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  6. [Development and verification of Chinese dietary exposure evaluation model software].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei; Li, Jing-xin; Sun, Jin-fang; Xue, Jianping; Chen, Bing-wei; Zhang, Hong; Yu, Xiao-jin; Wang, Can-nan; Yuan, Bao-jun; Ma, Yong-jian; Tian, Zi-hua

    2010-03-01

    To develop the dietary exposure evaluation model software accredited of Chinese intellectual property rights and to verify the rationality and accuracy of the results from the probabilistic model in Chinese dietary exposure evaluation model software according to international standards. The software of SAS was used to build various evaluation model based on the data from Chinese dietary survey and the chemical compound in food surveillance and to design an operation interface. The results from probabilistic dietary exposure model for children 2 - 7 years old were compared with that from duplicate portion study of 2-7 years children dietary exposure in Jinhu, Jiangsu province in order to analyze the rationality of model. The results from probabilistic model of dietary exposure were compared with the results from @Risk software to verify the correction of the probabilistic model by using the same data of randomly selected 10 000 study subjects from national dietary survey. While, the mean drift was used as an internal index to illustrate the accuracy of the computation. Chinese dietary exposure evaluation software was developed successfully. On the rationality, the results from probabilistic model were lower than that from the point estimation (e.g., cucumber: the result of point estimation of acephate was 4.78 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1), while the results of probabilistic model which was 0.39 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). Meanwhile the results from probabilistic model were higher than the results of duplicate portion study (on the P95, the result of probabilistic model of Pb exposure in children was 11.08 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1), while the results of duplicate portion study was 5.75 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). On accuracy, the results from @Risk and the probabilistic model were highly consistent (on the P95, the result of probabilistic assessment of acephate diet exposure was 4.27 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1), while the results of duplicate portion study was 4.24 microg x kg(-1

  7. Ordered Rings and Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce ordered rings and fields following Artin-Schreier’s approach using positive cones. We show that such orderings coincide with total order relations and give examples of ordered (and non ordered rings and fields. In particular we show that polynomial rings can be ordered in (at least two different ways [8, 5, 4, 9]. This is the continuation of the development of algebraic hierarchy in Mizar [2, 3].

  8. Football Banning Orders, Proportionality and Public Order

    OpenAIRE

    Stott, Clifford; Pearson, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a critical analysis of the UK legislation on football banning orders. The historical development of this legislation is outlined and concerns are raised about its impact upon civil liberties and human rights, particularly with respect to Section 14B of the Football (Disorder) Act 2000. The article then outlines a body of research on crowd psychology, public order policing and football ‘disorder’ that questions the determining role of the banning order in the reductio...

  9. Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcot, Divya K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

  10. Exposure Prophylaxis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opsig

    have the potential for exposure to infectious material, for example blood ... body fluid; wound causing bleeding and produced by sharp instrument ... Full blood count. Liver function test. Renal function test. HIV screening. Pregnancy test if EFV is considered. Two weeks. Full blood count. Liver function test. Renal function test.

  11. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  12. Random thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ajansen; kwhitefoot; panteltje1; edprochak; sudhakar, the

    2014-07-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “How to make a quantum random-number generator from a mobile phone” (16 May, http://ow.ly/xFiYc, see also p5), which describes a way of delivering random numbers by counting the number of photons that impinge on each of the individual pixels in the camera of a Nokia N9 smartphone.

  13. Exposures series

    OpenAIRE

    Stimson, Blake

    2011-01-01

    Reaktion Books’ Exposures series, edited by Peter Hamilton and Mark Haworth-Booth, is comprised of 13 volumes and counting, each less than 200 pages with 80 high-quality illustrations in color and black and white. Currently available titles include Photography and Australia, Photography and Spirit, Photography and Cinema, Photography and Literature, Photography and Flight, Photography and Egypt, Photography and Science, Photography and Africa, Photography and Italy, Photography and the USA, P...

  14. First-order inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, E.W. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-09-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result in inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. 58 refs., 3 figs.

  15. SNV's modes of ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, John; Duim, van der Rene

    2016-01-01

    This article adopts an aidnographic approach to examine how internal organizational modes of ordering have influenced tourism development practices of SNV Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV). Our research revealed six modes of ordering: administration, project management, enterprising,

  16. Inventory order crossovers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, J.

    2006-01-01

    The control policies that are used in inventory management systems assume that orders arrive in the same sequence as they were ordered. Due to changes in supply chains and markets, this assumption is no longer valid. This paper aims at providing an improved understanding of the phenomenon of order

  17. Effects of Acute Exposures to Carbon Dioxide upon Cognitive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, V. E.; Scully, R. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Lam, C. W.; Young, M.; Satish, U.; Basner, M.

    2017-01-01

    groups. Exposures occurred in the 20-foot environmental chamber in Bldg 7 at JSC. Each group was exposed to each of four concentrations of CO2 (600, 1200, 2500, and 5000 ppm), and the exposure order was balanced across the groups which were randomly assigned to 4 possible complete exposure orders. Study participants and investigators were blinded to the exposure order. Each exposure lasted 4 hours and occurred on the same day each week for 4 consecutive weeks. Testing included the Strategic Management Simulation (SMS) methodology and the Cognition battery of psychometric measures that are being utilized aboard the ISS. Subjects participated in a familiarization session one week prior to the start of exposure sessions. Each exposure session followed the schedule noted in Figure 1 below. On the morning of each exposure, subjects completed the Cognition battery in a conference room at indoor ambient CO2 levels. Subjects then entered the exposure chamber and were acclimated to the environment for 15 minutes before completing another round of the Cognition battery. After a 20 minute rest, subject completed the approx.80 minute SMS. Subjects were allowed another 20 minute rest period before completing the final Cognition test battery in the exposure chamber. Subjects then returned to the conference room where they completed one final round of Cognition. Data from both testing methodologies are currently being analyzed and will be presented. Study investigators have not yet been unblinded to the coded exposure concentrations, but preliminary results suggest differences.

  18. Perturbation Solutions for Random Linear Structural Systems subject to Random Excitation using Stochastic Differential Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köyluoglu, H.U.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    The paper deals with the first and second order statistical moments of the response of linear systems with random parameters subject to random excitation modelled as white-noise multiplied by an envelope function with random parameters. The method of analysis is basically a second order perturbat......The paper deals with the first and second order statistical moments of the response of linear systems with random parameters subject to random excitation modelled as white-noise multiplied by an envelope function with random parameters. The method of analysis is basically a second order...... for multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems and the method is illustrated for a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillator. The results are compared to those of exact results for a random oscillator subject to white noise excitation with random intensity....

  19. Universal randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Viktor S [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-31

    In the last two decades, it has been established that a single universal probability distribution function, known as the Tracy-Widom (TW) distribution, in many cases provides a macroscopic-level description of the statistical properties of microscopically different systems, including both purely mathematical ones, such as increasing subsequences in random permutations, and quite physical ones, such as directed polymers in random media or polynuclear crystal growth. In the first part of this review, we use a number of models to examine this phenomenon at a simple qualitative level and then consider the exact solution for one-dimensional directed polymers in a random environment, showing that free energy fluctuations in such a system are described by the universal TW distribution. The second part provides detailed appendix material containing the necessary mathematical background for the first part. (reviews of topical problems)

  20. Bayesian Calibration of Simultaneity in Audiovisual Temporal Order Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Miyazaki, Makoto; Iwano, Takayuki; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    After repeated exposures to two successive audiovisual stimuli presented in one frequent order, participants eventually perceive a pair separated by some lag time in the same order as occurring simultaneously (lag adaptation). In contrast, we previously found that perceptual changes occurred in the opposite direction in response to tactile stimuli, conforming to Bayesian integration theory (Bayesian calibration). We further showed, in theory, that the effect of Bayesian calibration cannot be observed when the lag adaptation was fully operational. This led to the hypothesis that Bayesian calibration affects judgments regarding the order of audiovisual stimuli, but that this effect is concealed behind the lag adaptation mechanism. In the present study, we showed that lag adaptation is pitch-insensitive using two sounds at 1046 and 1480 Hz. This enabled us to cancel lag adaptation by associating one pitch with sound-first stimuli and the other with light-first stimuli. When we presented each type of stimulus (high- or low-tone) in a different block, the point of simultaneity shifted to “sound-first” for the pitch associated with sound-first stimuli, and to “light-first” for the pitch associated with light-first stimuli. These results are consistent with lag adaptation. In contrast, when we delivered each type of stimulus in a randomized order, the point of simultaneity shifted to “light-first” for the pitch associated with sound-first stimuli, and to “sound-first” for the pitch associated with light-first stimuli. The results clearly show that Bayesian calibration is pitch-specific and is at work behind pitch-insensitive lag adaptation during temporal order judgment of audiovisual stimuli. PMID:22792297

  1. Bayesian calibration of simultaneity in audiovisual temporal order judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yamamoto

    Full Text Available After repeated exposures to two successive audiovisual stimuli presented in one frequent order, participants eventually perceive a pair separated by some lag time in the same order as occurring simultaneously (lag adaptation. In contrast, we previously found that perceptual changes occurred in the opposite direction in response to tactile stimuli, conforming to bayesian integration theory (bayesian calibration. We further showed, in theory, that the effect of bayesian calibration cannot be observed when the lag adaptation was fully operational. This led to the hypothesis that bayesian calibration affects judgments regarding the order of audiovisual stimuli, but that this effect is concealed behind the lag adaptation mechanism. In the present study, we showed that lag adaptation is pitch-insensitive using two sounds at 1046 and 1480 Hz. This enabled us to cancel lag adaptation by associating one pitch with sound-first stimuli and the other with light-first stimuli. When we presented each type of stimulus (high- or low-tone in a different block, the point of simultaneity shifted to "sound-first" for the pitch associated with sound-first stimuli, and to "light-first" for the pitch associated with light-first stimuli. These results are consistent with lag adaptation. In contrast, when we delivered each type of stimulus in a randomized order, the point of simultaneity shifted to "light-first" for the pitch associated with sound-first stimuli, and to "sound-first" for the pitch associated with light-first stimuli. The results clearly show that bayesian calibration is pitch-specific and is at work behind pitch-insensitive lag adaptation during temporal order judgment of audiovisual stimuli.

  2. Random triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Matula, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    The author summarizes some previous results concerning random triangles. He describes the Gaussian triangle and random triangles whose vertices lie in a unit n-dimensional ball, in a rectangle or in a general bounded convex set. In the second part, the author deals with an inscribed triangle in a triangle - let ABC be an equilateral triangle and let M, N, O be three points, each laying on one side of the ABC. We call MNO inscribed triangle (in an equi- laterral triangle). The median triangle ...

  3. Random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Madan Lal

    1990-01-01

    Since the publication of Random Matrices (Academic Press, 1967) so many new results have emerged both in theory and in applications, that this edition is almost completely revised to reflect the developments. For example, the theory of matrices with quaternion elements was developed to compute certain multiple integrals, and the inverse scattering theory was used to derive asymptotic results. The discovery of Selberg's 1944 paper on a multiple integral also gave rise to hundreds of recent publications. This book presents a coherent and detailed analytical treatment of random matrices, leading

  4. Passing the Baton: Community-based ethnography to design a randomized clinical trial on the effectiveness of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among Black men who have sex with men

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Jonathan; Colson, Paul W.; Parker, Caroline; Hirsch, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Although HIV interventions and clinical trials increasingly report the use of mixed methods, studies have not reported on the process through which ethnographic or qualitative findings are incorporated into RCT designs. We conducted a community-based ethnography on social and structural factors that may affect the acceptance of and adherence to oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). We then devised the treatment arm of an adherence clinical trial dr...

  5. Impact of one's own mobile phone in stand-by mode on personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinello, Damiano; Röösli, Martin

    2013-01-01

    When moving around, mobile phones in stand-by mode periodically send data about their positions. The aim of this paper is to evaluate how personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) measurements are affected by such location updates. Exposure from a mobile phone handset (uplink) was measured during commuting by using a randomized cross-over study with three different scenarios: disabled mobile phone (reference), an activated dual-band phone and a quad-band phone. In the reference scenario, uplink exposure was highest during train rides (1.19 mW/m(2)) and lowest during car rides in rural areas (0.001 mW/m(2)). In public transports, the impact of one's own mobile phone on personal RF-EMF measurements was not observable because of high background uplink radiation from other people's mobile phone. In a car, uplink exposure with an activated phone was orders of magnitude higher compared with the reference scenario. This study demonstrates that personal RF-EMF exposure is affected by one's own mobile phone in stand-by mode because of its regular location update. Further dosimetric studies should quantify the contribution of location updates to the total RF-EMF exposure in order to clarify whether the duration of mobile phone use, the most common exposure surrogate in the epidemiological RF-EMF research, is actually an adequate exposure proxy.

  6. Random packing of colloids and granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the random packing of colloids and granular matter. A random packing is a stable disordered collection of touching particles, without long-range positional and orientational order. Experimental random packings of particles with the same shape but made of different materials

  7. Motivational control of second-order conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbauer, Neil E; Balleine, Bernard W

    2005-07-01

    Two experiments examined the motivational specificity of the associations that support 2nd-order conditioning. In the 1st phase of each experiment rats were exposed to 2 visual conditioned stimuli (CSs) paired with either a saline or food pellet unconditioned stimulus (US) prior to exposure to 2nd-order conditioning using 2 auditory CSs, 1 paired with each visual CS. Rats' motivational state was then shifted prior to a test such that if and only if specific motivational features of the 1st-order training US played a role in the 2nd-order associative structure would responding to the 2nd-order cues shift appropriately with the state change. Even when the US was irrelevant to the training motivational state, shifts in state revealed that it was encoded within the associative structure supporting 2nd-order responding. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Fractional-order devices

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Karabi; Caponetto, Riccardo; Mendes Lopes, António; Tenreiro Machado, José António

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on two specific areas related to fractional order systems – the realization of physical devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, usually called fractional-order elements (FOEs); and the characterization of vegetable tissues via electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) – and provides readers with new tools for designing new types of integrated circuits. The majority of the book addresses FOEs. The interest in these topics is related to the need to produce “analogue” electronic devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, and to the characterization of natural phenomena, which are systems with memory or aftereffects and for which the fractional-order calculus tool is the ideal choice for analysis. FOEs represent the building blocks for designing and realizing analogue integrated electronic circuits, which the authors believe hold the potential for a wealth of mass-market applications. The freedom to choose either an integer- or non-integer-order analogue integrator...

  9. Order Management - Today's focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Ari

    1996-01-01

    Small and mid-range companies throughout the world have moved towards customer-specific production during the last few years, but often, the order flow has not changed to meet new demands. Customer orders pass through a laarge number of departments, such as sales, construction, pre-production, pu......Small and mid-range companies throughout the world have moved towards customer-specific production during the last few years, but often, the order flow has not changed to meet new demands. Customer orders pass through a laarge number of departments, such as sales, construction, pre...

  10. Order in Chaos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bertel Teilfeldt; Olsen, Asmus Leth

    2014-01-01

    Ballot order effects are well documented in established democracies, but less so in fragile post-conflict settings. We test for the presence of ballot order effects in the 2010 parliamentary election in Afghanistan. Turning out for the 2010 election was a potentially life-threatening endeavor...... for the Afghan voter. The election provides a first look at ballot order effects in a high stakes, post-conflict setting. In this setting limited cognitive skills and information are more likely explanations of potential ballot order effects than mechanisms of lacking of effort or ambivalence of choice...

  11. Protein domain organisation: adding order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummerfeld Sarah K

    2009-01-01

    degree of clustering and more domain pairs in forward and reverse orientation in different proteins relative to random graphs with identical degree distributions. While these features were statistically over-represented, they are still fairly rare. Looking in detail at the proteins involved, we found strong functional relationships within each cluster. In addition, the domains tended to be involved in protein-protein interaction and are able to function as independent structural units. A particularly striking example was the human Jak-STAT signalling pathway which makes use of a set of domains in a range of orders and orientations to provide nuanced signaling functionality. This illustrated the importance of functional and structural constraints (or lack thereof on domain organisation.

  12. Noise Exposure of School Teachers – Exposure Levels and Health Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Mirakovski, Dejan; Zdravkovska, Milka; Angelovska, Bistra; Doneva, Nikolinka

    2013-01-01

    Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences and Faculty of Medical Sciences starting from December 2012, launched joint study in order to investigate personal noise exposure and associated health effects in general school teachers population, starting from kindergartens up to high schools in Stip, Macedonia. In order to determine workplace associated noise exposure and associated health effects in this specific profession, a full shift noise exposure of 40 teachers from 1 kindergart...

  13. THE ENIGMATIC ORDER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and SADF Champion. Shot. Medal. The continually evolving character of the Order is, to reiterate, rooted in the lack of a firm historical foundation. Thus, any discussion of the Order of the. Star of South Africa must first examine ... case of their religious ancestors, gener- ally had a patron saint and sought pa- pal confirmation.

  14. Put order picking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević Dragan D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the warehouse is very important logistic component of the supply chain, where order-picking systems have important role. Due to the significant impact on logistics performance permanent goals are to increase efficiency and reduce the cost of these systems. To achieve these goals, there are different researches, and their success is determined by the achieved performances. Performances order picking process are dependent on the applied technology concepts of order-picking system, as well as the ways in which it is organized and managed. In addition to the standard conceptions (the man to good and good to the man is one of the newer, so-called. 'put' system - the inverse order-picking. The aim of this paper is to describe this concept, point out its core strengths and weaknesses and provide a basis that may be of importance in the development of warehouse technological solutions and application of this order-picking systems concept.

  15. A paediatric X-ray exposure chart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Stephen P, E-mail: stephen.knight@health.qld.gov.au [Department of Medical Imaging, Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this review was to develop a radiographic optimisation strategy to make use of digital radiography (DR) and needle phosphor computerised radiography (CR) detectors, in order to lower radiation dose and improve image quality for paediatrics. This review was based on evidence-based practice, of which a component was a review of the relevant literature. The resulting exposure chart was developed with two distinct groups of exposure optimisation strategies – body exposures (for head, trunk, humerus, femur) and distal extremity exposures (elbow to finger, knee to toe). Exposure variables manipulated included kilovoltage peak (kVp), target detector exposure and milli-ampere-seconds (mAs), automatic exposure control (AEC), additional beam filtration, and use of antiscatter grid. Mean dose area product (DAP) reductions of up to 83% for anterior–posterior (AP)/posterior–anterior (PA) abdomen projections were recorded postoptimisation due to manipulation of multiple-exposure variables. For body exposures, the target EI and detector exposure, and thus the required mAs were typically 20% less postoptimisation. Image quality for some distal extremity exposures was improved by lowering kVp and increasing mAs around constant entrance skin dose. It is recommended that purchasing digital X-ray equipment with high detective quantum efficiency detectors, and then optimising the exposure chart for use with these detectors is of high importance for sites performing paediatric imaging. Multiple-exposure variables may need to be manipulated to achieve optimal outcomes.

  16. Random walks in a random environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Random walks as well as diffusions in random media are considered. Methods are developed that allow one to establish large deviation results for both the 'quenched' and the 'averaged' case. Keywords. Large deviations; random walks in a random environment. 1. Introduction. A random walk on Zd is a stochastic ...

  17. A randomized, multicentre study of directed daylight exposure times of 11/2 vs. 21/2 h in daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolaevulinate in patients with multiple thin actinic keratoses of the face and scalp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S.R.; Fabricius, S.; Philipsen, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are common dysplastic skin lesions that may differentiate into invasive squamous cell carcinomas. Although a superior cosmetic outcome of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is advantageous compared with equally effective treatments such as cryotherapy and curettage......, the inconvenience of clinic attendance and discomfort during therapy are significant drawbacks. Daylight-mediated PDT could potentially reduce these and may serve as an alternative to conventional PDT. Objectives: To compare the efficacy of methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL)-PDT with 11/2 vs. 21/2 h of daylight exposure......, time of day or time of year during which the treatment was performed. Treatment was well tolerated, with a mean ± SD maximal pain score of 1·3 ± 1·5. Conclusions: Daylight-mediated MAL-PDT is an effective, convenient and nearly pain-free treatment for patients with multiple thin AKs. Daylight...

  18. Order of blood draw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornes, Michael; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée; Grankvist, Kjell

    2017-01-01

    , CLSI) guidelines recommend that the order of draw of blood during phlebotomy should be blood culture/sterile tubes, then plain tubes/gel tubes, then tubes containing additives. This prevents contamination of sample tubes with additives from previous tubes that could cause erroneous results. There have...... Medicine Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase (EFLM WG-PRE) provides an overview and summary of the literature with regards to order of draw in venous blood collection. Given the evidence presented in this article, the EFLM WG-PRE herein concludes that a significant frequency of sample contamination...... does occur if order of draw is not followed during blood collection and when performing venipuncture under less than ideal circumstances, thus putting patient safety at risk. Moreover, given that order of draw is not difficult to follow and knowing that ideal phlebotomy conditions and protocols...

  19. Ordered groups and topology

    CERN Document Server

    Clay, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with the connections between topology and ordered groups. It begins with a self-contained introduction to orderable groups and from there explores the interactions between orderability and objects in low-dimensional topology, such as knot theory, braid groups, and 3-manifolds, as well as groups of homeomorphisms and other topological structures. The book also addresses recent applications of orderability in the studies of codimension-one foliations and Heegaard-Floer homology. The use of topological methods in proving algebraic results is another feature of the book. The book was written to serve both as a textbook for graduate students, containing many exercises, and as a reference for researchers in topology, algebra, and dynamical systems. A basic background in group theory and topology is the only prerequisite for the reader.

  20. Second order Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Espin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known, though not commonly, that one can describe fermions using a second order in derivatives Lagrangian instead of the first order Dirac one. In this description the propagator is scalar, and the complexity is shifted to the vertex, which contains a derivative operator. In this paper we rewrite the Lagrangian of the fermionic sector of the Standard Model in such second order form. The new Lagrangian is extremely compact, and is obtained from the usual first order Lagrangian by integrating out all primed (or dotted 2-component spinors. It thus contains just half of the 2-component spinors that appear in the usual Lagrangian, which suggests a new perspective on unification. We sketch a natural in this framework SU(2×SU(4⊂SO(9 unified theory.

  1. Mathematics of aperiodic order

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Daniel; Savinien, Jean

    2015-01-01

    What is order that is not based on simple repetition, that is, periodicity? How must atoms be arranged in a material so that it diffracts like a quasicrystal? How can we describe aperiodically ordered systems mathematically? Originally triggered by the – later Nobel prize-winning – discovery of quasicrystals, the investigation of aperiodic order has since become a well-established and rapidly evolving field of mathematical research with close ties to a surprising variety of branches of mathematics and physics. This book offers an overview of the state of the art in the field of aperiodic order, presented in carefully selected authoritative surveys. It is intended for non-experts with a general background in mathematics, theoretical physics or computer science, and offers a highly accessible source of first-hand information for all those interested in this rich and exciting field. Topics covered include the mathematical theory of diffraction, the dynamical systems of tilings or Delone sets, their cohomolog...

  2. The Order of Preachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fenelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This review article offers a brief introduction to the birth and development of the Order of Preachers during the Middle Ages along with a selective description of bibliographic sources and electronic resources.

  3. Protective effects of quercetine on the neuronal injury in frontal cortex after chronic toluene exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Mehmet

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was designed to evaluate the possible protective effects of quercetine (QE) on the neuronal injury in the frontal cortex after chronic toluene exposure in rats. The rats were randomly allotted into one of the three experimental groups, namely, groups A (control), B (toluene treated) and C (toluene-treated with QE), where each group contains 10 animals. Control group received 1 ml of normal saline solution, and toluene treatment was performed by the inhalation of 3000 ppm toluene in an 8-h/day and 6-day/week order for 12 weeks. The rats in QE-treated group was given QE (15 mg/kg body weight) once a day intraperitoneally for 12 weeks, starting just after toluene exposure. Tissue samples were obtained for histopathological investigation. To date, no histopathological changes of neurodegeneration in the frontal cortex after chronic toluene exposure in rats by QE treatment have been reported. In this study, the morphology of neurons in the QE treatment group was well protected. Chronic toluene exposure caused severe degenerative changes, shrunken cytoplasm and extensively dark picnotic nuclei in neurons of the frontal cortex. We conclude that QE therapy causes morphologic improvement in neurodegeneration of frontal cortex after chronic toluene exposure in rats. We believe that further preclinical research into the utility of QE may indicate its usefulness as a potential treatment on neurodegeneration after chronic toluene exposure in rats.

  4. Orderly Sovereign Debt Restructuring

    OpenAIRE

    Canuto,Otaviano; Pinto, Brian; Prasad, Mona

    2014-01-01

    An orderly sovereign debt restructuring should place the debtor nation's public debt on a sustainable trajectory while minimizing procrastination and contagion. However, the experiences with the debt crisis of the 1980s, Russia 1998, Argentina 2001, and Greece 2010 indicate that orderly debt restructurings remain elusive, even with high-powered official intervention. When solvency problems are present, the chances of success increase if official money is lent at the risk-free rate, reflecting...

  5. 'Good Order and Police'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mührmann-Lund, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    that ‘good order and police’ was in demand by the subjects and also adapted to local needs. Inspired by this research this article investigates the enforcement of police ordinances in the market towns of Aalborg and Sæby and the country district of Børglum-Jerslev. The results show that policing remained...... of governing, ‘police’ was both a way both to govern free burghers and preserve traditional order....

  6. Urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Saudi Arabian schoolchildren in relation to sources of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Mansour A; Alam, Mohammed S; Stark, Christopher; Mohammed, Nuredin; Harrison, Roy M; Shamy, Magdy; Khoder, Mamdouh I; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I; Göen, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contain a number of known carcinogenic compounds, and urinary biomarkers have been widely used as a measure of exposure but quantitative relationships with exposure variables have proved elusive. This study aimed to quantify the relationship between exposures to phenanthrene and pyrene from atmospheric and dietary sources with the excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene and hydroxyphenanthrenes in urine as biomarkers of exposure. The study population consisted of 204 male schoolchildren attending three schools in different parts of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia who provided urine samples on each of three consecutive days. Outdoor air measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were made at the schools and the children provided information on diet, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and incense, and various lifestyle factors through a questionnaire. Mixed models with random effects for subjects nested within site were fitted in order to examine the relationship between exposure variables and urinary PAH metabolites. A unit increase (1 ng m(-3)) in ambient pyrene (particulate plus gaseous phase) was associated with a 3.5% (95% CI: 1.01%, 5.13%) increase in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration. A unit increase in ambient phenanthrene was associated with a 1.01% (95% CI: 0.03%, 2.02%) increase in total hydroxyphenanthrene concentrations. Consumption of chargrilled food increased the 1-hydroxypyrene and hydroxyphenanthrene concentrations by 24% (95% CI: 11%, 37%) and 17% (95% CI: 8%, 26%) respectively. We did not find evidence of association for environmental tobacco smoke exposure or incense burning. It is concluded that both respiratory exposure and consumption of chargrilled food are considerable sources of PAH exposure in this population as reflected by concentrations of urinary biomarkers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Between-User Reliability of Tier 1 Exposure Assessment Tools Used Under REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Judith; Galea, Karen S; Miller, Brian G; Hesse, Susanne; Van Tongeren, Martie

    2017-10-01

    When applying simple screening (Tier 1) tools to estimate exposure to chemicals in a given exposure situation under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of CHemicals Regulation 2006 (REACH), users must select from several possible input parameters. Previous studies have suggested that results from exposure assessments using expert judgement and from the use of modelling tools can vary considerably between assessors. This study aimed to investigate the between-user reliability of Tier 1 tools. A remote-completion exercise and in person workshop were used to identify and evaluate tool parameters and factors such as user demographics that may be potentially associated with between-user variability. Participants (N = 146) generated dermal and inhalation exposure estimates (N = 4066) from specified workplace descriptions ('exposure situations') and Tier 1 tool combinations (N = 20). Interactions between users, tools, and situations were investigated and described. Systematic variation associated with individual users was minor compared with random between-user variation. Although variation was observed between choices made for the majority of input parameters, differing choices of Process Category ('PROC') code/activity descriptor and dustiness level impacted most on the resultant exposure estimates. Exposure estimates ranging over several orders of magnitude were generated for the same exposure situation by different tool users. Such unpredictable between-user variation will reduce consistency within REACH processes and could result in under-estimation or overestimation of exposure, risking worker ill-health or the implementation of unnecessary risk controls, respectively. Implementation of additional support and quality control systems for all tool users is needed to reduce between-assessor variation and so ensure both the protection of worker health and avoidance of unnecessary business risk management expenditure. © The Author 2017. Published

  8. Metaheuristic approaches to order sequencing on a unidirectional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the sequencing of orders on a unidirectional picking line is considered. The aim of the order sequencing is to minimise the number of cycles travelled by a picker within the picking line to complete all orders. A tabu search, simulated annealing, genetic algorithm, generalised extremal optimisation and a random ...

  9. 22 CFR 42.54 - Order of consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND...(b) in order to apply formally for a visa as follows: (1) In the chronological order of the priority...); and (2) In the random order established by the Secretary of State for each region for the fiscal year...

  10. On the limit distribution of lower extreme generalized order statistics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a wide subclass of generalized order statistics ( g O s ) , which contains most of the known and important models of ordered random variables, weak convergence of lower extremes are developed. A recent result of extreme value theory of m − g O s (as well as the classical extreme value theory of ordinary order statistics) ...

  11. Random tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2017-01-01

    Written by the creator of the modern theory of random tensors, this book is the first self-contained introductory text to this rapidly developing theory. Starting from notions familiar to the average researcher or PhD student in mathematical or theoretical physics, the book presents in detail the theory and its applications to physics. The recent detections of the Higgs boson at the LHC and gravitational waves at LIGO mark new milestones in Physics confirming long standing predictions of Quantum Field Theory and General Relativity. These two experimental results only reinforce today the need to find an underlying common framework of the two: the elusive theory of Quantum Gravity. Over the past thirty years, several alternatives have been proposed as theories of Quantum Gravity, chief among them String Theory. While these theories are yet to be tested experimentally, key lessons have already been learned. Whatever the theory of Quantum Gravity may be, it must incorporate random geometry in one form or another....

  12. Can we apply the Mendelian randomization methodology without considering epigenetic effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmaus Wilfried

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Instrumental variable (IV methods have been used in econometrics for several decades now, but have only recently been introduced into the epidemiologic research frameworks. Similarly, Mendelian randomization studies, which use the IV methodology for analysis and inference in epidemiology, were introduced into the epidemiologist's toolbox only in the last decade. Analysis Mendelian randomization studies using instrumental variables (IVs have the potential to avoid some of the limitations of observational epidemiology (confounding, reverse causality, regression dilution bias for making causal inferences. Certain limitations of randomized controlled trials, such as problems with generalizability, feasibility and ethics for some exposures, and high costs, also make the use of Mendelian randomization in observational studies attractive. Unlike conventional randomized controlled trials (RCTs, Mendelian randomization studies can be conducted in a representative sample without imposing any exclusion criteria or requiring volunteers to be amenable to random treatment allocation. Within the last decade, epigenetics has gained recognition as an independent field of study, and appears to be the new direction for future research into the genetics of complex diseases. Although previous articles have addressed some of the limitations of Mendelian randomization (such as the lack of suitable genetic variants, unreliable associations, population stratification, linkage disequilibrium (LD, pleiotropy, developmental canalization, the need for large sample sizes and some potential problems with binary outcomes, none has directly characterized the impact of epigenetics on Mendelian randomization. The possibility of epigenetic effects (non-Mendelian, heritable changes in gene expression not accompanied by alterations in DNA sequence could alter the core instrumental variable assumptions of Mendelian randomization. This paper applies conceptual

  13. Random functions and turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Panchev, S

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 32: Random Functions and Turbulence focuses on the use of random functions as mathematical methods. The manuscript first offers information on the elements of the theory of random functions. Topics include determination of statistical moments by characteristic functions; functional transformations of random variables; multidimensional random variables with spherical symmetry; and random variables and distribution functions. The book then discusses random processes and random fields, including stationarity and ergodicity of random

  14. The relation between actual exposure to political violence and preparatory intervention for exposure to media coverage of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat; Baumgarten-Katz, Inbar

    2008-07-01

    This laboratory study examined differential effects of television broadcasts of terrorism on viewers' anxiety according to their actual exposure history, and differential efficacy of a preparatory intervention in moderating elevated anxiety for high or low actual exposure. Participants were 80 young Israeli adults, randomly allocated to a terrorism or non-terrorism media broadcast, and for each type of exposure, to a preparatory or control intervention. Actual political violence and terrorism exposure history was assessed, and anxiety measured explicitly and indirectly prior and subsequent to the intervention and media exposure manipulation. Results showed that in the terrorism media exposure, participants with high more than low actual political life events (PLE) exposure showed higher post-test levels of indirectly measured anxiety. Clinical intervention before the terrorism media exposure moderated indirectly measured anxiety among participants with high PLE exposure, but increased anxiety for low PLE. Findings outline preparatory measures that could maximize coping for the high PLE actual exposure at-risk sector.

  15. A multi-site single blind clinical study to compare the effects of prolonged exposure, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and waiting list on patients with a current diagnosis of psychosis and co morbid post traumatic stress disorder: study protocol for the randomized controlled trial Treating Trauma in Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bont, Paul A J M; van den Berg, David P G; van der Vleugel, Berber M; de Roos, Carlijn; Mulder, Cornelis L; Becker, Eni S; de Jongh, Ad; van der Gaag, Mark; van Minnen, Agnes

    2013-05-23

    Trauma contributes to psychosis and in psychotic disorders post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often a comorbid disorder. A problem is that PTSD is underdiagnosed and undertreated in people with psychotic disorders. This study's primary goal is to examine the efficacy and safety of prolonged exposure and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for PTSD in patients with both psychotic disorders and PTSD, as compared to a waiting list. Secondly, the effects of both treatments are determined on (a) symptoms of psychosis, in particular verbal hallucinations, (b) depression and social performance, and (c) economic costs. Thirdly, goals concern links between trauma exposure and psychotic symptomatology and the prevalence of exposure to traumatic events, and of PTSD. Fourthly predictors, moderators, and mediators for treatment success will be explored. These include cognitions and experiences concerning treatment harm, credibility and burden in both participants and therapists. A short PTSD-screener assesses the possible presence of PTSD in adult patients (21- to 65- years old) with psychotic disorders, while the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale interview will be used for the diagnosis of current PTSD. The M.I.N.I. Plus interview will be used for diagnosing lifetime psychotic disorders and mood disorders with psychotic features. The purpose is to include consenting participants (N = 240) in a multi-site single blind randomized clinical trial. Patients will be allocated to one of three treatment conditions (N = 80 each): prolonged exposure or EMDR (both consisting of eight weekly sessions of 90 minutes each) or a six-month waiting list. All participants are subjected to blind assessments at pre-treatment, two months post treatment, and six months post treatment. In addition, participants in the experimental conditions will have assessments at mid treatment and at 12 months follow-up. The results from the post treatment measurement can be considered

  16. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Risal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10 generated. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527 was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47 and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110. Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7% among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Conclusions: Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order.

  17. Birth order and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-07-01

    Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10) generated. SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527) was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47) and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110). Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7%) among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order.

  18. SEROLOGIC EVALUATION OF HUMAN MICROCYSTIN EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Microcystins (MCYST) are among the most commonly detected toxins associated with cyanobacteria blooms worldwide. Biological evidence of human exposure is needed in order to evaluate potential MCYST-associated health effects. MCYST are detectable in free and bound fo...

  19. Alzheimer random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odagaki, Takashi; Kasuya, Keisuke

    2017-09-01

    Using the Monte Carlo simulation, we investigate a memory-impaired self-avoiding walk on a square lattice in which a random walker marks each of sites visited with a given probability p and makes a random walk avoiding the marked sites. Namely, p = 0 and p = 1 correspond to the simple random walk and the self-avoiding walk, respectively. When p> 0, there is a finite probability that the walker is trapped. We show that the trap time distribution can well be fitted by Stacy's Weibull distribution b(a/b){a+1}/{b}[Γ({a+1}/{b})]-1x^a\\exp(-a/bx^b)} where a and b are fitting parameters depending on p. We also find that the mean trap time diverges at p = 0 as p- α with α = 1.89. In order to produce sufficient number of long walks, we exploit the pivot algorithm and obtain the mean square displacement and its Flory exponent ν(p) as functions of p. We find that the exponent determined for 1000 step walks interpolates both limits ν(0) for the simple random walk and ν(1) for the self-avoiding walk as [ ν(p) - ν(0) ] / [ ν(1) - ν(0) ] = pβ with β = 0.388 when p ≪ 0.1 and β = 0.0822 when p ≫ 0.1. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Continuous Time Random Walk Still Trendy: Fifty-year History, Current State and Outlook", edited by Ryszard Kutner and Jaume Masoliver.

  20. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy integrated with systematic desensitization, cognitive behavioral therapy combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy combined with virtual reality exposure therapy methods in the treatment of flight anxiety: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triscari, Maria Teresa; Faraci, Palmira; Catalisano, Dario; D'Angelo, Valerio; Urso, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare the effectiveness of the following treatment methods for fear of flying: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) integrated with systematic desensitization, CBT combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and CBT combined with virtual reality exposure therapy. Overall, our findings have proven the efficacy of all interventions in reducing fear of flying in a pre- to post-treatment comparison. All groups showed a decrease in flight anxiety, suggesting the efficiency of all three treatments in reducing self-report measures of fear of flying. In particular, our results indicated significant improvements for the treated patients using all the treatment programs, as shown not only by test scores but also by participation in the post-treatment flight. Nevertheless, outcome measures maintained a significant effect at a 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, combining CBT with both the application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment and the virtual stimuli used to expose patients with aerophobia seemed as efficient as traditional cognitive behavioral treatments integrated with systematic desensitization.

  1. Passing the baton: Community-based ethnography to design a randomized clinical trial on the effectiveness of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among Black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jonathan; Colson, Paul W; Parker, Caroline; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2015-11-01

    Although HIV interventions and clinical trials increasingly report the use of mixed methods, studies have not reported on the process through which ethnographic or qualitative findings are incorporated into RCT designs. We conducted a community-based ethnography on social and structural factors that may affect the acceptance of and adherence to oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). We then devised the treatment arm of an adherence clinical trial drawing on findings from the community-based ethnography. This article describes how ethnographic findings informed the RCT and identifies distilled themes and findings that could be included as part of an RCT. The enhanced intervention includes in-person support groups, online support groups, peer navigation, and text message reminders. By describing key process-related facilitators and barriers to conducting meaningful mixed methods research, we provide important insights for the practice of designing clinical trials for 'real-world' community settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nuclear order in copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annila, A.J.; Clausen, K.N.; Lindgård, P-A.

    1990-01-01

    A new ordering vector k=(2π/a)(0, 2/3, 2/3) for fcc antiferromagnets has been found by neutron-diffraction experiments at nanokelvin temperatures in the nuclear-spin system of a 65Cu single crystal. The corresponding reflection together with the previously observed (100) Bragg peak show the prese......A new ordering vector k=(2π/a)(0, 2/3, 2/3) for fcc antiferromagnets has been found by neutron-diffraction experiments at nanokelvin temperatures in the nuclear-spin system of a 65Cu single crystal. The corresponding reflection together with the previously observed (100) Bragg peak show...

  3. Solution Methods for Structures with Random Properties Subject to Random Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. U.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Cakmak, A. S.

    This paper deals with the lower order statistical moments of the response of structures with random stiffness and random damping properties subject to random excitation. The arising stochastic differential equations (SDE) with random coefficients are solved by two methods, a second order...... perturbation approach and a Markovian method. The second order perturbation approach is grounded on the total probability theorem and can be compactly written. Moreover, the problem to be solved is independent of the dimension of the random variables involved. The Markovian approach suggests transforming...... the SDE with random coefficients with deterministic initial conditions to an equivalent nonlinear SDE with deterministic coefficient and random initial conditions. In both methods, the statistical moment equations are used. Hierarchy of statistical moments in the markovian approach is closed...

  4. The 'final order' problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, RH; Haneveld, WKK

    1998-01-01

    When the service department of a company selling machines stops producing and supplying spare parts for certain machines, customers are offered an opportunity to place a so-called final order for these spare parts. We focus on one customer with one machine. The customer plans to use this machine up

  5. Land and World Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines…

  6. Order of blood draw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornes, Michael; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée; Grankvist, Kjell

    2017-01-01

    been a number of studies recently looking at whether order of draw remains a problem with modern phlebotomy techniques and materials, or it is an outdated practice followed simply because of historical reasons. In the following article, the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory...

  7. Orbital ordering and frustrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khomskii, D.I.; Mostovoy, M.V.

    2003-01-01

    Orbital ordering occurs in many transition metal compounds with Jahn–Teller ions (Cu2+, Mn3+, low-spin Ni3+, Ti3+ etc). It plays an important role in these materials. At the same time, exchange interactions in orbitally degenerate systems are inherently frustrated, even in materials with simple

  8. Birth Order Debate Resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques Rodgers et al.'s June 2000 research on the relation between birth order and intelligence, which suggests that it is a methodological illusion. Explains how the intellectual environment and the teaching function (whereby older children tutor younger ones) contribute to the growth of intellectual maturity, the first negatively and the…

  9. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of higher-order inheritance hierarchies. They are useful because they provide well-known benefits of object-orientation at the level of entire hierarchies-benefits which are not available with current approaches. Three facets must be adressed: First, it must...

  10. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  11. Infinitely robust order and local order-parameter tulips in Apollonian networks with quenched disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, C. Nadir; Hinczewski, Michael; Berker, A. Nihat

    2009-06-01

    For a variety of quenched random spin systems on an Apollonian network, including ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic bond percolation and the Ising spin glass, we find the persistence of ordered phases up to infinite temperature over the entire range of disorder. We develop a renormalization-group technique that yields highly detailed information, including the exact distributions of local magnetizations and local spin-glass order parameters, which turn out to exhibit, as function of temperature, complex and distinctive tulip patterns.

  12. Estimating ordered categorical variables using panel data: a generalized ordered probit model with an autofit procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Pfarr, Christian; Schmid, Andreas; Schneider, Udo

    2010-01-01

    Estimation procedures for ordered categories usually assume that the estimated coefficients of independent variables do not vary between the categories (parallel-lines assumption). This view neglects possible heterogeneous effects of some explaining factors. This paper describes the use of an autofit option for identifying variables that meet the parallel-lines assumption when estimating a random effects generalized ordered probit model. We combine the test procedure developed by Richard Will...

  13. A prospective, randomized, fellow eye comparison of WaveLight® Allegretto Wave® Eye-Q versus VISX CustomVue™ STAR S4 IR™ in laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK: analysis of visual outcomes and higher order aberrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshirfar M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar1, Brent S Betts2, Daniel S Churgin3, Maylon Hsu1, Marcus Neuffer1, Shameema Sikder4, Dane Church5, Mark D Mifflin11John A Moran Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3University of Arizona College of Medicine – Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 4Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USAPurpose: To compare outcomes in visual acuity, refractive error, higher-order aberrations (HOAs, contrast sensitivity, and dry eye in patients undergoing laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK using wavefront (WF guided VISX CustomVue and WF optimized WaveLight Allegretto platforms.Methods: In this randomized, prospective, single-masked, fellow eye study, LASIK was performed on 44 eyes (22 patients, with one eye randomized to WaveLight Allegretto, and the fellow eye receiving VISX CustomVue. Postoperative outcome measures at 3 months included uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, refractive error, root-mean-square (RMS value of total and grouped HOAs, contrast sensitivity, and Schirmers testing.Results: Mean values for UDVA (logMAR were -0.067 ± 0.087 and -0.073 ± 0.092 in the WF optimized and WF guided groups, respectively (P = 0.909. UDVA of 20/20 or better was achieved in 91% of eyes undergoing LASIK with both lasers while UDVA of 20/15 or better was achieved in 64% of eyes using the Allegretto platform, and 59% of eyes using VISX CustomVue (P = 1.000. In the WF optimized group, total HOA increased 4% (P = 0.012, coma increased 11% (P = 0.065, and spherical aberration increased 19% (P = 0.214, while trefoil decreased 5% (P = 0.490. In the WF guided group, total HOA RMS decreased 9% (P = 0.126, coma decreased 18% (P = 0.144, spherical aberration decreased 27% (P = 0.713 and trefoil

  14. Assessment of Bagging Operators Exposure to with PVC Airborne Particulates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asilian, H; Nasseri Nejad, M; Mortazavi, S. B; Jafari, M. J; Khavanin, A; Dehdashti, A. R

    2008-01-01

    .... This field study wasconducted to evaluate the occupational exposure of packaging operators to airborne polyvinyl chloridedust in order to health risk assessment and recommend feasible controlling methods...

  15. Self-correcting random number generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humble, Travis S.; Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-09-06

    A system and method for generating random numbers. The system may include a random number generator (RNG), such as a quantum random number generator (QRNG) configured to self-correct or adapt in order to substantially achieve randomness from the output of the RNG. By adapting, the RNG may generate a random number that may be considered random regardless of whether the random number itself is tested as such. As an example, the RNG may include components to monitor one or more characteristics of the RNG during operation, and may use the monitored characteristics as a basis for adapting, or self-correcting, to provide a random number according to one or more performance criteria.

  16. Tailored Random Graph Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, E. S.; Annibale, A.; Coolen, A. C. C.

    2013-02-01

    Tailored graph ensembles are a developing bridge between biological networks and statistical mechanics. The aim is to use this concept to generate a suite of rigorous tools that can be used to quantify and compare the topology of cellular signalling networks, such as protein-protein interaction networks and gene regulation networks. We calculate exact and explicit formulae for the leading orders in the system size of the Shannon entropies of random graph ensembles constrained with degree distribution and degree-degree correlation. We also construct an ergodic detailed balance Markov chain with non-trivial acceptance probabilities which converges to a strictly uniform measure and is based on edge swaps that conserve all degrees. The acceptance probabilities can be generalized to define Markov chains that target any alternative desired measure on the space of directed or undirected graphs, in order to generate graphs with more sophisticated topological features.

  17. Occupational sun exposure and mycosis fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria M.; Olsen, Jorn; Johansen, Preben

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the association between occupational sun exposure and mycosis fungoides (MF), a peripheral T-cell lymphoma. SUBJECTS and METHODS: A European multicenter case-control study including seven rare cases (one being MF) was conducted between 1995 and 1997. From the 118...... accepted cases, 104 were interviewed, of which 76 were definite cases. Population controls were selected randomly from the regions of case ascertainment. Information based on occupational experiences was coded according to industry types. A job exposure matrix was created according to the expected exposure...

  18. Power and sample size calculations for Mendelian randomization studies using one genetic instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Guy; Cowling, Benjamin J; Schooling, C Mary

    2013-08-01

    Mendelian randomization, which is instrumental variable analysis using genetic variants as instruments, is an increasingly popular method of making causal inferences from observational studies. In order to design efficient Mendelian randomization studies, it is essential to calculate the sample sizes required. We present formulas for calculating the power of a Mendelian randomization study using one genetic instrument to detect an effect of a given size, and the minimum sample size required to detect effects for given levels of significance and power, using asymptotic statistical theory. We apply the formulas to some example data and compare the results with those from simulation methods. Power and sample size calculations using these formulas should be more straightforward to carry out than simulation approaches. These formulas make explicit that the sample size needed for Mendelian randomization study is inversely proportional to the square of the correlation between the genetic instrument and the exposure and proportional to the residual variance of the outcome after removing the effect of the exposure, as well as inversely proportional to the square of the effect size.

  19. Reduced Order Podolsky Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibes, Ronaldo

    2017-02-01

    We perform the canonical and path integral quantizations of a lower-order derivatives model describing Podolsky's generalized electrodynamics. The physical content of the model shows an auxiliary massive vector field coupled to the usual electromagnetic field. The equivalence with Podolsky's original model is studied at classical and quantum levels. Concerning the dynamical time evolution, we obtain a theory with two first-class and two second-class constraints in phase space. We calculate explicitly the corresponding Dirac brackets involving both vector fields. We use the Senjanovic procedure to implement the second-class constraints and the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky path integral quantization scheme to deal with the symmetries generated by the first-class constraints. The physical interpretation of the results turns out to be simpler due to the reduced derivatives order permeating the equations of motion, Dirac brackets and effective action.

  20. A National Study on Nurses' Exposure to Occupational Violence in Lebanon: Prevalence, Consequences and Associated Factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alameddine, Mohamad; Mourad, Yara; Dimassi, Hani

    2015-01-01

    .... Stratified random sampling by governorate was utilized. Individually-mailed questionnaires collected information on exposure to violence, degree of burnout and demographic/professional background...

  1. Random fixed points and random differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos S. Papageorgiou

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, first, we study random best approximations to random sets, using fixed point techniques, obtaining this way stochastic analogues of earlier deterministic results by Browder-Petryshyn, KyFan and Reich. Then we prove two fixed point theorems for random multifunctions with stochastic domain that satisfy certain tangential conditions. Finally we consider a random differential inclusion with upper semicontinuous orientor field and establish the existence of random solutions.

  2. Ordered Mesoporous Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pellicer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Special Issue of Nanomaterials “Ordered Mesoporous Nanomaterials” covers novel synthetic aspects of mesoporous materials and explores their use in diverse areas like drug delivery, photocatalysis, filtration or electrocatalysis. The range of materials tackled includes metals and alloys, aluminosilicates, silica, alumina and transition metal oxides. The variety of materials, synthetic approaches and applications examined is vivid proof of the interest that mesoporous materials spark among researchers world-wide.[...

  3. Common Randomness Principles of Secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the secure processing of distributed data by multiple terminals, using interactive public communication among themselves, in order to accomplish a given computational task. In the setting of a probabilistic multiterminal source model in which several terminals observe correlated random signals, we analyze secure…

  4. Fauna Europaea - Orthopteroid orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Klaus-Gerhard; Bohn, Horst; Haas, Fabian; Willemse, Fer; de Jong, Yde

    2016-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The "Orthopteroid orders" is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups. It contains series of mostly well-known insect orders: Embiodea (webspinners), Dermaptera (earwigs), Phasmatodea (walking sticks), Orthoptera s.s. (grasshoppers, crickets, bush-crickets) and Dictyoptera with the suborders Mantodea (mantids), Blattaria (cockroaches) and Isoptera (termites). For the Orthopteroid orders, data from 35 families containing 1,371 species are included in this paper.

  5. Second-order optic flow processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaen-Stockdale, Craig; Ledgeway, Tim; Hess, Robert F

    2007-06-01

    Optic flow-large-field rotational and radial motion-is processed as efficiently as translational motion for first-order (luminance-defined) stimuli. However, it has been suggested recently that the same pattern does not hold for second-order (e.g. contrast-defined) stimuli. We used random dot kinematogram (RDK) stimuli to determine whether global processing of optic flow is as efficient as processing of global translational motion for both first- and second-order stimuli. For first-order stimuli, we found that coherence thresholds for radial and rotational motion were equivalent to thresholds for translational motion, supporting previous findings. For second-order stimuli we found, firstly, that given sufficient contrast, second-order optic flow can be processed as efficiently as first-order optic flow and, secondly, that rotational and translational second-order motion are processed with equal efficiency. This contradicts the suggestion that there is a loss of efficiency between integration of second-order global motion and second-order optic flow. The third interesting finding was that the processing of radial second-order motion appears to suffer from a deficit that is dependent upon both the contrast and spatial extent of the stimulus. Further experiments discounted the possibility that the observed deficit is caused by a centrifugal or centripetal bias, but demonstrated that a longer temporal integration period for radial second-order motion is responsible for the observed difference. For durations of approximately 850ms, all three types of motion are processed with equal efficiency.

  6. Quantifying randomness in real networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Chiara; Dankulov, Marija M.; Colomer-de-Simón, Pol; Jamakovic, Almerima; Mahadevan, Priya; Vahdat, Amin; Bassler, Kevin E.; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Boguñá, Marián; Caldarelli, Guido; Fortunato, Santo; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-10-01

    Represented as graphs, real networks are intricate combinations of order and disorder. Fixing some of the structural properties of network models to their values observed in real networks, many other properties appear as statistical consequences of these fixed observables, plus randomness in other respects. Here we employ the dk-series, a complete set of basic characteristics of the network structure, to study the statistical dependencies between different network properties. We consider six real networks--the Internet, US airport network, human protein interactions, technosocial web of trust, English word network, and an fMRI map of the human brain--and find that many important local and global structural properties of these networks are closely reproduced by dk-random graphs whose degree distributions, degree correlations and clustering are as in the corresponding real network. We discuss important conceptual, methodological, and practical implications of this evaluation of network randomness, and release software to generate dk-random graphs.

  7. Beyond fourth-order texture discrimination: generation of extreme-order and statistically-balanced textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christopher W

    2004-01-01

    Julesz introduced the concept of statistically defined textures and their perceptual discrimination. Julesz showed that discrimination was possible with statistics equated to third-order, specifying fourth-order textures. Klein and Tyler offered a variety of paradigms suggesting that fourth order might be the limit on human texture processing. To go beyond this limit, new texture paradigms are now introduced to avoid contamination by luminance extrema, to control local and long-range texture properties, and to provide textures without global statistical structure. Local luminance contamination is avoided by novel orientation plaids, in which higher-order rules govern the orientation of local elements rather than their coloring. These textures allow evaluation of texture discrimination up to thirty-second order by cortical pattern elements. Long-range processing is studied by random strip rotation and by interlacing of independent textures. Each substantially degrades the visibility of the fourth-order textures, revealing that the fourth-order information is conveyed largely by local rather than long-range perturbations from random statistics. Finally, textures equated at all orders can be defined in terms of their global statistics, but may nevertheless readily be discriminated in human vision. The discrimination on the basis of local perturbations implies that human vision assesses textures through a local sampling window, and is largely insensitive to longer-range statistical properties.

  8. Veteran exposure to suicide: Prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerel, Julie; van de Venne, Judy G; Moore, Melinda M; Maple, Myfanwy J; Flaherty, Chris; Brown, Margaret M

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine rates and consequences of suicide exposure in a veteran population and variables related to psychiatric morbidity. 931 veterans from a random digit dial survey conducted July 2012-June 2013 in the Commonwealth of Kentucky was utilized to examine associations between suicide exposure and depression and anxiety. For those with lifetime suicide exposure, perceptions of closeness to the decedent and additional traumatic death exposure were also examined. Almost half of veterans (47.1%, n=434) reported lifetime exposure to suicide. Suicide-exposed individuals were almost twice as likely to have diagnosable depression (OR=1.92, CI=1.31-2.8) and more than twice as likely to have diagnosable anxiety (OR=2.37, CI=1.55-3.61). Suicide-exposed were also more likely than non-exposed to report suicide ideation (9.9% vs. 4.3%). Perceived closeness to decedent increased the odds of depression (OR=1.38, CI=1.12-1.69), anxiety (OR=1.51, CI=1.21-1.89) and PTSD (OR=1.65, CI=1.27-2.16) and more than doubled the odds of Prolonged Grief (OR=2.47, CI=1.60-3.83). A model examined time sequence of suicide and traumatic death exposure. Experiencing a suicide exposure first and subsequent traumatic death exposure in their military career almost quadrupled the odds of suicide ideation (OR=3.56, p=.01, CI=1.34-9.46). Major study limitations include use of only one US state and random digit dial response rate. Suicide exposure confers psychiatric risks in veterans. Perceptions of closeness to decedents, which may extend beyond familial lines, may heighten these risks in the suicide exposed. Multiple exposures to suicide and traumatic death may lead to significant suicide risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased body satisfaction after exposure to thin ideal children's television in young girls showing thin ideal internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Van Strien, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the direct effect of watching thin ideal children's television on body satisfaction in preadolescent girls (6-8 years old). A within-subject design was used in which girls (N = 51) were tested three times. They watched television clips in random order containing either (1) thin ideal animated characters or (2) animated characters with no thin ideal features or (3) 'real' human actors with no thin ideal features. After watching, their state body satisfaction was measured. Girls with higher levels of thin ideal internalisation showed higher body satisfaction after exposure to the thin ideal characters than after exposure to animated or real characters featuring no thin ideal features. No differences on body satisfaction between the exposure conditions were found in girls with lower levels of thin ideal internalisation. The results might suggest that young girls who internalised the thin ideal are inspired by thin ideal characters in children's media.

  10. Noise exposure in marching bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Joseph

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies involving orchestras have shown that music ensembles can produce hazardous noise levels. There are no similar data for marching bands and pep bands. In order to evaluate the noise levels produced by marching and pep bands, 1/3-octave-band sound-pressure levels were measured while these groups rehearsed and performed. Data were collected while marching with the bands to ensure a realistic environment. Comparing these data to OSHA and NIOSH criteria, marching and pep band exposures often exceed safe values. For typical exposures, OSHA doses range from 11% to 295%, while NIOSH doses range from 35% to 3055%. Exposures that would be considered hazardous in the workplace are common in marching and pep bands; students and band directors should take steps to recognize the risk posed by various instruments and various locations, and should implement hearing conservation efforts.

  11. Mindfulness-Based Exposure Strategies as a Transdiagnostic Mechanism of Change: An Exploratory Alternating Treatment Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, C Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Boswell, James F; Gallagher, Matthew W; Farchione, Todd J; Barlow, David H

    2016-03-01

    The present study explored whether distress reduction in response to strong negative emotions, a putative transdiagnostic mechanism of action, is facilitated by mindfulness strategies. Seven patients (mean age=31.14years, SD=12.28, range 19-48 years, 43% female, 86% Caucasian) with heterogeneous anxiety disorders (i.e., panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, social anxiety, generalized anxiety) were assigned a randomized order of weeklong blocks utilizing either mindfulness- or avoidance-based strategies while ascending a 6-week emotion exposure hierarchy. Participants completed three exposures per block and provided distress and avoidance use ratings following each exposure. Anxiety severity, distress aversion, and distraction/suppression tendencies were also assessed at baseline and the conclusion of each block. Visual, descriptive, and effect size results showing exposures utilizing mindfulness were associated with higher overall distress levels, compared with those utilizing avoidance. Within blocks, the majority of participants exhibited declining distress levels when employing mindfulness strategies, as opposed to more static distress levels in the avoidance condition. Systematic changes in anxiety severity, distress aversion, and distraction/suppression were not observed. These results suggest mindfulness strategies may be effective in facilitating emotion exposure; however, a minimum dosage may be necessary to overcome initial distress elevation. Potential transdiagnostic change mechanisms and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Gender Orders Unbound?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    During the last thirty years, the modernisation of gender relations has been dynamic and comprehensive, shaped by the conflicting forces of globalisation as well as women's movements around the world. As the patterns of segregation and discrimination of the classical industrial gender order erode......, new complexities and contentions in gender relations emerge at various sites such as politics, work and families. The main aim of the book is to trace formal as well as informal gender contracts as they emerge in everyday life and also in new norms and regulations set by state and enterprises. Core...... issues are the chances and the barriers for equality and new forms of gender reciprocity and solidarity....

  13. Ordering, materiality and multiplicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Duim, René; Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Jóhannesson, Gunnar Thór

    2013-01-01

    , followed by a discussion of how newer approaches within post-ANT urge us to face the ontological politics, which we engage in when performing tourism research. In conclusion we argue that ANT enables a radical new way at looking at tourism, tourism destinations and objects and investigations......In this article we discuss how ANT has been translated into tourism research and show how it has impacted the field by presenting three concepts integral to the ANT approach: ordering, materiality and multiplicity. We first introduce ANT and draw attention to current ANT studies in tourism...... into the ontological condition of tourism....

  14. Partially ordered algebraic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    Originally published in an important series of books on pure and applied mathematics, this monograph by a distinguished mathematician explores a high-level area in algebra. It constitutes the first systematic summary of research concerning partially ordered groups, semigroups, rings, and fields. The self-contained treatment features numerous problems, complete proofs, a detailed bibliography, and indexes. It presumes some knowledge of abstract algebra, providing necessary background and references where appropriate. This inexpensive edition of a hard-to-find systematic survey will fill a gap i

  15. Ordered sets and lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Drashkovicheva, Kh; Igoshin, V I; Katrinyak, T; Kolibiar, M

    1989-01-01

    This book is another publication in the recent surveys of ordered sets and lattices. The papers, which might be characterized as "reviews of reviews," are based on articles reviewed in the Referativnyibreve Zhurnal: Matematika from 1978 to 1982. For the sake of completeness, the authors also attempted to integrate information from other relevant articles from that period. The bibliography of each paper provides references to the reviews in RZhMat and Mathematical Reviews where one can seek more detailed information. Specifically excluded from consideration in this volume were such topics as al

  16. Exposure to Poverty and Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Patricio S; Gonzalez Jimenez, Victor H; Noussair, Charles N

    2017-01-01

    We study whether exposure to poverty can induce affective states that decrease productivity. In a controlled laboratory setting, we find that subjects randomly assigned to a treatment, in which they view a video featuring individuals that live in extreme poverty, exhibit lower subsequent productivity compared to subjects assigned to a control treatment. Questionnaire responses, as well as facial recognition software, provide quantitative measures of the affective state evoked by the two treatments. Subjects exposed to images of poverty experience a more negative affective state than those in the control treatment. Further analysis shows that individuals in a more positive emotional state exhibit less of a treatment effect. Also, those who exhibit greater attentiveness upon viewing the poverty video are less productive. The results are consistent with the notion that exposure to poverty can induce a psychological state in individuals that adversely affects productivity.

  17. Exposure to Poverty and Productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio S Dalton

    Full Text Available We study whether exposure to poverty can induce affective states that decrease productivity. In a controlled laboratory setting, we find that subjects randomly assigned to a treatment, in which they view a video featuring individuals that live in extreme poverty, exhibit lower subsequent productivity compared to subjects assigned to a control treatment. Questionnaire responses, as well as facial recognition software, provide quantitative measures of the affective state evoked by the two treatments. Subjects exposed to images of poverty experience a more negative affective state than those in the control treatment. Further analysis shows that individuals in a more positive emotional state exhibit less of a treatment effect. Also, those who exhibit greater attentiveness upon viewing the poverty video are less productive. The results are consistent with the notion that exposure to poverty can induce a psychological state in individuals that adversely affects productivity.

  18. The design of cluster randomized crossover trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, C.; Moerbeek, M.

    2011-01-01

    The inefficiency induced by between-cluster variation in cluster randomized (CR) trials can be reduced by implementing a crossover (CO) design. In a simple CO trial, each subject receives each treatment in random order. A powerful characteristic of this design is that each subject serves as its own

  19. Medium wave exposure characterisation using exposure quotients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Jesús M; Rufo, Montaña; Jiménez, Antonio; Antolín, Alicia; Pinar, Iván

    2010-06-01

    One of the aspects considered in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines is that, in situations of simultaneous exposure to fields of different frequencies, exposure quotients for thermal and electrical stimulation effects should be examined. The aim of the present work was to analyse the electromagnetic radiation levels and exposure quotients for exposure to multiple-frequency sources in the vicinity of medium wave radio broadcasting antennas. The measurements were made with a spectrum analyser and a monopole antenna. Kriging interpolation was used to prepare contour maps and to estimate the levels in the towns and villages of the zone. The results showed that the exposure quotient criterion based on electrical stimulation effects to be more stringent than those based on thermal effects or power density levels. Improvement of dosimetry evaluations requires the spectral components of the radiation to be quantified, followed by application of the criteria for exposure to multiple-frequency sources.

  20. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    This PhD thesis considers higher order modes (HOMs) in optical fibers. That includes their excitation and characteristics. Within the last decades, HOMs have been applied both for space multiplexing in optical communications, group velocity dispersion management and sensing among others....... The research presented in this thesis falls in three parts. In the first part, a first time demonstration of the break of the azimuthal symmetry of the Bessel-like LP0X modes is presented. This effect, known as the bowtie effect, causes the mode to have an azimuthal dependence as well as a quasi......-radial polarization as opposed to the linear polarization of the LP0X modes. The effect is investigated numerically in a double cladding fiber with an outer aircladding using a full vectorial modesolver. Experimentally, the bowtie modes are excited using a long period grating and their free space characteristics...

  1. Order without design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurakin Alexei

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Experimental reality in molecular and cell biology, as revealed by advanced research technologies and methods, is manifestly inconsistent with the design perspective on the cell, thus creating an apparent paradox: where do order and reproducibility in living systems come from if not from design? I suggest that the very idea of biological design (whether evolutionary or intelligent is a misconception rooted in the time-honored and thus understandably precious error of interpreting living systems/organizations in terms of classical mechanics and equilibrium thermodynamics. This error, introduced by the founders and perpetuated due to institutionalization of science, is responsible for the majority of inconsistencies, contradictions, and absurdities plaguing modern sciences, including one of the most startling paradoxes - although almost everyone agrees that any living organization is an open nonequilibrium system of continuous energy/matter flow, almost everyone interprets and models living systems/organizations in terms of classical mechanics, equilibrium thermodynamics, and engineering, i.e., in terms and concepts that are fundamentally incompatible with the physics of life. The reinterpretation of biomolecules, cells, organisms, ecosystems, and societies in terms of open nonequilibrium organizations of energy/matter flow suggests that, in the domain of life, order and reproducibility do not come from design. Instead, they are natural and inevitable outcomes of self-organizing activities of evolutionary successful, and thus persistent, organizations co-evolving on multiple spatiotemporal scales as biomolecules, cells, organisms, ecosystems, and societies. The process of self-organization on all scales is driven by economic competition, obeys empirical laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, and is facilitated and, thus, accelerated by memories of living experience persisting in the form of evolutionary successful living organizations and

  2. Order without design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurakin, Alexei

    2010-04-14

    Experimental reality in molecular and cell biology, as revealed by advanced research technologies and methods, is manifestly inconsistent with the design perspective on the cell, thus creating an apparent paradox: where do order and reproducibility in living systems come from if not from design? I suggest that the very idea of biological design (whether evolutionary or intelligent) is a misconception rooted in the time-honored and thus understandably precious error of interpreting living systems/organizations in terms of classical mechanics and equilibrium thermodynamics. This error, introduced by the founders and perpetuated due to institutionalization of science, is responsible for the majority of inconsistencies, contradictions, and absurdities plaguing modern sciences, including one of the most startling paradoxes - although almost everyone agrees that any living organization is an open nonequilibrium system of continuous energy/matter flow, almost everyone interprets and models living systems/organizations in terms of classical mechanics, equilibrium thermodynamics, and engineering, i.e., in terms and concepts that are fundamentally incompatible with the physics of life. The reinterpretation of biomolecules, cells, organisms, ecosystems, and societies in terms of open nonequilibrium organizations of energy/matter flow suggests that, in the domain of life, order and reproducibility do not come from design. Instead, they are natural and inevitable outcomes of self-organizing activities of evolutionary successful, and thus persistent, organizations co-evolving on multiple spatiotemporal scales as biomolecules, cells, organisms, ecosystems, and societies. The process of self-organization on all scales is driven by economic competition, obeys empirical laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, and is facilitated and, thus, accelerated by memories of living experience persisting in the form of evolutionary successful living organizations and their constituents.

  3. Testicular germ cell tumours and parental occupational exposure to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Cornet, Charlotte; Fervers, Béatrice; Oksbjerg Dalton, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    controls per case were randomly selected from the general national populations, matched on year of birth. Information on parental occupation was collected through censuses or Pension Fund information and converted into a pesticide exposure index based on the Finnish National Job-Exposure Matrix. RESULTS...

  4. Integration of Probabilistic Exposure Assessment and Probabilistic Hazard Characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, van der H.; Slob, W.

    2007-01-01

    A method is proposed for integrated probabilistic risk assessment where exposure assessment and hazard characterization are both included in a probabilistic way. The aim is to specify the probability that a random individual from a defined (sub)population will have an exposure high enough to cause a

  5. The peril of order? IPV, injury, and order in Mongolian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Clifton R; Wu, Shali; Tsolmon, Odgerel

    2015-01-01

    Despite its consistent and latent appearance in feminist accounts of intimate partner violence (IPV), the characterization of IPV as an elaborately ordered relationship whose norms are backed up by force is notably absent from the empirical IPV literature. Drawing on Emery's typology of IPV, we hypothesized a curvilinear relationship between order and IPV injury. We developed a measure of relationship order and implemented it in a representative, randomly selected cluster sample of 250 families from Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Controlling for the severity of the IPV, higher levels of order, but not lower levels, are associated with higher numbers of reported IPV injuries. Theoretical and practical implications of order as a risk factor are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. The linear stochastic order and directed inference for multivariate ordered distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidov, Ori; Peddada, Shyamal

    2013-01-01

    Researchers are often interested in drawing inferences regarding the order between two experimental groups on the basis of multivariate response data. Since standard multivariate methods are designed for two sided alternatives they may not be ideal for testing for order between two groups. In this article we introduce the notion of the linear stochastic order and investigate its properties. Statistical theory and methodology are developed to both estimate the direction which best separates two arbitrary ordered distributions and to test for order between the two groups. The new methodology generalizes Roy's classical largest root test to the nonparametric setting and is applicable to random vectors with discrete and/or continuous components. The proposed methodology is illustrated using data obtained from a 90–day pre–chronic rodent cancer bioassay study conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP). PMID:23543786

  7. Sensitivity analysis of ranked data: from order statistics to quantiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidergott, B.F.; Volk-Makarewicz, W.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we provide the mathematical theory for sensitivity analysis of order statistics of continuous random variables, where the sensitivity is with respect to a distributional parameter. Sensitivity analysis of order statistics over a finite number of observations is discussed before

  8. Composite continuous time random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfer, Rudolf

    2017-12-01

    Random walks in composite continuous time are introduced. Composite time flow is the product of translational time flow and fractional time flow [see Chem. Phys. 84, 399 (2002)]. The continuum limit of composite continuous time random walks gives a diffusion equation where the infinitesimal generator of time flow is the sum of a first order and a fractional time derivative. The latter is specified as a generalized Riemann-Liouville derivative. Generalized and binomial Mittag-Leffler functions are found as the exact results for waiting time density and mean square displacement.

  9. Urban ectopy in the mountains: Carbon monoxide exposure at high altitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaf, D.A. [Univ. of California Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kleinman, M.T. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Environmental exposure to inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) increases coronary artery disease risk. Sudden cardiac death, a frequent manifestation of coronary artery disease, is usually a result of ventricular dysrhythmia. The effect of exposure to CO at sea level (CO/SL) and simulated high (2.1 km) altitudes (CO/HA) on the incidence of cardiac ectopy in subjects with coronary artery disease was investigated. A double-blind crossover study was conducted, with random-order assignment, and each subject served as his own control. Seventeen men with documented coronary artery disease and stable angina pectoris performed cardiopulmonary exercise stress tests after random exposure to either CO or clean air (CA) at sea level (CA/SL) or at a simulated 2.1-km high altitude (CA/HA). The individual CO and HA exposure conditions were each selected to reduce the percentage of oxygen saturation of the subjects arterial blood by 4%. Subjects blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were increased form an average of 0.62% after clean-air exposure to 3.91% of saturation after CO exposure. The percentage of oxygen saturation in arterial blood was reduced from a baseline level of 98% to approximately 94% after CO/SL or CA/HA and to approximately 90% after CO/HA. Compared with the CA/SL the average incidence of exercise-induced ventricular ectopy was approximately doubled after all exposures and a significant trend (p {le} .05) of increased ectopy with decreased oxygen saturation in arterial blood was observed. Yet, among subjects who were free from ectopy (n=11) on CA/SL, only 2 subjects developed ectopy after CO/HA. No episodes of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation occurred. The findings indicated that exposure to increased levels of hypoxemia, resulting from hypoxic and/or CO exposures, increased the susceptibility to ventricular ectopy during exercise in individuals with stable angina pectoris; however, this risk was nominal for those without ectopy. 26 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Bias in the estimation of exposure effects with individual- or group-based exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyang-Mi; Richardson, David; Loomis, Dana; Van Tongeren, Martie; Burstyn, Igor

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop models of bias in estimates of exposure-disease associations for epidemiological studies that use group- and individual-based exposure assessments. In a study that uses a group-based exposure assessment, individuals are grouped according to shared attributes, such as job title or work area, and assigned an exposure score, usually the mean of some concentration measurements made on samples drawn from the group. We considered bias in the estimation of exposure effects in the context of both linear and logistic regression disease models, and the classical measurement error in the exposure model. To understand group-based exposure assessment, we introduced a quasi-Berkson error structure that can be justified with a moderate number of exposure measurements from each group. In the quasi-Berkson error structure, the true value is equal to the observed one plus error, and the error is not independent of the observed value. The bias in estimates with individual-based assessment depends on all variance components in the exposure model and is smaller when the between-group and between-subject variances are large. In group-based exposure assessment, group means can be assumed to be either fixed or random effects. Regardless of this assumption, the behavior of estimates is similar: the estimates of regression coefficients were less attenuated with a large sample size used to estimate group means, when between-subject variability was small and the spread between group means was large. However, if groups are considered to be random effects, bias is present, even with large number of measurements from each group. This does not occur when group effects are treated as fixed. We illustrate these models in analyses of the associations between exposure to magnetic fields and cancer mortality among electric utility workers and respiratory symptoms due to carbon black.

  11. Development of three-dimensional shoulder kinematic and electromyographic exposure variation analysis methodology in violin musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jonathan F; Leduc, Robert E; Kahnert, Emily K; Ludewig, Paula M

    2014-01-01

    A total of 11 male and 19 female violinists performed 30-second random-ordered slow and fast musical repertoire while right shoulder three-dimensional kinematic, and upper trapezius and serratus anterior surface electromyography (EMG) data were summarised using exposure variation analysis (EVA), a bivariate distribution of work time spent at categories of signal amplitude, and duration spent at a fixed category of amplitude. Sixty-two per cent of intraclass correlation coefficients [1,1] for all kinematic and EMG variables exceeded 0.75, and 40% of standard error of the measurement results were below 5%, confirming EVA reliability. When fast repertoire was played, increases in odds ratios in short duration cells were seen in 23 of 24 possible instances, and decreases in longer duration cells were seen in 17 instances in all EVA arrays using multinomial logistic regression with random effects, confirming a shift towards shorter duration. A reliable technique to assess right shoulder kinematic and EMG exposure in violinists was identified. A reliable method of measuring right shoulder motion and muscle activity exposure variation in violinists was developed which can be used to assess ergonomic risk in other occupations. Recently developed statistical methods enabled differentiation between fast and slow musical performance of standardised musical repertoire.

  12. Residential exposure to RF-EMF from mobile phone base stations: Model predictions versus personal and home measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Astrid L; Slottje, Pauline; Meima, Marie Y; Beekhuizen, Johan; Timmermans, Danielle; Kromhout, Hans; Smid, Tjabe; Vermeulen, Roel C H

    2016-04-15

    Geospatial models have been demonstrated to reliably and efficiently estimate RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations (downlink) at stationary locations with the implicit assumption that this reflects personal exposure. In this study we evaluated whether RF-EMF model predictions at the home address are a good proxy of personal 48h exposure. We furthermore studied potential modification of this association by degree of urbanisation. We first used an initial NISMap estimation (at an assumed height of 4.5m) for 9563 randomly selected addresses in order to oversample addresses with higher exposure levels and achieve exposure contrast. We included 47 individuals across the range of potential RF-EMF exposure and used NISMap to re-assess downlink exposure at the home address (at bedroom height). We computed several indicators to determine the accuracy of the NISMap model predictions. We compared residential RF-EMF model predictions with personal 48h, at home, and night-time (0:00-8:00AM) ExpoM3 measurements, and with EME-SPY 140 spot measurements in the bedroom. We obtained information about urbanisation degree and compared the accuracy of model predictions in high and low urbanised areas. We found a moderate Spearman correlation between model predictions and personal 48h (rSp=0.47), at home (rSp=0.49), at night (rSp=0.51) and spot measurements (rSp=0.54). We found no clear differences between high and low urbanised areas (48h: high rSp=0.38, low rSp=0.55, bedroom spot measurements: high rSp=0.55, low rSp=0.50). We achieved a meaningful ranking of personal downlink exposure irrespective of degree of urbanisation, indicating that these models can provide a good proxy of personal exposure in areas with varying build-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Taste the feeling or feel the tasting: Tactile exposure to food texture promotes food acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederkoorn, Chantal; Theiβen, Julia; Tummers, Michelle; Roefs, Anne

    2018-01-01

    The texture of food can be a reason why children reject it: It matters if food is crispy, slimy, smooth or has pips and bits in it. In general, mere exposure is the best method to increase acceptance of food: becoming more familiar with a food by repeated exposure increases liking for it. However, exposure to texture can be difficult, as children can be reluctant to try tasting it. In the current study, it is tested if acceptance of a food with a specific texture is improved after exposure to the feel of it, with hands only. Sixty-six children (between 3 and 10 years old) were randomly assigned to either the exposure or control condition. In the exposure condition, children played with an colourless and odourless jelly with their hands and in the control group, children played a board game. Afterwards, children were asked to taste 3 desserts (in balanced order): smooth strawberry yoghurt, strawberry yoghurt with pieces and strawberry jelly. Results showed that the children in the exposure condition ate specifically more of the jelly dessert - the texture of which they had been pre-exposed to - compared to the children in control condition. No group differences were found for the other two desserts. The results imply that feeling the texture of a food with hands increases the acceptance of food with the same texture. Playing with food with hands seems therefore be a first step in getting familiar with food and might help to increase variety of food intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaanderen, Jelle; Straif, Kurt; Ruder, Avima

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified tetrachloroethylene, used in the production of chemicals and the primary solvent used in dry cleaning, as "probably carcinogenic to humans" based on limited evidence of an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry...... cleaners. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the epidemiological evidence for the association between tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer from published studies estimating occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene or in workers in the dry-cleaning industry. METHODS: Random-effects meta-analyses were......-analysis demonstrates an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry cleaners, reported in both cohort and case-control studies, and some evidence for an exposure-response relationship. Although dry cleaners incur mixed exposures, tetrachloroethylene could be responsible for the excess risk of bladder cancer because...

  15. Structural change of human hair induced by mercury exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xueqing; Du, Rong; Li, Yufeng; Li, Bai; Cai, Quan; Mo, Guang; Gong, Yu; Chen, Zhongjun; Wu, Zhonghua

    2013-10-01

    Mercury is one of the most hazardous pollutants in the environment. In this paper, the structural change of human hair induced by mercury exposure was studied. Human hair samples were, respectively, collected from the normal Beijing area and the Hg-contaminated Wanshan area of the Guizhou Province, China. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy was used to detect the element contents. A small angle X-ray scattering technique was used to probe the structural change. Three reflections with 8.8, 6.7, and 4.5 nm spacing were compared between the normal and the Hg-contaminated hair samples. The results confirm that the 4.5 nm reflection is from the ordered fibrillar structure of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in proteoglycan (PG) that composes the matrix around the intermediate filaments. The increase of Ca content makes the regular oriented fibrillar structure of GAG transform to a random oriented one, broadening the angular extent of the reflection with 4.5 nm spacing. However, overdose Hg makes the core proteins where the ordered fibrils of GAG are attached become coiled, which destroys the ordered arrangements of fibrillar GAG in PG, resulting in the disappearance of the reflections with 4.5 nm spacing. The disappearance of the 4.5 nm reflection can be used as a bioindicator of overdose Hg contamination to the human body. A supercoiled-coil model of hair nanoscale structure and a possible mechanism of mercury effect in human hair are proposed in this paper.

  16. A National Study on Nurses' Exposure to Occupational Violence in Lebanon: Prevalence, Consequences and Associated Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Alameddine

    Full Text Available Healthcare institutions have commonly reported exposure of employees, particularly nurses, to high levels of occupational violence. Despite such evidence in the Middle East Region, there is a dearth of national studies that have systematically investigated this phenomenon. This study investigates the prevalence, characteristics, consequences and factors associated with nurses' exposure to occupational violence in Lebanon.A cross-sectional design was utilized to survey a nationally representative sample of 915 nurses registered with the Order of Nurses in Lebanon. Stratified random sampling by governorate was utilized. Individually-mailed questionnaires collected information on exposure to violence, degree of burnout and demographic/professional background. The main outcome variables were exposure to verbal abuse (never, 1-3, 4-9 and 10+ times and physical violence (never, ever over the past 12-months. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate prevalence of violence. Multivariable, binomial and multinomial regression models were carried out to investigate the correlates of exposure to verbal abuse and physical violence, respectively.Response rate was 64.8%. Over the last year, prevalence of nurses' exposure to verbal abuse was 62%, (CI: 58-65% and physical violence was 10%, (CI: 8-13%. Among respondents, 31.7% of nurses indicated likelihood to quit their jobs and 22.3% were undetermined. Furthermore, 54.1% reported high levels of emotional exhaustion and 28.8% reported high levels of depersonalization. Compared to nurses with no exposure to verbal abuse, nurses reporting high exposure had high levels of emotional exhaustion (OR:6.4; CI:1.76-23.32, depersonalization (OR:6.8; CI: 3-15 and intention to quit job (OR:3.9; CI: 1.8-8.3. They further reported absence of anti-violence policies at their institutions (OR: 3; CI: 1.5-6.3. Nurses that were ever exposed to physical violence were more likely to be males (OR: 2.2; CI: 1.1-4.3, working day and

  17. Ghana randomized air pollution and health study (GRAPHS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jack, Darby W.; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Blair J. Wylie; Chillrud, Steve N.; Whyatt, Robin M.; Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth A.; Quinn, Ashlinn K.; Yawson, Abena Konadu; Boamah, Ellen Abrafi; Agyei, Oscar; Mujtaba, Mohammed; Kaali, Seyram; Kinney, Patrick; Owusu-Agyei, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Background: Household air pollution exposure is a major health risk, but validated interventions remain elusive. Methods/Design The Ghana Randomized Air Pollution and Health Study (GRAPHS) is a cluster-randomized trial that evaluates the efficacy of clean fuels (liquefied petroleum gas, or LPG) and efficient biomass cookstoves in the Brong-Ahafo region of central Ghana. We recruit pregnant women into LPG, efficient cookstove, and control arms and track birth weight and physician-assessed seve...

  18. Hidden temporal order unveiled in stock market volatility variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shapira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available When analyzed by standard statistical methods, the time series of the daily return of financial indices appear to behave as Markov random series with no apparent temporal order or memory. This empirical result seems to be counter intuitive since investor are influenced by both short and long term past market behaviors. Consequently much effort has been devoted to unveil hidden temporal order in the market dynamics. Here we show that temporal order is hidden in the series of the variance of the stocks volatility. First we show that the correlation between the variances of the daily returns and means of segments of these time series is very large and thus cannot be the output of random series, unless it has some temporal order in it. Next we show that while the temporal order does not show in the series of the daily return, rather in the variation of the corresponding volatility series. More specifically, we found that the behavior of the shuffled time series is equivalent to that of a random time series, while that of the original time series have large deviations from the expected random behavior, which is the result of temporal structure. We found the same generic behavior in 10 different stock markets from 7 different countries. We also present analysis of specially constructed sequences in order to better understand the origin of the observed temporal order in the market sequences. Each sequence was constructed from segments with equal number of elements taken from algebraic distributions of three different slopes.

  19. Phase Transitions on Random Lattices: How Random is Topological Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghathi, Hatem; Vojta, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    We study the effects of topological (connectivity) disorder on phase transitions. We identify a broad class of random lattices whose disorder fluctuations decay much faster with increasing length scale than those of generic random systems, yielding a wandering exponent of ω = (d - 1) / (2 d) in d dimensions. The stability of clean critical points is thus governed by the criterion (d + 1) ν > 2 rather than the usual Harris criterion dν > 2 , making topological disorder less relevant than generic randomness. The Imry-Ma criterion is also modified, allowing first-order transitions to survive in all dimensions d > 1 . These results explain a host of puzzling violations of the original criteria for equilibrium and nonequilibrium phase transitions on random lattices. We discuss applications, and we illustrate our theory by computer simulations of random Voronoi and other lattices. This work was supported by the NSF under Grant Nos. DMR-1205803 and PHYS-1066293. We acknowledge the hospitality of the Aspen Center for Physics.

  20. Virtual reality exposure therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rothbaum, BO; Hodges, L; Kooper, R

    1997-01-01

    It has been proposed that virtual reality (VR) exposure may be an alternative to standard in vivo exposure. Virtual reality integrates real-time computer graphics, body tracking devices, visual displays, and other sensory input devices to immerse a participant in a computer- generated virtual environment. Virtual reality exposure is potentially an efficient and cost-effective treatment of anxiety disorders. VR exposure therapy reduced the fear of heights in the first control...

  1. Order acceptance with reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mainegra Hing, M.; van Harten, Aart; Schuur, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Order Acceptance (OA) is one of the main functions in a business control framework. Basically, OA involves for each order a 0/1 (i.e., reject/accept) decision. Always accepting an order when capacity is available could unable the system to accept more convenient orders in the future. Another

  2. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  3. Opioid Antagonist Impedes Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merluzzi, Thomas V.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Thirty spider-phobic adults underwent exposure to 17 phobic-related, graded performance tests. Fifteen subjects were assigned to naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, and 15 were assigned to placebo. Naltrexone had a significant effect on exposure, with naltrexone subjects taking significantly longer to complete first 10 steps of exposure and with…

  4. Random broadcast on random geometric graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elsasser, Robert [UNIV OF PADERBORN; Friedrich, Tobias [ICSI/BERKELEY; Sauerwald, Tomas [ICSI/BERKELEY

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we consider the random broadcast time on random geometric graphs (RGGs). The classic random broadcast model, also known as push algorithm, is defined as: starting with one informed node, in each succeeding round every informed node chooses one of its neighbors uniformly at random and informs it. We consider the random broadcast time on RGGs, when with high probability: (i) RGG is connected, (ii) when there exists the giant component in RGG. We show that the random broadcast time is bounded by {Omicron}({radical} n + diam(component)), where diam(component) is a diameter of the entire graph, or the giant component, for the regimes (i), or (ii), respectively. In other words, for both regimes, we derive the broadcast time to be {Theta}(diam(G)), which is asymptotically optimal.

  5. Staggered chiral random matrix theory

    OpenAIRE

    Osborn, James C.

    2010-01-01

    We present a random matrix theory (RMT) for the staggered lattice QCD Dirac operator. The staggered RMT is equivalent to the zero-momentum limit of the staggered chiral Lagrangian and includes all taste breaking terms at their leading order. This is an extension of previous work which only included some of the taste breaking terms. We will also present some results for the taste breaking contributions to the partition function and the Dirac eigenvalues.

  6. On orderability of topological groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rangan

    1985-01-01

    can be induced by a total order compatible with the group structure is given and such groups are called ordered or orderable topological groups. A separable totally disconnected ordered topological group is proved to be non-archimedean metrizable while the converse is shown to be false by means of an example. A necessary and sufficient condition for a no-totally disconnected locally compact abelian group to be orderable is also given.

  7. Ergodicity of Random Walks on Random DFA

    OpenAIRE

    Balle, Borja

    2013-01-01

    Given a DFA we consider the random walk that starts at the initial state and at each time step moves to a new state by taking a random transition from the current state. This paper shows that for typical DFA this random walk induces an ergodic Markov chain. The notion of typical DFA is formalized by showing that ergodicity holds with high probability when a DFA is sampled uniformly at random from the set of all automata with a fixed number of states. We also show the same result applies to DF...

  8. Random fractional Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengjun; Liu, Shutian

    2007-08-01

    We propose a novel random fractional Fourier transform by randomizing the transform kernel function of the conventional fractional Fourier transform. The random fractional Fourier transform inherits the excellent mathematical properties from the fractional Fourier transform and can be easily implemented in optics. As a primary application the random fractional Fourier transform can be directly used in optical image encryption and decryption. The double phase encoding image encryption schemes can thus be modeled with cascaded random fractional Fourier transformers.

  9. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE AND COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Else Toft

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common disease. The main risk factor is smoking although 15% of the COPD cases are expected to be preventable if the occupational exposures from vapour, gas, dust, and fume were eliminated; the population attributable fraction (PAF). The thesis...... addresses the association between occupational exposure and COPD in a population-based cohort of Danes aged 45-84-years. 4717 participants were included at baseline and 2624 at the four year follow-up. COPD was defined by spirometry and the occupational exposure was based on specialist defined jobs...... and questionnaires. The main occupational exposure was organic dust and 49% reported no lifetime occupational exposure. The results suggest occupational exposures to be associated to COPD also in never smokers and women. We found an exposure-response relation in the cross sectional analyses. The results...

  10. Protective orders: questions and conundrums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert; Faragher, Teri Marie

    2006-07-01

    Current media portrayal of protective orders is often negative, focusing on weaknesses in how protective orders are obtained and enforced. This review of research findings on protective orders examines issues and suggests areas in need of future research to clarify and improve public policy. More specifically, this review has five main objectives: (a) to provide background information about partner violence and the need for protective orders; (b) to describe what protective orders are, how many women obtain them, and the advantages and disadvantages of obtaining protective orders; (c) to examine characteristics of women who seek protective orders; (d) to explore research on whether protective orders actually increase women's safety; and (e) to highlight opportunities and gaps in the practice and research literature regarding the use of protective orders for women with violent partners or ex-partners.

  11. Second-Order Algebraic Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Marcelo; Mahmoud, Ola

    Fiore and Hur [10] recently introduced a conservative extension of universal algebra and equational logic from first to second order. Second-order universal algebra and second-order equational logic respectively provide a model theory and a formal deductive system for languages with variable binding and parameterised metavariables. This work completes the foundations of the subject from the viewpoint of categorical algebra. Specifically, the paper introduces the notion of second-order algebraic theory and develops its basic theory. Two categorical equivalences are established: at the syntactic level, that of second-order equational presentations and second-order algebraic theories; at the semantic level, that of second-order algebras and second-order functorial models. Our development includes a mathematical definition of syntactic translation between second-order equational presentations. This gives the first formalisation of notions such as encodings and transforms in the context of languages with variable binding.

  12. Predictors of monoterpene exposure in the Danish furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, Katja; Jacobsen, Gitte; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schaumburg, Inger; Erlandsen, Mogens; Schlunssen, Vivi

    2012-04-01

    Individuals who work with pine in the furniture industry may be exposed to monoterpenes, the most abundant of which are α-pinene, β-pinene, and Δ(3)-carene. Monoterpenes are suspected to cause dermatitis and to harm the respiratory system. An understanding of the predictors of monoterpene exposure is therefore important in preventing these adverse effects. These predictors may include general characteristics of the work environment and specific work operations. We sought to assess the extent to which workers are exposed to monoterpenes and to identify possible predictors of monoterpene exposure in the pine furniture industry in Denmark. Passive measurements of the levels of selected monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene, and Δ(3)-carene) were performed on 161 subjects from 17 pine furniture factories in Viborg County, Denmark; one sample was acquired from each worker. Additionally, wood dust samples were collected from 145 workers. Data on potential predictors of exposure were acquired over the course of the day on which the exposure measurements were recorded and could be assigned to one of four hierarchic ordered levels: worker, machine, department, and factory. In addition to univariate analyses, a mixed model was used to account for imbalances within the data and random variation with each of the hierarchically ordered levels. The geometric mean (GM) monoterpene content observed over the 161 measurements was 7.8 mg m(-3) [geometric standard deviation (GSD): 2.4]; the GM wood dust level over 145 measurements was 0.58 mg m(-3) (GSD: 1.49). None of the measured samples exceeded the occupational exposure limit for terpenes in Denmark (25 ppm, 150 mg m(-3)). In the univariate analyses, half of the predictors tested were found to be significant; the multivariate model indicated that only three of the potential predictors were significant. These were the recirculation of air in rooms used for the processing of wood (a factory level predictor), the presence of a

  13. Evolution of mitochondrial gene orders in echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perseke, Marleen; Fritzsch, Guido; Ramsch, Kai; Bernt, Matthias; Merkle, Daniel; Middendorf, Martin; Bernhard, Detlef; Stadler, Peter F; Schlegel, Martin

    2008-05-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the mitochondrial gene orders of all previously published and two novel Antedon mediterranea (Crinoidea) and Ophiura albida (Ophiuroidea) complete echinoderm mitochondrial genomes shows that all major types of rearrangement operations are necessary to explain the evolution of mitochondrial genomes. In addition to protein coding genes we include all tRNA genes as well as the control region in our analysis. Surprisingly, 7 of the 16 genomes published in the GenBank database contain misannotations, mostly unannotated tRNAs and/or mistakes in the orientation of tRNAs, which we have corrected here. Although the gene orders of mt genomes appear very different, only 8 events are necessary to explain the evolutionary history of echinoderms with the exception of the ophiuroids. Only two of these rearrangements are inversions, while we identify three tandem-duplication-random-loss events and three transpositions.

  14. Order-sorted Algebraic Specifications with Higher-order Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives a proposal for how order-sorted algebraic specification languages can be extended with higher-order functions. The approach taken is a generalisation to the order-sorted case of an approach given by Mller, Tarlecki and Wirsing for the many-sorted case. The main idea in the proposal...

  15. Order Quantity Distributions in Make-to-Order Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Poul Svante; Nielsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents both an analytical and a numerical investigation into the order quantities received by a company in the form of customer orders. A discussion of assumptions regarding the behavior of demand in the form of customer orders from various perspectives within manufacturing planning...

  16. Effects of egg order on organic and inorganic element concentrations and egg characteristics in tree swallows, tachycineta bicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Gray, B.R.; Custer, T.W.

    2010-01-01

    The laying order of tree swallow eggs was identified from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA, and eggs were chemically analyzed individually to document possible effects of laying order on organic contaminant and inorganic element concentrations. Effects of laying order on other parameters such as egg weight, size, and lipid and moisture content also were assessed. Some effects of egg order on total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected, but the effect was not uniform across individual females or between years. In 2004, clutches with higher total PCBs tended to have concentrations decline across egg order, whereas clutches with lower concentrations of PCBs tended to increase across egg order. In contrast, in 2005, there was a tendency for concentrations to increase across egg order. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations were highly variable within and among clutches in both years. The directionality of egg order associations (i.e., slopes) for trace elements was element dependent, was positive for Mn and Zn, was negative for B, and had no slope for Cr. Whole egg weight increased across egg order. Percentage lipid was variable within a clutch, with no pattern common across all females. Percentage lipid was also correlated with organic contaminant concentration. In highly contaminated environments, higher lipid content could have the unanticipated corollary of having higher concentrations of lipophilic contaminants such as PCBs. To reduce the effect of high variation within a clutch when assessing contamination exposure, it is recommended that two eggs per clutch be collected and pooled for chemical analysis. We further recommend that, as long as the two eggs are randomly collected, the additional effort needed to identify and collect specific eggs is not warranted. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  17. Random walks in a random environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 114; Issue 4. Random Walks in a Random Environment. S R S Varadhan. Invited Articles Volume 114 Issue ... Author Affiliations. S R S Varadhan1. Department of Mathematics, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, NY 10012, USA ...

  18. Nonpulmonary Outcomes of Asbestos Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Pfau, Jean C.; Crouch, Robert; Holian, Andrij

    2011-01-01

    The adverse pulmonary effects of asbestos are well accepted in scientific circles. However, the extrapulmonary consequences of asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review the potential for asbestos to produce diseases of the peritoneum, immune, gastrointestinal (GIT), and reproductive systems are explored as evidenced in published, peer-reviewed literature. Several hundred epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro publications analyzing the extrapulmonary effects of asbestos were used as sources to arrive at the conclusions and to establish areas needing further study. In order to be considered, each study had to monitor extrapulmonary outcomes following exposure to asbestos. The literature supports a strong association between asbestos exposure and peritoneal neoplasms. Correlations between asbestos exposure and immune-related disease are less conclusive; nevertheless, it was concluded from the combined autoimmune studies that there is a possibility for a higher-than-expected risk of systemic autoimmune disease among asbestos-exposed populations. In general, the GIT effects of asbestos exposure appear to be minimal, with the most likely outcome being development of stomach cancer. However, IARC recently concluded the evidence to support asbestos-induced stomach cancer to be “limited.” The strongest evidence for reproductive disease due to asbestos is in regard to ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, effects on fertility and the developing fetus are under-studied. The possibility of other asbestos-induced health effects does exist. These include brain-related tumors, blood disorders due to the mutagenic and hemolytic properties of asbestos, and peritoneal fibrosis. It is clear from the literature that the adverse properties of asbestos are not confined to the pulmonary system. PMID:21534087

  19. Effect of Reducing Indoor Air Pollution on Women's Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function: The RESPIRE Randomized Trial, Guatemala

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Díaz, Esperanza; Pope, Dan; Lie, Rolv T; Díaz, Anaite; McCracken, John; Bakke, Per; Arana, Byron; Smith, Kirk R; Bruce, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    .... The Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects (RESPIRE) is a randomized intervention trial evaluating the respiratory health effects of reducing indoor air pollution from open cooking fires...

  20. Chronotype and seasonality: morningness is associated with lower seasonal mood and behavior changes in the Old Order Amish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Layan; Evans, Daniel S; Raheja, Uttam K; Stephens, Sarah H; Stiller, John W; Reeves, Gloria M; Johnson, Mary; Ryan, Kathleen A; Weizel, Nancy; Vaswani, Dipika; McLain, Hassan; Shuldiner, Alan R; Mitchell, Braxton D; Hsueh, Wen-Chi; Snitker, Soren; Postolache, Teodor T

    2015-03-15

    Several studies documented that lower scores on the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) are associated with a higher global seasonality of mood (GSS). As for the Modern Man artificial lighting predominantly extends evening activity and exposure to light, and as evening bright light phase is known to delay circadian rhythms, this chronic exposure could potentially lead to both lower Morningness as well as higher GSS. The aim of the study was to investigate if the MEQ-GSS relationship holds in the Old Order Amish of Lancaster County, PA, a population that does not use network electrical light. 489 Old Order Amish adults (47.6% women), with average (SD) age of 49.7 (14.2) years, completed both the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) for the assessment of GSS, and MEQ. Associations between GSS scores and MEQ scores were analyzed using linear models, accounting for age, gender and relatedness by including the relationship matrix in the model as a random effect. GSS was inversely associated with MEQ scores (p=0.006, adjusted). include a potential recall bias associated with self-report questionnaires and no actual light exposure measurements. We confirmed the previously reported inverse association between MEQ scores and lower seasonality of mood, for the first time in a population that does not use home network electrical lighting. This result suggests that the association is not a byproduct of exposure to network electric light, and calls for additional research to investigate mechanisms by which Morningness is negatively associated with seasonality. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Algorithmic Randomness as Foundation of Inductive Reasoning and Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hutter, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    This article is a brief personal account of the past, present, and future of algorithmic randomness, emphasizing its role in inductive inference and artificial intelligence. It is written for a general audience interested in science and philosophy. Intuitively, randomness is a lack of order or predictability. If randomness is the opposite of determinism, then algorithmic randomness is the opposite of computability. Besides many other things, these concepts have been used to quantify Ockham's razor, solve the induction problem, and define intelligence.

  2. Pursuit eye movements to second-order motion targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, M J; Gegenfurtner, K R

    2001-09-01

    We studied smooth-pursuit eye movements elicited by first- and second-order motion stimuli. Stimuli were random dot fields whose contrast was modulated by a Gaussian window with a space constant of 0.5 degrees. For the first-order stimuli, the random dots simply moved across the screen at the same speed as the window; for the second-order stimuli the window moved across stationary or randomly flickering dots. Additional stimuli which combined first- and second-order motion cues were used to determine the degree and type of interaction found between the two types of motion stimuli. Measurements were made at slow (1 degrees/s) and moderate (6 degrees/s) target speeds. At a velocity of 1 degrees/s the initiation, transition, and steady-state phases of smooth pursuit in response to second-order motion targets are severely affected when compared with the smooth pursuit of first-order motion targets. At a velocity of 6 degrees/s there is a small but significant deficit in steady-state pursuit of second-order motion targets but not much effect on pursuit initiation.

  3. Media and youth: access, exposure, and privatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D F

    2000-08-01

    To describe U.S. youth's access and exposure to the full array of media, as well as the social contexts in which media exposure occurs. A cross-sectional national random sample of 2065 adolescents aged 8 through 18 years, including oversamples of African-American and Hispanic youth, completed questionnaires about use of television, videotapes, movies, computers, video games, radio, compact discs, tape players, books, newspapers, and magazines. U.S. youngsters are immersed in media. Most households contain most media (computers and video game systems are the exception); the majority of youth have their own personal media. The average youth devotes 6 3/4 h to media; simultaneous use of multiple media increases exposure to 8 h of media messages daily. Overall, media exposure and exposure to individual media vary as a function of age, gender, race/ethnicity, and family socioeconomic level. Television remains the dominant medium. About one-half of the youth sampled uses a computer daily. A substantial proportion of children's and adolescents' media use occurs in the absence of parents. American youth devote more time to media than to any other waking activity, as much as one-third of each day. This demands increased parental attention and research into the effects of such extensive exposure.

  4. Medical exposure to ionizing radiations at diagnosis aim of the French population: situation at the end of 2002 in order to implement a surveillance system;Exposition medicale aux rayonnements ionisants a visee diagnostique de la population francaise: etat des lieux fin 2002 en vue de la mise en place d'un systeme de surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donadieu, J.; Pirard, Ph. [Institut de veille sanitaire, Saint-Maurice (France); Scanff, P.; Aubert, B. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2006-04-15

    The principal result of this study, in the perspective of the implementation of an epidemiological follow-up of radiological practices, is to show that the scanner and the interventional radiology, that regroup about 8% and 1.5% of the examinations number, represent respectively about 35% and 19% of the dose to the population. These examinations are in regular progression these last years. A such evaluation allows to better adapt the efforts of the epidemiological surveillance of radiological practices. Our evaluation of the situation in France in 2002 allows a comparison with the previous data registered in France but also international comparisons. The comparison of French data during the twenty last years is based, firstly, on the comparison of the number of examinations. on this period, we observe a reduction of abdomen examinations with injection of contrast product without substitution at the profit of abdomen scanner but likely at the profit of non irradiating examinations such MRI or echography. Conversely, other indications of the scanner have been developed (head and thorax). The resultant of changes in the radiological practice in term of exposure to X radiation of the population is more difficult to analyse. In addition of the number of examinations, the radiological technique has reduced the exposure. More, the coefficient of weighting used for the calculation of efficient dose have been changed in 1990 with the passage of the ICRP 26 to the ICRP 60 recommendation. The international comparisons are also a problem of method: different approaches to compare acts, values of average efficient doses by examination are referred to doses established in Great britain when the real average efficient doses by examination vary from a country to another. An European project called 'Dose Datamed' is underway to homogenize the methods of collection. The strategies of examinations uses can be different in each country. The cumulative exposure of patients

  5. Field Induced Memory Effects in Random Nematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amid Ranjkesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied numerically external field induced memory effects in randomly perturbed nematic liquid crystals. Random anisotropy nematic-type lattice model was used. The impurities imposing orientational disorder were randomly spatially distributed with the concentration p below the percolation threshold. Simulations were carried for finite temperatures, where we varied p, interaction strength between LC molecules, and impurities and external field B. In the {B,T} plane we determined lines separating short range—quasi long range and quasi long range—long range order. Furthermore, crossover regime separating external field and random field dominated regime was estimated. We calculated remanent nematic ordering in samples at B=0 as a function of the previously experienced external field strength B.

  6. Warehouse Order-Picking Process. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Korobkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes basic warehousing activities, namely: movement, information storage and transfer, as well as connections between typical warehouse operations (reception, transfer, assigning storage position and put-away, order-picking, hoarding and sorting, cross-docking, shipping. It presents a classification of the warehouse order-picking systems in terms of manual labor on offer as well as external (marketing channels, consumer’s demand structure, supplier’s replenishment structure and inventory level, total production demand, economic situation and internal (mechanization level, information accessibility, warehouse dimensionality, method of dispatch for shipping, zoning, batching, storage assignment method, routing method factors affecting the designing systems complexity. Basic optimization considerations are described. There is a literature review on the following sub-problems of planning and control of orderpicking processes.A layout design problem has been taken in account at two levels — external (facility layout problem and internal (aisle configuration problem. For a problem of distributing goods or stock keeping units the following methods are emphasized: random, nearest open storage position, and dedicated (COI-based, frequency-based distribution, as well as class-based and familygrouped (complimentary- and contact-based one. Batching problem can be solved by two main methods, i.e. proximity order batching (seed and saving algorithms and time-window order batching. There are two strategies for a zoning problem: progressive and synchronized, and also a special case of zoning — bucket brigades method. Hoarding/sorting problem is briefly reviewed. Order-picking routing problem will be thoroughly described in the next article of the cycle “Warehouse order-picking process”.

  7. Human biomonitoring of chromium and nickel from an experimental exposure to manual metal arc welding fumes of low and high alloyed steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Jens; Brand, Peter; Schettgen, Thomas; Lenz, Klaus; Purrio, Ellwyn; Reisgen, Uwe; Kraus, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    The uptake and elimination of metals from welding fumes is currently not fully understood. In the Aachen Workplace Simulation Laboratory (AWSL) it is possible to investigate the impact of welding fumes on human subjects under controlled exposure conditions. In this study, the uptake and elimination of chromium or chromium (VI) respectively as well as nickel was studied in subjects after exposure to the emissions of a manual metal arc welding process using low or high alloyed steel. In this present study 12 healthy male non-smokers, who never worked as welders before, were exposed for 6h to welding fumes of a manual metal arc welding process. In a three-fold crossover study design, subjects were exposed in randomized order to either clean air, emissions from welding low alloyed steel, and emissions from welding high alloyed steel. Particle mass concentration of the exposure aerosol was 2.5mg m(-3). The content of chromium and nickel in the air was determined by analysing air filter samples on a high emission scenario. Urine analysis for chromium and nickel was performed before and after exposure using methods of human biomonitoring. There were significantly elevated chromium levels after exposure to welding fumes from high alloyed steel compared to urinary chromium levels before exposure to high alloyed welding fumes, as well as compared to the other exposure scenarios. The mean values increased from 0.27 µg l(-1) to 18.62 µg l(-1). The results were in good agreement with already existing correlations between external and internal exposure (German exposure equivalent for carcinogenic working materials EKA). The variability of urinary chromium levels was high. For urinary nickel no significant changes could be detected at all. Six-hour exposure to 2.5mg m(-3) high alloyed manual metal arc welding fumes lead to elevated urinary chromium levels far higher (7.11-34.16 µg l(-1)) than the German biological exposure reference value (BAR) of 0.6 µg l(-1) directly after

  8. Community exposure to perfluorooctanoate: relationships between serum concentrations and exposure sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Edward Anthony; Shofer, Frances Susan; Zhang, Hong; Freeman, David; Desai, Chintan; Shaw, Leslie Michael

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine serum (perfluorooctanoate [PFOA]) in residents near a fluoropolymer production facility: the contributions from air, water, and occupational exposures, personal and dietary habits, and relationships to age and gender. The authors conducted questionnaire and serum PFOA measurements in a stratified random sample and volunteers residing in locations with the same residential water supply but with higher and lower potential air PFOA exposure. Serum (PFOA) greatly exceeded general population medians. Occupational exposure from production processes using PFOA and residential water had additive effects; no other occupations contributed. Serum (PFOA) depended on the source of residential drinking water, and not potential air exposure. For public water users, the best-fit model included age, tap water drinks per day, servings of home-grown fruit and vegetables, and carbon filter use. Residential water source was the primary determinant of serum (PFOA).

  9. exposures (plates 20, 21 and 22)

    OpenAIRE

    Goldwater, H.

    2002-01-01

    I collaborated with the photographer Manuel Vason in order to make a series of images that were representative of my performance practice. These were initially for the book exposures by Manuel Vason, Lois Keidan and Ron Athey (Black Dog Publishing, 2002), which had the overarching remit of visually exploring the work of contemporary British-based performance/ live artists. After much discussion about my work, in order to distil the essence of some of my methodologies and visual language, ...

  10. Ordered delinquency: the "effects" of birth order on delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Patrick R

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed.

  11. Ecological Exposure Research: Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of ecological exposure water research, including invasive species, Functional Process Zones (FPZs), biomarkers, pharmaceuticals in water, headwater streams, DNA barcoding, wetland ecosystem services, and sediment remediation.

  12. Exposure assessment of trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Schaum, J

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews exposure information available for trichloroethylene (TCE) and assesses the magnitude of human exposure. The primary sources releasing TCE into the environment are metal cleaning and degreasing operations. Releases occur into all media but mostly into the air due to its volatility. It is also moderately soluble in water and can leach from soils into groundwater. TCE has commonly been found in ambient air, surface water, and groundwaters. The 1998 air levels in microg/m(3) across 115 monitors can be summarized as follows: range = 0.01-3.9, mean = 0.88. A California survey of large water utilities in 1984 found a median concentration of 3.0 microg/L. General population exposure to TCE occurs primarily by inhalation and water ingestion. Typical average daily intakes have been estimated as 11-33 microg/day for inhalation and 2-20 microg/day for ingestion. A small portion of the population is expected to have elevated exposures as a result of one or more of these pathways: inhalation exposures to workers involved in degreasing operations, ingestion and inhalation exposures occurring in homes with private wells located near disposal/contamination sites, and inhalation exposures to consumers using TCE products in areas of poor ventilation. More current and more extensive data on TCE levels in indoor air, water, and soil are needed to better characterize the distribution of background exposures in the general population and elevated exposures in special subpopulations. Images Figure 1 PMID:10807565

  13. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  14. Enhancing superconducting critical current by randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. L.; Thoutam, L. R.; Xiao, Z. L.; Shen, B.; Pearson, J. E.; Divan, R.; Ocola, L. E.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.

    2016-01-01

    The key ingredient of high critical currents in a type-II superconductor is defect sites that pin vortices. Contrary to earlier understanding on nanopatterned artificial pinning, here we show unequivocally the advantages of a random pinscape over an ordered array in a wide magnetic field range. We reveal that the better performance of a random pinscape is due to the variation of its local density of pinning sites (LDOPS), which mitigates the motion of vortices. This is confirmed by achieving even higher enhancement of the critical current through a conformally mapped random pinscape, where the distribution of the LDOPS is further enlarged. The demonstrated key role of LDOPS in enhancing superconducting critical currents gets at the heart of random versus commensurate pinning. Our findings highlight the importance of random pinscapes in enhancing the superconducting critical currents of applied superconductors.

  15. Chaos, complexity, and random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, Jordan; Hunter-Jones, Nicholas; Liu, Junyu; Yoshida, Beni

    2017-11-01

    Chaos and complexity entail an entropic and computational obstruction to describing a system, and thus are intrinsically difficult to characterize. In this paper, we consider time evolution by Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE) Hamiltonians and analytically compute out-of-time-ordered correlation functions (OTOCs) and frame potentials to quantify scrambling, Haar-randomness, and circuit complexity. While our random matrix analysis gives a qualitatively correct prediction of the late-time behavior of chaotic systems, we find unphysical behavior at early times including an O(1) scrambling time and the apparent breakdown of spatial and temporal locality. The salient feature of GUE Hamiltonians which gives us computational traction is the Haar-invariance of the ensemble, meaning that the ensemble-averaged dynamics look the same in any basis. Motivated by this property of the GUE, we introduce k-invariance as a precise definition of what it means for the dynamics of a quantum system to be described by random matrix theory. We envision that the dynamical onset of approximate k-invariance will be a useful tool for capturing the transition from early-time chaos, as seen by OTOCs, to late-time chaos, as seen by random matrix theory.

  16. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: In order to understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms (e.g. gastrointestinal [GI], respiratory, dermatological), it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar ...

  17. Sunscreen abuse for intentional sun exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autier, P

    2009-11-01

    Skin cancer is caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV) and the sun is the main source of this radiation. Sunscreens were initially formulated to prevent sunburns; laboratory studies later revealed that in rodents they could reduce UV-induced skin cancer which resembles human squamous cell carcinoma. Three randomized trials in older adults showed the ability of sunscreens to moderately reduce the occurrence of solar keratoses and of squamous cell carcinoma. However, no effect was observed for basal cell carcinoma. There is no animal model for human melanoma and observational studies often found sunscreen use associated with a higher risk of nevus, melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. These higher risks were found when sun exposure appeared to be intentional, that is, with the desire to acquire a tan, a healthy look or simply to spend as long as possible in the sun with as much skin exposed as possible. Three randomized trials showed that sunscreen use by sun sensitive subjects engaging in intentional sun exposure could increase the duration of exposure without decreasing sunburn occurrence. This increased duration could be the reason why melanoma risk is increased when sunscreen is used. Hence, sunscreen abuse may extend sun exposure duration thus allowing sun exposure behaviours that would not be possible otherwise. Advertising for sunscreens and labeling of sunscreen bottles should inform consumers of the carcinogenic hazards associated with sunscreen abuse. It would be good to use a personal UV dosimeter which would give an alert when one's individual sunburn threshold in the absence of sunscreen use is nearing. The combination of sunscreen and a UV dosimeter may be an option for reducing the melanoma risk among sun worshippers.

  18. Random matrices, random processes and integrable systems

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    This book explores the remarkable connections between two domains that, a priori, seem unrelated: Random matrices (together with associated random processes) and integrable systems. The relations between random matrix models and the theory of classical integrable systems have long been studied. These appear mainly in the deformation theory, when parameters characterizing the measures or the domain of localization of the eigenvalues are varied. The resulting differential equations determining the partition function and correlation functions are, remarkably, of the same type as certain equations appearing in the theory of integrable systems. They may be analyzed effectively through methods based upon the Riemann-Hilbert problem of analytic function theory and by related approaches to the study of nonlinear asymptotics in the large N limit. Associated with studies of matrix models are certain stochastic processes, the "Dyson processes", and their continuum diffusion limits, which govern the spectrum in random ma...

  19. Noise Exposure Model MOD-5 : Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-06-01

    The report contains three sections. The first two sections are contained in Volume 1. It contains an airport analysis which describes the noise exposure model MOD-5 from the perspective of analysing an airport in order to develop the program input mo...

  20. Noise Exposure Model MOD-5 : Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-06-01

    The report contains three sections. The first two sections are contained in Volume 1. It contains an airport analysis which describes the noise exposure model MOD-5 from the perspective of analysing an airport in order to develop the program input mo...

  1. Asymmetric evolving random networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulomb, S.; Bauer, M.

    2003-10-01

    We generalize the Poissonian evolving random graph model of M. Bauer and D. Bernard (2003), to deal with arbitrary degree distributions. The motivation comes from biological networks, which are well-known to exhibit non Poissonian degree distributions. A node is added at each time step and is connected to the rest of the graph by oriented edges emerging from older nodes. This leads to a statistical asymmetry between incoming and outgoing edges. The law for the number of new edges at each time step is fixed but arbitrary. Thermodynamical behavior is expected when this law has a large time limit. Although (by construction) the incoming degree distributions depend on this law, this is not the case for most qualitative features concerning the size distribution of connected components, as long as the law has a finite variance. As the variance grows above 1/4, the average being < 1/2, a giant component emerges, which connects a finite fraction of the vertices. Below this threshold, the distribution of component sizes decreases algebraically with a continuously varying exponent. The transition is of infinite order, in sharp contrast with the case of static graphs. The local-in-time profiles for the components of finite size allow to give a refined description of the system.

  2. Waltzing between Order and Ordering - a Social Practice Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Boer, Harry

    2007-01-01

    and produce strategic outcomes. This paper aims to understand these social systems dynamics, which it treats as a mutually shaping interplay between order and ordering. The paper illustrates this interplay though two case studies concerning two small and medium sized companies' efforts to enable strategic...

  3. Ordering within Moral Orders to Manage Classroom Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Catherine; McGregor, Rowena; Shield, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how classroom trouble warranting teacher intervention can stem from transgressions in different layers of the complex moral order regulating classroom interactions. The paper builds from Durkheim's treatment of schooling as the institution responsible for the inculcation of a shared moral order, Bernstein's distinction…

  4. The Order Specification Decoupling Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the important issue in build-to-order production of separating innovative long term engineering processes from day-to-day variant specification processes, i.e. the processes creating specifications such as bill-of-materials, drawings, text descriptions, routings etc. The paper...... proposes and discusses the term Order Specification Decoupling Line (OSDL), which is to be used to explain the separation of industrial specifications into some information created prior to order acquisition and some information created during order acquisition and order fulfillment. For instance one may...... find some welding specifications or product descriptions which are standard for every order, while there may be other specifications, such as bill-of-materials and drawings, which are customized. Through a use of this concept it becomes possible to discuss different levels of OSDL and different variant...

  5. Complete Normal Ordering 1: Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to `complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all `cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of `complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative i...

  6. Misuse of randomization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Kjaergard, Lise Lotte; Gluud, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The quality of randomization of Chinese randomized trials on herbal medicines for hepatitis B was assessed. Search strategy and inclusion criteria were based on the published protocol. One hundred and seventy-six randomized clinical trials (RCTs) involving 20,452 patients with chronic hepatitis B....../150) of the studies were imbalanced at the 0.05 level of probability for the two treatments and 13.3% (20/150) imbalanced at the 0.01 level in the randomization. It is suggested that there may exist misunderstanding of the concept and the misuse of randomization based on the review....

  7. Random Quantum Dynamics: From Random Quantum Circuits to Quantum Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Winton G.

    Quantum circuits consisting of single and two-qubit gates selected at random from a universal gate set are examined. Specifically, the asymptotic rate for large numbers of qubits n and large circuit depth k at which t-order statistical moments of the matrix elements of the resulting random unitary transformation converge to their values with respect to the invariant Haar measure on U(2 n) are determined. The asymptotic convergence rate is obtained from the spectral gap of a superoperator describing the action of the circuit on t-copies of the system Hilbert space. For a class of random quantum circuits that are reversible and invariant under permutation of the qubit labels, the gap and hence the asymptotic convergence rate is shown to scale as ˜ 1/n for sufficiently large n, with a coefficient that may in general depend on t. Bounds are derived between the convergence rates for a broader class of reversible random quantum circuits and the convergence rates of second order moments of irreversible random quantum circuits are examined through a mapping to a Markov chain. Weak constraints are constructed for finite moments of matrix elements of local observables with respect to the eigenvectors of general many-body Hamiltonians in the thermodynamic limit. This is accomplished by means of an expansion in terms of polynomials which are orthogonal with respect to the density of states. The way in which such constraints are satisfied is explored in connection to non-integrability and is argued to provide a general framework for analyzing many-body quantum chaos. Hamiltonians consisting of the XX-interaction between spin-1/2 particles (qubits) which are nearest neighbors on a 3-regular random graph (non-integrable), and an open chain (integrable), are diagonalized numerically to illustrate how the weak constraints can be satisfied. The entanglement content of the eigenvectors of chaotic many-body Hamiltonians is discussed as well as the connection between quantum chaos and

  8. Ordering variable for parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltán [DESY,Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403-5203 (United States)

    2014-06-30

    The parton splittings in a parton shower are ordered according to an ordering variable, for example the transverse momentum of the daughter partons relative to the direction of the mother, the virtuality of the splitting, or the angle between the daughter partons. We analyze the choice of the ordering variable and conclude that one particular choice has the advantage of factoring softer splittings from harder splittings graph by graph in a physical gauge.

  9. Ordering variable for parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    2014-01-15

    The parton splittings in a parton shower are ordered according to an ordering variable, for example the transverse momentum of the daughter partons relative to the direction of the mother, the virtuality of the splitting, or the angle between the daughter partons. We analyze the choice of the ordering variable and conclude that one particular choice has the advantage of factoring softer splittings from harder splittings graph by graph in a physical gauge.

  10. Conflict exposure and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, Francesco; Leuveld, Koen; Voors, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    We use data from a street football tournament and a series of lab-in-field experiments in postconflict Sierra Leone to examine the impact of exposure to conflict violence on competitive behavior. We find that football players who experienced more intense exposure to violence are more likely to get a

  11. Mercury exposure in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cullen, Elizabeth; Evans, David S; Davidson, Fred

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Monitoring of human exposure to mercury is important due to its adverse health effects. This study aimed to determine the extent of mercury exposure among mothers and their children in Ireland, and to identify factors associated with elevated levels. It formed part of the Demonstration...

  12. Aggregate Exposure Pathway Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing the growing demands for conducting rapid, cost-effective, and reliable exposure assessment on the thousands of chemicals in commerce, a committee convened by the National Research Council (NRC) developed its vision for exposure science in the 21st century. A necessary...

  13. The weighted random graph model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlaschelli, Diego

    2009-07-01

    We introduce the weighted random graph (WRG) model, which represents the weighted counterpart of the Erdos-Renyi random graph and provides fundamental insights into more complicated weighted networks. We find analytically that the WRG is characterized by a geometric weight distribution, a binomial degree distribution and a negative binomial strength distribution. We also characterize exactly the percolation phase transitions associated with edge removal and with the appearance of weighted subgraphs of any order and intensity. We find that even this completely null model displays a percolation behaviour similar to what is observed in real weighted networks, implying that edge removal cannot be used to detect community structure empirically. By contrast, the analysis of clustering successfully reveals different patterns between the WRG and real networks.

  14. Executive Orders-Barack Obama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — Executive orders are official documents, numbered consecutively, through which the President of the United States manages the operations of the Federal Government....

  15. Liquid crystalline order in polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Blumstein, Alexandre

    1978-01-01

    Liquid Crystalline Order in Polymers examines the topic of liquid crystalline order in systems containing rigid synthetic macromolecular chains. Each chapter of the book provides a review of one important area of the field. Chapter 1 discusses scattering in polymer systems with liquid crystalline order. It also introduces the field of liquid crystals. Chapter 2 treats the origin of liquid crystalline order in macromolecules by describing the in-depth study of conformation of such macromolecules in their unassociated state. The chapters that follow describe successively the liquid crystalli

  16. Dermal exposure assessment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, R A

    1993-12-01

    Exposure of the skin to chemical substances can contribute significantly to total dose in many workplace situations, and its relative importance will increase when airborne occupational exposure limits are reduced, unless steps to reduce skin exposure are undertaken simultaneously. Its assessment employs personal sampling techniques to measure skin loading rates, and combines these measurements with models of percutaneous absorption to estimate absorbed dose. Knowledge of dermal exposure pathways is in many cases fundamental to hazard evaluation and control. When the skin is the primary contributor to absorbed dose, dermal exposure measurements and biological monitoring play complementary roles in defining occupational exposures. Exposure normally occurs by one of three pathways: (i) immersion (direct contact with a liquid or solid chemical substance); (ii) deposition of aerosol or uptake of vapour through the skin; or (iii) surface contact (residue transfer from contaminated surfaces). Sampling methods fall into three categories: surrogate skin; chemical removal; and fluorescent tracers. Surface sampling represents a supplementary approach, providing an estimate of dermal exposure potential. Surrogate skin techniques involve placing a chemical collection medium on the skin. Whole-body garment samplers do not require assumptions relating to distribution, an inherent limitation of patch sampling. The validity of these techniques rests on the ability of the sampling medium to capture and retain chemicals in a manner similar to skin. Removal techniques include skin washing and wiping, but these measure only what can be removed from the skin, not exposure: laboratory removal efficiency studies are required for proper interpretation of data. Fluorescent tracer techniques exploit the visual properties of fluorescent compounds, and combined with video imaging make quantification of dermal exposure patterns possible, but the need to introduce a chemical substance (tracer

  17. Personal Noise Exposure on Workers in Metal Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mihova, Slavica; Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Mirakovski, Dejan; Doneva, Nikolinka

    2017-01-01

    Excessive noise exposure in metal industry is well known for being a risk factor both in developed and developing countries. High noise levels results from noisy machines used in metal production and processing. In order to determine workplace associated noise exposure in pipe and profiles production facility, a full shift noise exposure of 40 workers distributed in 8 jobs were measured in real condition using noise dosimeters. A-weighted equivalent-continuous sound pressure level...

  18. Molecular Exchange in Ordered Diblock Copolymer Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lodge, Timothy; Bates, Frank

    2011-03-01

    Previously, molecular exchange between spherical micelles in dilute solution (1 vol% polymer) was investigated using time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (TR-SANS). As the concentration of spherical micelles formed by the diblock copolymers increases, the micelles begin to overlap and eventually pack onto body-centered cubic (BCC) lattice. In this study, concentrated, ordered micelles (15 vol% polymers) prepared by dispersing isotopically labeled poly(styrene- b -ethylene-alt-propylene) in an isotopic squalane mixture was investigated to understand the micellar concentration dependence of the molecular exchange. Perfectly random mixing of isotopically labeled micelles on the BCC lattice was confirmed by SANS patterns where the interparticle contribution vanishes, resulting in an intensity that directly relates to the exchange kinetics. The measured molecular exchange process for the concentrated, ordered system is qualitatively consistent with the previous observations, but the rate is more than an order of magnitude slower than that for the dilute, disordered system. Infineum(IPrime), MRSEC(NSF), NIST.

  19. Optimal fractional order PID design via Tabu Search based algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Abdullah; Yeroglu, Celaleddin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization method based on the Tabu Search Algorithm (TSA) to design a Fractional-Order Proportional-Integral-Derivative (FOPID) controller. All parameter computations of the FOPID employ random initial conditions, using the proposed optimization method. Illustrative examples demonstrate the performance of the proposed FOPID controller design method. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonparametric Bayesian predictive distributions for future order statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Johnson; James W. Evans; David W. Green

    1999-01-01

    We derive the predictive distribution for a specified order statistic, determined from a future random sample, under a Dirichlet process prior. Two variants of the approach are treated and some limiting cases studied. A practical application to monitoring the strength of lumber is discussed including choices of prior expectation and comparisons made to a Bayesian...

  1. Warehouse order-picking process. Order-picker routing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Korobkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article continues “Warehouse order-picking process” cycle and describes order-picker routing sub-problem of a warehouse order-picking process. It draws analogies between the orderpickers’ routing problem and traveling salesman’s problem, shows differences between the standard problem statement of a traveling salesman and routing problem of warehouse orderpickers, and gives the particular Steiner’s problem statement of a traveling salesman.Warehouse layout with a typical order is represented by a graph, with some its vertices corresponding to mandatory order-picker’s visits and some other ones being noncompulsory. The paper describes an optimal Ratliff-Rosenthal algorithm to solve order-picker’s routing problem for the single-block warehouses, i.e. warehouses with only two crossing aisles, defines seven equivalent classes of partial routing sub-graphs and five transitions used to have an optimal routing sub-graph of a order-picker. An extension of optimal Ratliff-Rosenthal order-picker routing algorithm for multi-block warehouses is presented and also reasons for using the routing heuristics instead of exact optimal algorithms are given. The paper offers algorithmic description of the following seven routing heuristics: S-shaped, return, midpoint, largest gap, aisle-by-aisle, composite, and combined as well as modification of combined heuristics. The comparison of orderpicker routing heuristics for one- and two-block warehouses is to be described in the next article of the “Warehouse order-picking process” cycle.

  2. Ex Priori: Exposure-based Prioritization across Chemical Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Exposure Prioritization (Ex Priori) is a simplified, quantitative visual dashboard that makes use of data from various inputs to provide rank-ordered internalized dose metric. This complements other high throughput screening by viewing exposures within all chemical space si...

  3. Estimating trends in quartz exposure in Swedish iron foundries--predicting past and present exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Lena; Burdorf, Alex; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Westberg, Håkan

    2012-04-01

    Swedish foundries have a long tradition of legally required surveys in the workplace that, from the late 1960s onwards, included measurements of quartz. The availability of exposure data spanning almost 40 years presents a unique opportunity to study trends over that time and to evaluate the validity of exposure models based on data from shorter time spans. The aims of this study were (i) to investigate long-term trends in quartz exposure over time, (ii) using routinely collected quartz exposure measurements to develop a mathematical model that could predict both historical and current exposure patterns, and (iii) to validate this exposure model with up-to-date measurements from a targeted survey of the industry. Eleven foundries, representative of the Swedish iron foundry industry, were divided into three groups based on the size of the companies, i.e. the number of employees. A database containing 2333 quartz exposure measurements for 11 different job descriptions was used to create three models that covered time periods which reflected different work conditions and production processes: a historical model (1968-1989), a development model (1990-2004), and a validation model (2005-2006). A linear mixed model for repeated measurements was used to investigate trends over time. In all mixed models, time period, company size, and job title were included as fixed (categorical) determinants of exposure. The within- and between-worker variances were considered to be random effects. A linear regression analysis was performed to investigate agreement between the models. The average exposure was estimated for each combination of job title and company size. A large reduction in exposure (51%) was seen between 1968 and 1974 and between 1975 and 1979 (28%). In later periods, quartz exposure was reduced by 8% per 5 years at best. In the first period, employees at smaller companies experienced ~50% higher exposure levels than those at large companies, but these differences

  4. Algorithms over partially ordered sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Robert M.; Østerby, Ole

    1969-01-01

    We here study some problems concerned with the computational analysis of finite partially ordered sets. We begin (in § 1) by showing that the matrix representation of a binary relationR may always be taken in triangular form ifR is a partial ordering. We consider (in § 2) the chain structure...

  5. Orderings for conjugate gradient preconditionings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of orderings on the rate of convergence of the conjugate gradient method with SSOR or incomplete Cholesky preconditioning is examined. Some results also are presented that help to explain why red/black ordering gives an inferior rate of convergence.

  6. Order and disorder in matter

    CERN Document Server

    Careri, Giorgio

    1984-01-01

    Order and Disorder in Matter offers a comprehensive and up-to-date view of structures and processes in matter, in terms of the evolving concepts of order and disorder. Particular emphasis is given to the recent evolution of these concepts and their relationship to the more complex systems in nature.

  7. Chaos and order in education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    source of order" (Brown & Moffett, 1999:21); "complex systems ... contain both order and chaos" (Badenhorst, 1995:13). These state- ments are commonly presented as supported by the assured findings of the physical sciences and mathematics, and commonly linked, in particular, to "chaos theory". Whilst such descriptions ...

  8. Impact of Agent Orange Exposure among Korean Vietnam Veterans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KIM, Joung-Soon; LIM, Hyun-Sul; CHO, Sung-Il; CHEONG, Hae-Kwan; LIM, Min-Kyung

    2003-01-01

    In order to determine whether Agent Orange exposure was associated with increased frequency of medical problems, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of Korean veterans during 1995-1996...

  9. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  10. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  11. Changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cholecalciferol after one whole-body exposure in a commercial tanning bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langdahl, Jacob H; Schierbeck, Louise Lind; Bang, Ulrich Christian

    2012-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the cutaneous synthesis of 25OHD and cholecalciferol after one whole-body exposure to ultraviolet radiation type B (UVB) in a randomized setup. Healthy volunteers were randomized to one whole-body exposure in a commercial tanning bed with UVB emission (UVB/UVA ratio 1...

  12. Selection-endogenous ordered probit and dynamic ordered probit models

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Miranda; Massimiliano Bratti

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation we define two qualitatitive response models: 1) Selection Endogenous Dummy Ordered Probit model (SED-OP); 2) a Selection Endogenous Dummy Dynamic Selection Ordered Probit model (SED- DOP). The SED-OP model is a three-equation model constituted of an endogenous dummy equation, a selection equation, and a main equation which has an ordinal response form. The main feature of the model is that the endogenous dummy enters both the selection equation and the main equation. The ...

  13. Human exposures to parabens in cosmetics - a literature study

    OpenAIRE

    Aarflot, Ragnhild Lønseth

    2013-01-01

    A literature study was performed in order to assess and compare evidence of human exposure to parabens in cosmetics. The focus of the thesis is on human concentrations, the rate of dermal absorption, metabolism and excretion; in order to increase our understanding of human exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals in cosmetics. High detection rates of native and total parabens in blood and urine were identified. GMs of native parabens were lower than total paraben levels in urine as expecte...

  14. ECO Exposure Assessment Tools by Receptors and Exposure Factors - References

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  15. ECO Exposure Assessment Tools by Exposure Pathways - References

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  16. Variability in endotoxin exposure levels and consequences for exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, S.; Schinkel, J.; Wouters, I.M.; Preller, L.; Tielemans, E.; Nij, E.T.; Heederik, D.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Workers in many industries are exposed to endotoxins, which may cause adverse health effects. In exposure assessment, information about exposure variability is essential. However, variability in exposure has rarely been investigated for biological agents and more specifically for

  17. Neurophysiological evidence that perceptions of fluency produce mere exposure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leynes, P Andrew; Addante, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    Recent exposure to people or objects increases liking ratings, the "mere exposure effect" (Zajonc in American Psychologist, 35, 117-123, 1968), and an increase in processing fluency has been identified as a potential mechanism for producing this effect. This fluency hypothesis was directly tested by altering the trial-by-trial image clarity (i.e., fluency) while Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded. In Experiment 1, clarity was altered across two trial blocks that each had homogenous trial-by-trial clarity, whereas clarity varied randomly across trials in Experiment 2. Blocking or randomizing image clarity across trials was expected to produce different levels of relative fluency and alter mere exposure effects. The mere exposure effect (i.e., old products liked more than new products) was observed when stimulus clarity remained constant across trials, and clear image ERPs were more positive than blurry image ERPs. Importantly, these patterns were reversed when clarity varied randomly across test trials, such that participants liked clear images more than blurry (i.e., no mere exposure effect) and clear image ERPs were more negative than blurry image ERPs. The findings provide direct experimental support from both behavioral and electrophysiological measures that, in some contexts, mere exposure is the product of top-down interpretations of fluency.

  18. Random walks, random fields, and disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Černý, Jiří; Kotecký, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the mathematics that lies at the intersection of probability theory, statistical physics, combinatorics and computer science, this volume collects together lecture notes on recent developments in the area. The common ground of these subjects is perhaps best described by the three terms in the title: Random Walks, Random Fields and Disordered Systems. The specific topics covered include a study of Branching Brownian Motion from the perspective of disordered (spin-glass) systems, a detailed analysis of weakly self-avoiding random walks in four spatial dimensions via methods of field theory and the renormalization group, a study of phase transitions in disordered discrete structures using a rigorous version of the cavity method, a survey of recent work on interacting polymers in the ballisticity regime and, finally, a treatise on two-dimensional loop-soup models and their connection to conformally invariant systems and the Gaussian Free Field. The notes are aimed at early graduate students with a mod...

  19. Finite-order universal portfolios generated by probability mass functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Choon Peng; Chu, Sin Yen; Pan, Wei Yeing

    2015-05-01

    It is shown that the finite-order universal portfolios generated by independent discrete random variables are constant rebalanced portfolios. The case where the universal portfolios are generated by the moments of the joint Dirichlet distribution is studied. The performance of the low-order Dirichlet universal portfolios on some stock-price data set is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the performance is comparable and in some cases outperform the moving-order Cover-Ordentlich universal portfolios with faster implementation time and higher wealth achieved.

  20. Quantum random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Collantes, Miguel; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Random numbers are a fundamental resource in science and engineering with important applications in simulation and cryptography. The inherent randomness at the core of quantum mechanics makes quantum systems a perfect source of entropy. Quantum random number generation is one of the most mature quantum technologies with many alternative generation methods. This review discusses the different technologies in quantum random number generation from the early devices based on radioactive decay to the multiple ways to use the quantum states of light to gather entropy from a quantum origin. Randomness extraction and amplification and the notable possibility of generating trusted random numbers even with untrusted hardware using device-independent generation protocols are also discussed.

  1. Partial order infinitary term rewriting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    with the partial order model restricted to total terms. Hence, partial order convergence constitutes a conservative extension of metric convergence, which additionally offers a fine-grained distinction between different levels of divergence. In the second part, we focus our investigation on strong convergence...... of orthogonal systems. The main result is that the gap between the metric model and the partial order model can be bridged by extending the term rewriting system by additional rules. These extensions are the well-known Böhm extensions. Based on this result, we are able to establish that -- contrary...

  2. Ferroelectric Fractional-Order Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Agambayev, Agamyrat

    2017-07-25

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based polymers and their blends are used to fabricate electrostatic fractional-order capacitors. This simple but effective method allows us to precisely tune the constant phase angle of the resulting fractional-order capacitor by changing the blend composition. Additionally, we have derived an empirical relation between the ratio of the blend constituents and the constant phase angle to facilitate the design of a fractional order capacitor with a desired constant phase angle. The structural composition of the fabricated blends is investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques.

  3. Order Theory in Environmental Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P. B.; Brüggemann, R.; Lerche, D. B.

    This is the proceeding from the fifth workshop in Order Theory in Environ-mental Science. In this workshop series the concept of Partial Order Theory is development in relation to application and the use is tested based on specific problems. The Partial Order Theory will have a potential use...... in cases where more than one criterion is included in a prioritisation problem both in relation to decision support and in relation to data-mining and interpretation. Espe-cially the problems where a high degree of complexity results in considerable uncertainty are good candidates for application...

  4. Biomarkers of Mercury Exposure in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Santos Serrão de Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exposure in the Amazon has been studied since the 1980s decade and the assessment of human mercury exposure in the Amazon is difficult given that the natural occurrence of this metal is high and the concentration of mercury in biological samples of this population exceeds the standardized value of normality established by WHO. Few studies have focused on the discovery of mercury biomarkers in the region’s population. In this way, some studies have used genetics as well as immunological and cytogenetic tools in order to find a molecular biomarker for assessing the toxicological effect of mercury in the Amazonian population. Most of those studies focused attention on the relation between mercury exposure and autoimmunity and, because of that, they will be discussed in more detail. Here we introduce the general aspects involved with each biomarker that was studied in the region in order to contextualize the reader and add information about the Amazonian life style and health that may be considered for future studies. We hope that, in the future, the toxicological studies in this field use high technological tools, such as the next generation sequencing and proteomics skills, in order to comprehend basic questions regarding the metabolic route of mercury in populations that are under constant exposure, such as in the Amazon.

  5. Biomarkers of mercury exposure in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Nathália Santos Serrão; Lima, Marcelo de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Mercury exposure in the Amazon has been studied since the 1980s decade and the assessment of human mercury exposure in the Amazon is difficult given that the natural occurrence of this metal is high and the concentration of mercury in biological samples of this population exceeds the standardized value of normality established by WHO. Few studies have focused on the discovery of mercury biomarkers in the region's population. In this way, some studies have used genetics as well as immunological and cytogenetic tools in order to find a molecular biomarker for assessing the toxicological effect of mercury in the Amazonian population. Most of those studies focused attention on the relation between mercury exposure and autoimmunity and, because of that, they will be discussed in more detail. Here we introduce the general aspects involved with each biomarker that was studied in the region in order to contextualize the reader and add information about the Amazonian life style and health that may be considered for future studies. We hope that, in the future, the toxicological studies in this field use high technological tools, such as the next generation sequencing and proteomics skills, in order to comprehend basic questions regarding the metabolic route of mercury in populations that are under constant exposure, such as in the Amazon.

  6. Random Differential Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Rob; Rinaldo, Alessandro; Wasserman, Larry

    2011-01-01

    We propose a relaxed privacy definition called {\\em random differential privacy} (RDP). Differential privacy requires that adding any new observation to a database will have small effect on the output of the data-release procedure. Random differential privacy requires that adding a {\\em randomly drawn new observation} to a database will have small effect on the output. We show an analog of the composition property of differentially private procedures which applies to our new definition. We sh...

  7. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  8. Nanotechnology and Exposure Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIOY, PAUL J.; NAZARENKO, YEVGEN; HAN, TAE WON; LIOY, MARY JEAN; MAINELIS, GEDIMINAS

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the gaps in our understanding of human exposures to nanoparticles stemming from the use of nanotechnology-based consumer products by the general public. It also describes a series of steps that could be taken to characterize such exposures. The suggested steps include classification of the nanotechnology-based products, simulation of realistic exposure patterns, characterization of emissions, analysis of the duration of activities resulting in exposures, and consideration of the bioaccessibility of nanoparticles. In addition, we present a preliminary study with nanotechnology-based cosmetic powders where particle release was studied under realistic powder application conditions. The data demonstrated that when nanotechnology-based cosmetic powders were used, there was a potential for inhaling airborne particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to tens of micrometers. PMID:21222382

  9. Contamination vs. Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Matters Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Contamination vs. exposure Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... contaminate their surroundings and personal property. Types of Contamination Internal Contamination Internal contamination occurs when people swallow ...

  10. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  11. Poinsettia plant exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas flower poisoning; Lobster plant poisoning; Painted leaf poisoning ... Leaves, stem, sap of the poinsettia plant ... Poinsettia plant exposure can affect many parts of the body. EYES (IF DIRECT CONTACT OCCURS) Burning Redness STOMACH AND ...

  12. Insecticide Exposure in Parkinsonism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bloomquist, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral, neurochemical, and immunocytochemical studies are characterizing the possible role of insecticide exposure in the etiology of Parkinson's disease as it may relate to Gulf War Syndrome. Chlorpyrifos (CP) and/or permethrin (PM...

  13. Insecticide Exposure in Parkinsonism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bloomquist, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Behavioral, neurochemical, and immunocytochemical studies characterized the possible role of insecticide exposure in the etiology of Parkinson's disease as it may relate to Gulf War Syndrome. Chlorpyrifos (CP) and permethrin (PM...

  14. Insecticide Exposure in Parkinsonism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bloomquist, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Behavioral, neurochemical, and immunocytochemical studies characterized the possible role of insecticide exposure in the etiology of Parkinson's disease as it may relate to Gulf War Syndrome. Chlorpyrifos (CP) and permethrin (PM...

  15. Radiation exposure and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labant, Amy; Silva, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Radiological exposure from nuclear power reactor accidents, transportation of nuclear waste accidents, industrial accidents, or terrorist activity may be a remote possibility, but it could happen. Nurses must be prepared to evaluate and treat pregnant women and infants who have been exposed to radiation, and to have an understanding of the health consequences of a nuclear or radiological incident. Pregnant women and infants are a special group of patients who need consideration when exposed to radiation. Initial care requires thorough assessment and decisions regarding immediate care needs. Ongoing care is based on type and extent of radiation exposure. With accurate, comprehensive information and education, nurses will be better prepared to help mitigate the effects of radiation exposure to pregnant women and infants following a radiological incident. Information about radiation, health effects of prenatal radiation exposure, assessment, patient care, and treatment of pregnant women and infants are presented.

  16. Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Updated: June 2017 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy The birth of a child ... experience. It is In addition to unavoidable background radiation, one hard to prepare yourself for the joys— ...

  17. Personal Chemical Exposure informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical Exposure science is the study of human contact with chemicals (from manufacturing facilities, everyday products, waste) occurring in their environments and advances knowledge of the mechanisms and dynamics of events that cause or prevent adverse health outcomes. (adapted...

  18. First-Order Twistor Lifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões BrunoAscenso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of twistor methods in the study of Jacobi fields has proved quite fruitful, leading to a series of results. L. Lemaire and J. C. Wood proved several properties of Jacobi fields along harmonic maps from the two-sphere to the complex projective plane and to the three- and four-dimensional spheres, by carefully relating the infinitesimal deformations of the harmonic maps to those of the holomorphic data describing them. In order to advance this programme, we prove a series of relations between infinitesimal properties of the map and those of its twistor lift. Namely, we prove that isotropy and harmonicity to first order of the map correspond to holomorphicity to first order of its lift into the twistor space, relatively to the standard almost complex structures and . This is done by obtaining first-order analogues of classical twistorial constructions.

  19. Proposed Closing Order : St. Vincent

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The attached letter directed to Secretary Morton from the Florida Chapter of The Nature Conservancy recommends the establishment of a Secretarial closing order on...

  20. Streams with Strahler Stream Order

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Stream segments with Strahler stream order values assigned. As of 01/08/08 the linework is from the DNR24K stream coverages and will not match the updated...

  1. First-Order Twistor Lifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ascenso Simões

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of twistor methods in the study of Jacobi fields has proved quite fruitful, leading to a series of results. L. Lemaire and J. C. Wood proved several properties of Jacobi fields along harmonic maps from the two-sphere to the complex projective plane and to the three- and four-dimensional spheres, by carefully relating the infinitesimal deformations of the harmonic maps to those of the holomorphic data describing them. In order to advance this programme, we prove a series of relations between infinitesimal properties of the map and those of its twistor lift. Namely, we prove that isotropy and harmonicity to first order of the map correspond to holomorphicity to first order of its lift into the twistor space, relatively to the standard almost complex structures J1 and J2. This is done by obtaining first-order analogues of classical twistorial constructions.

  2. Job Orders (Ordres de mission)

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation & Procedures, FI Department, Tel. 73905

    2005-01-01

    Please note that individual job orders and continuous job orders (valid for one calendar year, i.e. from 1st January to 31st December) must henceforth be completed via EDH and approved by the Department Leader concerned (or the person appointed by him via EDHAdmin). Once approved, the form must be printed and kept for the duration of the mission by the driver to whom the job order is issued. You will find the icon for this document on the EDH Desktop, as well as on-line help on how to use it. In emergencies, paper copies of individual job orders (SCEM 54.50.20.168.5) may be issued outside normal working hours by the Fire Brigade (Meyrin Site, Building 65). Organisation & Procedures, FI Department, Tel. 73905 Relations with the Host States Service, Tel. 72848

  3. Inference Procedures for Ordering Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Frank B.; Hubert, Lawrence J.

    1977-01-01

    Given a set of dichotomously scored items, ordering theory attempts to identify a hierarchy among those items. A graphic representation is presented for an empirically obtained hierarchy and a testing procedure to evaluate hypothesized hierarchical relationships. (Author/JKS)

  4. Topological Order in Silicon Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-07

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0037 Topological orders in Silicon photonics Mohammad Hafezi MARYLAND UNIV COLLEGE PARK 3112 LEE BLDG COLLEGE PARK, MD 20742...15 SEP 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Topological Order in Silicon Photonics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA-9550-14-1-0267 5c. PROGRAM...DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Topological features

  5. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p birth order on risk attitudes. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Constitutional orders in multinational firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    Multinationals are faced with the problem of how to coordinate different actors and stop `fiefdoms' emerging that inhibits the achievement of transnational cooperation? We identify this as a problem of `constitutional ordering' in the firm. Drawing on Varieties of Capitalism approaches, we explore...... how multinationals from different contexts seek to create constitutional orders. We argue that the models which exist appear to be destructive of coordination. We explore the implications for MNCs....

  7. Exposure to chronic stress increases the locomotor response to cocaine and the basal levels of corticosterone in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepsch, L B; Gonzalo, L A; Magro, F J B; Delucia, R; Scavone, C; Planeta, C S

    2005-09-01

    Repeated exposure to stress results in augmentation in the locomotor response to psychostimulant drugs. We investigated the locomotor response to a novel environment or cocaine [10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)] and basal corticosterone levels in male adolescent rats exposed to chronic restraint or variable stress. Animals in the chronic restraint group were restrained for 1 hour daily. The chronic variable stress protocol consisted of exposure to different stressors twice a day in random order. Chronic restraint and variable stress regimens began simultaneously on postnatal day (P) 25 and were applied for 10 days. During this period the control group was left undisturbed except for cleaning the cages. Three days after the last exposure to stress, cocaine- and novelty-induced locomotion were recorded in an activity cage. Plasma corticosterone levels were determined in a subset of stress and control animals. Exposure to both chronic restraint and variable stress increased cocaine-induced locomotion and basal corticosterone plasma levels, while no change was observed in the response to a novel environment. Moreover, rats exposed to variable stress displayed the greatest locomotor response following a challenge dose with cocaine when compared to control and chronic restraint stress groups. This observation indicates that the stress regimen is relevant to the degree of stress-induced sensitization to cocaine.

  8. Autoimmunity and Asbestos Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean C. Pfau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a body of evidence supporting an association between asbestos exposure and autoantibodies indicative of systemic autoimmunity, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA, a strong epidemiological link has never been made to specific autoimmune diseases. This is in contrast with another silicate dust, crystalline silica, for which there is considerable evidence linking exposure to diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Instead, the asbestos literature is heavily focused on cancer, including mesothelioma and pulmonary carcinoma. Possible contributing factors to the absence of a stronger epidemiological association between asbestos and autoimmune disease include (a a lack of statistical power due to relatively small or diffuse exposure cohorts, (b exposure misclassification, (c latency of clinical disease, (d mild or subclinical entities that remain undetected or masked by other pathologies, or (e effects that are specific to certain fiber types, so that analyses on mixed exposures do not reach statistical significance. This review summarizes epidemiological, animal model, and in vitro data related to asbestos exposures and autoimmunity. These combined data help build toward a better understanding of the fiber-associated factors contributing to immune dysfunction that may raise the risk of autoimmunity and the possible contribution to asbestos-related pulmonary disease.

  9. Development, design, and conceptual issues of project zero exposure: A program to protect young children from tobacco smoke exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardavas Constantine I

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE is a serious threat to child health. Roughly 40% of children worldwide are exposed to tobacco smoke, and the very young are often "captive smokers" in homes in which others smoke. The goal of this research project is to develop and evaluate an intervention to reduce young child tobacco smoke exposure. The objective of this paper is to document our approach to building the intervention, to describe the planned intervention, and to explore the conceptual issues regarding the intervention and its evaluation. Methods/Design This project is being developed using an iterative approach. We are currently in the middle of Stage 1. In this first stage, Intervention Development, we have already conducted a comprehensive search of the professional literature and internet resources, consulted with experts in the field, and conducted several Design Workshops. The planned intervention consists of parental group support therapy, a website to allow use of an "online/offline" approach, involvement of pediatricians, use of a video simulation game ("Dr. Cruz" to teach parents about child TSE, and personalized biochemical feedback on exposure levels. As part of this stage we will draw on a social marketing approach. We plan to use in-depth interviews and focus groups in order to identify barriers for behavior change, and to test the acceptability of program components. In Stage II, we plan to pilot the planned intervention with 5-10 groups of 10 parents each. In Stage III, we plan to implement and evaluate the intervention using a cluster randomized controlled trial with an estimated 540 participants. Discussion The major challenges in this research are twofold: building an effective intervention and measuring the effects of the intervention. Creation of an effective intervention to protect children from TSE is a challenging but sorely needed public health endeavor. We hope that our approach will contribute to building

  10. Antipyrine clearance during experimental and occupational exposure to toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, M; Bælum, Jesper; Lundqvist, G R

    1983-01-01

    Exposure to toluene vapour enhances hepatic microsomal enzyme function in animals as assessed by the metabolism of the test drug antipyrine. Thirty six printing trade workers with long term occupational exposure to a mixture of organic solvents and 39 matched controls were randomly allocated...... into four groups. Eighteen printers and 21 controls were exposed to 100 ppm of toluene during 6.5 hours in an exposure chamber. The remaining 18 printers and 18 controls were exposed to 0 ppm of toluene under similar conditions. The salivary clearance of antipyrine was measured immediately after the stay...... clearance 12 printing trade workers with 17 years (median) of occupational exposure to toluene vapour at concentrations of about 100 ppm were investigated before and four weeks after cessation of exposure. No difference in antipyrine clearance was found either within the groups or between the groups at any...

  11. Anomaly detection and reconstruction from random projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, James E; Du, Qian

    2012-01-01

    Compressed-sensing methodology typically employs random projections simultaneously with signal acquisition to accomplish dimensionality reduction within a sensor device. The effect of such random projections on the preservation of anomalous data is investigated. The popular RX anomaly detector is derived for the case in which global anomalies are to be identified directly in the random-projection domain, and it is determined via both random simulation, as well as empirical observation that strongly anomalous vectors are likely to be identifiable by the projection-domain RX detector even in low-dimensional projections. Finally, a reconstruction procedure for hyperspectral imagery is developed wherein projection-domain anomaly detection is employed to partition the data set, permitting anomaly and normal pixel classes to be separately reconstructed in order to improve the representation of the anomaly pixels.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of genome rearrangements among five mammalian orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haiwei; Arndt, William; Zhang, Yiwei; Shi, Guanqun; Alekseyev, Max A; Tang, Jijun; Hughes, Austin L; Friedman, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Evolutionary relationships among placental mammalian orders have been controversial. Whole genome sequencing and new computational methods offer opportunities to resolve the relationships among 10 genomes belonging to the mammalian orders Primates, Rodentia, Carnivora, Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla. By application of the double cut and join distance metric, where gene order is the phylogenetic character, we computed genomic distances among the sampled mammalian genomes. With a marsupial outgroup, the gene order tree supported a topology in which Rodentia fell outside the cluster of Primates, Carnivora, Perissodactyla, and Artiodactyla. Results of breakpoint reuse rate and synteny block length analyses were consistent with the prediction of random breakage model, which provided a diagnostic test to support use of gene order as an appropriate phylogenetic character in this study. We discussed the influence of rate differences among lineages and other factors that may contribute to different resolutions of mammalian ordinal relationships by different methods of phylogenetic reconstruction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Multi-Criteria Model for Determining Order Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Jakowska-Suwalska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-criteria model for determining the order size for materials used in production has been presented. It was assumed that the consumption rate of each material is a random variable with a known probability distribution. Using such a model, in which the purchase cost of materials ordered is limited, three criteria were considered: order size, probability of a lack of materials in the production process, and deviations in the order size from the consumption rate in past periods. Based on an example, it has been shown how to use the model to determine the order sizes for polyurethane adhesive and wood in a hard-coal mine. (original abstract

  14. Random errors revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    2000-01-01

    the random errors of estimates of the sound intensity in, say, one-third octave bands from the power and cross power spectra of the signals from an intensity probe determined with a dual channel FFT analyser. This is not very practical, though. In this paper it is demonstrated that one can predict the random...

  15. a randomized controlled trial.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    milk, only an estimated one -fourth of neonates in India were breastfed within ... standard of care in India and mothers are informed about. 6 months of ... weeks postpartum. A random number sequence was generated using a com- puter program. Block randomization was used with a fixed block size of four. Concealment of ...

  16. Hashing, Randomness and Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus

    time and memory space. To some extent we also consider lower bounds, i.e., we attempt to show limitations on how efficient algorithms are possible. A central theme in the thesis is randomness. Randomized algorithms play an important role, in particular through the key technique of hashing. Additionally...

  17. Sound exposure measurements using hearing-aid technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Boelt; Drastrup, Mads; Morales, Esteban Chávez

    2016-01-01

    Sound exposure is one of the primary causes of preventable hearing loss. Traditionally, sound exposure has been associated to industrial settings, and as such, treated as an occupational safety issue leading to international standards regulating sound exposure to improve working conditions. High...... levels of sound exposures are experienced in modern society in many different situations such as attending concerts, sport events and others. This leads to an interest in measurement devices which are discreet and simple to use, in order to assess sound exposures encountered in typical daily life...... scenarios. The purpose of this work is to document the use of a modified behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing-aid as a portable sound pressure level (SPL) meter. In order to obtain sound level measurements with a BTE device comparable to sound field values that can be used with existing risk assessment strategies...

  18. True randomness from an incoherent source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bing

    2017-11-01

    Quantum random number generators (QRNGs) harness the intrinsic randomness in measurement processes: the measurement outputs are truly random, given the input state is a superposition of the eigenstates of the measurement operators. In the case of trusted devices, true randomness could be generated from a mixed state ρ so long as the system entangled with ρ is well protected. We propose a random number generation scheme based on measuring the quadrature fluctuations of a single mode thermal state using an optical homodyne detector. By mixing the output of a broadband amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source with a single mode local oscillator (LO) at a beam splitter and performing differential photo-detection, we can selectively detect the quadrature fluctuation of a single mode output of the ASE source, thanks to the filtering function of the LO. Experimentally, a quadrature variance about three orders of magnitude larger than the vacuum noise has been observed, suggesting this scheme can tolerate much higher detector noise in comparison with QRNGs based on measuring the vacuum noise. The high quality of this entropy source is evidenced by the small correlation coefficients of the acquired data. A Toeplitz-hashing extractor is applied to generate unbiased random bits from the Gaussian distributed raw data, achieving an efficiency of 5.12 bits per sample. The output of the Toeplitz extractor successfully passes all the NIST statistical tests for random numbers.

  19. Manganese and welding fume exposure and control in construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D; Susi, Pam; Flynn, Michael R

    2007-12-01

    Overexposure to welding fume constituents, particularly manganese, is of concern in the construction industry due to the prevalence of welding and the scarcity of engineering controls. The control effectiveness of a commercially available portable local exhaust ventilation (LEV) unit was assessed. It consisted of a portable vacuum and a small bell-shaped hood connected by a flexible 2 inch (50.8 mm) diameter hose, in both experimental and field settings. The experimental testing was done in a semienclosed booth at a pipefitter training facility. Five paired trials of LEV control vs. no control, each approximately 1 hr in duration and conducted during two successive welds of 6 inch (152.4 mm) diameter carbon steel pipe were run in random order. Breathing zone samples were collected outside the welding hood during each trial. In the field scenario, full-shift breathing zone samples were collected from two pipefitters welding carbon steel pipe for a chiller installation on a commercial construction project. Eight days of full-shift sampling were conducted on both workers (n = 16), and the LEV was used by one of the two workers on an alternating basis for 7 of the days. All samples were collected with personal sample pumps calibrated at 2 L/min. Filter cassettes were analyzed for total particulate and manganese concentration by a certified laboratory. In the experimental setting, use of the portable LEV resulted in a 75% reduction in manganese exposure (mean 13 microg/m(3) vs. 51 microg/m(3); p 0.05). These results demonstrate that LEV use can reduce manganese exposure associated with welding tasks in construction.

  20. Mind, Matter and the Implicate Order The Implicate Order Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Pylkkänen, Paavo T I

    2007-01-01

    Proposes that Bohm's alternative interpretation of quantum theory resolves the paradoxes such as Schrodinger's cat, and the EPR paradox. This work uses Bohm's concepts of "implicate order", "active information" and "soma-significance" as tools to tackle several well-known problems in the philosophy of mind.