WorldWideScience

Sample records for random online messages

  1. Subliminal messages in an online environment

    OpenAIRE

    Luka Varga; Helena Gabrijelčič Tomc

    2016-01-01

    the paper addresses subliminal messages; more precisely, the e ect of subliminal messages on a user in an online environment. e main goals of the paper were: to research the existing work regarding subliminal messages in di erent environments, to research di erent ways and e ectiveness of subliminal messages implementation, to research the e ects of di erent types of visual subliminal messages on a user within an online environment and to present the most e ective implementation of sublimina...

  2. Subliminal messages in an online environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Varga

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses subliminal messages; more precisely, the e ect of subliminal messages on a user in an online environment. e main goals of the paper were: to research the existing work regarding subliminal messages in di erent environments, to research di erent ways and e ectiveness of subliminal messages implementation, to research the e ects of di erent types of visual subliminal messages on a user within an online environment and to present the most e ective implementation of subliminal messages within the online environment. 60 test subjects and 26 control subjects were used during the course of the research. e subjects estimated their desire to own the featured items based on the usage of website containing negative (20 test subjects, or positive (20 test subjects, or mixed subliminal messages (20 test subjects, or no subliminal messages (26 control subjects. Based on the results, it was deducted that the presence of subliminal messages a ects the desire of having specif- ic items; especially e ective were the positive subliminal messages embedded in the background of the website as the subjects in that scenario on average estimated their desire to own the items was up to almost 50 % smaller than the average estimated desire rated by control subjects which was taken as the objective rating.

  3. Message Received: Virtual Ethnography in Online Message Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin F. Steinmetz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As the Internet begins to encapsulate more people within online communities, it is important that the social researcher have well-rounded ethnographic methodologies for observing these phenomena. This article seeks to contribute to methodology by detailing and providing insights into three specific facets of virtual ethnography that need attention: space and time, identity and authenticity, and ethics. Because the Internet is a globalized and instantaneous medium where space and time collapse, identity becomes more playful, and ethics become more tenuous; understanding these aspects is crucial to the study of online social groups. A second focus of this article is to apply these notions to the study of online message boards—a frequently used medium for online communication that is frequently overlooked by methodologists.

  4. Novel Incentives and Messaging in an Online College Smoking Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J.; Stratton, Erin; Sokol, Michael; Santamaria, Andrew; Bryant, Lawrence; Rodriguez, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of an online intervention targeting college smokers. The incentives involved discounted or free goods and services from businesses proximal to each campus. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 122 current smokers recruited from 2 Southeastern US universities. The intervention involved health behavior monitoring, targeted messaging, and incentives for healthy goods and services versus the American Cancer Society’s Guide to Quitting Smoking online. Results The intervention achieved greater adherence and utilization (p’s intervention participants less frequently attempted to quit (p = .02) but smoked fewer cigarettes/day (p = .05). Both groups demonstrated significant end-of-treatment cessation rates. Conclusions This intervention demonstrated feasibility and acceptability. PMID:24933136

  5. Exchanging Second Language Messages Online: Developing an Intercultural Communicative Competence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a study carried out twice on an online second language course that was set up between a Canadian University and a German University. In that course, students of German in Canada and students of English in Germany exchanged 2,412 messages in 2004 and 1,831 messages in 2005. A list of processing criteria for assessment was…

  6. Promoting HPV Vaccination Online: Message Design and Media Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Cho, Jieun

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the effects of message framing and online media channel on young adults' perceived severity of human papillomavirus (HPV), perceived barriers and benefits of getting HPV vaccination, and behavioral intention to get vaccinated. An experiment was conducted with 142 college students. We found an interaction effect: The loss-framed message posted on Facebook was more effective in increasing the number of people who expressed their willingness to get HPV vaccination than the gain-framed message presented on Facebook. However, this framing effect was not found when the identical message was presented on an online newspaper. People's perceptions of severity of HPV and barriers of getting HPV vaccination were also influenced, depending on which media channel the information was circulated.

  7. A randomized controlled trial of a brief online intervention to reduce alcohol consumption in new university students: Combining self-affirmation, theory of planned behaviour messages, and implementation intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Paul; Cameron, David; Epton, Tracy; Webb, Thomas L; Harris, Peter R; Millings, Abigail; Sheeran, Paschal

    2018-02-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption increases when students enter university. This study tests whether combining (1) messages that target key beliefs from the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) that underlie binge drinking, (2) a self-affirmation manipulation to reduce defensive processing, and (3) implementation intentions (if-then plans to avoid binge drinking) reduces alcohol consumption in the first 6 months at university. A 2 (self-affirmation) × 2 (TPB messages) × 2 (implementation intention) between-participants randomized controlled trial with 6-month follow-up. Before starting university, students (N = 2,951) completed measures of alcohol consumption and were randomly assigned to condition in a full-factorial design. TPB cognitions about binge drinking were assessed immediately post-intervention (n = 2,682). Alcohol consumption was assessed after 1 week (n = 1,885), 1 month (n = 1,389), and 6 months (n = 892) at university. TPB cognitions were assessed again at 1 and 6 months. Participants who received the TPB messages had significantly less favourable cognitions about binge drinking (except perceived control), consumed fewer units of alcohol, engaged in binge drinking less frequently, and had less harmful patterns of alcohol consumption during their first 6 months at university. The other main effects were non-significant. The findings support the use of TPB-based interventions to reduce students' alcohol consumption, but question the use of self-affirmation and implementation intentions before starting university when the messages may not represent a threat to self-identity and when students may have limited knowledge and experience of the pressures to drink alcohol at university. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Alcohol consumption increases when young people enter university. Significant life transitions represent potential teachable moments to change behaviour. Interventions with a strong theoretical

  8. Mothers' online message board questions about parenting infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Noriko; Ispa, Jean M

    2013-03-01

    To report a study conducted to explore childrearing concerns through an analysis of online parenting message boards managed by popular parenting magazines. Background.  Increasingly, mothers appear to be turning to the Web for childrearing advice and support. However, no previous studies have examined the childrearing concerns of mothers of infants and toddlers through the analysis of online message board postings. Ethnographic content analysis methods were used to analyse the online postings. A total of 120 messages posted in 2007 by mothers of 0-2 year olds on the websites of two best-selling parenting magazines in the United States were submitted to ethnographic content analysis. Each message pertained to one or more of six childrearing domains: Feeding/Eating, Sleep, Development, Discipline, Toilet-Training and Mother-Child Relationships. Questions and pleas for support were most prominently centred on feeding/eating and sleep issues. Mothers expressed concerns about when and how their children should begin to sleep and eat independently. In addition to the themes specific to particular domains, across-domain themes were identified involving mothers' parenting stress, questioning of advice from families/paediatricians and worries that children were not developing normally. Online forums have become a space where mothers can openly describe their own negative emotions towards parenting and ask questions or gain reassurance to resolve mixed messages about how one should rear infants and toddlers. Paediatric nurses should be aware that mothers are confused about conflicting messages, especially in the domains of sleeping and eating. Reviewing parenting message boards occasionally would give nurses continuing insight into common parenting concerns. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Online Scheduling in Distributed Message Converter Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risse, Thomas; Wombacher, Andreas; Surridge, Mike; Taylor, Steve; Aberer, Karl

    The optimal distribution of jobs among hosts in distributed environments is an important factor to achieve high performance. The optimal strategy depends on the application. In this paper we present a new online scheduling strategy for distributed EDI converter system. The strategy is based on the

  10. An analysis of online messages about probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinich Margaret A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Internet websites are a resource for patients seeking information about probiotics. We examined a sample of 71 websites presenting probiotic information. We found that descriptions of benefits far outnumbered descriptions of risks and commercial websites presented significantly fewer risks than noncommercial websites. The bias towards the presentation of therapeutic benefits in online content suggests that patients are likely interested in using probiotics and may have unrealistic expectations for therapeutic benefit. Gastroenterologists may find it useful to initiate conversations about probiotics within the context of a comprehensive health management plan and should seek to establish realistic therapeutic expectations with their patients.

  11. An analysis of online messages about probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Internet websites are a resource for patients seeking information about probiotics. We examined a sample of 71 websites presenting probiotic information. We found that descriptions of benefits far outnumbered descriptions of risks and commercial websites presented significantly fewer risks than noncommercial websites. The bias towards the presentation of therapeutic benefits in online content suggests that patients are likely interested in using probiotics and may have unrealistic expectations for therapeutic benefit. Gastroenterologists may find it useful to initiate conversations about probiotics within the context of a comprehensive health management plan and should seek to establish realistic therapeutic expectations with their patients. PMID:23311418

  12. How Online Peer-to-Peer Conversation Shapes the Effects of a Message About Healthy Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rebecca; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2017-02-01

    Conversation about health messages and campaigns is common, and message-related conversations are increasingly recognized as a consequential factor in shaping message effects. The evidence base is limited, however, about the conditions under which conversation may help or hinder health communication efforts. In this study, college students (N = 301) first watched a short sleep video and were randomly assigned to either talk with a partner in an online chat conversation or proceed directly to a short survey. Unknown to participants, the chat partner was a confederate coached to say positive things about sleep and the message ('positive' chat condition), negative things ('negative' chat condition), or unrelated things ('natural' chat condition). All respondents completed a short survey on beliefs about sleep, reactions to the message, and intentions to get adequate sleep. Respondents had greater intentions to engage in healthy sleep when they engaged in positive conversation following message exposure than when they engaged in negative conversation after the message (p Positive emotion experienced in response to the message and positive chat perceptions were significant predictors (p peer-to-peer conversation to better predict and explain their effects.

  13. Randomized controlled trial of a messaging intervention to increase fruit and vegetable intake in adolescents: Affective versus instrumental messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carfora, Valentina; Caso, Daniela; Conner, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The present research aimed to test the efficacy of affective and instrumental text messages compared with a no-message control as a strategy to increase fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) in adolescents. A randomized controlled trial was used test impact of different text messages compared with no message on FVI over a 2-week period. A total of 1,065 adolescents (14-19 years) from a high school of the South of Italy completed the baseline questionnaire and were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: instrumental messages (N = 238), affective messages (N = 300), and no messages (N = 521). Students in the message conditions received one message each day over a 2-week period. The messages targeted affective (affective benefits) or instrumental (instrumental benefits) information about FVI. Self-reported FVI at 2 weeks was the key dependent variable. Analyses were based on the N = 634 who completed all aspects of the study. Findings showed that messages significantly increased FVI, particularly in the affective condition and this effect was partially mediated by changes in affective attitude and intentions towards FVI. Text messages can be used to increase FVI in adolescents. Text messages based on affective benefits are more effective than text messages based on instrumental benefits. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Text messages have been shown to promote positive change in health behaviours. However, the most appropriate target for such text messages is less clear although targeting attitudes may be effective. What does this study add? This randomized controlled study shows that text messages targeting instrumental or affective attitudes produce changes in fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) in adolescents. Text messages targeting affective attitudes are shown to be more effective than text messages targeting instrumental attitudes. The effect of affective text messages on FVI was partially mediated by changes in

  14. A theory-based video messaging mobile phone intervention for smoking cessation: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Robyn; Dorey, Enid; Bramley, Dale; Bullen, Chris; Denny, Simon; Elley, C Raina; Maddison, Ralph; McRobbie, Hayden; Parag, Varsha; Rodgers, Anthony; Salmon, Penny

    2011-01-21

    Advances in technology allowed the development of a novel smoking cessation program delivered by video messages sent to mobile phones. This social cognitive theory-based intervention (called "STUB IT") used observational learning via short video diary messages from role models going through the quitting process to teach behavioral change techniques. The objective of our study was to assess the effectiveness of a multimedia mobile phone intervention for smoking cessation. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 6-month follow-up. Participants had to be 16 years of age or over, be current daily smokers, be ready to quit, and have a video message-capable phone. Recruitment targeted younger adults predominantly through radio and online advertising. Registration and data collection were completed online, prompted by text messages. The intervention group received an automated package of video and text messages over 6 months that was tailored to self-selected quit date, role model, and timing of messages. Extra messages were available on demand to beat cravings and address lapses. The control group also set a quit date and received a general health video message sent to their phone every 2 weeks. The target sample size was not achieved due to difficulty recruiting young adult quitters. Of the 226 randomized participants, 47% (107/226) were female and 24% (54/226) were Maori (indigenous population of New Zealand). Their mean age was 27 years (SD 8.7), and there was a high level of nicotine addiction. Continuous abstinence at 6 months was 26.4% (29/110) in the intervention group and 27.6% (32/116) in the control group (P = .8). Feedback from participants indicated that the support provided by the video role models was important and appreciated. This study was not able to demonstrate a statistically significant effect of the complex video messaging mobile phone intervention compared with simple general health video messages via mobile phone. However, there was

  15. Unintended messages in online advertising to youth: illicit drug imagery in a Canadian sports marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Knäuper, Bärbel; Dourian, Tara; Raynault, Marie-France

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the potential for harmful messages in online advertisements targeted to youth, using the example of the Canadian "Light It Up" marketing campaign from a large sports corporation. We undertook a cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 secondary school classes in Montreal, Canada. Classes were randomly allocated to view a "Light It Up" advertisement (n = 205) or a neutral comparison advertisement (n = 192). The main outcome measures were self-reports of illicit drug messages in the advertisements. Of the students, 22.9% reported that the "Light It Up" advertisement contained illicit drug messages compared with 1.0% for the comparison advertisement (relative risk, 22.0; 95% confidence interval, 6.5-74.9). Although meant to promote sports, youth in this study believed that the "Light It Up" advertisement was related to illicit drugs. The campaign illustrates how advertisements may inadvertently market unwanted behaviors to children. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. "Pervy Role-Play and Such": Girls' Experiences of Sexual Messaging Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Silja; Paasonen, Susanna; Spisak, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    Sexting is one of the recurring causes of concern in public discussion of young people and network media. This paper builds on findings from a survey with 1269 Finnish female respondents aged 11-18 conducted using a popular online community for girls on their experiences of and views on online messages concerning sex and sexuality. Sixty-five per…

  17. Mondrian Forests: Efficient Online Random Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshminarayanan, Balaji; Roy, Daniel M.; Teh, Yee Whye

    2014-01-01

    Ensembles of randomized decision trees, usually referred to as random forests, are widely used for classification and regression tasks in machine learning and statistics. Random forests achieve competitive predictive performance and are computationally efficient to train and test, making them excellent candidates for real-world prediction tasks. The most popular random forest variants (such as Breiman's random forest and extremely randomized trees) operate on batches of training data. Online ...

  18. (In)appropriate online behavior a pragmatic analysis of message board relations

    CERN Document Server

    Arendholz, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive and comprehensive study on the discursive struggle over interpersonal relations in online message boards is located at the fascinating interface of pragmatics and computer-mediated discourse - a research area which has so far not attracted much scientific interest. It sets out to shed light on the question how interpersonal relations are established, managed and negotiated in online message boards by giving a valid overview of the entire panoply of interpersonal relations (and their interrelations), including both positively and negatively marked behavior. With the first part

  19. Perceived Harm of Online Drug-Encouraging Messages: Third-Person Effect and Adolescents' Support for Rectifying Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wan Chi; Lo, Ven-Hwei

    2015-01-01

    This study examines third-person perceptions (TPP) of two types of online messages--antisocial messages that encourage drug abuse and prosocial messages in the youth anti-drug campaign--and their relationship with support for three types of rectifying measures: restrictive, corrective, and promotional. A survey of 778 secondary school students…

  20. Text Messaging to Improve Social Presence in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVall, J. Barry; Powell, Matthew R.; Hodge, Elizabeth; Ellis, Maureen

    2007-01-01

    East Carolina University (ECU) provides more than 650 class sections that are totally online each semester, serving more than 5,800 students. With the proliferation of technology devices, students have begun exploring new methods of learning, thus paving the way for educators to adopt new instructional strategies. With an increase in the number of…

  1. A message-queuing framework for STAR's online monitoring and metadata collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkhipkin, D.; Lauret, J.; Betts, W.

    2011-12-23

    We report our experience on migrating STARs Online Services (Run Control System, Data Acquisition System, Slow Control System and Subsystem Monitoring) from direct read/write database accesses to a modern non-blocking message-oriented infrastructure. Based on the Advanced Messaging Queuing Protocol (AMQP) and standards, this novel approach does not specify the message data structure, allowing great flexibility in its use. After careful consideration, we chose Google Protocol Buffers as our primary (de)serialization format for structured data exchange. This migration allows us to reduce the overall system complexity and greatly improve the reliability of the metadata collection and the performance of our online services in general. We will present this new framework through its software architecture overview, providing details about our staged and non-disruptive migration process as well as details of the implementation of pluggable components to provide future improvements without compromising stability and availability of services.

  2. Automatic topic identification of health-related messages in online health community using text classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingjie

    2013-01-01

    To facilitate patient involvement in online health community and obtain informative support and emotional support they need, a topic identification approach was proposed in this paper for identifying automatically topics of the health-related messages in online health community, thus assisting patients in reaching the most relevant messages for their queries efficiently. Feature-based classification framework was presented for automatic topic identification in our study. We first collected the messages related to some predefined topics in a online health community. Then we combined three different types of features, n-gram-based features, domain-specific features and sentiment features to build four feature sets for health-related text representation. Finally, three different text classification techniques, C4.5, Naïve Bayes and SVM were adopted to evaluate our topic classification model. By comparing different feature sets and different classification techniques, we found that n-gram-based features, domain-specific features and sentiment features were all considered to be effective in distinguishing different types of health-related topics. In addition, feature reduction technique based on information gain was also effective to improve the topic classification performance. In terms of classification techniques, SVM outperformed C4.5 and Naïve Bayes significantly. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed approach could identify the topics of online health-related messages efficiently.

  3. Flattering and Flaming: Interpersonal Relations in Online Message Boards

    OpenAIRE

    Arendholz, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    How do users of online platforms establish and manage interpersonal relations? Is it really true that "the Internet" - due to its technological prerequisites - is unsuited for the exchange of social content and thus predetermined for impersonal, even rude behavior? In order to answer these two basic questions, this thesis merges two fields of research, interpersonal pragmatics and computer-mediated communication (CMC). With respect to the latter, this thesis concentrates on one form of commun...

  4. Sentiment analysis to determine the impact of online messages on smokers' choices to use varenicline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nathan K; Mays, Darren; Graham, Amanda L

    2013-12-01

    Social networks are a prominent component of online smoking cessation interventions. This study applied sentiment analysis-a data processing technique that codes textual data for emotional polarity-to examine how exposure to messages about the cessation drug varenicline affects smokers' decision making around its use. Data were from QuitNet, an online social network dedicated to smoking cessation and relapse prevention. Self-reported medication choice at registration and at 30 days was coded among new QuitNet registrants who participated in at least one forum discussion mentioning varenicline between January 31, 2005 and March 9, 2008. Commercially available software was used to code the sentiment of forum messages mentioning varenicline that occurred during this time frame. Logistic regression analyses examined whether forum message exposure predicted medication choice. The sample of 2132 registrants comprised mostly women (78.3%), white participants (83.4%), averaged 41.2 years of age (SD = 10.9), and smoked on average 21.5 (SD = 9.7) cigarettes/day. After adjusting for potential confounders, as exposure to positive varenicline messages outweighed negative messages, the odds of switching to varenicline (odds ratio = 2.05, 95% confidence interval = 1.66 to 2.54) and continuing to use varenicline (odds ratio = 2.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.96 to 3.10) statistically significantly increased. Sentiment analysis is a useful tool for analyzing text-based data to examine their impact on behavior change. Greater exposure to positive sentiment in online conversations about varenicline is associated with a greater likelihood that smokers will choose to use varenicline in a quit attempt.

  5. The Effects of Online Discussion Forum Aggressive Messages and Cognitive Distortion on Users' Negative Affect and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2012-01-01

    This research is comprised of two studies designed to explore the effects of online discussion forum aggressive messages and Internet cognitive distortion on users' negative affect and aggression. The results of study 1 revealed 69 users could perceive both disgust and hostility feelings toward aggressive messages conducted by the authors, and…

  6. The effects of framed messages for engaging adolescents with online smoking prevention interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Hawkins, Kirsten B; Bredfeldt, Christine; Wolf, Hilary; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2017-06-01

    Messages emphasizing the harms of smoking (loss-framed) or the benefits of not smoking (gain-framed) may be effective for engaging adolescents with tobacco prevention resources. This novel approach could help to close a gap in tobacco prevention intervention delivery in the pediatric primary care setting. To examine the effects of framed messages for engaging adolescents with an evidence-based smoking prevention website, adolescents ages 12 to 17 presenting for primary care well-visits were recruited for a three-arm experiment. Participants completed baseline measures including demographics, smoking behavior, and smoking susceptibility and were randomized to view 1 of 3 messages introducing an evidence-based smoking prevention website: (1) gain-framed communicating the benefits of avoiding smoking, (2) loss-framed communicating the harms of smoking, or (3) neutral. Self-reported website engagement was assessed at 1-month follow-up. Participants (279) (87% of those enrolled) completed a follow-up (M age 14.9 years, 66% female, 32% non-white race, 47% non-susceptible never smokers, 53% susceptible never smokers/ever smokers). Overall, 26% of participants reported website engagement. After adjusting for baseline intentions to visit the website, engagement was significantly greater in response to the loss-framed message than the gain-framed (odds ratio [OR] 3.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.51, 6.15) and neutral (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.15, 4.63) messages. The message framing effects did not differ by baseline smoking risk. Loss-framed messages emphasizing the harms of smoking may be effective for engaging adolescents with smoking prevention resources.

  7. Internet message boards for pregnancy loss: who's on-line and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Katherine J; Boggs, Martha E; Mugisha, Emeline; Palladino, Christie Lancaster

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy loss is common, but its significance is often minimized by family, friends, and the community, leaving bereaved parents with unmet need for support. This study sought to describe demographics, usage patterns, and perceived benefits for women participating in Internet pregnancy loss support groups. We requested permission to post an anonymous Internet survey on large and active United States Internet message boards for women with miscarriages and stillbirths. The study purposefully oversampled stillbirth sites and included both closed- and open-ended questions. The University of Michigan Institutional Review Board approved the study. Closed-ended questions were summarized and evaluated with bivariate analysis. We performed a qualitative analysis of open-ended data using an iterative coding process to identify key themes. Of 62 sites queried, 15 granted permission to post the survey on 18 different message boards. We collected 1,039 surveys, of which 1,006 were complete and eligible for analysis. Women were typically white, well educated, and frequent users. They noted message boards helped them to feel less isolated in their loss and grief and they appreciated unique aspects of Internet communication such as convenience, access, anonymity, and privacy. Pregnancy loss message boards are an important aspect of support for many bereaved mothers. African-American women seem to be substantially underrepresented on-line despite being at higher risk for stillbirth. Internet message boards serve a unique function in providing support for women with miscarriage and stillbirth. The benefits are often significantly different from those encountered in traditional face-to-face bereavement support. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. How Random are Online Social Interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunyan; Huberman, Bernardo A.

    2012-09-01

    The massive amounts of data that social media generates has facilitated the study of online human behavior on a scale unimaginable a few years ago. At the same time, the much discussed apparent randomness with which people interact online makes it appear as if these studies cannot reveal predictive social behaviors that could be used for developing better platforms and services. We use two large social databases to measure the mutual information entropy that both individual and group actions generate as they evolve over time. We show that user's interaction sequences have strong deterministic components, in contrast with existing assumptions and models. In addition, we show that individual interactions are more predictable when users act on their own rather than when attending group activities.

  9. Randomized trial of a smartphone mobile application compared to text messaging to support smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Borland, Ron; Bettinghaus, Erwin P; Shane, James H; Zimmerman, Donald E

    2014-03-01

    Text messaging has successfully supported smoking cessation. This study compares a mobile application with text messaging to support smoking cessation. Young adult smokers 18-30 years old (n = 102) participated in a randomized pretest-posttest trial. Smokers received a smartphone application (REQ-Mobile) with short messages and interactive tools or a text messaging system (onQ), managed by an expert system. Self-reported usability of REQ-Mobile and quitting behavior (quit attempts, point-prevalence, 30-day point-prevalence, and continued abstinence) were assessed in posttests. Overall, 60% of smokers used mobile services (REQ-Mobile, 61%, mean of 128.5 messages received; onQ, 59%, mean of 107.8 messages), and 75% evaluated REQ-Mobile as user-friendly. A majority of smokers reported being abstinent at posttest (6 weeks, 53% of completers; 12 weeks, 66% of completers [44% of all cases]). Also, 37% (25%of all cases) reported 30-day point-prevalence abstinence, and 32% (22% of all cases) reported continuous abstinence at 12 weeks. OnQ produced more abstinence (pMobile. Use of both services predicted increased 30-day abstinence at 12 weeks (used, 47%; not used, 20%; p = 0.03). REQ-Mobile was feasible for delivering cessation support but appeared to not move smokers to quit as quickly as text messaging. Text messaging may work better because it is simple, well known, and delivered to a primary inbox. These advantages may disappear as smokers become more experienced with new handsets. Mobile phones may be promising delivery platforms for cessation services using either smartphone applications or text messaging.

  10. Posts to online news message boards and public discourse surrounding DUI enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Susan M; Wesolowski, Kathryn

    2009-12-01

    This study analyzes posts to online news message boards covering driving under the influence (DUI) enforcement efforts to determine their usefulness for informing traffic safety program planning and public relations efforts aimed at mainstream drinking drivers. A series of Google searches were conducted using keywords designed to capture news stories regarding impaired driving enforcement efforts. For each search, the first 100 Web pages returned were reviewed and articles were included in analysis if they were from an independent news source and contained user comments. Coders captured data on 28 fields for each post, including tone in relation to enforcement, tone of interpersonal communication with other posters, and expressed feelings regarding drinking and driving. Fifty-six news articles covering DUI enforcement efforts met study criteria, with 615 posts. The majority of posts (57%) were neutral on DUI enforcement; 24 percent (148) took a negative tone and 19 percent (115) positive. Posts that discussed checkpoints were 2.6 times more likely to take a negative tone toward enforcement than those that did not. Twenty-one percent of anti-enforcement posts challenged the idea that driving after drinking was necessarily dangerous. Of the 321 posts involving direct communication between posters, 67 percent involved disagreement with another post. Profanity or belittling comments appeared in 10 percent of posts. Public responses to DUI enforcement news articles provide insight into the beliefs and thought processes of those who oppose enforcement efforts or view drinking and driving as no big deal. Primary objections to enforcement focused on civil and personal rights issues, skepticism regarding law enforcement's motives and objectivity, and the belief that drinking driving is not a "real" crime. Online news message boards could be useful in informing campaigns and helping program planners frame media events and press releases to best appeal to the most at

  11. Tailored message interventions versus typical messages for increasing participation in colorectal cancer screening among a non-adherent population: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Kei; Ishikawa, Yoshiki; Fukuyoshi, Jun; Yonekura, Akio; Harada, Kazuhiro; Shibuya, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Mizota, Yuri; Hamashima, Chisato; Saito, Hiroshi

    2016-05-24

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness and cost-efficiency of a tailored message intervention compared with a non-tailored message intervention for increasing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates among a non-adherent population, in a community-based client reminder program. After a baseline survey for psychological segmentation, 2140 eligible individuals were randomly assigned either to a group with a tailored matched-message condition (N = 356), a group with a non-tailored unmatched-message condition (N = 355), or to two control groups, one using a typical message with a professional design (N = 717) and one without a professional design (N = 712). The main outcome measure was attendance rates in a community-organized CRC screening program within five months of receiving a print reminder. There was a significant difference in fecal occult blood test (FOBT) attendance rates at follow-up assessments between the tailored matched-message condition (14.0 %) and the control (9.9 %; OR = 1.48, p = 0.026), while there was no significant difference between the unmatched-message condition (11.0 %) and the control (OR = 1.12, p = 0.558), and between the matched-message condition and the unmatched-message condition (OR = 1.32, p = 0.219). The cost of a one-person increase in FOBT screening was 3,740 JPY for the tailored matched-message condition, while it was 2,747 JPY for the control. A tailored-message intervention for segmented individuals designed to increase CRC screening rates in a community-based client reminder program was significantly effective compared to a usual reminder, but not more effective than an unmatched message in a randomized controlled trial, and was not sufficiently effective to highlight its value from a cost perspective. Therefore, the tailored intervention including target segmentation needs to be improved for future implementation in a CRC screening program for a non

  12. Online Social Support for Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Thematic Analysis of Messages Posted to a Virtual Support Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Abbasi Shavazi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently with the emergence of the Internet, patients have an opportunity to exchange social support online. However, little attention has been devoted to different dimensions of online social support exchanged in virtual support communities for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods: To provide a rich insight, the aim of this qualitative study was to explore and categorize different dimensions of online social support in messages exchanged in a virtual support community for patients with MS. A total of 548 posted messages created during one year period were selected using purposive sampling to consider the maximum variation sampling. Prior-research-driven thematic analysis was then conducted. In this regard, we used the Cutruna and Suhr’s coding system. The messages that could not be categorized with the used coding system were thematically analyzed to explore new additional social support themes. Results: The results showed that various forms of social support including informational, emotional, network, esteem and tangible support were exchanged. Moreover, new additional social support themes including sharing personal experiences, sharing coping strategies and spiritual support emerged in this virtual support community. Conclusion: The wide range of online social support exchanged in the virtual support community can be regarded as a supplementary source of social support for patients with MS. Future researches can examine online social support more comprehensively considering additional social support themes emerging in the present study.

  13. Using daily text-message reminders to improve adherence with oral contraceptives: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Melody Y; Hurwitz, Shelley; Kavanagh, Erin; Fortin, Jennifer; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2010-09-01

    To estimate whether women receiving daily text-message reminders have increased oral contraceptive pill adherence compared with women not receiving reminders. This randomized controlled trial estimated whether there was an effect of daily text-message reminders on oral contraceptive pill adherence of new oral contraceptive pill users. Pill-taking was tracked for 3 months by an electronic monitoring device with wireless data collection. During the study period, participants assigned the intervention received a daily reminder text message. Eighty-two women were assigned randomly to detect a 1.6+/-2.0 pill difference (90% power, 5% alpha, 15% dropout). Participants were 79% white, non-Hispanic, 99% high school graduates, and 99% nulliparous with a mean age of 22 years. Most reported condom use with past coital activity, and more than half reported prior emergency contraception use. The mean number of missed pills per cycle did not differ significantly between the groups: 4.9+/-3.0 for the text-message group and 4.6+/-3.5 for the control group (P=.60). The number of missed pills per cycle increased over the course of the study, but this pattern did not increase differentially between the groups. Adherence recorded by the electronic monitoring device indicated much poorer adherence than that recorded by patient diaries. Despite poor pill-taking, there were no pregnancies. Daily text-message reminders did not improve oral contraceptive pill adherence. Although the lack of benefit may be attributed to the frequent use of alternative reminder systems in the control group, the rate of missed pills when measured objectively was still very high in both groups. Clinicaltrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00733707. I.

  14. Real-world uptake of a tailored, text message pregnancy smoking cessation programme (MiQuit) when offered online

    OpenAIRE

    Emery, Joanne; Coleman, Tim; Sutton, Stephen; Cooper, Sue; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Jones, Matthew; Naughton, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal smoking is a major public health concern and uptake of NHS cessation support is low in this group. Text message-based self-help is a promising intervention for this population but little is known about its likely real-world uptake, an essential parameter for estimating public health impact. Aims were to explore uptake (including cost) of a tailored, theory-guided, text message intervention for pregnant smokers (‘MiQuit’) when offered online. Methods: Links to a website pr...

  15. A Randomized Trial of Text Messaging for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abroms, Lorien C; Johnson, Pamela R; Leavitt, Leah E; Cleary, Sean D; Bushar, Jessica; Brandon, Thomas H; Chiang, Shawn C

    2017-12-01

    There is a need for innovation in both the enrollment of pregnant smokers in smoking cessation treatment programs and in the types of treatments offered. The study tests whether an interactive and intensive text messaging program, Quit4baby, can promote smoking cessation for pregnant women already enrolled in a health text messaging program, Text4baby. Between July 2015 and February 2016, a total of 35,957 recruitment text messages were sent to Text4baby subscribers. Eligible pregnant smokers were enrolled and randomized to receive Text4baby (control) or Text4baby and Quit4baby (intervention; N=497). Participants were surveyed at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months post-enrollment, and saliva samples were collected at 3 months for biochemical verification of smoking status. Data were collected from 2015 to 2016 and analyzed in 2016. Using an intention-to-treat analysis, 28.80% of the intervention group and 15.79% of the control group reported not smoking in the past 7 days at 1 month (ptext messaging program in the short term and late in pregnancy, but not in the postpartum period. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fruit and vegetable intake and eating behaviors mediate the effect of a randomized text-message based weight loss program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norman, Gregory J; Kolodziejczyk, Julia K; Adams, Marc A; Patrick, Kevin; Marshall, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that fruit/vegetable intake and eating behaviors mediate the relationship between experimental condition and weight loss in a randomized trial evaluating a text-message based weight loss program...

  17. Impact of a Collective Intelligence Tailored Messaging System on Smoking Cessation: The Perspect Randomized Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani Shankar; Borglund, Erin M; Adams, Roy; Marlin, Benjamin M; Houston, Thomas K

    2016-11-08

    Outside health care, content tailoring is driven algorithmically using machine learning compared to the rule-based approach used in current implementations of computer-tailored health communication (CTHC) systems. A special class of machine learning systems ("recommender systems") are used to select messages by combining the collective intelligence of their users (ie, the observed and inferred preferences of users as they interact with the system) and their user profiles. However, this approach has not been adequately tested for CTHC. Our aim was to compare, in a randomized experiment, a standard, evidence-based, rule-based CTHC (standard CTHC) to a novel machine learning CTHC: Patient Experience Recommender System for Persuasive Communication Tailoring (PERSPeCT). We hypothesized that PERSPeCT will select messages of higher influence than our standard CTHC system. This standard CTHC was proven effective in motivating smoking cessation in a prior randomized trial of 900 smokers (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.03-2.81). PERSPeCT is an innovative hybrid machine learning recommender system that selects and sends motivational messages using algorithms that learn from message ratings from 846 previous participants (explicit feedback), and the prior explicit ratings of each individual participant. Current smokers (N=120) aged 18 years or older, English speaking, with Internet access were eligible to participate. These smokers were randomized to receive either PERSPeCT (intervention, n=74) or standard CTHC tailored messages (n=46). The study was conducted between October 2014 and January 2015. By randomization, we compared daily message ratings (mean of smoker ratings each day). At 30 days, we assessed the intervention's perceived influence, 30-day cessation, and changes in readiness to quit from baseline. The proportion of days when smokers agreed/strongly agreed (daily rating ≥4) that the messages influenced them to quit was significantly higher for PERSPeCT (73%, 23/30) than

  18. A text messaging-based smoking cessation program for adult smokers: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele; Bağci Bosi, A Tülay; Korchmaros, Josephine; Emri, Salih

    2012-12-27

    Despite promising data in Western countries, there is a dearth of research into the efficacy of text messaging-based smoking cessation programs in other settings, including the Middle East, where smoking prevalence rates are higher. This paper reports cessation rates observed in SMS Turkey, a text messaging-based smoking cessation program for adult smokers in Ankara, Turkey. This study was a small-scale, parallel-group randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in Ankara, Turkey. Participants were adult daily smokers who were seriously thinking about quitting in the next 15 days and living in Ankara, Turkey. The text messaging intervention, SMS Turkey, provided 6 weeks of daily messages aimed at giving participants skills to help them quit smoking. Messages were sent in an automated fashion, except 2 days and 7 days after the initial quit day. On days 2 and 7, the research assistant manually assigned participants to content "paths" based on whether they were still not smoking or had relapsed. The control arm received a brochure that provided similar information about smoking cessation. The main outcome measure was self-reported 3-month sustained abstinence, verified by carbon monoxide (CO) readings. Neither participants nor researchers were blinded to arm assignment. The 151 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: 76 to the SMS Turkey intervention group and 75 to the brochure control group. Using intention to treat, all 151 participants were included in analyses. Three-month cessation trends were not significantly higher in the intervention group: 11% intervention vs 5% control had quit (χ(2)(1)=1.4, P=.24; R(2)=2.0, 95% CI 0.62-6.3). When the sample was stratified by sex, female intervention participants (14%, n=5) were significantly more likely to have quit at 3 months than female control participants (0%, n=0; χ(2)(1)=3.7, P=.05). Among light smokers (ie, those smoking less than 20 cigarettes per day), intervention participants (17%, n=5) also

  19. Efficacy of a Text Message-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Young People: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Michael P; Venzin, Vigeli; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking prevalence remains high, particularly among adolescents and young adults with lower educational levels, posing a serious public health problem. There is limited evidence of effective smoking cessation interventions in this population. Objective To test the efficacy of an individually tailored, fully automated text messaging (short message service, SMS)–based intervention for smoking cessation in young people. Methods A 2-arm cluster randomized controlled trial, using school class as the randomization unit, was conducted to test the efficacy of the SMS text messaging intervention compared to an assessment-only control group. Students who smoked were proactively recruited via online screening in vocational school classes. Text messages, tailored to demographic and smoking-related variables, were sent to the participants of the intervention group at least 3 times per week over a period of 3 months. A follow-up assessment was performed 6 months after study inclusion. The primary outcome measure was 7-day smoking abstinence. Secondary outcomes were 4-week smoking abstinence, cigarette consumption, stage of change, and attempts to quit smoking. We used regression models controlling for baseline differences between the study groups to test the efficacy of the intervention. Both complete-case analyses (CCA) and intention-to-treat analyses (ITT) were performed. Subgroup analyses were conducted for occasional and daily smokers. Results A total of 2638 students in 178 vocational school classes in Switzerland participated in the online screening. Overall, 1012 persons met the inclusion criteria for study participation, and 755 persons (74.6%) participated in the study (intervention: n=372; control: n=383). Of the 372 program participants, 9 (2.4%) unsubscribed from the program during the intervention period. Six-month follow-up data were obtained for 559 study participants (74.0%). The 7-day smoking abstinence rate at follow-up was 12.5% in the

  20. Organ donation video messaging in motor vehicle offices: results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, James R; Fleishman, Aaron; Fitzpatrick, Sean; Boger, Matthew

    2015-12-01

    Since nearly all registered organ donors in the United States signed up via a driver's license transaction, motor vehicle (MV) offices represent an important venue for organ donation education. To evaluate the impact of organ donation video messaging in MV offices. A 2-group (usual care vs usual care+video messaging) randomized trial with baseline, intervention, and follow-up assessment phases. Twenty-eight MV offices in Massachusetts. Usual care comprised education of MV clerks, display of organ donation print materials (ie, posters, brochures, signing mats), and a volunteer ambassador program. The intervention included video messaging with silent (subtitled) segments highlighting individuals affected by donation, playing on a recursive loop on monitors in MV waiting rooms. Aggregate monthly donor designation rates at MV offices (primary) and percentage of MV customers who registered as donors after viewing the video (secondary). Controlling for baseline donor designation rate, analysis of covariance showed a significant group effect for intervention phase (F=7.3, P=.01). The usual-care group had a significantly higher aggregate monthly donor designation rate than the intervention group had. In the logistic regression model of customer surveys (n=912), prior donor designation (β=-1.29, odds ratio [OR]=0.27 [95% CI=0.20-0.37], Pcustomers most likely contributed to the negative trial finding.

  1. To your health: Self-regulation of health behavior through selective exposure to online health messages.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knobloch-Westerwick, S.; Johnson, B.K.; Westerwick, A.

    2013-01-01

    Reaching target audiences is of crucial importance for the success of health communication campaigns, but individuals may avoid health messages if they challenge their beliefs or behaviors. A lab study (N=419) examined effects of messages' consistency with participants' behavior and source

  2. Text Message Delivered Peer Network Counseling for Adolescent Smokers: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael; Mennis, Jeremy; Way, Thomas; Zaharakis, Nikola; Campbell, Leah Floyd; Benotsch, Eric G; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; King, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Although adolescent tobacco use has declined in the last 10 years, African American high school seniors' past 30-day use has increased by 12 %, and as they age they are more likely to report lifetime use of tobacco. Very few urban youth are enrolled in evidenced-based smoking prevention and cessation programming. Therefore, we tested a text messaging smoking cessation intervention designed to engage urban youth through an automated texting program utilizing motivational interviewing-based peer network counseling. We recruited 200 adolescents (90.5 % African American) into a randomized controlled trial that delivered either the experimental intervention of 30 personalized motivational interviewing-based peer network counseling messages, or the attention control intervention, consisting of text messages covering general (non-smoking related) health habits. All adolescents were provided smart phones for the study and were assessed at baseline, and at 1, 3, and 6 months post intervention. Utilizing repeated measures general linear models we examined the effects of the intervention while controlling for race, gender, age, presence of a smoker in the home, and mental health counseling. At 6 months, participants in the experimental condition significantly decreased the number of days they smoked cigarettes and the number of cigarettes they smoked per day; they significantly increased their intentions not to smoke in the future; and significantly increased peer social support among girls. For boys, participants in the experimental condition significantly reduced the number of close friends in their networks who smoke daily compared to those in the control condition. Effect sizes ranged from small to large. These results provide encouraging evidence of the efficacy of text messaging interventions to reduce smoking among adolescents and our intervention holds promise as a large-scale public health preventive intervention platform.

  3. Utility and Cost-Effectiveness of Motivational Messaging to Increase Survey Response in Physicians: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Randolph C. H.; Mak, Winnie W. S.; Pang, Ingrid H. Y.; Wong, Samuel Y. S.; Tang, Wai Kwong; Lau, Joseph T. F.; Woo, Jean; Lee, Diana T. F.; Cheung, Fanny M.

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined whether, when, and how motivational messaging can boost the response rate of postal surveys for physicians based on Higgin's regulatory focus theory, accounting for its cost-effectiveness. A three-arm, blinded, randomized controlled design was used. A total of 3,270 doctors were randomly selected from the registration…

  4. The effects of framed messages for engaging adolescents with online smoking prevention interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Mays, Darren; HAWKINS, KIRSTEN B.; Bredfeldt, Christine; Wolf, Hilary; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2017-01-01

    Messages emphasizing the harms of smoking (loss-framed) or the benefits of not smoking (gain-framed) may be effective for engaging adolescents with tobacco prevention resources. This novel approach could help to close a gap in tobacco prevention intervention delivery in the pediatric primary care setting. To examine the effects of framed messages for engaging adolescents with an evidence-based smoking prevention website, adolescents ages 12 to 17 presenting for primary care well-visits were r...

  5. Qualitative analysis of Camel Snus' website message board--users' product perceptions, insights and online interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia Ann; Lewis, M Jane; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2011-03-01

    In 2006, RJ Reynolds began test-marketing Camel Snus, a new smokeless tobacco (SLT) product. Promotion included use of a brand website, a relatively new marketing channel used by tobacco companies, which allowed visitors to learn about the product and discuss it with others on the website's message board. Our study aimed to examine early experiences with and perceptions of Camel Snus as described by board contributors and also to consider the use and benefits of the message board for both consumers and the company. We conducted a qualitative analysis, coding each message in Atlas.Ti and analysing it for emerging themes and patterns. Messages were also coded for demographic information where evident, such as tobacco use status and geographical location. Descriptive data and illustrative quotes are presented. Board participants described being introduced to Camel Snus through free samples. Favourable evaluations were posted by current smokers who had never tried SLT before as well as current users of other SLT brands. Messages indicated both initiation of dual product use among smokers and product substitution. Participants used the board to advise each other on how to use the product, where to get more, suggest ways RJ Reynolds could improve the product and to encourage RJ Reynolds to release it nationally. Camel Snus has appeal for at least some smokers and SLT users. Camel Snus' website message board may have been a doubly beneficial marketing feature in both connecting product users and providing product feedback to the company during test-marketing.

  6. The impact of text message reminders on adherence to antimalarial treatment in northern Ghana: a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia R G Raifman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low rates of adherence to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT regimens increase the risk of treatment failure and may lead to drug resistance, threatening the sustainability of current anti-malarial efforts. We assessed the impact of text message reminders on adherence to ACT regimens. METHODS: Health workers at hospitals, clinics, pharmacies, and other stationary ACT distributors in Tamale, Ghana provided flyers advertising free mobile health information to individuals receiving malaria treatment. The messaging system automatically randomized self-enrolled individuals to the control group or the treatment group with equal probability; those in the treatment group were further randomly assigned to receive a simple text message reminder or the simple reminder plus an additional statement about adherence in 12-hour intervals. The main outcome was self-reported adherence based on follow-up interviews occurring three days after treatment initiation. We estimated the impact of the messages on treatment completion using logistic regression. RESULTS: 1140 individuals enrolled in both the study and the text reminder system. Among individuals in the control group, 61.5% took the full course of treatment. The simple text message reminders increased the odds of adherence (adjusted OR 1.45, 95% CI [1.03 to 2.04], p-value 0.028. Receiving an additional message did not result in a significant change in adherence (adjusted OR 0.77, 95% CI [0.50 to 1.20], p-value 0.252. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that a simple text message reminder can increase adherence to antimalarial treatment and that additional information included in messages does not have a significant impact on completion of ACT treatment. Further research is needed to develop the most effective text message content and frequency. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01722734.

  7. Change your ways : Fostering health attitudes toward change through selective exposure to online health messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerwick, Axel; Johnson, Benjamin K.; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Health information is often sought online, despite varying credibility of online sources, and may shape health behaviors. This investigation builds on the Selective Exposure Self- and Affect-Management model to examine selective exposure to online health information from low- and high-credibility

  8. Proof of Concept of a Mobile Health Short Message Service Text Message Intervention That Promotes Adherence to Oral Anticancer Agent Medications: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelstra, Sandra L; Given, Charles W; Sikorskii, Alla; Coursaris, Constantinos K; Majumder, Atreyee; DeKoekkoek, Tracy; Schueller, Monica; Given, Barbara A

    2016-06-01

    This multisite, randomized controlled trial assigned 75 adult cancer patients prescribed an oral anticancer agent to either an experimental group that received daily text messages for adherence for 21 days plus usual care or a control group that received usual care. Measures were administered at baseline, weekly (Weeks 1-8), and at exit (Week 9). A satisfaction survey was conducted following the intervention. Acceptability, feasibility, and satisfaction were examined. Primary outcomes were adherence and symptoms. Secondary outcomes were depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, cognition, physical function, and social support. Mixed or general linear models were used for the analyses comparing trial groups. Effect sizes (ES) were estimated to gauge clinical significance. Regarding acceptability, 57.2% (83 of 145) of eligible patients consented, 88% (n = 37 of 42) receiving text messages read them most or all of the time, and 90% (n = 38) were satisfied. The differences between experimental and control groups' ES were 0.29 for adherence, 0.21 for symptom severity, and 0.21 for symptom interference, and differences were not statistically significant. Furthermore, perceived social support was higher (p = 0.04; ES = 0.54) in the experimental group. Proof of concept and preliminary efficacy of a mobile health intervention using text messages to promote adherence for patients prescribed oral anticancer agents were demonstrated. Patients accepted and had high satisfaction with the intervention, and adherence improved after the intervention. Text messages show promise. Additional research is needed prior to use in practice.

  9. Sparse Estimation Based on a New Random Regularized Matching Pursuit Generalized Approximate Message Passing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Luo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Approximate Message Passing (AMP and Generalized AMP (GAMP algorithms usually suffer from serious convergence issues when the elements of the sensing matrix do not exactly match the zero-mean Gaussian assumption. To stabilize AMP/GAMP in these contexts, we have proposed a new sparse reconstruction algorithm, termed the Random regularized Matching pursuit GAMP (RrMpGAMP. It utilizes a random splitting support operation and some dropout/replacement support operations to make the matching pursuit steps regularized and uses a new GAMP-like algorithm to estimate the non-zero elements in a sparse vector. Moreover, our proposed algorithm can save much memory, be equipped with a comparable computational complexity as GAMP and support parallel computing in some steps. We have analyzed the convergence of this GAMP-like algorithm by the replica method and provided the convergence conditions of it. The analysis also gives an explanation about the broader variance range of the elements of the sensing matrix for this GAMP-like algorithm. Experiments using simulation data and real-world synthetic aperture radar tomography (TomoSAR data show that our method provides the expected performance for scenarios where AMP/GAMP diverges.

  10. Online advertising by three commercial breast imaging services: message takeout and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Pratt, Iain S; Donovan, Robert J; Lin, Chad; Saunders, Christobel; Slevin, Terry

    2013-10-01

    Mammography is widely acknowledged to be the most cost-effective technique for population screening for breast cancer. Recently in Australia, imaging modalities other than mammography, including thermography, electrical impedance, and computerised breast imaging, have been increasingly promoted as alternative methods of breast cancer screening. This study assessed the impact of three commercial breast imaging companies' promotional material upon consumers' beliefs about the effectiveness of the companies' technology in detecting breast cancer, and consumers' intentions to seek more information or consider having their breasts imaged by these modalities. Results showed 90% of respondents agreed that the companies' promotional material promoted the message that the advertised breast imaging method was effective in detecting breast cancer, and 80% agreed that the material promoted the message that the imaging method was equally or more effective than a mammogram. These findings have implications for women's preference for and uptake of alternative breast imaging services over mammography. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-Linguistic Vocal Event Detection Using Online Random

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    Accurate detection of non-linguistic vocal events in social signals can have a great impact on the applicability of speech enabled interactive systems. In this paper, we investigate the use of random forest for vocal event detection. Random forest technique has been successfully employed in many...... areas such as object detection, face recognition, and audio event detection. This paper proposes to use online random forest technique for detecting laughter and filler and for analyzing the importance of various features for non-linguistic vocal event classification through permutation. The results...

  12. A readability comparison of anti- versus pro-influenza vaccination online messages in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Okuhara

    2017-06-01

    When health professionals prepare pro-influenza vaccination materials for publication online, we recommend they check for readability using readability assessment tools and improve the text for easy reading if necessary.

  13. Text Messaging, Teen Outreach Program, and Sexual Health Behavior: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Sheana; Devine, Sharon; Schmiege, Sara J; Pickard, Leslie; Campbell, Jon; Shlay, Judith C

    2016-09-01

    To consider whether Youth All Engaged! (a text message intervention) intensified the effects of the adolescent pregnancy prevention Teen Outreach Program (control) for youths. In this trial performed in Denver, Colorado, from 2011 to 2014, we randomized 8 Boys & Girls Clubs each of 4 years into 32 clubs per year combinations to ensure each club would serve as a treatment site for 2 years and a control site for 2 years. Control intervention consisted of the Teen Outreach Program only. We enrolled 852 youths (aged 14-18 years), and 632 were retained at follow-up, with analytic samples ranging from 50 to 624 across outcomes. We examined program costs, and whether the intervention increased condom and contraceptive use, access to care, and pregnancy prevention. Control program costs were $1184 per participant, and intervention costs were an additional $126 per participant (+10.6%). There were no statistically significant differences in primary outcomes for the full sample. Hispanic participants in the intervention condition had fewer pregnancies at follow-up (1.79%) than did those in the control group (6.72%; P = .02). Youth All Engaged is feasible, low cost, and could have potential benefits for Hispanic youths.

  14. Mobile Phone Multilevel and Multimedia Messaging Intervention for Breast Cancer Screening: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee; Ghebre, Rahel; Le, Chap; Jang, Yoo Jeong; Sharratt, Monica; Yee, Douglas

    2017-11-07

    Despite the increasing breast cancer incidence and mortality rates, Korean American immigrant women have one of the lowest rates of breast cancer screening across racial groups in the United States. Mobile health (mHealth), defined as the delivery of health care information or services through mobile communication devices, has been utilized to successfully improve a variety of health outcomes. This study adapted the principles of mHealth to advance breast cancer prevention efforts among Korean American immigrant women, an underserved community. Using a randomized controlled trial design, 120 Korean American women aged 40 to 77 years were recruited and randomly assigned to either the mMammogram intervention group (n=60) to receive culturally and personally tailored multilevel and multimedia messages through a mobile phone app along with health navigator services or the usual care control group (n=60) to receive a printed brochure. Outcome measures included knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about breast cancer screening, readiness for mammography, and mammogram receipt. The feasibility and acceptability of the mMammogram intervention was also assessed. The intervention group showed significantly greater change on scores of knowledge of breast cancer and screening guidelines (P=.01). The intervention group also showed significantly greater readiness for mammography use after the intervention compared with the control group. A significantly higher proportion of women who received the mMammogram intervention (75%, 45/60) completed mammograms by the 6-month follow-up compared with the control group (30%, 18/60; Phttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01972048 (Archived by WebCite at https://clinicaltrials.gov/archive/NCT01972048/2013_10_29).

  15. Texting Motivational Interviewing: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Motivational Interviewing Text Messages Designed to Augment Childhood Obesity Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Sarah; Mendelsohn, Alan; Bennett, Gary; Taveras, Elsie M; Kimberg, Amanda; Kemper, Alex R

    2018-01-01

    Text messages improve health outcomes for adults engaged in weight management. Little is known about whether text messaging parents of children enrolled in obesity treatment will improve child health. We conducted a 2-group randomized controlled study among 101 children aged 5-12 and their parent/guardian enrolling in tertiary-care obesity treatment. Participants were randomized to standard care or standard care plus daily motivational interviewing-based text messages. The primary outcome was change in child BMI at 3 months. Secondary outcomes included feasibility, health behaviors, attrition, motivation, and parent BMI. We enrolled 101 parent-child dyads and retained 81% to 3-month follow-up. Child participants had a mean age of 9.9 years, and baseline BMI of 30.5 kg/m2. Half (48%) of participants were Black, and 64% of parent participants had a high school equivalent education or less. Ninety-nine percent of parents owned a mobile device with unlimited text messaging. Parents responded to 80% of texts, and 95% felt the texts "always" or "almost always" helped them make a good health decision. We observed no between-group difference in child zBMI from baseline to 3 months (0.0 vs. 0.2, p = 0.2). Intervention participants had significantly better adherence to clinic visits (3.3 visits vs. 2.1 visits/3 months, p text messages did not significantly change child BMI. However, texting significantly reduced attrition for treatment visits. Nearly all parents in this racially diverse, low-income sample engaged in daily text messaging, making this a feasible approach.

  16. Heat Health Messages: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Preventative Messages Tool in the Older Population of South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Nitschke

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the efficacy of providing targeted information to older individuals to prevent adverse health outcomes during extreme heat. Participants ≥65 years of age (n = 637 were recruited from previous population-based studies and randomized into intervention and control groups. The intervention group received evidence-based information leaflets and summarised “Beat the Heat” tips. Post summer 2013–2014, participants responded to questions about their behaviours and their health experiences. Chi square analysis and risk ratios (RR were used to determine the difference in effects. Responses were received from 216 intervention subjects and 218 controls. Behaviour modification during extreme heat was similar in both groups except for significant increases in the use of cooling systems and the use of a wet cloth to cool the skin in the intervention group. Both actions were recommended in the information package. More people in the intervention group also claimed to have had adequate heat health information. After adjusting for confounders, the RR for self-reported heat stress experienced during summer 2014 indicated a 63% (RR 0.37; 95% CI: 0.22–0.63 reduction in the intervention group compared to the control group. Access to intensive prevention information may have contributed to this positive outcome, indicating the potential usefulness of targeted heat-health information for seniors.

  17. Impact of a Text-Messaging Program on Adolescent Reproductive Health: A Cluster-Randomized Trial in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokicki, Slawa; Cohen, Jessica; Salomon, Joshua A; Fink, Günther

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate whether text-messaging programs can improve reproductive health among adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial among 756 female students aged 14 to 24 years in Accra, Ghana, in 2014. We randomized 38 schools to unidirectional intervention (n = 12), interactive intervention (n = 12), and control (n = 14). The unidirectional intervention sent participants text messages with reproductive health information. The interactive intervention engaged adolescents in text-messaging reproductive health quizzes. The primary study outcome was reproductive health knowledge at 3 and 15 months. Additional outcomes included self-reported pregnancy and sexual behavior. Analysis was by intent-to-treat. From baseline to 3 months, the unidirectional intervention increased knowledge by 11 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7, 15) and the interactive intervention by 24 percentage points (95% CI = 19, 28), from a control baseline of 26%. Although we found no changes in reproductive health outcomes overall, both unidirectional (odds ratio [OR] = 0.14; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.71) and interactive interventions (OR = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.86) lowered odds of self-reported pregnancy for sexually active participants. Text-messaging programs can lead to large improvements in reproductive health knowledge and have the potential to lower pregnancy risk for sexually active adolescent girls.

  18. The impact of tailored text messages on health beliefs and medication adherence in adults with diabetes: A randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatwood, Justin; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Erickson, Steven R; An, Lawrence C; Piette, John D; Farris, Karen B

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate medication adherence reduces optimal health outcomes and can lead to increased costs, particularly in patients with diabetes. Efforts to improve adherence have resulted in limited effects; approaches leveraging mobile technology have emerged, but their focus has mainly been limited to simple reminder messages. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of tailored text messages focusing on improving medication adherence and health beliefs in adults with diabetes. Adults aged 21-64, with uncontrolled diabetes, and taking at least one anti-diabetic medication were recruited and randomized into 2 study arms: daily tailored text messaging for 90 days or standard care. Comparing baseline and endpoint survey responses, changes in theory-driven health beliefs and attitudes were assessed. The impact on medication adherence was evaluated using pharmacy claims by calculating the percent of days covered (PDC). A total of 75 subjects were consented, and 48 were randomized. Mean PDC at baseline were comparable between cohorts (84.4% and 87.1%, respectively). Declines in adherence were observed in both groups over time but no significant differences were observed between groups or from baseline to the end of the active study period. Unadjusted tests suggested that perceived benefits and competence might have improved in the intervention arm. Tailoring mobile phone text messages is a novel way to address medication nonadherence and health beliefs; further investigation to this combined technique is needed to better understand its impact on behavior change in adults with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Online suicide risk screening and intervention with college students: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A; Eisenberg, Daniel; Zheng, Kai; Czyz, Ewa; Kramer, Anne; Horwitz, Adam; Chermack, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    This pilot randomized controlled trial examined the effect of an online intervention for college students at risk for suicide, Electronic Bridge to Mental Health Services (eBridge), which included personalized feedback and optional online counseling delivered in accordance with motivational interviewing principles. Primary outcomes were readiness to seek information or talk with family and friends about mental health treatment, readiness to seek mental health treatment, and actual treatment linkage. Participants were 76 college students (45 women, 31 men; mean age = 22.9 years, SD = 5.0 years) at a large public university who screened positive for suicide risk, defined by at least 2 of the following: suicidal thoughts, history of suicide attempt, depression, and alcohol abuse. Racial/ethnic self-identifications were primarily Caucasian (n = 54) and Asian (n = 21). Students were randomized to eBridge or the control condition (personalized feedback only, offered in plain report format). Outcomes were measured at 2-month follow-up. Despite relatively modest engagement in online counseling (29% of students posted ≥1 message), students assigned to eBridge reported significantly higher readiness for help-seeking scores, especially readiness to talk to family, talk to friends, and see a mental health professional. Students assigned to eBridge also reported lower stigma levels and were more likely to link to mental health treatment. Findings suggest that offering students personalized feedback and the option of online counseling, using motivational interviewing principles, has a positive impact on students' readiness to consider and engage in mental health treatment. Further research is warranted to determine the robustness of this effect, the mechanism by which improved readiness and treatment linkage occurs, and the longer term impact on student mental health outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Online Suicide Risk Screening and Intervention with College Students: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A.; Eisenberg, Daniel; Zheng, Kai; Czyz, Ewa; Kramer, Anne; Horwitz, Adam; Chermack, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Objective This pilot randomized controlled trial examined the effect of an online intervention for college students at risk for suicide, Electronic Bridge to Mental Health Services (eBridge), which included personalized feedback and optional online counseling delivered in accordance with motivational interviewing principles. Primary outcomes were readiness to seek information or talk with family and friends about mental health treatment, readiness to seek mental health treatment, and actual treatment linkage. Method Participants were 76 college students (45 women, 31 men; mean age = 22.9 years, SD = 5.0 years) at a large public university who screened positive for suicide risk, defined by at least two of the following: suicidal thoughts, history of suicide attempt, depression, and alcohol abuse. Racial/ethnic self-identifications were primarily Caucasian (n = 54) and Asian (n = 21). Students were randomized to eBridge or the control condition (personalized feedback only, offered in plain report format). Outcomes were measured at 2-month follow-up. Results Despite relatively modest engagement in online counseling (29% of students posted ≥ 1 message), students assigned to eBridge reported significantly higher readiness for help-seeking scores, especially readiness to talk to family, talk to friends, and see a mental health professional. Students assigned to eBridge also reported lower stigma levels and were more likely to link to mental health treatment. Conclusions Findings suggest that offering students personalized feedback and the option of online counseling, using motivational interviewing principles, has a positive impact on students’ readiness to consider and engage in mental health treatment. Further research is warranted to determine the robustness of this effect, the mechanism by which improved readiness and treatment linkage occurs, and the longer term impact on student mental health outcomes. PMID:25688811

  1. Effect of text messages to improve health literacy on medication adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled pilot trial

    OpenAIRE

    Yamagata, Zentaro; Suzuki,Kohta; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugita, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT It has been suggested that low health literacy (HL) is associated with poor medication adherence. This study aimed to examine the effect of a text message-based HL intervention to promote medication adherence, compared with text messages that only sent medication reminders, in patients with type 2 diabetes. This was a single-center, open-label, randomized (1:1) controlled pilot study. The study period was 6 months. Intervention group was sent HL related text messages, compared to the...

  2. Text message reminders increased colorectal cancer screening in a randomized trial with Alaska Native and American Indian people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Clemma J; Robinson, Renee F; Smith, Julia J; Jernigan, Meghan A; Hiratsuka, Vanessa; Dillard, Denise A; Buchwald, Dedra

    2017-04-15

    Alaska Native and American Indian people (AN/AIs) have a high incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC-related mortality. Screening can prevent death from CRC, but screening rates are low in racially and ethnically diverse populations. The authors conducted a randomized controlled trial using text messaging to increase CRC screening among unscreened AN/AIs in a tribal health care system in Anchorage, Alaska. The intervention entailed up to 3 text messages sent 1 month apart. The authors randomized 2386 AN/AIs aged 40 to 75 years who were eligible for CRC screening to the intervention or usual-care control conditions. Screening status was ascertained from electronic health records 3 months and 6 months after the last text message. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention, stratified by age and sex. The intervention increased CRC screening for AN/AIs aged 50 to 75 years (HR, 1.42; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.97-2.09) and aged 40 to 49 years (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.95-1.62). Within both age groups, the HRs were higher for women (HR, 1.69 [95% CI, 1.02-2.80] and HR, 1.37 [95% CI, 1.01-1.88]) compared with men (HR, 1.09 [95% CI, 0.59-1.99] and HR, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.54-1.53]). Interaction analysis yielded P values of .55 and .09, respectively, for age and sex. A simple text messaging intervention was found to increase CRC screening rates in AN/AIs, a group with high CRC morbidity and mortality. Text messaging may be a cost-effective means of reducing CRC screening disparities in AN/AIs and other populations. Cancer 2017;123:1382-1389. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  3. Text Messaging for Exercise Promotion in Older Adults From an Upper-Middle-Income Country: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Selina; Morris, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile technology to promote exercise is effective; however, most evidence is from studies of younger groups in high-income countries. Investigating if short message service (SMS) texting can affect exercise participation in older adults from an upper-middle-income country is important considering the proliferation of mobile phones in developing regions and the increased interest of older adults in using mobile phones. Objective The main objective was to examine the short- and long-term effects of SMS text messaging on exercise frequency in older adults. Secondary objectives were to investigate how SMS text messages impact study participants’ exercise frequency and the effects of the intervention on secondary outcomes. Methods The Malaysian Physical Activity for Health Study (myPAtHS) was a 24-week, 2-arm, parallel randomized controlled trial conducted in urban Malaysia. Participants were recruited via health talks in resident associations and religious facilities. Older Malaysians (aged 55-70 years) who used mobile phones and did not exercise regularly were eligible to participate in the study. Participants randomly allocated to the SMS texting arm received an exercise booklet and 5 weekly SMS text messages over 12 weeks. The content of the SMS text messages was derived from effective behavior change techniques. The non-SMS texting arm participants received only the exercise booklet. Home visits were conducted to collect outcome data: (1) exercise frequency at 12 and 24 weeks, (2) secondary outcome data (exercise self-efficacy, physical activity–related energy expenditure, sitting time, body mass index, grip and leg strength) at baseline and at 12 and 24 weeks. Intention-to-treat procedures were applied for data analysis. Semistructured interviews focusing primarily on the SMS text messages and their impact on exercise frequency were conducted at weeks 12 and 24. Results In total, 43 participants were randomized into the SMS texting arm (n=22) and

  4. Online direct-to-consumer messages about non-invasive prenatal genetic testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Farrell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT has been integrated into clinical care at a time when patients and healthcare providers increasingly utilize the internet to access health information. This study evaluated online direct-to-consumer information about NIPT produced by commercial laboratories accessible to both patients and healthcare providers. A coding checklist captured areas to describe content and assess concordance with clinical guidelines. We found that the information presented about NIPT is highly variable, both within a single website and broadly across all websites. Variability was noted in how NIPT is characterized, including test characteristics and indications. All laboratories offer NIPT to test for common sex chromosome aneuploidies, although there is a lack of consistency regarding the conditions offered and information provided about each. Although indicated for a subset of women at increased risk of aneuploidy, some laboratories describe the use of NIPT for all pregnant women. A subset of laboratories offers screening for microdeletions, although clinical practice guidelines do not yet recommend for general use for this indication. None of the online materials addressed the ethical issues associated with NIPT. This study highlights the need for clear, consistent, and evidence-based materials to educate patients and healthcare providers about the current and emerging applications of NIPT.

  5. Improving Rates of Outpatient Influenza Vaccination Through EHR Portal Messages and Interactive Automated Calls: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, Sarah L; Golden, Jessica G; Goff, Sarah L; Ogarek, Jessica; Barton, Bruce; Fisher, Lloyd; Preusse, Peggy; Sundaresan, Devi; Garber, Lawrence; Mazor, Kathleen M

    2018-01-30

    Patient reminders for influenza vaccination, delivered via electronic health record (EHR) patient portal messages and interactive voice response (IVR) calls, offer an innovative approach to improving patient care. To test the effectiveness of portal and IVR outreach in improving rates of influenza vaccination. Randomized controlled trial of EHR portal messages and IVR calls promoting influenza vaccination. Adults with no documented influenza vaccination 2 months after the start of influenza season (2014-2015). Using a factorial design, we assigned 20,000 patients who were active portal users to one of four study arms: (a) receipt of a portal message promoting influenza vaccines, (b) receipt of IVR call with similar content, (c) both a and b, or (d) neither (usual care). We randomized 10,000 non-portal users to receipt of IVR call or usual care. In all intervention arms, information on pneumococcal vaccination was included if the targeted patient was overdue for pneumococcal vaccine. EHR-documented influenza vaccination during the 2014-2015 influenza season, measured April 2015. Among portal users, 14.0% (702) of those receiving both portal messages and calls, 13.4% (669) of message recipients, 12.8% (642) of call recipients, and 11.6% (582) of those with usual care received vaccines. On multivariable analysis of portal users, those receiving portal messages alone (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.06-1.35) or IVR calls alone (OR 1.15 95% CI 1.02-1.30) were more likely than usual care recipients to be vaccinated. Those receiving both messages and calls were also more likely than the usual care group to be vaccinated (ad hoc analysis, using a Bonferroni correction: OR 1.29, 97.5% CI 1.13, 1.48). Among non-portal users, 8.5% of call recipients and 8.6% of usual care recipients received influenza vaccines (p = NS). Pneumococcal vaccination rates showed no significant improvement. Our outreach achieved a small but significant improvement in influenza vaccination rates. Registration

  6. PRENACEL - a mHealth messaging system to complement antenatal care: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Ciabati, Lívia; Vieira, Carolina Sales; Franzon, Ana Carolina Arruda; Alves, Domingos; Zaratini, Fabiani Spessoto; Braga, Giordana Campos; Sanchez, Jazmin Andrea Cifuentes; Bonifácio, Lívia Pimenta; Andrade, Magna Santos; Fernandes, Mariana; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Fabio, Suzi Volpato; Pileggi, Vicky Nogueira; Vieira, Elisabeth Meloni; Souza, João Paulo

    2017-11-07

    The aim of this study was to determine whether PRENACEL (a bi-directional, mobile-phone based, short text message service (SMS)) increases the coverage of recommended antenatal care (ANC) practices. A parallel, cluster-randomized trial in which 20 public primary Health Care Units (PHCUs) were randomly allocated to the intervention (10 PHCUs) or control (10 PHCUs) group. The study population included pregnant women aged 18 or above with a gestational age of 20 weeks or less. Pregnant women receiving ANC in intervention PHCUs were invited through leaflets and posters to register in PRENACEL. Women who registered in PRENACEL received a weekly set of short text messages with health education and health promotion content related to pregnancy and childbirth and were also able to clarify ANC queries through SMS. All women received routine ANC. The primary outcome was the proportion of women with high ANC Score, a composite measure of coverage of recommended ANC practices. Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests and multivariate log-binomial regression were used to analyze the outcomes. A total of 1210 eligible women received ANC in the participating PHCUs and took part of this study (770 in the intervention group and 440 in the control group). 20.4% (157/770) of intervention-group women registered in PRENACEL, but only 116 read all messages (73.9% of women who registered in PRENACEL, 116/157). The adjusted intention-to-treat analysis suggested no difference between intervention and control groups in the primary outcome (Adjusted Relative Risk (AdjRR): 1.05 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.00-1.09). Both crude and adjusted per-protocol analysis suggested a positive effect of PRENACEL (Crude RR (95% CI): 1.14 (1.06-1.22), AdjRR (95% CI): 1.12 (1.05-1.21). The multivariate analysis also suggests that the PRENACEL group (women who read all SMS) had higher mean ANC score [48.5 (±4.2) vs 45.2 (±8.7), p syphilis testing (40.5% vs. 24.8%, p = 0.03) and HIV testing (46.6% vs. 25

  7. Online psychoeducational support for infertile women: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineau, Tara M.; Green, Traci C.; Corsini, Evelyn; Seibring, A; Showstack, Marianne T.; Applegarth, Linda; Davidson, Marie; Perloe, Mark

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND The study goal was to develop and test the effectiveness of a brief online education and support program for female infertility patients. METHODS A randomized-controlled trial was conducted. Using a Solomon-four group design, 190 female patients were recruited from three US fertility centers and were randomized into two experimental and two no-treatment control groups. The psychological outcomes assessed included infertility distress, infertility self-efficacy, decisional conflict, marital cohesion and coping style. Program dosage and satisfaction were also assessed at four weeks follow-up. RESULTS Women exposed to the online program significantly improved in the area of social concerns (P = 0.038) related to infertility distress, and felt more informed about a medical decision with which they were contending (P = 0.037). Trends were observed for decreased global stress (P = 0.10), sexual concerns (P = 0.059), distress related to child-free living (P = 0.063), increased infertility self-efficacy (P = 0.067) and decision making clarity (P = 0.079). A dosage response was observed in the experimental groups for women who spent >60 min online for decreased global stress (P = 0.028) and increased self efficacy (P = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS This evidence-based eHealth program for women experiencing infertility suggests that a web-based patient education intervention can have beneficial effects in several psychological domains and may be a cost effective resource for fertility practices. PMID:18089552

  8. Designing Messaging to Engage Patients in an Online Suicide Prevention Intervention: Survey Results From Patients With Current Suicidal Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Anita; Richards, Julie; Simon, Gregory E; Clingan, Sarah; Siler, Jaeden; Snyder, Lorilei; Ludman, Evette

    2014-01-01

    Background Computerized, Internet-delivered interventions can be efficacious; however, uptake and maintaining sustained client engagement are still big challenges. We see the development of effective engagement strategies as the next frontier in online health interventions, an area where much creative research has begun. We also argue that for engagement strategies to accomplish their purpose with novel targeted populations, they need to be tailored to such populations (ie, content is designed with the target population in mind). User-centered design frameworks provide a theoretical foundation for increasing user engagement and uptake by including users in development. However, deciding how to implement this approach to enage users in mental health intervention development is challenging. Objective The aim of this study was to get user input and feedback on acceptability of messaging content intended to engage suicidal individuals. Methods In March 2013, clinic intake staff distributed flyers announcing the study, “Your Feedback Counts” to potential participants (individuals waiting to be seen for a mental health appointment) together with the Patient Health Questionnaire. The flyer explained that a score of two or three (“more than half the days” or “nearly every day” respectively) on the suicide ideation question made them eligible to provide feedback on components of a suicide prevention intervention under development. The patient could access an anonymous online survey by following a link. After providing consent online, participants completed the anonymous survey. Results Thirty-four individuals provided data on past demographic information. Participants reported that they would be most drawn to an intervention where they knew that they were cared about, that was personalized, that others like them had found it helpful, and that included examples with real people. Participants preferred email invitations with subject lines expressing concern and

  9. Designing messaging to engage patients in an online suicide prevention intervention: survey results from patients with current suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Ursula; Lungu, Anita; Richards, Julie; Simon, Gregory E; Clingan, Sarah; Siler, Jaeden; Snyder, Lorilei; Ludman, Evette

    2014-02-07

    Computerized, Internet-delivered interventions can be efficacious; however, uptake and maintaining sustained client engagement are still big challenges. We see the development of effective engagement strategies as the next frontier in online health interventions, an area where much creative research has begun. We also argue that for engagement strategies to accomplish their purpose with novel targeted populations, they need to be tailored to such populations (ie, content is designed with the target population in mind). User-centered design frameworks provide a theoretical foundation for increasing user engagement and uptake by including users in development. However, deciding how to implement this approach to engage users in mental health intervention development is challenging. The aim of this study was to get user input and feedback on acceptability of messaging content intended to engage suicidal individuals. In March 2013, clinic intake staff distributed flyers announcing the study, "Your Feedback Counts" to potential participants (individuals waiting to be seen for a mental health appointment) together with the Patient Health Questionnaire. The flyer explained that a score of two or three ("more than half the days" or "nearly every day" respectively) on the suicide ideation question made them eligible to provide feedback on components of a suicide prevention intervention under development. The patient could access an anonymous online survey by following a link. After providing consent online, participants completed the anonymous survey. Thirty-four individuals provided data on past demographic information. Participants reported that they would be most drawn to an intervention where they knew that they were cared about, that was personalized, that others like them had found it helpful, and that included examples with real people. Participants preferred email invitations with subject lines expressing concern and availability of extra resources. Participants also

  10. Short message service reduces dropout in childhood obesity treatment: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier, J.; de Niet, J.; Timman, R.; van den Akker, E.; De Klerk, C.; Kordy, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Lifestyle programs can reduce the level of overweight in children; however, maintenance results and adherence to treatment are difficult to achieve. New technologies, such as the Short Message Service (SMS), might be a promising tool for enhancing interventions. The effect of an SMS

  11. Employing online quantum random number generators for generating truly random quantum states in Mathematica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszczak, Jarosław Adam

    2013-01-01

    The presented package for the Mathematica computing system allows the harnessing of quantum random number generators (QRNG) for investigating the statistical properties of quantum states. The described package implements a number of functions for generating random states. The new version of the package adds the ability to use the on-line quantum random number generator service and implements new functions for retrieving lists of random numbers. Thanks to the introduced improvements, the new version provides faster access to high-quality sources of random numbers and can be used in simulations requiring large amount of random data. New version program summaryProgram title: TRQS Catalogue identifier: AEKA_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKA_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 18 134 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 520 49 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica, C. Computer: Any supporting Mathematica in version 7 or higher. Operating system: Any platform supporting Mathematica; tested with GNU/Linux (32 and 64 bit). RAM: Case-dependent Supplementary material: Fig. 1 mentioned below can be downloaded. Classification: 4.15. External routines: Quantis software library (http://www.idquantique.com/support/quantis-trng.html) Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEKA_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 183(2012)118 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Generation of random density matrices and utilization of high-quality random numbers for the purpose of computer simulation. Solution method: Use of a physical quantum random number generator and an on-line service providing access to the source of true random

  12. Perceived risk as a moderator of the effectiveness of framed HIV-test promotion messages among women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Shawnika J

    2012-01-01

    Researchers argue that gain-framed messages should be more effective for prevention behaviors, while loss frames should be more effective for detection behaviors (Rothman & Salovey, 1997). Evidence for this taxonomy has been mixed. This study examines whether the effects of gain- and loss-framed messages on HIV-testing intentions is moderated by perceived risk of a positive result. This experiment was conducted online and utilized a single factor (frame: gain/loss) between subjects design, with a separate HIV-test promotion control and a no message control to examine whether perceived risk of a positive test result moderates the effects of framed messages on intentions to seek an HIV test in the next 3 months. The sample (N = 1052; M age = 22, SD = 2.22), recruited through Survey Sampling International, included 51% Black women (49% White women). HIV-test promotion messages were more effective than no message, but there were no other main effects for condition. Results also demonstrated a significant interaction between message frame and perceived risk, which is mediated through elaborative processing of the message. The interaction demonstrated an advantage for the loss-framed message among women with some perceived risk and an advantage for the gain-framed message among women with low perceived risk. Results imply that the prevention/detection function of the behavior may be an inadequate distinction in the consideration of the effectiveness of framed messages promoting HIV testing. Rather, this study demonstrates that risk perceptions are an important moderator of framing effects.

  13. The impact of flavour, device type and warning messages on youth preferences for electronic nicotine delivery systems: evidence from an online discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Emery, Sherry L

    2017-11-02

    To examine the impact of flavour, device type and health warning messages on youth preference for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), and to provide evidence and data to inform the Food and Drug Administration's potential regulatory actions on ENDS. An online discrete choice experiment was conducted in September 2015. Each participant was given nine choice sets and asked to choose one out of two alternative ENDS products, with varying characteristics in three attributes (flavour, device type and warning message). The impact of the attributes on the probability of choosing ENDS was analysed using conditional and nested logit regressions, controlling for individual sociodemographic characteristics and current smoking status. A general population sample of 515 participants (50 ever-users and 465 never-users of ENDS) aged 14-17 years were recruited to complete the experiment using an online panel. Fruit/sweets/beverage flavours significantly increase the probability of choosing ENDS among youth (pe-cigarettes, increase (p<0.05) the probability of choosing ENDS among adolescent never-users. Warning messages reduce (p<0.01) the probability of choosing ENDS among never-users. Restricting fruit/sweets/beverage flavours in ENDS, regulating modifiable vaping devices and adopting strong health warning messages may reduce the uptake of ENDS among youth. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Exploring the "active ingredients" of an online smoking intervention: a randomized factorial trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jennifer B; Peterson, Do; Derry, Holly; Riggs, Karin; Saint-Johnson, Jackie; Nair, Vijay; An, Lawrence; Shortreed, Susan M

    2014-08-01

    Research needs to systematically identify which components increase online intervention effectiveness (i.e., active ingredients). This study explores the effects of 4 potentially important design features in an Internet-based, population-level smoking intervention. Smokers (n = 1,865) were recruited from a large health care organization, regardless of readiness to quit. Using a full factorial design, participants were randomized to 1 of the 2 levels of each experimental factor (message tone [prescriptive vs. motivational], navigation autonomy [dictated vs. not], e-mail reminders [yes vs. no], and receipt of personally tailored testimonials [yes vs. no]) and provided access to the online intervention. Primary outcomes were self-reported 7-day point-prevalent smoking abstinence and confirmed utilization of adjunct treatment (pharmacotherapy or phone counseling) available through the health plan at 1 year. Outcomes were also assessed at 2 and 6 months and were examined among all enrolled participants (intent-to-treat [ITT]) and all who viewed the intervention (modified ITT). At 1 year, 13.7% were abstinent and 26.0% utilized adjunct treatment. None of the contrasting factor levels differentially influenced abstinence or treatment utilization at 12 months. In the modified ITT sample, smokers receiving testimonials were less likely to use adjunct treatment at 6 months (odds ratio = 0.54, 95% confidence interval = 0.30-0.98, p = .04). None of the design features enhanced treatment outcome. The negative effect observed for testimonials is provocative, but it should be viewed with caution. This study offers a model for future research testing the "active ingredients" of online interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The Effects of Tonsillectomy Education Using Smartphone Text Message for Mothers and Children Undergoing Tonsillectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Yeon; Lee, Hanna; Zhang, Yongai; Lee, Ji Uhn; Park, Jun Hee; Yun, Eun Kyoung

    2016-11-01

    Tonsillectomy is the most common type of surgical procedure performed in preschool children. Due to short period of hospitalization, mothers are expected to manage their children's care at home. However, they are rarely provided with sufficient information about postoperative management. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of providing caregivers with information on tonsillectomy care by smartphone text messaging in increasing their mothers' knowledge, reducing the anxiety, and improving the sick-role behavior of pediatric tonsillectomy patients. A sample of 61 pediatric patients and their mothers was recruited. Participants were randomly assigned into either the experimental group (n = 27) or the control group (n = 34). The control group was given information about the tonsillectomy by conventional textual and verbal means, whereas the experimental group received the same information in the form of 10 text messages during the period from hospitalization to their first follow-up visits. Results of mixed design, two-way analysis of variance indicated significant interaction effects between time points and groups for mothers' knowledge (F = 4.26, p = 0.043) and children's anxiety (F = 3.32; p = 0.037). Thus, the results do support the effectiveness of tonsillectomy education using smartphone text messaging in increasing mothers' knowledge and reducing children's anxiety. These results can be applied to preoperative and postoperative interventions for children not only for tonsillectomy but also for many other operations. The development of various educational programs using smartphone text messaging for postoperative patient management would also be valuable.

  16. Effect of text messages to improve health literacy on medication adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Hideki; Shinohara, Ryoji; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kohta; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that low health literacy (HL) is associated with poor medication adherence. This study aimed to examine the effect of a text message-based HL intervention to promote medication adherence, compared with text messages that only sent medication reminders, in patients with type 2 diabetes. This was a single-center, open-label, randomized (1:1) controlled pilot study. The study period was 6 months. Intervention group was sent HL related text messages, compared to the reminder messages that were sent to the control group. The primary outcome was the difference in the change rate of scores on the Morisky Eight-Item Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). Forty-one participants were randomized into the intervention (n = 21) and control (n = 20) groups and completed the 6-month follow-up. Although almost participants read and understood the information provided in the messages, no significant difference was observed between groups for the primary outcome (p = 0.78). Our results suggested that medication adherence at 6 months after discharge in patients with type 2 diabetes did not significantly change by text messages, which aimed to improve their HL levels.

  17. Messaging to Increase Public Support for Naloxone Distribution Policies in the United States: Results from a Randomized Survey Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus A Bachhuber

    Full Text Available Barriers to public support for naloxone distribution include lack of knowledge, concerns about potential unintended consequences, and lack of sympathy for people at risk of overdose.A randomized survey experiment was conducted with a nationally-representative web-based survey research panel (GfK KnowledgePanel. Participants were randomly assigned to read different messages alone or in combination: 1 factual information about naloxone; 2 pre-emptive refutation of potential concerns about naloxone distribution; and 3 a sympathetic narrative about a mother whose daughter died of an opioid overdose. Participants were then asked if they support or oppose policies related to naloxone distribution. For each policy item, logistic regression models were used to test the effect of each message exposure compared with the no-exposure control group.The final sample consisted of 1,598 participants (completion rate: 72.6%. Factual information and the sympathetic narrative alone each led to higher support for training first responders to use naloxone, providing naloxone to friends and family members of people using opioids, and passing laws to protect people who administer naloxone. Participants receiving the combination of the sympathetic narrative and factual information, compared to factual information alone, were more likely to support all policies: providing naloxone to friends and family members (OR: 2.0 [95% CI: 1.4 to 2.9], training first responders to use naloxone (OR: 2.0 [95% CI: 1.2 to 3.4], passing laws to protect people if they administer naloxone (OR: 1.5 [95% CI: 1.04 to 2.2], and passing laws to protect people if they call for medical help for an overdose (OR: 1.7 [95% CI: 1.2 to 2.5].All messages increased public support, but combining factual information and the sympathetic narrative was most effective. Public support for naloxone distribution can be improved through education and sympathetic portrayals of the population who stands to benefit

  18. How are online health messages processed? Using eye tracking to predict recall of information in younger and older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, N.; van Weert, J.C.M.; Loos, E.F.; Romano Bergstrom, J.C.; Bolle, S.; Smets, E.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Little research has focused on what precedes the processing of health messages to predict recall of information and whether age matters in this regard. To address this gap, this study investigates the relationship between attention and recall among younger (<65 years) and older (≥65 years) adults.

  19. How Are Online Health Messages Processed? Using Eye Tracking to Predict Recall of Information in Younger and Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, Nadine; van Weert, Julia C. M.; Loos, Eugène F.; Romano Bergstrom, Jennifer C.; Bolle, Sifra; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Little research has focused on what precedes the processing of health messages to predict recall of information and whether age matters in this regard. To address this gap, this study investigates the relationship between attention and recall among younger ( <65 years) and older (>= 65 years)

  20. A randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of an interactive mobile messaging intervention for underserved smokers: Project ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidrine Damon J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a significant decrease in smoking prevalence over the past ten years, cigarette smoking still represents the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Moreover, smoking prevalence is significantly higher among those with low levels of education and those living at, or below, the poverty level. These groups tend to be confronted with significant barriers to utilizing more traditional smoking cessation intervention approaches. The purpose of the study, Project ACTION (Adult smoking Cessation Treatment through Innovative Outreach to Neighborhoods, is to utilize a mobile clinic model, a network of community sites (i.e., community centers and churches and an interactive mobile messaging system to reach and deliver smoking cessation treatment to underserved, low-income communities. Methods/Design We are using a group-randomized design, with the community site as the sampling unit, to compare the efficacy of three smoking cessation interventions: 1 Standard Care - brief advice to quit smoking, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, and self-help materials; 2 Enhanced Care - standard care components plus a cell phone-delivered text/graphical messaging component; and 3 Intensive Care - enhanced care components plus a series of 11 cell phone-delivered proactive counseling sessions. An economic evaluation will also be performed to evaluate the relative cost effectiveness of the three treatment approaches. We will recruit 756 participants (252 participants in each of the 3 intervention groups. At the time of randomization, participants complete a baseline assessment, consisting of smoking history, socio-demographic, and psychosocial variables. Monthly cell phone assessments are conducted for 6 months-post enrollment, and a final 12-month follow-up is conducted at the original neighborhood site of enrollment. We will perform mixed-model logistic regression to compare the efficacy of the three smoking

  1. The persuasion context and results in online opinion seeking: effects of message and source-the moderating role of network managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezudo, Rebeca San José; Izquierdo, Carmen Camarero; Pinto, Javier Rodríguez

    2013-11-01

    Online opinion networks are areas for social exchange, or conversational networks, made up of individuals actively involved in sharing experiences and opinions concerning matters of mutual interest between consumers or concerning their experience with a given product or service. We pinpoint a gap in the literature regarding how the persuasion process occurs when individuals seek opinions online, including the results process. In an attempt to find an answer, we draw on traditional theories related to information processing. These are mostly taken from the field of psychology and enable us to identify which signals or aspects of communication or opinions the individuals focus their attention on (message and source) and the value attached to such communications as well as how much they impact individuals' purchase decisions, bearing in mind the medium (or online opinion network) in which the opinions are located. Findings from those interviewed support the idea that the quality of information on the Internet, as well as trust in the source of said information, or in the opinion of network users, have an impact on the informational value obtained from involvement in this online opinion seeking and on purchasing decisions. Moreover, depending on the kind of network (firm or brand controlled, review Web sites, and user-controlled nonofficial opinion networks), the quality of the information or trust in the users will have a different bearing in the persuasion process.

  2. An Interactive Text Message Intervention to Reduce Binge Drinking in Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial with 9-Month Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Suffoletto

    Full Text Available Binge drinking is associated with numerous negative consequences. The prevalence and intensity of binge drinking is highest among young adults. This randomized trial tested the efficacy of a 12-week interactive text message intervention to reduce binge drinking up to 6 months after intervention completion among young adults.Young adult participants (18-25 y; n = 765 drinking above the low-risk limits (AUDIT-C score >3/4 women/men, but not seeking alcohol treatment, were enrolled from 4 Emergency Departments (EDs in Pittsburgh, PA. Participants were randomized to one of three conditions in a 2:1:1 allocation ratio: SMS Assessments + Feedback (SA+F, SMS Assessments (SA, or control. For 12 weeks, SA+F participants received texts each Thursday querying weekend drinking plans and prompting drinking limit goal commitment and each Sunday querying weekend drinking quantity. SA+F participants received tailored feedback based on their text responses. To contrast the effects of SA+F with self-monitoring, SA participants received texts on Sundays querying drinking quantity, but did not receive alcohol-specific feedback. The control arm received standard care. Follow-up outcome data collected through web-based surveys were provided by 78% of participants at 3- months, 63% at 6-months and 55% at 9-months. Multiple imputation-derived, intent-to-treat models were used for primary analysis. At 9-months, participants in the SA+F group reported greater reductions in the number of binge drinking days than participants in the control group (incident rate ratio [IRR] 0.69; 95% CI .59 to.79, lower binge drinking prevalence (odds ratio [OR] 0.52; 95% CI 0.26 to 0.98], less drinks per drinking day (beta -.62; 95% CI -1.10 to -0.15 and lower alcohol-related injury prevalence (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.88. Participants in the SA group did not reduce drinking or alcohol-related injury relative to controls. Findings were similar using complete case analyses.An interactive

  3. How Are Online Health Messages Processed? Using Eye Tracking to Predict Recall of Information in Younger and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Nadine; van Weert, Julia C M; Loos, Eugène F; Romano Bergstrom, Jennifer C; Bolle, Sifra; Smets, Ellen M A

    2016-01-01

    Little research has focused on what precedes the processing of health messages to predict recall of information and whether age matters in this regard. To address this gap, this study investigates the relationship between attention and recall among younger (older (≥65 years) adults. Using eye tracking, we exposed participants to a webpage consisting of text-only information, text with cognitive illustrations, or text with affective illustrations. When attention to text increased, older adults recalled more information, whereas younger adults did not. However, younger adults paid more attention to cognitive illustrations than older adults and recalled more information. These results reveal conditions under which health messages are effectively recalled by younger and older adults.

  4. Printed educational messages fail to increase use of thiazides as first-line medication for hypertension in primary care: a cluster randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN72772651].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwarenstein, Merrick; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Presseau, Justin; Francis, Jill J; Godin, Gaston; Johnston, Marie; Eccles, Martin P; Tetroe, Jacqueline; Shiller, Susan K; Croxford, Ruth; Kelsall, Diane; Paterson, J Michael; Austin, Peter C; Tu, Karen; Yun, Lingsong; Hux, Janet E

    2016-09-17

    Evidence on the effectiveness of printed educational messages in contributing to increasing evidence-based clinical practice is contradictory. Nonetheless, these messages flood physician offices, in an attempt to promote treatments that can reduce costs while improving patient outcomes. This study evaluated the ability of printed educational messages to promote the choice of thiazides as the first-line treatment for individuals newly diagnosed with hypertension, a practice supported by good evidence and included in guidelines, and one which could reduce costs to the health care system. The study uses a pragmatic, cluster randomized controlled trial (randomized by physician practice group). The setting involves all Ontario general/family practice physicians. Messages advising the use of thiazides as the first-line treatment of hypertension were mailed to each physician in conjunction with a widely read professional newsletter. Physicians were randomized to receive differing versions of printed educational messages: an "insert" (two-page evidence-based article) and/or one of two different versions of an "outsert" (short, directive message stapled to the outside of the newsletter). One outsert was developed without an explicit theory and one with messages developed targeting factors from the theory of planned behaviour or neither (newsletter only, with no mention of thiazides). The percentage of patients aged over 65 and newly diagnosed with hypertension who were prescribed a thiazide as the sole initial prescription medication. The effect of the intervention was estimated using a logistic regression model estimated using generalized estimating equation methods to account for the clustering of patients within physician practices. Four thousand five hundred four physicians (with 23,508 patients) were randomized, providing 97 % power to detect a 5 % absolute increase in prescription of thiazides. No intervention effect was detected. Thiazides were prescribed to 27.6

  5. Tailored health messaging improves contraceptive continuation and adherence: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbers, Samantha; Meserve, Allison; Kottke, Melissa; Hatcher, Robert; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2012-11-01

    Discontinuation and incorrect use of contraceptive methods may contribute to as many as 1 million unintended pregnancies annually in the United States. Interventions to improve contraceptive method continuation and adherence are needed. A three-arm randomized controlled trial was conducted at two family planning sites testing the efficacy of a computer-based contraceptive assessment module in increasing the proportion of patients who continued use of their chosen contraceptive method 4 months after the family planning visit (n=224). In analyses adjusting for clinical site of recruitment, family planning patients who used the module and received individually tailored health materials (n=78), compared to those in the control group (n=70), were significantly more likely to continue use of their chosen contraceptive method [95% compared to 77%; odds ratio (OR)=5.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.72-17.42] and to adhere to their method (86% compared to 69%; OR=2.74; 95% CI: 1.21-6.21). No significant differences in these outcomes were found for participants who used the module but did not receive tailored materials (n=76), compared to the control group. Tailored health materials significantly improved contraceptive method continuation and adherence. Additional research on the impact of the intervention on continuation and adherence in a larger sample and over a longer follow-up period is merited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effectiveness of Short Message Service Text-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention Among University Students: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müssener, Ulrika; Bendtsen, Marcus; Karlsson, Nadine; White, Ian R; McCambridge, Jim; Bendtsen, Preben

    2016-03-01

    Smoking is globally the most important preventable cause of ill health and death. Mobile telephone interventions and, in particular, short message service (SMS) text messaging, have the potential to overcome access barriers to traditional health services, not least among young people. To determine the effectiveness of a text-based smoking cessation intervention among young people. A single-blind, 2-arm, randomized clinical trial (Nicotine Exit [NEXit]) was conducted from October 23, 2014, to April 17, 2015; data analysis was performed from April 23, 2014, to May 22, 2015. Participants included daily or weekly smokers willing to set a quit date within 1 month of enrollment. The study used email to invite all college and university students throughout Sweden to participate. The NEXit core program is initiated with a 1- to 4-week motivational phase during which participants can choose to set a stop date. The intervention group then received 157 text messages based on components of effective smoking cessation interventions for 12 weeks. The control group received 1 text every 2 weeks thanking them for participating in the study, with delayed access to the intervention. The primary outcomes were self-reported prolonged abstinence (not having smoked >5 cigarettes over the past 8 weeks) and 4-week point prevalence of complete smoking cessation shortly after the completion of the intervention (approximately 4 months after the quit date). A total of 1590 participants, mainly between 21 and 30 years of age, were randomized into the study; 827 (573 [69.3%] women) were allocated to the intervention group and 763 (522 [68.4%] women) were included in the control group. Primary outcome data were available for 783 (94.7%) of the intervention group and 719 (94.2%) of the control group. At baseline, participants were smoking a median (range) of 63 (1-238) and 70 (2-280) cigarettes per week, respectively. Eight-week prolonged abstinence was reported by 203 participants (25.9%) in the

  7. Short message service (SMS)-based intervention targeting alcohol consumption among university students: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kristin; Bendtsen, Marcus; Linderoth, Catharina; Karlsson, Nadine; Bendtsen, Preben; Müssener, Ulrika

    2017-04-04

    Despite significant health risks, heavy drinking of alcohol among university students is a widespread problem; excessive drinking is part of the social norm. A growing number of studies indicate that short message service (SMS)-based interventions are cost-effective, accessible, require limited effort by users, and can enable continuous, real-time, brief support in real-world settings. Although there is emerging evidence for the effect of SMS-based interventions in reducing alcohol consumption, more research is needed. This study aims to test the effectiveness of a newly developed SMS-based intervention targeting excessive alcohol consumption among university and college students in Sweden. The study is a two-arm randomized controlled trial with an intervention (SMS programme) and a control (treatment as usual) group. Outcome measures will be investigated at baseline and at 3-month follow up. The primary outcome is total weekly alcohol consumption. Secondary outcomes are frequency of heavy episodic drinking, highest estimated blood alcohol concentration and number of negative consequences due to excessive drinking. This study contributes knowledge on the effect of automatized SMS support to reduce excessive drinking among students compared with existing support such as Student Health Centres. ISRCTN.com, ISRCTN95054707 . Registered on 31 August 2016.

  8. Promoting walking among office employees - evaluation of a randomized controlled intervention with pedometers and e-mail messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aittasalo, Minna; Rinne, Marjo; Pasanen, Matti; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Vasankari, Tommi

    2012-06-06

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate a 6-month intervention to promote office-employees' walking with pedometers and e-mail messages. Participants were recruited by 10 occupational health care units (OHC) from 20 worksites with 2,230 employees. Voluntary and insufficiently physically active employees (N = 241) were randomized to a pedometer (STEP, N = 123) and a comparison group (COMP, N = 118). STEP included one group meeting, log-monitored pedometer-use and six e-mail messages from OHC. COMP participated in data collection. Reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance (RE-AIM) and costs were assessed with questionnaires (0, 2, 6, 12 months), process evaluation and interviews (12 months). The intervention reached 29% (N = 646) of employees in terms of participation willingness. Logistic regression showed that the proportion of walkers tended to increase more in STEP than in COMP at 2 months in "walking for transportation" (Odds ratio 2.12, 95%CI 0.94 to 4.81) and at 6 months in "walking for leisure" (1.86, 95%CI 0.94 to 3.69). Linear model revealed a modest increase in the mean duration of "walking stairs" at 2 and 6 months (Geometric mean ratio 1.26, 95%CI 0.98 to 1.61; 1.27, 0.98 to 1.64). Adoption and implementation succeeded as intended. At 12 months, some traces of the intervention were sustained in 15 worksites, and a slightly higher number of walkers in STEP in comparison with COMP was observed in "walking stairs" (OR 2.24, 95%CI 0.94 to 5.31) and in "walking for leisure" (2.07, 95%CI 0.99 to 4.34). The direct costs of the intervention were 43 Euros per participant. The findings indicate only modest impact on some indicators of walking. Future studies should invest in reaching the employees, minimizing attrition rate and using objective walking assessment. TRIAL REGISTERATION: ISRCTN79432107.

  9. Promoting walking among office employees ― evaluation of a randomized controlled intervention with pedometers and e-mail messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aittasalo Minna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate a 6-month intervention to promote office-employees’ walking with pedometers and e-mail messages. Methods Participants were recruited by 10 occupational health care units (OHC from 20 worksites with 2,230 employees. Voluntary and insufficiently physically active employees (N = 241 were randomized to a pedometer (STEP, N = 123 and a comparison group (COMP, N = 118. STEP included one group meeting, log-monitored pedometer-use and six e-mail messages from OHC. COMP participated in data collection. Reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance (RE-AIM and costs were assessed with questionnaires (0, 2, 6, 12 months, process evaluation and interviews (12 months. Results The intervention reached 29% (N = 646 of employees in terms of participation willingness. Logistic regression showed that the proportion of walkers tended to increase more in STEP than in COMP at 2 months in “walking for transportation” (Odds ratio 2.12, 95%CI 0.94 to 4.81 and at 6 months in “walking for leisure” (1.86, 95%CI 0.94 to 3.69. Linear model revealed a modest increase in the mean duration of “walking stairs” at 2 and 6 months (Geometric mean ratio 1.26, 95%CI 0.98 to 1.61; 1.27, 0.98 to 1.64. Adoption and implementation succeeded as intended. At 12 months, some traces of the intervention were sustained in 15 worksites, and a slightly higher number of walkers in STEP in comparison with COMP was observed in “walking stairs” (OR 2.24, 95%CI 0.94 to 5.31 and in “walking for leisure” (2.07, 95%CI 0.99 to 4.34. The direct costs of the intervention were 43 Euros per participant. Conclusions The findings indicate only modest impact on some indicators of walking. Future studies should invest in reaching the employees, minimizing attrition rate and using objective walking assessment. Trial registeration ISRCTN79432107

  10. Marketing messages accompanying online selling of low/er and regular strength wine and beer products in the UK: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, Milica; Coulter, Lucia; Petticrew, Mark; Marteau, Theresa M

    2018-02-08

    Increased availability of low/er strength alcohol products has the potential to reduce alcohol consumption if they are marketed as substitutes for higher strength products rather than as additional products. The current study compares the main marketing messages conveyed by retailers and producers for low/er and regular strength wine and beer products. A content analysis of the marketing messages stated (in text) or depicted (in image) for low/er and regular strength wines and beers sold online on the websites of the four main UK retailers (Tesco, ASDA, Sainsbury's, and Morrisons), and the producers of these products between February-March 2016. Four themes were identified: (a) suggested occasions for consumption, (b) health-related associations, (c) alcohol content, and (d) taste. Compared with regular strength products, low/er strength equivalents were more often marketed in association with occasions deemed to be suitable for their consumption including lunchtimes [wine: X 2 (1, n = 172) = 11.75, p = .001], outdoor events/barbeques [beer: X 2 (1, n = 96) = 11.16, p = .001] and on sport/fitness occasions [beer: X 2 (1, n = 96) = 7.55, p = .006]. Compared with regular strength wines and beers, low/er strength equivalents were more frequently marketed with images or text associated with health. These included images of fruit [wine: X 2 (1, n = 172) = 7.78, p = .005; beer: X 2 (1, n = 96) = 22.00, p marketed with information about their alcohol content. There were few differences in the marketing messages regarding taste. Low/er strength wines and beers appear to be marketed not as substitutes for higher strength products but as ones that can be consumed on additional occasions with an added implication of healthiness.

  11. Comparison of secure messaging application (WhatsApp) and standard telephone usage for consultations on Length of Stay in the ED. A prospective randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulacti, Umut; Lok, Ugur

    2017-07-19

    Consultation, the process of an Emergency Physician seeking an opinion from other specialties, occurs frequently in the Emergency Department (ED). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of secure messaging application (WhatsApp) usage for medical consultations on Emergency Department Length of Stay (ED LOS) and consult time. We conducted a prospective, randomized controlled trial in the ED using allocation concealment over three months. Consultations requested in the ED were allocated into two groups: consultations requested via the secure messaging application and consultations requested by telephone as verbal. A total of 439 consultations requested in the ED were assessed for eligibility and 345 were included in the final analysis: 173 consultations were conducted using secure messaging application and 172 consultations were conducted using standard telephone communications. The median ED LOS was 240 minutes (IQR:230-270, 95% CI:240 to 255.2) for patients in the secure messaging application group and 277 minutes (IQR:270-287.8, 95% CI:277 to 279) for patients in the telephone group. The median total ED LOS was significantly lower among consults conducted using Secure messaging application relative to consults conducted by telephone (median dif: -30, 95%CI:-37to-25, p<0.0001). The median consult time was 158 minutes (IQR:133 to 177.25, 95% CI:150 to 169) for patients in the Secure messaging application group and 170 minutes (IQR:165 to 188.5, 95% CI:170-171) for patients in the Telephone group (median dif: -12, 95%CI:-19 to-7,p<0.0001). Consultations completed without ED arrival was 61.8% in the secure messaging group and 33.1% in the Telephone group (dif: 28.7, 95% CI:48.3 to 66, p<0.001). Use of secure messaging application for consultations in the ED reduces the total ED LOS and consultation time. Consultation with secure messaging application eliminated more than half of in-person ED consultation visits.

  12. Health-Seeking Influence Reflected by Online Health-Related Messages Received on Social Media: Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Major social networking platforms, such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter, have become popular means through which people share health-related information, irrespective of whether messages disseminated through these channels are authentic. Objective This study aims to describe the demographic characteristics of patients that may demonstrate their attitudes toward medical information shared on social media networks. Second, we address how information found through social media affects the way people deal with their health. Third, we examine whether patients initiate or alter/discontinue their medications based on information derived from social media. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey between April and June 2015 on patients attending outpatient clinics at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Patients who used social media (Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter) were included. We designed a questionnaire with closed-ended and multiple-choice questions to assess the type of social media platforms patients used and whether information received on these platforms influenced their health care decisions. We used chi-square test to establish the relationship between categorical variables. Results Of the 442 patients who filled in the questionnaires, 401 used Facebook, WhatsApp, or Twitter. The majority of respondents (89.8%, 397/442) used WhatsApp, followed by Facebook (58.6%, 259/442) and Twitter (42.3%, 187/442). In most cases, respondents received health-related messages from WhatsApp and approximately 42.6% (171/401) reported ever stopping treatment as advised on a social media platform. A significantly higher proportion of patients without heart disease (P=.001) and obese persons (P=.01) checked the authenticity of information received on social media. Social media messages influenced decision making among patients without heart disease (P=.04). Respondents without heart disease (P=.001) and obese persons (P=.01) were more likely to

  13. Health-Seeking Influence Reflected by Online Health-Related Messages Received on Social Media: Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Rahila; Abaalkhail, Bahaa

    2017-11-16

    Major social networking platforms, such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter, have become popular means through which people share health-related information, irrespective of whether messages disseminated through these channels are authentic. This study aims to describe the demographic characteristics of patients that may demonstrate their attitudes toward medical information shared on social media networks. Second, we address how information found through social media affects the way people deal with their health. Third, we examine whether patients initiate or alter/discontinue their medications based on information derived from social media. We conducted a cross-sectional survey between April and June 2015 on patients attending outpatient clinics at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Patients who used social media (Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter) were included. We designed a questionnaire with closed-ended and multiple-choice questions to assess the type of social media platforms patients used and whether information received on these platforms influenced their health care decisions. We used chi-square test to establish the relationship between categorical variables. Of the 442 patients who filled in the questionnaires, 401 used Facebook, WhatsApp, or Twitter. The majority of respondents (89.8%, 397/442) used WhatsApp, followed by Facebook (58.6%, 259/442) and Twitter (42.3%, 187/442). In most cases, respondents received health-related messages from WhatsApp and approximately 42.6% (171/401) reported ever stopping treatment as advised on a social media platform. A significantly higher proportion of patients without heart disease (P=.001) and obese persons (P=.01) checked the authenticity of information received on social media. Social media messages influenced decision making among patients without heart disease (P=.04). Respondents without heart disease (P=.001) and obese persons (P=.01) were more likely to discuss health-related information

  14. One-to-One Support for Crisis Intervention Using Online Synchronous Instant Messaging: Evaluating Working Alliance and Client Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake Buffini, Katrina; Gordon, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Young people are increasingly turning to online support, especially when traditional mental health services are not immediately available. Using a cross-sectional design, sociodemographic information and self-reported perceptions of the strength of the working alliance and client satisfaction were collected from a sample of participants (n = 78)…

  15. Short-term effectiveness of an online behavioral training in migraine self-management: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleiboer, A.; Sorbi, M.; van Silfhout, M.; Kooistra, L.; Passchier, J.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral training (BT) is recommended as a supplementary preventive treatment for migraine. Online interventions have been successful in promoting health behavior change, the evidence for online BT in migraine is limited, however. This randomized controlled trial aimed to determine the

  16. Mobile Phone Short Messages to Improve Exclusive Breastfeeding and Reduce Adverse Infant Feeding Practices: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial in Yangon, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmone, Myat Pan; Li, Mu; Alam, Ashraful; Dibley, Michael J

    2017-06-28

    Myanmar has a high burden of mortality for children aged younger than 5 years in which undernutrition plays a major role. Despite current efforts, the exclusive breastfeeding rate for children under 6 months is only 24%. To date there have been no interventions using mobile phones to improve breastfeeding and other feeding practices in Myanmar. This study aims to implement a breastfeeding promotion intervention using mobile phone text messages in Yangon, Myanmar, and evaluate its impact on breastfeeding practices. M528 is a 2-group parallel-arm randomized controlled trial with 9 months follow-up from recruitment until 6 months post-delivery. A total of 353 pregnant women between 28 and 34 weeks' gestation who had access to a mobile phone and were able to read and write have been recruited from the Central Women's Hospital, Yangon, and allocated randomly to an intervention or control group in a 1:1 ratio. The intervention group received breastfeeding promotional SMS messages 3 times a week while the control group received maternal and child health care messages (excluding breastfeeding-related messages) once a week. The SMS messages were tailored for the women's stage of gestation or the child's age. A formative qualitative study was conducted prior to the trial to inform the study design and text message content. We hypothesize that the exclusive breastfeeding rate in the intervention group will be double that in the control group. The primary outcome is exclusive breastfeeding from birth to 6 months and secondary outcomes are median durations of exclusive breastfeeding and other infant feeding practices. Both primary and secondary outcomes were assessed by monthly phone calls at 1 to 6 months postdelivery in both groups. Participants' delivery status was tracked through text messages, phone calls, and hospital records, and delivery characteristics were assessed 1 month after delivery. Child morbidity and breastfeeding self-efficacy scores were assessed at 1, 3

  17. Cluster randomized trial of text message reminders to retail staff in tanzanian drug shops dispensing artemether-lumefantrine: effect on dispenser knowledge and patient adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruxvoort, Katia; Festo, Charles; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Cairns, Matthew; Lyaruu, Peter; Kenani, Mitya; Kachur, S Patrick; Goodman, Catherine; Schellenberg, David

    2014-10-01

    Artemisinin combination therapies are available in private outlets, but patient adherence might be compromised by poor advice from dispensers. In this cluster randomized trial in drug shops in Tanzania, 42 of 82 selected shops were randomized to receive text message reminders about what advice to provide when dispensing artemether-lumefantrine (AL). Eligible patients purchasing AL at shops in both arms were followed up at home and questioned about each dose taken. Dispensers were interviewed regarding knowledge of AL dispensing practices and receipt of the malaria-related text messages. We interviewed 904 patients and 110 dispensers from 77 shops. Although there was some improvement in dispenser knowledge, there was no difference between arms in adherence measured as completion of all doses (intervention 68.3%, control 69.8%, p [adjusted] = 0.6), or as completion of each dose at the correct time (intervention 33.1%, control 32.6%, p [adjusted] = 0.9). Further studies on the potential of text messages to improve adherence are needed. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Effect of a Counseling Session Bolstered by Text Messaging on Self-Selected Health Behaviors in College Students: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrick, Janice; Tracy, Doreen; Eliasson, Arn; Roth, Ashley; Bartel, Jeffrey; Simko, Melanie; Bowman, Tracy; Harouse-Bell, Karen; Kashani, Mariam; Vernalis, Marina

    2017-05-17

    The college experience is often the first time when young adults live independently and make their own lifestyle choices. These choices affect dietary behaviors, exercise habits, techniques to deal with stress, and decisions on sleep time, all of which direct the trajectory of future health. There is a need for effective strategies that will encourage healthy lifestyle choices in young adults attending college. This preliminary randomized controlled trial tested the effect of coaching and text messages (short message service, SMS) on self-selected health behaviors in the domains of diet, exercise, stress, and sleep. A second analysis measured the ripple effect of the intervention on health behaviors not specifically selected as a goal by participants. Full-time students aged 18-30 years were recruited by word of mouth and campuswide advertisements (flyers, posters, mailings, university website) at a small university in western Pennsylvania from January to May 2015. Exclusions included pregnancy, eating disorders, chronic medical diagnoses, and prescription medications other than birth control. Of 60 participants, 30 were randomized to receive a single face-to-face meeting with a health coach to review results of behavioral questionnaires and to set a health behavior goal for the 8-week study period. The face-to-face meeting was followed by SMS text messages designed to encourage achievement of the behavioral goal. A total of 30 control subjects underwent the same health and behavioral assessments at intake and program end but did not receive coaching or SMS text messages. The texting app showed that 87.31% (2187/2505) of messages were viewed by intervention participants. Furthermore, 28 of the 30 intervention participants and all 30 control participants provided outcome data. Among intervention participants, 22 of 30 (73%) showed improvement in health behavior goal attainment, with the whole group (n=30) showing a mean improvement of 88% (95% CI 39-136). Mean

  19. On the efficiency of a randomized mirror descent algorithm in online optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasnikov, A. V.; Nesterov, Yu. E.; Spokoiny, V. G.

    2015-04-01

    A randomized online version of the mirror descent method is proposed. It differs from the existing versions by the randomization method. Randomization is performed at the stage of the projection of a subgradient of the function being optimized onto the unit simplex rather than at the stage of the computation of a subgradient, which is common practice. As a result, a componentwise subgradient descent with a randomly chosen component is obtained, which admits an online interpretation. This observation, for example, has made it possible to uniformly interpret results on weighting expert decisions and propose the most efficient method for searching for an equilibrium in a zero-sum two-person matrix game with sparse matrix.

  20. The impact of peer support and mp3 messaging on adherence to inhaled corticosteroids in minority adolescents with asthma: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosnaim, Giselle; Li, Hong; Martin, Molly; Richardson, DeJuran; Belice, Paula Jo; Avery, Elizabeth; Ryan, Norman; Bender, Bruce; Powell, Lynda

    2013-01-01

    Poor adherence to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is a critical risk factor contributing to asthma morbidity among low-income minority adolescents. This trial tested whether peer support group meetings and peer asthma messages delivered via mp3 players improved adherence to ICS. Low-income African American and/or Hispanic adolescents, ages 11-16 years old, with persistent asthma, and poor (≤ 48%) adherence to prescription ICS during the 3-week run-in were randomized to intervention or attention control groups (ATG) for the 10-week treatment. During treatment, the intervention arm subjects participated in weekly coping peer group support sessions and received mp3 peer-recorded asthma messages that promoted adherence. The ATG participated in weekly meetings with a research assistant and received an equivalent number of mp3 physician-recorded asthma messages. Adherence was measured by using self-report and the Doser CT, an electronic dose counter. The primary outcome was the difference in adherence at 10 weeks between the 2 arms. Thirty-four subjects were randomized to each arm. At 10 weeks, no statistical difference in objectively measured adherence could be detected between the 2 arms when adjusting for baseline adherence (P = .929). Adherence declined in both groups over the course of the active treatment period. In both study arms, self-reported adherence by participants was significantly higher than their objectively measured adherence at week 10 (P < .0001). Improving medication adherence in longitudinal studies is challenging. Peer support and mp3-delivered peer asthma messages may not be of sufficient dose to improve outcomes. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Online versus Clinic-Based CBT for Adolescent Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Susan H.; Donovan, Caroline L.; March, Sonja; Gamble, Amanda; Anderson, Renee E.; Prosser, Samantha; Kenardy, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined the relative efficacy of online (NET) versus clinic (CLIN) delivery of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in the treatment of anxiety disorders in adolescents. Method: Participants included 115 clinically anxious adolescents aged 12 to 18 years and their parent(s). Adolescents were randomly assigned to NET, CLIN, or…

  2. Citizen Science to Communicate about Public Health Messages: The Reach of a Playful Online Survey on Sitting Time and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cocker, Katrien; Chastin, Sebastien F M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Imbo, Ineke; Stragier, Jeroen; Cardon, Greet

    2018-02-07

    There is a lack of research on how to communicate public health guidelines. Citizen science (CS) has been an effective way to involve the public in research. This study analyses the reach of a well-established CS experiment, launched during an annual national science event, to understand if it could be used as communication strategy for public health issues. A short playful online survey contained tailored health-related messages associated to an "animal totem" profile, based on the combination of sitting and physical activity levels (koala: high sitting, low activity; gorilla: high sitting, high activity; zebra: low sitting, low activity; bee: low sitting, high activity). Tweets, radio interviews, radio and online advertisements, press articles, and a press conference were used to promote the CS experiment. Google Analytics and Facebook Graph API (application programming interface) (use and spread of experiment) and descriptive statistics (attributes of adults completing the experiment) were used. A total of 6,246 adults completed the experiment, with a peak of views (n = 5,103) and completions (n = 1,209) a couple of days before the event. Completers were mostly female (65.8%), on average 37.5 years old, and had a healthy body mass index (23.8 kg/m 2 ). Nearly half (46.4%) had the most beneficial profile ("bee"), 26.5% had the least healthy profile ("koala"). CS as part of a national science event is a good platform for health communication as 1 in 1,000 Flemish adults were reached. However, those completing the experiment were not representative of the general Flemish adult population and reported to be more physically active. API: application programming interface; BMI: body mass index; CVD: cardiovascular disease; METs: metabolic equivalents.

  3. The impact of brief messages on HSV-2 screening uptake among female defendants in a court setting: a randomized controlled trial utilizing prospect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alexis M; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Dodge, Brian; Reece, Michael; Certo, David; Zimet, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic data demonstrate that women involved with the criminal justice system in the United States are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections, including herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Female defendants were recruited from a misdemeanor court to assess whether brief framed messages utilizing prospect theory could encourage testing for HSV-2. Participants were randomly assigned to a message condition (gain, loss, or control), completed an interviewer-administered survey assessing factors associated with antibody test uptake/refusal and were offered free point-of-care HSV-2 serologic testing. Although individuals in the loss-frame group accepted testing at the highest rate, an overall statistical difference in HSV-2 testing behavior by group (p ≤ .43) was not detected. The majority of the sample (74.6%) characterized receiving a serological test for HSV-2 as health affirming. However, this did not moderate the effect of the intervention nor was it significantly associated with test acceptance (p ≤ .82). Although the effects of message framing are subtle, the findings have important theoretical implications given the participants' characterization of HSV-2 screening as health affirming despite being a detection behavior. Implications of study results for health care providers interested in brief, low cost interventions are also explored.

  4. Text messaging to improve attendance at post-operative clinic visits after adult male circumcision for HIV prevention: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Odeny

    Full Text Available Following male circumcision for HIV prevention, a high proportion of men fail to return for their scheduled seven-day post-operative visit. We evaluated the effect of short message service (SMS text messages on attendance at this important visit.We enrolled 1200 participants >18 years old in a two-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial at 12 sites in Nyanza province, Kenya. Participants received daily SMS text messages for seven days (n = 600 or usual care (n = 600. The primary outcome was attendance at the scheduled seven-day post-operative visit. The primary analysis was by intention-to-treat.Of participants receiving SMS, 387/592 (65.4% returned, compared to 356/596 (59.7% in the control group (relative risk [RR] = 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.20; p = 0.04. Men who paid more than US$1.25 to travel to clinic were at higher risk for failure to return compared to those who spent ≤ US$1.25 (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 1.35, 95% CI 1.15-1.58; p<0.001. Men with secondary or higher education had a lower risk of failure to return compared to those with primary or less education (aRR 0.87, 95% CI 0.74-1.01; p = 0.07.Text messaging resulted in a modest improvement in attendance at the 7-day post-operative clinic visit following adult male circumcision. Factors associated with failure to return were mainly structural, and included transportation costs and low educational level.ClinicalTrials.govNCT01186575.

  5. The Sexunzipped trial: young people's views of participating in an online randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Angela; Bailey, Julia V; Stevenson, Fiona; Murray, Elizabeth

    2013-12-12

    Incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among young people in the United Kingdom is increasing. The Internet can be a suitable medium for delivery of sexual health information and sexual health promotion, given its high usage among young people, its potential for creating a sense of anonymity, and ease of access. Online randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are increasingly being used to evaluate online interventions, but while there are many advantages to online methodologies, they can be associated with a number of problems, including poor engagement with online interventions, poor trial retention, and concerns about the validity of data collected through self-report online. We conducted an online feasibility trial that tested the effects of the Sexunzipped website for sexual health compared to an information-only website. This study reports on a qualitative evaluation of the trial procedures, describing participants' experiences and views of the Sexunzipped online trial including methods of recruitment, incentives, methods of contact, and sexual health outcome measurement. Our goal was to determine participants' views of the acceptability and validity of the online trial methodology used in the pilot RCT of the Sexunzipped intervention. We used three qualitative data sources to assess the acceptability and validity of the online pilot RCT methodology: (1) individual interviews with 22 participants from the pilot RCT, (2) 133 emails received by the trial coordinator from trial participants, and (3) 217 free-text comments from the baseline and follow-up questionnaires. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. An iterative, thematic analysis of all three data sources was conducted to identify common themes related to the acceptability and feasibility of the online trial methodology. Interview participants found the trial design, including online recruitment via Facebook, online registration, email communication with the researchers, and

  6. Online evolution reconstruction from a single measurement record with random time intervals for quantum communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Su, Yang; Wang, Rong; Zhu, Yong; Shen, Huiping; Pu, Tao; Wu, Chuanxin; Zhao, Jiyong; Zhang, Baofu; Xu, Zhiyong

    2017-10-01

    Online reconstruction of a time-variant quantum state from the encoding/decoding results of quantum communication is addressed by developing a method of evolution reconstruction from a single measurement record with random time intervals. A time-variant two-dimensional state is reconstructed on the basis of recovering its expectation value functions of three nonorthogonal projectors from a random single measurement record, which is composed from the discarded qubits of the six-state protocol. The simulated results prove that our method is robust to typical metro quantum channels. Our work extends the Fourier-based method of evolution reconstruction from the version for a regular single measurement record with equal time intervals to a unified one, which can be applied to arbitrary single measurement records. The proposed protocol of evolution reconstruction runs concurrently with the one of quantum communication, which can facilitate the online quantum tomography.

  7. Ambient awareness: From random noise to digital closeness in online social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Levordashka, Ana; Utz, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Ambient awareness refers to the awareness social media users develop of their online network in result of being constantly exposed to social information, such as microblogging updates. Although each individual bit of information can seem like random noise, their incessant reception can amass to a coherent representation of social others. Despite its growing popularity and important implications for social media research, ambient awareness on public social media has not been studied empiricall...

  8. An Improved Fast Compressive Tracking Algorithm Based on Online Random Forest Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Jintao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast compressive tracking (FCT algorithm is a simple and efficient algorithm, which is proposed in recent years. But, it is difficult to deal with the factors such as occlusion, appearance changes, pose variation, etc in processing. The reasons are that, Firstly, even if the naive Bayes classifier is fast in training, it is not robust concerning the noise. Secondly, the parameters are required to vary with the unique environment for accurate tracking. In this paper, we propose an improved fast compressive tracking algorithm based on online random forest (FCT-ORF for robust visual tracking. Firstly, we combine ideas with the adaptive compressive sensing theory regarding the weighted random projection to exploit both local and discriminative information of the object. The second reason is the online random forest classifier for online tracking which is demonstrated with more robust to the noise adaptively and high computational efficiency. The experimental results show that the algorithm we have proposed has a better performance in the field of occlusion, appearance changes, and pose variation than the fast compressive tracking algorithm’s contribution.

  9. Online cognitive-behavioural treatment of bulimic symptoms: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwaard, Jeroen; Lange, Alfred; Broeksteeg, Janneke; Renteria-Agirre, Aitziber; Schrieken, Bart; Dolan, Conor V; Emmelkamp, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Manualized cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) is underutilized in the treatment of bulimic symptoms. Internet-delivered treatment may reduce current barriers. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a new online CBT of bulimic symptoms. Participants with bulimic symptoms (n = 105) were randomly allocated to online CBT, bibliotherapy or waiting list/delayed treatment condition. Data were gathered at pre-treatment, post-treatment and 1-year follow-up. The primary outcome measures were the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the frequency of binge eating and purging episodes. The secondary outcome measure was the Body Attitude Test. Dropout from Internet treatment was 26%. Intention-to-treat ANCOVAs of post-test data revealed that the EDE-Q scores and the frequency of binging and purging reduced more in the online CBT group compared with the bibliotherapy and waiting list groups (pooled between-group effect size: d = 0.9). At 1-year follow-up, improvements in the online CBT group had sustained. This study identifies online CBT as a viable alternative in the treatment of bulimic symptoms. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Using Culturally Sensitive Media Messages to Reduce HIV-associated Sexual Behavior in High-risk African-American Adolescents: Results from a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznitman, Sharon; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Hennessy, Michael; Brown, Larry K.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Salazar, Laura F.; DiClemente, Ralph; Farber, Naomi; Romer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To test the long-term effects of a mass media intervention that used culturally and developmentally appropriate messages to enhance HIV-preventive beliefs and behavior of high-risk African-American adolescents. Methods Television and radio messages were delivered over three years in two cities (Syracuse, NY and Macon, GA) that were randomly selected within each of two regionally matched city pairs with the other cities (Providence, RI and Columbia, SC) serving as controls. African American adolescents ages 14 to 17 (N = 1710), recruited in the four cities over a 16-month period, completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews at recruitment and again at 3, 6, 12 and 18-months post-recruitment to assess the long-term effects of the media program. To identify the unique effects of the media intervention, youth who completed at least one follow-up and who did not test positive for any of three sexually transmitted infections at recruitment or at 6 and 12-month follow-up were retained for analysis (N=1346). Results The media intervention reached virtually all of the adolescents in the trial and produced a range of effects including improved normative condom-use negotiation expectancies and increased sex refusal self-efficacy. Most importantly, older adolescents (ages 16-17) exposed to the media program exhibited a less risky age trajectory of unprotected sex than those in the non-media cities. Conclusions Culturally tailored mass media messages delivered consistently over time have the potential to reach a large audience of high-risk adolescents, to support changes in HIV-preventive beliefs, and to reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors among older youth. PMID:21856515

  11. Using culturally sensitive media messages to reduce HIV-associated sexual behavior in high-risk African American adolescents: results from a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznitman, Sharon; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Hennessy, Michael; Brown, Larry K; Valois, Robert F; Stanton, Bonita F; Salazar, Laura F; Diclemente, Ralph; Farber, Naomi; Romer, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    To test the long-term effects of a mass media intervention that used culturally and developmentally appropriate messages to enhance human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-preventive beliefs and behavior of high-risk African American adolescents. Television and radio messages were delivered for more than 3 years in two cities (Syracuse, NY; and Macon, GA) that were randomly selected within each of the two regionally matched city pairs, with the other cities (Providence, RI; and Columbia, SC) serving as controls. African American adolescents, aged 14-17 years (N = 1,710), recruited in the four cities over a 16-month period, completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews at recruitment and again at 3, 6, 12, and 18-months postrecruitment to assess the long-term effects of the media program. To identify the unique effects of the media intervention, youth who completed at least one follow-up and who did not test positive for any of the three sexually transmitted infections at recruitment or at 6-and 12-month follow-up were retained for analysis (N = 1,346). The media intervention reached virtually all the adolescents in the trial and produced a range of effects including improved normative condom-use negotiation expectancies and increased sex refusal self-efficacy. Most importantly, older adolescents (aged 16-17 years) exposed to the media program showed a less risky age trajectory of unprotected sex than those in the nonmedia cities. Culturally tailored mass media messages that are delivered consistently over time have the potential to reach a large audience of high-risk adolescents, to support changes in HIV-preventive beliefs, and to reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors among older youth. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of media messages on parent-child sexual communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Davis, Kevin C; Silber Ashley, Olivia; Khan, Munziba

    2012-01-01

    Parent-child communication about sex is an important reproductive health outcome. Consistent, positive perceptions of communication by parents and children can promote behavioral outcomes such as delaying sexual debut and increasing contraceptive use. The authors investigated whether exposure to messages from the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC), a social marketing campaign to promote increased parent-child sexual communication, led to increased children's self-reports of communication. Also, the authors examined whether PSUNC message exposure increased agreement about communication between parents and their children. In a randomized experimental design, the authors surveyed children of parents exposed and not exposed to PSUNC messages. Parents and children completed online instruments asking matched questions about sexual attitudes, beliefs, and communication. The authors matched 394 parents and children for analysis. They used ordinal logistic regression modeling and kappa statistics. Children of parents exposed to PSUNC messages were more likely to (a) report sexual communication than were those not exposed and (b) agree with their parents about extent and content. Parent-child pairs of the same gender, younger pairs, and non-White pairs were more likely to agree. Overall, PSUNC message exposure appears to have promoted more extensive sexual communication. Future research should examine behavioral mechanisms and message receptivity among subgroups of parents and children.

  13. Online video improves clinical outcomes in adults with atopic dermatitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, April W; Kim, Randie H; Idriss, Nayla Z; Larsen, Larissa N; Lio, Peter A

    2011-03-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder characterized by intense pruritus that causes significant disease and psychosocial burden in patients. Patient education has the potential to improve clinical outcomes and patient knowledge of this condition. We sought to assess the effectiveness of online video education at improving AD knowledge and disease severity compared with a written pamphlet, and to determine the usefulness and appeal of the two educational delivery vehicles. In a randomized controlled trial, 80 participants were randomized to receive either online video-based patient education or written pamphlet education about AD and its management. We assessed AD disease severity using the patient-oriented eczema measure (POEM) scale. AD knowledge was assessed with standardized questionnaires at baseline and after the 12-week intervention. All participants had similar baseline knowledge and AD severity at the beginning of the study. On study completion, improvements in AD knowledge assessed by questionnaire were significantly greater in the video group than the pamphlet group (3.05 vs 1.85, P = .011). Online video-based education resulted in greater improvement in clinical outcome, as measured by POEM, compared with pamphlet-based education (POEM score reduction of 3.30 vs 1.03, P = .0043). Finally, although the usefulness of both interventions was rated equally (P = .77), the online video was significantly more appealing than the pamphlet (P = .0086). This study is limited to AD in adults. Online video for patient education is an effective and appealing tool for improving clinical outcomes in adult patients with AD. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effectiveness of an online group course for depression in adolescents and young adults: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Rianne; Kramer, Jeannet; Gerrits, Rob; Cuijpers, Pim

    2012-06-07

    Depression is a serious mental health problem, whose first onset is usually in adolescence. Online treatment may offer a solution for the current undertreatment of depression in youth. For adults with depressive symptoms, the effectiveness of Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy has been demonstrated. This study is one of the first randomized controlled trials to investigate the effectiveness online depression treatment for young people with depressive complaints and the first to focus on an online group course. To evaluate and discuss the effectiveness of a guided Web-based group course called Grip op Je Dip (Master Your Mood [MYM]), designed for young people aged 16 to 25 years with depressive symptoms, in comparison with a wait-listed control group. We randomly assigned 244 young people with depressive symptoms to the online MYM course or to a waiting-list control condition. The primary outcome measure was treatment outcome after 3 months on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes were anxiety (measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and mastery (Mastery Scale). We studied the maintenance of effects in the MYM group 6 months after baseline. Missing data were imputed. The MYM group (n = 121) showed significantly greater improvement in depressive symptoms at 3 months than the control group (n = 123) (t(187 )= 6.62, P limitation is the infeasibility of comparing the 6-month outcomes of the MYM and control groups, as the controls had access to MYM after 3 months. The online group course MYM was effective in reducing depressive symptoms and anxiety and in increasing mastery in young people. These effects persisted in the MYM group at 6 months.

  15. Online distribution channel increases article usage on Mendeley: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlow, Paul; Cockerill, Matthew; Toccalino, Danielle; Dziadyk, Devin Bissky; Rutledge, Alan; Shachak, Aviv; McIntyre, Roger S; Ravindran, Arun; Eysenbach, Gunther

    2017-01-01

    Prior research shows that article reader counts (i.e. saves) on the online reference manager, Mendeley, correlate to future citations. There are currently no evidenced-based distribution strategies that have been shown to increase article saves on Mendeley. We conducted a 4-week randomized controlled trial to examine how promotion of article links in a novel online cross-publisher distribution channel (TrendMD) affect article saves on Mendeley. Four hundred articles published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research were randomized to either the TrendMD arm (n = 200) or the control arm (n = 200) of the study. Our primary outcome compares the 4-week mean Mendeley saves of articles randomized to TrendMD versus control. Articles randomized to TrendMD showed a 77% increase in article saves on Mendeley relative to control. The difference in mean Mendeley saves for TrendMD articles versus control was 2.7, 95% CI (2.63, 2.77), and statistically significant (p distribution channel (TrendMD) enhances article saves on Mendeley. While replication and further study are needed, these data suggest that cross-publisher article recommendations via TrendMD may enhance citations of scholarly articles.

  16. Text to Move: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Text-Messaging Program to Improve Physical Activity Behaviors in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agboola, Stephen; Jethwani, Kamal; Lopez, Lenny; Searl, Meghan; O'Keefe, Sandra; Kvedar, Joseph

    2016-11-18

    Text messages are increasingly being used because of the low cost and the ubiquitous nature of mobile phones to engage patients in self-care behaviors. Self-care is particularly important in achieving treatment outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study examined the effect of personalized text messages on physical activity, as measured by a pedometer, and clinical outcomes in a diverse population of patients with T2DM. Text to Move (TTM) incorporates physical activity monitoring and coaching to provide automated and personalized text messages to help patients with T2DM achieve their physical activity goals. A total of 126 English- or Spanish-speaking patients with glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) >7 were enrolled in-person to participate in the study for 6 months and were randomized into either the intervention arm that received the full complement of the intervention or a control arm that received only pedometers. The primary outcome was change in physical activity. We also assessed the effect of the intervention on HbA1c, weight, and participant engagement. All participants (intervention: n=64; control: n=62) were included in the analyses. The intervention group had significantly higher monthly step counts in the third (risk ratio [RR] 4.89, 95% CI 1.20 to 19.92, P=.03) and fourth (RR 6.88, 95% CI 1.21 to 39.00, P=.03) months of the study compared to the control group. However, over the 6-month follow-up period, monthly step counts did not differ statistically by group (intervention group: 9092 steps; control group: 3722 steps; RR 2.44, 95% CI 0.68 to 8.74, P=.17). HbA1c decreased by 0.07% (95% CI -0.47 to 0.34, P=.75) in the TTM group compared to the control group. Within groups, HbA1c decreased significantly from baseline in the TTM group by -0.43% (95% CI -0.75 to -0.12, P=.01), but nonsignificantly in the control group by -0.21% (95% CI -0.49 to 0.06, P=.13). Similar changes were observed for other secondary outcomes. Personalized text messaging

  17. Connecting Health and Technology (CHAT): protocol of a randomized controlled trial to improve nutrition behaviours using mobile devices and tailored text messaging in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing intakes of fruits and vegetables intake, in tandem with reducing consumption of energy-dense and nutrient poor foods and beverages are dietary priorities to prevent chronic disease. Although most adults do not eat enough fruit and vegetables, teenagers and young adults tend to have the lowest intakes. Young adults typically consume a diet which is inconsistent with the dietary recommendations. Yet little is known about the best approaches to improve dietary intakes and behaviours among this group. This randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of using a mobile device to assess dietary intake, provide tailored dietary feedback and text messages to motivate changes in fruit, vegetable and junk food consumption among young adults. Methods/design The CHAT project will involve the development of the mobile device food record (MDFR), and evaluation of dietary feedback and implementation of a 6-month intervention in young adults aged 18 to 30 years. The participants will be randomly assigned to one of three groups (1) Intervention Group 1: MDFR + Text Messages + Dietary Feedback; (2) Intervention Group 2: MDFR + Dietary Feedback; (3) Control Group 3: MDFR, no feedback. All groups will undertake a 3-day dietary record using the MDFR but only the Intervention Groups 1 and 2 will receive tailored dietary feedback at baseline and at 6-months which will consist of assessment of serves of fruits, vegetables and junk food in comparison to dietary recommendations. Tailored nutrition text messages will be sent to Intervention Group 1 over the 6 months. Data will be collected at baseline and again at the 6-month completion. Discussion This trial will test if applications running on mobile devices have potential to assess diet, provide tailored feedback and nutrition messages as an effective way of improving fruit and vegetable consumption and reducing energy-dense nutrient poor foods in young adults. The CHAT project will assess the

  18. Connecting Health and Technology (CHAT): protocol of a randomized controlled trial to improve nutrition behaviours using mobile devices and tailored text messaging in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Deborah A; Pollard, Christina M; Howat, Peter; Delp, Edward J; Pickering, Mark; Kerr, Katherine R; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Pratt, Iain S; Wright, Janine; Boushey, Carol J

    2012-06-22

    Increasing intakes of fruits and vegetables intake, in tandem with reducing consumption of energy-dense and nutrient poor foods and beverages are dietary priorities to prevent chronic disease. Although most adults do not eat enough fruit and vegetables, teenagers and young adults tend to have the lowest intakes. Young adults typically consume a diet which is inconsistent with the dietary recommendations. Yet little is known about the best approaches to improve dietary intakes and behaviours among this group. This randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of using a mobile device to assess dietary intake, provide tailored dietary feedback and text messages to motivate changes in fruit, vegetable and junk food consumption among young adults. The CHAT project will involve the development of the mobile device food record (MDFR), and evaluation of dietary feedback and implementation of a 6-month intervention in young adults aged 18 to 30 years. The participants will be randomly assigned to one of three groups (1) Intervention Group 1: MDFR + Text Messages + Dietary Feedback; (2) Intervention Group 2: MDFR + Dietary Feedback; (3) Control Group 3: MDFR, no feedback. All groups will undertake a 3-day dietary record using the MDFR but only the Intervention Groups 1 and 2 will receive tailored dietary feedback at baseline and at 6-months which will consist of assessment of serves of fruits, vegetables and junk food in comparison to dietary recommendations. Tailored nutrition text messages will be sent to Intervention Group 1 over the 6 months. Data will be collected at baseline and again at the 6-month completion. This trial will test if applications running on mobile devices have potential to assess diet, provide tailored feedback and nutrition messages as an effective way of improving fruit and vegetable consumption and reducing energy-dense nutrient poor foods in young adults. The CHAT project will assess the impact of the intervention on behavioural

  19. Connecting Health and Technology (CHAT: protocol of a randomized controlled trial to improve nutrition behaviours using mobile devices and tailored text messaging in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Deborah A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing intakes of fruits and vegetables intake, in tandem with reducing consumption of energy-dense and nutrient poor foods and beverages are dietary priorities to prevent chronic disease. Although most adults do not eat enough fruit and vegetables, teenagers and young adults tend to have the lowest intakes. Young adults typically consume a diet which is inconsistent with the dietary recommendations. Yet little is known about the best approaches to improve dietary intakes and behaviours among this group. This randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of using a mobile device to assess dietary intake, provide tailored dietary feedback and text messages to motivate changes in fruit, vegetable and junk food consumption among young adults. Methods/design The CHAT project will involve the development of the mobile device food record (MDFR, and evaluation of dietary feedback and implementation of a 6-month intervention in young adults aged 18 to 30 years. The participants will be randomly assigned to one of three groups (1 Intervention Group 1: MDFR + Text Messages + Dietary Feedback; (2 Intervention Group 2: MDFR + Dietary Feedback; (3 Control Group 3: MDFR, no feedback. All groups will undertake a 3-day dietary record using the MDFR but only the Intervention Groups 1 and 2 will receive tailored dietary feedback at baseline and at 6-months which will consist of assessment of serves of fruits, vegetables and junk food in comparison to dietary recommendations. Tailored nutrition text messages will be sent to Intervention Group 1 over the 6 months. Data will be collected at baseline and again at the 6-month completion. Discussion This trial will test if applications running on mobile devices have potential to assess diet, provide tailored feedback and nutrition messages as an effective way of improving fruit and vegetable consumption and reducing energy-dense nutrient poor foods in young adults. The CHAT

  20. Guided online or face-to-face cognitive behavioral treatment for insomnia: A randomized wait-list controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, J.; van Straten, A.; Morina, N.; Kaldo, V.; Kamphuis, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare the efficacy of guided online and individual face-to-face cognitive behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) to a wait-list condition. Methods: A randomized controlled trial comparing three conditions: guided online; face-to-face; wait-list. Posttest measurements were

  1. A telephone- and text-message based telemedical care concept for patients with mental health disorders--study protocol for a randomized, controlled study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Neeltje; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Freyberger, Harald J; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2011-02-17

    As in other countries worldwide, the prevalence of mental disorders in Germany is high. Although numerically a dense network of in- and outpatient psychiatric health services exists, the availability in rural and remote regions is insufficient.In rural regions, telemedical concepts can be a chance to unburden and complement the existing healthcare system. Telemedical concepts consisting of video or telephone consulting show first positive results, but there are only a few studies with a randomized controlled design.To improve the treatment of patients with mental disorders in rural regions, we developed a telemedical care concept based on telephone contacts and text-messages. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of the telemedical interventions on psychopathological outcomes, e. g. anxiety, depressive symptoms, and somatisation. Secondary objective of the study is the analysis of intervention effects on the frequency of medical contacts with healthcare services. Furthermore, the frequency of patients' crises and the frequency and kind of interventions, initiated by the project nurses will be evaluated. We will also evaluate the acceptance of the telemedical care concept by the patients. In this paper we describe a three-armed, randomized, controlled study. All participants are recruited from psychiatric day hospitals. The inclusion criteria are a specialist-diagnosed depression, anxiety disorder, adjustment disorder or a somatoform disorder and eligibility to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria are ongoing outpatient psychotherapy, planned interval treatment at the day clinic and expected recurrent suicidality and self-injuring behaviour.The interventions consist of regular patient-individual telephone consultations or telephone consultations with complementing text-messages on the patients' mobile phone. The interventions will be conducted during a time period of 6 months. This study is registered in the German Clinical Trials

  2. A telephone- and text-message based telemedical care concept for patients with mental health disorders - study protocol for a randomized, controlled study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freyberger Harald J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As in other countries worldwide, the prevalence of mental disorders in Germany is high. Although numerically a dense network of in- and outpatient psychiatric health services exists, the availability in rural and remote regions is insufficient. In rural regions, telemedical concepts can be a chance to unburden and complement the existing healthcare system. Telemedical concepts consisting of video or telephone consulting show first positive results, but there are only a few studies with a randomized controlled design. To improve the treatment of patients with mental disorders in rural regions, we developed a telemedical care concept based on telephone contacts and text-messages. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of the telemedical interventions on psychopathological outcomes, e. g. anxiety, depressive symptoms, and somatisation. Secondary objective of the study is the analysis of intervention effects on the frequency of medical contacts with healthcare services. Furthermore, the frequency of patients' crises and the frequency and kind of interventions, initiated by the project nurses will be evaluated. We will also evaluate the acceptance of the telemedical care concept by the patients. Methods/Design In this paper we describe a three-armed, randomized, controlled study. All participants are recruited from psychiatric day hospitals. The inclusion criteria are a specialist-diagnosed depression, anxiety disorder, adjustment disorder or a somatoform disorder and eligibility to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria are ongoing outpatient psychotherapy, planned interval treatment at the day clinic and expected recurrent suicidality and self-injuring behaviour. The interventions consist of regular patient-individual telephone consultations or telephone consultations with complementing text-messages on the patients' mobile phone. The interventions will be conducted during a time period of 6 months

  3. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Real-Time Electronic Adherence Monitoring With Text Message Dosing Reminders in People Starting First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrell, Catherine; Cohen, Karen; Mauff, Katya; Bangsberg, David R; Maartens, Gary; Wood, Robin

    2015-12-15

    There are conflicting findings about whether mobile phone text message reminders impact on antiretroviral adherence. We hypothesized that text reminders sent when dosing was late would improve adherence and HIV viral suppression. Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive participants, from a South African outpatient ART clinic, were randomized to standard of care (SoC, 3 pretreatment education sessions), or intervention (SoC and automated text reminders if dosing >30 minutes late). Dosing time was recorded by real-time electronic adherence monitoring devices, given to participants at ART start. CD4 cell count and HIV RNA were determined at baseline, 16 and 48 weeks. Primary outcome was cumulative adherence execution by electronic adherence monitoring device. HIV-1 viral suppression (TIs) >72 hours were secondary outcomes. Analysis was by intention to treat (missing = failure). Registration was with the Pan-African Clinical Trials Registry: PACTR201311000641402. A total of 230 participants were randomly assigned to control (n = 115) or intervention (n = 115) arms. Median adherence was 82.1% (interquartile range, 56.6%-94.6%) in the intervention arm, compared with 80.4% (interquartile range, 52.8%-93.8%) for SoC [adjusted odds ratio for adherence 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77 to 1.52]. Suppressed HIV RNA (TIs of >72 hours was reduced (adjusted incident rate ratio, 0.84; 95% CI: 0.75 to 0.94). Text message reminders linked to late doses detected by real-time adherence monitoring reduced the number of prolonged TIs, but did not significantly improve adherence or viral suppression.

  4. Effect of text messaging to deter early resumption of sexual activity after male circumcision for HIV prevention: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeny, Thomas A; Bailey, Robert C; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Simoni, Jane M; Tapia, Kenneth A; Yuhas, Krista; Holmes, King K; McClelland, R Scott

    2014-02-01

    Resumption of sex before complete wound healing after male circumcision may increase risk of postoperative surgical complications, and HIV acquisition and transmission. We aimed to determine the effect of text messaging to deter resumption of sex before 42 days postcircumcision. We conducted a randomized trial where men older than18 years who owned mobile phones and had just undergone circumcision were randomized to receive a series of text messages (n = 600) or usual care (n = 600). The primary outcome was self-reported resumption of sex before 42 days. Sex before 42 days was reported by 139 of 491 (28.3%) men in the intervention group and 124 of 493 (25.2%) men in the control group [relative risk = 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91 to 1.38, P = 0.3]. Men were more likely to resume early if they were married or had a live-in sexual partner [adjusted relative risk (aRR) 1.57, 95% CI: 1.18 to 2.08, P < 0.01]; in the month before circumcision had 1 (aRR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.12, P = 0.02) or more than 1 (aRR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.66, P < 0.01) sexual partner(s); had primary school or lower education (aRR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.33 to 1.97, P< 0.001); were employed (aRR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.72, P = 0.02); or were 21-30 years old (aRR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.01 to 2.47, P = 0.05), 31-40 years old (aRR: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.18 to 3.09, P < 0.01), or older than 40 years (aRR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.04 to 2.97, P = 0.03) compared with younger than 21 years. Text messaging as used in this trial did not reduce early resumption of sex after circumcision. We identified key risk factors for early resumption that need to be considered in circumcision programs.

  5. Mobile phone text messaging intervention to improve alertness and reduce sleepiness and fatigue during shiftwork among emergency medicine clinicians: study protocol for the SleepTrackTXT pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Paul Daniel; Moore, Charity G; Weaver, Matthew D; Buysse, Daniel J; Suffoletto, Brian P; Callaway, Clifton W; Yealy, Donald M

    2014-06-21

    Mental and physical fatigue while at work is common among emergency medical services (EMS) shift workers. Extended shifts (for example 24 hours) and excessive amounts of overtime work increase the likelihood of negative safety outcomes and pose a challenge for EMS fatigue-risk management. Text message-based interventions are a potentially high-impact, low-cost platform for sleep and fatigue assessment and distributing information to workers at risk of negative safety outcomes related to sleep behaviors and fatigue. We will conduct a pilot randomized trial with a convenience sample of adult EMS workers recruited from across the United States using a single study website. Participants will be allocated to one of two possible arms for a 90-day study period. The intervention arm will involve text message assessments of sleepiness, fatigue, and difficulty with concentration at the beginning, during, and end of scheduled shifts. Intervention subjects reporting high levels of sleepiness or fatigue will receive one of four randomly selected intervention messages promoting behavior change during shiftwork. Control subjects will receive assessment only text messages. We aim to determine the performance characteristics of a text messaging tool for the delivery of a sleep and fatigue intervention. We seek to determine if a text messaging program with tailored intervention messages is effective at reducing perceived sleepiness and/or fatigue among emergency medicine clinician shift workers. Additional aims include testing whether a theory-based behavioral intervention, delivered by text message, changes 'alertness behaviors'. The SleepTrackTXT pilot trial could provide evidence of compliance and effectiveness that would support rapid widespread expansion in one of two forms: 1) a stand-alone program in the form of a tailored/individualized sleep monitoring and fatigue reduction support service for EMS workers; or 2) an add-on to a multi-component fatigue risk management program

  6. Subtle Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamplin de Poinsot, Nan

    1999-01-01

    Describes a self-portrait assignment inspired by the work of Frida Kahlo. Discusses Frida Kahlo's artwork and use of surrealist and symbolist views. States that each student had to incorporate personal symbolism in the portrait to convey a message about him or herself in a subtle manner. (CMK)

  7. Online narratives and peer support for colorectal cancer screening: a pilot randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kevin O; Ottenbacher, Allison J; Graham, Amanda L; Thomas, Eric J; Street, Rick L; Vernon, Sally W

    2013-07-01

    Delivering personal narratives and peer support for CRC screening in an online weight-loss community could be an efficient approach to engaging individuals at increased risk, because obesity is associated with excess colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality and lower screening rates. Evaluate user engagement and impact of narratives and peer support for promoting CRC screening in an online weight-loss community. Pilot randomized trial. Members of an online weight-loss community who were not up-to-date with CRC screening were enrolled in the study in 2011. Basic and Enhanced groups (n=153 each) both received education. The Enhanced group also received narratives and peer support for CRC screening in online forums. The main measures were user engagement, psychosocial outcomes, and self-report CRC screening at 6 months. Analyses were conducted with (1) the full sample of participants and (2) a minimum dose sample of those who participated in their assigned intervention to a minimum degree. Analyses were completed in 2012. Participants were mostly female (92%) with a mean age of 56 years. More than 90% in both groups viewed the educational information. Only 57% in the Enhanced group joined the online team. The Enhanced group had greater improvement in motivation for screening than the Basic group at 1 month (p=0.03). In the full sample, there was no difference in CRC screening at 6 months (Enhanced 19% vs Basic 16%, adjusted OR=1.33, 95% CI=0.73, 2.42). In the minimum dose sample, fecal occult blood testing was higher in the Enhanced (14%) vs Basic (7%) group (adjusted OR=2.49, 95% CI=1.01, 6.17). Although no between-group differences in CRC screening were seen at 6 months, this study did demonstrate that it is feasible to deploy a narrative and peer support intervention for CRC screening in a randomized trial among members of an online community. However, modifications are needed to improve user engagement. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01411826

  8. The connecting health and technology study: a 6-month randomized controlled trial to improve nutrition behaviours using a mobile food record and text messaging support in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Deborah A; Harray, Amelia J; Pollard, Christina M; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Delp, Edward J; Howat, Peter A; Pickering, Mark R; Ahmad, Ziad; Meng, Xingqiong; Pratt, Iain S; Wright, Janine L; Kerr, Katherine R; Boushey, Carol J

    2016-04-21

    Early adulthood represents the transition to independent living which is a period when changes in diet and body weight are likely to occur. This presents an ideal time for health interventions to reduce the effect of health problems and risk factors for chronic disease in later life. As young adults are high users of mobile devices, interventions that use this technology may improve engagement. The Connecting Health and Technology study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of tailored dietary feedback and weekly text messaging to improve dietary intake of fruit, vegetables and junk food over 6 months among a population-based sample of men and women (aged 18-30 years). A three-arm, parallel, randomized control trial was conducted. After baseline assessments, participants were randomized to one of three groups: A) dietary feedback and weekly text messages, B) dietary feedback only or C) control group. Dietary intake was assessed using a mobile food record App (mFR) where participants captured images of foods and beverages consumed over 4-days at baseline and post-intervention. The primary outcomes were changes in serves of fruits, vegetables, energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). The intervention effects were assessed using linear mixed effect models for change in food group serves. Young adults (n = 247) were randomized to group A (n = 82), group B (n = 83), or group C (n = 82). Overall, no changes in food group serves for either intervention groups were observed. An unanticipated outcome was a mean weight reduction of 1.7 kg (P = .02) among the dietary feedback only. Men who received dietary feedback only, significantly reduced their serves of EDNP foods by a mean of 1.4 serves/day (P = .02). Women who received dietary feedback only significantly reduced their intake of SSB (P = .04) by an average of 0.2 serves/day compared with controls. Tailored dietary feedback only resulted in a decrease in EDNP

  9. Tecla: a telephone- and text-message based telemedical concept for patients with severe mental health disorders--study protocol for a controlled, randomized, study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentzel, Ulrike; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Strobel, Lara; Penndorf, Peter; Langosch, Jens; Freyberger, Harald J; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; van den Berg, Neeltje

    2015-11-04

    Severe mental disorders like psychotic disorders including schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders have a 12-month-prevalence of 2.6, bipolar disorders of 1.5% in Germany. The relapse risk is high; so many patients need intensive monitoring and lifelong treatment. A high medication adherence is essential for a successful treatment. But in practice, medication adherence is low and decreases over time. Telemedical care concepts might improve treatment and bridge gaps between in- and outpatient treatment. A telemedical care concept based on regular telephone calls and short text messages was developed. The primary objective is to assess whether regular telephone calls and text messages can improve the medication adherence of patients. Secondary objectives are the reduction of rehospitalization rates, the improvement of quality of life and of the severity of symptoms. The Tecla study (Post stationary telemedical care of patients with severe psychiatric disorders) is a two-armed prospective randomized controlled trial. The participants in the intervention group receive in addition to usual care regular telephone calls every 2 weeks and weekly text messages on patient-individual topics during a 6 months period. Patients in the control group receive only regular care. Inclusion criteria are a physician-diagnosed bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder or schizophrenia and a signed informed consent. Exclusion criteria are planned inpatient treatments within the next 6 months and being non-reachable by phone. After 3 and 6 months both groups receive follow up assessments. The primary objective of this study is the medication adherence that is measured with the Medication Adherence Report Scale, German version (MARS-D). The MARS-D is a self-report with five items. Adherent behaviour is mostly overestimated using self-reports. The strength of the MARS-D is to detect non-adherent behaviour. The original Medication Adherence Report Scale in English language (MARS-5) was

  10. The Effectiveness of Text Messaging for Detection and Management of Hypertension in Indigenous People in Canada: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Karen; Campbell, Norm; Maar, Marion A; Perkins, Nancy; Liu, Peter; Sleeth, Jessica; Smith, Carter; McAllister, Colin; Hua-Stewart, Diane; Wells, George; Tobe, Sheldon W

    2017-12-19

    Hypertension, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality, affects more than 1 billion people and is responsible globally for 10 million deaths annually. Hypertension can be controlled on a national level; in Canada, for example, awareness, treatment, and control improved dramatically from only 16% in 1990 to 66% currently. The ongoing development, dissemination, and implementation of Hypertension Canada's clinical practice guidelines is considered to be responsible, in part, for achieving these high levels of control and the associated improvements in cardiovascular outcomes. A gap still exists between the evidence and the implementation of hypertension guidelines in Indigenous communities in Canada, as well as in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The rapid rise in the ownership and use of mobile phones globally and the potential for texting (short message service, SMS) to improve health literacy and to link the health team together with the patient served as a rationale for the Dream-Global study in both Canada and Tanzania. The primary objective of the Dream-Global study is to assess the effect of innovative technologies and changes in health services delivery on blood pressure (BP) control of Indigenous people in Canada and rural Tanzanians with hypertension using SMS messages and community BP measurement through task shifting with transfer of the measures electronically to the patient and the health care team members. This prospective, randomized blinded allocation study enrolls both adults with uncontrolled hypertension (medicated or unmedicated) and those without hypertension but at high risk of developing this condition who participate in a BP screening study. Participants will be followed for at least 12 months. The primary efficacy endpoint in this study will be assessed by analysis of variance. Descriptive data will be given with the mean and standard deviation for continuous data and proportions for ordinal data. Exploratory subgroup analyses

  11. The effectiveness of telephone counselling and internet- and text-message-based support for smoking cessation: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise S; Dalum, Peter; Bech, Mickael; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2016-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling, reactive telephone counselling and an internet- and text-message-based intervention with a self-help booklet for smoking cessation. A randomized controlled trial with equal allocation to four conditions: (1) proactive telephone counselling (n = 452), (2) reactive telephone counselling (n = 453), (3) internet- and text-message-based intervention (n = 453) and (4) self-help booklet (control) (n = 452). Denmark. Smokers who had participated previously in two national health surveys were invited. Eligibility criteria were daily cigarette smoking, age ≥ 16 years, having a mobile phone and e-mail address. Primary outcome was prolonged abstinence to 12 months from the end of the intervention period. At 12-month follow-up, higher prolonged abstinence was found in the proactive telephone counselling group compared with the booklet group [7.3 versus 3.6%, odds ratio (OR) = 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-4.0]. There was no clear evidence of a difference in prolonged abstinence between the reactive telephone counselling group or the internet-based smoking cessation program and the booklet group: 1.8 versus 3.6%, OR = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.6-1.2 and 5.3 versus 3.6%, OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.8-3.0, respectively. In the proactive telephone counselling group, the cost per additional 12-month quitter compared with the booklet group was £644. Proactive telephone counselling was more effective than a self-help booklet in achieving prolonged abstinence for 12 months. No clear evidence of an effect of reactive telephone counselling or the internet- and text-message-based intervention was found compared with the self-help booklet. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Advanced Messaging Concept Development Basic Safety Message

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contains all Basic Safety Messages (BSMs) collected during the Advanced Messaging Concept Development (AMCD) field testing program. For this project, all of the Part...

  13. Randomized Clinical Trial of Online Parent Training for Behavior Problems After Early Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L; Cassedy, Amy E; Shultz, Emily L; Zang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Nanhua; Kirkwood, Michael W; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith O; Taylor, H Gerry

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Internet-based Interacting Together Everyday: Recovery After Childhood TBI (I-InTERACT) versus abbreviated parent training (Express) or access to online resources (internet resources comparison [IRC]) in improving parenting skills and decreasing behavior problems after early traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this randomized, controlled, clinical trial, 113 children 3 to 9 years old previously hospitalized for moderate to severe TBI were randomly assigned to receive Express (n = 36), I-InTERACT (n = 39), or IRC (n = 38). Express included 7 online parent skills sessions, and I-InTERACT delivered 10 to 14 sessions addressing parenting skills, TBI education, stress, and anger management. The 2 interventions coupled online modules with therapist coaching through a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant Skype link. The IRC group received access to online TBI and parent skills resources. Co-primary outcomes were blinded ratings of parenting skills and parent report of behavior problems and problem intensity on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI). Outcomes were assessed before treatment and 3 and 6 months after treatment, with the latter constituting the primary endpoint. The Express and I-InTERACT groups displayed higher levels of positive parenting at follow-up. Only the I-InTERACT group had lower levels of negative parenting at 6 months. The Express group had lower ECBI intensity scores than the IRC group. Baseline symptom levels moderated improvements; children in the Express and I-InTERACT groups with higher baseline symptoms demonstrated greater improvements than those in the IRC group. Changes in parenting skills mediated improvements in behavior in those with higher baseline symptoms. Brief online parent skills training can effectively decrease behavior problems after early TBI in children with existing behavioral symptoms. Clinical trial registration information-Internet-based Interacting Together

  14. Recruitment to online therapies for depression: pilot cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ray B; Goldsmith, Lesley; Hewson, Paul; Williams, Christopher J

    2013-03-05

    Raising awareness of online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) could benefit many people with depression, but we do not know how purchasing online advertising compares to placing free links from relevant local websites in increasing uptake. To pilot a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing purchase of Google AdWords with placing free website links in raising awareness of online CBT resources for depression in order to better understand research design issues. We compared two online interventions with a control without intervention. The pilot RCT had 4 arms, each with 4 British postcode areas: (A) geographically targeted AdWords, (B) adverts placed on local websites by contacting website owners and requesting links be added, (C) both interventions, (D) control. Participants were directed to our research project website linking to two freely available online CBT resource sites (Moodgym and Living Life To The Full (LLTTF)) and two other depression support sites. We used data from (1) AdWords, (2) Google Analytics for our project website and for LLTTF, and (3) research project website. We compared two outcomes: (1) numbers with depression accessing the research project website, and then chose an onward link to one of the two CBT websites, and (2) numbers registering with LLTTF. We documented costs, and explored intervention and assessment methods to make general recommendations to inform researchers aiming to use similar methodologies in future studies. Trying to place local website links appeared much less cost effective than AdWords and although may prove useful for service delivery, was not worth pursuing in the context of the current study design. Our AdWords intervention was effective in recruiting people to the project website but our location targeting "leaked" and was not as geographically specific as claimed. The impact on online CBT was also diluted by offering participants other choices of destinations. Measuring the impact on LLTTF use was

  15. Recruitment to Online Therapies for Depression: Pilot Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Lesley; Hewson, Paul; Williams, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Background Raising awareness of online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) could benefit many people with depression, but we do not know how purchasing online advertising compares to placing free links from relevant local websites in increasing uptake. Objective To pilot a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing purchase of Google AdWords with placing free website links in raising awareness of online CBT resources for depression in order to better understand research design issues. Methods We compared two online interventions with a control without intervention. The pilot RCT had 4 arms, each with 4 British postcode areas: (A) geographically targeted AdWords, (B) adverts placed on local websites by contacting website owners and requesting links be added, (C) both interventions, (D) control. Participants were directed to our research project website linking to two freely available online CBT resource sites (Moodgym and Living Life To The Full (LLTTF)) and two other depression support sites. We used data from (1) AdWords, (2) Google Analytics for our project website and for LLTTF, and (3) research project website. We compared two outcomes: (1) numbers with depression accessing the research project website, and then chose an onward link to one of the two CBT websites, and (2) numbers registering with LLTTF. We documented costs, and explored intervention and assessment methods to make general recommendations to inform researchers aiming to use similar methodologies in future studies. Results Trying to place local website links appeared much less cost effective than AdWords and although may prove useful for service delivery, was not worth pursuing in the context of the current study design. Our AdWords intervention was effective in recruiting people to the project website but our location targeting “leaked” and was not as geographically specific as claimed. The impact on online CBT was also diluted by offering participants other choices of destinations

  16. Randomized trial of exercise and an online recovery tool to improve rehabilitation outcomes of cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Anna L; Biddle-Newberry, Mary; de Heer, Hendrik Dirk

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effects of a cancer survivor exercise program and an online recovery awareness program (Restwise) on physical outcomes of aerobic capacity and muscle strength. Randomized controlled trial design. Treasure Valley Family YMCA, Boise, ID. Fifty cancer survivors. Subjects were randomly assigned to the 12-week exercise program or the exercise program and Restwise. Restwise required users to complete daily objective and subjective ratings. Restwise compiles these data to provide individualized feedback recommending the exercise dose to maximize recovery and minimize fatigue. Baseline and posttest measures of physical performance (6-minute walk, 1-repetition maximum of lower and upper body strength). The exercise plus Restwise group demonstrated significant improvements (P exercise-only group demonstrated significant within-group improvement only on the 6-minute walk. The exercise plus Restwise group demonstrated an 18.5% greater improvement in the 6-minute walk, and a 35.2% and 45%, respectively, greater improvement on the leg and chest press than the exercise-only group. However, the between-group differences were not significant. Cancer survivors who use the Restwise online recovery program in conjunction with an exercise program demonstrated minimal clinically important differences compared with other clinical populations on all 3 measures, whereas the exercise-only group had improvements only on the 6-minute walk. Patient adherence to the Restwise program was good, and patients provided positive feedback.

  17. Comparing the Relative Efficacy of Narrative vs Nonnarrative Health Messages in Reducing Health Disparities Using a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sheila T; Frank, Lauren B; Chatterjee, Joyee S; Moran, Meghan B; Zhao, Nan; Amezola de Herrera, Paula; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes A

    2015-10-01

    We compared the relative efficacy of a fictional narrative film to a more traditional nonnarrative film in conveying the same health information. We used a random digit dial procedure to survey the cervical cancer-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of non-Hispanic White, Mexican American, and African American women, aged 25 to 45 years, living in Los Angeles, California, from 2011 to 2012. Participants (n = 704) were randomly assigned to view either a narrative or nonnarrative film containing the same information about how cervical cancer could be prevented or detected, and they were re-contacted 2 weeks and 6 months later. At 2 weeks, both films produced a significant increase in cervical cancer-related knowledge and attitudes, but these effects were significantly higher for the narrative film. At 6 months, viewers of both films retained greater than baseline knowledge and more positive attitudes toward Papanicolaou (Pap) tests, but women who saw the narrative were significantly more likely to have had or scheduled a Pap test. The narrative was particularly effective for Mexican American women, eliminating cervical cancer screening disparities found at baseline. Narratives might prove to be a useful tool for reducing health disparities.

  18. Comparing the Relative Efficacy of Narrative vs Nonnarrative Health Messages in Reducing Health Disparities Using a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Lauren B.; Chatterjee, Joyee S.; Moran, Meghan B.; Zhao, Nan; Amezola de Herrera, Paula; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the relative efficacy of a fictional narrative film to a more traditional nonnarrative film in conveying the same health information. Methods. We used a random digit dial procedure to survey the cervical cancer-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of non-Hispanic White, Mexican American, and African American women, aged 25 to 45 years, living in Los Angeles, California, from 2011 to 2012. Participants (n = 704) were randomly assigned to view either a narrative or nonnarrative film containing the same information about how cervical cancer could be prevented or detected, and they were re-contacted 2 weeks and 6 months later. Results. At 2 weeks, both films produced a significant increase in cervical cancer-related knowledge and attitudes, but these effects were significantly higher for the narrative film. At 6 months, viewers of both films retained greater than baseline knowledge and more positive attitudes toward Papanicolaou (Pap) tests, but women who saw the narrative were significantly more likely to have had or scheduled a Pap test. The narrative was particularly effective for Mexican American women, eliminating cervical cancer screening disparities found at baseline. Conclusions. Narratives might prove to be a useful tool for reducing health disparities. PMID:25905845

  19. Engineering Online and In-person Social Networks for Physical Activity: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovniak, Liza S.; Kong, Lan; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F.; Ray, Chester A.; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.; Matthews, Stephen A.; Kiser, Elizabeth; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; George, Daniel R.; Sciamanna, Christopher N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Social networks can influence physical activity, but little is known about how best to engineer online and in-person social networks to increase activity. Purpose To conduct a randomized trial based on the Social Networks for Activity Promotion model to assess the incremental contributions of different procedures for building social networks on objectively-measured outcomes. Methods Physically inactive adults (n = 308, age, 50.3 (SD = 8.3) years, 38.3% male, 83.4% overweight/obese) were randomized to 1 of 3 groups. The Promotion group evaluated the effects of weekly emailed tips emphasizing social network interactions for walking (e.g., encouragement, informational support); the Activity group evaluated the incremental effect of adding an evidence-based online fitness walking intervention to the weekly tips; and the Social Networks group evaluated the additional incremental effect of providing access to an online networking site for walking, and prompting walking/activity across diverse settings. The primary outcome was mean change in accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), assessed at 3 and 9 months from baseline. Results Participants increased their MVPA by 21.0 mins/week, 95% CI [5.9, 36.1], p = .005, at 3 months, and this change was sustained at 9 months, with no between-group differences. Conclusions Although the structure of procedures for targeting social networks varied across intervention groups, the functional effect of these procedures on physical activity was similar. Future research should evaluate if more powerful reinforcers improve the effects of social network interventions. Trial Registration Number NCT01142804 PMID:27405724

  20. Engineering Online and In-Person Social Networks for Physical Activity: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovniak, Liza S; Kong, Lan; Hovell, Melbourne F; Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F; Ray, Chester A; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; Matthews, Stephen A; Kiser, Elizabeth; Chinchilli, Vernon M; George, Daniel R; Sciamanna, Christopher N

    2016-12-01

    Social networks can influence physical activity, but little is known about how best to engineer online and in-person social networks to increase activity. The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized trial based on the Social Networks for Activity Promotion model to assess the incremental contributions of different procedures for building social networks on objectively measured outcomes. Physically inactive adults (n = 308, age, 50.3 (SD = 8.3) years, 38.3 % male, 83.4 % overweight/obese) were randomized to one of three groups. The Promotion group evaluated the effects of weekly emailed tips emphasizing social network interactions for walking (e.g., encouragement, informational support); the Activity group evaluated the incremental effect of adding an evidence-based online fitness walking intervention to the weekly tips; and the Social Networks group evaluated the additional incremental effect of providing access to an online networking site for walking as well as prompting walking/activity across diverse settings. The primary outcome was mean change in accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), assessed at 3 and 9 months from baseline. Participants increased their MVPA by 21.0 min/week, 95 % CI [5.9, 36.1], p = .005, at 3 months, and this change was sustained at 9 months, with no between-group differences. Although the structure of procedures for targeting social networks varied across intervention groups, the functional effect of these procedures on physical activity was similar. Future research should evaluate if more powerful reinforcers improve the effects of social network interventions. The trial was registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01142804).

  1. An online spaced-education game for global continuing medical education: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, B Price; Baker, Harley

    2012-07-01

    To assess the efficacy of a "spaced-education" game as a method of continuing medical education (CME) among physicians across the globe. The efficacy of educational games for the CME has yet to be established. We created a novel online educational game by incorporating game mechanics into "spaced education" (SE), an evidence-based method of online CME. This 34-week randomized trial enrolled practicing urologists across the globe. The SE game consisted of 40 validated multiple-choice questions and explanations on urology clinical guidelines. Enrollees were randomized to 2 cohorts: cohort A physicians were sent 2 questions via an automated e-mail system every 2 days, and cohort B physicians were sent 4 questions every 4 days. Adaptive game mechanics re-sent the questions in 12 or 24 days if answered incorrectly and correctly, respectively. Questions expired if not answered on time (appointment dynamic). Physicians retired questions by answering each correctly twice-in-a-row (progression dynamic). Competition was fostered by posting relative performance among physicians. Main outcome measures were baseline scores (percentage of questions answered correctly upon initial presentation) and completion scores (percentage of questions retired). A total of 1470 physicians from 63 countries enrolled. Median baseline score was 48% (interquartile range [IQR] 17) and, in multivariate analyses, was found to vary significantly by region (Cohen dmax = 0.31, P = 0.001) and age (dmax = 0.41, P games. An online SE game can substantially improve guidelines knowledge and is a well-accepted method of global CME delivery.

  2. Evaluation of a transdiagnostic psychodynamic online intervention to support return to work: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Zwerenz

    Full Text Available Given their flexibility, online interventions may be useful as an outpatient treatment option to support vocational reintegration after inpatient rehabilitation. To that purpose we devised a transdiagnostic psychodynamic online intervention to facilitate return to work, focusing on interpersonal conflicts at the workplace often responsible for work-related stress.In a randomized controlled trial, we included employed patients from cardiologic, psychosomatic and orthopedic rehabilitation with work-related stress or need for support at intake to inpatient rehabilitation after they had given written consent to take part in the study. Following discharge, maladaptive interpersonal interactions at the workplace were identified via weekly blogs and processed by written therapeutic comments over 12 weeks in the intervention group (IG. The control group (CG received an augmented treatment as usual condition. The main outcome, subjective prognosis of gainful employment (SPE, and secondary outcomes (psychological complaints were assessed by means of online questionnaires before, at the end of aftercare (3 months and at follow-up (12 months. We used ITT analyses controlling for baseline scores and medical group.N = 319 patients were enrolled into IG and N = 345 into CG. 77% of the IG logged in to the webpage (CG 74% and 65% of the IG wrote blogs. Compared to the CG, the IG reported a significantly more positive SPE at follow-up. Measures of depression, anxiety and psychosocial stressors decreased from baseline to follow-up, whereas the corresponding scores increased in the CG. Correspondingly, somatization and psychological quality of life improved in the IG.Psychodynamic online aftercare was effective to enhance subjective prognosis of future employment and improved psychological complaints across a variety of chronic physical and psychological conditions, albeit with small effect sizes.

  3. Evaluation of a transdiagnostic psychodynamic online intervention to support return to work: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerenz, Rüdiger; Becker, Jan; Gerzymisch, Katharina; Siepmann, Martin; Holme, Martin; Kiwus, Ulrich; Spörl-Dönch, Sieglinde; Beutel, Manfred E

    2017-01-01

    Given their flexibility, online interventions may be useful as an outpatient treatment option to support vocational reintegration after inpatient rehabilitation. To that purpose we devised a transdiagnostic psychodynamic online intervention to facilitate return to work, focusing on interpersonal conflicts at the workplace often responsible for work-related stress. In a randomized controlled trial, we included employed patients from cardiologic, psychosomatic and orthopedic rehabilitation with work-related stress or need for support at intake to inpatient rehabilitation after they had given written consent to take part in the study. Following discharge, maladaptive interpersonal interactions at the workplace were identified via weekly blogs and processed by written therapeutic comments over 12 weeks in the intervention group (IG). The control group (CG) received an augmented treatment as usual condition. The main outcome, subjective prognosis of gainful employment (SPE), and secondary outcomes (psychological complaints) were assessed by means of online questionnaires before, at the end of aftercare (3 months) and at follow-up (12 months). We used ITT analyses controlling for baseline scores and medical group. N = 319 patients were enrolled into IG and N = 345 into CG. 77% of the IG logged in to the webpage (CG 74%) and 65% of the IG wrote blogs. Compared to the CG, the IG reported a significantly more positive SPE at follow-up. Measures of depression, anxiety and psychosocial stressors decreased from baseline to follow-up, whereas the corresponding scores increased in the CG. Correspondingly, somatization and psychological quality of life improved in the IG. Psychodynamic online aftercare was effective to enhance subjective prognosis of future employment and improved psychological complaints across a variety of chronic physical and psychological conditions, albeit with small effect sizes.

  4. Results of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of a mobile SMS-based intervention on treatment adherence in HIV/AIDS-infected Brazilian women and impressions and satisfaction with respect to incoming messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Thiago Martini; Barbosa, Bárbara Jaqueline Peres; Gomes e Costa, Durval Alex; Sigulem, Daniel; de Fátima Marin, Heimar; Filho, Adauto Castelo; Pisa, Ivan Torres

    2012-04-01

    To assess whether a warning system based on mobile SMS messages increases the adherence of HIV-infected Brazilian women to antiretroviral drug-based treatment regimens and their impressions and satisfaction with respect to incoming messages. A randomized controlled trial was conducted from May 2009 to April 2010 with HIV-infected Brazilian women. All participants (n=21) had a monthly multidisciplinary attendance; each participant was followed over a 4-month period, when adherence measures were obtained. Participants in the intervention group (n=8) received SMS messages 30 min before their last scheduled time for a dose of medicine during the day. The messages were sent every Saturday and Sunday and on alternate days during the working week. Participants in the control group (n=13) did not receive messages. Self-reported adherence, pill counting, microelectronic monitors (MEMS) and an interview about the impressions and satisfaction with respect to incoming messages. The HIV Alert System (HIVAS) was developed over 7 months during 2008 and 2009. After the study period, self-reported adherence indicated that 11 participants (84.62%) remained compliant in the control group (adherence exceeding 95%), whereas all 8 participants in the intervention group (100.00%) remained compliant. In contrast, the counting pills method indicated that the number of compliant participants was 5 (38.46%) for the control group and 4 (50.00%) for the intervention group. Microelectronic monitoring indicated that 6 participants in the control group (46.15%) were adherent during the entire 4-month period compared to 6 participants in the intervention group (75.00%). According to the feedback of the 8 participants who completed the research in the intervention group, along with the feedback of 3 patients who received SMS for less than 4 months, that is, did not complete the study, 9 (81.81%) believed that the SMS messages aided them in treatment adherence, and 10 (90.90%) responded that they

  5. Effects of preventive online mindfulness interventions on stress and mindfulness: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Jayewardene, Wasantha P.; Lohrmann, David K.; Erbe, Ryan G.; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    2016-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggested that mind-body interventions can be effectively delivered online. This study aimed to examine whether preventive online mindfulness interventions (POMI) for non-clinical populations improve short- and long-term outcomes for perceived-stress (primary) and mindfulness (secondary). Systematic search of four electronic databases, manuscript reference lists, and journal content lists was conducted in 2016, using 21 search-terms. Eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs...

  6. Combining Text Messaging and Telephone Counseling to Increase Varenicline Adherence and Smoking Abstinence Among Cigarette Smokers Living with HIV: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Tuo-Yen; Krebs, Paul; Schoenthaler, Antoinette; Wong, Selena; Sherman, Scott; Gonzalez, Mirelis; Urbina, Antonio; Cleland, Charles M; Shelley, Donna

    2017-07-01

    Smoking represents an important health risk for people living with HIV (PLHIV). Low adherence to smoking cessation pharmacotherapy may limit treatment effectiveness. In this study, 158 participants recruited from three HIV care centers in New York City were randomized to receive 12-weeks of varenicline (Chantix) either alone as standard care (SC) or in combination with text message (TM) support or TM plus cell phone-delivered adherence-focused motivational and behavioral therapy (ABT). Generalized linear mixed-effect models found a significant decline in varenicline adherence from week 1-12 across treatment groups. At 12-weeks, the probability of smoking abstinence was significantly higher in SC+TM+ABT than in SC. The study demonstrates the feasibility of delivering adherence-focused interventions to PLHIV who smoke. Findings suggest intensive behavioral support is an important component of an effective smoking cessation intervention for this population, and a focus on improving adherence self-efficacy may lead to more consistent adherence and higher smoking abstinence.

  7. Online games: a novel approach to explore how partial information influences human random searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Ricardo; Calabrese, Justin M.; López, Cristóbal

    2017-01-01

    Many natural processes rely on optimizing the success ratio of a search process. We use an experimental setup consisting of a simple online game in which players have to find a target hidden on a board, to investigate how the rounds are influenced by the detection of cues. We focus on the search duration and the statistics of the trajectories traced on the board. The experimental data are explained by a family of random-walk-based models and probabilistic analytical approximations. If no initial information is given to the players, the search is optimized for cues that cover an intermediate spatial scale. In addition, initial information about the extension of the cues results, in general, in faster searches. Finally, strategies used by informed players turn into non-stationary processes in which the length of e ach displacement evolves to show a well-defined characteristic scale that is not found in non-informed searches.

  8. Ambient awareness: From random noise to digital closeness in online social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levordashka, Ana; Utz, Sonja

    2016-07-01

    Ambient awareness refers to the awareness social media users develop of their online network in result of being constantly exposed to social information, such as microblogging updates. Although each individual bit of information can seem like random noise, their incessant reception can amass to a coherent representation of social others. Despite its growing popularity and important implications for social media research, ambient awareness on public social media has not been studied empirically. We provide evidence for the occurrence of ambient awareness and examine key questions related to its content and functions. A diverse sample of participants reported experiencing awareness, both as a general feeling towards their network as a whole, and as knowledge of individual members of the network, whom they had not met in real life. Our results indicate that ambient awareness can develop peripherally, from fragmented information and in the relative absence of extensive one-to-one communication. We report the effects of demographics, media use, and network variables and discuss the implications of ambient awareness for relational and informational processes online.

  9. Text Messaging to Improve Hypertension Medication Adherence in African Americans From Primary Care and Emergency Department Settings: Results From Two Randomized Feasibility Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buis, Lorraine; Hirzel, Lindsey; Dawood, Rachelle M; Dawood, Katee L; Nichols, Lauren P; Artinian, Nancy T; Schwiebert, Loren; Yarandi, Hossein N; Roberson, Dana N; Plegue, Melissa A; Mango, LynnMarie C; Levy, Phillip D

    2017-02-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is an important problem in the United States, with an estimated 78 million Americans aged 20 years and older suffering from this condition. Health disparities related to HTN are common in the United States, with African Americans suffering from greater prevalence of the condition than whites, as well as greater severity, earlier onset, and more complications. Medication adherence is an important component of HTN management, but adherence is often poor, and simply forgetting to take medications is often cited as a reason. Mobile health (mHealth) strategies have the potential to be a low-cost and effective method for improving medication adherence that also has broad reach. Our goal was to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary clinical effectiveness of BPMED, an intervention designed to improve medication adherence among African Americans with uncontrolled HTN, through fully automated text messaging support. We conducted two parallel, unblinded randomized controlled pilot trials with African-American patients who had uncontrolled HTN, recruited from primary care and emergency department (ED) settings. In each trial, participants were randomized to receive either usual care or the BPMED intervention for one month. Data were collected in-person at baseline and one-month follow-up, assessing the effect on medication adherence, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), medication adherence self-efficacy, and participant satisfaction. Data for both randomized controlled pilot trials were analyzed separately and combined. A total of 58 primary care and 65 ED participants were recruited with retention rates of 91% (53/58) and 88% (57/65), respectively. BPMED participants consistently showed numerically greater, yet nonsignificant, improvements in measures of medication adherence (mean change 0.9, SD 2.0 vs mean change 0.5, SD 1.5, P=.26), SBP (mean change -12.6, SD 24.0 vs mean change -11.3, SD 25.5 mm Hg, P=.78), and DBP

  10. Online gambling's moderators: how effective? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillon, Julie; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Venisse, Jean-Luc; Challet-Bouju, Gaelle

    2015-05-30

    Online gambling has been legalized in France in 2010. Licenses are issued to gambling operators who demonstrate their ability to respect the legal framework (security, taxation, consumer protection, etc.). The preventive measures to protect vulnerable gamblers include an obligation to provide online gambling moderators. These moderators should allow gamblers to limit their bets, exclude themselves from the website for 7 days, and consult the balance of the gambler's account at any time. However, there are only a few published reports of empirical research investigating the effectiveness of Internet-based protective measures implemented by French law. Moreover, no empirical research has yet studied the impact of bonuses on gambling behaviors. This research is an experimental randomized controlled trial, risk prevention targeted. The research is divided into four sub-studies depending on the studied moderator: limiting bonuses, self-exclusion, self-limitation and information. The study sample consists of 485 volunteers. For each experimental condition and the control groups, the sample is composed of gamblers equally recruited from gamblers having preferences in each of the three major forms of games (lottery and scratch tickets, sports and horserace betting, and poker). For each form of gambling, the gamblers are recruited in order to obtain as many problem gamblers as non-problem gamblers. According to the randomization, the experimental session begins. The experimental session is a gambling situation on a computer in our research center. The gambler is invited to play on his favorite gambling site as usual, with his own gambler account and his own money. Data collected comprise sociodemographic characteristics, gambling habits, an interview about enjoyment and feeling out of control during the gambling session, moderator impact on gambling practice, statement of gambling parameters and questionnaires (BMIS, GRCS, CPGI, GACS). Moderator efficiency is assessed based

  11. A rapid online telepathy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldrake, Rupert; Beharee, Ashwin

    2009-06-01

    In an automated online telepathy test, each participant had four senders, two actual and two virtual, generated by the computer. In a series of 12 30-sec. trials, the computer selected one of the senders at random and asked him to write a message to the subject. After 30 sec., the participant was asked to guess who had written a message. After the computer had recorded his guess, it sent him the message. In a total of 6,000 trials, there were 1,559 hits (26.7%), significantly above the chance expectation of 25%. In filmed tests, the hit rate was very similar. The hit rate with actual senders was higher than with virtual senders, but there was a strong guessing bias in favour of actual senders. When high-scoring subjects were retested, hit rates generally declined, but one subject repeatedly scored above chance.

  12. Effectiveness of a multimodal online well-being intervention: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nathan K; Poirier, Josée

    2014-01-01

    Well-being encompasses physical, psychological, and social aspects of health and predicts healthcare utilization and expenditures. Despite their potential clinical impact, interventions that leverage social network effects to target well-being are uncommon. Using a pragmatic design, to evaluate the effectiveness of an online well-being intervention as part of ongoing program development. Randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial with longitudinal outcome measurements at baseline, 30 days, and 90 days. A total of 1503 U.S.-based adults were enrolled. Recruitment, eligibility verification, and baseline data collection were conducted entirely online; follow-up took place online or by phone. The study was conducted in 2012. A multimodal e-mail-, web-, and mobile-based intervention (Daily Challenge), in which participants receive daily suggestions of small health actions that they complete in a social environment. A traditional weekly health newsletter served as control. Overall well-being as measured by the Individual-level Well-Being Assessment and Scoring Method (scale: 0 to 100). Follow-up rates reached 68.7% (n=1032) at 30 days and 62.6% (n=940) at 90 days. Overall, 84.6% of treatment group participants visited the website, and 76.5% opened program e-mails (vs 51.1% in the control group). Daily Challenge improved well-being significantly more than control at 30 days (2.27 points, p=0.004) and at 90 days (2.35 points, p=0.004). A dose response for intensity of use was observed at 30 days (p=0.001) and 90 days (p=0.003). Well-being improvement was greater in participants with than without social ties in the program (at 30 days: p=0.02; at 90 days: p=0.003). A multimodal online intervention leveraging social network effects significantly improved well-being over control. Higher levels of participation as well as increasing levels of social integration were associated with greater improvement in well-being. www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01586949). © 2013

  13. Pilot study of psychotherapeutic text messaging for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Paul N; Henry, Jennifer; Ganoczy, Dara; Piette, John D

    2017-08-01

    Background Text messaging services could increase access to psychotherapeutic content for individuals with depression by avoiding barriers to in-person psychotherapy such as cost, transportation, and therapist availability. Determining whether text messages reflecting different psychotherapeutic techniques exhibit differences in acceptability or effectiveness may help guide service development. Objectives We aimed to determine: (1) the feasibility of delivering a psychotherapy-based text messaging service to people with depression identified via the internet, (2) whether there is variation in satisfaction with messages according to the type of psychotherapeutic technique they represent, and (3) whether symptoms of depression vary according to receipt of each message type and participants' satisfaction with the messages they received. Methods For this study 190 US adults who screened positive for a major depressive episode (Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score ≥10) were recruited from online advertisements. Participants received a daily psychotherapy-based text message 6 days per week for 12 weeks. Text messages were developed by a team of psychiatrists, psychologists, and social workers to reflect three psychotherapeutic approaches: acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), behavioural activation, and cognitive restructuring. Each week the message type for the week was randomly assigned from one of the three types, allowing for repeats. Participants were asked daily to rate each message. On the 7th day of each week, participants completed a two-item depression screener (PHQ-2). Web-based surveys at baseline, 6, and 12 weeks were used as the primary measure of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9). Results Of the 190 participants enrolled, 85 (45%) completed the 6-week web survey and 67 (35%) completed the 12-week survey. The mean baseline PHQ-9 score was 19.4 (SD 4.2) and there was a statistically significant mean improvement in PHQ-9 scores of -2.9 (SD 6.0; p

  14. Guided Online or Face-to-Face Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Insomnia: A Randomized Wait-List Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancee, Jaap; van Straten, Annemieke; Morina, Nexhmedin; Kaldo, Viktor; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2016-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of guided online and individual face-to-face cognitive behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) to a wait-list condition. A randomized controlled trial comparing three conditions: guided online; face-to-face; wait-list. Posttest measurements were administered to all conditions, along with 3- and 6-mo follow-up assessments to the online and face-to-face conditions. Ninety media-recruited participants meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria for insomnia were randomly allocated to either guided online CBT-I (n = 30), individual face-to-face CBT-I (n = 30), or wait-list (n = 30). At post-assessment, the online (Cohen d = 1.2) and face-to-face (Cohen d = 2.3) intervention groups showed significantly larger treatment effects than the wait-list group on insomnia severity (insomnia severity index). Large treatment effects were also found for the sleep diary estimates (except for total sleep time), and anxiety and depression measures (for depression only in the face-to-face condition). Face-to-face treatment yielded a statistically larger treatment effect (Cohen d = 0.9) on insomnia severity than the online condition at all time points. In addition, a moderate differential effect size favoring face-to-face treatment emerged at the 3- and 6-mo follow-up on all sleep diary estimates. Face-to-face treatment further outperformed online treatment on depression and anxiety outcomes. These data show superior performance of face-to-face treatment relative to online treatment. Yet, our results also suggest that online treatment may offer a potentially cost-effective alternative to and complement face-to-face treatment. Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01955850. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 13. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Coach Contact During a Brief Online Intervention for Distressed Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, McKenzie K; Nowlan, Kathryn M; Doss, Brian D

    2017-12-01

    The negative impacts of relationship distress on the couple, the family, and the individual are well-known. However, couples are often unable to access effective treatments to combat these effects-including many couples who might be at highest risk for relationship distress. Online self-help interventions decrease the barriers to treatment and provide couples with high quality, research-based programs they can do on their own. Using a combined multiple baseline and randomized design, the present study investigated the effectiveness of the Brief OurRelationship.com (Brief-OR) program with and without staff support in improving relationship distress and individual functioning. Results indicated the program produced significant gains in several areas of relationship functioning; however, these gains were smaller in magnitude than those observed in Full-OR. Furthermore, effects of Brief-OR were not sustained over follow-up. Comparisons between couples randomized to Brief-OR with and without contact with a staff coach indicated that coach contact significantly reduced program noncompletion and improved program effects. Limitations and future directions are discussed. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  16. Effects of interventions promoting monitoring of medication use and brief messaging on medication adherence for people with Type 2 diabetes: a systematic review of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, A J; McSharry, J; Rowbotham, S; McGowan, L; Ricci-Cabello, I; French, D P

    2016-05-01

    To assess the impact of interventions promoting the monitoring of medication use and brief messaging to support medication adherence in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to investigate the extent of theory use to guide intervention development. We systematically searched for controlled trials, published from 1990 onwards in Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and the Cochrane library, that evaluated interventions based on monitoring and brief messaging to support medication adherence in patients with Type 2 diabetes, to examine the effectiveness of such interventions. A total of 11 trials, comparing 15 interventions, were identified. Only a small minority presented a low risk of bias. Three interventions were based on delivering brief messages, six were based on monitoring medication adherence, and six used both strategies. Messaging interventions included the use of short message service text messages, web-based feedback, and messages delivered through monitoring devices. Monitoring interventions included remote self-reporting of medication and telephone calls with healthcare staff. Improvements in medication adherence were observed in six interventions, although effect sizes were generally moderate. Only two interventions improved both adherence and clinical outcomes. A meta-analysis of five trials (eight interventions) combining monitoring and messaging strategies showed that the pooled difference in medication adherence between intervention and control was moderate and not statistically significant [standardized mean difference = 0.22 (95% CI -0.05; 0.49)]. Only four trials were based on explicit theoretical frameworks. Although interventions based on messaging and monitoring have the potential to improve medication adherence in patients with Type 2 diabetes, evidence of their efficacy is limited and additional high-quality, theory-based research is needed. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  17. Cluster randomized controlled trial of a consumer behavior intervention to improve healthy food purchases from online canteens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Tessa; Wyse, Rebecca; Yoong, Sze Lin; Sutherland, Rachel; Wiggers, John; Ball, Kylie; Campbell, Karen; Rissel, Chris; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Wolfenden, Luke

    2017-11-01

    Background: School canteens represent an opportune setting in which to deliver public health nutrition strategies because of their wide reach and frequent use by children. Online school-canteen ordering systems, where students order and pay for their lunch online, provide an avenue to improve healthy canteen purchases through the application of consumer-behavior strategies that have an impact on purchasing decisions. Objective: We assessed the efficacy of a consumer-behavior intervention implemented in an online school-canteen ordering system in reducing the energy, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium contents of primary student lunch orders. Design: A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted that involved 2714 students (aged 5-12 y) from 10 primary schools in New South Wales, Australia, who were currently using an online canteen ordering system. Schools were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either the intervention (enhanced system) or the control (standard online ordering only). The intervention included consumer-behavior strategies that were integrated into the online ordering system (targeting menu labeling, healthy food availability, placement, and prompting). Results: Mean energy (difference: -567.25 kJ; 95% CI: -697.95, -436.55 kJ; P canteen infrastructure to improve purchasing behavior from primary school canteens. Such an intervention may represent an appealing policy option as part of a broader government strategy to improve child public health nutrition. This trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12616000499482. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. The efficacy of life-review as online-guided self-help for adults: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, S.M.A.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Korte, J.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The study used a randomized controlled trial to investigate the short-term and long-term effects of life-review as online-guided self-help in adults (40+) with moderate depressive symptomatology. We evaluated ego-integrity and rumination as mediators and assessed whether the effects of

  19. Expressive writing and positive writing for participants with mood disorders: an online randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikie, Karen A; Geerligs, Liesbeth; Wilhelm, Kay

    2012-02-01

    Expressive writing--writing about traumatic, stressful or emotional events--often leads to improvements in physical and psychological health in non-clinical and clinical populations. Recent studies have shown that positive writing may also be beneficial. Research has not yet investigated whether either expressive writing or positive writing offers benefits for people with mood disorders. Participants were recruited online and were randomly allocated to expressive writing, positive writing or control writing. The following questionnaires were completed online: Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS), Pennebaker Inventory of Limbic Languidness (PILL), overall health questions, Temperament and Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and COPE Inventory (COPE). Participants then wrote for 20 min on 4 occasions, and then completed follow-up questionnaires. Linear mixed models with custom contrasts were conducted to assess differences between groups and over time. All 3 groups showed significant improvements over time on mental health and some physical health outcomes. There were no significant differences between groups and no significant group by time interactions. These results were not moderated by demographic factors, personality subtypes or coping styles. The expressive writing, positive writing and time management control writing groups all reported significantly fewer mental and physical symptoms for at least 4 months post-writing. When expressive and positive writing groups were combined, the resulting `emotional writing group' showed significantly lower scores on the DASS stress subscale than the control writing group at all time-points. Potential reasons are discussed and areas of further study identified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sensing the sending of SMS messages: an automated test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldrake, Rupert; Avraamides, Leonidas; Novák, Matous

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out automated experiments to test for telepathy in connection with text messages. Subjects, aged from 11 to 72, registered online with the names and mobile telephone numbers of three senders. A computer selected a sender at random and asked him/her to send a short message service (SMS) message to the subject via the computer. The computer then asked the subject to guess the sender's name and delivered the message after receiving the guess. A test consisted of nine trials. The effects of subjects' sex and age and the effects of delay on guesses were evaluated. The main outcome measure was the proportion of correct guesses of the sender's name, compared with the 33.3% mean chance expectation. In 886 trials, there were 336 hits (37.9%), significantly above the 33.3% chance level (P = .001). The hit rate in incomplete tests was 38.4% (P = .03), showing that optional stopping could not explain the positive results. Most tests were unsupervised, which left open the possibility of cheating, but high-scoring subjects were retested under filmed conditions, where no cheating was detected, with 19 hits in 43 trials (44.2%; P = 0.09).

  1. Effective Message Elements for Disclosures about Chemicals in Cigarette Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Dannielle E; Boynton, Marcella H; Noar, Seth M; Morgan, Jennifer C; Mendel, Jennifer R; Ribisl, Kurt M; Stepanov, Irina; Nylander-French, Leena A; Brewer, Noel T

    2017-05-17

    Cigarette smoke contains at least 93 chemicals or "constituents" that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has identified as harmful or potentially harmful to human health. Our study sought to identify which constituent disclosure message elements are most effective in discouraging people from smoking. Three hundred eighty-eight current smokers ages 18 and older completed an online survey in February 2015. We randomized participants to respond to one of two sets of 13 toxic products that contain cigarette constituents and 25 health effects associated with cigarette constituents. Products that elicited the most discouragement were those with lower chances of exposure (e.g., explosives), followed by products with possible exposure (e.g., rat poison) and products with a high likelihood of exposure (e.g., floor cleaner). Awareness of toxic products that constituents are found in (pelements. Our study identified health effects and toxic products, especially cancers and rarely encountered toxic products, that may discourage smoking when included in disclosure messages. By constructing messages that communicate the harms associated with tobacco use by contextualizing those harms in terms of specific constituents, tobacco education messaging efforts may be increasingly successful.

  2. Life History of a Topic in an Online Discussion: A Complex Systems Theory Perspective on How One Message Attracts Class Members to Create Meaning Collaboratively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Jane S.; Schallert, Diane L.; Jordan, Michelle E.; Song, Kwangok; Sanders, Anke J. Z.; Te Chiang, Yueh-hui Yan; Lee, Ji-Eun; Park, Jeongbin Hannah; Yu, Li-Tang

    2017-01-01

    Complex adaptive systems theory served as a framework for this qualitative study exploring the process of how meaning emerges from the collective interactions of individuals in a synchronous online discussion through their shared words about a topic. In an effort to bridge levels of analysis from the individual to the small group to the community,…

  3. Support or competition? How online social networks increase physical activity: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Zhang, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify what features of online social networks can increase physical activity, we conducted a 4-arm randomized controlled trial in 2014 in Philadelphia, PA. Students (n = 790, mean age = 25.2 at an university were randomly assigned to one of four conditions composed of either supportive or competitive relationships and either with individual or team incentives for attending exercise classes. The social comparison condition placed participants into 6-person competitive networks with individual incentives. The social support condition placed participants into 6-person teams with team incentives. The combined condition with both supportive and competitive relationships placed participants into 6-person teams, where participants could compare their team's performance to 5 other teams' performances. The control condition only allowed participants to attend classes with individual incentives. Rewards were based on the total number of classes attended by an individual, or the average number of classes attended by the members of a team. The outcome was the number of classes that participants attended. Data were analyzed using multilevel models in 2014. The mean attendance numbers per week were 35.7, 38.5, 20.3, and 16.8 in the social comparison, the combined, the control, and the social support conditions. Attendance numbers were 90% higher in the social comparison and the combined conditions (mean = 1.9, SE = 0.2 in contrast to the two conditions without comparison (mean = 1.0, SE = 0.2 (p = 0.003. Social comparison was more effective for increasing physical activity than social support and its effects did not depend on individual or team incentives.

  4. OxMaR: open source free software for online minimization and randomization for clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Minimization is a valuable method for allocating participants between the control and experimental arms of clinical studies. The use of minimization reduces differences that might arise by chance between the study arms in the distribution of patient characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age. However, unlike randomization, minimization requires real time assessment of each new participant with respect to the preceding distribution of relevant participant characteristics within the different arms of the study. For multi-site studies, this necessitates centralized computational analysis that is shared between all study locations. Unfortunately, there is no suitable freely available open source or free software that can be used for this purpose. OxMaR was developed to enable researchers in any location to use minimization for patient allocation and to access the minimization algorithm using any device that can connect to the internet such as a desktop computer, tablet or mobile phone. The software is complete in itself and requires no special packages or libraries to be installed. It is simple to set up and run over the internet using online facilities which are very low cost or even free to the user. Importantly, it provides real time information on allocation to the study lead or administrator and generates real time distributed backups with each allocation. OxMaR can readily be modified and customised and can also be used for standard randomization. It has been extensively tested and has been used successfully in a low budget multi-centre study. Hitherto, the logistical difficulties involved in minimization have precluded its use in many small studies and this software should allow more widespread use of minimization which should lead to studies with better matched control and experimental arms. OxMaR should be particularly valuable in low resource settings.

  5. OxMaR: open source free software for online minimization and randomization for clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A O'Callaghan

    Full Text Available Minimization is a valuable method for allocating participants between the control and experimental arms of clinical studies. The use of minimization reduces differences that might arise by chance between the study arms in the distribution of patient characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age. However, unlike randomization, minimization requires real time assessment of each new participant with respect to the preceding distribution of relevant participant characteristics within the different arms of the study. For multi-site studies, this necessitates centralized computational analysis that is shared between all study locations. Unfortunately, there is no suitable freely available open source or free software that can be used for this purpose. OxMaR was developed to enable researchers in any location to use minimization for patient allocation and to access the minimization algorithm using any device that can connect to the internet such as a desktop computer, tablet or mobile phone. The software is complete in itself and requires no special packages or libraries to be installed. It is simple to set up and run over the internet using online facilities which are very low cost or even free to the user. Importantly, it provides real time information on allocation to the study lead or administrator and generates real time distributed backups with each allocation. OxMaR can readily be modified and customised and can also be used for standard randomization. It has been extensively tested and has been used successfully in a low budget multi-centre study. Hitherto, the logistical difficulties involved in minimization have precluded its use in many small studies and this software should allow more widespread use of minimization which should lead to studies with better matched control and experimental arms. OxMaR should be particularly valuable in low resource settings.

  6. A Randomized Educational Intervention Trial to Determine the Effect of Online Education on the Quality of Resident-Delivered Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Brigid M; Yialamas, Maria A; McMahon, Graham T

    2015-09-01

    There is limited research on whether online formative self-assessment and learning can change the behavior of medical professionals. We sought to determine if an adaptive longitudinal online curriculum in bone health would improve resident physicians' knowledge, and change their behavior regarding prevention of fragility fractures in women. We used a randomized control trial design in which 50 internal medicine resident physicians at a large academic practice were randomized to either receive a standard curriculum in bone health care alone, or to receive it augmented with an adaptive, longitudinal, online formative self-assessment curriculum delivered via multiple-choice questions. Outcomes were assessed 10 months after the start of the intervention. Knowledge outcomes were measured by a multiple-choice question examination. Clinical outcomes were measured by chart review, including bone density screening rate, calculation of the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) score, and rate of appropriate bisphosphonate prescription. Compared to the control group, residents participating in the intervention had higher scores on the knowledge test at the end of the study. Bone density screening rates and appropriate use of bisphosphonates were significantly higher in the intervention group compared with the control group. FRAX score reporting did not differ between the groups. Residents participating in a novel adaptive online curriculum outperformed peers in knowledge of fragility fracture prevention and care practices to prevent fracture. Online adaptive education can change behavior to improve patient care.

  7. Trial to examine text message-based mHealth in emergency department patients with diabetes (TExT-MED): a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sanjay; Peters, Anne L; Burner, Elizabeth; Lam, Chun Nok; Menchine, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Increasingly, low-income inner-city patients with diabetes utilize emergency departments (EDs) for acute and chronic care. We seek to determine whether a scalable, low-cost, unidirectional, text message-based mobile health intervention (TExT-MED) improves clinical outcomes, increases healthy behaviors, and decreases ED utilization in a safety net population. We conducted an randomized controlled trial of 128 adult patients with poorly controlled diabetes (glycosylated hemoglobin [Hb A1C] level ≥8%) in an urban, public ED. The TExT-MED group received 2 daily text messages for 6 months in English or Spanish. The primary outcome was change in Hb A1C level. Secondary outcomes included changes in medication adherence, self-efficacy, performance of self-care tasks, quality of life, diabetes-specific knowledge, ED utilization, and patient satisfaction. Hb A1C level decreased by 1.05% in the TExT-MED group compared with 0.60% in the controls (Δ0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.27 to 1.17) at 6 months. Secondary outcomes favored the TExT-MED group, with the most sizable change observed in self-reported medication adherence (as measured by the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, an 8-point validated scale with higher scores representing better adherence), which improved from 4.5 to 5.4 in the TExT-MED group compared with a net decrease of -0.1 in the controls (Δ1.1 [95% CI 0.1 to 2.1]). Effects were larger among Spanish speakers for both medication adherence (1.1 versus -0.3; Δ1.4; 95% CI 0.2 to 2.7) and Hb A1C (-1.2% versus -0.4%) in the TExT-MED group. The proportion of patients who used emergency services trended lower in the TExT-MED group (35.9% versus 51.6%; Δ15.7%; 95% CI 9.4% to 22%). Overall, 93.6% of respondents enjoyed TExT-MED and 100% would recommend it to family/friends. The TExT-MED program did not result in a statistically significant improvement in Hb A1C. However, trends toward improvement in the primary outcome of Hb A1C and other secondary

  8. The cameroon mobile phone sms (CAMPS trial: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial of mobile phone text messaging versus usual care for improving adherence to highly active anti-retroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mba Robert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This trial aims at testing the efficacy of weekly reminder and motivational text messages, compared to usual care in improving adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment in patients attending a clinic in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Methods and Design This is a single-centered randomized controlled single-blinded trial. A central computer generated randomization list will be generated using random block sizes. Allocation will be determined by sequentially numbered sealed opaque envelopes. 198 participants will either receive the mobile phone text message or usual care. Our hypothesis is that weekly motivational text messages can improve adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment and other clinical outcomes in the control group by acting as a reminder, a cue to action and opening communication channels. Data will be collected at baseline, three months and six months. A blinded program secretary will send out text messages and record delivery. Our primary outcomes are adherence measured by the visual analogue scale, self report, and pharmacy refill data. Our secondary outcomes are clinical: weight, body mass index, opportunistic infections, all cause mortality and retention; biological: Cluster Designation 4 count and viral load; and quality of life. Analysis will be by intention-to-treat. Covariates and subgroups will be taken into account. Discussion This trial investigates the potential of SMS motivational reminders to improve adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment in Cameroon. The intervention targets non-adherence due to forgetfulness and other forms of non-adherence. Trial Registration Pan-African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201011000261458 http://clinicaltrials.gov/NCT01247181

  9. Online CBT life skills programme for low mood and anxiety: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher; McClay, Carrie-Anne; Martinez, Rebeca; Morrison, Jill; Haig, Caroline; Jones, Ray; Farrand, Paul

    2016-04-27

    Low mood is a common mental health problem with significant health consequences. Studies have shown that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for low mood and anxiety when delivered one-to-one by an expert practitioner. However, access to this talking therapy is often limited and waiting lists can be long, although a range of low-intensity interventions that can increase access to services are available. These include guided self-help materials delivered via books, classes and online packages. This project aims to pilot a randomized controlled trial of an online CBT-based life skills course with community-based individuals experiencing low mood and anxiety. Individuals with elevated symptoms of depression will be recruited directly from the community via online and newspaper advertisements. Participants will be remotely randomized to receive either immediate access or delayed access to the Living Life to the Full guided online CBT-based life skills package, with telephone or email support provided whilst they use the online intervention. The primary end point will be at 3 months post-randomization, at which point the delayed-access group will be offered the intervention. Levels of depression, anxiety, social functioning and satisfaction will be assessed. This pilot study will test the trial design, and ability to recruit and deliver the intervention. Drop-out rates will be assessed and the completion and acceptability of the package will be investigated. The study will also inform a sample size power calculation for a subsequent substantive randomized controlled trial. ISRCTN ISRCTN12890709.

  10. Message transfer in a communication network

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study message transfer in a 2-d communication network of regular nodes and randomly distributed hubs. ... The substrate model on which message communication takes place is shown in figure 1a. This is a regular ..... and run time of 4Dst when various decongestion strategies are applied. In. (a) the waiting time ...

  11. Multiple node remote messaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Ohmacht, Martin (Yorktown Heights, NY); Salapura, Valentina (Chappaqua, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard (Esslingen, DE); Vranas, Pavlos (Danville, CA)

    2010-08-31

    A method for passing remote messages in a parallel computer system formed as a network of interconnected compute nodes includes that a first compute node (A) sends a single remote message to a remote second compute node (B) in order to control the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message. The method includes various steps including controlling a DMA engine at first compute node (A) to prepare the single remote message to include a first message descriptor and at least one remote message descriptor for controlling the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message, including putting the first message descriptor into an injection FIFO at the first compute node (A) and sending the single remote message and the at least one remote message descriptor to the second compute node (B).

  12. Mobile.net: Mobile Telephone Text Messages to Encourage Adherence to Medication and to Follow up With People With Psychosis: Methods and Protocol for a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Two-Armed Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välimäki, Maritta; Hätönen, Heli; Adams, Clive E

    2012-08-02

    Schizophrenia is a high-cost, chronic, serious mental illness. There is a clear need to improve treatments and expand access to care for persons with schizophrenia, but simple, tailored interventions are missing. To evaluate the impact of tailored mobile telephone text messages to encourage adherence to medication and to follow up with people with psychosis at 12 months. Mobile.Net is a pragmatic randomized trial with inpatient psychiatric wards allocated to two parallel arms. The trial will include 24 sites and 45 psychiatric hospital wards providing inpatient care in Finland. The participants will be adult patients aged 18-65 years, of either sex, with antipsychotic medication (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification 2011) on discharge from a psychiatric hospital, who have a mobile phone, are able to use the Finnish language, and are able to give written informed consent to participate in the study. The intervention group will receive semiautomatic system (short message service [SMS]) messages after they have been discharged from the psychiatric hospital. Patients will choose the form, content, timing, and frequency of the SMS messages related to their medication, keeping appointments, and other daily care. SMS messages will continue to the end of the study period (12 months) or until participants no longer want to receive the messages. Patients will be encouraged to contact researchers if they feel that they need to adjust the message in any way. At all times, both groups will receive usual care at the discretion of their team (psychiatry and nursing). The primary outcomes are service use and healthy days by 12 months based on routine data (admission to a psychiatric hospital, time to next hospitalization, time in hospital during this year, and healthy days). The secondary outcomes are service use, coercive measures, medication, adverse events, satisfaction with care, the intervention, and the trial, social functioning, and economic factors. Data will be

  13. Message framing in social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Danny Tengti; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Sui-Min; Zhang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Online social networking sites represent significant new opportunities for Internet advertisers. However, results based on the real world cannot be generalized to all virtual worlds. In this research, the moderating effects of need for cognition (NFC) and knowledge were applied to examine the impact of message framing on attitudes toward social networking sites. A total of 216 undergraduates participated in the study. Results reveal that for social networking sites, while high-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages, low-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages. In addition, low-knowledge individuals demonstrate more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages; however, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-knowledge individuals. Furthermore, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-NFC individuals with high knowledge. In contrast, low-NFC individuals with low knowledge hold more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages.

  14. Effects of Text Messaging on Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barks Amanda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available University students frequently send and receive cellular phone text messages during classroominstruction. Cognitive psychology research indicates that multi-tasking is frequently associatedwith performance cost. However, university students often have considerable experience withelectronic multi-tasking and may believe that they can devote necessary attention to a classroomlecture while sending and receiving text messages. In the current study, university students whoused text messaging were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: 1. a group that sent andreceived text messages during a lecture or, 2. a group that did not engage in text messagingduring the lecture. Participants who engaged in text messaging demonstrated significantlypoorer performance on a test covering lecture content compared with the group that did notsend and receive text messages. Participants exhibiting higher levels of text messaging skill hadsignificantly lower test scores than participants who were less proficient at text messaging. It ishypothesized that in terms of retention of lecture material, more frequent task shifting by thosewith greater text messaging proficiency contributed to poorer performance. Overall, the findingsdo not support the view, held by many university students, that this form of multitasking has littleeffect on the acquisition of lecture content. Results provide empirical support for teachers andprofessors who ban text messaging in the classroom.

  15. Using online interventions to deliver college student mental health resources: Evidence from randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Feng, Viann N; Greer, Christiaan S; Frazier, Patricia

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of Internet-based stress management programs for college students. This approach is particularly fitting for students owing to a lack of mental health resources on campus and to high levels of Internet use among students. Because a history of interpersonal trauma (IPT) is associated with more distress and poorer academic performance, IPT history was assessed as a moderator of intervention efficacy. Students (N = 365) were randomly assigned to a mindfulness plus present control intervention, a mindfulness only intervention, or a stress management information condition that served as an active comparison. Prior research has supported the efficacy of the mindfulness plus present control intervention (Nguyen-Feng et al., 2015). Outcome measures were self-report measures of stress, anxiety, depression, and perceived stress completed online at preintervention, postintervention, and 2 follow-ups (2-3 weeks and 4-5 weeks postintervention). Linear mixed modeling was used to assess change over time. Participants in all 3 groups reported significant decreases on all primary outcomes. All time-by-intervention group interaction effects were nonsignificant, suggesting that the 3 conditions were equally effective. When examining IPT history as a moderator, the mindfulness plus present control and stress management conditions were both more effective for IPT survivors than the mindfulness only intervention. Results suggested that Internet-based interventions are effective for lowering distress among college students and that specific approaches may be differentially effective for certain subgroups of students. They also suggested that providing students with stress management information without providing training in 1 specific skill may also be helpful. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The effect of a short message service maintenance treatment on body mass index and psychological well-being in overweight and obese children: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier, J.; de Niet, J.; Timman, R.; Bauer, S.; van den Akker, E.; Buijks, H.; De Klerk, C.; Kordy, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Maintaining weight loss results in childhood obesity treatment is difficult to achieve. Self-management techniques such as self-monitoring are associated with increased weight loss and maintenance. This study analyzes whether self-monitoring of lifestyle behaviours through a short message

  17. Inaugural Message

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruifu Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This 21st century will witness great advances in science and technology, many of which are certain to improve quality of life. Though numerous advances provide benefits, we still face the challenge of infectious diseases, which emerge or remerge, naturally or otherwise. The outbreak of the Ebola virus disease in West Africa at the end of 2013 is a case in point. It has continued for over a year and spread from the known origin of Guinea to neighboring countries, and reached the United States, Europe, and Asia through international travel. This outbreak accelerated translational research on vaccines and practical therapeutics. Thus, basic research paved the way for translational medicine. The driver for translational medicine is human health needs. In the era of the Internet, it is inevitable that people take full advantage of all this powerful tool can offer. The most obvious feature of the Internet age is the free sharing of knowledge and other information. In this regard, there is a need for a platform to share knowledge about infectious diseases and translational medicine. This journal, Infectious Diseases and Translational Medicine (IDTM, was designed to meet this requirement. We editors hope that this new journal will help our colleagues in exchanging ideas and bridging the gaps between basic research and translational medicine. We also hope that our readers will help in sharing their efforts with their colleagues by means of this platform. IDTM is a peer-reviewed, double-blinded, open-access, high-quality platform for online publication in both PDF and HTML formats. The journal is devoted to basic, applied, and translational research of infectious diseases. It includes diagnostics, therapeutics, and preventive countermeasures as well as related basic research, focusing on genomics, proteomics, and other omics-driven research to examine such areas as evolution, pathogenesis, and epidemiology. Here, we are formally announcing the launch of

  18. A randomized controlled trial evaluating a low-intensity interactive online parenting intervention, Triple P Online Brief, with parents of children with early onset conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sabine; Sanders, Matthew R; Turner, Karen M T; Morawska, Alina

    2017-04-01

    This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of Triple P Online Brief, a low-intensity online positive parenting program for parents of children with early onset disruptive behavior problems. Two hundred parents with 2-9-year-old children displaying early onset disruptive behavior difficulties were randomly assigned to either the intervention condition (n = 100) or a Waitlist Control group (n = 100). At 8-week post-assessment, parents in the intervention group displayed significantly less use of ineffective parenting strategies and significantly more confidence in dealing with a range of behavior concerns. These effects were maintained at 9-month follow-up assessment. A delayed effect was found for child behavior problems, with parents in the intervention group reporting significantly fewer and less frequent child behavior problems at follow-up, but not at post-assessment. All effect sizes were in the small to medium range. There were no significant improvements in observed negative parent and child behavior. No change was seen for parents' adjustment, anger, or conflict over parenting. Consumer satisfaction ratings for the program were high. A brief, low-intensity parenting program delivered via the Internet can bring about significant improvements in parenting and child behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Randomized Crossover Design to Assess Learning Impact and Student Preference for Active and Passive Online Learning Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunuske, Amy J; Henn, Lisa; Brearley, Ann M; Prunuske, Jacob

    Medical education increasingly involves online learning experiences to facilitate the standardization of curriculum across time and space. In class, delivering material by lecture is less effective at promoting student learning than engaging students in active learning experience and it is unclear whether this difference also exists online. We sought to evaluate medical student preferences for online lecture or online active learning formats and the impact of format on short- and long-term learning gains. Students participated online in either lecture or constructivist learning activities in a first year neurologic sciences course at a US medical school. In 2012, students selected which format to complete and in 2013, students were randomly assigned in a crossover fashion to the modules. In the first iteration, students strongly preferred the lecture modules and valued being told "what they need to know" rather than figuring it out independently. In the crossover iteration, learning gains and knowledge retention were found to be equivalent regardless of format, and students uniformly demonstrated a strong preference for the lecture format, which also on average took less time to complete. When given a choice for online modules, students prefer passive lecture rather than completing constructivist activities, and in the time-limited environment of medical school, this choice results in similar performance on multiple-choice examinations with less time invested. Instructors need to look more carefully at whether assessments and learning strategies are helping students to obtain self-directed learning skills and to consider strategies to help students learn to value active learning in an online environment.

  20. Effects of a financial incentive on health researchers' response to an online survey: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Paul M; Petticrew, Mark; Calnan, Mike; Nazareth, Irwin

    2010-05-10

    Nonresponse to questionnaires can affect the validity of surveys and introduce bias. Offering financial incentives can increase response rates to postal questionnaires, but the effect of financial incentives on response rates to online surveys is less clear. As part of a survey, we aimed to test whether knowledge of a financial incentive would increase the response rate to an online questionnaire. A randomized controlled trial of 485 UK-based principal investigators of publicly funded health services and population health research. Participants were contacted by email and invited to complete an online questionnaire via an embedded URL. Participants were randomly allocated to groups with either "knowledge of" or "no knowledge of" a financial incentive ( pound10 Amazon gift voucher) to be provided on completion of the survey. At the end of the study, gift vouchers were given to all participants who completed the questionnaire regardless of initial randomization status. Four reminder emails (sent from the same email address as the initial invitation) were sent out to nonrespondents at one, two, three, and four weeks; a fifth postal reminder was also undertaken. The primary outcome measure for the trial was the response rate one week after the second reminder. Response rate was also measured at the end of weeks one, two, three, four, and five, and after a postal reminder was sent. In total, 243 (50%) questionnaires were returned (232 completed, 11 in which participation was declined). One week after the second reminder, the response rate in the "knowledge" group was 27% (66/244) versus 20% (49/241) in the "no knowledge" group (chi(2) (1) = 3.0, P = .08). The odds ratio for responding among those with knowledge of an incentive was 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95 - 2.21). At the third reminder, participants in the "no knowledge" group were informed about the incentive, ending the randomized element of the study. However we continued to follow up all participants

  1. An online guided ACT intervention for enhancing the psychological wellbeing of university students: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Panajiota; Lappalainen, Päivi; Muotka, Joona; Tolvanen, Asko; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2016-03-01

    Stress, anxiety and depression are relatively common problems among university students. This study examined whether an online psychological intervention aiming at enhancing the wellbeing of university students could be an effective and practical alternative for meeting the needs of a university population. University students (N = 68; 85% female; 19-32 years old) were randomly assigned to either a guided seven-week online Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (iACT) intervention or a waiting list control condition (WLC). A between-groups pre-post (iACT vs WLC) design with 12-month follow-up for the iACT participants was conducted. The intervention participants were offered two face-to-face meetings, completed online exercises during a five-week period, and received personal weekly written feedback via the website from their randomly assigned, trained student coaches. Waitlist participants were offered the intervention program soon after the post measurements. Results in this small efficacy trial showed that the iACT participants had significantly higher gains in wellbeing (between group, d = 0.46), life satisfaction (d = 0.65), and mindfulness skills (d = 0.49). In addition, iACT participants' self-reported stress (d = 0.54) and symptoms of depression (d = 0.69) were significantly reduced compared to the participants in the control group. These benefits were maintained over a 12-month follow-up period (within iACT group, d = 0.65-0.69, for primary measures). The results suggest that an online-based, coach-guided ACT program with blended face-to-face and online sessions could be an effective and well-accepted alternative for enhancing the wellbeing of university students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Online training on skin cancer diagnosis in rheumatologists: results from a nationwide randomized web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viguier, Manuelle; Rist, Stéphanie; Aubin, François; Leccia, Marie-Thérèse; Richard, Marie-Aleth; Esposito-Farèse, Marina; Gaudin, Philippe; Pham, Thao; Richette, Pascal; Wendling, Daniel; Sibilia, Jean; Tubach, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory rheumatisms, such as rheumatoid arthritis, are more prone to develop skin cancers than the general population, with an additional increased incidence when receiving TNF blockers. There is therefore a need that physicians treating patients affected with inflammatory rheumatisms with TNF blockers recognize malignant skin lesions, requiring an urgent referral to the dermatologist and a potential withdrawal or modification of the immunomodulatory treatment. We aimed to demonstrate that an online training dedicated to skin tumors increase the abilities of rheumatologists to discriminate skin cancers from benign skin tumors. A nationwide randomized web-based survey involving 141 French rheumatologists was conducted. The baseline evaluation included short cases with skin lesion pictures and multiple choice questions assessing basic knowledge on skin cancers. For each case, rheumatologists had to indicate the nature of skin lesion (benign; premalignant/malignant), their level of confidence in this diagnosis (10-points Likert scale), and the precise dermatological diagnosis among 5 propositions. Different scores were established. After randomization, only one group had access to the online formation consisting in 4 e-learning modules on skin tumors, of 15 minutes each (online training group). After reevaluation, the trained and the non-trained group (control group) were compared. The primary end-point was the number of adequate diagnoses of the nature of the skin lesions. The mean number of adequate diagnosis for the benign versus premalignant/malignant nature of the lesions was higher in the online training group (13.4 vs. 11.2 points; p value online formation was effective to improve the rheumatologists' ability to diagnose skin cancer.

  3. Content analysis of antismoking videos on YouTube: message sensation value, message appeals, and their relationships with viewer responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Kim, Kyongseok; Hove, Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Focusing on several message features that are prominent in antismoking campaign literature, this content-analytic study examines 934 antismoking video clips on YouTube for the following characteristics: message sensation value (MSV) and three types of message appeal (threat, social and humor). These four characteristics are then linked to YouTube's interactive audience response mechanisms (number of viewers, viewer ratings and number of comments) to capture message reach, viewer preference and viewer engagement. The findings suggest the following: (i) antismoking messages are prevalent on YouTube, (ii) MSV levels of online antismoking videos are relatively low compared with MSV levels of televised antismoking messages, (iii) threat appeals are the videos' predominant message strategy and (iv) message characteristics are related to viewer reach and viewer preference.

  4. Use of online recruitment strategies in a randomized trial of cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraschek, Stephen P; Plante, Timothy B; Charleston, Jeanne; Miller, Edgar R; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Appel, Lawrence J; Jerome, Gerald J; Gayles, Debra; Durkin, Nowella; White, Karen; Dalcin, Arlene; Hermosilla, Manuel

    2017-12-01

    Despite widespread Internet adoption, online advertising remains an underutilized tool to recruit participants into clinical trials. Whether online advertising is a cost-effective method to enroll participants compared to other traditional forms of recruitment is not known. Recruitment for the Survivorship Promotion In Reducing IGF-1 Trial, a community-based study of cancer survivors, was conducted from June 2015 through December 2016 via in-person community fairs, advertisements in periodicals, and direct postal mailings. In addition, "Right Column" banner ads were purchased from Facebook to direct participants to the Survivorship Promotion In Reducing IGF-1 Trial website. Response rates, costs of traditional and online advertisements, and demographic data were determined and compared across different online and traditional recruitment strategies. Micro-trials optimizing features of online advertisements were also explored. Of the 406 respondents to our overall outreach efforts, 6% (24 of 406) were referred from online advertising. Facebook advertisements were shown over 3 million times (impressions) to 124,476 people, which resulted in 4401 clicks on our advertisement. Of these, 24 people ultimately contacted study staff, 6 underwent prescreening, and 4 enrolled in the study. The cost of online advertising per enrollee was $794 when targeting a general population versus $1426 when accounting for strategies that specifically targeted African Americans or men. By contrast, community fairs, direct mail, or periodicals cost $917, $799, or $436 per enrollee, respectively. Utilization of micro-trials to assess online ads identified subtleties (e.g. use of an advertisement title) that substantially impacted viewer interest in our trial. Online advertisements effectively directed a relevant population to our website, which resulted in new enrollees in the Survivorship Promotion In Reducing IGF-1 Trial at a cost comparable to traditional methods. Costs were

  5. EMI Messaging Guidelines

    CERN Document Server

    Cons, L.

    2011-01-01

    Guidelines for potential users of messaging within EMI. The goal is to provide enough practical information so that EMI product teams can start investigating whether using messaging in their products can be beneficial or not.

  6. Content analysis of UK newspaper and online news representations of women's and men's 'binge' drinking: a challenge for communicating evidence-based messages about single-episodic drinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, C; Emslie, C; Mason, O; Fergie, G; Hilton, S

    2016-12-27

    In the UK, men's alcohol-related morbidity and mortality still greatly exceeds women's, despite an increase in women's alcohol consumption in recent decades. New UK alcohol guidelines introduce gender-neutral low-risk alcohol consumption guidance. This study explores how UK newspaper and online news represent women's and men's 'binge' drinking to identify opportunities to better align reporting of harmful drinking with evidence. Quantitative and qualitative content analysis of 308 articles published in 7 UK national newspapers and the BBC News website between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013. Articles associated women with 'binge' drinking more frequently than men, and presented women's drinking as more problematic. Men were more frequently characterised as violent or disorderly, while women were characterised as out of control, putting themselves in danger, harming their physical appearance and burdening men. Descriptions of female 'binge' drinkers' clothing and appearance were typically moralistic. The UK news media's disproportionate focus on women's 'binge' drinking is at odds with epidemiological evidence, may reproduce harmful gender stereotypes and may obstruct public understandings of the gender-neutral weekly consumption limits in newly proposed alcohol guidelines. In order to better align reporting of harmful drinking with current evidence, public health advocates may engage with the media with a view to shifting media framing of 'binge' drinking away from specific groups (young people; women) and contexts (public drinking) and towards the health risks of specific drinking behaviours, which affect all groups regardless of context. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Uptake After a Tailored, Online Educational Intervention for Female University Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Alaina T; Patel, Divya A; Carlos, Ruth C; Zochowski, Melissa K; Pennewell, Sarah M; Chi, Alice M; Dalton, Vanessa K

    2015-11-01

    Educational interventions may be a strategy to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among female university students, but studies to date have shown mixed results. This study evaluated the effect of MeFirst, an individually tailored, online educational intervention, on HPV vaccine-related knowledge, vaccination intention, and uptake among previously unvaccinated female university students. All female students aged 18-26 years who reported being unvaccinated against HPV at a midwestern university were invited via email to enroll. Participants completed an online survey that assessed baseline HPV vaccine-related knowledge, attitudes and vaccination intention. Participants (n = 661) were then randomized to receive either an educational website automatically tailored to their baseline survey responses (MeFirst intervention) or a standard CDC information factsheet on HPV vaccine (control). Vaccine uptake and repeat knowledge and attitude measures were assessed with online surveys 3 months following the intervention and analyzed using logistic regression models. HPV vaccine uptake was similar in both the MeFirst and control groups at 3 months following the intervention (p = 0.98). Three months after the intervention, the proportion of participants with high knowledge regarding HPV vaccination increased from baseline (32% to 50%; p online educational tool had similar effects as a nontailored factsheet on HPV-related knowledge, intention to HPV undergo vaccination, and HPV vaccine uptake among previously unvaccinated female university students.

  8. Sensitive Questions in Online Surveys: An Experimental Evaluation of Different Implementations of the Randomized Response Technique and the Crosswise Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Höglinger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-administered online surveys may provide a higher level of privacy protection to respondents than surveys administered by an interviewer. Yet, studies indicate that asking sensitive questions is problematic also in self-administered surveys. Because respondents might not be willing to reveal the truth and provide answers that are subject to social desirability bias, the validity of prevalence estimates of sensitive behaviors from online surveys can be challenged. A well-known method to overcome these problems is the Randomized Response Technique (RRT. However, convincing evidence that the RRT provides more valid estimates than direct questioning in online surveys is still lacking. We therefore conducted an experimental study in which different implementations of the RRT, including two implementations of the so-called crosswise model, were tested and compared to direct questioning. Our study is an online survey (N = 6,037 on sensitive behaviors by students such as cheating in exams and plagiarism. Results vary considerably between different implementations, indicating that practical details have a strong effect on the performance of the RRT. Among all tested implementations, including direct questioning, the unrelated-question crosswise-model RRT yielded the highest estimates of student misconduct.

  9. Conditional Random Field (CRF-Boosting: Constructing a Robust Online Hybrid Boosting Multiple Object Tracker Facilitated by CRF Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehwa Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the reasonably acceptable performance of state-of-the-art object detectors, tracking-by-detection is a standard strategy for visual multi-object tracking (MOT. In particular, online MOT is more demanding due to its diverse applications in time-critical situations. A main issue of realizing online MOT is how to associate noisy object detection results on a new frame with previously being tracked objects. In this work, we propose a multi-object tracker method called CRF-boosting which utilizes a hybrid data association method based on online hybrid boosting facilitated by a conditional random field (CRF for establishing online MOT. For data association, learned CRF is used to generate reliable low-level tracklets and then these are used as the input of the hybrid boosting. To do so, while existing data association methods based on boosting algorithms have the necessity of training data having ground truth information to improve robustness, CRF-boosting ensures sufficient robustness without such information due to the synergetic cascaded learning procedure. Further, a hierarchical feature association framework is adopted to further improve MOT accuracy. From experimental results on public datasets, we could conclude that the benefit of proposed hybrid approach compared to the other competitive MOT systems is noticeable.

  10. The Effect of Feedback by SMS-text messages and email on Household Electricity Consumption: Experimental Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of supplying online feedback by SMS-text messages and email about electricity consumption on the level of total household electricity consumption. An experiment was conducted in which 1,452 households were randomly allocated to three experimental groups and two...... the invitation. Results suggest that the type of feedback provided in this experiment can reduce consumption by up to 3%. The feedback technology is cheap to implement and therefore likely to be cost-effective....

  11. Remote-online case-based learning: A comparison of remote-online and face-to-face, case-based learning - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklen, Peter; Keating, Jenny L; Paynter, Sophie; Storr, Michael; Maloney, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Case-based learning (CBL) is an educational approach where students work in small, collaborative groups to solve problems. Computer assisted learning (CAL) is the implementation of computer technology in education. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a remote-online CBL (RO-CBL) with traditional face-to-face CBL on learning the outcomes of undergraduate physiotherapy students. Participants were randomized to either the control (face-to-face CBL) or to the CAL intervention (RO-CBL). The entire 3rd year physiotherapy cohort (n = 41) at Monash University, Victoria, Australia, were invited to participate in the randomized controlled trial. Outcomes included a postintervention multiple-choice test evaluating the knowledge gained from the CBL, a self-assessment of learning based on examinable learning objectives and student satisfaction with the CBL. In addition, a focus group was conducted investigating perceptions and responses to the online format. Thirty-eight students (control n = 19, intervention n = 19) participated in two CBL sessions and completed the outcome assessments. CBL median scores for the postintervention multiple-choice test were comparable (Wilcoxon rank sum P = 0.61) (median/10 [range] intervention group: 9 [8-10] control group: 10 [7-10]). Of the 15 examinable learning objectives, eight were significantly in favor of the control group, suggesting a greater perceived depth of learning. Eighty-four percent of students (16/19) disagreed with the statement "I enjoyed the method of CBL delivery." Key themes identified from the focus group included risks associated with the implementation of, challenges of communicating in, and flexibility offered, by web-based programs. RO-CBL appears to provide students with a comparable learning experience to traditional CBL. Procedural and infrastructure factors need to be addressed in future studies to counter student dissatisfaction and decreased perceived depth of learning.

  12. A Team-Based Online Game Improves Blood Glucose Control in Veterans With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, B Price; Gagnon, David R; McMahon, Graham T; Orlander, Jay D; Kurgansky, Katherine E; Conlin, Paul R

    2017-09-01

    Rigorous evidence is lacking whether online games can improve patients' longer-term health outcomes. We investigated whether an online team-based game delivering diabetes self-management education (DSME) to patients via e-mail or mobile application (app) can generate longer-term improvements in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Patients (n = 456) on oral diabetes medications with HbA1c ≥58 mmol/mol were randomly assigned between a DSME game (with a civics booklet) and a civics game (with a DSME booklet). The 6-month games sent two questions twice weekly via e-mail or mobile app. Participants accrued points based on performance, with scores posted on leaderboards. Winning teams and individuals received modest financial rewards. Our primary outcome measure was HbA1c change over 12 months. DSME game patients had significantly greater HbA1c reductions over 12 months than civics game patients (-8 mmol/mol [95% CI -10 to -7] and -5 mmol/mol [95% CI -7 to -3], respectively; P = 0.048). HbA1c reductions were greater among patients with baseline HbA1c >75 mmol/mol: -16 mmol/mol [95% CI -21 to -12] and -9 mmol/mol [95% CI -14 to -5] for DSME and civics game patients, respectively; P = 0.031. Patients with diabetes who were randomized to an online game delivering DSME demonstrated sustained and meaningful HbA1c improvements. Among patients with poorly controlled diabetes, the DSME game reduced HbA1c by a magnitude comparable to starting a new diabetes medication. Online games may be a scalable approach to improve outcomes among geographically dispersed patients with diabetes and other chronic diseases. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  13. An online spaced-education game among clinicians improves their patients' time to blood pressure control: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, B Price; Turchin, Alexander; Breydo, Eugene; Gagnon, David; Conlin, Paul R

    2014-05-01

    Many patients with high blood pressure (BP) do not have antihypertensive medications appropriately intensified at clinician visits. We investigated whether an online spaced-education (SE) game among primary care clinicians can decrease time to BP target among their hypertensive patients. A 2-arm randomized trial was conducted over 52 weeks among primary care clinicians at 8 hospitals. Educational content consisted of 32 validated multiple-choice questions with explanations on hypertension management. Providers were randomized into 2 groups: SE clinicians were enrolled in the game, whereas control clinicians received identical educational content in an online posting. SE game clinicians were e-mailed 1 question every 3 days. Adaptive game mechanics resent questions in 12 or 24 days if answered incorrectly or correctly, respectively. Clinicians retired questions by answering each correctly twice consecutively. Posting of relative performance among peers fostered competition. Primary outcome measure was time to BP target (game was completed by 87% of clinicians (48/55), whereas 84% of control clinicians (47/56) read the online posting. In multivariable analysis of 17 866 hypertensive periods among 14 336 patients, the hazard ratio for time to BP target in the SE game cohort was 1.043 (95% confidence interval, 1.007-1.081; P=0.018). The number of hypertensive episodes needed to treat to normalize one additional patient's BP was 67.8. The number of clinicians needed to teach to achieve this was 0.43. An online SE game among clinicians generated a modest but significant reduction in the time to BP target among their hypertensive patients. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00904007. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Efficacy of a hybrid online training for panic symptoms and agoraphobia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenfeld, Lara; Kleine Stegemann, Stefan; Lehr, Dirk; Ebert, David Daniel; Jazaieri, Hooria; van Ballegooijen, Wouter; Funk, Burkhardt; Riper, Heleen; Berking, Matthias

    2014-11-04

    Recently, internet-based interventions have been proposed as effective treatments for people with panic disorder (PD). However, little is known about the clinical effects of integrating mobile technology into these interventions. Because users carry their smartphones with them throughout the day, we hypothesize that this technology can be used to significantly support individuals with monitoring and overcoming their PD symptoms. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a newly developed hybrid intervention that combines internet/PC with smartphone delivery to treat the symptoms of PD. The intervention is based on cognitive behavioral therapy and consists of six modules over a total of six weeks. A two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted to evaluate the effects of a hybrid online training module for PD. Based on a power calculation (d =0.60; 1-β of 80%; α =0.05), 90 participants with mild to moderate panic symptoms with or without agoraphobia (as assessed by the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale) will be recruited from the general population and randomly assigned to either the intervention group or a six-month waitlist control group. The primary outcome measure will be the severity of panic symptoms. Secondary outcomes will include depression, quality of life, and an observer-based rating of panic severity. Furthermore, data regarding acceptance and the usability of the smartphone app will be assessed. Assessments will take place at baseline as well as eight weeks, three months, and six months after randomization. Moreover, a cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed from a societal perspective. Data will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis and per protocol. To our knowledge, this RCT is one of the first to examine the efficacy of a hybrid online training for adult PD. This study seeks to contribute to the emerging field of hybrid online training. If the intervention is efficacious, then research

  15. Why we need more than just randomized controlled trials to establish the effectiveness of online social networks for health behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Maher, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    Despite their popularity and potential to promote health in large populations, the effectiveness of online social networks (e.g., Facebook) to improve health behaviors has been somewhat disappointing. Most of the research examining the effectiveness of such interventions has used randomized controlled trials (RCTs). It is asserted that the modest outcomes may be due to characteristics specific to both online social networks and RCTs. The highly controlled nature of RCTs stifles the dynamic nature of online social networks. Alternative and ecologically valid research designs that evaluate online social networks in real-life conditions are needed to advance the science in this area.

  16. Evaluation of an Online Campaign for Promoting Help-Seeking Attitudes for Depression Using a Facebook Advertisement: An Online Randomized Controlled Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Alison; Wong, Paul Wai-Ching; Fu, King-Wa

    2015-01-01

    A depression-awareness campaign delivered through the Internet has been recommended as a public health approach that would enhance mental health literacy and encourage help-seeking attitudes. However, the outcomes of such a campaign remain understudied. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an online depression awareness campaign, which was informed by the theory of planned behavior, to encourage help-seeking attitudes for depression and to enhance mental health literacy in Hong Kong. The second aim was to examine click-through behaviors by varying the affective facial expressions of people in the Facebook advertisements. Potential participants were recruited through Facebook advertisements, using either a happy or sad face illustration. Volunteer participants registered for the study by clicking on the advertisement and were invited to leave their personal email addresses to receive educational content about depression. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups (campaign or control), and over a four consecutive week period, received either the campaign material or official information developed by the Hospital Authority in Hong Kong. Pretests and posttests were conducted before and after the campaign to measure the differences in help-seeking attitudes and mental health literacy among the campaign and control groups. Of the 199 participants that registered and completed the pretest, 116 (55 campaign and 62 control) completed the campaign and the posttest. At the posttest, we found no significant changes in help-seeking attitudes between the campaign and control groups, but the campaign group participants demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in mental health literacy (P=.031) and a higher willingness to access additional information (PFacebook advertisement attracted more click-throughs by users into the website than did the sad face advertisement (P=.03). The present study provides evidence that an online

  17. Evaluation of an Online Campaign for Promoting Help-Seeking Attitudes for Depression Using a Facebook Advertisement: An Online Randomized Controlled Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background A depression-awareness campaign delivered through the Internet has been recommended as a public health approach that would enhance mental health literacy and encourage help-seeking attitudes. However, the outcomes of such a campaign remain understudied. Objective The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an online depression awareness campaign, which was informed by the theory of planned behavior, to encourage help-seeking attitudes for depression and to enhance mental health literacy in Hong Kong. The second aim was to examine click-through behaviors by varying the affective facial expressions of people in the Facebook advertisements. Methods Potential participants were recruited through Facebook advertisements, using either a happy or sad face illustration. Volunteer participants registered for the study by clicking on the advertisement and were invited to leave their personal email addresses to receive educational content about depression. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups (campaign or control), and over a four consecutive week period, received either the campaign material or official information developed by the Hospital Authority in Hong Kong. Pretests and posttests were conducted before and after the campaign to measure the differences in help-seeking attitudes and mental health literacy among the campaign and control groups. Results Of the 199 participants that registered and completed the pretest, 116 (55 campaign and 62 control) completed the campaign and the posttest. At the posttest, we found no significant changes in help-seeking attitudes between the campaign and control groups, but the campaign group participants demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in mental health literacy (P=.031) and a higher willingness to access additional information (Padvertisement attracted more click-throughs by users into the website than did the sad face advertisement (P=.03). Conclusions The present

  18. Insights Into the Impact of Online Physician Reviews on Patients’ Decision Making: Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiguny, Martin KJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Physician-rating websites combine public reporting with social networking and offer an attractive means by which users can provide feedback on their physician and obtain information about other patients’ satisfaction and experiences. However, research on how users evaluate information on these portals is still scarce and only little knowledge is available about the potential influence of physician reviews on a patient’s choice. Objective Starting from the perspective of prospective patients, this paper sets out to explore how certain characteristics of physician reviews affect the evaluation of the review and users’ attitudes toward the rated physician. We propose a model that relates review style and review number to constructs of review acceptance and check it with a Web-based experiment. Methods We employed a randomized 2x2 between-subject, factorial experiment manipulating the style of a physician review (factual vs emotional) and the number of reviews for a certain physician (low vs high) to test our hypotheses. A total of 168 participants were presented with a Web-based questionnaire containing a short description of a dentist search scenario and the manipulated reviews for a fictitious dental physician. To investigate the proposed hypotheses, we carried out moderated regression analyses and a moderated mediation analysis using the PROCESS macro 2.11 for SPSS version 22. Results Our analyses indicated that a higher number of reviews resulted in a more positive attitude toward the rated physician. The results of the regression model for attitude toward the physician suggest a positive main effect of the number of reviews (mean [low] 3.73, standard error [SE] 0.13, mean [high] 4.15, SE 0.13). We also observed an interaction effect with the style of the review—if the physician received only a few reviews, fact-oriented reviews (mean 4.09, SE 0.19) induced a more favorable attitude toward the physician compared to emotional reviews (mean 3

  19. Insights into the impact of online physician reviews on patients' decision making: randomized experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabner-Kräuter, Sonja; Waiguny, Martin K J

    2015-04-09

    Physician-rating websites combine public reporting with social networking and offer an attractive means by which users can provide feedback on their physician and obtain information about other patients' satisfaction and experiences. However, research on how users evaluate information on these portals is still scarce and only little knowledge is available about the potential influence of physician reviews on a patient's choice. Starting from the perspective of prospective patients, this paper sets out to explore how certain characteristics of physician reviews affect the evaluation of the review and users' attitudes toward the rated physician. We propose a model that relates review style and review number to constructs of review acceptance and check it with a Web-based experiment. We employed a randomized 2x2 between-subject, factorial experiment manipulating the style of a physician review (factual vs emotional) and the number of reviews for a certain physician (low vs high) to test our hypotheses. A total of 168 participants were presented with a Web-based questionnaire containing a short description of a dentist search scenario and the manipulated reviews for a fictitious dental physician. To investigate the proposed hypotheses, we carried out moderated regression analyses and a moderated mediation analysis using the PROCESS macro 2.11 for SPSS version 22. Our analyses indicated that a higher number of reviews resulted in a more positive attitude toward the rated physician. The results of the regression model for attitude toward the physician suggest a positive main effect of the number of reviews (mean [low] 3.73, standard error [SE] 0.13, mean [high] 4.15, SE 0.13). We also observed an interaction effect with the style of the review—if the physician received only a few reviews, fact-oriented reviews (mean 4.09, SE 0.19) induced a more favorable attitude toward the physician compared to emotional reviews (mean 3.44, SE 0.19), but there was no such effect when

  20. Results from an online computer-tailored weight management intervention for overweight adults: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genugten, Lenneke; van Empelen, Pepijn; Boon, Brigitte; Borsboom, Gerard; Visscher, Tommy; Oenema, Anke

    2012-03-14

    Prevention of weight gain has been suggested as an important strategy in the prevention of obesity and people who are overweight are a specifically important group to target. Currently there is a lack of weight gain prevention interventions that can reach large numbers of people. Therefore, we developed an Internet-delivered, computer-tailored weight management intervention for overweight adults. The focus of the intervention was on making small (100 kcal per day), but sustained changes in dietary intake (DI) or physical activity (PA) behaviors in order to maintain current weight or achieve modest weight loss. Self-regulation theory was used as the basis of the intervention. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the computer-tailored intervention in weight-related anthropometric measures (Body Mass Index, skin folds and waist circumference) and energy balance-related behaviors (physical activity; intake of fat, snacks and sweetened drinks) in a randomized controlled trial. The tailored intervention (TI) was compared to a generic information website (GI). Participants were 539 overweight adults (mean age 47.8 years, mean Body Mass Index (BMI) 28.04, 30.9% male, 10.7% low educated) who where recruited among the general population and among employees from large companies by means of advertisements and flyers. Anthropometric measurements were measured by trained research assistants at baseline and 6-months post-intervention. DI and PA behaviors were assessed at baseline, 1-month and 6-month post-intervention, using self-reported questionnaires. Repeated measurement analyses showed that BMI remained stable over time and that there were no statistically significant differences between the study groups (BMI: TI=28.09, GI=27.61, P=.09). Similar results were found for waist circumference and skin fold thickness. Amount of physical activity increased and intake of fat, snacks and sweetened drinks decreased during the course of the study, but there were no differences

  1. Global Imagery in Online Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Geraldine E.; Janson, Marius

    2007-01-01

    A well-designed online advertisement is essential for effective communication with potential customers and contributes to successful e-commerce. However, creating online sales messages that appeal to a broad range of cultures can pose unique challenges. Internet ads must offer both a globally appealing and a culture-specific message that in turn…

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Online Relapse Prevention Program for Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Kimberlee J.; Black, Ryan A.; Kamon, Jody L.; Sussman, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Background: An Internet-based relapse prevention supplement to adolescent substance abuse treatment programming is a promising modality to reinforce treatment gains and enhance recovery; however, an evidence base is lacking. Objective: To assess the efficacy of the online Navigating my Journey (NmJ) program. Methods: 129 adolescent-aged…

  3. Using Conditional Random Fields to Extract Contexts and Answers of Questions from Online Forums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Shilin; Cong, Gao; Lin, Chin-Yew

    2008-01-01

    Online forum discussions often contain vast amounts of questions that are the focuses of discussions. Extracting contexts and answers together with the questions will yield not only a coherent forum summary but also a valuable QA knowledge base. In this paper, we propose a general framework based...

  4. Online cognitive-behavioural treatment of bulimic symptoms : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruwaard, Jeroen; Lange, Alfred; Broeksteeg, Janneke; Renteria-Agirre, Aitziber; Schrieken, Bart; Dolan, Conor V; Emmelkamp, Paul

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Manualized cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) is underutilized in the treatment of bulimic symptoms. Internet-delivered treatment may reduce current barriers. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a new online CBT of bulimic symptoms. METHOD: Participants with bulimic

  5. Online cognitive-behavioral treatment of bulimic symptoms: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruwaard, J.; Lange, A.; Broeksteeg, J.; Renteria Agirre, A.; Schrieken, B.; Dolan, C.V.; Emmelkamp, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Manualized cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) is underutilized in the treatment of bulimic symptoms. Internet-delivered treatment may reduce current barriers. Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a new online CBT of bulimic symptoms. Method: Participants with bulimic

  6. Testing the effects of message framing, kernel state, and exercise guideline adherence on exercise intentions and resolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Out, Kim; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-11-01

    To study the effects of framed messages on exercise intention and resolve. Two (type of frame: gain or loss) × 2 (type of kernel state: desirable or undesirable outcome) post-test study. Participants were recruited online and questioned about their previous exercise behaviour and their exercise risk perception. After this, they were randomly allocated to one of four messages that were different in terms of positive or negative outcomes (type of frame) and in terms of attained or avoided outcomes (type of kernel state). After reading the message, participants indicated their intention and resolve to engage in sufficient exercise. No effects were found for intention. For resolve, there was a significant interaction between type of frame, type of kernel state, and exercise adherence. Those who did not adhere to the exercise guideline and read the loss-framed message with attained outcomes reported significantly higher resolve than all other participants. This study indicates the relevance of including attained outcomes in message framing exercise interventions as well as a focus on exercise resolve. What is already known on this subject? Message framing is commonly used to increase exercise intentions and behaviour. Meta-analyses do not provide consistent support for this theory. Very little attention has been paid to resolve and message factors on framing effects. What does this study add? Framed messages have an effect on exercise resolve, but not on intention. Loss-framed messages with attained outcomes are most persuasive for those who do not adhere to exercise guidelines. Exercise framing studies should include behavioural resolve next to intention. . © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  7. The Message Reporting System of the ATLAS DAQ System

    CERN Document Server

    Caprini, M; Kolos, S; 10th ICATPP Conference on Astroparticle, Particle, Space Physics, Detectors and Medical Physics Applications

    2008-01-01

    The Message Reporting System (MRS) in the ATLAS data acquisition system (DAQ) is one package of the Online Software which acts as a glue of various elements of DAQ, High Level Trigger (HLT) and Detector Control System (DCS). The aim of the MRS is to provide a facility which allows all software components in ATLAS to report messages to other components of the distributed DAQ system. The processes requiring a MRS are on one hand applications that report error conditions or information and on the other hand message processors that receive reported messages. A message reporting application can inject one or more messages into the MRS at any time. An application wishing to receive messages can subscribe to a message group according to defined criteria. The application receives messages that fulfill the subscription criteria when they are reported to MRS. The receiver message processing can consist of anything from simply logging the messages in a file/terminal to performing message analysis. The inter-process comm...

  8. Project connect online: randomized trial of an internet-based program to chronicle the cancer experience and facilitate communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Annette L; Thompson, Elizabeth H; Crespi, Catherine M; Link, John S; Waisman, James R

    2013-09-20

    Evidence suggests that expressing emotions related to cancer and receiving interpersonal support can promote psychological and physical health in women diagnosed with breast cancer. However, adaptive expression of feelings and communication with one's social network can pose challenges for patients with cancer. We report on a randomized controlled trial of an intervention, Project Connect Online, for patients with breast cancer to create personal Web sites to chronicle their experience and communicate with their social network. Women (N = 88) diagnosed with breast cancer (any stage, any interval since diagnosis) were randomly assigned to participate in a 3-hour workshop for hands-on creation of personal Web sites with a follow-up call to facilitate Web site use, or to a waiting-list control. Assessed before randomization and 6 months after the intervention, dependent variables included depressive symptoms, positive and negative mood, cancer-related intrusive thoughts, and perceived cancer-related benefits in life appreciation and strengthened relationships. Relative to control participants, women randomly assigned to Project Connect Online evidenced significant benefit 6 months later on depressive symptoms, positive mood, and life appreciation, but not negative mood, perceived strengthened relationships, or intrusive thoughts. Treatment status moderated the intervention effects, such that women currently undergoing medical treatment for cancer benefitted significantly more from the intervention on depressive symptoms and positive mood than did women not receiving treatment. Findings suggest the promise of an intervention to facilitate the ability of women diagnosed with breast cancer to chronicle their experience and communicate with their social network via the Internet.

  9. Project Connect Online: Randomized Trial of an Internet-Based Program to Chronicle the Cancer Experience and Facilitate Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Annette L.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.; Crespi, Catherine M.; Link, John S.; Waisman, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Evidence suggests that expressing emotions related to cancer and receiving interpersonal support can promote psychological and physical health in women diagnosed with breast cancer. However, adaptive expression of feelings and communication with one's social network can pose challenges for patients with cancer. We report on a randomized controlled trial of an intervention, Project Connect Online, for patients with breast cancer to create personal Web sites to chronicle their experience and communicate with their social network. Patients and Methods Women (N = 88) diagnosed with breast cancer (any stage, any interval since diagnosis) were randomly assigned to participate in a 3-hour workshop for hands-on creation of personal Web sites with a follow-up call to facilitate Web site use, or to a waiting-list control. Assessed before randomization and 6 months after the intervention, dependent variables included depressive symptoms, positive and negative mood, cancer-related intrusive thoughts, and perceived cancer-related benefits in life appreciation and strengthened relationships. Results Relative to control participants, women randomly assigned to Project Connect Online evidenced significant benefit 6 months later on depressive symptoms, positive mood, and life appreciation, but not negative mood, perceived strengthened relationships, or intrusive thoughts. Treatment status moderated the intervention effects, such that women currently undergoing medical treatment for cancer benefitted significantly more from the intervention on depressive symptoms and positive mood than did women not receiving treatment. Conclusion Findings suggest the promise of an intervention to facilitate the ability of women diagnosed with breast cancer to chronicle their experience and communicate with their social network via the Internet. PMID:23940228

  10. The learning effectiveness of nursing students using online testing as an assistant tool: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiang-Yang; Chuang, Chao-Hua

    2012-04-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet, online testing is becoming more widely-used in education. The purpose of this study is to explore the learning effectiveness of nursing students using online testing as an assistant tool. The participants were 146 junior college nursing students aged 19 to 20 taking the community health nursing course. With a class as the unit, three classes were randomized and allocated to one experimental group and two control groups. Two structured questionnaires were used to obtain the basic data, and the groups' examination results were also collected. The results of this study showed that before the intervention, there were no significant differences between the experimental and two control groups. After the intervention and adjusting for potential confounders, the score of midterm test in the experimental group was significantly better than those of the control groups. Over half of the students felt that answering 21 to 30 questions in 31 to 60 min for one unit of testing were appropriate. The results of this study showed that online testing is feasible for use as an assistant tool for learning. However, the positive effects of this approach appeared to be short- rather than long-term, and thus more studies are required in future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CDC MessageWorks: Designing and Validating a Social Marketing Tool to Craft and Defend Effective Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Galen E; Keller, Punam A; Reynolds, Jennifer; Schaur, Michelle; Krause, Diane

    2016-03-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, in partnership with Oak Ridge Associated Universities, designed an online social marketing strategy tool, MessageWorks, to help health communicators effectively formulate messages aimed at changing health behaviors and evaluate message tactics and audience characteristics. MessageWorks is based on the advisor for risk communication model that identifies 10 variables that can be used to predict target audience intentions to comply with health recommendations. This article discusses the value of the MessageWorks tool to health communicators and to the field of social marketing by (1) describing the scientific evidence supporting use of MessageWorks to improve health communication practice and (2) summarizing how to use MessageWorks and interpret the results it produces.

  12. Online interventions for problem gamblers with and without co-occurring mental health symptoms: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Cunningham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbidity between problem gambling and depression or anxiety is common. Further, the treatment needs of people with co-occurring gambling and mental health symptoms may be different from those of problem gamblers who do not have a co-occurring mental health concern. The current randomized controlled trial (RCT will evaluate whether there is a benefit to providing access to mental health Internet interventions (G + MH intervention in addition to an Internet intervention for problem gambling (G-only intervention in participants with gambling problems who do or do not have co-occurring mental health symptoms. Methods Potential participants will be screened using an online survey to identify participants meeting criteria for problem gambling. As part of the baseline screening process, measures of current depression and anxiety will be assessed. Eligible participants agreeing (N = 280 to take part in the study will be randomized to one of two versions of an online intervention for gamblers – an intervention that just targets gambling issues (G-only versus a website that contains interventions for depression and anxiety in addition to an intervention for gamblers (G + MH. It is predicted that problem gamblers who do not have co-occurring mental health symptoms will display no significant difference between intervention conditions at a six-month follow-up. However, for those with co-occurring mental health symptoms, it is predicted that participants receiving access to the G + MH website will display significantly reduced gambling outcomes at six-month follow-up as compared to those provided with G-only website. Discussion The trial will produce information on the best means of providing online help to gamblers with and without co-occurring mental health symptoms. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02800096 ; Registration date: June 14, 2016.

  13. The Self-help Online against Suicidal thoughts (SOS) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlmann, Charlotte; Madsen, Trine; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Kerkhof, Ad; Nordentoft, Merete; Erlangsen, Annette

    2017-01-28

    Suicidal thoughts are common, causing distress for millions of people all over the world. However, people with suicidal thoughts might not access support due to financial restraints, stigma or a lack of available treatment offers. Self-help programs provided online could overcome these barriers, and previous efforts show promising results in terms of reducing suicidal thoughts. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of an online self-help intervention in reducing suicidal thoughts among people at risk of suicide. The Danish Self-help Online against Suicidal thoughts (SOS) trial is a partial replication of a previously conducted Dutch trial. A randomized, waiting-list controlled trial with 1:1 allocation ratio will be carried out. A total of 438 people with suicidal thoughts will be recruited from the Danish suicide hotline, The Lifeline's, website and allocated to the intervention condition (N = 219) or the control condition (N = 219). The intervention condition consists of a 6-week, Internet-based self-help therapy intervention. The format of the intervention is self-help, but the participants can be guided by the trial manager. The control condition consists of a waiting-list assignment for 32 weeks. The primary outcomes are frequency and intensity of suicidal thoughts. Secondary outcome measures include depressive symptoms, hopelessness, worrying, quality of life, costs related to health care utilization and production loss. Number of deliberate self-harm episodes, suicides and deaths will, as well as the participant's evaluation of the intervention and the experience of negative effects, be investigated. Assessments will be conducted over the intervention website through self-report questionnaires at baseline, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks and 32 weeks (6 months post intervention). If we find the intervention to be linked to reductions in suicidal thoughts, this will strengthen the evidence that online self-help interventions are relevant tools for

  14. Effectiveness of an online fatigue self-management programme for people with chronic neurological conditions: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Setareh; Leigh Packer, Tanya; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate an online fatigue self-management programme in a sample of adults with chronic neurological conditions. Randomized controlled trial. Online fatigue self-management programme delivered across Australia. Ninety-five people with fatigue secondary to multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease or post-polio syndrome. An online fatigue self-management programme, an information-only fatigue self-management programme and a control group. Groups were compared at pre test, post test and at three months on primary outcomes using the Fatigue Impact Scale, Activity Card Sort and Personal Wellbeing Index. With the exception of the Personal Wellbeing Index at post test (F = 3.519; P =0.034) and the Physical Subscale of the Fatigue Impact Scale at follow-up (F = 3.473; P =0.035) there were no significant differences between the three groups on primary outcomes. Post-hoc testing showed the differences to be between the information-only and control groups (P = 0.036 and P = 0.030 respectively). Improvement in the information-only group was unexpected but appears to be similar to results of other online interventions. The fatigue self-management and information-only groups performed better than the control on some secondary outcome measures. Low power in the analysis may have contributed to the findings. Repeated-measures ANCOVA showed that the fatigue self-management and the information-only groups improved over time on the Fatigue Impact Scale and the Activity Card Sort (P<0.05). The control group showed no improvements over time. Although the fatigue self-management group improved over time, results did not demonstrate additional benefit in most outcome measures when compared with the control group.

  15. The Effects of Brief Waterpipe Tobacco Use Harm and Addiction Education Messages Among Young Adult Waterpipe Tobacco Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Lipkus, Isaac M

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the immediate effects of brief education messages delivered online about harms and addictiveness of waterpipe tobacco use among young adult waterpipe users aged 18 to 30 years. Participants (n = 327, mean age 24.8 years, 62.1% male, 77.6% white, 67.8% used waterpipe monthly, 26.4% weekly, 5.8% daily) were recruited online and randomized to one of three experimental conditions: (1) Control condition viewing no messages; (2) Harms condition viewing messages about harms of waterpipe tobacco; (3) Harms and addiction condition viewing messages about harms and addictiveness of waterpipe tobacco. Outcomes included perceived harm and addictiveness of waterpipe, worry about harm and addiction, and desire to quit. Compared to the control condition, participants in the harms condition reported significantly greater perceived harm and addictiveness of waterpipe relative to cigarettes, perceived risk of harm and addiction, worry about harm and addiction, and desire to quit. There were few significant differences in these outcomes between participants in the harms condition and the harms and addiction condition. Mediation analyses suggest waterpipe tobacco use harm messages may increase desire to quit by producing greater worry about harm and addiction. Brief education messages about waterpipe tobacco use harm increased young adult's perceptions of harm and addictiveness of waterpipe tobacco use and generated stronger desire to quit. The waterpipe tobacco use addiction messages tested had little added impact. Studies should prospectively examine the real-world impact of waterpipe tobacco use harm messages and investigate more effective strategies for designing addiction messages. This study demonstrates that brief education messages about waterpipe tobacco use harm can increase young adult waterpipe tobacco user's perceptions of harm and addictiveness of waterpipe tobacco use and generate stronger desire to quit. The findings indicate messages on

  16. Instant Messaging in Dental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatoon, Binish; Hill, Kirsty B; Walmsley, A Damien

    2015-12-01

    Instant messaging (IM) is when users communicate instantly via their mobile devices, and it has become one of the most preferred choices of tools to communicate amongst health professions students. The aim of this study was to understand how dental students communicate via IM, faculty members' perspectives on using IM to communicate with students, and whether such tools are useful in the learning environment. After free-associating themes on online communication, two draft topic guides for structured interviews were designed that focussed on mobile device-related communication activities. A total of 20 students and six faculty members at the University of Birmingham School of Dentistry agreed to take part in the interviews. Students were selected from years 1-5 representing each year group. The most preferred communication tools were emails, social networking, and IM. Emails were used for more formal messages, and IM and social networking sites were used for shorter messages. WhatsApp was the most used IM app because of its popular features such as being able to check if recipients have read and received messages and group work. The students reported that changes were necessary to improve their communication with faculty members. The faculty members reported having mixed feelings toward the use of IM to communicate with students. The students wished to make such tools a permanent part of their learning environment, but only with the approval of faculty members. The faculty members were willing to accept IM as a communication tool only if it is monitored and maintained by the university and has a positive effect on learning.

  17. Translating a child care based intervention for online delivery: development and randomized pilot study of Go NAPSACC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne S. Ward

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of childhood obesity prevention initiatives, Early Care and Education (ECE programs are being asked to implement evidence-based strategies that promote healthier eating and physical activity habits in children. Translation of evidence-based interventions into real world ECE settings often encounter barriers, including time constraints, lack of easy-to-use tools, and inflexible intervention content. This study describes translation of an evidence-based program (NAPSACC into an online format (Go NAPSACC and a randomized pilot study evaluating its impact on centers’ nutrition environments. Methods Go NAPSACC retained core elements and implementation strategies from the original program, but translated tools into an online, self-directed format using extensive input from the ECE community. For the pilot, local technical assistance (TA agencies facilitated recruitment of 33 centers, which were randomized to immediate (intervention, n = 18 or delayed (control, n = 15 access groups. Center directors were oriented on Go NAPSACC tools by their local TA providers (after being trained by researchers, after which they implemented Go NAPSACC independently with minimal TA support. The Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation instrument (self-report, collected prior to and following the 4-month intervention period, was used to assess impact on centers’ nutrition environments. Process data were also collected from a sample of directors and all TA providers to evaluate program usability and implementation. Results Demographic characteristics of intervention and control centers were similar. Two centers did not complete follow-up measures, leaving 17 intervention and 14 control centers in the analytic sample. Between baseline and follow-up, intervention centers improved overall nutrition scores (Cohen’s d effect size = 0.73, p = 0.15, as well as scores for foods (effect size = 0.74, p = 0

  18. Website Use and Effects of Online Information About Tobacco Additives Among the Dutch General Population: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutzen, Rik; Kienhuis, Anne S; Talhout, Reinskje; de Vries, Hein

    2017-01-01

    Background As a legal obligation, the Dutch government publishes online information about tobacco additives to make sure that it is publicly available. Little is known about the influence this website (”tabakinfo”) has on visitors and how the website is evaluated by them. Objective This study assesses how visitors use the website and its effect on their knowledge, risk perception, attitude, and smoking behavior. The study will also assess how the website is evaluated by visitors using a sample of the Dutch general population, including smokers and nonsmokers. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted, recruiting participants from an online panel. At baseline, participants (N=672) were asked to fill out an online questionnaire about tobacco additives. Next, participants were randomly allocated to either one of two experimental groups and invited to visit the website providing information about tobacco additives (either with or without a database containing product-specific information) or to a control group that had no access to the website. After 3 months, follow-up measurements took place. Results At follow-up (n=492), no statistically significant differences were found for knowledge, risk perception, attitude, or smoking behavior between the intervention and control groups. Website visits were positively related to younger participants (B=–0.07, 95% CI –0.12 to –0.01; t11=–2.43, P=.02) and having a low risk perception toward tobacco additives (B=–0.32, 95% CI –0.63 to –0.02; t11=–2.07, P=.04). In comparison, having a lower education (B=–0.67, 95% CI –1.14 to –0.17; t11=–2.65, P=.01) was a significant predictor for making less use of the website. Furthermore, the website was evaluated less positively by smokers compared to nonsmokers (t324=–3.55, Pwebsite did not change perceptions of tobacco additives or smoking behavior. Further research is necessary to find out how online information can be used to effectively

  19. A theory-based online health behaviour intervention for new university students (U@Uni:LifeGuide): results from a repeat randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, David; Epton, Tracy; Norman, Paul; Sheeran, Paschal; Harris, Peter R; Webb, Thomas L; Julious, Steven A; Brennan, Alan; Thomas, Chloe; Petroczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan; Shah, Iltaf

    2015-12-07

    This paper reports the results of a repeat trial assessing the effectiveness of an online theory-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyle behaviours in new university students. The original trial found that the intervention reduced the number of smokers at 6-month follow-up compared with the control condition, but had non-significant effects on the other targeted health behaviours. However, the original trial suffered from low levels of engagement, which the repeat trial sought to rectify. Three weeks before staring university, all incoming undergraduate students at a large university in the UK were sent an email inviting them to participate in the study. After completing a baseline questionnaire, participants were randomly allocated to intervention or control conditions. The intervention consisted of a self-affirmation manipulation, health messages based on the theory of planned behaviour and implementation intention tasks. Participants were followed-up 1 and 6 months after starting university. The primary outcome measures were portions of fruit and vegetables consumed, physical activity levels, units of alcohol consumed and smoking status at 6-month follow-up. The study recruited 2,621 students (intervention n=1346, control n=1275), of whom 1495 completed at least one follow-up (intervention n=696, control n=799). Intention-to-treat analyses indicated that the intervention had a non-significant effect on the primary outcomes, although the effect of the intervention on fruit and vegetable intake was significant in the per-protocol analyses. Secondary analyses revealed that the intervention had significant effects on having smoked at university (self-report) and on a biochemical marker of alcohol use. Despite successfully increasing levels of engagement, the intervention did not have a significant effect on the primary outcome measures. The relatively weak effects of the intervention, found in both the original and repeat trials, may be due to the focus on

  20. Using WhatsApp and Facebook Online Social Groups for Smoking Relapse Prevention for Recent Quitters: A Pilot Pragmatic Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Chan, Ching Han Helen; Lai, Chi-Keung Jonah; Chan, Wai Fung Vivian; Wang, Man Ping; Li, Ho Cheung William; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2015-10-22

    Quit attempters often have episodes of smoking relapse before they eventually quit. Interactive text messaging through mobile phones has been shown to increase abstinence. This service can be potentially applied on the platform of a social networking service to help quitters maintain abstinence. Our aim was to determine if the group discussion and reminders via the WhatsApp or Facebook social group were effective to prevent smoking relapse in quitters who had stopped smoking recently. This was a single-blinded, parallel, 3-arm pilot cluster randomized controlled trial allocating recent quitters, who had completed an 8-week treatment and reported abstinence for at least 7 days, to WhatsApp (n=42), Facebook (n=40), and a control group (n=54). The 2 intervention groups participated in a 2-month online group discussion with either WhatsApp or Facebook moderated by a trained smoking cessation counselor and received a self-help booklet on smoking cessation. The control group only received the booklet. The primary outcome was the 2- and 6-month relapse rates, defined as the proportion of participants who smoked at least 5 cigarettes in 3 consecutive days. Fewer participants in the WhatsApp group (17%, 7/42) reported relapse than the control group (42.6%, 23/54) at 2-month (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.10-0.71) and 6-month (40.5%, 17/42 vs 61.1%, 33/54; OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.19-0.99) follow-ups. The Facebook group (30.0%, 12/40) had an insignificantly lower relapse rate than the control group (42.6%, 23/54) at 2-month (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.24-1.37) and 6-month (52.5%, 13/40 vs 61.1%, 33/54; OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.31-1.61) follow-ups. The WhatsApp social groups had more moderators' posts (median 60, IQR 25 vs median 32, IQR 7; P=.05) and participants' posts (median 35, IQR 50 vs median 6, IQR 9; P=.07) than their Facebook counterparts, but the difference was insignificant. The intervention via the WhatsApp social group was effective in reducing relapse probably because of enhanced discussion and

  1. CBT4BN: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Online Chat and Face-to-Face Group Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerwas, Stephanie C.; Watson, Hunna J.; Hofmeier, Sara M.; Levine, Michele D.; Hamer, Robert M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Runfola, Cristin D.; Peat, Christine M.; Shapiro, Jennifer R.; Zimmer, Benjamin; Moessner, Markus; Kordy, Hans; Marcus, Marsha D.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) represents the first-line evidence-based psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa (BN), most individuals seeking treatment do not have access to this specialized intervention. We compared an Internet-based manualized version of CBT group therapy for BN conducted via a therapeutic chat group (CBT4BN) to the same treatment conducted via a traditional face-to-face group therapy (CBTF2F). Method In a two-site, randomized, controlled non-inferiority trial, we tested the hypothesis that CBT4BN would not be inferior to CBTF2F. One hundred forty-nine adult patients with BN (2.6% males) received up to 16 sessions of group CBT over 20 weeks in either CBT4BN or CBTF2F and outcomes were compared at the end of treatment and 12-month follow-up. Results At the end of treatment, CBT4BN was inferior to CBTF2F in producing abstinence from binge eating and purging and in leading to reductions in the frequency of binge eating and purging. However, by 12-month follow-up, CBT4BN was mostly not inferior to CBTF2F. Participants in the CBT4BN condition, but not CBTF2F, continued to reduce their binge-eating and purging frequency from end of treatment to 12-month follow-up. Conclusions CBT delivered online in a group chat format appears to be an efficacious treatment for BN although the trajectory of recovery may be slower than face-to-face group therapy. Online chat groups may increase accessibility of treatment and represent a cost-effective approach to service delivery. However, barriers in service delivery such as state-specific license and ethical guidelines for online therapists need to be addressed. PMID:27883997

  2. Effects of video-based, online education on behavioral and knowledge outcomes in sunscreen use: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, April W; Idriss, Nayla Z; Kim, Randie H

    2011-05-01

    To compare online video and pamphlet education at improving patient comprehension and adherence to sunscreen use, and to assess patient satisfaction with the two educational approaches. In a randomized controlled trial, 94 participants received either online, video-based education or pamphlet-based education that described the importance and proper use of sunscreen. Sun protective knowledge and sunscreen application behaviors were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks after group-specific intervention. Participants in both groups had similar levels of baseline sunscreen knowledge. Post-study analysis revealed significantly greater improvement in the knowledge scores from video group members compared to the pamphlet group (p=0.003). More importantly, video group participants reported greater sunscreen adherence (peducation vehicle more useful and appealing than the pamphlet group (peducational tool for teaching sun protective knowledge and encouraging sunscreen use than written materials. More effective patient educational methods to encourage sun protection activities, such as regular sunscreen use, have the potential to increase awareness and foster positive, preventative health behaviors against skin cancers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Randomized Experiment Testing the Efficacy of a Scheduling Nudge in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Baker

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of students are taking classes offered online through open-access platforms; however, the vast majority of students who start these classes do not finish. The incongruence of student intentions and subsequent engagement suggests that self-control is a major contributor to this stark lack of persistence. This study presents the results of a large-scale field experiment (N = 18,043 that examines the effects of a self-directed scheduling nudge designed to promote student persistence in a massive open online course. We find that random assignment to treatment had no effects on near-term engagement and weakly significant negative effects on longer-term course engagement, persistence, and performance. Interestingly, these negative effects are highly concentrated in two groups of students: those who registered close to the first day of class and those with .edu e-mail addresses. We consider several explanations for these findings and conclude that theoretically motivated interventions may interact with the diverse motivations of individual students in possibly unintended ways.

  4. Randomized Controlled Trial of Online Expressive Writing to Address Readjustment Difficulties Among U.S. Afghanistan and Iraq War Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, Nina A; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Frazier, Patricia A; Pennebaker, James W; Orazem, Robert J; Schnurr, Paula P; Murdoch, Maureen; Carlson, Kathleen F; Gravely, Amy; Litz, Brett T

    2015-10-01

    We examined the efficacy of a brief, accessible, nonstigmatizing online intervention-writing expressively about transitioning to civilian life. U.S. Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans with self-reported reintegration difficulty (N = 1,292, 39.3% female, M = 36.87, SD = 9.78 years) were randomly assigned to expressive writing (n = 508), factual control writing (n = 507), or no writing (n = 277). Using intention to treat, generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that 6-months postintervention, veterans who wrote expressively experienced greater reductions in physical complaints, anger, and distress compared with veterans who wrote factually (ds = 0.13 to 0.20; ps difficulty compared with veterans who did not write at all (ds = 0.22 to 0.35; ps ≤ .001). Veterans who wrote expressively also experienced greater improvement in social support compared to those who did not write (d = 0.17). Relative to both control conditions, expressive writing did not lead to improved life satisfaction. Secondary analyses also found beneficial effects of expressive writing on clinically significant distress, PTSD screening, and employment status. Online expressive writing holds promise for improving health and functioning among veterans experiencing reintegration difficulty, albeit with small effect sizes. Published 2015. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Effects of preventive online mindfulness interventions on stress and mindfulness: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasantha P. Jayawardene, MD, PhD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence suggested that mind-body interventions can be effectively delivered online. This study aimed to examine whether preventive online mindfulness interventions (POMI for non-clinical populations improve short- and long-term outcomes for perceived-stress (primary and mindfulness (secondary. Systematic search of four electronic databases, manuscript reference lists, and journal content lists was conducted in 2016, using 21 search-terms. Eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluating effects of POMI in non-clinical populations with adequately reported perceived-stress and mindfulness measures pre- and post-intervention were included. Random-effects models utilized for all effect-size estimations with meta-regression performed for mean age and %females. Participants were volunteers (adults; predominantly female from academic, workplace, or community settings. Most interventions utilized simplified Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction protocols over 2–12 week periods. Post-intervention, significant medium effect found for perceived-stress (g = 0.432, with moderate heterogeneity and significant, but small, effect size for mindfulness (g = 0.275 with low heterogeneity; highest effects were for middle-aged individuals. At follow-up, significant large effect found for perceived-stress (g = 0.699 with low heterogeneity and significant medium effect (g = 0.466 for mindfulness with high heterogeneity. No publication bias was found for perceived-stress; publication bias found for mindfulness outcomes led to underestimation of effects, not overestimation. Number of eligible RCTs was low with inadequate data reporting in some studies. POMI had substantial stress reduction effects and some mindfulness improvement effects. POMI can be a more convenient and cost-effective strategy, compared to traditional face-to-face interventions, especially in the context of busy, hard-to-reach, but digitally-accessible populations.

  6. Effects of preventive online mindfulness interventions on stress and mindfulness: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayewardene, Wasantha P; Lohrmann, David K; Erbe, Ryan G; Torabi, Mohammad R

    2017-03-01

    Empirical evidence suggested that mind-body interventions can be effectively delivered online. This study aimed to examine whether preventive online mindfulness interventions (POMI) for non-clinical populations improve short- and long-term outcomes for perceived-stress (primary) and mindfulness (secondary). Systematic search of four electronic databases, manuscript reference lists, and journal content lists was conducted in 2016, using 21 search-terms. Eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating effects of POMI in non-clinical populations with adequately reported perceived-stress and mindfulness measures pre- and post-intervention were included. Random-effects models utilized for all effect-size estimations with meta-regression performed for mean age and %females. Participants were volunteers (adults; predominantly female) from academic, workplace, or community settings. Most interventions utilized simplified Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction protocols over 2-12 week periods. Post-intervention, significant medium effect found for perceived-stress (g = 0.432), with moderate heterogeneity and significant, but small, effect size for mindfulness (g = 0.275) with low heterogeneity; highest effects were for middle-aged individuals. At follow-up, significant large effect found for perceived-stress (g = 0.699) with low heterogeneity and significant medium effect (g = 0.466) for mindfulness with high heterogeneity. No publication bias was found for perceived-stress; publication bias found for mindfulness outcomes led to underestimation of effects, not overestimation. Number of eligible RCTs was low with inadequate data reporting in some studies. POMI had substantial stress reduction effects and some mindfulness improvement effects. POMI can be a more convenient and cost-effective strategy, compared to traditional face-to-face interventions, especially in the context of busy, hard-to-reach, but digitally-accessible populations.

  7. Online Resource to Promote Vocational Interests Among Job Seekers With Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorstyn, Diana; Roberts, Rachel; Murphy, Gregory; Kneebone, Ian; Craig, Ashley; Migliorini, Christine

    2017-09-18

    To provide a preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of an online resource for job seekers with multiple sclerosis (MS). Randomized controlled design. Community-dwelling cohort. Adults (N = 97) with relapsing-remitting or progressive MS were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Forty-seven accessed an email delivered, 7 module resource, Work and MS, over a 4 week period. Waitlist control participants (n=50) were offered the opportunity to access Work and MS 4 weeks postenrollment. Primary outcomes focused on vocational interests (My Vocational Situation Scale) and self-efficacy in job-seeking activities (Job-Procurement Self Efficacy Scale). Secondary outcomes focused on perceived workplace difficulties (Multiple Sclerosis Work Difficulties Questionnaire [MSWDQ]), optimism (Life Orientation Test - Revised), and mood (Patient Health Questionnaire-9). Intention-to-treat analyses revealed pre-post gains: participants who accessed Work and MS reported improved confidence in their career goals (My Vocational Situation Scale g=.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], .14-.96; P=.008) and positively reappraised potential workplace difficulties (MSWDQ g range, .42-.47; P range, .023-.042). The effect on job self-efficacy was not significant, but changed in the expected direction (g=.17; 95% CI, -.23 to .57; P=.409). Completer data revealed larger, significant effect estimates (g range, .52-.64; P range, .009-.035). Findings provide preliminary support for the utility of a job information resource, Work and MS, to augment existing employment services. The results also suggest the need to test employment-ready interventions in a larger study population. This might include the addition of online peer support to increase intervention compliance. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Communicating about cigarette smoke constituents: an experimental comparison of two messaging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Sabeeh A; Byron, M Justin; Boynton, Marcella H; Brewer, Noel T; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2017-04-01

    Federal law now requires FDA to disseminate information on chemicals in cigarette smoke, but it is unclear how best to do so. In a 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment, participants received a message about chemicals in cigarette smoke (e.g., "Cigarette smoke has benzene.") along with an additional randomly assigned messaging strategy: a "found-in" (e.g., "This is found in gasoline."), a health effect (e.g., "This causes heart disease."), both, or neither. Participants were U.S. probability phone samples of 5000 adults and 1123 adolescents, and an online convenience sample of 4130 adults. Adding a health effect elicited greater discouragement from wanting to smoke cigarettes (all p smoke constituents.

  9. Gambling warning messages: The impact of winning and losing on message reception across a gambling session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginley, Meredith K; Whelan, James P; Keating, Holly A; Meyers, Andrew W

    2016-12-01

    Gambling warning messages have been shown to lead to prevention and modification of risk-taking behaviors. Laboratory studies have shown messages can increase a player's knowledge about gambling specific risks, modify their gambling-related cognitive distortions, and even change play. In the present laboratory study, participants were randomly assigned to a winning or losing slot machine gambling experience where they either viewed periodic warning messages or not. It was hypothesized that those in the message conditions would place smaller bets, spend more time considering bets, and spend less time gambling than those in the control conditions. We also hypothesized participants would play differently across the contexts of winning or losing. The results showed those who received warning messages while winning made the fewest number of spins and did not speed up their bet rate over the course of play as much as those in other conditions. Players who received warning messages while losing decreased the size of their bets over the course of play compared to those who received messages while winning. Despite receiving warning messages, losing players did not decrease their number of spins or rate of betting. Winning or losing during slot machine play appears to have significant consequences on the impact of a warning message. Whereas a message to change gambling behavior may encourage a winning gambler to stop play, the same message for a losing player may lead to a small minimization in harm by helping them to decrease bet size, though not their rate of betting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Keywords to recruit Spanish- and English-speaking participants: evidence from an online postpartum depression randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Alinne Z; Kelman, Alex R; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2014-01-09

    One of the advantages of Internet-based research is the ability to efficiently recruit large, diverse samples of international participants. Currently, there is a dearth of information on the behind-the-scenes process to setting up successful online recruitment tools. The objective of the study was to examine the comparative impact of Spanish- and English-language keywords for a Google AdWords campaign to recruit pregnant women to an Internet intervention and to describe the characteristics of those who enrolled in the trial. Spanish- and English-language Google AdWords campaigns were created to advertise and recruit pregnant women to a Web-based randomized controlled trial for the prevention of postpartum depression, the Mothers and Babies/Mamás y Bebés Internet Project. Search engine users who clicked on the ads in response to keyword queries (eg, pregnancy, depression and pregnancy) were directed to the fully automated study website. Data on the performance of keywords associated with each Google ad reflect Web user queries from February 2009 to June 2012. Demographic information, self-reported depression symptom scores, major depressive episode status, and Internet use data were collected from enrolled participants before randomization in the intervention study. The Google ads received high exposure (12,983,196 impressions) and interest (176,295 clicks) from a global sample of Web users; 6745 pregnant women consented to participate and 2575 completed enrollment in the intervention study. Keywords that were descriptive of pregnancy and distress or pregnancy and health resulted in higher consent and enrollment rates (i.e., high-performing ads). In both languages, broad keywords (eg, pregnancy) had the highest exposure, more consented participants, and greatest cost per consent (up to US $25.77 per consent). The online ads recruited a predominantly Spanish-speaking sample from Latin America of Mestizo racial identity. The English-speaking sample was also diverse

  11. Text messaging to increase readiness to change alcohol use in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael; Benotsch, Eric G; Way, Thomas; Kim, Hannah; Snipes, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    We tested the feasibility and effectiveness of an alcohol counseling intervention delivered via personalized text messages for college students with problem alcohol use. College students aged 18-23 completed online substance use and mental health questionnaires that served as a screening tool for problem alcohol use. We invited students who screened positive to be randomized to intervention (n = 8) or control groups (n = 10) and assessed them at 1 month after they received their last text message. The intervention group received between four and six text messages daily for 4 days that required brief participant responses during the week following the web-based baseline assessment. Participants in the intervention group could also request booster texts for additional support. We personalized all texts, using data collected at baseline. Using a repeated measures ANOVA, we found that compared to the control group, the intervention group increased in readiness to change from baseline to follow-up (p alcohol use. These exploratory results indicate that the automated texting program we developed works well with college students and that text messaging as a means to deliver preventive interventions is a promising delivery platform.

  12. The eDerm online curriculum: a randomized study of effective skin cancer teaching to medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolev, Jacqueline C; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Berger, Timothy

    2011-12-01

    With the incidence of skin cancers continuing to increase, traditional clerkships may not be sufficient to teach medical students important detection and management skills. We performed a randomized study to determine the efficacy of the online curriculum, eDerm. Students were randomized to complete eDerm before or after clerkship (arm 1 vs 2) and were tested at 3 time points, including at baseline. The crossover design examined eDerm and clerkship, and the sequential effect of both. In all, 252 participants completed all interventions and testing. Diagnosis and management scores significantly improved in both arms (P students for learning retention. eDerm significantly improves the diagnosis and management of nonpigmented and pigmented skin lesions by medical students. It can be used as an alternative to a traditional 2-week clerkship if one is not available. Importantly, melanoma detection improved significantly more after eDerm than clerkship. When used as a supplement, eDerm administered after a clerkship will result in the highest level of overall learning. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Online smoking cessation program for Korean Americans: Randomized trial to test effects of incentives for program completion and interim surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Joel M; McDonnell, Diana D; Kazinets, Gene; Lee, Hyun-Ju

    2016-05-01

    Smoking is prevalent among Korean American men. Quitting is Winning, an Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation program, was developed using community-based participatory research principles. A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate whether participants were more likely to complete the program and quit smoking at 6-months of follow-up with additional reinforcement. The main outcomes were the proportion of participants who completed the online program and the proportion who quit smoking for at least 30days, 26weeks after enrollment, among those randomized into the high-reinforcement (HR) condition compared with those in the low-reinforcement (LR) condition. The study achieved a final enrollment of 403 participants including 56 women. Program completion was greater for the HR as compared to the LR condition (17% vs. 10%, p=.035). There was no significant difference in 30-day smoking cessation (intent-to-treat [ITT]) between the HR and LR conditions (9% vs. 8%, ns). Smoking cessation was greater among program completers as compared to those who did not complete the program (28% vs. 5%, psurveys and financial incentives for interim survey completion and program completion significantly increased the likelihood of program completion. Moreover, program completers were significantly more likely to quit smoking. Although smoking cessation rates did not significantly differ between the HR and LR conditions, the results suggest that future studies should explore the efficacy of larger financial incentives for program completion (Clinical Trial #NCT02584127). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Is self-assessment of medical abortion using a low-sensitivity pregnancy test combined with a checklist and phone text messages feasible in South African primary healthcare settings? A randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Constant

    Full Text Available To evaluate feasibility of self-assessment of medical abortion outcome using a low-sensitivity urine pregnancy test, checklist and text messages. The study assessed whether accurate self-assessment required a demonstration of the low-sensitivity urine pregnancy test or if verbal instructions suffice.This non-inferiority trial enrolled 525 adult women from six public sector abortion clinics. Eligible women were undergoing medical abortion at gestations within 63 days. Consenting women completed a baseline interview, received standard care with mifepristone and home-administration of misoprostol. All were given a low-sensitivity urine pregnancy test and checklist for use 14 days later, sent text reminders, and asked to attend in-clinic follow-up after two weeks. Women were randomly assigned 1:1 to an instruction-only group (n = 262; issued with pre-scripted instructions on the low-sensitivity pregnancy test, or a demonstration group (n = 263; performed practice tests guided by lay health workers. The primary outcome was accurate self-assessment of incomplete abortion, defined as needing additional misoprostol or vacuum aspiration. Analysis was by intention to treat and a non-inferiority margin was set to six percentage points. Women's acceptability of their abortion procedure and preferences for follow-up were also assessed.Follow-up was 81% for abortion outcome, confirmed in-clinic at two weeks or self-reported within six months. Non-inferiority of instruction-only to a demonstration was inconclusive for accurate self-assessment (risk difference for instruction-only -demonstration: -2.5%; 95%CI: -9% to 4%. Comparing instruction-only to demonstration groups, 99% and 100% found the pregnancy test easy to do; and 91% and 93% respectively chose the pregnancy test, checklist and text messages for abortion outcome assessment in the future.Routine self-assessment using a low-sensitivity pregnancy test, checklist and text messages is feasible and

  15. Is self-assessment of medical abortion using a low-sensitivity pregnancy test combined with a checklist and phone text messages feasible in South African primary healthcare settings? A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Deborah; Harries, Jane; Daskilewicz, Kristen; Myer, Landon; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate feasibility of self-assessment of medical abortion outcome using a low-sensitivity urine pregnancy test, checklist and text messages. The study assessed whether accurate self-assessment required a demonstration of the low-sensitivity urine pregnancy test or if verbal instructions suffice. This non-inferiority trial enrolled 525 adult women from six public sector abortion clinics. Eligible women were undergoing medical abortion at gestations within 63 days. Consenting women completed a baseline interview, received standard care with mifepristone and home-administration of misoprostol. All were given a low-sensitivity urine pregnancy test and checklist for use 14 days later, sent text reminders, and asked to attend in-clinic follow-up after two weeks. Women were randomly assigned 1:1 to an instruction-only group (n = 262; issued with pre-scripted instructions on the low-sensitivity pregnancy test), or a demonstration group (n = 263; performed practice tests guided by lay health workers). The primary outcome was accurate self-assessment of incomplete abortion, defined as needing additional misoprostol or vacuum aspiration. Analysis was by intention to treat and a non-inferiority margin was set to six percentage points. Women's acceptability of their abortion procedure and preferences for follow-up were also assessed. Follow-up was 81% for abortion outcome, confirmed in-clinic at two weeks or self-reported within six months. Non-inferiority of instruction-only to a demonstration was inconclusive for accurate self-assessment (risk difference for instruction-only -demonstration: -2.5%; 95%CI: -9% to 4%). Comparing instruction-only to demonstration groups, 99% and 100% found the pregnancy test easy to do; and 91% and 93% respectively chose the pregnancy test, checklist and text messages for abortion outcome assessment in the future. Routine self-assessment using a low-sensitivity pregnancy test, checklist and text messages is feasible and preferred by women

  16. Controversial Messages on Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustieles, Vicente; Olea, Nicolas; Sanchez, Maria Jose; Fernandez, Mariana F

    2015-01-01

    A direct connection between certain lifestyle factors and an increased risk of cancer has already been established. Despite well-documented associations, controversial messages on causes of cancer often appear without taking into consideration their impact on the general population. While mainstream coverage of cancer research is clearly welcome, consideration must be given to the risk of transmitting provocative messages with serious negative consequences for cancer research and public health. We must avoid becoming a breeding ground for the misinterpretation of scientific information. Polemical results can stimulate scientific research and progress, but controversial messages encourage confusion and impotence in an increasingly disoriented population. The correct communication of health messages is at least as important as research on risk factors.

  17. Online attention modification for social anxiety disorder: replication of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, R Nicholas; Teale Sapach, Michelle J N; Oriet, Chris; LeBouthillier, Daniel M

    2017-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) models posit vigilance for external social threat cues and exacerbated self-focused attention as key in disorder development and maintenance. Evidence indicates a modified dot-probe protocol may reduce symptoms of SAD; however, the efficacy when compared to a standard protocol and long-term maintenance of treatment gains remains unclear. Furthermore, the efficacy of such protocols on SAD-related constructs remains relatively unknown. The current investigation clarified these associations using a randomized control trial replicating and extending previous research. Participants with SAD (n = 113; 71% women) were randomized to complete a standard (i.e. control) or modified (i.e. active) dot-probe protocol consisting of 15-min sessions twice weekly for four weeks. Self-reported symptoms were measured at baseline, post-treatment, and 4-month and 8-month follow-ups. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated significant self-reported reductions in symptoms of social anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, trait anxiety, and depression, but no such reductions in fear of positive evaluation. Symptom changes did not differ based on condition and were maintained at 8-month follow-up. Attentional biases during the dot-probe task were not related to symptom change. Overall, our results replicate support for the efficacy of both protocols in reducing symptoms of SAD and specific related constructs, and suggest a role of exposure, expectancy, or practice effects, rather than attention modification, in effecting such reductions. The current results also support distinct relationships between fears of negative and positive evaluation and social anxiety. Further research focused on identifying the mechanisms of change in attention modification protocols appears warranted.

  18. Impact on Clinical Behavior of Face-to-Face Continuing Medical Education Blended with Online Spaced Education: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Timothy; Long, Andrea; Chopra, Sanjiv; Kerfoot, B. Price

    2011-01-01

    Background: Spaced education (SE) is a novel, evidence-based form of online learning. We investigated whether an SE program following a face-to-face continuing medical education (CME) course could enhance the course's impact on providers' clinical behaviors. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted from March 2009 to April 2010,…

  19. Mobile phone text messaging to reduce alcohol and tobacco use in young people – a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Severin Haug Swiss Research Institute for Public Health and Addiction at Zurich University, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Alcohol and tobacco use are major causes of the disease burden in most countries of the world. Mobile phone text messaging is very popular among adolescents and young adults and has the potential to deliver individualized information to large population groups at low costs. Objective: To provide a narrative review on studies testing the appropriateness and effectiveness of text messaging-based programs to reduce alcohol and tobacco use in young people. Results: Two published studies on text message-based programs for the reduction of problem drinking and two studies on programs for enhancing smoking cessation were identified. A US-American pilot experimental study tested the feasibility and initial efficacy of a text messaging-based assessment and brief intervention among young adults identified during their emergency department visit with hazardous drinking. It demonstrated the feasibility of the text messaging-based program to collect drinking data in young adults after emergency department discharge. A Swiss pre–post study tested the appropriateness and initial effectiveness of a combined, individually tailored web- and text messaging (SMS-based program to reduce problem drinking in vocational school students. It provided evidence for the appropriateness of the intervention and initial evidence for its efficacy to reduce problem drinking. One of the two studies addressing smoking cessation was a US-American pilot randomized controlled trial. Participants were recruited via online advertisements and received text messages tailored according to their quitting stage. The intervention significantly affected self-reported quitting rates at 4 weeks but not at 3 months after the quit date. Within a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in Switzerland, smoking students were proactively recruited within vocational

  20. Sleep outcomes in youth with chronic pain participating in a randomized controlled trial of online cognitive-behavioral therapy for pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fales, Jessica; Palermo, Tonya M; Law, Emily F; Wilson, Anna C

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are commonly reported in youth with chronic pain. We examined whether online cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for pain management would impact youth's sleep. Subjective sleep quality and actigraphic sleep were evaluated in 33 youth (M = 14.8 years; 70% female) with chronic pain participating in a larger randomized controlled trial of online-CBT. The Internet treatment condition (n = 17) received 8-10 weeks of online-CBT + standard care, and the wait-list control condition (n = 16) continued with standard care. Although pain improved with online-CBT, no changes were observed in sleep outcomes. Shorter pretreatment sleep duration was associated with less improvement in posttreatment functioning. Findings underscore the need for further development in psychological therapies to more intensively target sleep loss in youth with chronic pain.

  1. Text messaging reduces analgesic requirements during surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Jamie E; Hancock, Jeffrey T; Woodruff, Christopher; Keilman, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to determine whether communicating via short message service text message during surgery procedures leads to decreased intake of fentanyl for patients receiving regional anesthesia below the waist compared with a distraction condition and no intervention. Ninety-eight patients receiving regional anesthesia for minor surgeries were recruited from a hospital in Montreal, QC, between January and March 2012. Patients were randomly assigned to text message with a companion, text message with a stranger, play a distracting mobile phone game, or receive standard perioperative management. Participants who were asked to text message or play a game did so before receiving the anesthetic and continued until the end of the procedure. The odds of receiving supplemental analgesia during surgery for patients receiving standard perioperative management were 6.77 (P=0.009; N=13/25) times the odds for patients in the text a stranger condition (N=22/25 of patients), 4.39 times the odds for those in the text a companion condition (P=0.03; N=19/23), and 1.96 times the odds for those in the distraction condition (P=0.25; N=17/25). Text messaging during surgery provides analgesic-sparing benefits that surpass distraction techniques, suggesting that mobile phones provide new opportunities for social support to improve patient comfort and reduce analgesic requirements during minor surgeries and in other clinical settings. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Framing of health information messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Elie A; Oxman, Andrew D; Herrin, Jeph; Vist, Gunn E; Terrenato, Irene; Sperati, Francesca; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Blank, Diana; Schünemann, Holger

    2011-12-07

    The same information about the evidence on health effects can be framed either in positive words or in negative words. Some research suggests that positive versus negative framing can lead to different decisions, a phenomenon described as the framing effect. Attribute framing is the positive versus negative description of a specific attribute of a single item or a state, for example, "the chance of survival with cancer is 2/3" versus "the chance of mortality with cancer is 1/3". Goal framing is the description of the consequences of performing or not performing an act as a gain versus a loss, for example, "if you undergo a screening test for cancer, your survival will be prolonged" versus "if you don't undergo screening test for cancer, your survival will be shortened". To evaluate the effects of attribute (positive versus negative) framing and of goal (gain versus loss) framing of the same health information, on understanding, perception of effectiveness, persuasiveness, and behavior of health professionals, policy makers, and consumers. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, issue 3 2007), MEDLINE (Ovid) (1966 to October 2007), EMBASE (Ovid) (1980 to October 2007), PsycINFO (Ovid) (1887 to October 2007). There were no language restrictions. We reviewed the reference lists of related systematic reviews, included studies and of excluded but closely related studies. We also contacted experts in the field. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials, and cross-over studies with health professionals, policy makers, and consumers evaluating one of the two types of framing. Two review authors extracted data in duplicate and independently. We graded the quality of evidence for each outcome using the GRADE approach. We standardized the outcome effects using standardized mean difference (SMD). We stratified the analysis by the type of framing (attribute, goal) and conducted pre

  3. Effects of Electronic Word - of - Mouth Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong Hoon Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increased usage of online technologies, there has been an escalation of Electronic Word - of –Mouth (eWOM messages related to sport products and services offered and consumed. Therefore, in this original investigation by applying eWOM to the sport industry, this study examined how the combination of the quality of the eWOM message and the provider of the eWOM message affects purchaseintentions depending on the expertise level of the consumer. This study – which involved the collection of data from 134 students at a large university situated in the Midwest of the United States – utilized repeated measures of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA with tripartite groups of expertise and experimental conditions as independent variables. Purchase intention was the dependent variables. The results indicated that the quality of the eWOM message moderated the effect of the provider of the eWOM message. The subject’s level of expertise also had a moderating role on purchase intention.

  4. Improving Access to Online Health Information With Conversational Agents: A Randomized Controlled Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Timothy W; Utami, Dina; Matsuyama, Robin; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K

    2016-01-04

    Conventional Web-based search engines may be unusable by individuals with low health literacy for finding health-related information, thus precluding their use by this population. We describe a conversational search engine interface designed to allow individuals with low health and computer literacy identify and learn about clinical trials on the Internet. A randomized trial involving 89 participants compared the conversational search engine interface (n=43) to the existing conventional keyword- and facet-based search engine interface (n=46) for the National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials database. Each participant performed 2 tasks: finding a clinical trial for themselves and finding a trial that met prespecified criteria. Results indicated that all participants were more satisfied with the conversational interface based on 7-point self-reported satisfaction ratings (task 1: mean 4.9, SD 1.8 vs mean 3.2, SD 1.8, Phealth literacy failed to find any trials that satisfied the prespecified criteria for task 2 using the conventional search engine interface, whereas 36% (5/14) were successful at this task using the conversational interface (P=.05). Conversational agents can be used to improve accessibility to Web-based searches in general and clinical trials in particular, and can help decrease recruitment bias against disadvantaged populations.

  5. An online randomized controlled trial evaluating HIV prevention digital media interventions for men who have sex with men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Hirshfield

    Full Text Available As HIV infection continues unabated, there is a need for effective interventions targeting at-risk men who have sex with men (MSM. Engaging MSM online where they meet sexual partners is critical for HIV prevention efforts.A randomized controlled trial (RCT conducted online among U.S. MSM recruited from several gay sexual networking websites assessed the impact of 2 HIV prevention videos and an HIV prevention webpage compared to a control condition for the study outcomes HIV testing, serostatus disclosure, and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI at 60-day follow-up. Video conditions were pooled due to reduced power from low retention (53%, n = 1,631. No participant incentives were provided.Follow-up was completed by 1,631 (53% of 3,092 eligible men. In the 60 days after the intervention, men in the pooled video condition were significantly more likely than men in the control to report full serostatus disclosure ('asked and told' with their last sexual partner (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.01-1.74. Comparing baseline to follow-up, HIV-negative men in the pooled video (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.54-0.91 and webpage condition (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.25-0.72 significantly reduced UAI at follow-up. HIV-positive men in the pooled video condition significantly reduced UAI (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.20-0.67 and serodiscordant UAI (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.28-0.96 at follow-up.Findings from this online RCT of MSM recruited from sexual networking websites suggest that a low cost, brief digital media intervention designed to engage critical thinking can increase HIV disclosure to sexual partners and decrease sexual risk. Effective, brief HIV prevention interventions featuring digital media that are made widely available may serve as a complementary part of an overall behavioral and biomedical strategy for reducing sexual risk by addressing the specific needs and circumstances of the target population, and by changing individual knowledge, motivations, and community norms.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  6. An online randomized controlled trial evaluating HIV prevention digital media interventions for men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfield, Sabina; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Joseph, Heather; Scheinmann, Roberta; Johnson, Wayne D; Remien, Robert H; Shaw, Francine Shuchat; Emmons, Reed; Yu, Gary; Margolis, Andrew D

    2012-01-01

    As HIV infection continues unabated, there is a need for effective interventions targeting at-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Engaging MSM online where they meet sexual partners is critical for HIV prevention efforts. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted online among U.S. MSM recruited from several gay sexual networking websites assessed the impact of 2 HIV prevention videos and an HIV prevention webpage compared to a control condition for the study outcomes HIV testing, serostatus disclosure, and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) at 60-day follow-up. Video conditions were pooled due to reduced power from low retention (53%, n = 1,631). No participant incentives were provided. Follow-up was completed by 1,631 (53%) of 3,092 eligible men. In the 60 days after the intervention, men in the pooled video condition were significantly more likely than men in the control to report full serostatus disclosure ('asked and told') with their last sexual partner (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.01-1.74). Comparing baseline to follow-up, HIV-negative men in the pooled video (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.54-0.91) and webpage condition (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.25-0.72) significantly reduced UAI at follow-up. HIV-positive men in the pooled video condition significantly reduced UAI (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.20-0.67) and serodiscordant UAI (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.28-0.96) at follow-up. Findings from this online RCT of MSM recruited from sexual networking websites suggest that a low cost, brief digital media intervention designed to engage critical thinking can increase HIV disclosure to sexual partners and decrease sexual risk. Effective, brief HIV prevention interventions featuring digital media that are made widely available may serve as a complementary part of an overall behavioral and biomedical strategy for reducing sexual risk by addressing the specific needs and circumstances of the target population, and by changing individual knowledge, motivations, and community norms. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00649701.

  7. An Online Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating HIV Prevention Digital Media Interventions for Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfield, Sabina; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Joseph, Heather; Scheinmann, Roberta; Johnson, Wayne D.; Remien, Robert H.; Shaw, Francine Shuchat; Emmons, Reed; Yu, Gary; Margolis, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    Background As HIV infection continues unabated, there is a need for effective interventions targeting at-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Engaging MSM online where they meet sexual partners is critical for HIV prevention efforts. Methods A randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted online among U.S. MSM recruited from several gay sexual networking websites assessed the impact of 2 HIV prevention videos and an HIV prevention webpage compared to a control condition for the study outcomes HIV testing, serostatus disclosure, and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) at 60-day follow-up. Video conditions were pooled due to reduced power from low retention (53%, n = 1,631). No participant incentives were provided. Principal Findings Follow-up was completed by 1,631 (53%) of 3,092 eligible men. In the 60 days after the intervention, men in the pooled video condition were significantly more likely than men in the control to report full serostatus disclosure (‘asked and told’) with their last sexual partner (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.01–1.74). Comparing baseline to follow-up, HIV-negative men in the pooled video (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.54–0.91) and webpage condition (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.25–0.72) significantly reduced UAI at follow-up. HIV-positive men in the pooled video condition significantly reduced UAI (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.20–0.67) and serodiscordant UAI (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.28–0.96) at follow-up. Conclusions/Significance Findings from this online RCT of MSM recruited from sexual networking websites suggest that a low cost, brief digital media intervention designed to engage critical thinking can increase HIV disclosure to sexual partners and decrease sexual risk. Effective, brief HIV prevention interventions featuring digital media that are made widely available may serve as a complementary part of an overall behavioral and biomedical strategy for reducing sexual risk by addressing the specific needs and circumstances of the target population, and by changing

  8. Comparing tailored and untailored text messages for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Ringgaard, L W; Dalum, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were...... consecutively randomized to versions of the program that offered either tailored or untailored text messages. Thirty-day point abstinence from smoking was measured self-reportedly at 12-months follow-up. Response rates were 36.3% and 38.1% in the tailored and untailored group, respectively. We analyzed...

  9. Testing feedback message framing and comparators to address prescribing of high-risk medications in nursing homes: protocol for a pragmatic, factorial, cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Noah M; Desveaux, Laura; Presseau, Justin; Reis, Catherine; Witteman, Holly O; Taljaard, Monica K; McCleary, Nicola; Thavorn, Kednapa; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2017-07-14

    Audit and feedback (AF) interventions that leverage routine administrative data offer a scalable and relatively low-cost method to improve processes of care. AF interventions are usually designed to highlight discrepancies between desired and actual performance and to encourage recipients to act to address such discrepancies. Comparing to a regional average is a common approach, but more recipients would have a discrepancy if compared to a higher-than-average level of performance. In addition, how recipients perceive and respond to discrepancies may depend on how the feedback itself is framed. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of different comparators and framing in feedback on high-risk prescribing in nursing homes. This is a pragmatic, 2 × 2 factorial, cluster-randomized controlled trial testing variations in the comparator and framing on the effectiveness of quarterly AF in changing high-risk prescribing in nursing homes in Ontario, Canada. We grouped homes that share physicians into clusters and randomized these clusters into the four experimental conditions. Outcomes will be assessed after 6 months; all primary analyses will be by intention-to-treat. The primary outcome (monthly number of high-risk medications received by each patient) will be analysed using a general linear mixed effects regression model. We will present both four-arm and factorial analyses. With 160 clusters and an average of 350 beds per cluster, assuming no interaction and similar effects for each intervention, we anticipate 90% power to detect an absolute mean difference of 0.3 high-risk medications prescribed. A mixed-methods process evaluation will explore potential mechanisms underlying the observed effects, exploring targeted constructs including intention, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, descriptive norms, and goal prioritization. An economic analysis will examine cost-effectiveness analysis from the perspective of the publicly funded health care system. This protocol

  10. Randomized controlled trial of an online mother-daughter body image and well-being intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Atkinson, Melissa J; Garbett, Kirsty M; Williamson, Heidi; Halliwell, Emma; Rumsey, Nichola; Leckie, George; Sibley, Chris G; Barlow, Fiona Kate

    2016-09-01

    Poor body image is a public health issue. Mothers are a key influence on adolescent girls' body image. This study evaluated an accessible, scalable, low-intensity internet-based intervention delivered to mothers (Dove Self Esteem Project Website for Parents) on mothers' and their adolescent daughters' body image and psychosocial well-being. British mother-daughter dyads (N = 235) participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial (assessment-only control; mothers viewed the website without structured guidance [website-unstructured]; mothers viewed the website via a tailored pathway [website-tailored]). Dyads completed standardized self-report measures of body image, related risk factors, and psychosocial outcomes at baseline, 2 weeks post-exposure, 6-week, and 12-month follow-up. Dyadic models showed that relative to the control, mothers who viewed the website reported significantly higher self-esteem at post-exposure (website-tailored), higher weight esteem at 6-week follow-up (website-tailored), lower negative affect at 12-month follow-up (website-tailored), engaged in more self-reported conversations with their daughters about body image at post-exposure and 6-week follow-up, and were 3-4.66 times more likely to report seeking additional support for body image issues at post-exposure (website-tailored), 6-week, and 12-month (website-tailored) follow-up. Daughters whose mothers viewed the website had higher self-esteem and reduced negative affect at 6-week follow-up. There were no differences on daughters' body image, and risk factors among mothers or daughters, at post-exposure or follow-up. Tailoring website content appeared beneficial. This intervention offers a promising 'first-step' toward improving psychosocial well-being among mothers and daughters. In order to further optimize the intervention, future research to improve body image-related outcomes and to understand mechanisms for change would be beneficial. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all

  11. A randomized, controlled study of an online intervention to promote job satisfaction and well-being among physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liselotte N. Dyrbye

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although burnout, poor quality of life (QOL, depression, and other forms of psychological distress are common among physicians, few studies testing interventions to reduce distress have been reported. We conducted a randomized trial to determine the impact of a 10-week, individualized, online intervention on well-being among physicians (n = 290. Participants were randomized to either the intervention or control arm. Those in the intervention arm received a menu of self-directed micro-tasks once a week for 10 weeks, and were asked to select and complete one task weekly. Baseline and end-of-study questionnaires evaluating well-being (i.e., burnout, depression, QOL, fatigue and professional satisfaction (i.e., job satisfaction, work engagement, meaning in work, and satisfaction with work-life balance were administered to both arms. Overall quality of life and fatigue improved over the 10 weeks of the study for those in the intervention arm (both p < 0.01. When compared to the control arm, however, no statistically significant improvement in these dimensions of well-being was observed. At the completion of the study, those in the intervention arm were more likely to report participating in the study was worthwhile compared to those in the control arm. The findings suggest that although participants found the micro-tasks in the intervention arm worthwhile, they did not result in measurable improvements in well-being or professional satisfaction when compared to the control group. These results also highlight the critical importance of an appropriate control group in studies evaluating interventions to address physician burnout and distress.

  12. InsuOnline, an Electronic Game for Medical Education on Insulin Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial With Primary Care Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Leandro Arthur; Souza, Rodrigo Martins; Gordan, Pedro Alejandro; Esteves, Roberto Zonato; Coelho, Izabel Cristina Meister

    2017-03-09

    Most patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are followed by primary care physicians, who often lack knowledge or confidence to prescribe insulin properly. This contributes to clinical inertia and poor glycemic control. Effectiveness of traditional continuing medical education (CME) to solve that is limited, so new approaches are required. Electronic games are a good option, as they can be very effective and easily disseminated. The objective of our study was to assess applicability, user acceptance, and educational effectiveness of InsuOnline, an electronic serious game for medical education on insulin therapy for DM, compared with a traditional CME activity. Primary care physicians (PCPs) from South of Brazil were invited by phone or email to participate in an unblinded randomized controlled trial and randomly allocated to play the game InsuOnline, installed as an app in their own computers, at the time of their choice, with minimal or no external guidance, or to participate in a traditional CME session, composed by onsite lectures and cases discussion. Both interventions had the same content and duration (~4 h). Applicability was assessed by the number of subjects who completed the assigned intervention in each group. Insulin-prescribing competence (factual knowledge, problem-solving skills, and attitudes) was self-assessed through a questionnaire applied before, immediately after, and 3 months after the interventions. Acceptance of the intervention (satisfaction and perceived importance for clinical practice) was also assessed immediately after and 3 months after the interventions, respectively. Subjects' characteristics were similar between groups (mean age 38, 51.4% [69/134] male). In the game group, 69 of 88 (78%) completed the intervention, compared with 65 of 73 (89%) in the control group, with no difference in applicability. Percentage of right answers in the competence subscale, which was 52% at the baseline in both groups, significantly improved

  13. The efficacy of life-review as online-guided self-help for adults: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Sanne M A; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Korte, Jojanneke; Westerhof, Gerben J

    2015-01-01

    The study used a randomized controlled trial to investigate the short-term and long-term effects of life-review as online-guided self-help in adults (40+) with moderate depressive symptomatology. We evaluated ego-integrity and rumination as mediators and assessed whether the effects of the intervention did not differ across middle-aged and older adults. Effects of life-review (n = 58) were compared with a waiting list group (n = 58) and an expressive writing intervention (n = 58) on depressive symptoms (primary outcome), anxiety, and well-being (secondary outcomes). Mediator and moderator analyses were also applied. Compared with the waiting list, life-review reduced depressive symptoms (d = 0.35) and enhanced emotional (d = 0.16) and psychological well-being (d = 0.27). Life-review was not more effective than expressive writing. The effects on depressive symptoms were partly related with increases in ego-integrity and decreases in rumination. The intervention is applicable for middle-aged and older adults. Life-review is effective as self-help for middle-aged and older adults with moderate depressive symptomatology compared with a waiting list group. Future research should investigate whether stimulating ego-integrity and reducing rumination enhance the effects of the intervention. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Rethinking the dose-response relationship between usage and outcome in an online intervention for depression: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkin, Liesje; Hickie, Ian B; Christensen, Helen; Naismith, Sharon L; Neal, Bruce; Cockayne, Nicole L; Glozier, Nick

    2013-10-17

    There is now substantial evidence that Web-based interventions can be effective at changing behavior and successfully treating psychological disorders. However, interest in the impact of usage on intervention outcomes has only been developed recently. To date, persistence with or completion of the intervention has been the most commonly reported metric of use, but this does not adequately describe user behavior online. Analysis of alternative measures of usage and their relationship to outcome may help to understand how much of the intervention users may need to obtain a clinically significant benefit from the program. The objective of this study was to determine which usage metrics, if any, are associated with outcome in an online depression treatment trial. Cardiovascular Risk E-couch Depression Outcome (CREDO) is a randomized controlled trial evaluating an unguided Web-based program (E-couch) based on cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy for people with depression and cardiovascular disease. In all, 280 participants in the active arm of the trial commenced the program, delivered in 12 modules containing pages of text and activities. Usage data (eg, number of log-ins, modules completed, time spent online, and activities completed) were captured automatically by the program interface. We estimated the association of these and composite metrics with the outcome of a clinically significant improvement in depression score on the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) of ≥ 5 points. In all, 214/280 (76.4%) participants provided outcome data at the end of the 12-week period and were included in the analysis. Of these, 94 (43.9%) participants obtained clinically significant improvement. Participants logged into the program an average of 18.7 times (SD 8.3) with most (62.1%, 133/214) completing all 12 modules. Average time spent online per log-in was 17.3 minutes (SD 10.5). Participants completed an average of 9 of 18 activities available within the

  15. Classifying patient portal messages using Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulieman, Lina; Gilmore, David; French, Christi; Cronin, Robert M; Jackson, Gretchen Purcell; Russell, Matthew; Fabbri, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Patients communicate with healthcare providers via secure messaging in patient portals. As patient portal adoption increases, growing messaging volumes may overwhelm providers. Prior research has demonstrated promise in automating classification of patient portal messages into communication types to support message triage or answering. This paper examines if using semantic features and word context improves portal message classification. Portal messages were classified into the following categories: informational, medical, social, and logistical. We constructed features from portal messages including bag of words, bag of phrases, graph representations, and word embeddings. We trained one-versus-all random forest and logistic regression classifiers, and convolutional neural network (CNN) with a softmax output. We evaluated each classifier's performance using Area Under the Curve (AUC). Representing the messages using bag of words, the random forest detected informational, medical, social, and logistical communications in patient portal messages with AUCs: 0.803, 0.884, 0.828, and 0.928, respectively. Graph representations of messages outperformed simpler features with AUCs: 0.837, 0.914, 0.846, 0.884 for informational, medical, social, and logistical communication, respectively. Representing words with Word2Vec embeddings, and mapping features using a CNN had the best performance with AUCs: 0.908 for informational, 0.917 for medical, 0.935 for social, and 0.943 for logistical categories. Word2Vec and graph representations improved the accuracy of classifying portal messages compared to features that lacked semantic information such as bag of words, and bag of phrases. Furthermore, using Word2Vec along with a CNN model, which provide a higher order representation, improved the classification of portal messages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effectiveness of Online Collaborative Care for Treating Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Primary Care: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollman, Bruce L; Herbeck Belnap, Bea; Abebe, Kaleab Z; Spring, Michael B; Rotondi, Armando J; Rothenberger, Scott D; Karp, Jordan F

    2018-01-01

    Collaborative care for depression and anxiety is superior to usual care from primary care physicians for these conditions; however, challenges limit its provision in routine practice and at scale. Advances in technology may overcome these barriers but have yet to be tested. To examine the effectiveness of combining an internet support group (ISG) with an online computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (CCBT) provided via a collaborative care program for treating depression and anxiety vs CCBT alone and whether providing CCBT in this manner is more effective than usual care. In this 3-arm randomized clinical trial with blinded outcome assessments, primary care physicians from 26 primary care practices in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, referred 2884 patients aged 18 to 75 years in response to an electronic medical record prompt from August 2012 to September 2014. Overall, 704 patients (24.4%) met all eligibility criteria and were randomized to CCBT alone (n = 301), CCBT+ISG (n = 302), or usual care (n = 101). Intent-to-treat analyses were conducted November 2015 to January 2017. Six months of guided access to an 8-session CCBT program provided by care managers who informed primary care physicians of their patients' progress and promoted patient engagement with our online programs. Mental health-related quality of life (12-Item Short-Form Health Survey Mental Health Composite Scale) and depression and anxiety symptoms (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System) at 6-month follow-up, with treatment durability assessed 6 months later. Of the 704 randomized patients, 562 patients (79.8%) were female, and the mean (SD) age was 42.7 (14.3) years. A total of 604 patients (85.8%) completed our primary 6-month outcome assessment. At 6-month assessment, 254 of 301 patients (84.4%) receiving CCBT alone started the program (mean [SD] sessions completed, 5.4 [2.8]), and 228 of 302 patients (75.5%) in the CCBT+ISG cohort logged into the ISG at least once, of

  17. SMS Messaging Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pero, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    Cell phones are the most common communication device on the planet, and Short Message Service (SMS) is the chief channel for companies to offer services, accept requests, report news, and download binary files over cell phones. This guide describes the protocols and best practices (things that ensure you won't get sued or lose your right to offer a service) you need to know to make SMS messaging part of an organizational service. Issues such as character sets, differences among vendors, common practices in Europe and North America, and API choices are covered.

  18. Was my message read?: Privacy and Signaling on Facebook Messenger

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyle, Roberto; Das, Srijita; Kapadia, Apu; Lee, Adam J.; Vaniea, Kami

    2017-01-01

    Major online messaging services such as Facebook Messenger and WhatsApp are starting to provide users with real-time information about when people read their messages. While useful, this feature has the potential to negatively impact privacy as well as cause concern over access to self. We report on two surveys using Mechanical Turk which looked at senders' (N=402) use of and reactions to the `message seen' feature, and recipients' (N=316) privacy and signaling behaviors in the face of such v...

  19. Medium is the message

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.; Ritzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    "The medium is the message" is a phrase coined by Canadian media theorist Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980), in his book Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (1964). In this book, McLuhan examines the impact of media on societies and human relations, arguing for the primacy of the medium -

  20. Listening and Message Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message…

  1. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  2. Editor's message: Student involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Block

    2012-01-01

    In the initial Editor's Message of this volume, I stated my intent to involve more students in the publication process. A number of people commented on it being a good idea, but only a couple have followed up. One was Paul Krausman, President of The Wildlife Society. We matched graduate students from the University of Montana wildlife program with manuscripts...

  3. 3. Secure Messaging

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 1. Electronic Commerce - Secure Messaging. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 1 January 2001 pp 8-17 ... Author Affiliations. V Rajaraman1. IBM Professor of Information Technology JNCASR Bangalore 560 064, India.

  4. Impact of Cultural Exposure and Message Framing on Oral Health Behavior: Exploring the Role of Message Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, Cameron; McCully, Scout N; Updegraff, John A; Ehret, Phillip J; Areguin, Maira A; Sherman, David K

    2016-10-01

    Health messages are more effective when framed to be congruent with recipient characteristics, and health practitioners can strategically choose message features to promote adherence to recommended behaviors. We present exposure to US culture as a moderator of the impact of gain-frame versus loss-frame messages. Since US culture emphasizes individualism and approach orientation, greater cultural exposure was expected to predict improved patient choices and memory for gain-framed messages, whereas individuals with less exposure to US culture would show these advantages for loss-framed messages. 223 participants viewed a written oral health message in 1 of 3 randomized conditions-gain-frame, loss-frame, or no-message control-and were given 10 flosses. Cultural exposure was measured with the proportions of life spent and parents born in the US. At baseline and 1 week later, participants completed recall tests and reported recent flossing behavior. Message frame and cultural exposure interacted to predict improved patient decisions (increased flossing) and memory maintenance for the health message over 1 week; for example, those with low cultural exposure who saw a loss-frame message flossed more. Incongruent messages led to the same flossing rates as no message. Memory retention did not explain the effect of message congruency on flossing. Flossing behavior was self-reported. Cultural exposure may only have practical application in either highly individualistic or collectivistic countries. In health care settings where patients are urged to follow a behavior, asking basic demographic questions could allow medical practitioners to intentionally communicate in terms of gains or losses to improve patient decision making and treatment adherence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. The impact of cultural exposure and message framing on oral health behavior: Exploring the role of message memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, Cameron; McCully, Scout N.; Updegraff, John A.; Ehret, Phillip J.; Areguin, Maira A.; Sherman, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Health messages are more effective when framed to be congruent with recipient characteristics, and health practitioners can strategically decide on message features to promote adherence to recommended behaviors. We present exposure to United States (U.S.) culture as a moderator of the impact of gain- vs. loss-frame messages. Since U.S. culture emphasizes individualism and approach orientation, greater cultural exposure was expected to predict improved patient choices and memory for gain-framed messages, whereas individuals with less exposure to U.S. culture would show these advantages for loss-framed messages. Methods 223 participants viewed a written oral health message in one of three randomized conditions: gain-frame, loss-frame, or no-message control, and were given ten flosses. Cultural exposure was measured with the proportions of life spent and parents born in the U.S. At baseline and one week later, participants completed recall tests and reported recent flossing behavior. Results Message frame and cultural exposure interacted to predict improved patient decisions (increased flossing) and memory maintenance for the health message over one week. E.g., those with low cultural exposure who saw a loss-frame message flossed more. Incongruent messages led to the same flossing rates as no message. Memory retention did not explain the effect of message congruency on flossing. Limitations Flossing behavior was self-reported. Cultural exposure may only have practical application in either highly individualistic or collectivistic countries. Conclusions In healthcare settings where patients are urged to follow a behavior, asking basic demographic questions could allow medical practitioners to intentionally communicate in terms of gains or losses to improve patient decision making and treatment adherence. PMID:25654986

  6. The EVIDENT-trial: protocol and rationale of a multicenter randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of an online-based psychological intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jan Philipp; Berger, Thomas; Schröder, Johanna; Späth, Christina; Meyer, Björn; Caspar, Franz; Lutz, Wolfgang; Greiner, Wolfgang; Hautzinger, Martin; Rose, Matthias; Gräfe, Viola; Hohagen, Fritz; Andersson, Gerhard; Vettorazzi, Eik; Moritz, Steffen

    2013-09-28

    Depressive disorders are among the leading causes of worldwide disability with mild to moderate forms of depression being particularly common. Low-intensity treatments such as online psychological treatments may be an effective way to treat mild to moderate depressive symptoms and prevent the emergence or relapse of major depression. This study is a currently recruiting multicentre parallel-groups pragmatic randomized-controlled single-blind trial. A total of 1000 participants with mild to moderate symptoms of depression from various settings including in- and outpatient services will be randomized to an online psychological treatment or care as usual (CAU). We hypothesize that the intervention will be superior to CAU in reducing depressive symptoms assessed with the Personal Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9, primary outcome measure) following the intervention (12 wks) and at follow-up (24 and 48 wks). Further outcome parameters include quality of life, use of health care resources and attitude towards online psychological treatments. The study will yield meaningful answers to the question of whether online psychological treatment can contribute to the effective and efficient prevention and treatment of mild to moderate depression on a population level with a low barrier to entry. NCT01636752.

  7. A randomized trial found online questionnaires supplemented by postal reminders generated a cost-effective and generalizable sample but don't forget the reminders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loban, Amanda; Mandefield, Laura; Hind, Daniel; Bradburn, Mike

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the response rates, data completeness, and representativeness of survey data produced by online and postal surveys. A randomized trial nested within a cohort study in Yorkshire, United Kingdom. Participants were randomized to receive either an electronic (online) survey questionnaire with paper reminder (N = 2,982) or paper questionnaire with electronic reminder (N = 2,855). Response rates were similar for electronic contact and postal contacts (50.9% vs. 49.7%, difference = 1.2%, 95% confidence interval: -1.3% to 3.8%). The characteristics of those responding to the two groups were similar. Participants nevertheless demonstrated an overwhelming preference for postal questionnaires, with the majority responding by post in both groups. Online survey questionnaire systems need to be supplemented with a postal reminder to achieve acceptable uptake, but doing so provides a similar response rate and case mix when compared to postal questionnaires alone. For large surveys, online survey systems may be cost saving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Randomized control trial follow-up: Online program and waiting period for unmarried parents in Title IV-D Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Brittany N; Poladian, Ani R; Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy; Applegate, Amy G; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2017-04-01

    Despite a lack of research on parent programs for separating unmarried parents, many judicial officers mandate participation. Rudd, Holtzworth-Munroe, Reyome, Applegate, and D'Onofrio (2015) conducted the only randomized controlled trial of any online parent program for separating parents, ProudToParent.org (PTP), and related court processes (e.g., having a waiting period between the establishment of paternity and the court hearing regarding child related issues vs. having the hearing the same day). They recruited a unique sample of 182 cases in a Title IV-D Court (i.e., a court for primarily low income parents) (Authorization of Appropriations, 42 U.S.C. § 651, 2013), in which paternity was previously contested but subsequently established via court-ordered genetic testing. Unexpectedly, cases assigned to PTP and a waiting period were the least likely to reach agreement at their court hearing. In the current study, we extend these results to examine the impact of the study conditions on relitigation in the year following the court hearing; only 11.2% of cases filed a motion, and 7.8% had a hearing. The group that was least likely to reach full initial agreement (i.e., assigned to PTP and the waiting period) were the most likely to relitigate. Further, controlling for study conditions, reaching a full agreement in the Title IV-D court decreased the odds of having a court hearing in the following year. Reaching agreements on the specific issues involved in such cases (e.g., custody, child support) reduced the likelihood of both motions and hearings in the year after the Title IV-D hearings. The implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. On-line randomized controlled trial of an internet based psychologically enhanced intervention for people with hazardous alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Paul; Murray, Elizabeth; McCambridge, Jim; Khadjesari, Zarnie; White, Ian R; Thompson, Simon G; Kalaitzaki, Eleftheria; Godfrey, Christine; Linke, Stuart

    2011-03-09

    Interventions delivered via the Internet have the potential to address the problem of hazardous alcohol consumption at minimal incremental cost, with potentially major public health implications. It was hypothesised that providing access to a psychologically enhanced website would result in greater reductions in drinking and related problems than giving access to a typical alcohol website simply providing information on potential harms of alcohol. DYD-RCT Trial registration: ISRCTN 31070347. A two-arm randomised controlled trial was conducted entirely on-line through the Down Your Drink (DYD) website. A total of 7935 individuals who screened positive for hazardous alcohol consumption were recruited and randomized. At entry to the trial, the geometric mean reported past week alcohol consumption was 46.0 (SD 31.2) units. Consumption levels reduced substantially in both groups at the principal 3 month assessment point to an average of 26.0 (SD 22.3) units. Similar changes were reported at 1 month and 12 months. There were no significant differences between the groups for either alcohol consumption at 3 months (intervention: control ratio of geometric means 1.03, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.10) or for this outcome and the main secondary outcomes at any of the assessments. The results were not materially changed following imputation of missing values, nor was there any evidence that the impact of the intervention varied with baseline measures or level of exposure to the intervention. Findings did not provide support for the hypothesis that access to a psychologically enhanced website confers additional benefit over standard practice and indicate the need for further research to optimise the effectiveness of Internet-based behavioural interventions. The trial demonstrates a widespread and potentially sustainable demand for Internet based interventions for people with hazardous alcohol consumption, which could be delivered internationally. Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN31070347.

  10. Training on Common Military Messages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dyer, Jean

    2004-01-01

    ... on hypothetical combat scenarios and a prototype digital interface for the Land Warrior (LW) system. The message training focused on the doctrinal requirements for messages, not how to use the software interface...

  11. Evaluation of an Online Campaign for Promoting Help-Seeking Attitudes for Depression Using a Facebook Advertisement: An Online Randomized Controlled Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Alison; Wong, Paul Wai-Ching; Fu, King-wa

    2015-01-01

    Background A depression-awareness campaign delivered through the Internet has been recommended as a public health approach that would enhance mental health literacy and encourage help-seeking attitudes. However, the outcomes of such a campaign remain understudied. Objective The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an online depression awareness campaign, which was informed by the theory of planned behavior, to encourage help-seeking attitudes for depression and to enhan...

  12. Source Similarity and Social Media Health Messages: Extending Construal Level Theory to Message Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel

    2015-09-01

    Social media users post messages about health goals and behaviors to online social networks. Compared with more traditional sources of health communication such as physicians or health journalists, peer sources are likely to be perceived as more socially close or similar, which influences how messages are processed. This experimental study uses construal level theory of psychological distance to predict how mediated health messages from peers influence health-related cognition and behavioral intention. Participants were exposed to source cues that identified peer sources as being either highly attitudinally and demographically similar to or different from participants. As predicted by construal level theory, participants who perceived sources of social media health messages as highly similar listed a greater proportion of beliefs about the feasibility of health behaviors and a greater proportion of negative beliefs, while participants who perceived sources as more dissimilar listed a greater proportion of positive beliefs about the health behaviors. Results of the study could be useful in determining how health messages from peers could encourage individuals to set realistic health goals.

  13. An Online Health Prevention Intervention for Youth with Addicted or Mentally Ill Parents: Experiences and Perspectives of Participants and Providers from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolderink, Marla; Bindels, Jill A P M; Evers, Silvia M A A; Paulus, Aggie T G; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; van Schayck, Onno C P

    2015-12-02

    Mental illnesses affect many people around the world, either directly or indirectly. Families of persons suffering from mental illness or addiction suffer too, especially their children. In the Netherlands, 864,000 parents meet the diagnostic criteria for a mental illness or addiction. Evidence shows that offspring of mentally ill or addicted parents are at risk for developing mental disorders or illnesses themselves. The Kopstoring course is an online 8-week group course with supervision by 2 trained psychologists or social workers, aimed to prevent behavioral and psychological problems for children (aged 16 to 25 years) of parents with mental health problems or addictions. The course addresses themes such as roles in the family and mastery skills. An online randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Kopstoring course. The aim was to gain knowledge about expectations, experiences, and perspectives of participants and providers of the online Kopstoring course. A process evaluation was performed to evaluate the online delivery of Kopstoring and the experiences and perspectives of participants and providers of Kopstoring. Interviews were performed with members from both groups. Participants were drawn from a sample from the Kopstoring RCT. Thirteen participants and 4 providers were interviewed. Five main themes emerged from these interviews: background, the requirements for the intervention, experience with the intervention, technical aspects, and research aspects. Overall, participants and providers found the intervention to be valuable because it was online; therefore, protecting their anonymity was considered a key component. Most barriers existed in the technical sphere. Additional barriers existed with conducting the RCT, namely gathering informed consent and gathering parental consent in the case of minors. This study provides valuable insight into participants' and providers' experiences and expectations with the online

  14. A study protocol of a three-group randomized feasibility trial of an online yoga intervention for mothers after stillbirth (The Mindful Health Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Jennifer; Matthews, Jeni; Leiferman, Jenn; Cacciatore, Joanne; Gold, Katherine J

    2018-01-01

    In the USA, stillbirth (in utero fetal death ≥20 weeks gestation) is a major public health issue. Women who experience stillbirth, compared to women with live birth, have a nearly sevenfold increased risk of a positive screen for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a fourfold increased risk of depressive symptoms. Because the majority of women who have experienced the death of their baby become pregnant within 12-18 months and the lack of intervention studies conducted within this population, novel approaches targeting physical and mental health, specific to the needs of this population, are critical. Evidence suggests that yoga is efficacious, safe, acceptable, and cost-effective for improving mental health in a variety of populations, including pregnant and postpartum women. To date, there are no known studies examining online-streaming yoga as a strategy to help mothers cope with PTSD symptoms after stillbirth. The present study is a two-phase randomized controlled trial. Phase 1 will involve (1) an iterative design process to develop the online yoga prescription for phase 2 and (2) qualitative interviews to identify cultural barriers to recruitment in non-Caucasian women (i.e., predominately Hispanic and/or African American) who have experienced stillbirth (N = 5). Phase 2 is a three-group randomized feasibility trial with assessments at baseline, and at 12 and 20 weeks post-intervention. Ninety women who have experienced a stillbirth within 6 weeks to 24 months will be randomized into one of the following three arms for 12 weeks: (1) intervention low dose (LD) = 60 min/week online-streaming yoga (n = 30), (2) intervention moderate dose (MD) = 150 min/week online-streaming yoga (n = 30), or (3) stretch and tone control (STC) group = 60 min/week of stretching/toning exercises (n = 30). This study will explore the feasibility and acceptability of a 12-week, home-based, online-streamed yoga intervention, with varying doses among

  15. Remote Asynchronous Message Service Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shin-Ywan; Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The Remote Asynchronous Message Service (RAMS) gateway is a special-purpose AMS application node that enables exchange of AMS messages between nodes residing in different AMS "continua," notionally in different geographical locations. JPL s implementation of RAMS gateway functionality is integrated with the ION (Interplanetary Overlay Network) implementation of the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) bundle protocol, and with JPL s implementation of AMS itself. RAMS protocol data units are encapsulated in ION bundles and are forwarded to the neighboring RAMS gateways identified in the source gateway s AMS management information base. Each RAMS gateway has interfaces in two communication environments: the AMS message space it serves, and the RAMS network - the grid or tree of mutually aware RAMS gateways - that enables AMS messages produced in one message space to be forwarded to other message spaces of the same venture. Each gateway opens persistent, private RAMS network communication channels to the RAMS gateways of other message spaces for the same venture, in other continua. The interconnected RAMS gateways use these communication channels to forward message petition assertions and cancellations among themselves. Each RAMS gateway subscribes locally to all subjects that are of interest in any of the linked message spaces. On receiving its copy of a message on any of these subjects, the RAMS gateway node uses the RAMS network to forward the message to every other RAMS gateway whose message space contains at least one node that has subscribed to messages on that subject. On receiving a message via the RAMS network from some other RAMS gateway, the RAMS gateway node forwards the message to all subscribers in its own message space.

  16. Assessing the impact of different persuasive messages on the intentions and behaviour of cat owners: A randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J; Driver, Aaron B

    2017-10-01

    Owners of free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) are under increasing pressure to keep their pet contained within their house or yard, in an effort to reduce adverse impacts on cat welfare, ecosystem biodiversity and neighbourhoods. We conducted a randomised online experiment to assess the effectiveness of two persuasive messages to encourage cat owners to contain their pets. A total of 512 Australian cat owners, who currently do not contain their cats, were randomly assigned to view one of three short video messages: one framed to highlight the negative impact of cats' on wildlife and biodiversity ('wildlife protection' frame), one framed to highlight the health and safety benefits of keeping cats contained ('cat benefit' frame), and a control message focused on general information about cats ('neutral' frame). We assessed the impact of these video messages on two post-treatment outcome variables: (1) the intention of owners to contain their cat; and (2) the adoption of containment practices, based on a 4-week follow-up survey. Mediation analysis revealed both the 'wildlife protection' and 'cat benefit' messages increased owners' motivation to contain their cat and their beliefs that they could effectively contain their cat to achieve the desired outcomes (response efficacy). In turn, higher levels of motivation and response efficacy predicted increased cat containment intentions and increased adoption of cat containment. In addition, the response efficacy effects of the 'cat benefit' message were strengthened by the cat owner's bond to their pet, suggesting audience segmentation may improve the effectiveness of interventions. Implications for future intervention development are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Message from Fermilab Director

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    With this issue’s message, Fermilab Director Pier Oddone opens a new series of occasional exchanges between CERN and other laboratories world-wide. As part of this exchange, CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer, wrote a message in Tuesday’s edition of Fermilab TodayPerspectivesNothing is more important for our worldwide particle physics community than successfully turning on the LHC later this year. The promise for great discoveries is huge, and many of the plans for our future depend on LHC results. Those of us planning national programmes in anticipation of data from the LHC face formidable challenges to develop future facilities that are complementary to the LHC, whatever the physics discoveries may be. At Fermilab, this has led us to move forcefully with a programme at the intensity frontier, where experiments with neutrinos and rare decays open a complementary window into nature. Our ultimate goal for a unified picture of nat...

  18. Repeated exposure to media messages encouraging parent-child communication about sex: differential trajectories for mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitstein, Jonathan L; Evans, W Douglas; Davis, Kevin C; Kamyab, Kian

    2012-01-01

    To examine changes in parent-child communication related to sexual behavior after exposure to public health messages. Randomized, controlled trial that was part of precampaign message testing. Exposure occurred online or through DVDs mailed to participants and viewed on their personal computers. Data collection occurred via a secure Web site. Participants included parents (n  =  1969) living with a child age 10 to 14 years drawn from a nationally representative sample of U.S. households. Treatment participants were exposed to video, audio, and print advertisements that promoted the benefits of speaking to their children early and often about delaying initiation of sexual activity; messages also directed parents to an informational Web site. The dependent variable assessed frequency of parent-child communication related to sexual behavior. The primary independent variable was treatment assignment. Longitudinal growth modeling that included five waves of data. The trajectory of growth over time differed between fathers in the treatment group and fathers in the control group (F[1, 2357]  =  4.15; p communication among treatment fathers than among control fathers. Trajectories did not differ between mothers in treatment and control groups. This study demonstrates that father-child and mother-child communication patterns differ over time in response to public health messages. Findings have implication for researchers developing health marketing campaigns.

  19. Online Alcohol Assessment and Feedback for Hazardous and Harmful Drinkers: Findings From the AMADEUS-2 Randomized Controlled Trial of Routine Practice in Swedish Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendtsen, Preben; Bendtsen, Marcus; Karlsson, Nadine; White, Ian R; McCambridge, Jim

    2015-07-09

    Previous research on the effectiveness of online alcohol interventions for college students has shown mixed results. Small benefits have been found in some studies and because online interventions are inexpensive and possible to implement on a large scale, there is a need for further study. This study evaluated the effectiveness of national provision of a brief online alcohol intervention for students in Sweden. Risky drinkers at 9 colleges and universities in Sweden were invited by mail and identified using a single screening question. These students (N=1605) gave consent and were randomized into a 2-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial consisting of immediate or delayed access to a fully automated online assessment and intervention with personalized feedback. After 2 months, there was no strong evidence of effectiveness with no statistically significant differences in the planned analyses, although there were some indication of possible benefit in sensitivity analyses suggesting an intervention effect of a 10% reduction (95% CI -30% to 10%) in total weekly alcohol consumption. Also, differences in effect sizes between universities were seen with participants from a major university (n=365) reducing their weekly alcohol consumption by 14% (95% CI -23% to -4%). However, lower recruitment than planned and differential attrition in the intervention and control group (49% vs 68%) complicated interpretation of the outcome data. Any effects of current national provision are likely to be small and further research and development work is needed to enhance effectiveness. International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 02335307; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN02335307 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6ZdPUh0R4).

  20. The Development of Message-Design Model in Blended Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfia Rahmi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The researcher found a problem in designing an instruction often ignore the message design because it is focused on syntax and learning systems, including the design of innovative learning such as e-learning, online learning, blended learning and mobile learning. Based on these problems, the researcher develops a model of design message in blended learning. The goal is to help the educators to facilitate learners to interpret and construct teaching materials. The development used ADDIE models. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through observation, interviews, questionnaires, and tests in order to produce a model of message design. The validity of this products was tested by expert and the practicality and effectivity testing by the user in the course of Theory of Learning and instruction. The result of this development consists of (1 the book of model design messages in blended learning, and (2 the learning tool that consists of teaching materials, media presentations, e-learning, syllabus, SAP that is valid, practical and effective. The Book model can be used by designers of instruction, learning consultant, and lecturer/educator in helping learners to interpret and construct learning message so that they have an ability to generalize the learning and become independent learners. Keyword: Blended learning, online learning, message design, learning theory, ADDIE model

  1. A Feasibility and Efficacy Randomized Controlled Trial of an Online Preventative Program for Childhood Obesity: Protocol for the EMPOWER Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam; Sharma, Manoj

    2012-06-21

    The home and family environment is a highly influential psychosocial antecedent of pediatric obesity. Implementation of conventional family- and home-based childhood obesity interventions is challenging for parents, often requiring them to attend multiple educational sessions. Attrition rates for traditional interventions are frequently high due to competing demands for parents' time. Under such constraints, an Internet-based intervention has the potential to modify determinants of childhood obesity while making judicious use of parents' time. Theory-based interventions offer many advantages over atheoretical interventions, including reduced intervention dosage, increased likelihood of behavioral change, and efficient resource allocation. Social cognitive theory (SCT) is a robust theoretical framework for addressing childhood obesity. SCT is a behavior change model rooted in reciprocal determinism, a causal paradigm that states that human functioning is the product of a dynamic interplay of behavioral, personal, and environmental factors. To evaluate the efficacy of the Enabling Mothers to Prevent Childhood Obesity Through Web-Based Education and Reciprocal Determinism (EMPOWER) program, an Internet-based, theory-driven intervention for preventing childhood overweight and obesity. The project goal is supported by two specific aims: (1) modification of four obesogenic protective factors related to childhood obesity (minutes engaged in physical activity, servings of fruits and vegetables consumed, servings of sugar-sweetened and sugar-free beverages consumed, and minutes engaged in screen time), and (2) reification of five maternal-mediated constructs of SCT (environment, expectations, emotional coping, self-control, and self-efficacy). We will recruit mothers with children ages 4 to 6 years from childcare centers and randomly assign them to either the theory-based (experimental) or knowledge-based (control) arm of the trial. Data for the intervention will be

  2. Mood as a resource in dealing with health recommendations: how mood affects information processing and acceptance of quit-smoking messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Enny; Vonkeman, Charlotte; Hartmann, Tilo

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study tested the effects of positive and negative mood on the processing and acceptance of health recommendations about smoking in an online experiment. It was hypothesised that positive mood would provide smokers with the resources to systematically process self-relevant health recommendations. One hundred and twenty-seven participants (smokers and non-smokers) read a message in which a quit smoking programme was recommended. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: positive versus negative mood, and strong versus weak arguments for the recommended action. Systematic message processing was inferred when participants were able to distinguish between high- and low-quality arguments, and by congruence between attitudes and behavioural intentions. Persuasion was measured by participant's attitudes towards smoking and the recommended action, and by their intentions to follow the action recommendation. As predicted, smokers systematically processed the health message only under positive mood conditions; non-smokers systematically processed the health message only under negative mood conditions. Moreover, smokers' attitudes towards the health message predicted intentions to quit smoking only under positive mood conditions. Findings suggest that positive mood may decrease defensive processing of self-relevant health information.

  3. A pilot randomized trial of an online parenting skills program for pediatric traumatic brain injury: improvements in parenting and child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Tanya N; Raj, Stacey P; Oberjohn, Karen S; Cassedy, Amy; Makoroff, Kathi L; Fouladi, Maryam; Wade, Shari L

    2014-07-01

    This pilot study examined changes in parenting skills and child behavior following participation in an online positive parenting skills program designed for young children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Thirty-seven families with a child between 3 and 9 years of age who sustained a moderate to severe TBI were randomly assigned to one of two interventions: online parenting skills training (n=20) or access to Internet resources on managing brain injury (n=17). Parent-child interaction observations and parent ratings of child behavior were collected pre- and post-treatment. Generalized estimating equations and mixed models were used to examine changes in parenting skills and child behavior problems as well as the moderating role of family income on treatment response. Participants in the parenting skills group displayed significant improvements in observed positive parenting skills relative to participants in the Internet resource group. Income moderated improvements in parent ratings of child behavior, with participants in the low-income parenting skills group and high-income Internet resource group reporting the greatest improvements in behavior. This is the first randomized controlled trial examining online parenting skills training for families of young children with TBI. Improvements in positive parenting skills and child behavior support the utility of this intervention, particularly for families from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Message correlation analysis tool for NOvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Qiming [Fermilab; Biery, Kurt A. [Fermilab; Kowalkowski, James B. [Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    A complex running system, such as the NOvA online data acquisition, consists of a large number of distributed but closely interacting components. This paper describes a generic real-time correlation analysis and event identification engine, named Message Analyzer. Its purpose is to capture run time abnormalities and recognize system failures based on log messages from participating components. The initial design of analysis engine is driven by the data acquisition (DAQ) of the NOvA experiment. The Message Analyzer performs filtering and pattern recognition on the log messages and reacts to system failures identified by associated triggering rules. The tool helps the system maintain a healthy running state and to minimize data corruption. This paper also describes a domain specific language that allows the recognition patterns and correlation rules to be specified in a clear and flexible way. In addition, the engine provides a plugin mechanism for users to implement specialized patterns or rules in generic languages such as C++.

  5. Message Correlation Analysis Tool for NOvA

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    A complex running system, such as the NOvA online data acquisition, consists of a large number of distributed but closely interacting components. This paper describes a generic realtime correlation analysis and event identification engine, named Message Analyzer. Its purpose is to capture run time abnormalities and recognize system failures based on log messages from participating components. The initial design of analysis engine is driven by the DAQ of the NOvA experiment. The Message Analyzer performs filtering and pattern recognition on the log messages and reacts to system failures identified by associated triggering rules. The tool helps the system maintain a healthy running state and to minimize data corruption. This paper also describes a domain specific language that allows the recognition patterns and correlation rules to be specified in a clear and flexible way. In addition, the engine provides a plugin mechanism for users to implement specialized patterns or rules in generic languages such as C++.

  6. Privacy implications of presence sharing in mobile messaging applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchenscheit, Andreas; Könings, Bastian; Neubert, Andreas; Schaub, Florian; Schneider, Matthias; Kargl, Frank

    Mobile messaging applications, such as WhatsApp, provide a free alternative for mobile texting on smartphones. Mobile messengers typically also share presence information about users to indicate when a user is online. We investigated the privacy implications of such presence updates, using WhatsApp

  7. Privacy implications of presence sharing in mobile messaging applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchenscheit, Andreas; Könings, Bastian; Neubert, Andreas; Schaub, Florian; Schneider, Matthias; Kargl, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Mobile messaging applications, such as WhatsApp, provide a free alternative for mobile texting on smartphones. Mobile messengers typically also share presence information about users to indicate when a user is online. We investigated the privacy implications of such presence updates, using WhatsApp

  8. WhatsApp Messaging: Achievements and Success in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitza, Davidivitch; Roman, Yavich

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant rise in the use of technological means in general and in academic teaching in particular. Many programs have been developed that include computer-assisted teaching, as well as online courses at educational institutions. The current study focuses on WhatsApp messaging and its use in academia. Studies…

  9. A Qualitative Study of Smokers' Responses to Messages Discouraging Dual Tobacco Product Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy; Kostygina, Ganna; Sheon, Nicolas M.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette companies increasingly promote novel smokeless tobacco products to smokers, encouraging them to use smokeless tobacco in smoke-free environments. New messages may counteract this promotion. We developed 12 initial anti-smokeless message ideas and tested them in eight online focus groups with 75 US smokers. Those smokers who never tried…

  10. COPD online-rehabilitation versus conventional COPD rehabilitation - rationale and design for a multicenter randomized controlled trial study protocol (CORe trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Bieler, Theresa; Beyer, Nina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rehabilitation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a key treatment in COPD. However, despite the existing evidence and a strong recommendation from lung associations worldwide, 50% of patients with COPD decline to participate in COPD rehabilitation program...... and 30-50% drop-out before completion. The main reasons are severe symptoms, inflexible accessibility and necessity for transportation. Currently there are no well-established and evident rehabilitation alternatives. Supervised online screen rehabilitation could be a useful approach to increase...... accessibility and compliance. The aim of this multicenter RCT study is to compare the potential benefits of a 10-week online COPD rehabilitation program (CORe) with conventional outpatient COPD rehabilitation (CCRe). METHODS: This study is a randomized assessor- and statistician blinded superiority multicenter...

  11. AAAI President's Message

    OpenAIRE

    Newell, Allen

    2017-01-01

    Births are always interesting affairs. According to some, births are always traumatic — a shock to come from the womb to the new world. The birth we give witness to here is that of a new society, the American Association for Artificial Intelligence — AAAI. It has not seemed to me traumatic, but rather almost wholly benign. In a world where not much is benign at the moment, such an event is devoutly to be cherished. The proper topic for this initial message is talk about beginnings...

  12. Manipulative Use of Short Messaging Service (SMS Text Messages by Nigerian Telecommunications Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoola, Kehinde A.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an application of Relevance Theory for the interpretation of short messaging service (SMS text messages emanating from Nigerian telecommunications companies to their subscribers. The aim of the research was to identify and describe the manipulative strategies employed by Nigerian telecommunications companies to induce subscribers to part with their money through sales promotion lotteries. 100 SMS texts were purposively extracted from the cell phones of randomly selected residents of Lagos Nigeria who had received promotional SMS text messages from three major Nigerian telecommunications companies. Using Sperber and Wilson's Relevance Theory (1995 as its theoretical framework, the paper described the manipulative use of SMS by Nigerian telecommunications companies. The analysis revealed that SMS text messages were encoded to achieve maximization of relevance through explicature and implicature; contextual implication and strengthening; and the reduction of processing effort through violating the maxim of truthfulness and the creative use of graphology. The paper concludes that SMS text-messages were used manipulatively by Nigerian telecommunications companies to earn indirect income from sales promotion lottery.

  13. When adolescents receive sexual messages on the internet: explaining experiences of risk and harm

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, Sonia; Görzig, Anke

    2014-01-01

    This article reports new findings on the incidence of risk and the associated experience of harm reported by children and adolescents aged 11–16, regarding receipt of sexual messages on the internet (known popularly as sexting). Findings showed that the main predictors of the risk of seeing or receiving sexual messages online are age (older), psychological difficulties (higher), sensation seeking (higher) and risky online and offline behavior (higher). By contrast, the main predictors of harm...

  14. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of online cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic insomnia disorder delivered via an automated media-rich web application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espie, Colin A; Kyle, Simon D; Williams, Chris; Ong, Jason C; Douglas, Neil J; Hames, Peter; Brown, June S L

    2012-06-01

    The internet provides a pervasive milieu for healthcare delivery. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a novel web-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) course delivered by an automated virtual therapist, when compared with a credible placebo; an approach required because web products may be intrinsically engaging, and vulnerable to placebo response. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial comprising 3 arms: CBT, imagery relief therapy (IRT: placebo), treatment as usual (TAU). Online community of participants in the UK. One hundred sixty-four adults (120 F: [mean age 49y (18-78y)] meeting proposed DSM-5 criteria for Insomnia Disorder, randomly assigned to CBT (n = 55; 40 F), IRT placebo (n = 55; 42 F) or TAU (n = 54; 38 F). CBT and IRT each comprised 6 online sessions delivered by an animated personal therapist, with automated web and email support. Participants also had access to a video library/back catalogue of session content and Wikipedia style articles. Online CBT users had access to a moderated social network/community of users. TAU comprised no restrictions on usual care and access to an online sleep diary. Major assessments at baseline, post-treatment, and at follow-up 8-weeks post-treatment; outcomes appraised by online sleep diaries and clinical status. On the primary endpoint of sleep efficiency (SE; total time asleep expressed as a percentage of the total time spent in bed), online CBT was associated with sustained improvement at post-treatment (+20%) relative to both TAU (+6%; d = 0.95) and IRT (+6%: d = 1.06), and at 8 weeks (+20%) relative to IRT (+7%: d = 1.00) and TAU (+9%: d = 0.69) These findings were mirrored across a range of sleep diary measures. Clinical benefits of CBT were evidenced by modest superiority over placebo on daytime outcomes (d = 0.23-0.37) and by substantial improved sleep-wake functioning on the Sleep Condition Indicator (range of d = 0.77-1.20). Three-quarters of CBT participants (76% [CBT] vs. 29

  15. Cost-effectiveness of i-Sleep, a guided online CBT intervention, for patients with insomnia in general practice: protocol of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zweerde, Tanja; Lancee, Jaap; Slottje, Pauline; Bosmans, Judith; Van Someren, Eus; Reynolds, Charles; Cuijpers, Pim; van Straten, Annemieke

    2016-04-02

    Insomnia is a highly prevalent disorder causing clinically significant distress and impairment. Furthermore, insomnia is associated with high societal and individual costs. Although cognitive behavioural treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) is the preferred treatment, it is not used often. Offering CBT-I in an online format may increase access. Many studies have shown that online CBT for insomnia is effective. However, these studies have all been performed in general population samples recruited through media. This protocol article presents the design of a study aimed at establishing feasibility, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a guided online intervention (i-Sleep) for patients suffering from insomnia that seek help from their general practitioner as compared to care-as-usual. In a pragmatic randomized controlled trial, adult patients with insomnia disorder recruited through general practices are randomized to a 5-session guided online treatment, which is called "i-Sleep", or to care-as-usual. Patients in the care-as-usual condition will be offered i-Sleep 6 months after inclusion. An ancillary clinician, known as the psychological well-being practitioner who works in the GP practice (PWP; in Dutch: POH-GGZ), will offer online support after every session. Our aim is to recruit one hundred and sixty patients. Questionnaires, a sleep diary and wrist actigraphy will be administered at baseline, post intervention (at 8 weeks), and at 6 months and 12 months follow-up. Effectiveness will be established using insomnia severity as the main outcome. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility (using costs per quality adjusted life year (QALY) as outcome) will be conducted from a societal perspective. Secondary measures are: sleep diary, daytime consequences, fatigue, work and social adjustment, anxiety, alcohol use, depression and quality of life. The results of this trial will help establish whether online CBT-I is (cost-) effective and feasible in general practice as compared

  16. Face-to-face individual counseling and online group motivational interviewing in improving oral health: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Lo, Edward Chin-Man; McGrath, Colman; Ho, Samuel Mun-Yin

    2015-09-18

    Motivational interviewing (MI) has great potential in changing health-related behaviors. In addition to delivery in face-to-face individual counseling, MI can be delivered through online groups, a method that is particularly appealing to adolescents and may offer several benefits. This randomized controlled trial compares the effectiveness of prevailing health education (HE), face-to-face individual MI and online group MI in improving adolescents' oral health behaviors (diet and toothbrushing) and in preventing dental caries and periodontal diseases. In each of Hong Kong's main districts (Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories), three secondary schools will be recruited and randomly assigned to three groups (HE, face-to-face individual MI, and online group MI). A total of 495 adolescents (aged 12 to 13 years) with unfavorable oral health behaviors ("snacking twice or more a day" and/or "brushing teeth less than twice a day") will be recruited: 165 in each group. Two dental hygienists will be trained to deliver the interventions. HE will be provided through an oral health talk. Participants in the "face-to-face individual MI" group will join a one-on-one counseling session. For "online group MI," participants will form groups of 6 to 8 and join a synchronous text-based online counseling session. At baseline and after 6, 12 and 24 months, clinical outcomes (caries increment and gingival health) and oral health self-efficacy and behaviors (toothbrushing and snacking) will be recorded through an oral examination and a questionnaire, respectively. Effectiveness of the interventions will be evaluated and compared. The primary outcomes will be the "number of new carious surfaces" and "gingival bleeding score" (% of surfaces with gingival bleeding). The secondary outcomes will be changes in oral health self-efficacy and behaviors (toothbrushing and snacking frequencies). A preliminary economic evaluation and a process evaluation will be included to analyze the

  17. Teaching School Finance Online: Promise or Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Barbara M.; Wiesenauer, Kathy; Hinshaw, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Uses course evaluations and email messages between students and instructors to investigate opinions of online school-finance courses compared with other online courses in a principal-preparation program. Recommends more opportunity for student discussion in future online school-finance courses. (PKP)

  18. Testing normative and self-appraisal feedback in an online slot-machine pop-up in a real-world setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mario Auer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, there have been an increasing number of gaming operators that have incorporated on-screen pop-up messages while gamblers play on slot machines and/or online as one of a range of tools to help encourage responsible gambling. Coupled with this, there has also been an increase in empirical research into whether such pop-up messages are effective, particularly in laboratory settings. However, very few studies have been conducted on the utility of pop-up messages in real-world gambling settings. The present study investigated the effects of normative and self-appraisal feedback in a slot machine pop-up message compared to a simple (non-enhanced pop-up message. The study was conducted in a real-world gambling environment by comparing the behavioural tracking data of two representative random samples of 800,000 gambling sessions (i.e., 1.6 million sessions in total across two conditions (i.e., simple pop-up message versus an enhanced pop-up message. The results indicated that the additional normative and self-appraisal content doubled the number of gamblers who stopped playing after they received the enhanced pop-up message (1.39% compared to the simple pop-up message (0.67%. The data suggest that pop-up messages influence only a small number of gamblers to cease long playing sessions and that enhanced messages are slightly more effective in helping gamblers to stop playing in-session.

  19. Commercial message bank system; CM banku system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The system stores and sends out commercial messages, consisting of moving images or freeze-frame images, at broadcasting stations. Using this system, the need of recording materials with redundancy is dispensed with and the image quality is not degraded after repeated reproduction. The system promptly copes with complicated broadcasting schedule preparation and emergency replacements. A video server VIDEOS{sub TM} of Toshiba Corporation make provided with a flash memory device constitutes the core of the system, and therefore it is superior in random-accessibility and reliability to the hard disk-provided types of other manufacturers. The system enjoys advantage over the products of other makers in terms of image quality since it supports, in addition to compression-free recording, the variable rate compression scheme which is less vulnerable to image quality degradation. It has one input port and six output ports, and records more than 3000 commercial messages in 15 seconds. (translated by NEDO)

  20. Sleep-related safety behaviors and dysfunctional beliefs mediate the efficacy of online CBT for insomnia: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, J.; Eisma, M.C.; van Straten, A.; Kamphuis, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Several trials have demonstrated the efficacy of online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. However, few studies have examined putative mechanisms of change based on the cognitive model of insomnia. Identification of modifiable mechanisms by which the treatment works may guide efforts

  1. Identifying key hospital service quality factors in online health communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yuchul; Hur, Cinyoung; Jung, Dain; Kim, Minki

    2015-04-07

    The volume of health-related user-created content, especially hospital-related questions and answers in online health communities, has rapidly increased. Patients and caregivers participate in online community activities to share their experiences, exchange information, and ask about recommended or discredited hospitals. However, there is little research on how to identify hospital service quality automatically from the online communities. In the past, in-depth analysis of hospitals has used random sampling surveys. However, such surveys are becoming impractical owing to the rapidly increasing volume of online data and the diverse analysis requirements of related stakeholders. As a solution for utilizing large-scale health-related information, we propose a novel approach to identify hospital service quality factors and overtime trends automatically from online health communities, especially hospital-related questions and answers. We defined social media-based key quality factors for hospitals. In addition, we developed text mining techniques to detect such factors that frequently occur in online health communities. After detecting these factors that represent qualitative aspects of hospitals, we applied a sentiment analysis to recognize the types of recommendations in messages posted within online health communities. Korea's two biggest online portals were used to test the effectiveness of detection of social media-based key quality factors for hospitals. To evaluate the proposed text mining techniques, we performed manual evaluations on the extraction and classification results, such as hospital name, service quality factors, and recommendation types using a random sample of messages (ie, 5.44% (9450/173,748) of the total messages). Service quality factor detection and hospital name extraction achieved average F1 scores of 91% and 78%, respectively. In terms of recommendation classification, performance (ie, precision) is 78% on average. Extraction and

  2. Survey of Instant Messaging Applications Encryption Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kabakuş, Abdullah; Kara, Resul

    2015-01-01

    Instant messaging applications has already taken the place of traditional Short Messaging Service (SMS) and Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) due to their popularity and usage easement they provide. Users of instant messaging applications are able to send both text and audio messages, different types of attachments such as photos, videos, contact information to their contacts in real time. Because of instant messaging applications use internet instead of Short Message Service Technical Reali...

  3. Getting Your Message Across: Mobile Phone Text Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, Constance C.; Hayungs, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Want to send a message that 99% of your audience will read? Many Extension professionals are familiar with using social media tools to enhance Extension programming. Extension professionals may be less familiar with the use of mobile phone text-based marketing tools. The purpose of this article is to introduce SMS (short message system) marketing…

  4. Implementing the ICPD's message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A

    1995-01-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo in September 1994 recognized the need for reducing unwanted fertility and promoting smaller families within reproductive health services along with improving women's equality in education, health, and economic opportunity. The implementation of the main message would require an ideological transformation both for the population and for the development establishments. The implementation of a broadened population policy must incorporate the reduction of gender disparities as the primary goal. The problem is that the UNFPA has no influence over resources allocated to child health, female education, economic opportunities for women, or empowerment of women. Reproductive health and family planning programs should be integrated within the broader health services; however, reproductive health may not receive the desired high priority. Family planning programs are also expected to solve two problems: to improve individual well-being and to reduce overall fertility. Managers are likely to implement the reproductive health approach if it is a cost-effective way of reducing total fertility. However, no evidence exists to show that treating reproductive tract infections is a cost-effective way of reducing fertility. The primary objective of family planning programs should be empowerment of individuals to achieve their own reproductive goals in a healthful manner. Fertility reduction should be linked to fertility reduction by focusing on unwanted childbirth and to reproductive health services. The redesign of contraceptive services from a reproductive health perspective would deal with the contraindications of each method by developing standards for screening and focusing as well on the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions. The suggested role of the population sector in the tasks of development and family planning lies in promoting the main message to a wider national and international audience

  5. Effects of online group exercises for older adults on physical, psychological and social wellbeing: a randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Marcos; Khaghani Far, Iman; Ibarra, Francisco; Ferron, Michela; Didino, Daniele; Casati, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Intervention programs to promote physical activity in older adults, either in group or home settings, have shown equivalent health outcomes but different results when considering adherence. Group-based interventions seem to achieve higher participation in the long-term. However, there are many factors that can make of group exercises a challenging setting for older adults. A major one, due to the heterogeneity of this particular population, is the difference in the level of skills. In this paper we report on the physical, psychological and social wellbeing outcomes of a technology-based intervention that enable online group exercises in older adults with different levels of skills. A total of 37 older adults between 65 and 87 years old followed a personalized exercise program based on the OTAGO program for fall prevention, for a period of eight weeks. Participants could join online group exercises using a tablet-based application. Participants were assigned either to the Control group, representing the traditional individual home-based training program, or the Social group, representing the online group exercising. Pre- and post- measurements were taken to analyze the physical, psychological and social wellbeing outcomes. After the eight-weeks training program there were improvements in both the Social and Control groups in terms of physical outcomes, given the high level of adherence of both groups. Considering the baseline measures, however, the results suggest that while in the Control group fitter individuals tended to adhere more to the training, this was not the case for the Social group, where the initial level had no effect on adherence. For psychological outcomes there were improvements on both groups, regardless of the application used. There was no significant difference between groups in social wellbeing outcomes, both groups seeing a decrease in loneliness despite the presence of social features in the Social group. However, online social interactions

  6. Effects of online group exercises for older adults on physical, psychological and social wellbeing: a randomized pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Baez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Intervention programs to promote physical activity in older adults, either in group or home settings, have shown equivalent health outcomes but different results when considering adherence. Group-based interventions seem to achieve higher participation in the long-term. However, there are many factors that can make of group exercises a challenging setting for older adults. A major one, due to the heterogeneity of this particular population, is the difference in the level of skills. In this paper we report on the physical, psychological and social wellbeing outcomes of a technology-based intervention that enable online group exercises in older adults with different levels of skills. Methods A total of 37 older adults between 65 and 87 years old followed a personalized exercise program based on the OTAGO program for fall prevention, for a period of eight weeks. Participants could join online group exercises using a tablet-based application. Participants were assigned either to the Control group, representing the traditional individual home-based training program, or the Social group, representing the online group exercising. Pre- and post- measurements were taken to analyze the physical, psychological and social wellbeing outcomes. Results After the eight-weeks training program there were improvements in both the Social and Control groups in terms of physical outcomes, given the high level of adherence of both groups. Considering the baseline measures, however, the results suggest that while in the Control group fitter individuals tended to adhere more to the training, this was not the case for the Social group, where the initial level had no effect on adherence. For psychological outcomes there were improvements on both groups, regardless of the application used. There was no significant difference between groups in social wellbeing outcomes, both groups seeing a decrease in loneliness despite the presence of social features in the

  7. Internet-based interventions for disordered gamblers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of online self-directed cognitive-behavioural motivational therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgins David C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gambling disorders affect about one percent of adults. Effective treatments are available but only a small proportion of affected individuals will choose to attend formal treatment. As a result, self-directed treatments have also been developed and found effective. Self-directed treatments provide individuals with information and support to initiate a recovery program without attending formal treatment. In previous research we developed an telephone-based intervention package that helps people to be motivated to tackle their gambling problem and to use basic behavioral and cognitive change strategies. The present study will investigate the efficacy of this self-directed intervention offered as a free online resource. The Internet is an excellent modality in which to offer self-directed treatment for gambling problems. The Internet is increasingly accessible to members of the public and is frequently used to access health-related information. Online gambling sites are also becoming more popular gambling platforms. Method/Design A randomized clinical trial (N=180 will be conducted in which individuals with gambling problems who are not interested in attending formal treatment are randomly assigned to have access to an online self-directed intervention or to a comparison condition. The comparison condition will be an alternative website that offers a self-assessment of gambling involvement and gambling-related problems. The participant’s use of the resources and their gambling involvement (days of gambling, dollars loss and their gambling problems will be tracked for a twelve month follow-up period. Discussion The results of this research will be important for informing policy-makers who are developing treatment systems. Trial registration ISRCTN06220098

  8. Resistance to erythropoiesis stimulating agents in patients treated with online hemodiafiltration and ultrapure low-flux hemodialysis: results from a randomized controlled trial (CONTRAST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelke C van der Weerd

    Full Text Available Resistance to erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA is common in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis (HD treatment. ESA responsiveness might be improved by enhanced clearance of uremic toxins of middle molecular weight, as can be obtained by hemodiafiltration (HDF. In this analysis of the randomized controlled CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST; NCT00205556, the effect of online HDF on ESA resistance and iron parameters was studied. This was a pre-specified secondary endpoint of the main trial. A 12 months' analysis of 714 patients randomized to either treatment with online post-dilution HDF or continuation of low-flux HD was performed. Both groups were treated with ultrapure dialysis fluids. ESA resistance, measured every three months, was expressed as the ESA index (weight adjusted weekly ESA dose in daily defined doses [DDD]/hematocrit. The mean ESA index during 12 months was not different between patients treated with HDF or HD (mean difference HDF versus HD over time 0.029 DDD/kg/Hct/week [-0.024 to 0.081]; P = 0.29. Mean transferrin saturation ratio and ferritin levels during the study tended to be lower in patients treated with HDF (-2.52% [-4.72 to -0.31]; P = 0.02 and -49 ng/mL [-103 to 4]; P = 0.06 respectively, although there was a trend for those patients to receive slightly more iron supplementation (7.1 mg/week [-0.4 to 14.5]; P = 0.06. In conclusion, compared to low-flux HD with ultrapure dialysis fluid, treatment with online HDF did not result in a decrease in ESA resistance.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00205556.

  9. Covert Channel Pada Aliran Data Websocket untuk Komunikasi Messaging XMPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoga Dwitya Pramudita

    2015-07-01

    Abstract Instant Messaging communication services provide a variety of communication features that can be used by the user, such as text messaging (text messages both online and offline. One of the standard protocol that supports this service is XMPP (Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol. XMPP communication using XML documents, making it vulnerable to passive attacks monitoring content of  communications. To overcome this drawback the solution is encrypted communications. The other solutions that try to offer in this research is the use of a covert channel to send hidden messages. In this research will create a browser based XMPP client application that is capable to deliver XMPP communication and also provide covert channel communication. XMPP communication can be built on a web-based application using WebSocket protocol. This protocol will exploit field masking-key to load the covert channel messages that is sent during the session XMPP communication takes place. From the test results, the client application is able to produce a covert channel communication with a data width of 3 bytes in each packet. The client application is also able to perform covert communication channel in a communication link with the condition of the probability of packet loss rate below 10%.   Keywords— WebSocket, XMPP, masking-key, Covert Channel, browser based application.

  10. The working alliance in a randomized controlled trial comparing online with face-to-face cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preschl Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although numerous efficacy studies in recent years have found internet-based interventions for depression to be effective, there has been scant consideration of therapeutic process factors in the online setting. In face-to face therapy, the quality of the working alliance explains variance in treatment outcome. However, little is yet known about the impact of the working alliance in internet-based interventions, particularly as compared with face-to-face therapy. Methods This study explored the working alliance between client and therapist in the middle and at the end of a cognitive-behavioral intervention for depression. The participants were randomized to an internet-based treatment group (n = 25 or face-to-face group (n = 28. Both groups received the same cognitive behavioral therapy over an 8-week timeframe. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI post-treatment and the Working Alliance Inventory at mid- and post- treatment. Therapists completed the therapist version of the Working Alliance Inventory at post-treatment. Results With the exception of therapists' ratings of the tasks subscale, which were significantly higher in the online group, the two groups' ratings of the working alliance did not differ significantly. Further, significant correlations were found between clients' ratings of the working alliance and therapy outcome at post-treatment in the online group and at both mid- and post-treatment in the face-to-face group. Correlation analysis revealed that the working alliance ratings did not significantly predict the BDI residual gain score in either group. Conclusions Contrary to what might have been expected, the working alliance in the online group was comparable to that in the face-to-face group. However, the results showed no significant relations between the BDI residual gain score and the working alliance ratings in either group. Trial registration ACTRN12611000563965

  11. The Ontario printed educational message (OPEM trial to narrow the evidence-practice gap with respect to prescribing practices of general and family physicians: a cluster randomized controlled trial, targeting the care of individuals with diabetes and hypertension in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimshaw Jeremy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are gaps between what family practitioners do in clinical practice and the evidence-based ideal. The most commonly used strategy to narrow these gaps is the printed educational message (PEM; however, the attributes of successful printed educational messages and their overall effectiveness in changing physician practice are not clear. The current endeavor aims to determine whether such messages change prescribing quality in primary care practice, and whether these effects differ with the format of the message. Methods/design The design is a large, simple, factorial, unblinded cluster-randomized controlled trial. PEMs will be distributed with informed, a quarterly evidence-based synopsis of current clinical information produced by the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Canada, and will be sent to all eligible general and family practitioners in Ontario. There will be three replicates of the trial, with three different educational messages, each aimed at narrowing a specific evidence-practice gap as follows: 1 angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, hypertension treatment, and cholesterol lowering agents for diabetes; 2 retinal screening for diabetes; and 3 diuretics for hypertension. For each of the three replicates there will be three intervention groups. The first group will receive informed with an attached postcard-sized, short, directive "outsert." The second intervention group will receive informed with a two-page explanatory "insert" on the same topic. The third intervention group will receive informed, with both the above-mentioned outsert and insert. The control group will receive informed only, without either an outsert or insert. Routinely collected physician billing, prescription, and hospital data found in Ontario's administrative databases will be used to monitor pre-defined prescribing changes relevant and specific to each replicate, following delivery of the educational messages. Multi

  12. Impact of an online writing aid tool for writing a randomized trial report: the COBWEB (Consort-based WEB tool) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Caroline; Boutron, Isabelle; Giraudeau, Bruno; Porcher, Raphael; Altman, Douglas G; Ravaud, Philippe

    2015-09-15

    Incomplete reporting is a frequent waste in research. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of a writing aid tool (WAT) based on the CONSORT statement and its extension for non-pharmacologic treatments on the completeness of reporting of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We performed a 'split-manuscript' RCT with blinded outcome assessment. Participants were masters and doctoral students in public health. They were asked to write, over a 4-hour period, the methods section of a manuscript based on a real RCT protocol, with a different protocol provided to each participant. Methods sections were divided into six different domains: 'trial design', 'randomization', 'blinding', 'participants', 'interventions', and 'outcomes'. Participants had to draft all six domains with access to the WAT for a random three of six domains. The random sequence was computer-generated and concealed. For each domain, the WAT comprised reminders of the corresponding CONSORT item(s), bullet points detailing all the key elements to be reported, and examples of good reporting. The control intervention consisted of no reminders. The primary outcome was the mean global score for completeness of reporting (scale 0-10) for all domains written with or without the WAT. Forty-one participants wrote 41 different manuscripts of RCT methods sections, corresponding to 246 domains (six for each of the 41 protocols). All domains were analyzed. For the primary outcome, the mean (SD) global score for completeness of reporting was higher with than without use of the WAT: 7.1 (1.2) versus 5.0 (1.6), with a mean (95 % CI) difference 2.1 (1.5-2.7; P <0.01). Completeness of reporting was significantly higher with the WAT for all domains except for blinding and outcomes. Use of the WAT could improve the completeness of manuscripts reporting the results of RCTs. Clinicaltrials.gov ( http://clinicaltrials.gov NCT02127567 , registration date first received April 29, 2014).

  13. A tailored online safety and health intervention for women experiencing intimate partner violence: the iCAN Plan 4 Safety randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Varcoe, Colleen; Scott-Storey, Kelly; Wuest, Judith; Case, James; Currie, Leanne M; Glass, Nancy; Hodgins, Marilyn; MacMillan, Harriet; Perrin, Nancy; Wathen, C Nadine

    2017-03-21

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) threatens the safety and health of women worldwide. Safety planning is a widely recommended, evidence-based intervention for women experiencing IPV, yet fewer than 1 in 5 Canadian women access safety planning through domestic violence services. Rural, Indigenous, racialized, and immigrant women, those who prioritize their privacy, and/or women who have partners other than men, face unique safety risks and access barriers. Online IPV interventions tailored to the unique features of women's lives, and to maximize choice and control, have potential to reduce access barriers, and improve fit and inclusiveness, maximizing effectiveness of these interventions for diverse groups. In this double blind randomized controlled trial, 450 Canadian women who have experienced IPV in the previous 6 months will be randomized to either a tailored, interactive online safety and health intervention (iCAN Plan 4 Safety) or general online safety information (usual care). iCAN engages women in activities designed to increase their awareness of safety risks, reflect on their plans for their relationships and priorities, and create a personalize action plan of strategies and resources for addressing their safety and health concerns. Self-reported outcome measures will be collected at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline. Primary outcomes are depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, Revised) and PTSD Symptoms (PTSD Checklist, Civilian Version). Secondary outcomes include helpful safety actions, safety planning self-efficacy, mastery, and decisional conflict. In-depth qualitative interviews with approximately 60 women who have completed the trial and website utilization data will be used to explore women's engagement with the intervention and processes of change. This trial will contribute timely evidence about the effectiveness of online safety and health interventions appropriate for diverse life contexts. If

  14. A tailored online safety and health intervention for women experiencing intimate partner violence: the iCAN Plan 4 Safety randomized controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Ford-Gilboe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV threatens the safety and health of women worldwide. Safety planning is a widely recommended, evidence-based intervention for women experiencing IPV, yet fewer than 1 in 5 Canadian women access safety planning through domestic violence services. Rural, Indigenous, racialized, and immigrant women, those who prioritize their privacy, and/or women who have partners other than men, face unique safety risks and access barriers. Online IPV interventions tailored to the unique features of women’s lives, and to maximize choice and control, have potential to reduce access barriers, and improve fit and inclusiveness, maximizing effectiveness of these interventions for diverse groups. Methods/Design In this double blind randomized controlled trial, 450 Canadian women who have experienced IPV in the previous 6 months will be randomized to either a tailored, interactive online safety and health intervention (iCAN Plan 4 Safety or general online safety information (usual care. iCAN engages women in activities designed to increase their awareness of safety risks, reflect on their plans for their relationships and priorities, and create a personalize action plan of strategies and resources for addressing their safety and health concerns. Self-reported outcome measures will be collected at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline. Primary outcomes are depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, Revised and PTSD Symptoms (PTSD Checklist, Civilian Version. Secondary outcomes include helpful safety actions, safety planning self-efficacy, mastery, and decisional conflict. In-depth qualitative interviews with approximately 60 women who have completed the trial and website utilization data will be used to explore women’s engagement with the intervention and processes of change. Discussion This trial will contribute timely evidence about the effectiveness of online safety and

  15. Measuring Message Propagation and Social Influence on Twitter.com

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shaozhi; Wu, S. Felix

    Although extensive studies have been conducted on online social networks (OSNs), it is not clear how to characterize information propagation and social influence, two types of important but not well defined social behavior. This paper presents a measurement study of 58M messages collected from 700K users on Twitter.com, a popular social medium. We analyze the propagation patterns of general messages and show how breaking news (Michael Jackson's death) spread through Twitter. Furthermore, we evaluate different social influences by examining their stabilities, assessments, and correlations. This paper addresses the complications as well as challenges we encounter when measuring message propagation and social influence on OSNs. We believe that our results here provide valuable insights for future OSN research.

  16. Masking of random-walk motion by flicker, and its role in the allocation of motion in the on-line jitter illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Adela S Y; Bedggood, Phillip A; Metha, Andrew B; Anderson, Andrew J

    2017-08-01

    Typically, perceptual stabilization mechanisms make us unaware of the retinal image motion produced by the small, involuntary eye movements our eyes constantly make during fixation. The breakdown of perceptual stability is demonstrated by the on-line jitter illusion, in which a circular static pattern appears to jitter coherently when surrounded by a flickering annular pattern. Although both regions of the stimulus are subject to retinal motion from eye movements, the visual system attributes this motion to the central static region in the form of visual jitter, while the surrounding flickering region remains perceptually stable. We investigated factors influencing this allocation of motion and reference frame in the on-line jitter illusion. The flickering of the surround was found to impair the detection of simultaneous random-walk motion in this area, giving a detection reliability of around 80% for motion approximating that from fixational eye movements. Changes to spatial texture and location of flicker (centre vs. surrounding annulus) had little effect on the final percept. However, use of a nonconcentric stimulus resulted in a marked reduction in apparent jitter in all subjects. Our results suggest for the on-line jitter illusion, allocation of motion and reference frame is influenced by the general principle that, if one region surrounds another, the surrounding region tends to be allocated as the frame of reference. When this factor is controlled for, spatial textures, location of flicker, and the masking of motion by flicker have a smaller but measurable influence on the final percept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of Triple P Online with parents of children with early-onset conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Matthew R; Baker, Sabine; Turner, Karen M T

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the efficacy of Triple P Online (TPOL), an eight-module intensive online positive parenting program for parents of children with early-onset disruptive behavior problems. One hundred and sixteen parents with 2-9-year-old children displaying early-onset disruptive behavior difficulties were randomly assigned to either the intervention condition (N = 60) or an internet-use-as-usual control group (N = 56). At post-intervention assessment, parents receiving the internet intervention TPOL had significantly better outcomes on measures of problem child behavior, dysfunctional parenting styles, parents' confidence in their parenting role, and parental anger. At 6-month follow-up assessment intervention gains were generally maintained, and in some cases enhanced. Consumer satisfaction ratings for the program were high. Internet-delivered self-help parenting programs appear to make a valuable contribution to a comprehensive public health approach to parenting support. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of an online alcohol education course on behavior and harm for incoming first-year college students: short-term evaluation of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croom, Katherine; Lewis, Deborah; Marchell, Timothy; Lesser, Martin L; Reyna, Valerie F; Kubicki-Bedford, Lisa; Feffer, Mitchel; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The authors assessed short-term effectiveness of a Web-based alcohol education program on entering freshmen. 3,216 incoming first-year students were randomized to a control or intervention group. Controls completed a survey and knowledge test the summer before college; 4 to 6 weeks after arrival on campus, they completed a follow-up survey of behaviors and harms followed by an invitation to complete the online course. Intervention students completed the precourse survey and test, the online course, and final exam prior to coming to campus. This was followed by a survey 4 to 6 weeks after arrival on campus. Although the intervention group showed significantly higher alcohol-related postcourse knowledge compared to the control group, protective behavior, risk-related behavior, high-risk drinking, and alcohol-related harm did not favor the intervention group, with the sole exception of playing drinking games. Alcohol knowledge alone was insufficient to mitigate alcohol-related high-risk behaviors in this student population.

  19. Bilingual approach to online cancer genetics education for Deaf American Sign Language users produces greater knowledge and confidence than English text only: A randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Christina G S; Boudreault, Patrick; Berman, Barbara A; Wolfson, Alicia; Duarte, Lionel; Venne, Vickie L; Sinsheimer, Janet S

    2017-01-01

    Deaf American Sign Language-users (ASL) have limited access to cancer genetics information they can readily understand, increasing risk for health disparities. We compared effectiveness of online cancer genetics information presented using a bilingual approach (ASL with English closed captioning) and a monolingual approach (English text). Bilingual modality would increase cancer genetics knowledge and confidence to create a family tree; education would interact with modality. We used a parallel 2:1 randomized pre-post study design stratified on education. 150 Deaf ASL-users ≥18 years old with computer and internet access participated online; 100 (70 high, 30 low education) and 50 (35 high, 15 low education) were randomized to the bilingual and monolingual modalities. Modalities provide virtually identical content on creating a family tree, using the family tree to identify inherited cancer risk factors, understanding how cancer predisposition can be inherited, and the role of genetic counseling and testing for prevention or treatment. 25 true/false items assessed knowledge; a Likert scale item assessed confidence. Data were collected within 2 weeks before and after viewing the information. Significant interaction of language modality, education, and change in knowledge scores was observed (p = .01). High education group increased knowledge regardless of modality (Bilingual: p education group increased knowledge with bilingual (p Bilingual modality yielded greater confidence creating a family tree (p = .03). Bilingual approach provides a better opportunity for lower educated Deaf ASL-users to access cancer genetics information than a monolingual approach. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Message-passing multiprocessor simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.H.

    1986-05-01

    The structure and use of a message-passing multiprocessor simulator are described. The simulator provides a multitasking environment for the development of algorithms for parallel processors using either shared or local memories. The simulator may be used from C or FORTRAN and provides a library of subroutines for task control and message passing. The simulator produces a trace file that can be used for debugging, performance analysis, or graphical display. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  1. EFFECTIVENESS OF ONLINE ADVERTISING

    OpenAIRE

    Anusha, G

    2017-01-01

    Advertising has come a long way today. More and more new medium is being explored each day to make a successful advertising campaign. Internet that has in recent times picked up as advertising medium has become the favorite of the advertiser in no time. Online advertisement, also called internet advertising uses the internet to deliver promotional marketing messages to consumers. It includes email marketing, search engine marketing, social media marketing, many types of display advertising (i...

  2. Tailoring Messages to Individual Differences in Monitoring-Blunting Styles to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Piehota, Pamela; Latimer, Amy E.; Katulak, Nicole A.; Cox, Ashley; Silvera, Stephanie A. N.; Mowad, Linda; Salovey, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether messages matched to individuals' monitoring-blunting coping styles (MBCS) are more effective in increasing fruit and vegetable intake than mismatched messages. MBCS refers to the tendency to either attend to and amplify, or distract oneself from and minimize threatening information. Design/Setting: Randomly assigned…

  3. OMG! Texting in Class = U Fail :( Empirical Evidence That Text Messaging During Class Disrupts Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Amanda C.; Lineweaver, Tara T.

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effects of text messaging during lecture on comprehension of lecture material. Students (in Experiment 1) and randomly assigned participants (in Experiment 2) in a text message condition texted a prescribed conversation while listening to a brief lecture. Students and participants in the no-text condition…

  4. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources. Volume 91. 2012 | Online resources ...

  5. "Playing Hooky" Health Messages: Apprehension, Impression Management, and Deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Ashley; Murphy, Melissa; Blackburn, Kate

    2017-01-06

    This study investigates playing hooky in higher education classrooms and associates this behavior with students' communicative dispositions, instructor perceptions, and language use. We define "playing hooky" as students skipping class and explaining their absence to their instructor with deceptive health messages. The purpose of Study 1, an online survey (N = 177), is to further understand the characteristics of students who engage in this type of deceptive health communication. Study 1 measures communication apprehension and perceived instructor credibility in students who had played hooky from class and those who had not. Findings reveal that students who communicate playing hooky health messages (a) reported more instructor communication apprehension and (b) perceived the instructors with whom they had played hooky to be less credible. Study 2 uses facework theory and MEH analysis to reveal the different linguistic strategies students use to communicate (a) truthful health messages (N = 165) and (b) deceptive heath messages (N = 82) to their instructor following an absence. Results demonstrate that students' facework strategies are more geared toward saving instructors' negative face in the deceptive health message condition. Implications of both studies are offered.

  6. Improved Strongly Deniable Authenticated Key Exchanges for Secure Messaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger Nik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A deniable authenticated key exchange (DAKE protocol establishes a secure channel without producing cryptographic evidence of communication. A DAKE offers strong deniability if transcripts provide no evidence even if long-term key material is compromised (offline deniability and no outsider can obtain evidence even when interactively colluding with an insider (online deniability. Unfortunately, existing strongly deniable DAKEs have not been adopted by secure messaging tools due to security and deployability weaknesses.

  7. Evaluation of a real-time virtual intervention to empower persons living with HIV to use therapy self-management: study protocol for an online randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Côté José

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Living with HIV makes considerable demands on a person in terms of self-management, especially as regards adherence to treatment and coping with adverse side-effects. The online HIV Treatment, Virtual Nursing Assistance and Education (Virus de I’immunodéficience Humaine–Traitement Assistance Virtuelle Infirmière et Enseignement; VIH-TAVIE™ intervention was developed to provide persons living with HIV (PLHIV with personalized follow-up and real-time support in managing their medication intake on a daily basis. An online randomized controlled trial (RCT will be conducted to evaluate the efficacy of this intervention primarily in optimizing adherence to combination anti-retroviral therapy (ART among PLHIV. Methods/design A convenience sample of 232 PLHIV will be split evenly and randomly between an experimental group that will use the web application, and a control group that will be handed a list of websites of interest. Participants must be aged 18 years or older, have been on ART for at least 6 months, and have internet access. The intervention is composed of four interactive computer sessions of 20 to 30 minutes hosted by a virtual nurse who engages the PLHIV in a skills-learning process aimed at improving self-management of medication intake. Adherence constitutes the principal outcome, and is defined as the intake of at least 95% of the prescribed tablets. The following intermediary measures will be assessed: self-efficacy and attitude towards antiretroviral medication, symptom-related discomfort, and emotional support. There will be three measurement times: baseline (T0, after 3 months (T3 and 6 months (T6 of baseline measurement. The principal analyses will focus on comparing the two groups in terms of treatment adherence at the end of follow-up at T6. An intention-to-treat (ITT analysis will be carried out to evaluate the true value of the intervention in a real context. Discussion Carrying out this online RCT

  8. Evaluation of a real-time virtual intervention to empower persons living with HIV to use therapy self-management: study protocol for an online randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, José; Godin, Gaston; Guéhéneuc, Yann-Gaël; Rouleau, Geneviève; Ramirez-Garcìa, Pilar; Otis, Joanne; Tremblay, Cécile; Fadel, Ghayas

    2012-10-05

    Living with HIV makes considerable demands on a person in terms of self-management, especially as regards adherence to treatment and coping with adverse side-effects. The online HIV Treatment, Virtual Nursing Assistance and Education (Virus de I'immunodéficience Humaine-Traitement Assistance Virtuelle Infirmière et Enseignement; VIH-TAVIE™) intervention was developed to provide persons living with HIV (PLHIV) with personalized follow-up and real-time support in managing their medication intake on a daily basis. An online randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted to evaluate the efficacy of this intervention primarily in optimizing adherence to combination anti-retroviral therapy (ART) among PLHIV. A convenience sample of 232 PLHIV will be split evenly and randomly between an experimental group that will use the web application, and a control group that will be handed a list of websites of interest. Participants must be aged 18 years or older, have been on ART for at least 6 months, and have internet access. The intervention is composed of four interactive computer sessions of 20 to 30 minutes hosted by a virtual nurse who engages the PLHIV in a skills-learning process aimed at improving self-management of medication intake. Adherence constitutes the principal outcome, and is defined as the intake of at least 95% of the prescribed tablets. The following intermediary measures will be assessed: self-efficacy and attitude towards antiretroviral medication, symptom-related discomfort, and emotional support. There will be three measurement times: baseline (T0), after 3 months (T3) and 6 months (T6) of baseline measurement. The principal analyses will focus on comparing the two groups in terms of treatment adherence at the end of follow-up at T6. An intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis will be carried out to evaluate the true value of the intervention in a real context. Carrying out this online RCT poses various challenges in terms of recruitment, ethics, and

  9. Speak fast, use jargon, and don't repeat yourself: a randomized trial assessing the effectiveness of online videos to supplement emergency department discharge instructions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L Atzema

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emergency department discharge instructions are variably understood by patients, and in the setting of emergency department crowding, innovations are needed to counteract shortened interaction times with the physician. We evaluated the effect of viewing an online video of diagnosis-specific discharge instructions on patient comprehension and recall of instructions. METHODS: In this prospective, single-center, randomized controlled trial conducted between November 2011 and January 2012, we randomized emergency department patients who were discharged with one of 38 diagnoses to either view (after they left the emergency department a vetted online video of diagnosis-specific discharge instructions, or to usual care. Patients were subsequently contacted by telephone and asked three standardized questions about their discharge instructions; one point was awarded for each correct answer. Using an intention-to-treat analysis, differences between groups were assessed using univariate testing, and with logistic regression that accounted for clustering on managing physician. A secondary outcome measure was patient satisfaction with the videos, on a 10-point scale. RESULTS: Among 133 patients enrolled, mean age was 46.1 (s.d.D. 21.5 and 55% were female. Patients in the video group had 19% higher mean scores (2.5, s.d. 0.7 than patients in the control group (2.1, s.d. 0.8 (p=0.002. After adjustment for patient age, sex, first language, triage acuity score, and clustering, the odds of achieving a fully correct score (3 out of 3 were 3.5 (95% CI, 1.7 to 7.2 times higher in the video group, compared to the control group. Among those who viewed the videos, median rating of the videos was 10 (IQR 8 to 10. CONCLUSIONS: In this single-center trial, patients who viewed an online video of their discharge instructions scored higher on their understanding of key concepts around their diagnosis and subsequent care. Those who viewed the videos found them to

  10. The effectiveness of creating an online life story book on persons with early dementia and their informal caregivers: a protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfrink, Teuntje R; Zuidema, Sytse U; Kunz, Miriam; Westerhof, Gerben J

    2017-04-21

    Dementia has a high burden for patients, informal caregivers and society. Given changes in care systems, more persons with dementia will live longer at home. However, living at home (with dementia) with a good quality of life is not easy to achieve. Dementia is often accompanied by neuropsychiatric symptoms like apathy, agitation, depression, and anxiety, which have a negative impact on quality of life. Whereas cognitive deterioration can hardly be influenced, it is possible to reduce neuropsychiatric symptoms. As autobiographical memories remain intact for a relatively long time in dementia, reminiscence interventions can promote feelings of pleasure and trust. The Online Life Story Book (OLSB) allows to digitally share memories (stories, pictures, video or audio fragments). The main objective is to study the effects of the OLSB on neuropsychiatric symptoms. The study has four secondary objectives: 1) to study the effectiveness of the intervention on the burden and quality of life of the primary informal caregiver; 2) to provide a preliminary health-economic evaluation; 3) to study the (time to) nursing home admittance as a longer term effect; 4) to provide a process evaluation. A randomized controlled trial with individual randomization to one of two conditions is conducted: 1) intervention "Online Life Story Book"; 2) control condition (care as usual). Participants are persons with early dementia and their primary caregivers. In the intervention OLSB, a trained volunteer guides the participants through the process of putting together a timeline of their lives during 5 meetings within a period of 8-10 weeks. To assess the effects of the intervention on the primary outcome, neuropsychiatric symptoms, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) will be assessed at three time points: before the intervention (baseline, T0), 3 months (T1) and 6 months (T2) post baseline. When proven effective, the Online Life Story Book can be a valuable addition to the existing provision

  11. Online and offline effects of cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation on motor learning in healthy older adults: a randomized double-blind sham-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaei, Afshin; Ehsani, Fatemeh; Zoghi, Maryam; Hafez Yosephi, Mohaddese; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this randomized double blinded sham-controlled study was to determine the effect of cerebellar anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) on online and offline motor learning in healthy older individuals. Thirty participants were randomly assigned in experimental (n = 15) or sham tDCS (n = 15) groups. Participants in experimental group received 2 mA cerebellar a-tDCS for 20 min. However, the tDCS was turned off after 30 seconds in sham group. Response time (RT) and error rate (ER) in serial RT test were assessed before, during 35 minutes and 48 h after the intervention. Reduction of RT and ER following the intervention session was considered as short-term (35 min post intervention) and long-term offline learning (48 h post intervention), respectively. Online RT and ER reduction were similar in both groups (P > 0.05). RT was significantly reduced 48 hours post intervention in cerebellar a-tDCS group (P = 0.03). Moreover, RT was significantly increased after 35 minutes and 48 hours in sham tDCS group (P = 0.03, P = 0.007), which indicates a lack of short-term and long-term offline learning in older adults. A-tDCS on cerebellar region produced more short-term and long-term offline improvement in RT (P = 0.014, P = 0.01) compared to sham tDCS. In addition, online, short-term and long-term (48 h) offline error reduced in cerebellar a-tDCS as compared to sham-control group, although this reduction was not significant (P > 0.05). A deficit suggests that a direct comparison to a younger group was made. The findings suggested that cerebellar a-tDCS might be useful for improvement of offline motor learning in older individuals. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. An Investigation of the Impact of an Intervention to Reduce Academic Procrastination Using Short Message Service (SMS) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Darrel R.; Abbitt, Jason T.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-method pilot study investigated the impact of a custom Short Message Service (SMS) reminder system developed to help students reduce procrastination and increase performance on weekly content-related quizzes in a high-enrollment hybrid online course. Text message reminders were sent to three students with high procrastination and low…

  13. Technical Evaluation Report 6: Chat and Instant Messaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Stein

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Text-based conferencing can be both asynchronous (i.e., participants log into the conference at separate times, and synchronous (i.e., interaction takes place in real time. It is thus subject to the same wide variation as the online audio- and video-conferencing methods (see the earlier Reports in this series. Synchronous text-based approaches (e.g., online chat groups and instant messaging systems are highly popular among online users generally owing to their ability to bring together special-interest groups from around the world without cost. In distance education (DE, however, synchronous chat methods are less widely used, owing in part to the problems of arranging for working adults in different time zones to join a discussion group simultaneously. Instant text messaging is more popular among DE users in view of the choice it provides between responding to a message immediately (synchronous communication or after a delay (asynchronous. The different synchronous and asynchronous approaches are likely to become more widely used in parallel with one another, as they are integrated in individual product packages.

  14. Teen Dating Violence Prevention: Cluster-Randomized Trial of Teen Choices, an Online, Stage-Based Program for Healthy, Nonviolent Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Deborah A; Johnson, Janet L; Welch, Carol A; Prochaska, Janice M; Paiva, Andrea L

    2016-07-01

    Teen dating violence is a serious public health problem. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of Teen Choices, a 3-session online program that delivers assessments and individualized guidance matched to dating history, dating violence experiences, and stage of readiness for using healthy relationship skills. For high risk victims of dating violence, the program addresses readiness to keep oneself safe in relationships. Twenty high schools were randomly assigned to the Teen Choices condition (n=2,000) or a Comparison condition (n=1,901). Emotional and physical dating violence victimization and perpetration were assessed at 6 and 12 months in the subset of participants (total n=2,605) who reported a past-year history of dating violence at baseline, and/or who dated during the study. The Teen Choices program was associated with significantly reduced odds of all four types of dating violence (adjusted ORs ranging from .45 to .63 at 12 months follow-up). For three of the four violence outcomes, participants with a past-year history of that type of violence benefited significantly more from the intervention than students without a past-year history. The Teen Choices program provides an effective and practicable strategy for intervention for teen dating violence prevention.

  15. Boosting Achievement with Messages that Motivate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweck, Carol S.

    2007-01-01

    Almost everything educators say to their students sends a message. Some messages enhance students' motivation, but other messages undermine it. What should teachers say to students to send messages that motivate? In a survey given to parents, over 80% of them thought that it was necessary to praise their children's intelligence in order to give…

  16. Frequency of Risk-Related News Media Messages in 2016 Coverage of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Tara Kirk; Watson, Crystal; Meyer, Diane; Kronk, Marissa; Ravi, Sanjana; Pechta, Laura E; Lubell, Keri M; Rose, Dale A

    2018-01-03

    News media plays a large role in the information the public receives during an infectious disease outbreak, and may influence public knowledge and perceptions of risk. This study analyzed and described the content of U.S. news media coverage of Zika virus and Zika response during 2016. A random selection of 800 Zika-related news stories from 25 print and television news sources was analyzed. The study examined 24 different messages that appeared in news media articles and characterized them using theories of risk perception as messages with characteristics that could increase perception of risk (risk-elevating messages; n = 14), messages that could decrease perception of risk (risk-minimizing messages; n = 8), or messages about travel or testing guidance (n = 2). Overall, 96% of news stories in the study sample contained at least one or more risk-elevating message(s) and 61% contained risk-minimizing message(s). The frequency of many messages changed after local transmission was confirmed in Florida, and differed between sources in locations with or without local transmission in 2016. Forty percent of news stories included messages about negative potential outcomes of Zika virus infection without mentioning ways to reduce risk. Findings from this study may help inform current federal, state, and local Zika responses by offering a detailed analysis of how news media are covering the outbreak and response activities as well as identifying specific messages appearing more or less frequently than intended. Findings identifying the types of messages that require greater emphasis may also assist public health communicators in responding more effectively to future outbreaks. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. The eCALM Trial-eTherapy for cancer appLying mindfulness: online mindfulness-based cancer recovery program for underserved individuals living with cancer in Alberta: protocol development for a randomized wait-list controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zernicke Kristin A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated stress can exacerbate cancer symptom severity, and after completion of primary cancer treatments, many individuals continue to have significant distress. Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR is an 8-week group psychosocial intervention consisting of training in mindfulness meditation and yoga designed to mitigate stress, pain, and chronic illness. Efficacy research shows face-to-face (F2F MBCR programs have positive benefits for cancer patients; however barriers exist that impede participation in F2F groups. While online MBCR groups are available to the public, none have been evaluated. Primary objective: determine whether underserved patients are willing to participate in and complete an online MBCR program. Secondary objectives: determine whether online MBCR will mirror previous efficacy findings from F2F MBCR groups on patient-reported outcomes. Method/design The study includes cancer patients in Alberta, exhibiting moderate distress, who do not have access to F2F MBCR. Participants will be randomized to either online MBCR, or waiting for the next available group. An anticipated sample size of 64 participants will complete measures online pre and post treatment or waiting period. Feasibility will be tracked through monitoring numbers eligible and participating through each stage of the protocol. Discussion 47 have completed/completing the intervention. Data suggest it is possible to conduct a randomized waitlist controlled trial of online MBCR to reach underserved cancer survivors. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01476891

  18. Impact of diet-related cancer prevention messages written with cognitive and affective arguments on message characteristics, stage of change, and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintiliani, Lisa M; Carbone, Elena T

    2005-01-01

    To determine if participants reading messages matched to a preferred style of message argument respond more favorably than participants reading unmatched messages. Randomized trial using telephone and in-person surveys and cognitive response interviews. University campus. Of 125 initially interested, a convenience sample of 100 university employees completed the study (female: 88%, white: 94%, mean age: 43.7). Participants read 2 print messages written with cognitive (COG) (fact based) or affective (AFF) (story based) arguments. 7-point Likert scale ratings of message appeal, understandability, persuasiveness, and relevance according to classification into 1 of 4 message groups: COG-AFF (mismatched to affective), AFF-COG (mismatched to cognitive), COG-COG (matched cognitive), and AFF-AFF (matched affective). 1-way analysis of variance (P affective messages and the AFF-COG group generally gave high scores compared with other message groups. Participants also expressed a desire for more factual information. A combination of cognitive and affective arguments may be appealing to subjects with an affective preference but disliked by individuals who prefer only a fact-based approach. Argument format may be an important message design consideration.

  19. MessageSpace: a messaging system for health research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Rodrigo D.; Akopian, David; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) has emerged as a promising direction for delivery of healthcare services via mobile communication devices such as cell phones. Examples include texting-based interventions for chronic disease monitoring, diabetes management, control of hypertension, smoking cessation, monitoring medication adherence, appointment keeping and medical test result delivery; as well as improving patient-provider communication, health information communication, data collection and access to health records. While existing messaging systems very well support bulk messaging and some polling applications, they are not designed for data collection and processing of health research oriented studies. For that reason known studies based on text-messaging campaigns have been constrained in participant numbers. In order to empower healthcare promotion and education research, this paper presents a system dedicated for healthcare research. It is designed for convenient communication with various study groups, feedback collection and automated processing.

  20. Using WhatsApp and Facebook Online Social Groups for Smoking Relapse Prevention for Recent Quitters: A Pilot Pragmatic Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Chan, Ching Han Helen; Lai, Chi-Keung Jonah; Chan, Wai Fung Vivian; Wang, Man Ping; Li, Ho Cheung William; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2015-01-01

    .... Interactive text messaging through mobile phones has been shown to increase abstinence. This service can be potentially applied on the platform of a social networking service to help quitters maintain abstinence...

  1. Randomized Controlled Trial of an Educational Intervention Using an Online Risk Calculator for Knee Osteoarthritis: Effect on Risk Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losina, Elena; Michl, Griffin L; Smith, Karen C; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2017-08-01

    Young adults, in general, are not aware of their risk of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Understanding risk and risk factors is critical to knee OA prevention. We tested the efficacy of a personalized risk calculator on accuracy of knee OA risk perception and willingness to change behaviors associated with knee OA risk factors. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 375 subjects recruited using Amazon Mechanical Turk. Subjects were randomized to either use a personalized risk calculator based on demographic and risk-factor information (intervention), or to view general OA risk information (control). At baseline and after the intervention, subjects estimated their 10-year and lifetime risk of knee OA and responded to contemplation ladders measuring willingness to change diet, exercise, or weight-control behaviors. Subjects in both arms had an estimated 3.6% 10-year and 25.3% lifetime chance of developing symptomatic knee OA. Both arms greatly overestimated knee OA risk at baseline, estimating a 10-year risk of 26.1% and a lifetime risk of 47.8%. After the intervention, risk calculator subjects' perceived 10-year risk decreased by 12.9 percentage points to 12.5% and perceived lifetime risk decreased by 19.5 percentage points to 28.1%. Control subjects' perceived risks remained unchanged. Risk calculator subjects were more likely to move to an action stage on the exercise contemplation ladder (relative risk 2.1). There was no difference between the groups for diet or weight-control ladders. The risk calculator is a useful intervention for knee OA education and may motivate some exercise-related behavioral change. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  2. A Protocol for Messaging to Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Atri, Dimitra; DeMarines, Julia; Haqq-Misra, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Messaging to extraterrestrial intelligence (METI) is a branch of study concerned with constructing and broadcasting a message toward habitable planets. Since the Arecibo message of 1974, the handful of METI broadcasts have increased in content and complexity, but the lack of an established protocol has produced unorganized or cryptic messages that could be difficult to interpret. Here we outline the development of a self-consistent protocol for messaging to extraterrestrial intelligence that ...

  3. FACEBOOK ADVERTISING: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TYPES OF MESSAGE, BRAND ATTITUDE AND PERCEIVED BUYING RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN ANASTASIEI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We are witnessing a spectacular growth in electronic commerce in recent years, although we cannot say that it has been without obstacles. Among the barriers mentioned by the literature are the lack of trust in online brands, the perceived purchase risk, the perception of the type of promotional message. More often than not, commercial Facebook posts influence brand image and brand trust, which can lead to an increased buying intention. Our research attempted to determine whether the type of commercial Facebook posts (paid or unpaid and the type of post content (rational or emotional influence message credibility, attitude towards the advertised brand and perceived purchase risk. The type of post appeared not to influence any of these variables, while the type of message significantly influenced the credibility and the perceived risk. The rational message generated more credibility, while the perceived purchase risk is higher for the emotional messages.

  4. Children of divorce-coping with divorce: A randomized control trial of an online prevention program for youth experiencing parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boring, Jesse L; Sandler, Irwin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Horan, John J; Vélez, Clorinda E

    2015-10-01

    Evaluate an online coping skills program to prevent mental health problems in children and adolescents from divorced or separated families. Children ages 11-16 (N = 147) whose families had filed for divorce were recruited using public court records. Participants were blocked by risk-score and randomly assigned to either a control (Internet self-study condition, Best of the Net (BTN) or the experimental intervention, Children of Divorce-Coping With Divorce (CoD-CoD), a 5-module highly interactive online program to promote effective coping skills. Program effects were tested on measures of children's self-reported coping and parent and youth reports of children's mental health problems. Significant main effects indicated that youth in CoD-CoD improved more on self-reported emotional problems relative to BTN youth (d = .37) and had a lower rate of clinically significant self-reported mental health problems (OR = .58, p = .04). A significant Baseline × Treatment interaction indicated that the 55% of youth with highest baseline problems improved more than those in BTN on their self-report of total mental health problems. A significant interaction effect indicated that CoD-CoD improved youth coping efficacy for the 30% of those with the lowest baseline coping efficacy. For the 10% of youth with lowest parent-reported risk at baseline, those who received BTN had lower problems than CoD-CoD participants. CoD-CoD was effective in reducing youth-reported mental health problems and coping efficacy particularly for high risk youth. Parent-report indicated that, relative to BTN, CoD-CoD had a negative effect on mental health problems for a small group with the lowest risk. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The application of online transcranial random noise stimulation and perceptual learning in the improvement of visual functions in mild myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Rebecca; Pavan, Andrea; Campana, Gianluca

    2016-08-01

    It has recently been demonstrated how perceptual learning, that is an improvement in a sensory/perceptual task upon practice, can be boosted by concurrent high-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS). It has also been shown that perceptual learning can generalize and produce an improvement of visual functions in participants with mild refractive defects. By using three different groups of participants (single-blind study), we tested the efficacy of a short training (8 sessions) using a single Gabor contrast-detection task with concurrent hf-tRNS in comparison with the same training with sham stimulation or hf-tRNS with no concurrent training, in improving visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) of individuals with uncorrected mild myopia. A short training with a contrast detection task is able to improve VA and CS only if coupled with hf-tRNS, whereas no effect on VA and marginal effects on CS are seen with the sole administration of hf-tRNS. Our results support the idea that, by boosting the rate of perceptual learning via the modulation of neuronal plasticity, hf-tRNS can be successfully used to reduce the duration of the perceptual training and/or to increase its efficacy in producing perceptual learning and generalization to improved VA and CS in individuals with uncorrected mild myopia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Impact of Personality Factors and Preceding User Comments on the Processing of Research Findings on Deep Brain Stimulation: A Randomized Controlled Experiment in a Simulated Online Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinkohl, Insa; Flemming, Danny; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2016-03-03

    Laypeople frequently discuss medical research findings on Web-based platforms, but little is known about whether they grasp the tentativeness that is inherent in these findings. Potential influential factors involved in understanding medical tentativeness have hardly been assessed to date. The research presented here aimed to examine the effects of personality factors and of other users' previous contributions in a Web-based forum on laypeople's understanding of the tentativeness of medical research findings, using the example of research on deep brain stimulation. We presented 70 university students with an online news article that reported findings on applying deep brain stimulation as a novel therapeutic method for depression, which participants were unfamiliar with. In a randomized controlled experiment, we manipulated the forum such that the article was either accompanied by user comments that addressed the issue of tentativeness, by comments that did not address this issue, or the article was accompanied by no comments at all. Participants were instructed to write their own individual user comments. Their scientific literacy, epistemological beliefs, and academic self-efficacy were measured. The outcomes measured were perceived tentativeness and tentativeness addressed in the participants' own comments. More sophisticated epistemological beliefs enhanced the perception of tentativeness (standardized β=.26, P=.034). Greater scientific literacy (stand. β=.25, P=.025) and greater academic self-efficacy (stand. β=.31, P=.007) were both predictors of a more extensive discussion of tentativeness in participants' comments. When forum posts presented in the experiment addressed the issue of tentativeness, participants' subsequent behavior tended to be consistent with what they had read in the forum, F2,63=3.66; P=.049, ηp(2)=.092. Students' understanding of the tentativeness of research findings on deep brain stimulation in an online forum is influenced by a

  7. Message from the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambaugh, Ronald D.

    2013-01-01

    The journal Nuclear Fusion has played a key role in the development of the physics basis for fusion energy. That physics basis has been sufficiently advanced to enable construction of such major facilities as ITER along the tokamak line in magnetic fusion and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in laser-driven fusion. In the coming decade, while ITER is being constructed and brought into deuterium-tritium (DT) operation, this physics basis will be significantly deepened and extended, with particular key remaining issues addressed. Indeed such a focus was already evident with about 19% of the papers submitted to the 24th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in San Diego, USA appearing in the directly labelled ITER and IFE categories. Of course many of the papers in the other research categories were aimed at issues relevant to these major fusion directions. About 17% of the papers submitted in the 'Experiment and Theory' categories dealt with the highly ITER relevant and inter-related issues of edge-localized modes, non-axisymmetric fields and plasma rotation. It is gratifying indeed to see how the international community is able to make such a concerted effort, facilitated by the ITPA and the ITER-IO, around such a major issue for ITER. In addition to deepening and extending the physics bases for the mainline approaches to fusion energy, the coming decade should see significant progress in the physics basis for additional fusion concepts. The stellarator concept should reach a high level of maturity with such facilities as LHD operating in Japan and already producing significant results and the W7-X in the EU coming online soon. Physics issues that require pulses of hundreds of seconds to investigate can be confronted in the new superconducting tokamaks coming online in Asia and in the major stellarators. The basis for steady-state operation of a tokamak may be further developed in the upper half of the tokamak operating space—the wall stabilized regime. New divertor

  8. Message Passing in computational fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Argentini, G

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present the concept of MPF, Message Passing Fluid, an abstract fluid where the molecules move by mean of the informations that they exchange each other, on the basis of rules and methods of a generalized Cellular Automaton. The model is intended for a simulation by mean of message passing libraries on the field of parallel computing, which seems to offer a natural environment for this subject. The first results show that by mean of simple mathematical models it's possible to obtain realistic simulations of fluid motion, in the case of a general geometry too.

  9. How breast cancer patients want to search for and retrieve information from stories of other patients on the internet: an online randomized controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overberg, Regina; Otten, Wilma; de Man, Andries; Toussaint, Pieter; Westenbrink, Judith; Zwetsloot-Schonk, Bertie

    2010-03-09

    Other patients' stories on the Internet can give patients information, support, reassurance, and practical advice. We examined which search facility for online stories resulted in patients' satisfaction and search success. This study was a randomized controlled experiment with a 2x2 factorial design conducted online. We facilitated access to 170 stories of breast cancer patients in four ways based on two factors: (1) no versus yes search by story topic, and (2) no versus yes search by writer profile. Dutch speaking women with breast cancer were recruited. Women who gave informed consent were randomly assigned to one of four groups. After searching for stories, women were offered a questionnaire relating to satisfaction with the search facility, the stories retrieved, and impact of the stories on coping with breast cancer. Of 353 enrolled women, 182 (51.6%) completed the questionnaire: control group (n = 37), story topics group (n = 49), writer profile group (n = 51), and combination group (n = 45). Questionnaire completers were evenly distributed over the four groups (chi(2) (3) = 3.7, P = .30). Women who had access to the story topics search facility (yes vs no): were more positive about (mean scores 4.0 vs 3.6, P = .001) and more satisfied with the search facility (mean scores 7.3 vs 6.3, P search options (mean scores 2.3 vs 2.1, P = .04); were better enabled to find desired information (mean scores 3.3 vs 2.8, P = .001); were more likely to recommend the search facility to others or intend to use it themselves (mean scores 4.1 vs 3.5, P search (yes vs no): being more positive about (mean scores 3.9 vs 3.6, P = .005) and more satisfied with the search facility (mean scores 7.1 vs 6.5, P =. 01), and being more positive about how retrieved stories were displayed (mean scores 3.8 vs 2.9, P search facility, an interaction effect was found (P = .03): at least one of the two search facilities was needed for satisfaction. Having access to the story topics search

  10. Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of guided online treatment for patients with major depressive disorder on a waiting list for psychotherapy: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenter, Robin Maria Francisca; van Straten, Annemieke; Hobbel, Sabine Heleen; Smit, Filip; Bosmans, Judith; Beekman, Aartjan; Cuijpers, Pim

    2013-12-01

    Depressive disorders are highly prevalent and result in negative consequences for both patients and society. It is therefore important that these disorders are treated adequately. However, due to increased demand for mental healthcare and subsequent increased costs, it would be desirable to reduce costs associated with major depressive disorder while maintaining or improving the quality of care within the healthcare system. Introducing evidence-based online self-help interventions in mental healthcare might be the way to maintain clinical effects while minimizing costs by reducing the number of face-to-face sessions. This study aims to evaluate the clinical and economical effects of a guided online self-help intervention when offered to patients with major depressive disorder on a waiting list for psychotherapy in specialized mental health centers (MHCs). Patients at mental health centers identified with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) diagnosis of major depression who are awaiting face-to-face treatment are studied in a randomized controlled trial. During this waiting list period, patients are randomized and either (1) receive an internet-based guided self-help treatment or (2) receive a self-help book. The 5-week internet-based guided self-help intervention and the self-help booklet are based on problem solving treatment. After the intervention, patients are allowed to start regular face-to-face treatment at MHCs. Costs and effects are measured at baseline, after the intervention at 6 to 8 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is symptoms of depression. Secondary outcome measures are diagnosis of depression, number of face-to-face sessions, absence of work and healthcare uptake in general. Additional outcome measures are anxiety, insomnia, quality of life and mastery. This study evaluates the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of internet-based guided self-help in patients at specialized

  11. Nutritional Online Information for Cancer Patients: a Randomized Trial of an Internet Communication Plus Social Media Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnagnarella, Patrizia; Misotti, Alessandro Maria; Santoro, Luigi; Akoumianakis, Demosthenes; Del Campo, Laura; De Lorenzo, Francesco; Lombardo, Claudio; Milolidakis, Giannis; Sullivan, Richard; McVie, John Gordon

    2016-09-01

    We hypothesized that cancer patients using an Internet website would show an improvement in the knowledge about healthy eating habits, and this might be enhanced by social media interaction. A 6-month randomized intervention was set up. Eligible subjects were allocated in intervention (IG) and control groups (CG). IG had access to the website, and CG was provided with printed versions. All enrolled participants filled in Nutrition Questionnaire (NQ), Quality of Life Questionnaire (QoL) and Psychological Distress Inventory (PDI), at baseline and after 6 months. The difference between post- vs pre-questionnaires was calculated. Seventy-four subjects (CG 39; IG 35) completed the study. There was an increase in the score after the intervention in both groups for the NQ, even if not statistically significant. Dividing the IG into three categories, no (NI), low (LI) and high interactions (HI), we found a decreased score (improvement) in the CG (-0.2) and in the HI (-1.7), and an increased score (worsening) in the NI (+3.3) (p = NS) analysing the PDI. We found an increased score in the QoL both in CG and IG (adjusted LSMeans +3.5 and +2.8 points, respectively; p = NS). This study represents an example for support cancer patients. Despite the lack of significant effects, critical points and problems encountered may be of interest to researchers and organization working in the cancer setting. Intervention strategies to support patients during the care process are needed in order to attain the full potential of patient-centred care on cancer outcomes.

  12. A Protocol for Messaging to Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Atri, Dimitra; Haqq-Misra, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Messaging to extraterrestrial intelligence (METI) is a branch of study concerned with constructing and broadcasting a message toward habitable planets. Since the Arecibo message of 1974, the handful of METI broadcasts have increased in content and complexity, but the lack of an established protocol has produced unorganized or cryptic messages that could be difficult to interpret. Here we outline the development of a self-consistent protocol for messaging to extraterrestrial intelligence that provides constraints and guidelines for the construction of a message in order to maximize the probability that the message effectively communicates. A METI protocol considers several factors including signal encoding, message length, information content, anthropocentrism, transmission method, and transmission periodicity. Once developed, the protocol will be released for testing on different human groups worldwide and across cultural boundaries. An effective message to extraterrestrials should at least be understandable ...

  13. Gain versus loss-framed messaging and colorectal cancer screening among African Americans: A preliminary examination of perceived racism and culturally targeted dual messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Todd; Hayman, Lenwood W; Blessman, James E; Asabigi, Kanzoni; Novak, Julie M

    2016-05-01

    This preliminary study examined the effect of gain versus loss-framed messaging as well as culturally targeted personal prevention messaging on African Americans' receptivity to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. This research also examined mechanistic functions of perceived racism in response to message framing. Community samples of African Americans (N = 132) and White Americans (N = 50) who were non-compliant with recommended CRC screening completed an online education module about CRC, and were either exposed to a gain-framed or loss-framed message about CRC screening. Half of African Americans were exposed to an additional and culturally targeted self-control message about personal prevention of CRC. Theory of planned behavior measures of attitudes, normative beliefs, perceived behavioural control, and intentions to obtain a CRC screen served as primary outcomes. The effect of messaging on perceived racism was also measured as an outcome. Consistent with prior research, White Americans were more receptive to CRC screening when exposed to a loss-framed message. However, African Americans were more receptive when exposed to a gain-framed message. The contrary effect of loss-framed messaging on receptivity to screening among African Americans was mediated by an increase in perceived racism. However, including an additional and culturally targeted prevention message mitigated the adverse effect of a loss-framed message. This study identifies an important potential cultural difference in the effect of message framing on illness screening among African Americans, while also suggesting a culturally relevant linking mechanism. This study also suggests the potential for simultaneously presented and culturally targeted messaging to alter the effects of gain and loss-framed messaging on African Americans. What is already known on this subject? African Americans are at an increased risk of both developing and dying from colorectal cancer (CRC). These disparities can be

  14. Science exemplars in the eye of the beholder: How exposure to online science information affects attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knobloch-Westerwick, S.; Johnson, B.K.; Silver, N.A.; Westerwick, A.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on exemplification theory and confirmation bias, this study examined exposure to online science information and subsequent attitude impacts. Participants freely browsed online messages manipulated to feature (a) either exemplar or numeric information and (b) opposing viewpoints, resulting in

  15. Hill Cipher and Least Significant Bit for Image Messaging Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Husnul Arif

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exchange of information through cyberspace has many benefits as an example fast estimated time, unlimited physical distance and space limits, etc. But in these activities can also pose a security risk for confidential information. It is necessary for the safety that can be used to protect data transmitted through the Internet. Encryption algorithm that used to encrypt message to be sent (plaintext into messages that have been randomized (ciphertext is cryptography and steganography algorithms. In application of cryptographic techniques that will be used is Hill Cipher. The technique is combined with steganography techniques Least Significant Bit. The result of merging techniques can maintain the confidentiality of messages because people who do not know the secret key used will be difficult to get the message contained in the stego-image and the image that has been inserted can not be used as a cover image. Message successfully inserted and extracted back on all samples with a good image formats * .bmp, * .png , * .jpg at a resolution of 512 x 512 pixels , 256 x 256 pixels. MSE and PSNR results are not influenced file format or file size, but influenced by dimensions of image. The larger dimensions of the image, then the smaller MSE that means error of image gets smaller.

  16. EFFECTS OF MESSAGE FRAMING AND EXEMPLARS ON PROMOTING ORGAN DONATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yu-Hung; Chang, Wen-Te

    2015-12-01

    People in many countries are unwilling to donate organs. Drawing on previous research regarding the use of message framing and the theory of exemplification promoting intentions to donate organs, this study examined messaging strategies. This study used a 2 × 2 between-subjects factorial design to examine the joint effects of gain/loss frames and statistical/exemplar appeals on the intentions of 189 Taiwanese college students (108 women, 81 men; age range = 19-24 yr., M = 21.6, SD = 2.9) regarding organ donation. Each participant was randomly assigned to read one of four versions of an organ donation promotional message and then to complete a questionnaire. The analysis of variance showed a significant interaction between the two factors. Loss-exemplar messages elicited significantly more positive intentions toward donation than did loss-statistical messages. There was no significant difference between the statistical and exemplar appeals observed under the gain-framed condition. The practical implications of developing effective organ donation promotional materials and the limitations of this study are discussed.

  17. A randomized trial in a massive online open course shows people don’t know what a statistically significant relationship looks like, but they can learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Fisher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Scatterplots are the most common way for statisticians, scientists, and the public to visually detect relationships between measured variables. At the same time, and despite widely publicized controversy, P-values remain the most commonly used measure to statistically justify relationships identified between variables. Here we measure the ability to detect statistically significant relationships from scatterplots in a randomized trial of 2,039 students in a statistics massive open online course (MOOC. Each subject was shown a random set of scatterplots and asked to visually determine if the underlying relationships were statistically significant at the P < 0.05 level. Subjects correctly classified only 47.4% (95% CI [45.1%–49.7%] of statistically significant relationships, and 74.6% (95% CI [72.5%–76.6%] of non-significant relationships. Adding visual aids such as a best fit line or scatterplot smooth increased the probability a relationship was called significant, regardless of whether the relationship was actually significant. Classification of statistically significant relationships improved on repeat attempts of the survey, although classification of non-significant relationships did not. Our results suggest: (1 that evidence-based data analysis can be used to identify weaknesses in theoretical procedures in the hands of average users, (2 data analysts can be trained to improve detection of statistically significant results with practice, but (3 data analysts have incorrect intuition about what statistically significant relationships look like, particularly for small effects. We have built a web tool for people to compare scatterplots with their corresponding p-values which is available here: http://glimmer.rstudio.com/afisher/EDA/.

  18. The Media and the Message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    The experiences of Columbine and El Cajon high schools with media onslaughts following traumatic shooting incidents underscore the importance of getting the message across and sticking to known facts. In a crisis, speculation can hurt everyone. The most important elements in crisis communications are planning and media relations. (MLH)

  19. Radiating Messages: An International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Negative messages about the detrimental impacts of divorce on children prompted urgent calls in the United Kingdom for a reinstatement of traditional family values. Suggests that although the effects of divorce are real, care should be taken to avoid exaggeration, thus moving the debate to one centered on providing better support, advice, and…

  20. Re: Design Changing the Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Miranda Wakeman

    2008-01-01

    The advertisements that flood everyone's visual culture are designed to create desire. From the author's experience, most high school students are not aware of the messages that they are bombarded with every day, and if they are, few care or think about them critically. The author's goals for this lesson were to increase students' awareness of the…

  1. NPS and Online WOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raassens, Néomie

    2017-01-01

    The Net Promoter Score (NPS) is, according to Reichheld, the single most reliable indicator of company growth, and many companies use this recommendation-based technique for measuring customer loyalty. Despite its widespread adoption by many companies across multiple industries, the debate about NPS goes on. A major concern is that managers treat NPS as being equivalent across customers, which is often very misleading. By using a unique data set that combines customers’ promoter scores and online word-of-mouth (eWOM) behavior, this research studies how individual customers’ promoter scores are related to eWOM, including its relationship with the three categories of customers that are identified by the NPS paradigm (i.e., promoters, passives, and detractors). Based on a sample of 189 customers, their promoter scores and corresponding eWOM, the results show that there is a positive relationship between customers’ promoter scores and the valence of online messages. Further, while detractors and promoters are homogeneous with respect to the valence of the eWOM messages they spread, passives show message valence heterogeneity. Thus, although passives, the largest group of customers, have no weight in calculating the NPS, our results reveal that companies should flag passives for further attention and action. PMID:29046609

  2. Assessing the Potential Effectiveness of Pictorial Messages to Deter Young Women from Indoor Tanning: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag, Jennah M; Noar, Seth M

    2017-04-01

    The recent Surgeon General's call-to-action to prevent skin cancer indicates an urgent need for research on messages to deter young women from tanning indoors. Answering this call, the current study assessed differences in the potential effectiveness of pictorial indoor tanning messages. We randomly assigned undergraduate female participants (N = 568) to one of three message conditions visually depicting health effects, appearance damage, or immediate risks, or to a text-only control. All participants viewed three messages within their condition and answered questions after message exposure. Factorial ANOVAs indicated that compared to the text-only condition, pictorial messages produced greater negative emotional reactions and were perceived as more effective than text-only messages. Text-only messages, however, were significantly more believable than pictorial messages. We observed several differences among the pictorial conditions and among the messages within the pictorial conditions. We conclude that messages discouraging indoor tanning should use pictorial messages illustrating the negative health and appearance damaging effects of indoor tanning, focusing on particular health and appearance consequences. Additional research is needed to guide the selection of images that are believable and will most discourage indoor tanning behavior.

  3. Positive Psychology Interventions Addressing Pleasure, Engagement, Meaning, Positive Relationships, and Accomplishment Increase Well-Being and Ameliorate Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Online Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Fabian; Proyer, René T.; Ruch, Willibald

    2016-01-01

    Seligman (2002) suggested three paths to well-being, the pursuit of pleasure, the pursuit of meaning, and the pursuit of engagement, later adding two more, positive relationships and accomplishment, in his 2011 version. The contribution of these new components to well-being has yet to be addressed. In an online positive psychology intervention study, we randomly assigned 1624 adults aged 18–78 (M = 46.13; 79.2% women) to seven conditions. Participants wrote down three things they related to either one of the five components of Seligman's Well-Being theory (Conditions 1–5), all of the five components (Condition 6) or early childhood memories (placebo control condition). We assessed happiness (AHI) and depression (CES-D) before and after the intervention, and 1-, 3-, and 6 months afterwards. Additionally, we considered moderation effects of well-being levels at baseline. Results confirmed that all interventions were effective in increasing happiness and most ameliorated depressive symptoms. The interventions worked best for those in the middle-range of the well-being continuum. We conclude that interventions based on pleasure, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment are effective strategies for increasing well-being and ameliorating depressive symptoms and that positive psychology interventions are most effective for those people in the middle range of the well-being continuum. PMID:27242600

  4. Positive Psychology Interventions Addressing Pleasure, Engagement, Meaning, Positive Relationships, and Accomplishment Increase Well-Being and Ameliorate Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Online Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Fabian; Proyer, René T; Ruch, Willibald

    2016-01-01

    Seligman (2002) suggested three paths to well-being, the pursuit of pleasure, the pursuit of meaning, and the pursuit of engagement, later adding two more, positive relationships and accomplishment, in his 2011 version. The contribution of these new components to well-being has yet to be addressed. In an online positive psychology intervention study, we randomly assigned 1624 adults aged 18-78 (M = 46.13; 79.2% women) to seven conditions. Participants wrote down three things they related to either one of the five components of Seligman's Well-Being theory (Conditions 1-5), all of the five components (Condition 6) or early childhood memories (placebo control condition). We assessed happiness (AHI) and depression (CES-D) before and after the intervention, and 1-, 3-, and 6 months afterwards. Additionally, we considered moderation effects of well-being levels at baseline. Results confirmed that all interventions were effective in increasing happiness and most ameliorated depressive symptoms. The interventions worked best for those in the middle-range of the well-being continuum. We conclude that interventions based on pleasure, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment are effective strategies for increasing well-being and ameliorating depressive symptoms and that positive psychology interventions are most effective for those people in the middle range of the well-being continuum.

  5. A study to relate the quality of forum messages with the flow experience

    OpenAIRE

    Abrantes, Steven; Gouveia, Luis; Daradkeh, Yousef

    2015-01-01

    The use of online discussion forum as a tool to enhance learning and student communication has been widely discussed in literature. Despite all the potential enclosed on such tool, most of the times, little or no concern is made regarding the messages content quality. This paper presents a study that relate the message quality of an online discussion forum with the concept of flow experience, in order to provide a strategy to improve the value of this tool to support learning and the learning...

  6. Representing culture in interstellar messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2008-09-01

    As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages art_science/2003>. Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological and cultural models.

  7. Design and Implementation of a Wireless Message Display System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. M. Bakura

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The technology of displaying message is an important part of communication and advertisement. In recent times, Wireless communication has announced its arrival on big stage and the world is going with Smartphone technology. This work describes the design and implementation of a microcontroller based messaging display system. The messaging display system will be interfaced with an android application which will then be used to display information from the comfort of one‘s phone to an LCD screen using the Bluetooth application interface. The work employs the use of an ATMEGA328p Microcontroller mounted on an Arduino board, a Bluetooth Module (HC-06 and an LCD screen. Most of these electronic display systems were using wired cable connections, the Bluetooth technology used in this work is aimed at solving the problem of wired cable connections.The microcontroller provides all the functionality of the display notices and wireless control. A desired text message from a mobile phone is sent via android mobile application to the Bluetooth module located at the receiving end. The Mobile Application was created using online software called App Inventor. When the entire system was connected and tested, it functioned as designed without any noticeable problems. The Bluetooth module responded to commands being sent from the android application appropriately and in a timely manner. The system was able to display 80 characters on the 4 x 20 LCD within the range of 10m as designated by the Bluetooth datasheet.

  8. Text4Peds: Feasibility of an Educational Text-Messaging Program for Pediatrics Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Gregory T.; Draper, Lauren R.; Broom, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing effort to maximize educational material provided to residents who are in a time-constrained work environment. Mobile technology, principally smartphone applications and online modules, has shown educational promise. Intervention We developed a text-messaging program, Text4Peds, to assist residents with preparation for their pediatric board examinations. Goals were to assess (1) the feasibility of texting educational messages to residents, and (2) resident satisfaction and perceived usefulness of a texting program. Methods We conducted a prospective study of pediatrics and combined internal medicine-pediatrics residents. Messages derived from the most missed pediatric in-training examination questions were sent daily to residents. After 3 months, residents completed surveys that gauged their perception on the educational value of the text messages and the effect on their pediatric board preparation. Feasibility of the system was assessed as a total percentage of messages successfully received by residents. Results Of 55 residents, 35 (64%) participated in the program. Of 2534 messages sent out to participants, 2437 (96.2%) were delivered successfully. Positive comments cited the texting of board facts as a quick, helpful, daily study tool. Residents liked that messages were sent at 2:00 pm, and most felt that 1 to 5 messages per week was appropriate. Drawbacks included character restrictions of messages, content limitations, and the lack of a question-answer format. Conclusions An educational text message–based program was successfully implemented in our residency program. Messages were delivered with a high success rate, and residents found educational value in the messages. PMID:26140130

  9. Fear, anger, fruits, and veggies: interactive effects of emotion and message framing on health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerend, Mary A; Maner, Jon K

    2011-07-01

    Message framing is a theoretically grounded health communication strategy designed to motivate action by emphasizing either the benefits of engaging in a particular behavior (gains) or the costs of failing to engage in the behavior (losses). This study investigated whether the effectiveness of a framed message depends on the emotional state of the message recipient. We examined effects of fear versus anger, emotions that frequently occur within the context of health decision-making. Undergraduate students (N = 133) were randomly assigned to complete a fear or anger induction task after which they read a gain- or loss-framed pamphlet promoting fruit and vegetable consumption. Fruit and vegetable intake (servings per day) subsequently was assessed over the following 2 weeks. As predicted, a significant frame by emotion interaction was observed, such that participants in the fear condition reported eating more servings of fruits and vegetables after exposure to a loss-framed message than to a gain-framed message. In contrast, participants in the anger condition reported eating (marginally) more servings of fruits and vegetables after exposure to a gain-framed message than to a loss-framed message. Greater increases in fruit and vegetable intake from baseline to follow-up were observed when the message frame was matched to the participant's emotional state. The effectiveness of framed health communications depends on the message recipient's current emotional state. Affective factors that are incidental to the behavior recommended in a health communication can affect the relative success of gain- and loss-framed appeals.

  10. Using Visual Metaphors in Health Messages: A Strategy to Increase Effectiveness for Mental Illness Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazard, Allison J; Bamgbade, Benita A; Sontag, Jennah M; Brown, Carolyn

    2016-12-01

    Depression is highly prevalent among college students. Although treatment is often available on university campuses, many stigma-based barriers prevent students from seeking help. Communication strategies, such as the use of metaphors, are needed to reduce barriers. Specially, the use of visual metaphors, as a strategic message design tactic, may be an effective communication strategy to increase message appeal and engagement. Using a 2-phase approach, this study first identified common metaphors students use to conceptualize mental illness. Messages incorporating conceptual and visual metaphors were then designed and tested to determine their potential in reducing stigma. Participants (n = 256) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions in a between-subjects experiment: messages with visual and textual metaphors, messages with straightforward visuals and textual metaphors, text-based metaphor messages, or a control group. Overall, metaphorical messages are appealing, the use of visual metaphors leads to greater message engagement, and messages based on conceptual metaphors have the potential to reduce stigma. The use of conceptual and visual metaphors in campaign design is an effective strategy to communicate about a complex health topic, such as mental illness, and should be considered for use in campaigns to reduce barriers for help-seeking behavior.

  11. How Do We Know What Is Happening Online?: A Mixed Methods Approach to Analysing Online Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampidi, Marina; Hammond, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the process of analysing online discussion and argue for the merits of mixed methods. Much research of online participation and e-learning has been either message-focused or person-focused. The former covers methodologies such as content and discourse analysis, the latter interviewing and surveys.…

  12. The Effects of Facilitating Feedback on Online Learners' Cognitive Engagement: Evidence from the Asynchronous Online Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenge; Chen, Ye; Lei, Jing; Wen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    With a large-scale online K-12 teacher professional development course as the research context, this study examined the effects of facilitating feedback on online learners' cognitive engagement using quasi-experiment method. A total of 1,540 discussion messages from 110 learners (65 in the experimental group and 45 in the control group) were both…

  13. The Use of Online Focus Groups to Design an Online Food Safety Education Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Ashley Bramlett; Harrison, Judy A.

    2012-01-01

    In the development of an online food safety education intervention for college students, online focus groups were used to determine the appropriate format and messages. Focus groups are often used in qualitative research and formative evaluation of public health programs, yet traditional focus groups can be both difficult and expensive to…

  14. Toward Predicting Popularity of Social Marketing Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bei; Chen, Miao; Kwok, Linchi

    Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of "likes" voted by fans, and examined the relationship between the message popularity and two properties of the messages: (1) content, and (2) media type. Combining a number of text mining and statistics methods, we have discovered some interesting patterns correlated to "more popular" and "less popular" social marketing messages. This work lays foundation for building computational models to predict the popularity of social marketing messages in the future.

  15. 78 FR 64202 - Quantitative Messaging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... COMMISSION Quantitative Messaging Research AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Notice... comments using only one method and identify that it is for the ``Quantitative Messaging Research.'' All... message testing research (for which CFTC received fast- track OMB approval) and is necessary to identify...

  16. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420... Requirements § 10.420 Message elements. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall include five mandatory CAP elements—Event Type; Area Affected; Recommended Action; Expiration Time (with...

  17. Influences of Product Involvement, Environmental Message and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Messages do not reveal significant difference on attitude towards advertising. Intensity of message content should be enhanced and this study can function as criterion for future researches. Keywords: Involvement, Environmental Message, Advertising Appeals, Green Marketing, Elaboration Likelihood Model ...

  18. ONLINE PORNOGRAPHY AND SEXUALITY: SOME RESULTS OF EU KIDS ONLINE SURVEY II IN THE ROMANIAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA MARINESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article intends to analyze the exposure of Romanian children and teens to sexually explicit message and the so-called „sexting” activities they perform in the online environment. The main research topic to which we try to find some answers is: are young people more exposed to risks because they view sexually explicit content online and send sexual messages to others? Our results validate the risk migration hypothesis, the blurring boundaries between the online and offline worlds enabling the migration of risk from the real world to the internet and the reverse. At the same time, the date of EU Kinds Online II validate the vulnerability hypothesis, according to which the harm declared by the children following the exposure to sexually explicit images and the receiving the sexual messages is the result of their socio-demographic vulnerabilities

  19. A Modular Instant Messaging System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Raad; Zouhair Bazzal; Majd Ghareeb; Hanan Farhat; Semar Bahmad

    2017-01-01

    Instant Messaging (IM) Android applications are a trend nowadays. These applications are categorized according to their features: usability, flexibility, privacy and security. However, IM applications tend to be inflexible in terms of functionality offered. The “Dble-U” system was developed as a solution to this inflexibility, with a focus on privacy as an example use case. “Dble-U” is a configurable modular system consisting of an Android chatting application, a privacy controller applicatio...

  20. A message to school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwande, A

    1993-06-01

    Information, education, and communication (IEC) programs need to be strengthened to appeal to adolescents, who are increasingly contributing to unwanted pregnancy and are using abortion as a means of birth control. Successful IEC programs have the following characteristics: 1) established communication theories that guide development of materials; 2) a multimedia and a mass media approach to information dissemination, and 3) emphasis on visual displays. The primary emphasis should be on presentation of a concise, clear message with the appropriate visual medium. Many communication specialists in developing countries, however, lack the training to design and use effective IEC software. Designing effective messages involves a process of integrating scientific ideas with artistic appeal. The aim is to stimulate the target audience to change its behavior of life style. The message must be convincing and contain practical and useful information. The IEC Software Design Cycle focuses on analysis and diagnosis, design production, pretesting and modification, and distribution and evaluation. Each of these processes are described. Necessary before any attempt is made is obtaining data on historical, sociocultural, and demographic characteristics, economic activities, health and social services, communication infrastructure, marriage and family life patterns, and decision making systems. Focus group discussions may be used to collect information about the target group. An example is given of the process of development, in a course through the Center or African Family Studies, of a poster about premarital sex directed to 11-16 year olds. On the basis of focus group discussions, it was decided that the message would be to encourage girls to talk with their mothers about family life and premarital sex. The poster was produced with 2 school girls talking in front of the school. The evaluation yielded modifications such as including a school building that resembled actual

  1. Looking inside the black box: results of a theory-based process evaluation exploring the results of a randomized controlled trial of printed educational messages to increase primary care physicians' diabetic retinopathy referrals [Trial registration number ISRCTN72772651].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Presseau, Justin; Tetroe, Jacqueline; Eccles, Martin P; Francis, Jill J; Godin, Gaston; Graham, Ian D; Hux, Janet E; Johnston, Marie; Légaré, France; Lemyre, Louise; Robinson, Nicole; Zwarenstein, Merrick

    2014-08-06

    Theory-based process evaluations conducted alongside randomized controlled trials provide the opportunity to investigate hypothesized mechanisms of action of interventions, helping to build a cumulative knowledge base and to inform the interpretation of individual trial outcomes. Our objective was to identify the underlying causal mechanisms in a cluster randomized trial of the effectiveness of printed educational materials (PEMs) to increase referral for diabetic retinopathy screening. We hypothesized that the PEMs would increase physicians' intention to refer patients for retinal screening by strengthening their attitude and subjective norm, but not their perceived behavioral control. Design: A theory based process evaluation alongside the Ontario Printed Educational Material (OPEM) cluster randomized trial. Postal surveys based on the Theory of Planned Behavior were sent to a random sample of trial participants two months before and six months after they received the intervention. Setting: Family physicians in Ontario, Canada. Participants: 1,512 family physicians (252 per intervention group) from the OPEM trial were invited to participate, and 31.3% (473/1512) responded at time one and time two. The final sample comprised 437 family physicians fully completing questionnaires at both time points. Main Outcome Measures: Primary: behavioral intention related to referring patient for retinopathy screening; secondary: attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control. At baseline, family physicians reported positive intention, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control to advise patients about retinopathy screening suggesting limited opportunities for improvement in these constructs. There were no significant differences on intention, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control following the intervention. Respondents also reported additional physician- and patient-related factors perceived to influence whether patients received

  2. Effect of Automated Online Counseling on Clinical Outcomes and Quality of Life Among Adolescents With Acne Vulgaris: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuong, William; Wang, Audrey S; Armstrong, April W

    2015-09-01

    Effective patient education is necessary for treating patients with acne vulgaris. Automated online counseling simulates face-to-face encounters and may be a useful tool to deliver education. To compare the effectiveness of a standard educational website with that of an automated-counseling website in improving clinical outcomes and quality of life among adolescents with acne. Randomized clinical trial conducted between March 27, 2014, and June 27, 2014, including a 12-week follow-up in a local inner-city high school. Ninety-eight students aged at least 13 years with mild to moderate acne were eligible for participation. A per-protocol analysis of the evaluable population was conducted on clinical outcome data. Participants viewed either a standard educational website or an automated-counseling website. The primary outcome was the total acne lesion count. Secondary measures included the Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) scores and general skin care behavior. Forty-nine participants were randomized to each group. At baseline, the mean (SD) total acne lesion count was not significantly different between the standard-website group and the automated-counseling-website group (21.33 [10.81] vs 25.33 [12.45]; P = .10). Improvement in the mean (SD) acne lesion count was not significantly different between the standard-website group and the automated-counseling-website group (0.20 [9.26] vs 3.90 [12.19]; P = .10). The mean (SD) improvement in CDLQI score for the standard-website group was not significantly different from that of the automated-counseling-website group (0.17 [2.64] vs 0.39 [2.94]; P = .71). After 12 weeks, a greater proportion of participants in the automated-counseling-website group maintained or adopted a recommended anti-acne skin care routine compared with the standard-website group (43% vs 22%; P = .03). Internet-based acne education using automated counseling was not superior to standard-website education in improving acne

  3. Effectiveness of Newly Introduced Variable Message Signs in Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedal Taisir Ratrout

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Variable Message Signs (VMS were introduced in Saudi Arabia and their reliability under local environment is being tested. This paper aims to evaluate the possible response of the drivers to VMS when used for messages related to traffic conditions. A major arterial in Al-Khobar city in Saudi Arabia with a massive VMS board was selected for this paper. The evaluation process started by interviewing drivers selected randomly from the study area. About 77% of the interviewed drivers indicated positive attitude toward messages requesting change of route. The drivers’ interviews demonstrated statistical relationship between the degree of response to messages requesting change of route and the reason for such request. The maximum response was for messages related to accidents, roadwork activities, and traffic congestion. A field experiment was also conducted along the studied arterial. It was found that VMS statistically increased the percentage of diverted traffic during specific peak periods.

  4. Distributed parallel messaging for multiprocessor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Salapura, Valentina; Senger, Robert M; Steinmacher-Burrow, Burhard; Sugawara, Yutaka

    2013-06-04

    A method and apparatus for distributed parallel messaging in a parallel computing system. The apparatus includes, at each node of a multiprocessor network, multiple injection messaging engine units and reception messaging engine units, each implementing a DMA engine and each supporting both multiple packet injection into and multiple reception from a network, in parallel. The reception side of the messaging unit (MU) includes a switch interface enabling writing of data of a packet received from the network to the memory system. The transmission side of the messaging unit, includes switch interface for reading from the memory system when injecting packets into the network.

  5. Asynchronous Message Service Reference Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    This software provides a library of middleware functions with a simple application programming interface, enabling implementation of distributed applications in conformance with the CCSDS AMS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems Asynchronous Message Service) specification. The AMS service, and its protocols, implement an architectural concept under which the modules of mission systems may be designed as if they were to operate in isolation, each one producing and consuming mission information without explicit awareness of which other modules are currently operating. Communication relationships among such modules are self-configuring; this tends to minimize complexity in the development and operations of modular data systems. A system built on this model is a society of generally autonomous, inter-operating modules that may fluctuate freely over time in response to changing mission objectives, modules functional upgrades, and recovery from individual module failure. The purpose of AMS, then, is to reduce mission cost and risk by providing standard, reusable infrastructure for the exchange of information among data system modules in a manner that is simple to use, highly automated, flexible, robust, scalable, and efficient. The implementation is designed to spawn multiple threads of AMS functionality under the control of an AMS application program. These threads enable all members of an AMS-based, distributed application to discover one another in real time, subscribe to messages on specific topics, and to publish messages on specific topics. The query/reply (client/server) communication model is also supported. Message exchange is optionally subject to encryption (to support confidentiality) and authorization. Fault tolerance measures in the discovery protocol minimize the likelihood of overall application failure due to any single operational error anywhere in the system. The multi-threaded design simplifies processing while enabling application nodes to

  6. Collective emotions online and their influence on community life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Julian; Thelwall, Mike; Paltoglou, Georgios; Buckley, Kevan; Kappas, Arvid; Hołyst, Janusz A

    2011-01-01

    E-communities, social groups interacting online, have recently become an object of interdisciplinary research. As with face-to-face meetings, Internet exchanges may not only include factual information but also emotional information--how participants feel about the subject discussed or other group members. Emotions in turn are known to be important in affecting interaction partners in offline communication in many ways. Could emotions in Internet exchanges affect others and systematically influence quantitative and qualitative aspects of the trajectory of e-communities? The development of automatic sentiment analysis has made large scale emotion detection and analysis possible using text messages collected from the web. However, it is not clear if emotions in e-communities primarily derive from individual group members' personalities or if they result from intra-group interactions, and whether they influence group activities. Here, for the first time, we show the collective character of affective phenomena on a large scale as observed in four million posts downloaded from Blogs, Digg and BBC forums. To test whether the emotions of a community member may influence the emotions of others, posts were grouped into clusters of messages with similar emotional valences. The frequency of long clusters was much higher than it would be if emotions occurred at random. Distributions for cluster lengths can be explained by preferential processes because conditional probabilities for consecutive messages grow as a power law with cluster length. For BBC forum threads, average discussion lengths were higher for larger values of absolute average emotional valence in the first ten comments and the average amount of emotion in messages fell during discussions. Overall, our results prove that collective emotional states can be created and modulated via Internet communication and that emotional expressiveness is the fuel that sustains some e-communities.

  7. Collective emotions online and their influence on community life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chmiel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: E-communities, social groups interacting online, have recently become an object of interdisciplinary research. As with face-to-face meetings, Internet exchanges may not only include factual information but also emotional information--how participants feel about the subject discussed or other group members. Emotions in turn are known to be important in affecting interaction partners in offline communication in many ways. Could emotions in Internet exchanges affect others and systematically influence quantitative and qualitative aspects of the trajectory of e-communities? The development of automatic sentiment analysis has made large scale emotion detection and analysis possible using text messages collected from the web. However, it is not clear if emotions in e-communities primarily derive from individual group members' personalities or if they result from intra-group interactions, and whether they influence group activities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, for the first time, we show the collective character of affective phenomena on a large scale as observed in four million posts downloaded from Blogs, Digg and BBC forums. To test whether the emotions of a community member may influence the emotions of others, posts were grouped into clusters of messages with similar emotional valences. The frequency of long clusters was much higher than it would be if emotions occurred at random. Distributions for cluster lengths can be explained by preferential processes because conditional probabilities for consecutive messages grow as a power law with cluster length. For BBC forum threads, average discussion lengths were higher for larger values of absolute average emotional valence in the first ten comments and the average amount of emotion in messages fell during discussions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our results prove that collective emotional states can be created and modulated via Internet communication and that emotional

  8. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Fusion is based on high quality full length articles. However, in the words of the journal home page, `Nuclear Fusion welcomes Letters as a means to quickly communicate new, maybe preliminary, results which make a significant advancement of the knowledge in the field. Letters should be comprehensive and short, aiming for four printed pages including figures.' I would like to take the opportunity to reiterate this message and to say that, as Editor, I would welcome the submission of high quality Letters. Publishing procedures In-house, Nuclear Fusion's publishing procedures are subject to continuous scrutiny for potential improvements. Of particular note from 2008 are faster than ever peer review and publishing times that have been achieved despite the very rigorous processing to which submissions are subject. Readers may have noticed the implementation of the new article numbering system, announced by the Publisher, Yasmin McGlashan in 2008 Nucl. Fusion 48 010101. This new scheme gives us more flexibilty and has led to faster online publication. The Nuclear Fusion Office and IOP Publishing Just as the journal depends on the authors and referees, so its success is also due to the tireless and largely unsung efforts of the Nuclear Fusion Office in Vienna and IOP Publishing in Bristol. I would like to express my personal thanks to Maria, Katja, Sophy, Sarah, Rachael and Yasmin for the support that they have given to me, the authors and the referees. Season's Greetings I would like to wish our readers, authors, referees and Board of Editors a successful and happy 2009 and thank them for their contributions to Nuclear Fusion in 2008.

  9. Effectiveness of message framing on women's intention to perform cytomegalovirus prevention behaviors: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Magnusson, Brianna M; Christensen, Emily M

    2017-12-20

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of message framing on women's intention to perform cytomegalovirus (CMV) prevention behaviors involving handwashing, not sharing food and eating utensils, not kissing a child on the lips and not placing a pacifier in the mouth after it was in a child's mouth. An online panel of women 18-40 years, who were pregnant or planning a pregnancy were randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial design to receive 1 of 4 CMV fact sheets. The fact sheets were framed as either what could be gained or be lost by following (or not) the recommendations and the likelihood of being affected by CMV (i.e., small chance or one of the most common infections in infants). The questionnaire measured CMV knowledge, participation in CMV risk or prevention behaviors, perceived severity of and susceptibly to CMV, and the perceived control over and the efficacy of recommended prevention behaviors. The dependent variable, intention to modify behavior, was an index score that ranged from 0 to 16 with higher values indicating greater intention. Linear regression was used to evaluate the association between all independent variables and overall behavioral intention. The sample included 840 women; 15.5% were familiar with CMV. Behavioral intention was high (M = 10.43; SD = 5.13) but did not differ across the message frames (p = 0.23). Overall, behavioral intention was predicted by CMV knowledge, message credibility, perceived severity of CMV, perceived behavioral control and response efficacy. Significant interactions with gain vs. loss frame were observed for perceived behavioral control (p = 0.03) and response efficacy (p = .003). Framing CMV messages by what women stand to gain or lose interacts with perceived behavioral control and response efficacy to influence behavioral intention. Perceived behavioral control and response efficacy were most predictive of behavioral intention overall regardless of frame. Messaging that focuses

  10. An Examination of the Impact of a Biological Anti-Stigma Message for Depression on College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Laura A.; Campbell, Duncan G.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma is one reason that some people avoid seeking mental health treatment. This study tested whether a biologically based anti-stigma message affected various stigma-related outcomes in college students. One hundred eighty-two undergraduate participants were randomly assigned to see a billboard presenting the message, "Depression is a brain…

  11. Technology-Enhanced Maintenance of Treatment Gains in Eating Disorders: Efficacy of an Intervention Delivered via Text Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stephanie; Okon, Eberhard; Meermann, Rolf; Kordy, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Given the lack of maintenance interventions for eating disorders, a program delivered via the short message service (SMS) and text messaging was developed to support patients after their discharge from inpatient treatment. Method: The efficacy of the intervention was studied in a randomized controlled trial. Additionally, its impact on…

  12. A counselor in your pocket: feasibility of mobile health tailored messages to support HIV medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Paul F; Carrington, Jane M; Schmiege, Sarah J; Starr, Whitney; Reeder, Blaine

    2015-01-01

    Medication adherence is a major challenge in HIV treatment. New mobile technologies such as smartphones facilitate the delivery of brief tailored messages to promote adherence. However, the best approach for tailoring messages is unknown. Persons living with HIV (PLWH) might be more receptive to some messages than others based on their current psychological state. We recruited 37 PLWH from a parent study of motivational states and adherence. Participants completed smartphone-based surveys at a random time every day for 2 weeks, then immediately received intervention or control tailored messages, depending on random assignment. After 2 weeks in the initial condition, participants received the other condition in a crossover design. Intervention messages were tailored to match PLWH's current psychological state based on five variables - control beliefs, mood, stress, coping, and social support. Control messages were tailored to create a mismatch between message framing and participants' current psychological state. We evaluated intervention feasibility based on acceptance, ease of use, and usefulness measures. We also used pilot randomized controlled trial methods to test the intervention's effect on adherence, which was measured using electronic caps that recorded pill-bottle openings. Acceptance was high based on 76% enrollment and 85% satisfaction. Participants found the hardware and software easy to use. However, attrition was high at 59%, and usefulness ratings were slightly lower. The most common complaint was boredom. Unexpectedly, there was no difference between mismatched and matched messages' effects, but each group showed a 10%-15% improvement in adherence after crossing to the opposite study condition. Although smartphone-based tailored messaging was feasible and participants had clinically meaningful improvements in adherence, the mechanisms of change require further study. Possible explanations might include novelty effects, increased receptiveness to

  13. Statistics of Epidemics in Networks by Passing Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Munik Kumar

    Epidemic processes are common out-of-equilibrium phenomena of broad interdisciplinary interest. In this thesis, we show how message-passing approach can be a helpful tool for simulating epidemic models in disordered medium like networks, and in particular for estimating the probability that a given node will become infectious at a particular time. The sort of dynamics we consider are stochastic, where randomness can arise from the stochastic events or from the randomness of network structures. As in belief propagation, variables or messages in message-passing approach are defined on the directed edges of a network. However, unlike belief propagation, where the posterior distributions are updated according to Bayes' rule, in message-passing approach we write differential equations for the messages over time. It takes correlations between neighboring nodes into account while preventing causal signals from backtracking to their immediate source, and thus avoids "echo chamber effects" where a pair of adjacent nodes each amplify the probability that the other is infectious. In our first results, we develop a message-passing approach to threshold models of behavior popular in sociology. These are models, first proposed by Granovetter, where individuals have to hear about a trend or behavior from some number of neighbors before adopting it themselves. In thermodynamic limit of large random networks, we provide an exact analytic scheme while calculating the time dependence of the probabilities and thus learning about the whole dynamics of bootstrap percolation, which is a simple model known in statistical physics for exhibiting discontinuous phase transition. As an application, we apply a similar model to financial networks, studying when bankruptcies spread due to the sudden devaluation of shared assets in overlapping portfolios. We predict that although diversification may be good for individual institutions, it can create dangerous systemic effects, and as a result

  14. Supportive Distortions: An Analysis of Posts on a Pedophile Internet Message Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malesky, L. Alvin, Jr.; Ennis, Liam

    2004-01-01

    A covert observation of posts on a pro-pedophile Internet message board investigated evidence of distorted cognitions that were supportive of sexually abusive behavior. Implications for the treatment and supervision of members of online communities that support pedophilic interests and behaviors are discussed. The purpose of the present study was…

  15. Technical Evaluation Report 14: Chat and Instant Messaging Systems (synchronous: Report 2/ 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Kinsel

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This study extends the earlier review of online chat systems (Report 6, by reviewing a further seven products that provide text-based instant messaging (IM. The functionality of these products in distance education contexts is stressed in relation to their comparative costs, complexity, control, clarity, technical framework, and other functional options.

  16. Social Media in Health Research: An Example from Childcare Provider Message Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Meghan

    2011-01-01

    Social media sites, such as message boards and blogs, provide innovative data sources for researchers as these sites feature people sharing advice and discussing issues in a public arena. Research has found the online context can encourage people to reveal more information than do such traditional methods as interviews or focus groups. However,…

  17. Can Students Really Multitask? An Experimental Study of Instant Messaging while Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Laura L.; Levine, Laura E.; Waite, Bradley M.; Gendron, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Students often "multitask" with electronic media while doing schoolwork. We examined the effects of one form of media often used in such multitasking, instant messaging (IM). We predicted that students who engaged in IMing while reading a typical academic psychology passage online would take longer to read the passage and would perform more poorly…

  18. Online and In-Person Nutrition Education Improves Breakfast Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors: A Randomized Trial of Participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Lauren E; Whaley, Shannon; Rosen, Nila J; Meza, Martha; Ritchie, Lorrene D

    2016-03-01

    Although in-person education is expected to remain central to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) service delivery, effective online nutrition education has the potential for increased exposure to quality education and a positive influence on nutrition behaviors in WIC participants. Education focused on promoting healthy breakfast behaviors is an important topic for WIC participants because breakfast eating compared with breakfast skipping has been associated with a higher-quality diet and decreased risk for obesity. To examine the influences of online and in-person group nutrition education on changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to breakfast eating. Randomized-controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of online and in-person nutrition education between March and September 2014. Five hundred ninety WIC participants from two Los Angeles, CA, WIC clinics were randomly assigned to receive in-person group education (n=359) or online education (n=231). Education focused on ways to reduce breakfast skipping and promoted healthy options at breakfast for parents and their 1- to 5-year-old children participating in WIC. Questionnaires assessing breakfast-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were administered before and after education, and at a 2- to 4-month follow-up. Changes within and between in-person and online groups were compared using t tests and χ(2) tests. Analysis of covariance and generalized estimating equations were used to assess differences in change between groups. Changes in knowledge between pretest and follow-up at 2 to 4 months were similar between groups. Both groups reported reductions in barriers to eating breakfast due to time constraints, not having enough foods at home, and difficulty with preparation. Increases in the frequency of eating breakfast were greater for both the parent (P=0.0007) and child (P=0.01) in the online group compared with the in-person group during

  19. Interarrival times of message propagation on directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljev, Tamara; de Arcangelis, Lucilla; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2011-08-01

    One of the challenges in fighting cybercrime is to understand the dynamics of message propagation on botnets, networks of infected computers used to send viruses, unsolicited commercial emails (SPAM) or denial of service attacks. We map this problem to the propagation of multiple random walkers on directed networks and we evaluate the interarrival time distribution between successive walkers arriving at a target. We show that the temporal organization of this process, which models information propagation on unstructured peer to peer networks, has the same features as SPAM reaching a single user. We study the behavior of the message interarrival time distribution on three different network topologies using two different rules for sending messages. In all networks the propagation is not a pure Poisson process. It shows universal features on Poissonian networks and a more complex behavior on scale free networks. Results open the possibility to indirectly learn about the process of sending messages on networks with unknown topologies, by studying interarrival times at any node of the network.

  20. Interarrival times of message propagation on directed networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljev, Tamara; de Arcangelis, Lucilla; Herrmann, Hans J

    2011-08-01

    One of the challenges in fighting cybercrime is to understand the dynamics of message propagation on botnets, networks of infected computers used to send viruses, unsolicited commercial emails (SPAM) or denial of service attacks. We map this problem to the propagation of multiple random walkers on directed networks and we evaluate the interarrival time distribution between successive walkers arriving at a target. We show that the temporal organization of this process, which models information propagation on unstructured peer to peer networks, has the same features as SPAM reaching a single user. We study the behavior of the message interarrival time distribution on three different network topologies using two different rules for sending messages. In all networks the propagation is not a pure Poisson process. It shows universal features on Poissonian networks and a more complex behavior on scale free networks. Results open the possibility to indirectly learn about the process of sending messages on networks with unknown topologies, by studying interarrival times at any node of the network.

  1. The use of messages in altering risky gambling behavior in experienced gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Bianca F; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2012-03-01

    The present study was an experimental analogue that examined the relationship between gambling-related irrational beliefs and risky gambling behavior. Eighty high-frequency gamblers were randomly assigned to four conditions and played a chance-based computer game in a laboratory setting. Depending on the condition, during the game a pop-up screen repeatedly displayed either accurate or inaccurate messages concerning the game, neutral messages, or no messages. Consistent with a cognitive-behavioral model of gambling, accurate messages that correctly described the random contingencies governing the game decreased risky gambling behavior. Contrary to predictions, inaccurate messages designed to mimic gamblers' irrational beliefs about their abilities to influence chance events did not lead to more risky gambling behavior than exposure to neutral or no messages. Participants in the latter three conditions did not differ significantly from one another and all showed riskier gambling behavior than participants in the accurate message condition. The results suggest that harm minimization strategies that help individuals maintain a rational perspective while gambling may protect them from unreasonable risk-taking. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Socioecological and message framing factors influencing maternal influenza immunization among minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Paula M; Saint-Victor, Diane S; Owens, Lauren E; Omer, Saad B

    2014-03-26

    A suboptimal level of seasonal influenza vaccination among pregnant minority women is an intractable public health problem, requiring effective message resonance with this population. We evaluated the effects of randomized exposure to messages which emphasize positive outcomes of vaccination ("gain-frame"), or messages which emphasize negative outcomes of forgoing vaccination ("loss-frame"). We also assessed multilevel social and community factors that influence maternal immunization among racially and ethnically diverse populations. Minority pregnant women in metropolitan Atlanta were enrolled in the longitudinal study and randomized to receive intervention or control messages. A postpartum questionnaire administered 30 days postpartum evaluated immunization outcomes following baseline message exposure among the study population. We evaluated key outcomes using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Neither gain- [OR=0.5176, (95% CI: 0.203,1.322)] nor loss-framed [OR=0.5000, 95% CI: (0.192,1.304)] messages were significantly associated with increased likelihood of immunization during pregnancy. Significant correlates of seasonal influenza immunization during pregnancy included healthcare provider recommendation [OR=3.934, 95% CI: (1.331,11.627)], use of hospital-based practices as primary source of prenatal care [OR=2.584, 95% CI: (1.091,6.122)], and perceived interpersonal support for influenza immunization [OR=3.405, 95% CI: (1.412,8.212)]. Dissemination of vaccine education messages via healthcare providers, and cultivating support from social networks, will improve seasonal influenza immunization among pregnant minority women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of E-cigarette Advertising Messages and Cues on Cessation Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Catherine L; Golden, Shelley D; Noar, Seth M; Rini, Christine; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2018-01-01

    We examined effects of e-cigarette ad messages and visual cues on outcomes related to combustible cigarette smoking cessation: smoking cessation intention, smoking urges, and immediate smoking behavior. US adult smokers (N = 3293) were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk and randomized to condition in a 3 (message: e-cigarette use anywhere, harm reduction, control) × 2 (e-cigarette cue presence or absence) between-subjects experiment. Stimuli were print ads for cigarette-like e-cigarettes ("cigalikes") that were manipulated for the experimental conditions. We conducted ANOVA and logistic regression analyses to investigate effects of the manipulations. Message effects on cessation intention and smoking urges were not statistically significant. There was no evidence of cue effects or message × cue interactions across outcomes. Contrary to expectations, e-cigarette use anywhere and harm reduction messages were associated with lower odds of immediate smoking than the control message (AOR EUA = 0.75, 95%CI = 0.58, 0.97, p = .026; AOR HR = 0.72, 95%CI = 0.55, 0.93, p = .013). E-cigarette use anywhere and harm reduction messages may encourage smoking cessation, given the observed reduction in immediate smoking. E-cigarette cues may not influence smoking cessation outcomes. Future studies should investigate whether message effects are a result of smokers believing e-cigarettes to be effective cessation aids.

  4. The effects of integrating instrumental and affective arguments in rhetorical and testimonial health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keer, Mario; van den Putte, Bas; de Wit, John; Neijens, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Recent research highlights the superior influence of affect over cognition in health decision making. The present study examined the independent and combined effects of 2 message characteristics that are thought to tap into the cognition-affect distinction: message format (rhetorical vs. testimonial) and argument type (instrumental vs. affective). In this 2 × 2 experiment, 81 college students were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 health messages discouraging binge drinking. The results indicated that messages containing affective arguments were judged more positively and perceived as more effective than were messages containing instrumental arguments. The results further revealed an interaction effect between message format and argument type. Testimonials were more persuasive when they contained affective arguments than when they contained instrumental arguments. Type of arguments did not influence the efficacy of rhetorical messages. Mediation analyses revealed that instrumental arguments reduce the efficacy of testimonials because they prevent individuals from being transported into the story, and increase psychological reactance. In conclusion, testimonial messages more effectively discourage binge drinking among college students when they contain affective, as opposed to instrumental, arguments.

  5. Effect of Text Message, Phone Call, and In-Person Appointment Reminders on Uptake of Repeat HIV Testing among Outpatients Screened for Acute HIV Infection in Kenya: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Mugo

    Full Text Available Following HIV-1 acquisition, many individuals develop an acute retroviral syndrome and a majority seek care. Available antibody testing cannot detect an acute HIV infection, but repeat testing after 2-4 weeks may detect seroconversion. We assessed the effect of appointment reminders on attendance for repeat HIV testing.We enrolled, in a randomized controlled trial, 18-29 year old patients evaluated for acute HIV infection at five sites in Coastal Kenya (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01876199. Participants were allocated 1:1 to either standard appointment (a dated appointment card or enhanced appointment (a dated appointment card plus SMS and phone call reminders, or in-person reminders for participants without a phone. The primary outcome was visit attendance, i.e., the proportion of participants attending the repeat test visit. Factors associated with attendance were examined by bivariable and multivariable logistic regression.Between April and July 2013, 410 participants were randomized. Attendance was 41% (85/207 for the standard group and 59% (117/199 for the enhanced group, for a relative risk of 1.4 [95% Confidence Interval, CI, 1.2-1.7].Higher attendance was independently associated with older age, study site, and report of transactional sex in past month. Lower attendance was associated with reporting multiple partners in the past two months.Appointment reminders through SMS, phone calls and in-person reminders increased the uptake of repeat HIV test by forty percent. This low-cost intervention could facilitate detection of acute HIV infections and uptake of recommended repeat testing.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01876199.

  6. Using WhatsApp and Facebook Online Social Groups for Smoking Relapse Prevention for Recent Quitters: A Pilot Pragmatic Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Chan, Ching Han Helen; Lai, Chi-Keung Jonah; Chan, Wai Fung Vivian; Wang, Man Ping; Li, Ho Cheung William; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2015-01-01

    Background Quit attempters often have episodes of smoking relapse before they eventually quit. Interactive text messaging through mobile phones has been shown to increase abstinence. This service can be potentially applied on the platform of a social networking service to help quitters maintain abstinence. Objective Our aim was to determine if the group discussion and reminders via the WhatsApp or Facebook social group were effective to prevent smoking relapse in quitters who had stopped smok...

  7. Quality of the Discrete-Message Transmission over the Communication Channel with Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    We consider the problem of the discrete-message transmission using the codes on the basis of the Shannon theorem, the Feinstein lemma, and the Hamming codes. In this case, the transmission quality is estimated using deterministic rather than random couplings among the messages and signals. It is shown that the coding redundancy, as well as the error-free transmission condition are not sufficient for realizing such a transmission. The signal-to-noise ratio is a more accurate parameter determining the transmission quality. The use of the Hamming code for long message sequences becomes efficient only if the threshold value of the signal-to-noise ratio is exceeded.

  8. Key paediatric messages from Amsterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Grigg

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Paediatric Assembly of the European Respiratory Society (ERS maintained its high profile at the 2015 ERS International Congress in Amsterdam. There were symposia on preschool wheeze, respiratory sounds and cystic fibrosis; an educational skills workshop on paediatric respiratory resuscitation; a hot topic session on risk factors and early origins of respiratory diseases; a meet the expert session on paediatric lung function test reference values; and the annual paediatric grand round. In this report the Chairs of the Paediatric Assembly's Groups highlight the key messages from the abstracts presented at the Congress.

  9. Key paediatric messages from Amsterdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barben, Jürg; Bohlin, Kajsa; Everard, Mark L.; Hall, Graham; Pijnenburg, Mariëlle; Priftis, Kostas N.; Rusconi, Franca; Midulla, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The Paediatric Assembly of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) maintained its high profile at the 2015 ERS International Congress in Amsterdam. There were symposia on preschool wheeze, respiratory sounds and cystic fibrosis; an educational skills workshop on paediatric respiratory resuscitation; a hot topic session on risk factors and early origins of respiratory diseases; a meet the expert session on paediatric lung function test reference values; and the annual paediatric grand round. In this report the Chairs of the Paediatric Assembly's Groups highlight the key messages from the abstracts presented at the Congress. PMID:27730186

  10. Effectiveness of the BOOST-A™ online transition planning program for adolescents on the autism spectrum: a quasi-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Megan; Falkmer, Marita; Falkmer, Torbjorn; Ciccarelli, Marina

    2017-01-01

    The majority of existing transition planning programs are focused on people with a disability in general and may not meet the specific need of adolescents on the autism spectrum. In addition, these interventions focus on specific skills (e.g. job readiness or self-determination) rather than the overall transition planning process and there are methodological limitations to many of the studies determining their effectiveness. The Better OutcOmes & Successful Transitions for Autism (BOOST-A™) is an online program that supports adolescents on the autism spectrum to prepare for leaving school. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the BOOST-A™ in enhancing self-determination. A quasi-randomized controlled trial was conducted with adolescents on the autism spectrum enrolled in years 8 to 11 in Australian schools (N = 94). Participants had to have basic computer skills and the ability to write at a year 5 reading level. Participants were allocated to a control (n = 45) or intervention (n = 49) group and participants were blinded to the trial hypothesis. The intervention group used the BOOST-A™ for 12 months, while the control group participated in regular practice. Outcomes included self-determination, career planning and exploration, quality of life, environmental support and domain specific self-determination. Data were collected from parents and adolescents. There were no significant differences in overall self-determination between groups. Results indicated significant differences in favor of the intervention group in three areas: opportunity for self-determination at home as reported by parents; career exploration as reported by parents and adolescents; and transition-specific self-determination as reported by parents. Results provide preliminary evidence that the BOOST-A™ can enhance some career-readiness outcomes. Lack of significant outcomes related to self-determination at school and career planning may be due to the lack of face

  11. Developing Social Media-Based Suicide Prevention Messages in Partnership With Young People: Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jo; Bailey, Eleanor; Hetrick, Sarah; Paix, Steve; O'Donnell, Matt; Cox, Georgina; Ftanou, Maria; Skehan, Jaelea

    2017-10-04

    Social media is increasingly being used by young people for health-related issues, including communicating about suicide. Due to the concerns about causing distress or inducing suicidal thoughts or behaviors, to date young people neither have been engaged in the development of social media-based suicide prevention interventions nor have interventions focused on educating young people about safe ways to communicate about suicide online. Given the potential that social media holds to deliver messages to vast numbers of people across space and time and the fact that young people often prefer to seek help from their friends and peers, safely educating and engaging young people to develop suicide prevention messages that can be delivered via social media is an obvious next step. The objectives of this study were to (1) provide education to a small number of secondary school students about safe ways to communicate about suicide via social media; (2) engage the same young people in the development of a suite of social media-based suicide prevention multimedia messages; (3) assess the impact of this on participants; and (4) assess the acceptability and safety of the messages developed. This study involved two phases. In phase 1, 20 participants recruited from two schools took part in an 8- to 10-week program during which they were provided with psychoeducation about mental health and suicide, including how to talk safely about suicide online, and they were then supported to design and develop their own media messages. These participants completed an evaluation questionnaire at the conclusion of the program. In phase 2, a larger group of participants (n=69), recruited via an opt-in process, viewed the media messages and completed a short questionnaire about each one. Participants in phase 1 enjoyed the program and reported that they learned new skills, such as how to talk safely about suicide online, and felt more able to provide emotional support to others (16/20, 80%). No

  12. Population message from the village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibler, M

    1979-06-01

    According to a number of participants at the population conference in Ontario, sponsored by the School of Journalism of the Univesity of Western Ontario and the Canadian International Development Agency, the villages, in developing countries, have sent a message to population experts, declaring that the most effective way to motivate individuals toward reducing family size is to improve basic educational and health care services. It has been demonstrated that improvements in these areas, by providing women with educational opportunities and by reducing infant mortality, have a direct impact on fertility. Efforts should be directed toward discovering similar direct correlates. The message dismissed as irrelevant the battle raging between those who advocate that population growth must be halted before poverty can be eliminated, between the developmentalists, who believe that fundamental changes in economic and political conditions will automatically solve the population problem, and between those who declare that family planning and development must be dealt with simultaneously for either to be effective. Despite evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of the 'direct correlate' approach, most developing countries continue to accord top priority to family planning programs and neglect educational and health care services.

  13. E-care 4 caregivers - an online intervention for nonprofessional caregivers of patients with depression: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bijker, L; Kleiboer, A; Riper, H; Cuijpers, P; Donker, T

    2016-01-01

    .... This paper describes the protocol of a pilot study to evaluate (1) the feasibility of an online self-management intervention, E-care 4 caregivers, for the nonprofessional caregiver of patients with depression, and (2...

  14. Message Scheduling and Forwarding in Congested DTNs

    KAUST Repository

    Elwhishi, Ahmed

    2012-08-19

    Multi-copy utility-based routing has been considered as one of the most applicable approaches to effective message delivery in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). By allowing multiple message replicas launched, the ratio of message delivery or delay can be significantly reduced compared with other counterparts. Such an advantage, nonetheless, is at the expense of taking more buffer space at each node and higher complexity in message forwarding decisions. This paper investigates an efficient message scheduling and dropping policy via analytical modeling approach, aiming to achieve optimal performance in terms of message delivery delay. Extensive simulation results, based on a synthetic mobility model and real mobility traces, show that the proposed scheduling framework can achieve superb performance against its counterparts in terms of delivery delay.

  15. Online Self-Management Support for Family Caregivers to Help Them Manage Behavior Changes in Their Relative With Dementia: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial and a Process Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huis In Het Veld, Judith G; Willemse, Bernadette M; van Asch, Iris Fm; Groot Zwaaftink, Rob Bm; Verkade, Paul-Jeroen; Veldhuijzen, Nienke J; Verkaik, Renate; Blom, Marco M; Francke, Anneke L

    2017-11-28

    Online interventions are potentially effective ways to support family caregivers in the management of behavior changes in their relative with dementia. The objective of this paper is to present the design of a study evaluating and comparing 3 intervention arms for online self-management support. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted with a total of 81 family caregivers of community-dwelling people with dementia in the Netherlands. Family caregivers will be randomly allocated to one of the following intervention arms: (1) a major self-management support intervention consisting of personal email contacts with a nurse specialized in dementia care, online videos, and electronic bulletins (e-bulletins); (2) a medium self-management support intervention consisting of only online videos and e-bulletins; and (3) a minor self-management support intervention with only e-bulletins. The primary outcome is the self-efficacy of the family caregiver. The secondary outcomes are the behavior problems of the person with dementia as reported by the family caregiver, and positive and negative aspects of the relationship. Background characteristics (eg, type of family relationship) will also be assessed. All data for the RCT will be collected via online questionnaires, administered before the intervention (T0), after 6 weeks (T1), and after 12 weeks (T2). Alongside the RCT, a process evaluation will be conducted, based on a number of evaluation questions and semi-open interviews with family caregivers. Data collection will be completed in August 2017. Study results will be reported in early 2018. The study will shed more light on the effect of online self-management support interventions and insights will be gained into whether a major intervention, consisting of personal email contacts with specialized nurses, videos, and e-bulletins, has more effect than smaller online interventions. This is relevant in an age with increasing numbers of people with dementia, growing

  16. Translating Healthy Living Messages to Postpartum Women and Their Partners After Gestational Diabetes (GDM): Body Habitus, A1C, Lifestyle Habits, and Program Engagement Results From the Families Defeating Diabetes (FDD) Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, R; Miller, D; Mottola, M; Giroux, I; Donovan, L

    2017-01-01

    The Families Defeating Diabetes intervention evaluated a postpartum healthy living program for women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Randomized controlled trial. Tertiary centers in London, Calgary, and Victoria, Canada. Women with GDM and partners; 46% of eligible maternal participants agreed to participate. Interventional (INT) participants received a healthy living seminar at 3 months; access to a walking group/Website; biweekly e-mails. Control (CON) participants received a contemporary postpartum diabetes prevention handout. Maternal, partner, and offspring demographics at baseline, 3, and 12 months. Percentages of women losing ≥7% of postpartum weight were compared by χ(2) testing; body habitus comparisons by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA); maternal A1C comparisons by unpaired t tests; participant outcome associations by Pearson correlation coefficients. Maternal participants were 170 (89 INT and 81 CON) with 63 partners (30 INT and 33 CON); 103 (73 maternal; 30 partners) were lost to follow-up; 57% of maternal participants completed 12 months; 33% INT women (n = 50) lost ≥7% weight versus 25% CON women (n = 47), P = .43. Interventional participant results did not correlate with accession of study elements. Maternal completion was significantly associated with partner involvement, breastfeeding, higher income, and education. Paternal weights correlated significantly with maternal and offspring weights. Families Defeating Diabetes outcomes were not significantly different for INT maternal or paternal participants versus CON participants. Secondary outcomes of future value included statistically significant positive associations between paternal participation, socioeconomic indicators, and maternal study completion, significant correlations between maternal, paternal, and offspring weights as well as insights into study component engagement.

  17. Effects of culturally specific cessation messages on theoretical antecedents of behavior among low-income african american smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Monica S; Baker, Elizabeth A; Rodríguez de Ybarra, Denise

    2010-06-01

    Previous research has highlighted the importance of cultural relevance in health risk communications, including tobacco interventions. However, few studies have examined the active components of smoking cessation messages targeting low-income African American smokers. This study tested the influence of message content and culturally specific framing in a sample of adult smokers. In a 2 x 2 factorial experiment, 243 African American smokers (M = 19 cigarettes/day) recruited from the community (55% women; mean age = 43 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: culturally specific smoking messages, standard smoking messages, culturally specific exercise/weight messages, or standard exercise/weight messages. The primary outcome measures were theoretical antecedents to behavior change, including risk perceptions (general, personal, and culturally specific), readiness to quit smoking, and smoking-related knowledge. The results showed that the smoking messages produced greater culturally specific risk perceptions, readiness to quit smoking, and smoking-related knowledge. The culturally specific messages produced greater personal risk perceptions and intentions to quit. Culturally specific risk perceptions were most affected by culturally specific smoking messages. Findings support the roles of message content and culturally specific framing in the efficacy of brief written interventions for smoking cessation in this population. Future research is needed to examine the influence of these constructs on behavior change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Application of a Tsunami Warning Message Metric to refine NOAA NWS Tsunami Warning Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.

  19. Social media analytics and research testbed (SMART): Exploring spatiotemporal patterns of human dynamics with geo-targeted social media messages

    OpenAIRE

    Jiue-An Yang; Ming-Hsiang Tsou; Chin-Te Jung; Christopher Allen; Brian H Spitzberg; Jean Mark Gawron; Su-Yeon Han

    2016-01-01

    The multilevel model of meme diffusion conceptualizes how mediated messages diffuse over time and space. As a pilot application of implementing the meme diffusion, we developed the social media analytics and research testbed to monitor Twitter messages and track the diffusion of information in and across different cities and geographic regions. Social media analytics and research testbed is an online geo-targeted search and analytics tool, including an automatic data processing procedure at t...

  20. Feasibility and reliability of a mobile tool to evaluate exposure to tobacco product marketing and messages using ecological momentary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Emily T; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Businelle, Michael S; Harrell, Melissa B; Kelder, Steven H; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-10-01

    Existing measures of tobacco marketing and messaging exposure are limited, relying on recall, recognition, or proxy measures. This study aimed to determine the feasibility and reliability of a mobile application for the measurement of tobacco and e-cigarette marketing and message exposure using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Young adults from Austin, TX (n=181, ages 18-29) were instructed to use a mobile application to record all sightings of marketing or social media related to tobacco (including e-cigarettes) in real-time for 28days (Event EMAs). Tobacco product use and recall of message encounters were assessed daily using an app-initiated EMA (Daily EMAs). The mobile app was a feasible and acceptable method to measure exposure to tobacco messages. The majority of messages (45.0%) were seen on the Internet, and many were user-generated. Thirty-day recall of messages at baseline was poorly correlated with messages reported via Event EMA during the study period; however, the correlation between post-study 30-day recall and Event EMA was much stronger (r=0.603 for industry-sponsored messages, r=0.599 for user-generated messages). Correlations between Daily EMAs and 30-day recall of message exposure (baseline and post-study) were small (baseline: r=0.329-0.389) to large (post-study: r=0.656-0.766). These findings suggest that EMA is a feasible and reliable method for measuring tobacco message exposure, especially given the prevalence of messages encountered online and on social media. Recall measures are limited in their ability to accurately represent marketing exposure, but might be improved by a period of priming or clearer response categories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of sexual communication message strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Davis, Kevin C; Umanzor, Cindy; Patel, Kajal; Khan, Munziba

    2011-05-20

    Parent-child communication about sex is an important proximal reproductive health outcome. But while campaigns to promote it such as the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) have been effective, little is known about how messages influence parental cognitions and behavior. This study examines which message features explain responses to sexual communication messages. We content analyzed 4 PSUNC ads to identify specific, measurable message and advertising execution features. We then develop quantitative measures of those features, including message strategies, marketing strategies, and voice and other stylistic features, and merged the resulting data into a dataset drawn from a national media tracking survey of the campaign. Finally, we conducted multivariable logistic regression models to identify relationships between message content and ad reactions/receptivity, and between ad reactions/receptivity and parents' cognitions related to sexual communication included in the campaign's conceptual model. We found that overall parents were highly receptive to the PSUNC ads. We did not find significant associations between message content and ad reactions/receptivity. However, we found that reactions/receptivity to specific PSUNC ads were associated with increased norms, self-efficacy, short- and long-term expectations about parent-child sexual communication, as theorized in the conceptual model. This study extends previous research and methods to analyze message content and reactions/receptivity. The results confirm and extend previous PSUNC campaign evaluation and provide further evidence for the conceptual model. Future research should examine additional message content features and the effects of reactions/receptivity.

  2. Seattle I-405 Simulated Basic Safety Message

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Data provided consists of Basic Safety Messages (BSM) generated by the Trajectory Converter Analysis (TCA) tool with input from VISSIM calibrated simulations of the...

  3. You have a message! Social networking as a motivator for FLS training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Andrea M; Kaneva, Pepa; Lebedeva, Ekaterina; Feldman, Liane S; Fried, Gerald M; Vassiliou, Melina C

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence supporting the value of the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) curriculum, surgical educators still find it challenging to motivate residents to practice. Wiggio is an online networking and collaboration tool that allows learners to track performance, see what their peers are doing, and send and receive updates. The purpose of this study was to assess whether using Wiggio increases practice and improves performance of the FLS manual skills. After baseline FLS testing, residents were randomized into control (C) and Wiggio (W) groups. The practice events, time spent practicing, and best scores were recorded. Residents in the W group interacted with each other via the Wiggio website. The website moderator sent motivational messages, calendar reminders, and FLS-related articles. The best times and progress graphs for each resident were also posted online. After 4 weeks, all residents underwent final FLS testing and filled out a questionnaire. The study was performed in a tertiary care center, at the Steinberg-Bernstein Centre for Minimally Invasive Surgery at the Montreal General Hospital. Postgraduate year-1 and postgraduate year-2 general surgery residents with no or minimal FLS simulator experience were included. Of the 15 eligible residents, 14 participated, with 7 residents in each group. The FLS scores were similar at baseline (C = 56.9 [±14.2], W = 57. 6 [±14.7]; p = 0.93). During the study period, twice as many residents in the W group practiced compared with those in the C group (4 vs 2); W-group residents reported more practice events than the C-group residents did (14 vs 4) and spent more time practicing in the laboratory (1035 vs 480 minutes). These results did not reach statistical significance. During practice sessions, proficiency scores were achieved for 40% of the tasks in the W group compared with 8.6% in the C group; however, this difference was also not significant. There was no difference in the FLS scores in both groups

  4. Tracking particles by passing messages between images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kroc, Lukas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zdeborova, Lenka [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Krakala, Florent [ESPCI; Vergassola, M [CNRS

    2009-01-01

    Methods to extract information from the tracking of mobile objects/particles have broad interest in biological and physical sciences. Techniques based on the simple criterion of proximity in time-consecutive snapshots are useful to identify the trajectories of the particles. However, they become problematic as the motility and/or the density of the particles increases because of the uncertainties on the trajectories that particles have followed during the acquisition time of the images. Here, we report efficient methods for learning parameters of the dynamics of the particles from their positions in time-consecutive images. Our algorithm belongs to the class of message-passing algorithms, also known in computer science, information theory and statistical physics under the name of Belief Propagation (BP). The algorithm is distributed, thus allowing parallel implementation suitable for computations on multiple machines without significant inter-machine overhead. We test our method on the model example of particle tracking in turbulent flows, which is particularly challenging due to the strong transport that those flows produce. Our numerical experiments show that the BP algorithm compares in quality with exact Markov Chain Monte-Carlo algorithms, yet BP is far superior in speed. We also suggest and analyze a random-distance model that provides theoretical justification for BP accuracy. Methods developed here systematically formulate the problem of particle tracking and provide fast and reliable tools for its extensive range of applications.

  5. Extending Prior Posts in Dyadic Online Text Chat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudini, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    This study explores whether chat users are able to extend prior, apparently completed posts in the dyadic online text chat context. Dyadic text chat has a unique turn-taking system, and most chat softwares do not permit users to monitor one another's written messages-in-progress. This is likely to impact on their use of online extensions as an…

  6. Behavioral frequency moderates the effects of message framing on HPV vaccine acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerend, Mary A; Shepherd, Janet E; Monday, Kara A

    2008-04-01

    Research suggests that gain-framed messages are generally more effective than loss-framed messages at promoting preventive health behaviors. Virtually all previous studies, however, have examined prevention behaviors that require regular and repeated action to be effective. Little is known about the utility of message framing for promoting low-frequency prevention behaviors such as vaccination. Moreover, few studies have identified mediators of framing effects. We investigated whether behavioral frequency (operationalized as the number of shots required) moderated the effect of framed health messages on women's intentions to receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. We also sought to identify mediators of framing effects. Undergraduate women (N = 237) were randomly assigned to read an HPV vaccination booklet that varied by message frame (gain vs. loss) and behavioral frequency (one shot vs. six shots). We observed a frame-by-frequency interaction such that the loss-framed message led to greater vaccination intentions than did the gain-framed message but only among participants in the one-shot condition. Perceived susceptibility to HPV infection mediated the observed framing effects. This study provides an important exception to the commonly observed gain-framed advantage for preventive health behaviors. Loss-framed appeals appear to be particularly effective in promoting interest in low-frequency prevention behaviors such as HPV vaccination.

  7. Effects of messages from a media campaign to increase public awareness of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Colleen L; Gollust, Sarah E; McGinty, Emma E; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2014-02-01

    To examine how video messages from a recent media campaign affected public attitudes about obesity prevention and weight-based stigma toward obese children. A survey-embedded experiment in May-June 2012 with nationally representative sample (N = 1,677) was conducted. Participants were randomized to view one of three messages of children recounting struggles with obesity, or to a control group. It was examined whether message exposure affected attitudes about: (1) the seriousness of childhood obesity and its consequences; (2) responsibility for addressing obesity; (3) support for prevention policies, and (4) stigma toward obese children. Participants viewing the messages attributed greater responsibility for addressing childhood obesity to the food and beverage industry, schools, and the government, compared to those in the control group. Overweight and female respondents viewing the messages reported lower weight-based stigma compared with overweight and female respondents in the control group, but messages had no effect on healthy weight and male respondents. Messages did not affect attitudes about the seriousness of childhood obesity, its consequences, or support for obesity prevention policies. It will be critical to assess on an ongoing basis how communication campaigns addressing childhood obesity shape public attitudes about obesity prevention. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  8. Alcohol abstinence or harm-reduction? Parental messages for college-bound light drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W; Boyle, Sarah C; Napper, Lucy E

    2015-07-01

    Parental communications about alcohol can have a significant impact on college students' alcohol use; however, it is unclear what types of communication may be most beneficial for reducing alcohol risk, particularly among students who have already initiated alcohol use. The present research examines differences in alcohol use and employment of drinking protective behavioral strategies between pre-college matriculation high school seniors receiving predominantly abstinence parent messaging and students primarily receiving harm-reduction parent messaging. Students who identified as light drinkers were recruited during their last month in high school and completed an online assessment of alcohol use and parent alcohol communication. Analyses revealed that, in comparison to light drinkers who primarily received harm-reduction messaging from parents, light drinkers who received more abstinence messaging reported less frequent alcohol use, lower peak alcohol consumption, and greater use of protective drinking strategies aimed at changing the way they drank and avoiding serious hazards associated with drinking. Findings from this study underscore the utility of messages related to abstinence even for parents who are aware that their children have had previous experiences with alcohol and highlight the need for longitudinal research assessing additional mechanisms associated with message efficacy among light, moderate and heavy drinking students transitioning to college. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lognormal infection times of online information spread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doerr, C.; Blenn, N.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2013-01-01

    The infection times of individuals in online information spread such as the inter-arrival time of Twitter messages or the propagation time of news stories on a social media site can be explained through a convolution of lognormally distributed observation and reaction times of the individual

  10. The Inability of Self-affirmations to Decrease Defensive Bias Toward an Alcohol-Related Risk Message Among High-Risk College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Ellen; Miller, Mary Beth; Lechner, William V; Lombardi, Nate; Claborn, Kasey R; Leffingwell, Thad R

    2015-01-01

    To examine the efficacy of a self-affirmation task in deterring college alcohol misuse and the importance of preexisting beliefs in predicting subsequent behavior change. Heavy-drinking undergraduates (N = 110) participated during the 2011-2012 academic year. Participants were randomized to complete an affirmation or control task before reading an alcohol risk message. Alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors were assessed. Participants completed a 2-week online follow-up assessing alcohol-related behaviors. Both groups reported increased perceived problem importance, but neither group displayed changes in personal risk. Follow-up assessment revealed similar, significant declines in peak consumption in both groups, with no significant between-group differences. Preexisting beliefs accounted for 5% to 10% of variance in drinking outcomes. An affirmation task does not seem to decrease defensive processing or alter high-risk drinking behaviors among college students and should not be utilized in lieu of more effective strategies.

  11. 78 FR 52166 - Quantitative Messaging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Quantitative Messaging Research AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Notice... qualitative message testing research (for which CFTC received fast-track OMB approval) and is necessary to... research (for which CFTC received fast-track OMB approval) and is necessary to identify, with statistical...

  12. Perceived effectiveness of messages promoting hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald E

    2017-03-01

    Eighty-six infection control specialists evaluated 24 messages promoting hand hygiene (HH). Brief, simple messages using appeals to social situations and to ego (self-efficacy) were rated as most likely to increase HH compliance. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Undergraduates' Text Messaging Language and Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Abbie; Kemp, Nenagh; Martin, Frances Heritage; Parrila, Rauno

    2014-01-01

    Research investigating whether people's literacy skill is being affected by the use of text messaging language has produced largely positive results for children, but mixed results for adults. We asked 150 undergraduate university students in Western Canada and 86 in South Eastern Australia to supply naturalistic text messages and to complete…

  14. Unifying User-to-User Messaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wams, J.M.S.; van Steen, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Unification of user-to-user messaging systems facilitates message exchange independent of time, place, protocol, and end-user device. This article describes an approach to unification that is based on introducing a middleware layer instead of employing gateways. It entails a single system that

  15. Maintaining High Assurance in Asynchronous Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-24

    SQS), Kafka , Eagle MQ, and IronMQ. D. Emerging Standard Advanced Message Queuing Protocol Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) is an open...been- given-task-to-find.html. [18] RabbitMQ – http://www.rabbitmq.com/. [19] Apache ActiveMQ – http://activemq.apache.org/. [20] Apache Qpid

  16. Messages about Sexuality: An Ecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Tanya L.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this two-part study was to identify the perceived influence of sexuality messages from parents, peers, school and the media--four microsystems within the Ecological Model--on emerging adult US college women's sexual attitudes. Findings suggest that parents were the most likely source of the message to "remain abstinent until…

  17. Expectancy Theory in Media and Message Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leuven, Jim

    1981-01-01

    Argues for reversing emphasis on uses and gratifications research in favor of an expectancy model which holds that selection of a particular medium depends on (1) the expectation that the choice will be followed by a message of interest and (2) the importance of that message in satisfying user's values. (PD)

  18. Suspecting Neurological Dysfunction From E Mail Messages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A non medical person suspected and confirmed neurological dysfunction in an individual, based only on e mail messages sent by the individual. With email communication becoming rampant “peculiar” email messages may raise the suspicion of neurological dysfunction. Organic pathology explaining the abnormal email ...

  19. Relational Messages Associated with Nonverbal Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Judee K.; And Others

    Based on the assumptions that relational messages are multidimensional and that they are largely communicated by nonverbal cues, this experiment manipulated five nonverbal cues--eye contact, proximity, body lean, smiling, and touch--to determine what meanings they convey along four relational message dimensions: emotionality/arousal/composure,…

  20. The WLCG Messaging Service and its Future

    CERN Document Server

    Cons, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    Enterprise messaging is seen as an attractive mechanism to simplify and extend several portions of the Grid middleware, from low level monitoring to experiments dashboards. The production messaging service currently used by WLCG includes four tightly coupled brokers operated by EGI (running Apache ActiveMQ and designed to host the Grid operational tools such as SAM) as well as two dedicated services for ATLAS-DDM and experiments dashboards (currently also running Apache ActiveMQ). In the future, this service is expected to grow in numbers of applications supported, brokers and technologies. The WLCG Messaging Roadmap identified three areas with room for improvement (security, scalability and availability/reliability) as well as ten practical recommendations to address them. This paper describes a messaging service architecture that is in line with these recommendations as well as a software architecture based on reusable components that ease interactions with the messaging service. These two architectures wil...

  1. Early detection of Internet worm activity by metering ICMP destination unreachable messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, George; Berk, Vincent H.

    2002-08-01

    Early warning of active worm propagation over the Internet is of vital importance to first responders. Knowing an active worms characteristics very early in its propagation can significantly reduce the damage it may cause. In this paper we propose an early warning system that uses ICMP Destination Unreachable (ICMP-T3) messages to identify the random scanning behavior of worms. Participating routers across the Internet send Blind Carbon Copies of all their locally generated ICMP-T3 messages to a central collection point. There all the incoming messages are compared for similarities. Incoming messages are abstracted and patterns identified. Using the methods discussed in this paper we identify 'blooms' of activity that are a clear signature of worm propagation. Preliminary test results have shown that actively spreading worms can be identified in the first few minutes after they are launched. By using the characteristics gathered in those early stages, action can be taken and widespread damage might be avoided.

  2. An Online Intervention Comparing a Very Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations Versus a Plate Method Diet in Overweight Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow, Laura R; Mason, Ashley E; Kim, Sarah; Goldman, Veronica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Bayandorian, Hovig; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Hecht, Frederick M; Moskowitz, Judith T

    2017-02-13

    Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent, chronic disease for which diet is an integral aspect of treatment. In our previous trial, we found that recommendations to follow a very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and to change lifestyle factors (physical activity, sleep, positive affect, mindfulness) helped overweight people with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes improve glycemic control and lose weight. This was an in-person intervention, which could be a barrier for people without the time, flexibility, transportation, social support, and/or financial resources to attend. The aim was to determine whether an online intervention based on our previous recommendations (an ad libitum very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet with lifestyle factors; "intervention") or an online diet program based on the American Diabetes Associations' "Create Your Plate" diet ("control") would improve glycemic control and other health outcomes among overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes. In this pilot feasibility study, we randomized overweight adults (body mass index ≥25) with type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin [HbA 1c ] 6.5%-9.0%) to a 32-week online intervention based on our previous recommendations (n=12) or an online diet program based around a plate method diet (n=13) to assess the impact of each intervention on glycemic control and other health outcomes. Primary and secondary outcomes were analyzed by mixed-effects linear regression to compare outcomes by group. At 32 weeks, participants in the intervention group reduced their HbA 1c levels more (estimated marginal mean [EMM] -0.8%, 95% CI -1.1% to -0.6%) than participants in the control group (EMM -0.3%, 95% CI -0.6% to 0.0%; P=.002). More than half of the participants in the intervention group (6/11, 55%) lowered their HbA 1c to less than 6.5% versus 0% (0/8) in the control group (P=.02). Participants in the intervention group lost more weight (EMM -12.7 kg, 95% CI -16.1 to -9.2 kg) than participants in the control group (EMM -3.0 kg

  3. A comparison of rule-based and machine learning approaches for classifying patient portal messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Robert M; Fabbri, Daniel; Denny, Joshua C; Rosenbloom, S Trent; Jackson, Gretchen Purcell

    2017-09-01

    Secure messaging through patient portals is an increasingly popular way that consumers interact with healthcare providers. The increasing burden of secure messaging can affect clinic staffing and workflows. Manual management of portal messages is costly and time consuming. Automated classification of portal messages could potentially expedite message triage and delivery of care. We developed automated patient portal message classifiers with rule-based and machine learning techniques using bag of words and natural language processing (NLP) approaches. To evaluate classifier performance, we used a gold standard of 3253 portal messages manually categorized using a taxonomy of communication types (i.e., main categories of informational, medical, logistical, social, and other communications, and subcategories including prescriptions, appointments, problems, tests, follow-up, contact information, and acknowledgement). We evaluated our classifiers' accuracies in identifying individual communication types within portal messages with area under the receiver-operator curve (AUC). Portal messages often contain more than one type of communication. To predict all communication types within single messages, we used the Jaccard Index. We extracted the variables of importance for the random forest classifiers. The best performing approaches to classification for the major communication types were: logistic regression for medical communications (AUC: 0.899); basic (rule-based) for informational communications (AUC: 0.842); and random forests for social communications and logistical communications (AUCs: 0.875 and 0.925, respectively). The best performing classification approach of classifiers for individual communication subtypes was random forests for Logistical-Contact Information (AUC: 0.963). The Jaccard Indices by approach were: basic classifier, Jaccard Index: 0.674; Naïve Bayes, Jaccard Index: 0.799; random forests, Jaccard Index: 0.859; and logistic regression, Jaccard

  4. Workplace mental health promotion online to enhance well-being of nurses and allied health professionals: A cluster-randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolier, Linda; Ketelaar, Sarah M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Smeets, Odile; Gartner, Fania R.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Well-being is an important prerequisite for the mental health and work functioning of nurses and allied health professionals. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a workers' health surveillance (WHS) module that offers screening, tailored feedback and online

  5. Designing Anti-Binge Drinking Prevention Messages: Message Framing vs. Evidence Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hannah; Lee, Moon J

    2017-09-27

    We investigated whether presenting anti-binge drinking health campaign messages in different message framing and evidence types influences college students' intention to avoid binge drinking, based on prospect theory (PT) and exemplification theory. A 2 (message framing: loss-framed message/gain-framed message) X 2 (evidence type: statistical/narrative) between-subjects factorial design with a control group was conducted with 156 college students. College students who were exposed to the loss-framed message condition exhibited a higher level of intention to avoid binge drinking in the near future than those who did not see any messages (the control group). This finding was mainly among non-binge drinkers. Regardless of evidence type, those who were exposed to the messages exhibited a higher level of intention to avoid binge drinking than those in the control group. This is also mainly among non-binge drinkers. We also found the main effects of message framing and evidence type on attitude toward the message and the main effect of message framing on attitude toward drinking.

  6. A human language corpus for interstellar message construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John

    2011-02-01

    The aim of HuLCC (the human language chorus corpus), is to provide a resource of sufficient size to facilitate inter-language analysis by incorporating languages from all the major language families: for the first time all aspects of typology will be incorporated within a single corpus, adhering to a consistent grammatical classification and granularity, which historically adopt a plethora of disparate schemes. An added feature will be the inclusion of a common text element, which will be translated across all languages, to provide a precise comparable thread for detailed linguistic analysis for translation strategies and a mechanism by which these mappings can be explicitly achieved. Methods developed to solve unambiguous mappings across these languages can then be adopted for any subsequent message authored by the SETI community. Initially, it is planned to provide at least 20,000 words for each chosen language, as this amount of text exceeds the point where randomly generated text can be disambiguated from natural language and is of sufficient size useful for message transmission [1] (Elliot, 2002). This paper details the design of this resource, which ultimately will be made available to SETI upon its completion, and discusses issues 'core' to any message construction.

  7. ANALYSIS OF MARKOV NETWORK WITH INCOMES, POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE MESSAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Naumenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Markov queuing network with income in transient regime is considered. It has positive and negative messages, which can be used in forecasting income of information and telecommunication systems and networks affected by viruses. Investigations are carried out in the cases when incomes from transitions between network states are deterministic functions dependent on states, or they are random variables with given mean values. In the last case it is assumed that all network systems operate in a high load mode. An example is given.

  8. A Message Without a Code?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Conley

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The photographic paradox is said to be that of a message without a code, a communication lacking a relay or gap essential to the process of communication. Tracing the recurrence of Barthes's definition in the essays included in Image/Music/Text and in La Chambre claire , this paper argues that Barthes's definition is platonic in its will to dematerialize the troubling — graphic — immediacy of the photograph. He writes of the image in order to flee its signature. As a function of media, his categories are written in order to be insufficient and inadequate; to maintain an ineluctable difference between language heard and letters seen; to protect an idiom of loss which the photograph disallows. The article studies the strategies of his definition in «The Photographic Paradox» as instrument of abstraction, opposes the notion of code, in an aural sense, to audio-visual markers of closed relay in advertising, and critiques the layout and order of La Chambre claire in respect to Barthes's ideology of absence.

  9. Future-based Static Analysis of Message Passing Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orchard, Dominic; Oortwijn, Wytse Hendrikus Marinus; Yoshida, Nobuko; Blom, Stefan; Huisman, Marieke

    Message passing is widely used in industry to develop programs consisting of several distributed communicating components. Developing functionally correct message passing software is very challenging due to the concurrent nature of message exchanges. Nonetheless, many safety-critical applications

  10. Message Passing Framework for Globally Interconnected Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, M.; Asghar, S.; Malik, U. A.; Rehman, A.; Riaz, N.

    2011-12-01

    In prevailing technology trends it is apparent that the network requirements and technologies will advance in future. Therefore the need of High Performance Computing (HPC) based implementation for interconnecting clusters is comprehensible for scalability of clusters. Grid computing provides global infrastructure of interconnecting clusters consisting of dispersed computing resources over Internet. On the other hand the leading model for HPC programming is Message Passing Interface (MPI). As compared to Grid computing, MPI is better suited for solving most of the complex computational problems. MPI itself is restricted to a single cluster. It does not support message passing over the internet to use the computing resources of different clusters in an optimal way. We propose a model that provides message passing capabilities between parallel applications over the internet. The proposed model is based on Architecture for Java Universal Message Passing (A-JUMP) framework and Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) named as High Performance Computing Bus. The HPC Bus is built using ActiveMQ. HPC Bus is responsible for communication and message passing in an asynchronous manner. Asynchronous mode of communication offers an assurance for message delivery as well as a fault tolerance mechanism for message passing. The idea presented in this paper effectively utilizes wide-area intercluster networks. It also provides scheduling, dynamic resource discovery and allocation, and sub-clustering of resources for different jobs. Performance analysis and comparison study of the proposed framework with P2P-MPI are also presented in this paper.

  11. Communicating Concepts about Altruism in Interstellar Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2002-01-01

    This project identifies key principles of altruism that can be translated into interstellar messages for communication with extraterrestrial intelligence. The message contents will focus specifically on the evolution of altruism, drawing on recent insights in evolutionary biology, with particular emphasis on sociobiological accounts of kin selection and reciprocal altruism. This focus on altruism for message contents has several advantages. First, the subject can be translated into interstellar messages both via an existing formal interstellar language and via pictorial messages. For example, aspects of reciprocal altruism can be described through mathematical modeling, such as game theoretic approaches, which in turn can be described readily in the interstellar language Lincos. Second, concentrating on altruism as a message content may facilitate communications with extraterrestrial intelligence. Some scientists have argued that humans may be expected to communicate something about their moral status and development in an exchange with extraterrestrials. One of the most salient ways that terrestrial and extraterrestrial civilizations might be expected to evaluate one another is in terms of ethical motivations. Indeed, current search strategies assume some measure of altruism on the part of transmitting civilizations; with no guarantee of a response, the other civilization would be providing information to us with no direct payoff. Thus, concepts about altruism provide an appropriate content for interstellar messages, because the concepts themselves might be understood by extraterrestrial civilizations.

  12. Internet-based implementation of non-pharmacological interventions of the "people getting a grip on arthritis" educational program: an international online knowledge translation randomized controlled trial design protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, Lucie; Wells, George; Brooks-Lineker, Sydney; Bennell, Kim; Sherrington, Cathie; Briggs, Andrew; Sturnieks, Daina; King, Judy; Thomas, Roanne; Egan, Mary; Loew, Laurianne; De Angelis, Gino; Casimiro, Lynn; Toupin April, Karine; Cavallo, Sabrina; Bell, Mary; Ahmed, Rukhsana; Coyle, Doug; Poitras, Stéphane; Smith, Christine; Pugh, Arlanna; Rahman, Prinon

    2015-02-03

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects 2.1% of the Australian population (1.5% males; 2.6% females), with the highest prevalence from ages 55 to over 75 years (4.4-6.1%). In Canada, RA affects approximately 0.9% of adults, and within 30 years that is expected to increase to 1.3%. With an aging population and a greater number of individuals with modifiable risk factors for chronic diseases, such as arthritis, there is an urgent need for co-care management of arthritic conditions. The increasing trend and present shifts in the health services and policy sectors suggest that digital information delivery is becoming more prominent. Therefore, it is necessary to further investigate the use of online resources for RA information delivery. The objective is to examine the effect of implementing an online program provided to patients with RA, the People Getting a Grip on Arthritis for RA (PGrip-RA) program, using information communication technologies (ie, Facebook and emails) in combination with arthritis health care professional support and electronic educational pamphlets. We believe this can serve as a useful and economical method of knowledge translation (KT). This KT randomized controlled trial will use a prospective randomized open-label blinded-endpoint design to compare four different intervention approaches of the PGrip-RA program to a control group receiving general electronic educational pamphlets self-management in RA via email. Depending on group allocation, links to the Arthritis Society PGrip-RA material will be provided either through Facebook or by email. One group will receive feedback online from trained health care professionals. The intervention period is 6 weeks. Participants will have access to the Internet-based material after the completion of the baseline questionnaires until the final follow-up questionnaire at 6 months. We will invite 396 patients from Canadian and Australian Arthritis Consumers' Associations to participate using online recruitment

  13. Analysis of Social Media Influencers and Trends on Online and Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chien-wen; Kuo, Chin-Jin; Ly, Pham Thi Minh

    2017-01-01

    Although educational practitioners have adopted social media to their online or mobile communities, little attention has been paid to investigate the social media messages related to online or mobile learning. The purpose of this research is to identify social media influencers and trends by mining Twitter posts related to online learning and…

  14. Evaluation of Sexual Communication Message Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Munziba

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parent-child communication about sex is an important proximal reproductive health outcome. But while campaigns to promote it such as the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC have been effective, little is known about how messages influence parental cognitions and behavior. This study examines which message features explain responses to sexual communication messages. We content analyzed 4 PSUNC ads to identify specific, measurable message and advertising execution features. We then develop quantitative measures of those features, including message strategies, marketing strategies, and voice and other stylistic features, and merged the resulting data into a dataset drawn from a national media tracking survey of the campaign. Finally, we conducted multivariable logistic regression models to identify relationships between message content and ad reactions/receptivity, and between ad reactions/receptivity and parents' cognitions related to sexual communication included in the campaign's conceptual model. We found that overall parents were highly receptive to the PSUNC ads. We did not find significant associations between message content and ad reactions/receptivity. However, we found that reactions/receptivity to specific PSUNC ads were associated with increased norms, self-efficacy, short- and long-term expectations about parent-child sexual communication, as theorized in the conceptual model. This study extends previous research and methods to analyze message content and reactions/receptivity. The results confirm and extend previous PSUNC campaign evaluation and provide further evidence for the conceptual model. Future research should examine additional message content features and the effects of reactions/receptivity.

  15. Hirability in the wild: Analysis of online conversational video resumes

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Laurent Son; Gatica-Perez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Online social media is changing the personnel recruitment process. Until now, resumes were among the most widely used tools for the screening of job applicants. The advent of inexpensive sensors combined with the success of online video platforms has enabled the introduction of a new type of resume, the video resume. Video resumes can be defined as short video messages where job applicants present themselves to potential employers. Online video resumes represent an opportunity to study the fo...

  16. Behind the Curtains of e-State: Determinants of Online Sexual Harassment among Estonian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kalmus

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the risk of receiving online sexual messages and experiencing harm among Estonian children. In particular, the paper examines the association between receiving sexual messages and behavioural, psychological and demographic characteristics, and the social mediation of children’s Internet use. Estonian data from EU Kids Online survey are used, involving 780 children aged 11-16. Results demonstrate that 19% of children who use the Internet have received online sexual messages, and 6% have felt disturbed. The probability of receiving sexual messages online is higher for children with risky online and offline behaviour and psychological difficulties. Perceiving online messages as sexually harassing is higher among children with excessive Internet use, lower levels of parental monitoring and higher levels of peer mediation of Internet use. The risk of exposure to harassing sexual messages also differs by age and, more notably, by the minority status. Mediation by parents and teachers plays an insignificant role in reducing teenagers’ risks of receiving sexual messages.

  17. Information diffusion in structured online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Zhang, Yini; Qiao, Fengcai; Wang, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, due to the word-of-mouth effect, online social networks have been considered to be efficient approaches to conduct viral marketing, which makes it of great importance to understand the diffusion dynamics in online social networks. However, most research on diffusion dynamics in epidemiology and existing social networks cannot be applied directly to characterize online social networks. In this paper, we propose models to characterize the information diffusion in structured online social networks with push-based forwarding mechanism. We introduce the term user influence to characterize the average number of times that messages are browsed which is incurred by a given type user generating a message, and study the diffusion threshold, above which the user influence of generating a message will approach infinity. We conduct simulations and provide the simulation results, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis results perfectly. These results are of use in understanding the diffusion dynamics in online social networks and also critical for advertisers in viral marketing who want to estimate the user influence before posting an advertisement.

  18. Reach and messages of the world's largest ivory burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braczkowski, Alexander; Holden, Matthew H; O'Bryan, Christopher; Choi, Chi-Yeung; Gan, Xiaojing; Beesley, Nicholas; Gao, Yufang; Allan, James; Tyrrell, Peter; Stiles, Daniel; Brehony, Peadar; Meney, Revocatus; Brink, Henry; Takashina, Nao; Lin, Ming-Ching; Lin, Hsien-Yung; Rust, Niki; Salmo, Severino G; Watson, James Em; Kahumbu, Paula; Maron, Martine; Possingham, Hugh P; Biggs, Duan

    2018-03-01

    Recent increases in ivory poaching have depressed African elephant populations. Successful enforcement has led to ivory being stockpiled. Stockpile destruction is becoming increasingly popular, and most destruction has occurred in the last five years. Ivory destruction is intended to send a strong message against ivory consumption, both in promoting a taboo on ivory use and catalyzing policy change. However, there has been no effort to establish the distribution and extent of media reporting on ivory destruction events globally. We analyze media coverage across eleven important nation states of the largest ivory destruction event in history (Kenya, 30 April 2016). We used a well-accepted online media crawling tool and key language translations to search online and print newspapers. We found most online news on the ivory burn came from the US (81% of articles), while print news was dominated by Kenya (61% of articles). We subjected online articles from five key countries and territories to content analysis and found 86-97% of all online articles reported the burn as a positive conservation action, while between 4-50% discussed ivory burning as having a negative impact on elephant conservation. Most articles discussed law enforcement and trade bans as effective for elephant conservation. There was more relative search interest globally on the 2016 Kenyan ivory burn than any other in five years. Our study is the first attempt to track the spread of media around an ivory burn and is a case study in tracking the effects of a conservation-marketing event. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Beyond an Institutionalized Learning Environment: Fostering Interactions and Learning Using Synchronous and Asynchronous Messaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Philline C. DE LA ROSA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Beyond an Institutionalized Learning Environment: Fostering Interactions and Learning Using Synchronous and Asynchronous Messaging Systems Ma. Luisa D. MARIANO Nikki Philline C. DE LA ROSA University of the Philippines Open University-PHILIPPINE ABSTRACT This paper seeks to examine the use of synchronous and asynchronous messaging systems with distance education students and the implications for student interaction and learning in the institutionalized Integrated Virtual Learning Environment (IVLE of the University of the Philippines Open University (UPOU. It will present, as a case in point, the learning experiences of UPOU students in obtaining tutorial support and using the IVLE and alternative synchronous and asynchronous messaging systems to maximize and facilitate online activities involving the Faculty-in-Charge, Tutor, UPOU support staff and the students.

  20. The Effects of Text Message Content on the Use of an Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention in Hong Kong Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Erica Y; Lau, Patrick W C; Cai, Bo; Archer, Edward

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of text message content (generic vs. culturally tailored) on the login rate of an Internet physical activity program in Hong Kong Chinese adolescent school children. A convenience sample of 252 Hong Kong secondary school adolescents (51% female, 49% male; M age = 13.17 years, SD = 1.28 years) were assigned to one of 3 treatments for 8 weeks. The control group consisted of an Internet physical activity program. The Internet plus generic text message group consisted of the same Internet physical activity program and included daily generic text messages. The Internet plus culturally tailored text message group consisted of the Internet physical activity program and included daily culturally tailored text messages. Zero-inflated Poisson mixed models showed that the overall effect of the treatment group on the login rates varied significantly across individuals. The login rates over time were significantly higher in the Internet plus culturally tailored text message group than the control group (β = 46.06, 95% CI 13.60, 156.02; p = .002) and the Internet plus generic text message group (β = 15.80, 95% CI 4.81, 51.9; p = .021) after adjusting for covariates. These findings suggest that culturally tailored text messages may be more advantageous than generic text messages on improving adolescents' website login rate, but effects varied significantly across individuals. Our results support the inclusion of culturally tailored messaging in future online physical activity interventions.