WorldWideScience

Sample records for random nanowire composites

  1. Smooth Nanowire/Polymer Composite Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney; Burkhard, George F.; McGehee, Michael D.; Peumans, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Smooth composite transparent electrodes are fabricated via lamination of silver nanowires into the polymer poly-(4,3-ethylene dioxythiophene): poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The surface roughness is dramatically reduced compared to bare nanowires. High-efficiency P3HT:PCBM organic photovoltaic cells can be fabricated using these composites, reproducing the performance of cells on indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass and improving the performance of cells on ITO on plastic. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Smooth Nanowire/Polymer Composite Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney

    2011-04-29

    Smooth composite transparent electrodes are fabricated via lamination of silver nanowires into the polymer poly-(4,3-ethylene dioxythiophene): poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The surface roughness is dramatically reduced compared to bare nanowires. High-efficiency P3HT:PCBM organic photovoltaic cells can be fabricated using these composites, reproducing the performance of cells on indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass and improving the performance of cells on ITO on plastic. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Optical haze of randomly arranged silver nanowire transparent conductive films with wide range of nanowire diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marus

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the diameter of randomly arranged silver nanowires on the optical haze of silver nanowire transparent conductive films was studied. Proposed simulation model behaved similarly with the experimental results, and was used to theoretically study the optical haze of silver nanowires with diameters in the broad range from 30 nm and above. Our results show that a thickening of silver nanowires from 30 to 100 nm results in the increase of the optical haze up to 8 times, while from 100 to 500 nm the optical haze increases only up to 1.38. Moreover, silver nanowires with diameter of 500 nm possess up to 5% lower optical haze and 5% higher transmittance than 100 nm thick silver nanowires for the same 10-100 Ohm/sq sheet resistance range. Further thickening of AgNWs can match the low haze of 30 nm thick AgNWs, but at higher transmittance. The results obtained from this work allow deeper analysis of the silver nanowire transparent conductive films from the perspective of the diameter of nanowires for various optoelectronic devices.

  4. Stretchable Conductive Composites from Cu-Ag Nanowire Felt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenacci, Matthew J; Reyes, Christopher; Cruz, Mutya A; Wiley, Benjamin J

    2018-04-24

    Materials that retain a high conductivity under strain are essential for wearable electronics. This article describes a conductive, stretchable composite consisting of a Cu-Ag core-shell nanowire felt infiltrated with a silicone elastomer. This composite exhibits a retention of conductivity under strain that is superior to any composite with a conductivity greater than 1000 S cm -1 . This work also shows how the mechanical properties, conductivity, and deformation mechanism of the composite changes as a function of the stiffness of the silicone matrix. The retention of conductivity under strain was found to decrease as the Young's modulus of the matrix increased. This was attributed to void formation as a result of debonding between the nanowire felt and the elastomer. The nanowire composite was also patterned to create serpentine circuits with a stretchability of 300%.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of a flow-through nanoporous gold nanowire/AAO composite membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L; Lee, W; Huang, Z; Scholz, R; Goesele, U [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany)

    2008-08-20

    The fabrication of a composite membrane of nanoporous gold nanowires and anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) is demonstrated by the electrodeposition of Au-Ag alloy nanowires into an AAO membrane, followed by selective etching of silver from the alloy nanowires. This composite membrane is advantageous for flow-through type catalytic reactions. The morphology evolution of the nanoporous gold nanowires as a function of the diameter of the Au-Ag nanowire 'precursors' is also investigated.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of a flow-through nanoporous gold nanowire/AAO composite membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L; Lee, W; Huang, Z; Scholz, R; Goesele, U

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication of a composite membrane of nanoporous gold nanowires and anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) is demonstrated by the electrodeposition of Au-Ag alloy nanowires into an AAO membrane, followed by selective etching of silver from the alloy nanowires. This composite membrane is advantageous for flow-through type catalytic reactions. The morphology evolution of the nanoporous gold nanowires as a function of the diameter of the Au-Ag nanowire 'precursors' is also investigated

  7. Fabrication and characterization of a flow-through nanoporous gold nanowire/AAO composite membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Lee, W; Huang, Z; Scholz, R; Gösele, U

    2008-08-20

    The fabrication of a composite membrane of nanoporous gold nanowires and anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) is demonstrated by the electrodeposition of Au-Ag alloy nanowires into an AAO membrane, followed by selective etching of silver from the alloy nanowires. This composite membrane is advantageous for flow-through type catalytic reactions. The morphology evolution of the nanoporous gold nanowires as a function of the diameter of the Au-Ag nanowire 'precursors' is also investigated.

  8. Strain analysis of nanowire interfaces in multiscale composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Zhou, Zhi; Spears, John H.; Shankwitz, Timothy J.; Sodano, Henry A.

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the reinforcement-matrix interface of fiber reinforced polymers has been modified through grafting nanostructures - particularly carbon nanotubes and ZnO nanowires - on to the fiber surface. This type of interface engineering has made a great impact on the development of multiscale composites that have high stiffness, interfacial strength, toughness, and vibrational damping - qualities that are mutually exclusive to a degree in most raw materials. Although the efficacy of such nanostructured interfaces has been established, the reinforcement mechanisms of these multiscale composites have not been explored. Here, strain transfer across a nanowire interphase is studied in order to gain a heightened understanding of the working principles of physical interface modification and the formation of a functional gradient. This problem is studied using a functionally graded piezoelectric interface composed of vertically aligned lead zirconate titanate nanowires, as their piezoelectric properties can be utilized to precisely control the strain on one side of the interface. The displacement and strain across the nanowire interface is captured using digital image correlation. It is demonstrated that the material gradient created through nanowires cause a smooth strain transfer from reinforcement phase into matrix phase that eliminates the stress concentration between these phases, which have highly mismatched elasticity.

  9. TiO2-Anatase Nanowire Dispersed Composite Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asagoe, K; Suzuki, Y; Ngamsinlapasathian, S; Yoshikawa, S

    2007-01-01

    TiO 2 anatase nanowires have been prepared by a hydrothermal process followed by post-heat treatment in air. TiO 2 nanoparticle/TiO 2 nanowire composite electrodes were prepared for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) in order to improve light-to-electricity conversion efficiency. The TiO 2 NP/TiO 2 NW composite cells showed higher DSC performance than ordinary nanoparticle cells and fully nanowire cells: efficiency (η = 6.53 % for DSC with 10% nanowire, whereas 5.59% for 0% nanowire, and 2.42% for 100% nanowire

  10. Enhancing ionic conductivity in composite polymer electrolytes with well-aligned ceramic nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Lee, Seok Woo; Lin, Dingchang; Shi, Feifei; Wang, Shuang; Sendek, Austin D.; Cui, Yi

    2017-04-01

    In contrast to conventional organic liquid electrolytes that have leakage, flammability and chemical stability issues, solid electrolytes are widely considered as a promising candidate for the development of next-generation safe lithium-ion batteries. In solid polymer electrolytes that contain polymers and lithium salts, inorganic nanoparticles are often used as fillers to improve electrochemical performance, structure stability, and mechanical strength. However, such composite polymer electrolytes generally have low ionic conductivity. Here we report that a composite polymer electrolyte with well-aligned inorganic Li+-conductive nanowires exhibits an ionic conductivity of 6.05 × 10-5 S cm-1 at 30 ∘C, which is one order of magnitude higher than previous polymer electrolytes with randomly aligned nanowires. The large conductivity enhancement is ascribed to a fast ion-conducting pathway without crossing junctions on the surfaces of the aligned nanowires. Moreover, the long-term structural stability of the polymer electrolyte is also improved by the use of nanowires.

  11. Poly(1-(2-carboxyethyl)pyrrole)/polypyrrole composite nanowires for glucose biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Hairong; Zhang Aifeng; Sun Yanan; Ru Xiaoning; Ge Dongtao; Shi Wei

    2012-01-01

    A novel glucose biosensor based on poly(1-(2-carboxyethyl)pyrrole) (PPyCOOH)/polypyrrole (PPy) composite nanowires was developed by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) on the nanowires via covalent linkages. The PPyCOOH/PPy composite nanowires were fabricated by a facile two-step electrochemical synthesis route. First, PPy nanowires were synthesized in phosphate buffer solution using organic sulfonic acid, p-toluenesulfonate acid, as soft-template. Then, PPyCOOH/PPy composite nanowires were obtained by polymerizing 1-(2-carboxyethyl)pyrrole onto PPy nanowires via electrochemical method. Scanning electron microscopic, FT-IR spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and cyclic voltammograms were used to characterize the structural and electrical behaviors of the composite nanowires. The PPyCOOH/PPy composite nanowires exhibited uniform diameter, high reactive site (-COOH), large specific surface, excellent electroactivity and good adhesion to electrode. The glucose biosensor was constructed by covalently coupling GOD to the composite nanowires. The biosensor response was rapid (5 s), highly sensitive (33.6 μA mM −1 cm −2 ) with a wide linear range (up to 10.0 mM) and low detection limit (0.63 μM); it also exhibited high stability and specificity to glucose. The attractive electrochemical and structural properties of PPyCOOH/PPy composite nanowires suggested potential application for electrocatalysis and biosensor.

  12. Ga-doped indium oxide nanowire phase change random access memory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Bo; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Lim, Taekyung; Ju, Sanghyun; Latypov, Marat I; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Meyyappan, M

    2014-01-01

    Phase change random access memory (PCRAM) devices are usually constructed using tellurium based compounds, but efforts to seek other materials providing desirable memory characteristics have continued. We have fabricated PCRAM devices using Ga-doped In 2 O 3 nanowires with three different Ga compositions (Ga/(In+Ga) atomic ratio: 2.1%, 11.5% and 13.0%), and investigated their phase switching properties. The nanowires (∼40 nm in diameter) can be repeatedly switched between crystalline and amorphous phases, and Ga concentration-dependent memory switching behavior in the nanowires was observed with ultra-fast set/reset rates of 80 ns/20 ns, which are faster than for other competitive phase change materials. The observations of fast set/reset rates and two distinct states with a difference in resistance of two to three orders of magnitude appear promising for nonvolatile information storage. Moreover, we found that increasing the Ga concentration can reduce the power consumption and resistance drift; however, too high a level of Ga doping may cause difficulty in achieving the phase transition. (paper)

  13. Enhanced Flexural Strength of Tellurium Nanowires/epoxy Composites with the Reinforcement Effect of Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balguri, Praveen Kumar; Harris Samuel, D. G.; Aditya, D. B.; Vijaya Bhaskar, S.; Thumu, Udayabhaskararao

    2018-02-01

    Investigating the mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposite materials has been greatly increased in the last decade. In particular, flexural strength plays a major role in resisting bending and shear loads of a composite material. Here, one dimensional (1D) tellurium nanowires (TeNWs) reinforced epoxy composites have been prepared and the flexural properties of resulted TeNWs/epoxy nanocomposites are studied. The diameter and length of the TeNWs used to make TeNWs/epoxy nanocomposites are 21±2.5 nm and 697±87 nm, respectively. Plain and TeNWs/epoxy nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Furthermore, significant enhancement in the flexural strength of TeNWs/epoxy nanocomposite is observed in comparison to plain epoxy composite, i.e. flexural strength is increased by 65% with the addition of very little amount of TeNWs content (0.05 wt.%) to epoxy polymer. Structural details of plain and TeNWs/epoxy at micrometer scale were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We believe that our results provide a new type of semiconductor nanowires based high strength epoxy polymer nanocomposites.

  14. Method for producing nanowire-polymer composite electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Qibing; Yu, Zhibin

    2017-11-21

    A method for producing flexible, nanoparticle-polymer composite electrodes is described. Conductive nanoparticles, preferably metal nanowires or nanotubes, are deposited on a smooth surface of a platform to produce a porous conductive layer. A second application of conductive nanoparticles or a mixture of nanoparticles can also be deposited to form a porous conductive layer. The conductive layer is then coated with at least one coating of monomers that is polymerized to form a conductive layer-polymer composite film. Optionally, a protective coating can be applied to the top of the composite film. In one embodiment, the monomer coating includes light transducing particles to reduce the total internal reflection of light through the composite film or pigments that absorb light at one wavelength and re-emit light at a longer wavelength. The resulting composite film has an active side that is smooth with surface height variations of 100 nm or less.

  15. Understanding the vapor-liquid-solid growth and composition of ternary III-V nanowires and nanowire heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2017-11-01

    Based on the recent achievements in vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) synthesis, characterization and modeling of ternary III-V nanowires and axial heterostructures within such nanowires, we try to understand the major trends in their compositional evolution from a general theoretical perspective. Clearly, the VLS growth of ternary materials is much more complex than in standard vapor-solid epitaxy techniques, and even maintaining the necessary control over the composition of steady-state ternary nanowires is far from straightforward. On the other hand, VLS nanowires offer otherwise unattainable material combinations without introducing structural defects and hence are very promising for next-generation optoelectronic devices, in particular those integrated with a silicon electronic platform. In this review, we consider two main problems. First, we show how and by means of which parameters the steady-state composition of Au-catalyzed or self-catalyzed ternary III-V nanowires can be tuned to a desired value and why it is generally different from the vapor composition. Second, we present some experimental data and modeling results for the interfacial abruptness across axial nanowire heterostructures, both in Au-catalyzed and self-catalyzed VLS growth methods. Refined modeling allows us to formulate some general growth recipes for suppressing the unwanted reservoir effect in the droplet and sharpening the nanowire heterojunctions. We consider and refine two approaches developed to date, namely the regular crystallization model for a liquid alloy with a critical size of only one III-V pair at high supersaturations or classical binary nucleation theory with a macroscopic critical nucleus at modest supersaturations.

  16. The fabrication and the coercivity mechanism of segmented (Ni/Fe)m composite nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, D S; Shi, H G; Si, M S

    2004-01-01

    Arrays of segmented (Ni/Fe) m (m = 1,2,3,4,5) composite nanowires about 3 μm in length and with aspect ratios of about 60 were electrodeposited on anodic porous alumina templates using a dual bath. The structure, morphology and magnetic properties of the samples were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry, respectively. It is found that Fe(110) and Ni(111) orientations along nanowire axis are preferred. The large aspect ratio of the composite nanowires reveals a strong shape magnetic anisotropy. As the number of the Ni/Fe composite segments m increases, the coercivity of the nanowire arrays, with the magnetic field applied parallel to the wire, gradually increases. The coercivity variation of the segmented composite nanowires is closely related to the effective exchange coupling between the Ni and Fe segments

  17. Performance of ethanol electro-oxidation on Ni-Cu alloy nanowires through composition modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xi-Ke; Zhao, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Li-de; Yang, Chao; Pi, Zhen-Bang; Zhang, Su-Xin

    2008-05-28

    To reduce the cost of the catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells and improve its catalytic activity, highly ordered Ni-Cu alloy nanowire arrays have been fabricated successfully by differential pulse current electro-deposition into the pores of a porous anodic alumina membrane (AAMs). The energy dispersion spectrum, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were utilized to characterize the composition and morphology of the Ni-Cu alloy nanowire arrays. The results reveal that the nanowires in the array are uniform, well isolated and parallel to each other. The catalytic activity of the nanowire electrode arrays for ethanol oxidation was tested and the binary alloy nanowire array possesses good catalytic activity for the electro-oxidation of ethanol. The performance of ethanol electro-oxidation was controlled by varying the Cu content in the Ni-Cu alloy and the Ni-Cu alloy nanowire electrode shows much better stability than the pure Ni one.

  18. Performance of ethanol electro-oxidation on Ni-Cu alloy nanowires through composition modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xike; Zhao Xiaoyu; Yang Chao; Pi Zhenbang; Zhang Lide; Zhang Suxin

    2008-01-01

    To reduce the cost of the catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells and improve its catalytic activity, highly ordered Ni-Cu alloy nanowire arrays have been fabricated successfully by differential pulse current electro-deposition into the pores of a porous anodic alumina membrane (AAMs). The energy dispersion spectrum, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were utilized to characterize the composition and morphology of the Ni-Cu alloy nanowire arrays. The results reveal that the nanowires in the array are uniform, well isolated and parallel to each other. The catalytic activity of the nanowire electrode arrays for ethanol oxidation was tested and the binary alloy nanowire array possesses good catalytic activity for the electro-oxidation of ethanol. The performance of ethanol electro-oxidation was controlled by varying the Cu content in the Ni-Cu alloy and the Ni-Cu alloy nanowire electrode shows much better stability than the pure Ni one

  19. Study of the thermal conductivity of ZnO nanowires/PMMA composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igamberdiev, Kh. T.; Yuldashev, Sh. U.; Cho, H. D.; Kang, T. W.; Rakhimova, Sh. M.; Akhmedov, T. Kh.

    2012-01-01

    From thermal conductivity measurements on ZnO nanowires (NWs)/poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA composites, the thermal conductivities of the ZnO nanowires were determined. The thermal conductivity of a ZnO NW decreases considerably with decreasing nanowire diameter, and for a ZnO nanowire with a diameter of 250 nm, the thermal conductivity at room temperature is approximately two times lower than that of bulk ZnO at the same temperature. The results of this study show that the thermal conductivity of a ZnO NW is mainly determined by increased phonon-surface boundary scattering. These results could be useful for the design of ZnO-nanowire-based devices.

  20. Graded index and randomly oriented core-shell silicon nanowires for broadband and wide angle antireflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pignalosa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Antireflection with broadband and wide angle properties is important for a wide range of applications on photovoltaic cells and display. The SiOx shell layer provides a natural antireflection from air to the Si core absorption layer. In this work, we have demonstrated the random core-shell silicon nanowires with both broadband (from 400nm to 900nm and wide angle (from normal incidence to 60º antireflection characteristics within AM1.5 solar spectrum. The graded index structure from the randomly oriented core-shell (Air/SiOx/Si nanowires may provide a potential avenue to realize a broadband and wide angle antireflection layer.

  1. In situ-growth of silica nanowires in ceramic carbon composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the processing and microstructure of ceramic–carbon composites is critical to development of these composites for applications needing electrically conducting, thermal shock resistant ceramic materials. In the present study green compacts of carbon ceramic composites were prepared either by slurry processing or dry powder blending of one or more of the three — clay, glass, alumina and carbon black or graphite. The dried green compacts were sintered at 1400 °C in flowing argon. The ceramic carbon composites except the ones without clay addition showed formation of silica nanowires. The silica nanowire formation was observed in both samples prepared by slip casting and dry powder compaction containing either carbon black or graphite. TEM micrographs showed presence of carbon at the core of the silica nanowires indicating that carbon served the role of a catalyst. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED suggested that the silica nanowires are amorphous. Prior studies have reported formation of silica nanowires from silicon, silica, silicon carbide but this is the first report ever on formation of silica nanowires from clay.

  2. Power generation from base excitation of a Kevlar composite beam with ZnO nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Hwang, Hyun-Sik; Sodano, Henry A.

    2015-04-01

    One-dimensional nanostructures such as nanowires, nanorods, and nanotubes with piezoelectric properties have gained interest in the fabrication of small scale power harvesting systems. However, the practical applications of the nanoscale materials in structures with true mechanical strengths have not yet been demonstrated. In this paper, piezoelectric ZnO nanowires are integrated into the fiber reinforced polymer composites serving as an active phase to convert the induced strain energy from ambient vibration into electrical energy. Arrays of ZnO nanowires are grown vertically aligned on aramid fibers through a low-cost hydrothermal process. The modified fabrics with ZnO nanowires whiskers are then placed between two carbon fabrics as the top and the bottom electrodes. Finally, vacuum resin transfer molding technique is utilized to fabricate these multiscale composites. The fabricated composites are subjected to a base excitation using a shaker to generate charge due to the direct piezoelectric effect of ZnO nanowires. Measuring the generated potential difference between the two electrodes showed the energy harvesting application of these multiscale composites in addition to their superior mechanical properties. These results propose a new generation of power harvesting systems with enhanced mechanical properties.

  3. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of polyaniline-MnO2 nanowire composites for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Song, Zhaoxia; Liu, Guichang; Qiu, Jieshan; Yu, Chang; Qin, Jiwei; Ma, Lin; Tian, Fengqin; Liu, Wei

    2013-02-01

    Polyaniline-MnO2 nanowire (PANI-MNW) composites were prepared by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer in a suspension of MnO2 nanowires. The structure and morphology of the PANI-MNW composites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Their electrochemical properties were investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 1 mol/L KOH electrolyte. The PANI-MNW composites show significantly better specific capacity and redox performance in comparison to the untreated MnO2 nanowires. The enhanced properties can be mainly attributed to the composite structure wherein high porosity is created between MnO2 nanowires and PANI during the process of fabricating the PANI-MNW nanocomposites. A specific capacitance as high as 256 F/g is obtained at a current density of 1 A/g for PANI-MNW-5, and the composite also shows a good cyclic performance and coulomb efficiency.

  4. Silver nanowire/polyaniline composite transparent electrode with improved surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.B.V. Kiran; Jiang, Jianwei; Bae, Chang Wan; Seo, Dong Min; Piao, Longhai; Kim, Sang-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • AgNWs/PANI transparent electrode was prepared by layer-by-layer coating method. • The surface roughness of the electrode reached to 6.5 nm (root mean square). • The electrode had reasonable sheet resistance (25 Ω/□) and transmittance (83.5%). - Abstract: Silver nanowires (AgNWs) are as potential candidates to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) in transparent electrodes because of their preferred conducting and optical properties. However, their rough surface properties are not favorable for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices, such as displays and thin-film solar cells. In the present investigation, AgNWs/polyaniline composite transparent electrodes with better surface properties were successfully prepared. AgNWs were incorporated into polyaniline:polystyrene sulfonate (PANI:PSS) by layer-by-layer coating and mechanical pressing. PANI:PSS decreased the surface roughness of the AgNWs electrode by filling the gap of the random AgNWs network. The transparent composite electrode had decreased surface roughness (root mean square 6.5 nm) with reasonable sheet resistance (25 Ω/□) and transmittance (83.5%)

  5. Preparation and properties of novel magnetic composite nanostructures: Arrays of nanowires in porous membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, M.; Hernandez-Velez, M.; Asenjo, A.; Navas, D.; Pirota, K.; Prida, V.; Sanchez, O.; Baldonedo, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, we introduce our latest achievements in the development of novel highly ordered composite magnetic nanostructures employing anodized nanoporous membranes as precursor templates where long-range hexagonal symmetry is induced by self-assembling during anodization process. Subsequent processing as electroplating, sputtering or pressing are employed to prepare arrays of metallic, semiconductor or polymeric nanowires embedded in oxide or metallic membranes. Particular attention is paid to recent results on controlling the magnetic anisotropy in arrays of metallic nanowires, particularly Co, and nanohole arrays in Ni membranes

  6. Synthesis of the cactus-like silicon nanowires/tungsten oxide nanowires composite for room-temperature NO{sub 2} gas sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiyi, E-mail: zhangweiyi@tju.edu.cn [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Hu, Ming [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Xing; Wei, Yulong; Li, Na [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Qin, Yuxiang, E-mail: qinyuxiang@tju.edu.cn [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-09-15

    In the present work, the tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) nanowires functionalized silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with cactus-like structure has been successfully synthesized for room-temperature NO{sub 2} detection. The novel nanocomposite was fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) and thermal annealing of tungsten film. The WO{sub 3} nanowires were evenly distributed from the upper to the lower part of the SiNWs, indicating excellent uniformity which is conducive to adsorption and desorption of gas molecules. The gas-sensing properties have been examined by measuring the resistance change towards 0.25–5 ppm NO{sub 2} gas. At room temperature, which is the optimum working temperature, the SiNWs/WO{sub 3} nanowires composite showed two-times higher NO{sub 2} response than that of the bare SiNWs at 2 ppm NO{sub 2}. On the contrary, the responses of composite sensors to high concentrations of other reducing gases were very low, indicating excellent selectivity. Simultaneously, the composite sensors exhibited good sensing repeatability and stability. The enhancement in gas sensing properties may be attributed to the change in width of the space charge region, which is similar to the behavior of p-n junctions under forward bias, in the high-density p-n heterojunction structure formed between SiNWs and WO{sub 3} nanowires. - Highlights: • SiNWs/WO{sub 3} nanowires composite with cactus-like structure is synthesized. • The morphology of WO{sub 3} nanowires depends on the thermal annealing temperature. • The nanocomposite sensor exhibit better gas response than that of bare SiNWs. • The gas sensing mechanism is discussed using p-n heterojunction theory.

  7. Synthesis and application of graphene–silver nanowires composite for ammonia gas sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Quang Trung; Huynh, Tran My Hoa; Tong, Duc Tai; Tran, Van Tam; Nguyen, Nang Dinh

    2013-01-01

    Graphene, consisting of a single carbon layer in a two-dimensional (2D) lattice, has been a promising material for application to nanoelectrical devices in recent years. In this study we report the development of a useful ammonia (NH 3 ) gas sensor based on graphene–silver nanowires ‘composite’ with planar electrode structure. The basic strategy involves three steps: (i) preparation of graphene oxide (GO) by modified Hummers method; (ii) synthesis of silver nanowires by polyol method; and (iii) preparation of graphene and silver nanowires on two electrodes using spin and spray-coating of precursor solutions, respectively. Exposure of this sensor to NH 3 induces a reversible resistance change at room temperature that is as large as ΔR/R 0 ∼ 28% and this sensitivity is eight times larger than the sensitivity of the ‘intrinsic’ graphene based NH 3 gas sensor (ΔR/R 0 ∼ 3,5%). Their responses and the recovery times go down to ∼200 and ∼60 s, respectively. Because graphene synthesized by chemical methods has many defects and small sheets, it cannot be perfectly used for gas sensor or for nanoelectrical devices. The silver nanowires are applied to play the role of small bridges connecting many graphene islands together to improve electrical properties of graphene/silver nanowires composite and result in higher NH 3 gas sensitivity. (paper)

  8. Low-temperature-cured highly conductive composite of Ag nanowires and polyvinyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Song; Zhang Xiang; Yang Bingchu; Xu Xiaomei; Chen Hui; Zhou Conghua

    2017-01-01

    Flexible conductive films were fabricated from a low-temperature-cured, highly conductive composite of silver nanowires (as conducting filler) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, as binder). Sheet resistance of 0.12 Ω/sq, conductivity of 2.63×10 4 S/cm, and contact resistance of 1.0 Ω/cm 2 were measured in the films, along with excellent resistance to scratching and good flexibility, making them suitable electrical contact materials for flexible optoelectronic devices. Effects of curing temperature, curing duration, film thickness, and nanowire length on the film’s electrical properties were studied. Due to the abundance of hydroxyl groups on its molecular chains, the addition of PVA improves the film’s flexibility and resistance to scratching. Increased nanowire density and nanowire length benefit film conductance. Monte Carlo simulation was used to further explore the impact of these two parameters on the conductivity. It was observed that longer nanowires produce a higher length-ratio of conducting routes in the networks, giving better film conductivity. (paper)

  9. Zinc Oxide Nanowire Interphase for Enhanced Lightweight Polymer Fiber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodano, Henry A.; Brett, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to increase the interfacial strength between aramid fiber and epoxy matrix. This was achieved by functionalizing the aramid fiber followed by growth of a layer of ZnO nanowires on the fiber surface such that when embedded into the polymer, the load transfer and bonding area could be substantially enhanced. The functionalization procedure developed here created functional carboxylic acid surface groups that chemically interact with the ZnO and thus greatly enhance the strength of the interface between the fiber and the ZnO.

  10. Large-size, high-uniformity, random silver nanowire networks as transparent electrodes for crystalline silicon wafer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shouyi; Ouyang, Zi; Jia, Baohua; Gu, Min

    2013-05-06

    Metal nanowire networks are emerging as next generation transparent electrodes for photovoltaic devices. We demonstrate the application of random silver nanowire networks as the top electrode on crystalline silicon wafer solar cells. The dependence of transmittance and sheet resistance on the surface coverage is measured. Superior optical and electrical properties are observed due to the large-size, highly-uniform nature of these networks. When applying the nanowire networks on the solar cells with an optimized two-step annealing process, we achieved as large as 19% enhancement on the energy conversion efficiency. The detailed analysis reveals that the enhancement is mainly caused by the improved electrical properties of the solar cells due to the silver nanowire networks. Our result reveals that this technology is a promising alternative transparent electrode technology for crystalline silicon wafer solar cells.

  11. Fabrication and temperature dependent magnetic properties of Ni–Cu–Co composite nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Muhammad [Nanomaterials Research Group, Physics Division PINSTECH, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Khan, Maaz, E-mail: maaz@impcas.ac.cn [Nanomaterials Research Group, Physics Division PINSTECH, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Sun, Hongyu [Beijing National Center for Electron Microscopy, Laboratory of Advanced Materials and The State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Nairan, Adeela [Centre for High Energy Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590 (Pakistan); Karim, Shafqat; Nisar, Amjad [Nanomaterials Research Group, Physics Division PINSTECH, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Maqbool, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 (United States); Ahmad, Mashkoor, E-mail: mashkoorahmad2003@yahoo.com [Nanomaterials Research Group, Physics Division PINSTECH, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2015-10-15

    Ni–Cu–Co composite magnetic nanowires have been successfully synthesized by electrochemical deposition. Microstructural and compositional analyses were carried out using FESEM, TEM, HRTEM and XRD. Magnetic measurements were performed from in the temperature range 5–300 K. A strong diamagnetic contribution, which results from the polycarbonate template, was found to show s-shape behavior of the hysteresis loops of the nanowires. The coercivity of the samples was found to increase with the decreasing temperature following simple model of thermal activation of particle’s moment over the anisotropy barrier in the temperature range 50–300 K. Saturation magnetization was found to increase with decreasing temperature following the modified Bloch’s law at low temperatures.

  12. Fabrication and temperature dependent magnetic properties of Ni–Cu–Co composite nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Muhammad; Khan, Maaz; Sun, Hongyu; Nairan, Adeela; Karim, Shafqat; Nisar, Amjad; Maqbool, M.; Ahmad, Mashkoor

    2015-01-01

    Ni–Cu–Co composite magnetic nanowires have been successfully synthesized by electrochemical deposition. Microstructural and compositional analyses were carried out using FESEM, TEM, HRTEM and XRD. Magnetic measurements were performed from in the temperature range 5–300 K. A strong diamagnetic contribution, which results from the polycarbonate template, was found to show s-shape behavior of the hysteresis loops of the nanowires. The coercivity of the samples was found to increase with the decreasing temperature following simple model of thermal activation of particle’s moment over the anisotropy barrier in the temperature range 50–300 K. Saturation magnetization was found to increase with decreasing temperature following the modified Bloch’s law at low temperatures

  13. Magnetic behavior of NiCu nanowire arrays: Compositional, geometry and temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmero, E. M.; Bran, C.; Real, R. P. del; Vázquez, M.; Magén, C.

    2014-01-01

    Arrays of Ni 100−x Cu x nanowires ranging in composition 0 ≤ x ≤ 75, diameter from 35 to 80 nm, and length from 150 nm to 28 μm have been fabricated by electrochemical co-deposition of Ni and Cu into self-ordered anodic aluminum oxide membranes. As determined by X-ray diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy, the crystalline structure shows fcc cubic symmetry with [111] preferred texture and preferential Ni or Cu lattice depending on the composition. Their magnetic properties such as coercivity and squareness have been determined as a function of composition and geometry in a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer in the temperature range from 10 to 290 K for applied magnetic fields parallel and perpendicular to the nanowires axis. Addition of Cu into the NiCu alloy up to 50% enhances both parallel coercivity and squareness. For the higher Cu content, these properties decrease and the magnetization easy axis becomes oriented perpendicular to the wires. In addition, coercivity and squareness increase by decreasing the diameter of nanowires which is ascribed to the increase of shape anisotropy. The temperature dependent measurements reflect a complex behavior of the magnetic anisotropy as a result of energy contributions with different evolution with temperature.

  14. Random crystal field effect on the magnetic and hysteresis behaviors of a spin-1 cylindrical nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaim, N.; Zaim, A., E-mail: ah_zaim@yahoo.fr; Kerouad, M., E-mail: kerouad@fs-umi.ac.ma

    2017-02-15

    In this work, the magnetic behavior of the cylindrical nanowire, consisting of a ferromagnetic core of spin-1 atoms surrounded by a ferromagnetic shell of spin-1 atoms is studied in the presence of a random crystal field interaction. Based on Metropolis algorithm, the Monte Carlo simulation has been used to investigate the effects of the concentration of the random crystal field p, the crystal field D and the shell exchange interaction J{sub s} on the phase diagrams and the hysteresis behavior of the system. Some characteristic behaviors have been found, such as the first and second-order phase transitions joined by tricritical point for appropriate values of the system parameters, triple and isolated critical points can be also found. Depending on the Hamiltonian parameters, single, double and para hysteresis regions are explicitly determined. - Highlights: • Phase diagrams of a ferromagnetic nanowire are examined by the Monte Carlo simulation. • Different types of the phase diagrams are obtained. • The effect of the random crystal field on the hysteresis loops is studied. • Single, double and para hysteresis regions are explicitly determined.

  15. Thermal Conduction in Vertically Aligned Copper Nanowire Arrays and Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barako, Michael T; Roy-Panzer, Shilpi; English, Timothy S; Kodama, Takashi; Asheghi, Mehdi; Kenny, Thomas W; Goodson, Kenneth E

    2015-09-02

    The ability to efficiently and reliably transfer heat between sources and sinks is often a bottleneck in the thermal management of modern energy conversion technologies ranging from microelectronics to thermoelectric power generation. These interfaces contribute parasitic thermal resistances that reduce device performance and are subjected to thermomechanical stresses that degrade device lifetime. Dense arrays of vertically aligned metal nanowires (NWs) offer the unique combination of thermal conductance from the constituent metal and mechanical compliance from the high aspect ratio geometry to increase interfacial heat transfer and device reliability. In the present work, we synthesize copper NW arrays directly onto substrates via templated electrodeposition and extend this technique through the use of a sacrificial overplating layer to achieve improved uniformity. Furthermore, we infiltrate the array with an organic phase change material and demonstrate the preservation of thermal properties. We use the 3ω method to measure the axial thermal conductivity of freestanding copper NW arrays to be as high as 70 W m(-1) K(-1), which is more than an order of magnitude larger than most commercial interface materials and enhanced-conductivity nanocomposites reported in the literature. These arrays are highly anisotropic, and the lateral thermal conductivity is found to be only 1-2 W m(-1) K(-1). We use these measured properties to elucidate the governing array-scale transport mechanisms, which include the effects of morphology and energy carrier scattering from size effects and grain boundaries.

  16. Broad compositional tunability of indium tin oxide nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zervos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide nanowires were grown by the reaction of In and Sn with O2 at 800 °C via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism on 1 nm Au/Si(001. We obtain Sn doped In2O3 nanowires having a cubic bixbyite crystal structure by using In:Sn source weight ratios > 1:9 while below this we observe the emergence of tetragonal rutile SnO2 and suppression of In2O3 permitting compositional and structural tuning from SnO2 to In2O3 which is accompanied by a blue shift of the photoluminescence spectrum and increase in carrier lifetime attributed to a higher crystal quality and Fermi level position.

  17. Ultrathin Tungsten Oxide Nanowires/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites for Toluene Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hassan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Graphene-based composites have gained great attention in the field of gas sensor fabrication due to their higher surface area with additional functional groups. Decorating one-dimensional (1D semiconductor nanomaterials on graphene also show potential benefits in gas sensing applications. Here we demonstrate the one-pot and low cost synthesis of W18O49 NWs/rGO composites with different amount of reduced graphene oxide (rGO which show excellent gas-sensing properties towards toluene and strong dependence on their chemical composition. As compared to pure W18O49 NWs, an improved gas sensing response (2.8 times higher was achieved in case of W18O49 NWs composite with 0.5 wt. % rGO. Promisingly, this strategy can be extended to prepare other nanowire based composites with excellent gas-sensing performance.

  18. Preparation of smooth, flexible and stable silver nanowires- polyurethane composite transparent conductive films by transfer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shengchi; Wang, Haifeng; Yang, Hui; Zhang, He; Guo, Xingzhong

    2018-02-01

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs)-polyurethane (PU) composite transparent conductive films were fabricated via transfer method using AgNWs conductive inks and polyurethane as starting materials, and the effects of post-treatments including heat treatment, NaCl solution bath and HCl solution bath for AgNWs film on the sheet resistance and transmittance of the composite films were respectively investigated in detail. AgNWs networks are uniformly embedded in the PU layer to improve the adhesion and reduce the surface roughness of AgNWs-PU composite films. Heat treatment can melt and weld the nanowires, and NaCl and HCl solution baths promote the dissolution and re-deposition of silver and the dissolving of the polymer, both which form conduction pathways and improve contact of AgNWs for reducing the sheet resistance. Smooth and flexible AgNWs-PU composite film with a transmittance of 85% and a sheet resistance of 15 Ω · sq‑1 is obtained after treated in 0.5 wt% HCl solution bath for 60 s, and the optoelectronic properties of the resultant composite film can maintain after 1000 cycles of bending and 100 days.

  19. Enhanced ionic conductivity of AgI nanowires/AAO composites fabricated by a simple approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lifeng; Alexe, Marin; Lee, Woo; Goesele, Ulrich; Lee, Seung-Woo; Li Jingbo; Rao Guanghui; Zhou Weiya; Lee, Jae-Jong

    2008-01-01

    AgI nanowires/anodic aluminum oxide (AgI NWs/AAO) composites have been fabricated by a simple approach, which involves the thermal melting of AgI powders on the surface of the AAO membrane, followed by the infiltration of the molten AgI inside the nanochannels. As-prepared AgI nanowires have corrugated outer surfaces and are polycrystalline according to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that a considerable amount of 7H polytype AgI exists in the composites, which is supposed to arise from the interfacial interactions between the embedded AgI and the alumina. AC conductivity measurements for the AgI nanowires/AAO composites exhibit a notable conductivity enhancement by three orders of magnitude at room temperature compared with that of pristine bulk AgI. Furthermore, a large conductivity hysteresis and abnormal conductivity transitions were observed in the temperature-dependent conductivity measurements, from which an ionic conductivity as high as 8.0 x 10 2 Ω -1 cm -1 was obtained at around 70 deg. C upon cooling. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) result demonstrates a similar phase transition behavior as that found in the AC conductivity measurements. The enhanced ionic conductivity, as well as the abnormal phase transitions, can be explained in terms of the existence of the highly conducting 7H polytype AgI and the formation of well-defined conduction paths in the composites.

  20. Enhanced ionic conductivity of AgI nanowires/AAO composites fabricated by a simple approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Feng; Lee, Seung-Woo; Li, Jing-Bo; Alexe, Marin; Rao, Guang-Hui; Zhou, Wei-Ya; Lee, Jae-Jong; Lee, Woo; Gösele, Ulrich

    2008-12-10

    AgI nanowires/anodic aluminum oxide (AgI NWs/AAO) composites have been fabricated by a simple approach, which involves the thermal melting of AgI powders on the surface of the AAO membrane, followed by the infiltration of the molten AgI inside the nanochannels. As-prepared AgI nanowires have corrugated outer surfaces and are polycrystalline according to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that a considerable amount of 7H polytype AgI exists in the composites, which is supposed to arise from the interfacial interactions between the embedded AgI and the alumina. AC conductivity measurements for the AgI nanowires/AAO composites exhibit a notable conductivity enhancement by three orders of magnitude at room temperature compared with that of pristine bulk AgI. Furthermore, a large conductivity hysteresis and abnormal conductivity transitions were observed in the temperature-dependent conductivity measurements, from which an ionic conductivity as high as 8.0 × 10(2) Ω(-1) cm(-1) was obtained at around 70 °C upon cooling. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) result demonstrates a similar phase transition behavior as that found in the AC conductivity measurements. The enhanced ionic conductivity, as well as the abnormal phase transitions, can be explained in terms of the existence of the highly conducting 7H polytype AgI and the formation of well-defined conduction paths in the composites.

  1. Preparation and Properties of Silver Nanowire-Based Transparent Conductive Composite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ji-Li; Zhang, Hua-Yu; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanowire-based transparent conductive composite films with different structures were successfully prepared using various methods, including liquid polyol, magnetron sputtering and spin coating. The experimental results revealed that the optical transmittance of all different structural composite films decreased slightly (1-3%) compared to pure films. However, the electrical conductivity of all composite films had a great improvement. Under the condition that the optical transmittance was greater than 78% over the wavelength range of 400-800 nm, the AgNW/PVA/AgNW film became a conductor, while the AZO/AgNW/AZO film and the ITO/AgNW/ITO film showed 88.9% and 94% reductions, respectively, for the sheet resistance compared with pure films. In addition, applying a suitable mechanical pressure can improve the conductivity of AgNW-based composite films.

  2. Fabrication of silver nanowires and metal oxide composite transparent electrodes and their application in UV light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xingzhen; Ma, Jiangang; Xu, Haiyang; Wang, Chunliang; Liu, Yichun

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we prepared the silver nanowires (AgNWs)/aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) composite transparent conducting electrodes for n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting-diodes (LEDs) by drop casting AgNW networks and subsequent atomic layer deposition (ALD) of AZO at 150 °C. The contact resistances between AgNWs were dramatically reduced by pre-annealing in the vacuum chamber before the ALD of AZO. In this case, AZO works not only as the conformal passivation layer that protects AgNWs from oxidation, but also as the binding material that improves AgNWs adhesion to substrates. Due to the localized surface plasmons (LSPs) of the AgNWs resonant coupling with the ultraviolet (UV) light emission from the LEDs, a higher UV light extracting efficiency is achieved from LEDs with the AgNWs/AZO composite electrodes in comparison with the conventional AZO electrodes. Additionally, the antireflective nature of random AgNW networks in the composite electrodes caused a broad output light angular distribution, which could be of benefit to certain optoelectronic devices like LEDs and solar cells.

  3. Effects of the randomly distributed magnetic field on the phase diagrams of the Ising Nanowire II: Continuous distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akıncı, Ümit

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the random magnetic field distribution on the phase diagrams and ground state magnetizations of the Ising nanowire has been investigated with effective field theory with correlations. Gaussian distribution has been chosen as a random magnetic field distribution. The variation of the phase diagrams with that distribution parameters has been obtained and some interesting results have been found such as disappearance of the reentrant behavior and first order transitions which appear in the case of discrete distributions. Also for single and double Gaussian distributions, ground state magnetizations for different distribution parameters have been determined which can be regarded as separate partially ordered phases of the system. - Highlights: ► We give the phase diagrams of the Ising nanowire under the continuous randomly distributed magnetic field. ► Ground state magnetization values obtained. ► Different partially ordered phases observed.

  4. Catalytic growth of carbon nanowires on composite diamond/silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellam, Amine [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, Département CP2S (UMR CNRS 7198), Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Miska, Patrice [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, Département P2M (UMR CNRS 7198), Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Ghanbaja, Jaafar [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, Département CP2S (UMR CNRS 7198), Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Barrat, Silvère, E-mail: Silvere.Barrat@ijl.nancy-universite.fr [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, Département CP2S (UMR CNRS 7198), Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy Cedex (France)

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) films and carbon nanowires (CNWs) provide individually highly attractive properties for science and technology applications. The possibility of carbon composite materials made from a combination of these materials remains a potential approach widely discussed in literature but modestly investigated. We report in this work an early attempt to explore this opportunity in the light of some specific experimental considerations. Carbon nanowires (CNWs) are grown at low temperature without the conventional use of external hydrocarbon vapor source on silicon substrates partially covered by a thin film of coalesced micrometric CVD diamond. Composite substrates constituted by PCD on silicon were first cleaned with H{sub 2} plasma then used for the PVD deposition of 5 nm Ni thin films. Then, samples were heat treated in a CVD reactor at 580 °C in the presence of pure H{sub 2} pressure of 60 hPa at different annealing times. Comparative effect of annealing time on the dewetting of Ni thin films and the subsequent CNWs growth process was considered in this work using systematic observations by SEM. Possible mechanisms underlying CNWs growth in pure H{sub 2} gas were proposed. The nature and structure of these CNWs have been investigated by TEM microscopy and by Raman spectroscopy on the sample showing the highest CNWs density.

  5. Radial composition of single InGaN nanowires: a combined study by EDX, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Gomez, M.; Garro, N.; Cantarero, A. [Institut de Ciencia dels Materials, Universitat de Valencia, Paterna (Spain); Segura-Ruiz, J.; Martinez-Criado, G.; Chu, M.H. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Experiments Division, Grenoble (France); Denker, C.; Malindretos, J.; Rizzi, A. [IV. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    The radial alloy distribution of In{sub x} Ga{sub 1-x}N nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy has been investigated by three different techniques with nanometric spatial resolution and capability to study single nanowires. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy radial line-scans revealed a gradient in the alloy composition of individual nanowires. Resonant Raman scattering and spatially resolved X-ray diffraction showed the existence of three distinctive regions with different alloy composition. The combination of the three techniques provides robust evidence of the spontaneous formation of a core-shell structure with a thin Ga-richer shell wrapping an In-rich core at the bottom part of the nanowires. This composition-modulated nanostructure offers an attractive way to explore new device concepts in fully epitaxial nanowire-based solar cells. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Radial composition of single InGaN nanowires: a combined study by EDX, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Gomez, M.; Garro, N.; Cantarero, A.; Segura-Ruiz, J.; Martinez-Criado, G.; Chu, M.H.; Denker, C.; Malindretos, J.; Rizzi, A.

    2013-01-01

    The radial alloy distribution of In x Ga 1-x N nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy has been investigated by three different techniques with nanometric spatial resolution and capability to study single nanowires. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy radial line-scans revealed a gradient in the alloy composition of individual nanowires. Resonant Raman scattering and spatially resolved X-ray diffraction showed the existence of three distinctive regions with different alloy composition. The combination of the three techniques provides robust evidence of the spontaneous formation of a core-shell structure with a thin Ga-richer shell wrapping an In-rich core at the bottom part of the nanowires. This composition-modulated nanostructure offers an attractive way to explore new device concepts in fully epitaxial nanowire-based solar cells. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Magnetic nanowires (Fe, Fe-Co, Fe-Ni – magnetic moment reorientation in respect of wires composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalska-Szostko Beata

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanowires of Fe, Fe-Co, and Fe-Ni alloy and layered structure were prepared by electrochemical alternating current (AC deposition method. The morphology of the nanowires in and without the matrix was studied by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD, respectively. The wires either show strong dependence on the combination of elements deposition (alloy or layered or chemical composition (Co or Ni. The magnetic properties of the nanostructures were determined on the basis of Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS.

  8. Features of Random Metal Nanowire Networks with Application in Transparent Conducting Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Maloth, Thirupathi

    2017-05-01

    Among the alternatives to conventional Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) used in making transparent conducting electrodes, the random metal nanowire (NW) networks are considered to be superior offering performance at par with ITO. The performance is measured in terms of sheet resistance and optical transmittance. However, as the electrical properties of such random networks are achieved thanks to a percolation network, a minimum size of the electrodes is needed so it actually exceeds the representative volume element (RVE) of the material and the macroscopic electrical properties are achieved. There is not much information about the compatibility of this minimum RVE size with the resolution actually needed in electronic devices. Furthermore, the efficiency of NWs in terms of electrical conduction is overlooked. In this work, we address the above industrially relevant questions - 1) The minimum size of electrodes that can be made based on the dimensions of NWs and the material coverage. For this, we propose a morphology based classification in defining the RVE size and we also compare the same with that is based on macroscopic electrical properties stabilization. 2) The amount of NWs that do not participate in electrical conduction, hence of no practical use. The results presented in this thesis are a design guide to experimentalists to design transparent electrodes with more optimal usage of the material.

  9. Thermo-chemical characterization of a Al nanoparticle and NiO nanowire composite modified by Cu powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlouli-Zanjani, Golnaz; Wen, John Z.; Hu, Anming; Persic, John; Ringuette, Sophie; Zhou, Y. Norman

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • First study on the copper modified powder-type Al nanoparticle and NiO nanowire composites. • Experimental findings were unique in identifying the AlNi formation and comparing with the Al/CuO thermite. • Potential applications in material joining and bonding. - Abstract: Thermo-chemical properties of the Al nanoparticle and NiO nanowire composites modified by the micro-sized copper additive were investigated experimentally. Their onset temperatures of ignition and energy release data per mass were characterized using differential thermal analysis measurements. These microstructures and chemical compositions of reaction products were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The fuel-rich Al/NiO/Cu composites produced two types of metallic spheres. Copper spheres were formed from melting and solidification of the copper additive, while AlNi composite spheres were identified by the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. It was found that the amount of the copper additive did not significantly influence the onset temperature of thermite peaks, but caused a dramatic change in energy release. The aforementioned ignition and energetic properties were compared with these from the Al nanoparticle and CuO nanowire composites

  10. Dense Vertically Aligned Copper Nanowire Composites as High Performance Thermal Interface Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barako, Michael T; Isaacson, Scott G; Lian, Feifei; Pop, Eric; Dauskardt, Reinhold H; Goodson, Kenneth E; Tice, Jesse

    2017-12-06

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are essential for managing heat in modern electronics, and nanocomposite TIMs can offer critical improvements. Here, we demonstrate thermally conductive, mechanically compliant TIMs based on dense, vertically aligned copper nanowires (CuNWs) embedded into polymer matrices. We evaluate the thermal and mechanical characteristics of 20-25% dense CuNW arrays with and without polydimethylsiloxane infiltration. The thermal resistance achieved is below 5 mm 2 K W -1 , over an order of magnitude lower than commercial heat sink compounds. Nanoindentation reveals that the nonlinear deformation mechanics of this TIM are influenced by both the CuNW morphology and the polymer matrix. We also implement a flip-chip bonding protocol to directly attach CuNW composites to copper surfaces, as required in many thermal architectures. Thus, we demonstrate a rational design strategy for nanocomposite TIMs that simultaneously retain the high thermal conductivity of aligned CuNWs and the mechanical compliance of a polymer.

  11. Effects of buffer composition and dilution on nanowire field-effect biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloret, Noémie; Frederiksen, Rune S; Møller, Thor C; Rieben, Nathalie I; Martinez, Karen L; Upadhyay, Shivendra; Nygård, Jesper; De Vico, Luca; Jensen, Jan H

    2013-01-01

    Nanowire-based field-effect transistors (FETs) can be used as ultra-sensitive and label-free biosensors for detecting protein–protein interactions. A way to increase the performance of such sensors is to dilute the sensing buffer drastically. However, we show here that this can have an important effect on the function of the proteins. Moreover, it is demonstrated that this dilution significantly affects the pH stability of the sensing buffer, which consequently impacts the charge of the protein and thus the response and signal-to-noise ratio in the sensing experiments. Three model systems are investigated experimentally to illustrate the impact on ligand–protein and protein–protein interactions. Simulations are performed to illustrate the effect on the performance of the sensors. Combining various parameters, the current study provides a means for evaluating and selecting the most appropriate buffer composition for bioFET measurements. (paper)

  12. Fabrication of SiC Composites with Synergistic Toughening of Carbon Whisker and In Situ 3C-SiC Nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The SiC composites with synergistic toughening of carbon whisker and in situ 3C-SiC nanowire have been fabricated by hot press sinter technology and annealed treatment technology. Effect of annealed time on the morphology of SiC nanowires and mechanical properties of the Cw/SiC composites was surveyed in detail. The appropriate annealed time improved mechanical properties of the Cw/SiC composites. The synergistic effect of carbon whisker and SiC nanowire can improve the fracture toughness for Cw/SiC composites. The vapor-liquid-solid growth (VLS mechanism was proposed. TEM photo showed that 3C-SiC nanowire can be obtained with preferential growth plane ({111}, which corresponded to interplanar spacing about 0.25 nm.

  13. Nickel cobalt oxide nanowire-reduced graphite oxide composite material and its application for high performance supercapacitor electrode material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Yan, Chaoyi; Sumboja, Afriyanti; Lee, Pooi See

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we report a facile synthesis method of mesoporous nickel cobalt oxide (NiCo2O4) nanowire-reduced graphite oxide (rGO) composite material by urea induced hydrolysis reaction, followed by sintering at 300 degrees C. P123 was used to stabilize the GO during synthesis, which resulted in a uniform coating of NiCo2O4 nanowire on rGO sheet. The growth mechanism of the composite material is discussed in detail. The NiCo2O4-rGO composite material showed an outstanding electrochemical performance of 873 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and 512 F g(-1) at 40 A g(-1). This method provides a promising approach towards low cost and large scale production of supercapacitor electrode material.

  14. Fabrication of multilayer nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Jasveer, E-mail: kaurjasveer89@gmail.com; Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder [Department of Physics, Punjabi University Patiala, 147002, Punjab (India); Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder, E-mail: raminder-k-saini@yahoo.com [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Punjabi University Patiala, 147002, Punjab (India)

    2016-05-06

    Multilayer nanowires were fabricated by potentiostate ectrodeposition template synthesis method into the pores of polycarbonate membrane. In present work layer by layer deposition of two different metals Ni and Cu in polycarbonate membrane having pore size of 600 nm were carried out. It is found that the growth of nanowires is not constant, it varies with deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the morphology of fabricated multilayer nanowires. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirm the composition of multilayer nanowires. The result shows that multilayer nanowires formed is dense.

  15. Fabrication of multilayer nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Jasveer; Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder; Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer nanowires were fabricated by potentiostate ectrodeposition template synthesis method into the pores of polycarbonate membrane. In present work layer by layer deposition of two different metals Ni and Cu in polycarbonate membrane having pore size of 600 nm were carried out. It is found that the growth of nanowires is not constant, it varies with deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the morphology of fabricated multilayer nanowires. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirm the composition of multilayer nanowires. The result shows that multilayer nanowires formed is dense.

  16. Compositionally graded Fe{sub (1−x)}-Pt{sub (x)} nanowires produced by alternating current electrodeposition into alumina templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardi-Ilkhchy, Ali [Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz 51335-1996 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasirpouri, Farzad, E-mail: Nasirpouri@sut.ac.ir [Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz 51335-1996 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bran, Cristina; Vázquez, Manuel [Institute of Materials Science of Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-12-15

    Fe{sub (1−x)}-Pt{sub (x)} (0compositionally graded nanowires (50 nm in diameter and 1 µm in length) were fabricated by alternating current (AC) electrodeposition into nanoporous aluminum oxide templates through a systematic approach. The effect of AC electrodeposition parameters such as frequency, voltage and electrolyte concentration on morphology and chemical composition of Fe-Pt alloy nanowires was studied. Based on experimental data, AC sine wave deposition at an intermediate voltage of 12 V{sub rms} and a frequency of 50 Hz, produces nanowires with nearly stoichiometric composition (Fe{sub 42}Pt{sub 58}) and a reasonably good uniformity of pore filling. However, there is a gradual change of composition in Fe-Pt alloy nanowires along the length under certain AC parameters. The observed dependency of alloy composition on the deposition voltage and frequency of AC electrodeposition is explained by an interplay between reduction potentials and diffusion coefficients of Fe and Pt ions which makes FePt system able to access compositionally graded nanowires. Magnetic measurements of nanowires of as-deposited nanowires confirm that maximum coercivity of 1.55 kOe is observed for nearly stoichiometric composition which increases up to 1.81 kOe after thermal annealing at 550 °C. - Graphical abstract: Evaluation of synthesizing extrinsic parameters (such as deposition voltages and frequency) and intrinsic parameters (diffusion coefficient and reduction potential of ion species) in compositionally graded Fe{sub (1−x)}-Pt{sub (x)} nanowires prepared by alternating current electrodeposition into alumina templates.

  17. Combustion synthesis of AlB2-Al2O3 composite powders with AlB2 nanowire structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pan; Xiao, Guoqing; Ding, Donghai; Ren, Yun; Yang, Shoulei; Lv, Lihua; Hou, Xing

    2018-05-01

    Using of Al and B2O3 powders as starting materials, and Mg-Al alloy as additives, AlB2-Al2O3 composite powders with AlB2 nanowire structures were successfully fabricated via combustion synthesis method in Ar atmosphere at a pressure of 1.5 MPa. The effect of different amount of Mg-Al alloy on the phase compositions and morphology of the combustion products was investigated. The results revealed that AlB2 and Al2O3 increased, whereas Al decreased with the content of Mg-Al alloy increasing. The impurities MgAl2O4 and AlB12 would exist in the sample with adding of 18 wt% Mg-Al alloy. Interestingly, FESEM/TEM/EDS results showed that AlB2 nanowires were observed in the products when the content of Mg-Al alloy is 6 wt% and 12 wt%. The more AlB2 nanowires can be found as the content of Mg-Al alloy increased. And the yield of AlB2 nanowires with the diameter of about 200 nanometers (nm) and the length up to several tens of micrometers (μm) in the combustion product is highest when the content of Mg-Al alloy is 12 wt%. The vapor, such as Mg-Al (g), B2O2 (g), AlO (g) and Al2O (g), produced during the process of combustion synthesis, reacted with each other to yield AlB2 nanowires by vapor-solid (VS) mechanism and the corresponding model was also proposed.

  18. Negative permeability from random particle composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Shahid, E-mail: shussain2@qinetiq.com

    2017-04-15

    Artificial media, such as those composed of periodically-spaced wires for negative permittivity and split ring resonators for negative permeability have been extensively investigated for negative refractive index (NRI) applications (Smith et al., 2004; Pendry et al., 1999) [1,2]. This paper presents an alternative method for producing negative permeability: granular (or particulate) composites incorporating magnetic fillers. Artificial media, such as split-ring resonators, are designed to produce a magnetic resonance feature, which results in negative permeability over a narrow frequency range about the resonance frequency. The position of the feature is dependent upon the size of the inclusion. The material in this case is anisotropic, such that the feature is only observable when the materials are orientated in a specific direction relative to the applied field. A similar resonance can be generated in magnetic granular (particulate) materials: ferromagnetic resonance from the natural spin resonance of particles. Although the theoretical resonance profiles in granular composites shows the permeability dipping to negative values, this is rarely observed experimentally due to resonance damping effects. Results are presented for iron in spherical form and in flake form, dispersed in insulating host matrices. The two particle shapes show different permeability performance, with the magnetic flakes producing a negative contribution. This is attributed to the stronger coupling with the magnetic field resulting from the high aspect ratio of the flakes. The accompanying ferromagnetic resonance is strong enough to overcome the effects of damping and produce negative permeability. The size of random particle composites is not dictated by the wavelength of the applied field, so the materials are potentially much thinner than other, more traditional artificial composites at microwave frequencies. - Highlights: • Negative permeability from random particle composites is

  19. A nonlocal continuum model for the biaxial buckling analysis of composite nanoplates with shape memory alloy nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajpour, M. R.; Shahidi, A. R.; Farajpour, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the buckling behavior of a three-layered composite nanoplate reinforced with shape memory alloy (SMA) nanowires is examined. Whereas the upper and lower layers are reinforced with typical nanowires, SMA nanoscale wires are used to strengthen the middle layer of the system. The composite nanoplate is assumed to be under the action of biaxial compressive loading. A scale-dependent mathematical model is presented with the consideration of size effects within the context of the Eringen’s nonlocal continuum mechanics. Using the one-dimensional Brinson’s theory and the Kirchhoff theory of plates, the governing partial differential equations of SMA nanowire-reinforced hybrid nanoplates are derived. Both lateral and longitudinal deflections are taken into consideration in the theoretical formulation and method of solution. In order to reduce the governing differential equations to their corresponding algebraic equations, a discretization approach based on the differential quadrature method is employed. The critical buckling loads of the hybrid nanosystem with various boundary conditions are obtained with the use of a standard eigenvalue solver. It is found that the stability response of SMA composite nanoplates is strongly sensitive to the small scale effect.

  20. Composition-graded nanowire solar cells fabricated in a single process for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Derek; Liu, Zhicheng; Shelhammer, David; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2014-10-08

    Nanomaterials such as semiconductor nanowires have unique features that could enable novel optoelectronic applications such as novel solar cells. This paper aims to demonstrate one such recently proposed concept: Monolithically Integrated Laterally Arrayed Multiple Band gap (MILAMB) solar cells for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems. Two cells with different band gaps were fabricated simultaneously in the same process on a single substrate using spatially composition-graded CdSSe alloy nanowires grown by the Dual-Gradient Method in a chemical vapor deposition system. CdSSe nanowire ensemble devices tested under 1 sun AM1.5G illumination achieved open-circuit voltages up to 307 and 173 mV and short-circuit current densities as high as 0.091 and 0.974 mA/cm(2) for the CdS- and CdSe-rich cells, respectively. The open-circuit voltages were roughly three times those of similar CdSSe film cells fabricated for comparison due to the superior optical quality of the nanowires. I-V measurements were also performed using optical filters to simulate spectrum-splitting. The open-circuit voltages and fill factors of the CdS-rich subcells were uniformly larger than the corresponding CdSe-rich cells for similar photon flux, as expected. This suggests that if all wires can be contacted, the wide-gap cell is expected to have greater output power than the narrow-gap cell, which is the key to achieving high efficiencies with spectrum-splitting. This paper thus provides the first proof-of-concept demonstration of simultaneous fabrication of MILAMB solar cells. This approach to solar cell fabrication using single-crystal nanowires for spectrum-splitting photovoltaics could provide a future low-cost high-efficiency alternative to the conventional high-cost high-efficiency tandem cells.

  1. Nondestructive sensing and stress transferring evaluation of carbon nanotube, nanofiber, and Ni nanowire strands/polymer composites using an electro-micromechanical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joung-Man; Kim, Sung-Ju; Jung, Jin-Gyu; Hansen, George; Yoon, Dong-Jin

    2006-03-01

    Nondestructive damage sensing and load transfer mechanisms of carbon nanotube (CNT), nanofiber (CNF), and Ni nanowire strands/epoxy composites were investigated using electro-micromechanical technique. Electrospun PVDF nanofiber was also prepared as a piezoelectric sensor. High volume% CNT/epoxy composites showed significantly higher tensile properties than neat and low volume% CNT/epoxy composites. CNF /epoxy composites with smaller aspect ratio showed higher apparent modulus due to high volume content in case of shorter aspect ratio. Using Ni nanowire strands/silicone composites with different content, load sensing response of electrical contact resistivity was investigated under tensile and compression condition. The mechanical properties of Ni nanowire strands with different type and content/epoxy composites were indirectly measured apparent modulus using uniformed cyclic loading and electro-pullout test. CNT or Ni nanowire strands/epoxy composites showed humidity and temperature sensing within limited ranges, 20 vol% reinforcement. Thermal treated electrospun PVDF nanofiber showed higher mechanical properties than the untreated case due to increased crystallization, whereas load sensing decreased in heat treated case. Electrospun PVDF nanofiber web also responded the sensing effect on humidity and temperature. Nanocomposites using CNT, CNF, Ni nanowire strands, and electrospun PVDF nanofiber web can be applicable practically for multifunctional applications nondestructively.

  2. Enhanced Piezoelectric Behavior of PVDF Nanocomposite by AC Dielectrophoresis Alignment of ZnO Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungwho Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to commercial piezoelectric ceramics, lead-free materials such as ZnO and a polymer matrix are proper candidates for use in ecofriendly applications. In this article, the authors represent a technique using ZnO nanowires with a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF matrix in a piezoelectric polymer composite. By aligning the nanowires in the matrix in a desired direction by AC dielectrophoresis, the piezoelectric behavior was enhanced. The dielectric constant of the composite was improved by increasing the concentration of the ZnO nanowires as well. Specifically, the resulting dielectric constant shows an improvement of 400% with aligned ZnO nanowires by increasing the poling effect compared to that of a randomly oriented nanowire composite without a poling process.

  3. Editable Supercapacitors with Customizable Stretchability Based on Mechanically Strengthened Ultralong MnO2 Nanowire Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhisheng; Luo, Yifei; Tang, Yuxin; Wei, Jiaqi; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xinran; Li, Wenlong; Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Qi, Dianpeng; Pan, Shaowu; Loh, Xian Jun; Chen, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    Although some progress has been made on stretchable supercapacitors, traditional stretchable supercapacitors fabricated by predesigning structured electrodes for device assembling still lack the device-level editability and programmability. To adapt to wearable electronics with arbitrary configurations, it is highly desirable to develop editable supercapacitors that can be directly transferred into desirable shapes and stretchability. In this work, editable supercapacitors for customizable shapes and stretchability using electrodes based on mechanically strengthened ultralong MnO 2 nanowire composites are developed. A supercapacitor edited with honeycomb-like structure shows a specific capacitance of 227.2 mF cm -2 and can be stretched up to 500% without degradation of electrochemical performance, which is superior to most of the state-of-the-art stretchable supercapacitors. In addition, it maintains nearly 98% of the initial capacitance after 10 000 stretch-and-release cycles under 400% tensile strain. As a representative of concept for system integration, the editable supercapacitors are integrated with a strain sensor, and the system exhibits a stable sensing performance even under arm swing. Being highly stretchable, easily programmable, as well as connectable in series and parallel, an editable supercapacitor with customizable stretchability is promising to produce stylish energy storage devices to power various portable, stretchable, and wearable devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Preparation of Advanced CuO Nanowires/Functionalized Graphene Composite Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper oxide (CuO nanowires/functionalized graphene (f-graphene composite material was successfully composed by a one-pot synthesis method. The f-graphene synthesized through the Birch reduction chemistry method was modified with functional group “–(CH25COOH”, and the CuO nanowires (NWs were well dispersed in the f-graphene sheets. When used as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, the composite exhibited good cyclic stability and decent specific capacity of 677 mA·h·g−1 after 50 cycles. CuO NWs can enhance the lithium-ion storage of the composites while the f-graphene effectively resists the volume expansion of the CuO NWs during the galvanostatic charge/discharge cyclic process, and provide a conductive paths for charge transportation. The good electrochemical performance of the synthesized CuO/f-graphene composite suggests great potential of the composite materials for lithium-ion batteries anodes.

  5. Fabrication and Synthesis of Highly Ordered Nickel Cobalt Sulfide Nanowire-Grown Woven Kevlar Fiber/Reduced Graphene Oxide/Polyester Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Ankita; Deka, Biplab K; Kim, DoYoung; Roh, Hyung Doh; Park, Young-Bin; Park, Hyung Wook

    2017-10-18

    Well-aligned NiCo 2 S 4 nanowires, synthesized hydrothermally on the surface of woven Kevlar fiber (WKF), were used to fabricate composites with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) dispersed in polyester resin (PES) by means of vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding. The NiCo 2 S 4 nanowires were synthesized with three precursor concentrations. Nanowire growth was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Hierarchical and high growth density of the nanowires led to exceptional mechanical properties of the composites. Compared with bare WKF/PES, the tensile strength and absorbed impact energy were enhanced by 96.2% and 92.3%, respectively, for WKF/NiCo 2 S 4 /rGO (1.5%)/PES. The synergistic effect of NiCo 2 S 4 nanowires and rGO in the fabricated composites improved the electrical conductivity of insulating WKF/PES composites, reducing the resistance to ∼10 3 Ω. Joule heating performance depended strongly on the precursor concentration of the nanowires and the presence of rGO in the composite. A maximum surface temperature of 163 °C was obtained under low-voltage (5 V) application. The Joule heating performance of the composites was demonstrated in a surface deicing experiment; we observed that 17 g of ice melted from the surface of the composite in 14 min under an applied voltage of 5 V at -28 °C. The excellent performance of WKF/NiCo 2 S 4 /rGO/PES composites shows great potential for aerospace structural applications requiring outstanding mechanical properties and Joule heating capability for deicing of surfaces.

  6. Self-powered heat-resistant polymeric 1D nanowires and 3D micro/nanowire assemblies in a pressure-crystallized size-distributed graphene oxide/poly (vinylidene fluoride) composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Pengfei; Lyu, Jun; Huang, Rui; Zhang, Chaoliang

    2017-12-01

    Piezoelectric one- (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) hybrid micro/nanostructured materials have received intense research interest because of their ability in capturing trace amounts of energy and transforming it into electrical energy. In this work, a size-distributed graphene oxide (GO) was utilized for the concurrent growth of both the 1D nanowires and 3D micro/nanowire architectures of poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) with piezoelectricity. The in situ formation of the polymeric micro/nanostructures, with crystalline beta phase, was achieved by the high-pressure crystallization of a well dispersed GO/PVDF composite, fabricated by an environmentally friendly physical approach. Particularly, by controlling the crystallization conditions of the binary composite at high pressure, the melting point of the polymeric micro/nanowires, which further constructed the 3D micro/nanoarchitectures, was nearly 30°C higher than that of the original PVDF. The large scale simultaneous formation of the 1D and 3D micro/nanostructures was attributed to a size-dependent catalysis of the GOs in the pressure-treated composite system. The as-fabricated heat-resistant hybrid micro/nanoarchitectures, consisting of GOs and piezoelectric PVDF micro/nanowires, may permit niche applications in self-powered micro/nanodevices for energy scavenging from their working environments.

  7. Urchin-like artificial gallium oxide nanowires grown by a novel MOCVD/CVD-based route for random laser application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Ronaldo P. de [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); Colégio Militar do Recife, Exército Brasileiro, Recife PE 50730-120 (Brazil); Oliveira, Nathalia Talita C. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); Dominguez, Christian Tolentino; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; Araújo, Cid B. de [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife (Brazil); Falcão, Eduardo H. L.; Alves, Severino; Luz, Leonis L. da [Departamento de Química Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife (Brazil); Chassagnon, Remi [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Sacilotti, Marco [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife (Brazil); Nanoform Group, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, Université de Bourgogne, Dijon (France)

    2016-04-28

    A novel procedure based on a two-step method was developed to obtain β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The first step consists in the gallium micro-spheres growth inside a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition environment, using an organometallic precursor. Nanoscale spheres covering the microspheres were obtained. The second step involves the CVD oxidization of the gallium micro-spheres, which allow the formation of β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires on the micro-sphere surface, with the final result being a nanostructure mimicking nature's sea urchin morphology. The grown nanomaterial is characterized by several techniques, including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence. A discussion about the growth mechanism and the optical properties of the β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} material is presented considering its unknown true bandgap value (extending from 4.4 to 5.68 eV). As an application, the scattering properties of the nanomaterial are exploited to demonstrate random laser emission (around 570 nm) when it is permeated with a laser dye liquid solution.

  8. Hierarchical shell/core CuO nanowire/carbon fiber composites as binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Wei; Luo, Jian; Pan, Baoyou; Qiu, Zhiqiang; Huang, Shimin; Tang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The composite anode is composed of CuO nanowire shell and carbon fiber core. •The composite anode avoids completely the use of binders. •Synergistic effect of carbon fibers and CuO nanowires enhances performance. •Carbon fibers improve electrical conductivity and buffer volume change. •CuO nanowires shorten diffusion length and alleviate structural strain. -- Abstract: Developing high-performance electrode structures is of great importance for advanced lithium-ion batteries. This study reports an efficient method to fabricate hierarchical shell/core CuO nanowire/carbon fiber composites via electroless plating and thermal oxidation processes. With this method, a binder-free CuO nanowire/carbon fiber shell/core hierarchical network composite anode for lithium-ion batteries is successfully fabricated. The morphology and chemical composition of the anode are characterized, and the electrochemical performance of the anode is investigated by standard electrochemical tests. Owing to the superior properties of carbon fibers and the morphological advantages of CuO nanowires, this composite anode still retains an excellent reversible capacity of 598.2 mAh g −1 with a capacity retention rate above 86%, even after 50 cycles, which is much higher than the CuO anode without carbon fibers. Compared to the typical CuO/C electrode systems, the novel binder-free anode yields a performance close to that of the typical core/shell electrode systems and a much higher reversible capacity and capacity retention than the similar shell/core patterns as well as the anodes with binders. It is believed that this novel anode will pave the way to the development of binder-free anodes in response to the increasing demands for high-power energy storage.

  9. Nanowire structures and electrical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezryadin, Alexey; Remeika, Mikas

    2010-07-06

    The present invention provides structures and devices comprising conductive segments and conductance constricting segments of a nanowire, such as metallic, superconducting or semiconducting nanowire. The present invention provides structures and devices comprising conductive nanowire segments and conductance constricting nanowire segments having accurately selected phases including crystalline and amorphous states, compositions, morphologies and physical dimensions, including selected cross sectional dimensions, shapes and lengths along the length of a nanowire. Further, the present invention provides methods of processing nanowires capable of patterning a nanowire to form a plurality of conductance constricting segments having selected positions along the length of a nanowire, including conductance constricting segments having reduced cross sectional dimensions and conductance constricting segments comprising one or more insulating materials such as metal oxides.

  10. Enhancement of tribofilm formation from water lubricated PEEK composites by copper nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chuanping; Fan, Shuguang; Zhang, Shengmao; Zhang, Pingyu; Wang, Qihua

    2018-06-01

    A high-performance tribofilm is crucial to enhance the tribological performance of tribomaterials. In order to promote tribofilm formation under water lubrication conditions, copper nanowires as a functional nanomaterial were filled into neat polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and PEEK10SCF8Gr (i.e., PEEK filled with 10 vol.% short carbon fibers and 8 vol.% graphite flakes). The results show that the addition of copper nanowires and a greater applied load can enhance materials transfer and tribofilm formation during sliding process. Moreover, copper nanowires can share a part of applied load, and retard the fatigue effect to some extent. In addition, copper nanowires, carbon fibers and graphite can synergistically improve the tribological performance and the tribofilm formation under water lubrication and severe working conditions. In particular, only 0.5 vol.% copper nanowires can form a high-performance tribofilm, which endows superior lubricating property and wear resistance capacity of the PEEK10SCF8Gr. Furthermore, the surface analysis indicates that the tribofilm contains some transferred materials and the products from tribochemical reactions as well.

  11. Preparation and characterization of carbon/SiC nanowire/Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite multilayer coating for carbon/carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leilei, Zhang; Hejun, Li; Kezhi, Li; Shouyang, Zhang; Qiangang, Fu; Yulei, Zhang; Jinhua, Lu; Wei, Li

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CSH coatings were prepared by combination of magnetron sputter ion plating, CVD and UECD. • Na + and CO 3 2− were developed to co-substitute hydroxyapatite. • SiC nanowires were introduced into Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite. • CSH coatings showed excellent cell activity and cell proliferation behavior. - Abstract: A carbon/SiC nanowire/Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite multilayer coating (CSH coating) was prepared on carbon/carbon composites using a combination method of magnetron sputter ion plating, chemical vapor deposition and ultrasound-assisted electrochemical deposition procedure. The morphology, microstructure and chemical composition of the coating were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the CSH coating was consisted of three components: carbon layer, SiC nanowires and Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite. The carbon layer provided a dense and uniform surface structure for the growth of SiC nanowires. The SiC nanowires exhibited a porous structure, favoring the infiltration of Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite crystals. The Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite could infiltrate into the pores of SiC nanowires and finally cover the SiC nanowires entirely with a needle shape. The osteoblast-like MG63 cells were employed to assess the in vitro biocompatibility of the CSH coating. The MG63 cells favorably spread and grew well across the CSH coating surface with plenty of filopods and microvilli, exhibiting excellent cell activity. Moreover, the CSH coating elicited higher cell proliferation as compared to bare carbon/carbon composites. In conclusion, the CSH offers great potential as a coating material for future medical application in hard tissue replacement

  12. Preparation and characterization of carbon/SiC nanowire/Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite multilayer coating for carbon/carbon composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leilei, Zhang, E-mail: zhangleilei1121@aliyun.com; Hejun, Li; Kezhi, Li; Shouyang, Zhang; Qiangang, Fu; Yulei, Zhang; Jinhua, Lu; Wei, Li

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • CSH coatings were prepared by combination of magnetron sputter ion plating, CVD and UECD. • Na{sup +} and CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} were developed to co-substitute hydroxyapatite. • SiC nanowires were introduced into Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite. • CSH coatings showed excellent cell activity and cell proliferation behavior. - Abstract: A carbon/SiC nanowire/Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite multilayer coating (CSH coating) was prepared on carbon/carbon composites using a combination method of magnetron sputter ion plating, chemical vapor deposition and ultrasound-assisted electrochemical deposition procedure. The morphology, microstructure and chemical composition of the coating were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the CSH coating was consisted of three components: carbon layer, SiC nanowires and Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite. The carbon layer provided a dense and uniform surface structure for the growth of SiC nanowires. The SiC nanowires exhibited a porous structure, favoring the infiltration of Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite crystals. The Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite could infiltrate into the pores of SiC nanowires and finally cover the SiC nanowires entirely with a needle shape. The osteoblast-like MG63 cells were employed to assess the in vitro biocompatibility of the CSH coating. The MG63 cells favorably spread and grew well across the CSH coating surface with plenty of filopods and microvilli, exhibiting excellent cell activity. Moreover, the CSH coating elicited higher cell proliferation as compared to bare carbon/carbon composites. In conclusion, the CSH offers great potential as a coating material for future medical application in hard tissue replacement.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Thin-Film Composite Membrane with Nanowire-Modified Support for Forward Osmosis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ze-Xian; Liu, Qi; Shamsaei, Ezzatollah; Zhang, Xiwang; Wang, Huanting

    2015-01-01

    Internal concentration polarization (ICP) in forward osmosis (FO) process is a characteristic problem for asymmetric thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane which leads to lower water flux. To mitigate the ICP effect, modification of the substrates’ properties has been one of the most effective methods. A new polyethersulfone-based ultrafiltration membrane with increased surface porosity and high water flux was recently produced by incorporating Zn2GeO4 nanowires. The composite membrane was used as a substrate for the fabrication of TFC FO membrane, by coating a thin layer of polyamide on top of the substrate. The substrate and the nanowires were characterized by a range of techniques such as SEM, XRD, and contact angle goniometry. The water permeability and molecular weight cut-offs (MWCO) of the substrate; and the FO performance of the TFC membrane were also determined. The Zn2GeO4-modified membrane showed ~45% increase in water permeability and NaCl salt rejection of 80% under RO mode. In FO mode, the ratio of water flux to reverse solute flux was also improved. However, lower FO flux was obtained which could be due to ICP. The result shows that Zn2GO4 nanowire may be used as a modifier to the substrate to improve the quality of the polyamide layer on the substrate to improve the flux and selectivity, but not as effective in reducing ICP. This work demonstrates that the incorporation of nanomaterials to the membrane substrate may be an alternative approach to improve the formation of polyamide skin layer to achieve better FO performance. PMID:25803239

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Thin-Film Composite Membrane with Nanowire-Modified Support for Forward Osmosis Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Xian Low

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Internal concentration polarization (ICP in forward osmosis (FO process is a characteristic problem for asymmetric thin-film composite (TFC FO membrane which leads to lower water flux. To mitigate the ICP effect, modification of the substrates’ properties has been one of the most effective methods. A new polyethersulfone-based ultrafiltration membrane with increased surface porosity and high water flux was recently produced by incorporating Zn2GeO4 nanowires. The composite membrane was used as a substrate for the fabrication of TFC FO membrane, by coating a thin layer of polyamide on top of the substrate. The substrate and the nanowires were characterized by a range of techniques such as SEM, XRD, and contact angle goniometry. The water permeability and molecular weight cut-offs (MWCO of the substrate; and the FO performance of the TFC membrane were also determined. The Zn2GeO4-modified membrane showed ~45% increase in water permeability and NaCl salt rejection of 80% under RO mode. In FO mode, the ratio of water flux to reverse solute flux was also improved. However, lower FO flux was obtained which could be due to ICP. The result shows that Zn2GO4 nanowire may be used as a modifier to the substrate to improve the quality of the polyamide layer on the substrate to improve the flux and selectivity, but not as effective in reducing ICP. This work demonstrates that the incorporation of nanomaterials to the membrane substrate may be an alternative approach to improve the formation of polyamide skin layer to achieve better FO performance.

  15. Charged Nanowire-Directed Growth of Amorphous Calcium Carbonate Nanosheets in a Mixed Solvent for Biomimetic Composite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyi; Liu, Lei; Chen, Si-Ming; Chang, Fu-Jia; Mao, Li-Bo; Gao, Huai-Ling; Ma, Tao; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2018-04-19

    Bio-inspired mineralization is an effective way for fabricating complicated inorganic materials, which inspires us to develop new methods to synthesize materials with fascinating properties. In this article, we report that the charged tellurium nanowires (TeNWs) can be used as bio-macromolecule analogues to direct the formation of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) nanosheets (ACCNs) in a mixed solvent. The effects of surface charges and the concentration of the TeNWs on the formation of ACCNs have been investigated. Particularly, the produced ACCNs can be functionalized by Fe3O4 nanoparticles to produce magnetic ACC/Fe3O4 hybrid nanosheets, which can be used to construct ACC/Fe3O4 composite films through a self-evaporation process. Moreover, sodium alginate-ACC nanocomposite films with remarkable toughness and good transmittance can also be fabricated by using such ACCNs as nanoscale building blocks. This mineralization approach in a mixed solvent using charged tellurium nanowires as bio-macromolecule analogues provides a new way for the synthesis of ACCNs, which can be used as nanoscale building blocks for fabrication of biomimetic composite films.

  16. All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors based on highly dispersed polypyrrole nanowire and reduced graphene oxide composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chenfei; Ma, Peipei; Zhou, Xi; Wang, Anqi; Qian, Tao; Wu, Shishan; Chen, Qiang

    2014-10-22

    Highly dispersed polypyrrole nanowires are decorated on reduced graphene oxide sheets using a facile in situ synthesis route. The prepared composites exhibit high dispersibility, large effective surface area, and high electric conductivity. All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors are assembled based on the prepared composites, which show excellent electrochemical performances with a specific capacitance of 434.7 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1). The as-fabricated supercapacitor also exhibits excellent cycling stability (88.1% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles) and exceptional mechanical flexibility. In addition, outstanding power and energy densities were obtained, demonstrating the significant potential of prepared material for flexible and portable energy storage devices.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of gold nanotube/nanowire-polyurethane composite based on castor oil and polyethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, Yasaman; Kasra, Mehran; Salahshour Kordestani, Soheila; Bagheri Hariri, Mohiedin

    2014-09-01

    Gold nanotubes/nanowires (GNT/NW) were synthesized by using the template-assisted electrodeposition technique and mixed with castor oil-polyethylene glycol based polyurethane (PU) to fabricate porous composite scaffolds for biomedical application. 100 and 50 ppm of GNT/NW were used to synthesize composites. The composite scaffolds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. Cell attachment on polyurethane-GNT/NW composites was investigated using fat-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Addition of 50 or 100 ppm GNT/NW had significant effects on thermal, mechanical, and cell attachment of polyurethane. Higher crosslink density and better cell attachment and proliferation were observed in polyurethane containing 50 ppm GNT/NW. The results revealed that GNT/NW formed hydrogen bonding with the polyurethane matrix and improved the thermomechanical properties of nanocomposites. Compared with pure PU, better cellular attachment on polyurethane-GNT/NW composites was observed resulting from the improved surface properties of composites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Composition and diameter modulation of magnetic nanowire arrays fabricated by a novel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker Salem, Mohamed; Tejo, Felipe; Zierold, Robert; Sergelius, Philip; Montero Moreno, Josep M.; Goerlitz, Detlef; Nielsch, Kornelius; Escrig, Juan

    2018-02-01

    Straight magnetic nanowires composed of nickel and permalloy segments having different diameters are synthesized using a promising approach. This approach involves the controlled electrodeposition of each magnetic material into specially designed diameter-modulated porous alumina templates. Standard alumina templates are exposed to pore widening followed by a protective coating of the pore wall with ultrathin silica and further anodization. Micromagnetic simulations are employed to investigate the process of magnetization reversal in the fabricated nanowires when the magnetic materials exchange their places in the thick and thin segments. It is found that the magnetization reversal occurs by the propagation of transverse domain wall (DW) when the thick segment is composed of permalloy. However, the reversal process proceeds by the propagation of vortex DW when permalloy is located at the thin segment.

  19. Preparation and characterization of graphene-based vanadium oxide composite semiconducting films with horizontally aligned nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hye-Mi; Um, Sukkee

    2016-01-01

    Highly oriented crystalline hybrid thin films primarily consisting of Magnéli-phase VO 2 and conductive graphene nanoplatelets are fabricated by a sol–gel process via dipping pyrolysis. A combination of chemical, microstructural, and electrical analyses reveals that graphene oxide (GO)-templated vanadium oxide (VO x ) nanocomposite films exhibit a vertically stacked multi-lamellar nanostructure consisting of horizontally aligned vanadium oxide nanowire (VNW) arrays along the (hk0) set of planes on a GO template, with an average crystallite size of 41.4 Å and a crystallographic tensile strain of 0.83%. In addition, GO-derived VO x composite semiconducting films, which have an sp 3 /sp 2 bonding ratio of 0.862, display thermally induced electrical switching properties in the temperature range of − 20 °C to 140 °C, with a transition temperature of approximately 65 °C. We ascribe these results to the use of GO sheets, which serve as a morphological growth template as well as an electrochemically tunable platform for enhancing the charge-carrier mobility. Moreover, the experimental studies demonstrate that graphene-based Magnéli-phase VO x composite semiconducting films can be used in advanced thermo-sensitive smart sensing/switching applications because of their outstanding thermo-electrodynamic properties and high surface charge density induced by the planar-type VNWs. - Highlights: • VO x -graphene oxide composite (G/VO x ) films were fabricated by sol–gel process. • The G/VO x films mainly consisted of Magnéli-phase VO 2 and reduced graphene sheets. • The G/VO x films exhibited multi-lamellar textures with planar VO x nanowire arrays. • The G/VO x films showed the thermo-sensitive electrical switching properties. • Effects of GOs on the electrical characteristics of the G/VO x films were discussed.

  20. High-Performance Stretchable Conductive Composite Fibers from Surface-Modified Silver Nanowires and Thermoplastic Polyurethane by Wet Spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Jiang, Jianwei; Yoon, Sungho; Kim, Kyung-Shik; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Sanghyuk; Kim, Sang-Ho; Piao, Longhai

    2018-01-17

    Highly stretchable and conductive fibers have attracted great interest as a fundamental building block for the next generation of textile-based electronics. Because of its high conductivity and high aspect ratio, the Ag nanowire (AgNW) has been considered one of the most promising conducting materials for the percolation network-based conductive films and composites. However, the poor dispersibility of AgNWs in hydrophobic polymers has hindered their application to stretchable conductive composite fibers. In this paper, we present a highly stretchable and conductive composite fiber from the co-spinning of surface-modified AgNWs and thermoplastic polyurethane (PU). The surface modification of AgNWs with a polyethylene glycol derivative improved the compatibility of PU and AgNWs, which allowed the NWs to disperse homogeneously in the elastomeric matrix, forming effective percolation networks and causing the composite fiber to show enhanced electrical and mechanical performance. The maximum AgNW mass fraction in the composite fiber was 75.9 wt %, and its initial electrical conductivity was as high as 14 205 S/cm. The composite fibers also exhibited superior stretchability: the maximum rupture strain of the composite fiber with 14.6 wt % AgNW was 786%, and the composite fiber was also conductive even when it was stretched up to 200%. In addition, 2-dimensional (2-D) Ag nanoplates were added to the AgNW/PU composite fibers to increase the stability of the conductive network under repeated stretching and releasing. The Ag nanoplates acted as a bridge to effectively prevent the AgNWs from slippage and greatly improved the stability of the conductive network.

  1. Insights into the Controllable Chemical Composition of Metal Oxide Nanowires and Graphene Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Anna Patrice

    The design and synthesis of materials that absorb visible light and create fuel to store solar energy is a pursuit that has captivated chemists for decades. In order to take part in solar water splitting, i.e. the production of hydrogen and oxygen gas from water and sunlight, electrode materials must fit specific requirements in terms of their electronic structure. Zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) are both of interest for their ability to produce oxygen from photogenerated holes, but their band gaps are too large to capture a significant portion of the solar spectrum. We address this challenge by modifying the crystal structures of ZnO and TiO 2 to make lower band gap materials. Furthermore, we use nanowires as the synthetic template for these materials because they provide a large semiconductor-liquid interfacial area. ZnO nanowires can be alloyed with In3+, Fe3+ and other trivalent metal ions to form a unique structure with the formula M2O3(ZnO)n, also known as MZO. We synthesize indium zinc oxide (IZO) and indium iron zinc oxide (IFZO) nanowires and study their crystal structure using atomically-resolved transmission electron microscopy (TEM), among other methods. We elucidate a structural model for MZO that resolves inconsistencies in the existing literature, based on the identification of the zigzag layer as an inversion domain boundary. These nanowires are shown to have a lower band gap than ZnO and produce photocurrent under visible light illumination. The solid-state diffusion reaction to form ternary titanates is also studied by TEM. TiO2 nanowires are coated with metal oxides by a variety of deposition methods, and then converted to MTiO3 at high temperatures, where M is a divalent transition metal ion such as Mn 2+, CO2+, or Ni2+. When Co3O 4 particles attached to TiO2 nanowires are annealed for a short time, we observe the formation of a CoO(111)/TiO2 (010) interface. If the nanowires are instead coated with Co(NO3)2 salt and then annealed

  2. Chemical bath deposition of ZnO nanowire-nanoparticle composite electrodes for use in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, C-H; Wu, J-J [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2007-12-19

    ZnO nanowire (NW)-layered basic zinc acetate (LBZA)/ZnO nanoparticle (NP) composite electrodes with different NP occupying extents have been synthesized using a simple wet-chemical route for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). By employing mercurochrome as the sensitizer, superior efficiencies ({eta}) of 1.27-2.37% are obtained using the ZnO NW-LBZA/ZnO NP composite electrodes composed of a 5.5 {mu}m thick NW array with different NP occupying extents in comparison with the ZnO NW DSSC ({eta} = 0.45%). It suggests that the ZnO NW-LBZA/ZnO NP composite films which possess a considerable enlarged surface area by NPs growth, without sacrificing electron transport efficiency of single-crystalline ZnO NWs at the same time, are promising photoanodes for use in DSSCs. In addition to the extent of NP occupation, the overall efficiency of the ZnO NW-LBZA/ZnO NP composite DSSC is also influenced by the thickness of the composite film as well as the LBZA fraction and the cracks within the composite. The fraction of LBZA affected by the NP growth period and post-annealing conditions is found to play a crucial role in electron transport through the composite anode. Up to now, a high efficiency DSSC of 3.2% is achieved using a mercurochrome-sensitized and 6.2 {mu}m thick NW-NP composite film.

  3. UV-Assisted Photochemical Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide/ZnO Nanowires Composite for Photoresponse Enhancement in UV Photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsong Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The weak photon absorption and high recombination rate of electron-hole pairs in disordered zinc oxide nanowires (ZNWs limit its application in UV photodetection. This limitation can be overcome by introducing graphene sheets to the ZNWs. Herein we report a high-performance photodetector based on one-dimensional (1D wide band-gap semiconductor disordered ZNWs composited with reduced graphene oxide (RGO for ultraviolet (UV photoresponse enhancement. The RGO/ZNWs composites have been successfully synthetized through UV-assisted photochemical reduction of GO in ZNWs suspension. The material characterizations in morphology, Raman scattering, and Ultraviolet-visible light absorption verified the formation of graphene sheets attached in ZNWs network and the enhancement of UV absorption due to the introduction of graphene. In comparison with photodetectors based on pure ZNWs, the photodetectors based on RGO/ZNWs composite exhibit enhanced photoresponse with photocurrent density of 5.87 mA·cm−2, on/off current ratio of 3.01 × 104, and responsivity of 1.83 A·W−1 when a UV irradiation of 3.26 mW·cm−2 and 1.0 V bias were used. Theory analysis is also presented to get insight into the inherent mechanisms of separation and transportation of photo-excited carriers in RGO/ZNWs composite.

  4. UV-Assisted Photochemical Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide/ZnO Nanowires Composite for Photoresponse Enhancement in UV Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changsong; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Na; Ma, Yang; San, Haisheng

    2018-01-05

    The weak photon absorption and high recombination rate of electron-hole pairs in disordered zinc oxide nanowires (ZNWs) limit its application in UV photodetection. This limitation can be overcome by introducing graphene sheets to the ZNWs. Herein we report a high-performance photodetector based on one-dimensional (1D) wide band-gap semiconductor disordered ZNWs composited with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for ultraviolet (UV) photoresponse enhancement. The RGO/ZNWs composites have been successfully synthetized through UV-assisted photochemical reduction of GO in ZNWs suspension. The material characterizations in morphology, Raman scattering, and Ultraviolet-visible light absorption verified the formation of graphene sheets attached in ZNWs network and the enhancement of UV absorption due to the introduction of graphene. In comparison with photodetectors based on pure ZNWs, the photodetectors based on RGO/ZNWs composite exhibit enhanced photoresponse with photocurrent density of 5.87 mA·cm -2 , on/off current ratio of 3.01 × 10⁴, and responsivity of 1.83 A·W -1 when a UV irradiation of 3.26 mW·cm -2 and 1.0 V bias were used. Theory analysis is also presented to get insight into the inherent mechanisms of separation and transportation of photo-excited carriers in RGO/ZNWs composite.

  5. Electrochemical synthesis of highly crystalline copper nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Gupta, Tanish; Kumar, Akshay; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, Karamjeet; Thakur, Anup

    2015-01-01

    Copper nanowires were fabricated within the pores of anodic alumina template (AAT) by template synthesis method at pH = 2.9. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to investigate the structure, morphology and composition of fabricated nanowires. These characterizations revealed that the deposited copper nanowires were highly crystalline in nature, dense and uniform. The crystalline copper nanowires are promising in application of future nanoelectronic devices and circuits

  6. Features of Random Metal Nanowire Networks with Application in Transparent Conducting Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Maloth, Thirupathi

    2017-01-01

    in terms of sheet resistance and optical transmittance. However, as the electrical properties of such random networks are achieved thanks to a percolation network, a minimum size of the electrodes is needed so it actually exceeds the representative volume

  7. Synthesis and high temperature stability of amorphous Si(B)CN-MWCNT composite nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandavat, Romil; Singh, Gurpreet

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrate synthesis of a hybrid nanowire structure consisting of an amorphous polymer-derived silicon boron-carbonitride (Si-B-C-N) shell with a multiwalled carbon nanotube core. This was achieved through a novel process involving preparation of a boron-modified liquid polymeric precursor through a reaction of trimethyl borate and polyureasilazane under atmospheric conditions; followed by conversion of polymer to glass-ceramic on carbon nanotube surfaces through controlled heating. Chemical structure of the polymer was studied by liquid-NMR while evolution of various ceramic phases was studied by Raman spectroscopy, solid-NMR, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction confirms presence of amorphous Si(B)CN coating on individual nanotubes for all specimen processed below 1400 degree C. Thermogravimetric analysis, followed by TEM revealed high temperature stability of the carbon nanotube core in flowing air up to 1300 degree C.

  8. Ultraflexible Transparent Film Heater Made of Ag Nanowire/PVA Composite for Rapid-Response Thermotherapy Pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Wei; Chen, Youxin; Yang, Zhiwei; Han, Weihua; Zhou, Jinyuan; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Junya; Tang, Guomei; Wei, Yupeng; Dou, Wei; Su, Qing; Xie, Erqing

    2017-02-22

    Ultraflexible transparent film heaters have been fabricated by embedding conductive silver (Ag) nanowires into a thin poly(vinyl alcohol) film (AgNW/PVA). A cold-pressing method was used to rationally adjust the sheet resistance of the composite films and thus the heating powers of the AgNW/PVA film heaters at certain biases. The film heaters have a favorable optical transmittance (93.1% at 26 Ω/sq) and an outstanding mechanical flexibility (no visible change in sheet resistance after 10 000 bending cycles and at a radius of curvature ≤1 mm). The film heaters have an environmental endurance, and there is no significant performance degradation after being kept at high temperature (80 °C) and high humidity (45 °C, 80% humidity) for half a year. The efficient Joule heating can increase the temperature of the film heaters (20 Ω/sq) to 74 °C in ∼20 s at a bias of 5 V. The fast-heating characteristics at low voltages (a few volts) associated with its transparent and flexibility properties make the poly(dimethylsiloxane)/AgNW/PVA composite film a potential candidate in medical thermotherapy pads.

  9. Nanowire sensors and arrays for chemical/biomolecule detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Minhee; Lee, Choonsup; Vasquez, Richard P.; Ramanathan, K.; Bangar, M. A.; Chen, W.; Mulchandan, A.; Myung, N. V.

    2005-01-01

    We report electrochemical growth of single nanowire based sensors using e-beam patterned electrolyte channels, potentially enabling the controlled fabrication of individually addressable high density arrays. The electrodeposition technique results in nanowires with controlled dimensions, positions, alignments, and chemical compositions. Using this technique, we have fabricated single palladium nanowires with diameters ranging between 75 nm and 300 nm and conducting polymer nanowires (polypyrrole and polyaniline) with diameters between 100 nm and 200 nm. Using these single nanowires, we have successfully demonstrated gas sensing with Pd nanowires and pH sensing with polypirrole nanowires.

  10. Wet-Chemical Synthesis of Enhanced-Thermopower Bi1 -xSbx Nanowire Composites for Solid-State Active Cooling of Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandaele, K.; He, Bin; Van Der Voort, P.; De Buysser, K.; Heremans, J. P.

    2018-02-01

    This paper is a contribution to the Physical Review Applied collection in memory of Mildred S. Dresselhaus. In 1993, Hicks and Dresselhaus [Thermoelectric figure of merit of a one-dimensional conductor, Phys. Rev. B 47, 16631 (1993)., 10.1103/PhysRevB.47.16631] suggested that Bi nanowires could result in values of the thermoelectric figure of merit z T >1 . The Dresselhaus group also calculated a ternary phase diagram for Bi1 -xSbx nanowires as a function of x and wire diameter. This manuscript reports a wet-chemical method to synthesize Bi1 -xSbx -silica nanowire composites. Resistivity, Hall electron concentration, electron mobility, Seebeck and Nernst coefficients, and thermal conductivity of composites are measured and compared to bulk polycrystalline Bi1 -xSbx samples prepared either by ingot casting or by the same wet chemistry but without nanostructuring. A clear increase of the thermopower in 20-nm Bi94Sb6 -silica is reported when compared to bulk samples, and the values are among the highest found in the literature from 300 to 380 K, even though the electron concentration is higher than in the bulk. This suggests that consistent with theory, size quantization is responsible for the thermopower increase.

  11. Nondestructive mapping of chemical composition and structural qualities of group III-nitride nanowires using submicron beam synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, P.L., E-mail: plb2@njit.edu [Georgia Institute of Technology/GTL, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Gautier, S. [LMOPS + UMI: Laboratoire Matériaux Optiques, Photonique et micro-nano Systèmes, UMR CNRS 7132, Université de Metz et SUPELEC, 2 rue E. Belin, 57070 Metz, France, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Gmili, Y.El.; Moudakir, T. [UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Sirenko, A.A. [Department of Physics, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Kazimirov, A. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cai, Z.-H. [Advanced Photon Source, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Martin, J. [LMOPS + UMI: Laboratoire Matériaux Optiques, Photonique et micro-nano Systèmes, UMR CNRS 7132, Université de Metz et SUPELEC, 2 rue E. Belin, 57070 Metz, France, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Goh, W.H. [Georgia Institute of Technology/GTL, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Martinez, A.; Ramdane, A.; Le Gratiet, L. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, UPR CNRS 20, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Maloufi, N. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Application aux Matériaux UMR CNRS 7078 Ile du Saulcy 57045 METZ cedex 1 (France); Assouar, M.B. [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionisés et Applications, Nancy University, CNRS, BP 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cédex (France); Ougazzaden, A. [Georgia Institute of Technology/GTL, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France)

    2013-08-31

    Submicron beam synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques have been developed and used to accurately and nondestructively map chemical composition and material quality of selectively grown group III-nitride nanowires. GaN, AlGaN, and InGaN multi-quantum-well nanowires have been selectively grown on lattice matched and mismatched substrates, and the challenges associated with obtaining and interpreting submicron beam XRD results are addressed and solved. Nanoscale cathodoluminescence is used to examine exciton behavior, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy is used to verify chemical composition. Scanning transmission electron microscopy is later used to paint a more complete picture. The advantages of submicron beam XRD over other techniques are discussed in the context of this challenging material system. - Highlights: ► We used nano selective area growth to create nanowires of GaN, AlGaN and InGaN/GaN. ► We characterized them by synchrotron-based submicron beam X-ray diffraction (XRD). ► This technique accurately determined chemical and crystallographic properties. ► Challenges of XRD are addressed in the context of this challenging material system. ► Advantages of XRD over other characterization methods are discussed.

  12. Structural and electronic properties of Si1−xGex alloy nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iori, Federico; Ossicini, Stefano; Rurali, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    We present first-principles density-functional calculations of Si 1−x Ge x alloy nanowires. We show that given the composition of the alloy, the structural properties of the nanowires can be predicted with great accuracy by means of Vegard's law, linearly interpolating the values of a pure Si and a pure Ge nanowire of the same diameter. The same holds, to some extent, also for electronic properties such as the band-gap. We also assess to what extend the band-gap varies as a function of disorder, i.e., how it changes for different random realization of a given concentration. These results make possible to tailor the desired properties of SiGe alloy nanowires starting directly from the data relative to the pristine wires.

  13. Hydrazine-Assisted Formation of Indium Phosphide (InP)-Based Nanowires and Core-Shell Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzke, Greta R; Kontic, Roman; Shiolashvili, Zeinab; Makhatadze, Nino; Jishiashvili, David

    2012-12-27

    Indium phosphide nanowires (InP NWs) are accessible at 440 °C from a novel vapor phase deposition approach from crystalline InP sources in hydrazine atmospheres containing 3 mol % H₂O. Uniform zinc blende (ZB) InP NWs with diameters around 20 nm and lengths up to several tens of micrometers are preferably deposited on Si substrates. InP particle sizes further increase with the deposition temperature. The straightforward protocol was extended on the one-step formation of new core-shell InP-Ga NWs from mixed InP/Ga source materials. Composite nanocables with diameters below 20 nm and shells of amorphous gallium oxide are obtained at low deposition temperatures around 350 °C. Furthermore, InP/Zn sources afford InP NWs with amorphous Zn/P/O-coatings at slightly higher temperatures (400 °C) from analogous setups. At 450 °C, the smooth outer layer of InP-Zn NWs is transformed into bead-shaped coatings. The novel combinations of the key semiconductor InP with isotropic insulator shell materials open up interesting application perspectives in nanoelectronics.

  14. Atomistic theory of excitonic fine structure in InAs/InP nanowire quantum dot molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świderski, M.; Zieliński, M.

    2017-03-01

    Nanowire quantum dots have peculiar electronic and optical properties. In this work we use atomistic tight binding to study excitonic spectra of artificial molecules formed by a double nanowire quantum dot. We demonstrate a key role of atomistic symmetry and nanowire substrate orientation rather than cylindrical shape symmetry of a nanowire and a molecule. In particular for [001 ] nanowire orientation we observe a nonvanishing bright exciton splitting for a quasimolecule formed by two cylindrical quantum dots of different heights. This effect is due to interdot coupling that effectively reduces the overall symmetry, whereas single uncoupled [001 ] quantum dots have zero fine structure splitting. We found that the same double quantum dot system grown on [111 ] nanowire reveals no excitonic fine structure for all considered quantum dot distances and individual quantum dot heights. Further we demonstrate a pronounced, by several orders of magnitude, increase of the dark exciton optical activity in a quantum dot molecule as compared to a single quantum dot. For [111 ] systems we also show spontaneous localization of single particle states in one of nominally identical quantum dots forming a molecule, which is mediated by strain and origins from the lack of the vertical inversion symmetry in [111 ] nanostructures of overall C3 v symmetry. Finally, we study lowering of symmetry due to alloy randomness that triggers nonzero excitonic fine structure and the dark exciton optical activity in realistic nanowire quantum dot molecules of intermixed composition.

  15. Compositions, Random Sums and Continued Random Fractions of Poisson and Fractional Poisson Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsingher, Enzo; Polito, Federico

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we consider the relation between random sums and compositions of different processes. In particular, for independent Poisson processes N α ( t), N β ( t), t>0, we have that N_{α}(N_{β}(t)) stackrel{d}{=} sum_{j=1}^{N_{β}(t)} Xj, where the X j s are Poisson random variables. We present a series of similar cases, where the outer process is Poisson with different inner processes. We highlight generalisations of these results where the external process is infinitely divisible. A section of the paper concerns compositions of the form N_{α}(tauk^{ν}), ν∈(0,1], where tauk^{ν} is the inverse of the fractional Poisson process, and we show how these compositions can be represented as random sums. Furthermore we study compositions of the form Θ( N( t)), t>0, which can be represented as random products. The last section is devoted to studying continued fractions of Cauchy random variables with a Poisson number of levels. We evaluate the exact distribution and derive the scale parameter in terms of ratios of Fibonacci numbers.

  16. Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Al-Shamery, Katharina

    Single crystalline nanowires from fluorescing organic molecules like para-phenylenes or thiophenes are supposed to become key elements in future integrated optoelectronic devices [1]. For a sophisticated design of devices based on nanowires the basic principles of the nanowire formation have...... atomic force microscopy and from polarized far-field optical microscopy for various prototypical molecules are reproduced by electrostatic and Monte Carlo calculations. Based on the crystal structure, predictions on the growth habit from other conjugated molecules become in reach....

  17. A four-functional composite-hierarchical anatase TiO2 microsphere consisting of nanoparticles, nanowires and submicron ellipsoidal spheres for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Niu; Chen, Feitai; Sun, Panpan; Sun, Xiaohua; Sebo, Bobby; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: In this paper, we prepare a composite-hierarchical microsphere (HMS) which is composed of two kinds of HMSs: one flower-like microsphere (FMS, ∼1.5 μm, containing nanoparticles and nanowires) and plentiful mesoporous submicron ellipsoidal spheres (ESs, ∼200 nm, assembled with nanoparticles) which are embedded evenly in the FMS. For comparing, pure FMS and ES are prepared, respectively. It is found that the composite-HMS possesses (a) the highest BET surface area, (b) the highest light scattering ability, (c) the fastest electron transport and the longest electron life time, and (d) light trapping ability enabled by multiple light reflection and scattering between ESs and nanowires inside each FMS*ESs particle. The energy conversion efficiency of 7.91% of the DSSC based on FMS*ESs is higher than devices based on ES and FMS (7.22% and 7.24%, respectively), which also benefits from the structural advantages of the composite-HMS compared with non-composite HMSs

  18. Interlaminar fracture of random short-fiber SMC composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. S.; Suemasu, H.; Zahlan, N. M.

    1984-01-01

    In the experimental phase of the present study of the interlaminar fracture behavior of a randomly oriented short fiber sheet molding compound (SMC) composite, the double cantilever beam fracture test is used to evaluate the mode I interlaminar fracture toughness of different composite thicknesses. In the analytical phase of this work, a geometrically nonlinear analysis is introduced in order to account for large deflections and nonlinear load deflection curves in the evaluation of interlaminar fracture toughness. For the SMC-R50 material studied, interlaminar toughness is an order of magnitude higher than that of unreinforced neat resin, due to unusual damage mechanisms ahead of the crack tip, together with significant fiber bridging across crack surfaces. Composite thickness effects on interlaminar fracture are noted to be appreciable, and a detailed discussion is given on the influence of SMC microstructure.

  19. Electrodeposited Ni nanowires-track etched P.E.T. composites as selective solar absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukhwa, R.; Sone, B.; Kotsedi, L.; Madjoe, R.; Maaza, M.

    2018-05-01

    This contribution reports on the structural, optical and morphological properties of nanostructured flexible solar-thermal selective absorber composites for low temperature applications. The candidate material in the system is consisting of electrodeposited nickel nano-cylinders embedded in track-etched polyethylene terephthalate (PET) host membrane of pore sizes ranging between 0.3-0.8µm supported by conductive nickel thin film of about 0.5µm. PET were irradiated with 11MeV/u high charged xenon (Xe) ions at normal incidence. The tubular and metallic structure of the nickel nano-cylinders within the insulator polymeric host forms a typical ceramic-metal nano-composite "Cermet". The produced material was characterized by the following techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD) for structural characterization to determine preferred crystallographic structure, and grain size of the materials; Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine surface morphology, particle size, and visual imaging of distribution of structures on the surface of the substrate; Atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize surface roughness, surface morphology, and film thickness, and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer to measure the reflectance, then to determine solar absorption

  20. Structural and electronic properties of Si{sub 1–x}Ge{sub x} alloy nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iori, Federico [Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Centro Interdipartimentale Intermech and En and tech, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Amendola 2 Pad. Morselli, I-42122 Reggio Emilia (Italy); European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) and Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB–CSIC), Campus de Bellaterra, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ossicini, Stefano [Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Centro Interdipartimentale Intermech and En and tech, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Amendola 2 Pad. Morselli, I-42122 Reggio Emilia (Italy); “Centro S3”, CNR-Istituto di Nanoscienze, Via Campi 213/A, 41125 Modena (Italy); Rurali, Riccardo, E-mail: rrurali@icmab.es [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB–CSIC), Campus de Bellaterra, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-10-21

    We present first-principles density-functional calculations of Si{sub 1–x}Ge{sub x} alloy nanowires. We show that given the composition of the alloy, the structural properties of the nanowires can be predicted with great accuracy by means of Vegard's law, linearly interpolating the values of a pure Si and a pure Ge nanowire of the same diameter. The same holds, to some extent, also for electronic properties such as the band-gap. We also assess to what extend the band-gap varies as a function of disorder, i.e., how it changes for different random realization of a given concentration. These results make possible to tailor the desired properties of SiGe alloy nanowires starting directly from the data relative to the pristine wires.

  1. Facile Synthesis of MnPO4·H2O Nanowire/Graphene Oxide Composite Material and Its Application as Electrode Material for High Performance Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we reported a facile one-pot hydrothermal method to synthesize MnPO4·H2O nanowire/graphene oxide composite material with coated graphene oxide. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscope were employed to study its morphology information, and X-ray diffraction was used to study the phase and structure of the material. Additionally, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to study the elements information. To measure electrochemical performances of electrode materials and the symmetry cell, cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectrometry were conducted on electrochemical workstation using 3 M KOH electrolytes. Importantly, electrochemical results showed that the as-prepared MnPO4·H2O nanowire/graphene oxide composite material exhibited high specific capacitance (287.9 F·g−1 at 0.625 A·g−1 and specific power (1.5 × 105 W·kg−1 at 2.271 Wh·kg−1, which is expected to have promising applications as supercapacitor electrode material.

  2. Paraffin/expanded graphite phase change composites with enhanced thermal conductivity prepared by implanted β-SiC nanowires with chemical vapor deposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhaoyu; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Huang, Zhaohui; Liu, Silin; Zhang, Weiyi; Liu, Yan'gai; Wu, Xiaowen; Fang, Minghao; Min, Xin

    2018-02-01

    Expanded graphite/β-SiC nanowires composites (ESNC) were prepared through chemical vapor deposition, and paraffin/expanded graphite/β-SiC nanowires composites (PESNC) were made through vacuum impregnation to overcome liquid leakage during phase transition and enhance the thermal conductivity of paraffin. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed no chemical interactions between the paraffin and ESNC. Differential scanning calorimetry estimated the temperature and latent heat of PESNC during melting to 45.73 °C and 124.31 J g-1, respectively. The respective values of these quantities during freezing were recorded as 48.93 °C and 124.14 J g-1. The thermal conductivity of PESNC was estimated to 0.75 W mK-1, which was 3.26-folds that of pure paraffin (0.23 W mK-1). PESNC perfectly maintained its phase transition after 200 melting-freezing cycles. The resulting ideal thermal conductivity, good chemical stability, thermal properties and thermal reliability of PESNC are promising for use in energy efficient buildings and solar energy systems.

  3. Random 2D Composites and the Generalized Method of Schwarz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Mityushev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-phase composites with nonoverlapping inclusions randomly embedded in matrix are investigated. A straightforward approach is applied to estimate the effective properties of random 2D composites. First, deterministic boundary value problems are solved for all locations of inclusions, that is, for all events of the considered probabilistic space C by the generalized method of Schwarz. Second, the effective properties are calculated in analytical form and averaged over C. This method is related to the traditional method based on the average probabilistic values involving the n-point correlation functions. However, we avoid computation of the correlation functions and compute their weighted moments of high orders by an indirect method which does not address the correlation functions. The effective properties are exactly expressed through these moments. It is proved that the generalized method of Schwarz converges for an arbitrary multiply connected doubly periodic domain and for an arbitrary contrast parameter. The proposed method yields an algorithm which can be applied with symbolic computations. The Torquato-Milton parameter ζ1 is exactly written for circular inclusions.

  4. Semiconductor nanowires and templates for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Xiang

    2009-07-15

    catalyzed germanium nanowires, a small process window has been determined where high aspect-ratio nanowires show single crystalline structure. Compositional analysis has been performed via electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to monitor the presence of indium and bismuth in the nanowires. Both catalysts could be identified, validating their role as catalysts. A combined atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy characterization on single core-shell nanowires gives clear evidence of finite-size effects on the electron-phonon coupling, as well as the presence of strain. Field effect transistors were fabricated using gold, bismuth and indium catalyzed germanium nanowires. Initial room-temperature and temperature dependent transport measurements on gold and bismuth catalyzed nanowires show field effects. Indium catalyzed germanium nanowires show insulating behavior. (orig.)

  5. Gold-coated silicon nanowire-graphene core-shell composite film as a polymer binder-free anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Jung; Lee, Sang Eon; Lee, Jihye; Jung, Joo-Yun; Lee, Eung-Sug; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Jung, Jun-Ho; Oh, Minsub; Hyun, Seungmin; Choi, Dae-Geun

    2014-07-01

    We designed and fabricated a gold (Au)-coated silicon nanowires/graphene (Au-SiNWs/G) hybrid composite as a polymer binder-free anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). A large amount of SiNWs for LIB anode materials can be prepared by metal-assisted chemical etching (MaCE) process. The Au-SiNWs/G composite film on current collector was obtained by vacuum filtration using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane and hot pressing method. Our experimental results show that the Au-SiNWs/G composite has a stable reversible capacity of about 1520 mA h/g which was maintained for 20 cycles. The Au-SiNWs/G composite anode showed much better cycling performance than SiNWs/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/Super-P, SiNWs/G composite, and pure SiNWs anodes. The improved electrochemical properties of the Au-SiNWs/G composite anode material is mainly ascribed to the composite's porous network structure.

  6. Dissecting random and systematic differences between noisy composite data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Kay

    2017-04-01

    Composite data sets measured on different objects are usually affected by random errors, but may also be influenced by systematic (genuine) differences in the objects themselves, or the experimental conditions. If the individual measurements forming each data set are quantitative and approximately normally distributed, a correlation coefficient is often used to compare data sets. However, the relations between data sets are not obvious from the matrix of pairwise correlations since the numerical value of the correlation coefficient is lowered by both random and systematic differences between the data sets. This work presents a multidimensional scaling analysis of the pairwise correlation coefficients which places data sets into a unit sphere within low-dimensional space, at a position given by their CC* values [as defined by Karplus & Diederichs (2012), Science, 336, 1030-1033] in the radial direction and by their systematic differences in one or more angular directions. This dimensionality reduction can not only be used for classification purposes, but also to derive data-set relations on a continuous scale. Projecting the arrangement of data sets onto the subspace spanned by systematic differences (the surface of a unit sphere) allows, irrespective of the random-error levels, the identification of clusters of closely related data sets. The method gains power with increasing numbers of data sets. It is illustrated with an example from low signal-to-noise ratio image processing, and an application in macromolecular crystallography is shown, but the approach is completely general and thus should be widely applicable.

  7. Quantum optics with nanowires (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiller, Val

    2017-02-01

    Nanowires offer new opportunities for nanoscale quantum optics; the quantum dot geometry in semiconducting nanowires as well as the material composition and environment can be engineered with unprecedented freedom to improve the light extraction efficiency. Quantum dots in nanowires are shown to be efficient single photon sources, in addition because of the very small fine structure splitting, we demonstrate the generation of entangled pairs of photons from a nanowire. By doping a nanowire and making ohmic contacts on both sides, a nanowire light emitting diode can be obtained with a single quantum dot as the active region. Under forward bias, this will act as an electrically pumped source of single photons. Under reverse bias, an avalanche effect can multiply photocurrent and enables the detection of single photons. Another type of nanowire under study in our group is superconducting nanowires for single photon detection, reaching efficiencies, time resolution and dark counts beyond currently available detectors. We will discuss our first attempts at combining semiconducting nanowire based single photon emitters and superconducting nanowire single photon detectors on a chip to realize integrated quantum circuits.

  8. Nanowire Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couteau C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We review principles and trends in the use of semiconductor nanowires as gain media for stimulated emission and lasing. Semiconductor nanowires have recently been widely studied for use in integrated optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs, solar cells, and transistors. Intensive research has also been conducted in the use of nanowires for subwavelength laser systems that take advantage of their quasione- dimensional (1D nature, flexibility in material choice and combination, and intrinsic optoelectronic properties. First, we provide an overview on using quasi-1D nanowire systems to realize subwavelength lasers with efficient, directional, and low-threshold emission. We then describe the state of the art for nanowire lasers in terms of materials, geometry, andwavelength tunability.Next,we present the basics of lasing in semiconductor nanowires, define the key parameters for stimulated emission, and introduce the properties of nanowires. We then review advanced nanowire laser designs from the literature. Finally, we present interesting perspectives for low-threshold nanoscale light sources and optical interconnects. We intend to illustrate the potential of nanolasers inmany applications, such as nanophotonic devices that integrate electronics and photonics for next-generation optoelectronic devices. For instance, these building blocks for nanoscale photonics can be used for data storage and biomedical applications when coupled to on-chip characterization tools. These nanoscale monochromatic laser light sources promise breakthroughs in nanophotonics, as they can operate at room temperature, can potentially be electrically driven, and can yield a better understanding of intrinsic nanomaterial properties and surface-state effects in lowdimensional semiconductor systems.

  9. Moessbauer study of Fe-Co nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Ziyu [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China)]. E-mail: chenzy@lzu.edu.cn; Zhan Qingfeng; Xue Desheng; Li Fashen [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China); Zhou Xuezhi; Kunkel, Henry; Williams, Gwyn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, the University of Manitoba (Canada)

    2002-01-28

    Arrays of Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} (0.0{<=}x{<=}0.92) nanowires have been prepared by an electrochemical process, co-depositing Fe and Co atoms into the pores of anodic aluminium; their compositions were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscope results show that the nanowires are regularly spaced and uniform in shape with lengths of about 7.5 {mu}m and diameters of 20 nm. The x-ray diffraction indicates a texture in the deposited nanowires. For the composition below 82 at.% cobalt, the nanowires had a body-centred-cubic structure with a [110] preferred orientation. For the 92 at.% cobalt sample, the alloy exhibited a mixture of bcc and face-centred-cubic structure. The room temperature {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectra of the arrays of Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} nanowires have second and fifth absorption lines of the six-line pattern with almost zero intensity, indicating that the internal magnetic field in the nanowires lies along the long axis of the nanowire. The maximum values of the hyperfine field (B{sub hf} 36.6{+-}0.1 T) and isomer shift (IS=0.06{+-}0.01 mm s-1) occur for 44 at.% cobalt. The variations of the isomer shift and the linewidths with composition indicate that the Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} alloy nanowires around the equiatomic composition are in an atomistic disordered state. (author)

  10. Immobilization of horseradish peroxidase on ZnO nanowires/macroporous SiO2 composites for the complete decolorization of anthraquinone dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huaiyan; Jin, Xinyu; Jiang, Feng; Zhang, Ruifeng

    2018-03-01

    A zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires/macroporous silicon dioxide composite was used as support to immobilize horseradish peroxidase (HRP) simply by in situ cross-linking method. As cross-linker was adsorbed on the surface of ZnO nanowires, the cross-linked HRP was quite different from the traditional cross-linking enzyme aggregates on both structure and catalytic performance. Among three epoxy compounds, diethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (DDE) was the best cross-linker, with which the loading amount of HRP with pI of 5.3 reached as high as 118.1 mg/g and specific activity was up to 14.9 U/mg-support. The mass loss of HRP cross-linked with DDE was negligible during 50-H leaching at 4 °C, and the thermal stability of the immobilized HRP was also quite good. The catalytic performance of immobilized HRP to decolorize anthraquinone dye was explored by using Reactive Blue 19 (RB 19) and Acid Violet 109 (AV 109) as model substrates. The results indicated that the immobilized HRP exhibited high decolorization efficiency and good reusability. The decolorization efficiency reached 94.3% and 95.9% for AV 109 and RB 19 within the first 30 Min, respectively. A complete decolorization of these two dyes has been realized within 2-3 H by using this new biocatalysis system. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Resistance Fluctuations in GaAs Nanowire Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Marasović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical study on resistance fluctuations in a series of nanowire-based grids. Each grid is made of GaAs nanowires arranged in parallel with metallic contacts crossing all nanowires perpendicularly. Electrical properties of GaAs nanowires known from previous experimental research are used as input parameters in the simulation procedure. Due to the nonhomogeneous doping, the resistivity changes along nanowire. Allowing two possible nanowire orientations (“upwards” or “downwards”, the resulting grid is partially disordered in vertical direction which causes resistance fluctuations. The system is modeled using a two-dimensional random resistor network. Transfer-matrix computation algorithm is used to calculate the total network resistance. It is found that probability density function (PDF of resistance fluctuations for a series of nanowire grids changes from Gaussian behavior towards the Bramwell-Holdsworth-Pinton distribution when both nanowire orientations are equally represented in the grid.

  12. Binary conductive network for construction of Si/Ag nanowires/rGO integrated composite film by vacuum-filtration method and their application for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.; Xia, X.H.; Zhang, Y.J.; Tong, Y.Y.; Wang, X.L.; Gu, C.D.; Tu, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Construction of high-capacity anode is highly important for the development of next-generation high-performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein we fabricate Si/Ag nanowires/reduced graphene oxide (Si/Ag NWs/rGO) integrated composite film by introducing binary conductive networks (Ag NWs and rGO) into Si active materials with the help of a facile vacuum-filtration method. Active Si nanoparticles are homogeneously encapsulated by binary Ag NWs-rGO conductive network, in which Ag NWs are interwoven among the rGO sheets. The electrochemical properties of the integrated Si/Ag NWs/rGO composite film are thoroughly characterized as anode of LIBs. Compared to the Si/rGO composite film, the integrated Si/Ag NWs/rGO composite film exhibits enhanced electrochemical performances with higher capacity, better high-rate capability and cycling stability (1269 mAh g"−"1 at 50 mA g"−"1 up to 50 cycles). The binary conductive network plays a positive role in the enhancement of performance due to its faster ion/electron transfer, and better anti-structure degradation caused by volume expansion during the cycling process.

  13. The self-activation and synergy of amorphous Re nanoparticle – Si nanowire composites for the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lulu; Lu, Shunkai; Wang, Hui; Shao, Qi; Liao, Fan; Shao, Mingwang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Amorphous Re nanoparticle modified Si nanowire nanocomposites were prepared. • An interesting self-activation phenomenon was observed in HER process. • Re/SiNW showed synergy in HER process. • The optimal mass ratio of Re: Si was determined to be 31.1: 68.9. - Abstract: Amorphous rhenium nanoparticles modified silicon nanowires were prepared via reducing Re ion by Si−H bonds, which were employed to electrocatalysize the hydrogen evolution reaction because amorphous structure may have excellent catalytic activity. It is interesting that an obvious self-activation for Re/Si catalysts was observed with the current density enhanced by 2.2 times its previous value at 400 mV after a 3,000 s of continuous cyclic voltammetry scanning, and the catalytic performance remained steady thereafter. The optimal electrocatalytic performance was found with the Re: Si mass ratio of 31.1: 68.9, resulting in a Tafel slope of 81 mV·dec −1 and overpotential of 100 mV at current density of 10 mA·cm −2 .

  14. The woven fiber organic electrochemical transistors based on polypyrrole nanowires/reduced graphene oxide composites for glucose sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuedan; Qing, Xing; Zhou, Quan; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Qiongzhen; Liu, Ke; Wang, Wenwen; Li, Mufang; Lu, Zhentan; Chen, Yuanli; Wang, Dong

    2017-09-15

    Novel woven fiber organic electrochemical transistors based on polypyrrole (PPy) nanowires and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been prepared. SEM revealed that the introduction of rGO nanosheets could induce the growth and increase the amount of PPy nanowires. Moreover, it could enhance the electrical performance of fiber transistors. The hybrid transistors showed high on/off ratio of 10 2 , fast switch speed, and long cycling stability. The glucose sensors based on the fiber organic electrochemical transistors have also been investigated, which exhibited outstanding sensitivity, as high as 0.773 NCR/decade, with a response time as fast as 0.5s, a linear range of 1nM to 5μM, a low detection concentration as well as good repeatability. In addition, the glucose could be selectively detected in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid interferences. The reliability of the proposed glucose sensor was evaluated in real samples of rabbit blood. All the results indicate that the novel fiber transistors pave the way for portable and wearable electronics devices, which have a promising future for healthcare and biological applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B on ZnO nanowires/macroporous silica composites for catalyzing chiral resolution of (R,S)-2-octanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Chuan-Yang; Li, Wei-Xun; Zhang, Rui-Feng

    2014-01-01

    ZnO nanowires were successfully introduced into a macroporous SiO2 by in situ hydrothermal growth in 3D pores. The obtained composites were characterized by SEM and XRD, and used as supports to immobilize Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) through adsorption. The high specific surface area (233 m(2)/g) and strong electrostatic interaction resulted that the average loading amount of the composite supports (196.8 mg/g) was 3-4 times of that of macroporous SiO2 and approximate to that of a silica-based mesoporous material. Both adsorption capacity and the activity of the CALB immobilized on the composite supports almost kept unchanged as the samples were soaked in buffer solution for 48 h. The chiral resolution of 2-octanol was catalyzed by immobilized CALB. A maximum molar conversion of 49.1% was achieved with 99% enantiomeric excess of (R)-2-octanol acetate under the optimal condition: a reaction using 1.0 mol/L (R,S)-2-octanol, 2.0 mol/L vinyl acetate and 4.0 wt.% water content at 60°C for 8h. After fifteen recycles the immobilized lipase could retain 96.9% of relative activity and 93.8% of relative enantioselectivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Solution-Grown Silicon Nanowires for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Candace K.; Patel, Reken N.; O’ Connell, Michael J.; Korgel, Brian A.; Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Composite electrodes composed of silicon nanowires synthesized using the supercritical fluid-liquid-solid (SFLS) method mixed with amorphous carbon or carbon nanotubes were evaluated as Li-ion battery anodes. Carbon coating of the silicon nanowires

  17. Transformation of bulk alloys to oxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Danni; Benson, Jim; Magasinski, Alexandre; Berdichevsky, Gene; Yushin, Gleb

    2017-01-01

    One dimensional (1D) nanostructures offer prospects for enhancing the electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of a broad range of functional materials and composites, but their synthesis methods are typically elaborate and expensive. We demonstrate a direct transformation of bulk materials into nanowires under ambient conditions without the use of catalysts or any external stimuli. The nanowires form via minimization of strain energy at the boundary of a chemical reaction front. We show the transformation of multimicrometer-sized particles of aluminum or magnesium alloys into alkoxide nanowires of tunable dimensions, which are converted into oxide nanowires upon heating in air. Fabricated separators based on aluminum oxide nanowires enhanced the safety and rate capabilities of lithium-ion batteries. The reported approach allows ultralow-cost scalable synthesis of 1D materials and membranes.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Tin Oxide Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kabiri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is preparation of SnO2 nanowires by means of Thermal chemical reaction vapor transport deposition (TCRVTD method from SnO powders. The morphology, chemical composition and microstructure properties of the nanowires are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM, EDS, and XRD. The XRD diffraction patterns reveal that the SnO2 nanowires have been grown in the form of tetragonal crystal structures with the lattice parameter of a=b=0.440 nm, and c=0.370 nm. The SEM images reveal that SnO2 nanowires have successfully been grown on the Si substrate. The EDS patterns show that only elements of Sn, O and Au are detected. Prior to the VLS process the substrate is coated by a thin layer of Au. The diameter of nanowires is measured to be something between 20-100 nm.

  19. Ambient template synthesis of multiferroic MnWO4 nanowires and nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hongjun; Yiu Yuen; Aronson, M.C.; Wong, Stanislaus S.

    2008-01-01

    The current report describes the systematic synthesis of polycrystalline, multiferroic MnWO 4 nanowires and nanowire arrays with controllable chemical composition and morphology, using a modified template-directed methodology under ambient room-temperature conditions. We were able to synthesize nanowires measuring 55±10, 100±20, and 260±40 nm in diameter, respectively, with lengths ranging in the microns. Extensive characterization of as-prepared samples has been performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Magnetic behavior in these systems was also probed. - Graphical abstract: Systematic synthesis of crystalline, multiferroic MnWO4 nanowires and nanowire arrays with controllable chemical composition and morphology, using a modified template-directed methodology under ambient room-temperature conditions

  20. Silver nanowire/polymer composite soft conductive film fabricated by large-area compatible coating for flexible pressure sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sujie; Li, Siying; Peng, Sai; Huang, Yukun; Zhao, Jiaqing; Tang, Wei; Guo, Xiaojun

    2018-01-01

    Soft conductive films composed of a silver nanowire (AgNW) network, a neutral-pH PEDOT:PSS over-coating layer and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer substrate are fabricated by large area compatible coating processes. The neutral-pH PEDOT:PSS layer is shown to be able to significantly improve the conductivity, stretchability and air stability of the conductive films. The soft conductive films are patterned using a simple maskless patterning approach to fabricate an 8 × 8 flexible pressure sensor array. It is shown that such soft conductive films can help to improve the sensitivity and reduce the signal crosstalk over the pressure sensor array. Project supported by the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (No. 16JC1400603).

  1. Extremely flexible, transparent, and strain-sensitive electroluminescent device based on ZnS:Cu-polyvinyl butyral composite and silver nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sungwoo; Kim, Youngmin; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Kim, Jong-Woong

    2018-01-01

    A multifunctional alternate current electroluminescent device (ACEL) was achieved by compositing ZnS:Cu particles in polyvinyl butyral (PVB) with two layers of percolated silver nanowire (AgNW) electrodes. The strong hydrogen bonding interactions and entanglement of PVB chains considerably strengthened the PVB, and thus, the cured mixture of ZnS:Cu particles and freestanding PVB required no additional support. The device was fabricated by embedding AgNWs on both sides of the ZnS:Cu-PVB composite film using an inverted layer process and intense-pulsed-light treatment. The strong affinity of PVB to the polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) layer, which capped the AgNWs, mechanically stabilized the device to such an extent that it could resist 10,000 bending cycles under a curvature radius of 500 μm. Using AgNW networks in both the top and bottom electrodes made a double-sided light-emitting device that could be applied to wearable lightings or flexible digital signage. The capacitance formed in the device sensitively varied with the applied bending and unfolding, thus demonstrating that the device can also be used as a deformation sensor.

  2. Plasmonic Properties of Vertically Aligned Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs/Ag sheath composites were produced to investigate plasmonic coupling between vertically aligned NWs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS applications. In this investigation, two types of vertical NW arrays were studied; those of ZnO NWs grown on nanosphere lithography patterned sapphire substrate via vapor-liquid-solid (VLS mechanism and Si NW arrays produced by wet chemical etching. Both types of vertical NW arrays were coated with a thin layer of silver by electroless silver plating for SERS enhancement studies. The experimental results show extremely strong SERS signals due to plasmonic coupling between the NWs, which was verified by COMSOL electric field simulations. We also compared the SERS enhancement intensity of aligned and random ZnO NWs, indicating that the aligned NWs show much stronger and repeatable SERS signal than those grown in nonaligned geometries.

  3. Metal-dielectric-CNT nanowires for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Altun, Ali; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2017-10-03

    A sensor with a substrate includes nanowires extending vertically from the substrate, a hafnia coating on the nanowires that provides hafnia coated nanowires, and a noble metal coating on the hafnia coated nanowires. The top of the hafnia and noble metal coated nanowires bent onto one another to create a canopy forest structure. There are numerous randomly arranged holes that let through scattered light. The many points of contact, hot spots, amplify signals. The methods include the steps of providing a Raman spectroscopy substrate, introducing nano crystals to the Raman spectroscopy substrate, growing a forest of nanowires from the nano crystals on the Raman spectroscopy substrate, coating the nanowires with hafnia providing hafnia coated nanowires, and coating the hafnia coated nanowires with a noble metal or other metal.

  4. Tunneling and Transport in Nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, Allen M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this program was to study new physical phenomena that might be relevant to the performance of conductive devices and circuits of the smallest realizable feature sizes possible using physical rather than biological techniques. Although the initial scientific work supported involved the use of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to ascertain the statistics of the energy level distribution of randomly sized and randomly shaped quantum dots, or nano-crystals, the main focus was on the investigation of selected properties, including superconductivity, of conducting and superconducting nanowires prepared using electron-beam-lithography. We discovered a magnetic-field-restoration of superconductivity in out-of-equilibrium nanowires driven resistive by current. This phenomenon was explained by the existence of a state in which dissipation coexisted with nonvanishing superconducting order. We also produced ultra-small superconducting loops to study a predicted anomalous fluxoid quantization, but instead, found a magnetic-field-dependent, high-resistance state, rather than superconductivity. Finally, we developed a simple and controllable nanowire in an induced charged layer near the surface of a masked single-crystal insulator, SrTiO_3. The layer was induced using an electric double layer transistor employing an ionic liquid (IL). The transport properties of the induced nanowire resembled those of collective electronic transport through an array of quantum dots.

  5. Tunneling and Transport in Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Allen M. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-08-16

    The goal of this program was to study new physical phenomena that might be relevant to the performance of conductive devices and circuits of the smallest realizable feature sizes possible using physical rather than biological techniques. Although the initial scientific work supported involved the use of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to ascertain the statistics of the energy level distribution of randomly sized and randomly shaped quantum dots, or nano-crystals, the main focus was on the investigation of selected properties, including superconductivity, of conducting and superconducting nanowires prepared using electron-beam-lithography. We discovered a magnetic-field-restoration of superconductivity in out-of-equilibrium nanowires driven resistive by current. This phenomenon was explained by the existence of a state in which dissipation coexisted with nonvanishing superconducting order. We also produced ultra-small superconducting loops to study a predicted anomalous fluxoid quantization, but instead, found a magnetic-field-dependent, high-resistance state, rather than superconductivity. Finally, we developed a simple and controllable nanowire in an induced charged layer near the surface of a masked single-crystal insulator, SrTiO3. The layer was induced using an electric double layer transistor employing an ionic liquid (IL). The transport properties of the induced nanowire resembled those of collective electronic transport through an array of quantum dots.

  6. The composition dependence of magnetic, electronic and optical properties of Mn-doped SixGe1-x nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianglin; Lan, Mu; Zhang, Xi; Xiang, Gang

    2017-07-01

    Mn-doped SixGe1-x nanowires (NWs) with different Ge concentrations have been studied by first-principles calculations. It is found that the spin dependent energy bands of the NWs show rich variations both in bandgap width and type (from indirect to direct) as the Ge concentration changes. The Mn-doped SixGe1-x NWs exhibit half-metallic characteristics for all Ge concentrations, and the ground states of the NWs are found to be ferromagnetic (FM). The net magnetization mapping and spin density of states calculations reveal that Mn 3d electrons have a strong hybridization effect with nearest Ge 4p electrons, which results in the Ge’s nontrivial contribution to the magnetic moment of the NWs. Further magnon dispersion studies show that the magnetic order stability of the NWs is influenced by Ge concentrations. Finally, the dependence of the optical properties of the magnetic NWs on the Ge concentration is demonstrated. Our results suggest that Mn-doped SixGe1-x NWs may be useful in spintronic and optoelectronic devices.

  7. Composite Transparent Electrode of Graphene Nanowalls and Silver Nanowires on Micropyramidal Si for High-Efficiency Schottky Junction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Tianpeng; Liu, Jian; Wei, Dapeng; Feng, Yanhui; Song, Xuefen; Shi, Haofei; Jia, Shuming; Sun, Wentao; Du, Chunlei

    2015-09-16

    The conventional graphene-silicon Schottky junction solar cell inevitably involves the graphene growth and transfer process, which results in complicated technology, loss of quality of the graphene, extra cost, and environmental unfriendliness. Moreover, the conventional transfer method is not well suited to conformationally coat graphene on a three-dimensional (3D) silicon surface. Thus, worse interfacial conditions are inevitable. In this work, we directly grow graphene nanowalls (GNWs) onto the micropyramidal silicon (MP) by the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. By controlling growth time, the cell exhibits optimal pristine photovoltaic performance of 3.8%. Furthermore, we improve the conductivity of the GNW electrode by introducing the silver nanowire (AgNW) network, which could achieve lower sheet resistance. An efficiency of 6.6% has been obtained for the AgNWs-GNWs-MP solar cell without any chemical doping. Meanwhile, the cell exhibits excellent stability exposed to air. Our studies show a promising way to develop simple-technology, low-cost, high-efficiency, and stable Schottky junction solar cells.

  8. Epitaxy-enabled vapor-liquid-solid growth of tin-doped indium oxide nanowires with controlled orientations

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Youde; Turner, Stuart G.; Yang, Ping; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Lebedev, Oleg I.; Wu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    challenges in reliably achieving these goals of orientation-controlled nanowire synthesis and assembly. Here we report that growth of planar, vertical and randomly oriented tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires can be realized on yttria-stabilized zirconia

  9. Platinum boride nanowires: Synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Zhanhui; Qiu Lixia; Zhang Jian; Yao Bin; Cui Tian; Guan Weiming; Zheng Weitao; Wang Wenquan; Zhao Xudong; Liu Xiaoyang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Platinum boride nanowires have been synthesized via the direct current arc discharge method. ► XRD, TEM and SAED indicate that the nanowires are single-crystal PtB. ► Two broad photoluminescence emission peaks at about 586 nm and 626 nm have been observed in the PL spectroscopy of PtB nanowires. - Abstract: Platinum boride (PtB) nanowires have been successfully fabricated with direct current arc discharge method using a milled mixture of platinum (Pt) and boron nitride (BN) powders. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the compositions, morphology, and structures of the samples. The results show that PtB nanowires are 30–50 nm thick and 20–30 μm long. TEM and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns identify that the PtB nanowires are single-crystalline in nature. A growth mechanism based on vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) process is proposed for the formation of nanowires.

  10. Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujia, Chen; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz [Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

  11. Pseudodirect to Direct Compositional Crossover in Wurtzite GaP/InxGa1–xP Core–Shell Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Gagliano, L.; Belabbes, Abderrezak; Albani, M.; Assali, S.; Verheijen, M. A.; Miglio, L.; Bechstedt, F.; Haverkort, J. E. M.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to their uniqueness, nanowires allow the realization of novel semiconductor crystal structures with yet unexplored properties, which can be key to overcome current technological limits. Here we develop the growth of wurtzite GaP/InGaP core

  12. Electrochemical synthesis of CORE-shell magnetic nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ovejero, Jesús G.

    2015-04-16

    (Fe, Ni, CoFe) @ Au core-shell magnetic nanowires have been synthesized by optimized two-step potentiostatic electrodeposition inside self-assembled nanopores of anodic aluminium templates. The optimal electrochemical parameters (e.g., potential) have been firstly determined for the growth of continuous Au nanotubes at the inner wall of pores. Then, a magnetic core was synthesized inside the Au shells under suitable electrochemical conditions for a wide spectrum of single elements and alloy compositions (e.g., Fe, Ni and CoFe alloys). Novel opportunities offered by such nanowires are discussed particularly the magnetic behavior of (Fe, Ni, CoFe) @ Au core-shell nanowires was tested and compared with that of bare TM nanowires. These core-shell nanowires can be released from the template so, opening novel opportunities for biofunctionalization of individual nanowires.

  13. Magnetic and superconducting nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piraux, L.; Encinas, A.; Vila, L.

    2005-01-01

    magnetic and superconducting nanowires. Using different approaches entailing measurements on both single wires and arrays, numerous interesting physical properties have been identified in relation to the nanoscopic dimensions of these materials. Finally, various novel applications of the nanowires are also...

  14. Vertical nanowire architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlad, A.; Mátéfl-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.

    2010-01-01

    Nanowires and statistics: A statistical process for reading ultradense arrays of nanostructured materials is presented (see image). The experimental realization is achieved through selective nanowire growth using porous alumina templates. The statistical patterning approach is found to provide ri...

  15. Biotemplated synthesis of PZT nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cung, Kellye; Han, Booyeon J; Nguyen, Thanh D; Mao, Sheng; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Xu, Shiyou; Naik, Rajesh R; Poirier, Gerald; Yao, Nan; Purohit, Prashant K; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric nanowires are an important class of smart materials for next-generation applications including energy harvesting, robotic actuation, and bioMEMS. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT), in particular, has attracted significant attention, owing to its superior electromechanical conversion performance. Yet, the ability to synthesize crystalline PZT nanowires with well-controlled properties remains a challenge. Applications of common nanosynthesis methods to PZT are hampered by issues such as slow kinetics, lack of suitable catalysts, and harsh reaction conditions. Here we report a versatile biomimetic method, in which biotemplates are used to define PZT nanostructures, allowing for rational control over composition and crystallinity. Specifically, stoichiometric PZT nanowires were synthesized using both polysaccharide (alginate) and bacteriophage templates. The wires possessed measured piezoelectric constants of up to 132 pm/V after poling, among the highest reported for PZT nanomaterials. Further, integrated devices can generate up to 0.820 μW/cm(2) of power. These results suggest that biotemplated piezoelectric nanowires are attractive candidates for stimuli-responsive nanosensors, adaptive nanoactuators, and nanoscale energy harvesters.

  16. Electrodeposition of rhenium-tin nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naor-Pomerantz, Adi; Eliaz, Noam; Gileadi, Eliezer

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Rhenium-tin nanowires were formed electrochemically, without using a template. → The nanowires consisted of a crystalline-Sn-core/amorphous-Re-shell structure. → The effects of bath composition and operating conditions were investigated. → A mechanism is suggested for the formation of the core/shell structure. → The nanowires may be attractive for a variety of applications. - Abstract: Rhenium (Re) is a refractory metal which exhibits an extraordinary combination of properties. Thus, nanowires and other nanostructures of Re-alloys may possess unique properties resulting from both Re chemistry and the nanometer scale, and become attractive for a variety of applications, such as in catalysis, photovoltaic cells, and microelectronics. Rhenium-tin coatings, consisting of nanowires with a core/shell structure, were electrodeposited on copper substrates under galvanostatic or potentiostatic conditions. The effects of bath composition and operating conditions were investigated, and the chemistry and structure of the coatings were studied by a variety of analytical tools. A Re-content as high as 77 at.% or a Faradaic efficiency as high as 46% were attained. Ranges of Sn-to-Re in the plating bath, applied current density and applied potential, within which the nanowires could be formed, were determined. A mechanism was suggested, according to which Sn nanowires were first grown on top of Sn micro-particles, and then the Sn nanowires reduced the perrhenate chemically, thus forming a core made of crystalline Sn-rich phase, and a shell made of amorphous Re-rich phase. The absence of mutual solubility of Re and Sn may be the driving force for this phase separation.

  17. Electrospinning synthesis of superconducting BSCCO nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Edgar A.; Quintero, Pedro A.; Meisel, Mark W.; Nino, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x nanowires 150 nm to 250 nm thick are synthesized using the electrospinning. •Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x nanowires are obtained after a heat treatment at 850 °C. •Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x nanowires show a T c = 78.7 K consistent with bulk superconductor behavior. -- Abstract: This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x superconducting nanowires. Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x nanowires with a T c = 78.7 K are synthesized using the electrospinning process employing sol–gel precursors. A sol–gel methodology is used to obtain a homogeneous PVP solution containing Bi, Sr, Ca, and Cu acetates. Mats of randomly oriented nanowires and aligned nanowires are also collected. After a heat treatment at 850 °C in ambient atmosphere using heating rates of 100 and 400 °C/h, fully crystallized Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x nanowires are obtained. The morphology, microstructure, and crystal structure of these nanowires are then examined to reveal a rectangular morphology having typical wire thickness in the range of 150–250 nm, and a wire width between 400 and 600 nm. DC magnetization studies are conducted to investigate the critical transition temperature (T c ) of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x nanowires and to compare their magnetic properties to those of bulk Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x powder. The T c for the commercial powder is observed at 78.6 K, and that of the obtained nanowires at 78.7 K. These results point to the superconducting nature of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x nanowires, and the potential of the electrospinning process for the synthesis of this superconductor material

  18. α-MnO2 Nanowires/Graphene Composites with High Electrocatalytic Activity for Mg-Air Fuel Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Min; He, Hao; Huang, Chen; Liu, Bo; Yi, Wen-Jun; Chao, Zi-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • α-MnO 2 NWs/graphene was synthesized and studied in Mg-air fuel cell. • The performance of α-MnO 2 NWs/graphene is close to the Pt/C. • The ORR mechanism involves a one-step, quasi-4-electron pathway. • A large area (5 cm*5 cm) cathode was prepared and tested in a full cell. - Abstract: This paper reports the preparation of α-MnO 2 NWs/graphene composites as the cathode catalyst for magnesium-air fuel cell and its excellent electrochemistry performance. The composites are synthesized by self-assembly of α-MnO 2 nan α-MnO 2 NWs/graphene was synthesized and studied in Mg-air fuel cell. α-MnO 2 NWs/graphene was synthesized and studied in Mg-air fuel cell. owires (NWs) on the surface of graphene via a simple hydrothermal method. The α-MnO 2 NWs/graphene composites showed a higher electrochemical activity than the commercial MnO 2 . The oxygen reduction peak of the α-MnO 2 NWs/graphene composites catalyst is tested in a 0.1 M KOH solution at −0.252 V, which is more positive than the commercial MnO 2 (−0.287 V). The ORR limit current density for 28% α-MnO2 NWs/graphene composite is approximately 2.74 mA/cm 2 , which is similar to that of the 20% Pt/C(2.79 mA/cm 2 ) in the same conditions. Based on the Koutecky–Levich plot, the ORR mechanism of the composite involves a one-step, quasi-4-electron pathway. In addition, magnesium-air fuel cell with α-MnO 2 NWs/graphene as catalyst possesses higher current density (140 mA/cm 2 ) and power density (96 mW/cm 2 ) compared to the commercial MnO 2 . This study proves that the cost-effective α-MnO 2 NWs/graphene with higher power generation ability make it possible for the substitute of the noble metals catalyst in the Mg-air fuel cell.

  19. Methods of fabricating nanostructures and nanowires and devices fabricated therefrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, Arun; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.; Yang, Peidong; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.; Feick, Henning; Weber, Eicke R.; Kind, Hannes; Huang, Michael; Yan, Haoquan; Wu, Yiying; Fan, Rong

    2018-01-30

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  20. Random walks in nanotube composites: Improved algorithms and the role of thermal boundary resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong, Hai M.; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V.; Lee, Lloyd L.; Mullen, Kieran J.

    2005-01-01

    Random walk simulations of thermal walkers are used to study the effect of interfacial resistance on heat flow in randomly dispersed carbon nanotube composites. The adopted algorithm effectively makes the thermal conductivity of the nanotubes themselves infinite. The probability that a walker colliding with a matrix-nanotube interface reflects back into the matrix phase or crosses into the carbon nanotube phase is determined by the thermal boundary (Kapitza) resistance. The use of 'cold' and 'hot' walkers produces a steady state temperature profile that allows accurate determination of the thermal conductivity. The effects of the carbon nanotube orientation, aspect ratio, volume fraction, and Kapitza resistance on the composite effective conductivity are quantified

  1. Nanowire Growth for Photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jeppe Vilstrup

    Solar cells commercial success is based on an efficiency/cost calculation. Nanowire solar cells is one of the foremost candidates to implement third generation photo voltaics, which are both very efficient and cheap to produce. This thesis is about our progress towards commercial nanowire solar...... cells. Resonance effects between the light and nanowire causes an inherent concentration of the sunlight into the nanowires, and means that a sparse array of nanowires (less than 5% of the area) can absorb all the incoming light. The resonance effects, as well as a graded index of refraction, also traps...... the light. The concentration and light trapping means that single junction nanowire solar cells have a higher theoretical maximum efficiency than equivalent planar solar cells. We have demonstrated the built-in light concentration of nanowires, by growing, contacting and characterizing a solar cell...

  2. Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasen, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter discusses the roles of composite laminates and aggregates in cryogenic technology. Filamentary-reinforced composites are emphasized because they are the most widely used composite materials. Topics considered include composite systems and terminology, design and fabrication, composite failure, high-pressure reinforced plastic laminates, low-pressure reinforced plastics, reinforced metals, selectively reinforced structures, the effect of cryogenic temperatures, woven-fabric and random-mat composites, uniaxial fiber-reinforced composites, composite joints in cryogenic structures, joining techniques at room temperature, radiation effects, testing laminates at cryogenic temperatures, static and cyclic tensile testing, static and cyclic compression testing, interlaminar shear testing, secondary property tests, and concrete aggregates. It is suggested that cryogenic composite technology would benefit from the development of a fracture mechanics model for predicting the fitness-for-purpose of polymer-matrix composite structures

  3. Growth and characterization of bismuth telluride nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picht, Oliver

    2010-05-26

    Polycrystalline Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowires are electrochemically grown in ion track-etched polycarbonate membranes. Potentiostatic growth is demonstrated in templates of various thicknesses ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}m. The smallest observed nanowire diameters are 20 nm in thin membranes and approx. 140-180 nm in thicker membranes. The influence of the various deposition parameters on the nanowire growth rate is presented. Slower growth rates are attained by selective change of deposition potentials and lower temperatures. Nanowires synthesized at slower growth rates have shown to possess a higher degree of crystalline order and smoother surface contours. With respect to structural properties, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy verified the growth of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and evidenced the stability of specific properties, e.g. grain size or preferential orientation, with regard to variations in the deposition conditions. The interdependency of the fabrication parameters, i.e. temperature, deposition potential and nanochannel diameters, is demonstrated for wires grown in 30 {mu}m thick membranes. It is visible from diffraction analysis that texture is tunable by the growth conditions but depends also on the size of the nanochannels in the template. Both (015) and (110) reflexes are observed for the nanowire arrays. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis further points out that variation of nanochannel size could lead to a change in elemental composition of the nanowires. (orig.)

  4. Additional compound semiconductor nanowires for photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, F.

    2016-02-01

    GaAs related compound semiconductor heterostructures are one of the most developed materials for photonics. Those have realized various photonic devices with high efficiency, e. g., lasers, electro-optical modulators, and solar cells. To extend the functions of the materials system, diluted nitride and bismide has been paid attention over the past decade. They can largely decrease the band gap of the alloys, providing the greater tunability of band gap and strain status, eventually suppressing the non-radiative Auger recombinations. On the other hand, selective oxidation for AlGaAs is a vital technique for vertical surface emitting lasers. That enables precisely controlled oxides in the system, enabling the optical and electrical confinement, heat transfer, and mechanical robustness. We introduce the above functions into GaAs nanowires. GaAs/GaAsN core-shell nanowires showed clear redshift of the emitting wavelength toward infrared regime. Further, the introduction of N elongated the carrier lifetime at room temperature indicating the passivation of non-radiative surface recombinations. GaAs/GaAsBi nanowire shows the redshift with metamorphic surface morphology. Selective and whole oxidations of GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowires produce semiconductor/oxide composite GaAs/AlGaOx and oxide GaOx/AlGaOx core-shell nanowires, respectively. Possibly sourced from nano-particle species, the oxide shell shows white luminescence. Those property should extend the functions of the nanowires for their application to photonics.

  5. Growth and characterization of bismuth telluride nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picht, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline Bi 2 Te 3 nanowires are electrochemically grown in ion track-etched polycarbonate membranes. Potentiostatic growth is demonstrated in templates of various thicknesses ranging from 10 to 100 μm. The smallest observed nanowire diameters are 20 nm in thin membranes and approx. 140-180 nm in thicker membranes. The influence of the various deposition parameters on the nanowire growth rate is presented. Slower growth rates are attained by selective change of deposition potentials and lower temperatures. Nanowires synthesized at slower growth rates have shown to possess a higher degree of crystalline order and smoother surface contours. With respect to structural properties, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy verified the growth of Bi 2 Te 3 and evidenced the stability of specific properties, e.g. grain size or preferential orientation, with regard to variations in the deposition conditions. The interdependency of the fabrication parameters, i.e. temperature, deposition potential and nanochannel diameters, is demonstrated for wires grown in 30 μm thick membranes. It is visible from diffraction analysis that texture is tunable by the growth conditions but depends also on the size of the nanochannels in the template. Both (015) and (110) reflexes are observed for the nanowire arrays. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis further points out that variation of nanochannel size could lead to a change in elemental composition of the nanowires. (orig.)

  6. Mechanical properties of unidirectional and randomly oriented kenaf bast fibre composites using polypropylene resin matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifah Hanisah Syed Abd Aziz; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan

    2004-01-01

    Fibres are known to confer strength and rigidity to the weak and brittle matrix and currently, research in composite materials is being directed at using natural fibers instead of synthetic fibres. In this work long and random kenaf fibers were used in the as-received condition and alkalized with a 0.06M NaOH solution. They were combined with polypropylene thin sheets and hot-pressed to form natural fibre composites. The mechanical properties of the composites were investigated to observe the effect of fibre alignment, fibre treatment, and the method of moulding technique used. A general trend was observed whereby alkalized and long fibre composites give higher flexural modulus and flexural strength compared with random mat and untreated fibres. The long fibre composites also gave a higher work of fracture. However, the correlation between fibre surface treatment and the work of fracture was less clear. The method of moulding used also need to be improved to optimize the performance of the composites manufactured as the overall mechanical test result showed some irregularities. Pre-irradiation on the polypropylene pellets before the composite is manufactured will be considered as one of the mechanism in enhancing the mechanical performance of the composites in future work. (Author)

  7. Tunable, flexible antireflection layer of ZnO nanowires embedded in PDMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Yi, Dong Kee; Paik, Ungyu

    2010-05-18

    In this article, we report the fabrication of ordered hybrid structures composed of ZnO nanowires and a polymeric matrix with a polymer precursor infiltrating the nanowire arrays. The antireflective properties of the resulting ZnO nanowire-embedded polydimethylsiloxane composite (ZPC) were investigated at various ZnO nanowire lengths and ZPC bending angles. Interestingly, we found that whereas the antireflective properties showed a strong dependence on the length of the embedded ZnO nanowires in PDMS, the bending of ZPC has little effect on the antireflective properties.

  8. Structural investigation of GaInP nanowires using X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegner, D.; Persson, Johan Mikael; Etzelstorfer, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the structure of ternary GaxIn1−xP nanowires is investigated with respect to the chemical composition and homogeneity. The nanowires were grown by metal–organic vapor-phase epitaxy. For the investigation of ensemble fluctuations on several lateral length scales, X-ray diffraction...... gradients along the sample by recording diffraction patterns at different positions. In addition, compositional variations were found also within single nanowires in X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy measurements....

  9. Wear and friction behaviour of soft particles filled random direction short GFRP composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, V.K.; Wahne, S.

    2007-01-01

    The random direction short E-glass fibre reinforced epoxy resin composites filled with the particles of mica and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) were prepared by hand lay-up method. The wear and friction behaviour of random direction short E-glass fibre reinforced epoxy resin (GFRP) composites sliding against AISI-1045 steel in a pin-on-disc configuration were evaluated on a TR-20LE wear and friction tester. The microhardness, density, tensile strength and compressive strength of the filled and unfilled mica as well as TCP particles were determined. The morphology of the worn surfaces of the unfilled and filled random E-glass fibre composites and the transfer films were analyzed with the scanning electron microscope. It was found that the particles as the fillers contributed significantly to improve the mechanical properties and wear resistance of the E-glass fibre. This was because the particulates as the fillers contributed to enhance the bonding strength between the fibre and the epoxy resin. Moreover, the wear and friction properties of the random E-glass fibre composites were reduced by increasing filler weight of particles

  10. Vertical group III-V nanowires on si, heterostructures, flexible arrays and fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deli; Soci, Cesare; Bao, Xinyu; Wei, Wei; Jing, Yi; Sun, Ke

    2015-01-13

    Embodiments of the invention provide a method for direct heteroepitaxial growth of vertical III-V semiconductor nanowires on a silicon substrate. The silicon substrate is etched to substantially completely remove native oxide. It is promptly placed in a reaction chamber. The substrate is heated and maintained at a growth temperature. Group III-V precursors are flowed for a growth time. Preferred embodiment vertical Group III-V nanowires on silicon have a core-shell structure, which provides a radial homojunction or heterojunction. A doped nanowire core is surrounded by a shell with complementary doping. Such can provide high optical absorption due to the long optical path in the axial direction of the vertical nanowires, while reducing considerably the distance over which carriers must diffuse before being collected in the radial direction. Alloy composition can also be varied. Radial and axial homojunctions and heterojunctions can be realized. Embodiments provide for flexible Group III-V nanowire structures. An array of Group III-V nanowire structures is embedded in polymer. A fabrication method forms the vertical nanowires on a substrate, e.g., a silicon substrate. Preferably, the nanowires are formed by the preferred methods for fabrication of Group III-V nanowires on silicon. Devices can be formed with core/shell and core/multi-shell nanowires and the devices are released from the substrate upon which the nanowires were formed to create a flexible structure that includes an array of vertical nanowires embedded in polymer.

  11. From nanodiamond to nanowires.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, A.; Materials Science Division

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in the fabrication and characterization of semiconductor and metallic nanowires are proving very successful in meeting the high expectations of nanotechnologists. Although the nanoscience surrounding sp{sup 3} bonded carbon nanotubes has continued to flourish over recent years the successful synthesis of the sp{sup 3} analogue, diamond nanowires, has been limited. This prompts questions as to whether diamond nanowires are fundamentally unstable. By applying knowledge obtained from examining the structural transformations in nanodiamond, a framework for analyzing the structure and stability of diamond nanowires may be established. One possible framework will be discussed here, supported by results of ab initio density functional theory calculations used to study the structural relaxation of nanodiamond and diamond nanowires. The results show that the structural stability and electronic properties of diamond nanowires are dependent on the surface morphology, crystallographic direction of the principal axis, and the degree of surface hydrogenation.

  12. Methanol, ethanol and hydrogen sensing using metal oxide and metal (TiO(2)-Pt) composite nanoclusters on GaN nanowires: a new route towards tailoring the selectivity of nanowire/nanocluster chemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluri, Geetha S; Motayed, Abhishek; Davydov, Albert V; Oleshko, Vladimir P; Bertness, Kris A; Sanford, Norman A; Mulpuri, Rao V

    2012-05-04

    We demonstrate a new method for tailoring the selectivity of chemical sensors using semiconductor nanowires (NWs) decorated with metal and metal oxide multicomponent nanoclusters (NCs). Here we present the change of selectivity of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanocluster-coated gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire sensor devices on the addition of platinum (Pt) nanoclusters. The hybrid sensor devices were developed by fabricating two-terminal devices using individual GaN NWs followed by the deposition of TiO(2) and/or Pt nanoclusters (NCs) using the sputtering technique. This paper present the sensing characteristics of GaN/(TiO(2)-Pt) nanowire-nanocluster (NWNC) hybrids and GaN/(Pt) NWNC hybrids, and compare their selectivity with that of the previously reported GaN/TiO(2) sensors. The GaN/TiO(2) NWNC hybrids showed remarkable selectivity to benzene and related aromatic compounds, with no measurable response for other analytes. Addition of Pt NCs to GaN/TiO(2) sensors dramatically altered their sensing behavior, making them sensitive only to methanol, ethanol and hydrogen, but not to any other chemicals we tested. The GaN/(TiO(2)-Pt) hybrids were able to detect ethanol and methanol concentrations as low as 100 nmol mol(-1) (ppb) in air in approximately 100 s, and hydrogen concentrations from 1 µmol mol(-1) (ppm) to 1% in nitrogen in less than 60 s. However, GaN/Pt NWNC hybrids showed limited sensitivity only towards hydrogen and not towards any alcohols. All these hybrid sensors worked at room temperature and are photomodulated, i.e. they responded to analytes only in the presence of ultraviolet (UV) light. We propose a qualitative explanation based on the heat of adsorption, ionization energy and solvent polarity to explain the observed selectivity of the different hybrids. These results are significant from the standpoint of applications requiring room-temperature hydrogen sensing and sensitive alcohol monitoring. These results demonstrate the tremendous potential for

  13. Core-shell magnetic nanowires fabrication and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalska-Szostko, B., E-mail: kalska@uwb.edu.pl [Institute of Chemistry, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1K, 15-245 Bialystok (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1L, 15-245 Bialystok, Poland (Poland); Klekotka, U.; Satuła, D. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1K, 15-245 Bialystok (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1L, 15-245 Bialystok, Poland (Poland)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • New approach for nanowires modification are presented. • Physical and chemical characterization of the nanowires are shown. • Properties modulations as an effect of the surface layer composition are discussed. - Abstract: In this paper, a new way of the preparation of core-shell magnetic nanowires has been proposed. For the modification Fe nanowires were prepared by electrodeposition in anodic aluminium oxide matrixes, in first step. In second, by wetting chemical deposition, shell layers of Ag, Au or Cu were obtained. Resultant core-shell nanowires structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray. Whereas magnetic properties by Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  14. Electrochemical Deposition of Lanthanum Telluride Thin Films and Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Su (Ike); Farias, Stephen; Cammarata, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Tellurium alloys are characterized by their high performance thermoelectric properties and recent research has shown nanostructured tellurium alloys display even greater performance than bulk equivalents. Increased thermoelectric efficiency of nanostructured materials have led to significant interests in developing thin film and nanowire structures. Here, we report on the first successful electrodeposition of lanthanum telluride thin films and nanowires. The electrodeposition of lanthanum telluride thin films is performed in ionic liquids at room temperature. The synthesis of nanowires involves electrodepositing lanthanum telluride arrays into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous membranes. These novel procedures can serve as an alternative means of simple, inexpensive and laboratory-environment friendly methods to synthesize nanostructured thermoelectric materials. The thermoelectric properties of thin films and nanowires will be presented to compare to current state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. The morphologies and chemical compositions of the deposited films and nanowires are characterized using SEM and EDAX analysis.

  15. Micromechanical Modeling of Fiber-Reinforced Composites with Statistically Equivalent Random Fiber Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhi Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Modeling the random fiber distribution of a fiber-reinforced composite is of great importance for studying the progressive failure behavior of the material on the micro scale. In this paper, we develop a new algorithm for generating random representative volume elements (RVEs with statistical equivalent fiber distribution against the actual material microstructure. The realistic statistical data is utilized as inputs of the new method, which is archived through implementation of the probability equations. Extensive statistical analysis is conducted to examine the capability of the proposed method and to compare it with existing methods. It is found that the proposed method presents a good match with experimental results in all aspects including the nearest neighbor distance, nearest neighbor orientation, Ripley’s K function, and the radial distribution function. Finite element analysis is presented to predict the effective elastic properties of a carbon/epoxy composite, to validate the generated random representative volume elements, and to provide insights of the effect of fiber distribution on the elastic properties. The present algorithm is shown to be highly accurate and can be used to generate statistically equivalent RVEs for not only fiber-reinforced composites but also other materials such as foam materials and particle-reinforced composites.

  16. Molecular precursor derived silicon boron carbonitride/carbon nanotube and silicon oxycarbide/carbon nanotube composite nanowires for energy based applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandavat, Romil

    Molecular precursor derived ceramics (also known as polymer-derived ceramics or PDCs) are high temperature glasses that have been studied for applications involving operation at elevated temperatures. Prepared from controlled thermal degradation of liquid-phase organosilicon precursors, these ceramics offer remarkable engineering properties such as resistance to crystallization up to 1400 °C, semiconductor behavior at high temperatures and intense photoluminescence. These properties are a direct result of their covalent bonded amorphous network and free (-sp2) carbon along with mixed Si/B/C/N/O bonds, which otherwise can not be obtained through conventional ceramic processing techniques. This thesis demonstrates synthesis of a unique core/shell type nanowire structure involving either siliconboroncarbonitride (SiBCN) or siliconoxycarbide (SiOC) as the shell with carbon nanotube (CNT) acting as the core. This was made possible by liquid phase functionalization of CNT surfaces with respective polymeric precursor (e.g., home-made boron-modified polyureamethylvinylsilazane for SiBCN/CNT and commercially obtained polysiloxane for SiOC/CNT), followed by controlled pyrolysis in inert conditions. This unique architecture has several benefits such as high temperature oxidation resistance (provided by the ceramic shell), improved electrical conductivity and mechanical toughness (attributed to the CNT core) that allowed us to explore its use in energy conversion and storage devices. The first application involved use of SiBCN/CNT composite as a high temperature radiation absorbant material for laser thermal calorimeter. SiBCN/CNT spray coatings on copper substrate were exposed to high energy laser beams (continuous wave at 10.6 mum 2.5 kW CO2 laser, 10 seconds) and resulting change in its microstructure was studied ex-situ. With the aid of multiple techniques we ascertained the thermal damage resistance to be 15 kW/cm -2 with optical absorbance exceeding 97%. This represents

  17. Pseudodirect to Direct Compositional Crossover in Wurtzite GaP/InxGa1–xP Core–Shell Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Gagliano, L.

    2016-11-29

    Thanks to their uniqueness, nanowires allow the realization of novel semiconductor crystal structures with yet unexplored properties, which can be key to overcome current technological limits. Here we develop the growth of wurtzite GaP/InGaP core-shell nanowires with tunable indium concentration and optical emission in the visible region from 590 nm (2.1 eV) to 760 nm (1.6 eV). We demonstrate a pseudodirect (δ-δ) to direct (δ-δ) transition crossover through experimental and theoretical approach. Time resolved and temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements were used, which led to the observation of a steep change in carrier lifetime and temperature dependence by respectively one and 3 orders of magnitude in the range 0.28 ± 0.04 ≤ x ≤ 0.41 ± 0.04. Our work reveals the electronic properties of wurtzite InGaP.

  18. Randomized controlled split-mouth clinical trial of direct laminate veneers with two micro-hybrid resin composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresnigt, Marco M. M.; Kalk, Warner; Ozcan, M.; Ozcan, Mutlu

    Objectives: This randomized, split-mouth clinical study evaluated the survival rate of direct laminate veneers made of two resin-composite materials. Methods: A total of 23 patients (mean age: 52.4 years old) received 96 direct composite laminate veneers using two micro-hybrid composites in

  19. Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, David

    2015-01-01

    Firefly Technologies, in collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, developed synthesis methods for highly strained nanowires. Two synthesis routes resulted in successful nanowire epitaxy: direct nucleation and growth on the substrate and a novel selective-epitaxy route based on nanolithography using diblock copolymers. The indium-arsenide (InAs) nanowires are implemented in situ within the epitaxy environment-a significant innovation relative to conventional semiconductor nanowire generation using ex situ gold nanoparticles. The introduction of these nanoscale features may enable an intermediate band solar cell while simultaneously increasing the effective absorption volume that can otherwise limit short-circuit current generated by thin quantized layers. The use of nanowires for photovoltaics decouples the absorption process from the current extraction process by virtue of the high aspect ratio. While no functional solar cells resulted from this effort, considerable fundamental understanding of the nanowire epitaxy kinetics and nanopatterning process was developed. This approach could, in principle, be an enabling technology for heterointegration of dissimilar materials. The technology also is applicable to virtual substrates. Incorporating nanowires onto a recrystallized germanium/metal foil substrate would potentially solve the problem of grain boundary shunting of generated carriers by restricting the cross-sectional area of the nanowire (tens of nanometers in diameter) to sizes smaller than the recrystallized grains (0.5 to 1 micron(exp 2).

  20. Functionalised Silver Nanowire Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, Piers; Ilie, Adelina

    2007-01-01

    Crystalline silver nanowires 60-100 nm in diameter and tens of micrometres in length have been fabricated using a low temperature, solution synthesis technique. We explore the potential of this method to produce functional nanowire structures using two different strategies to attach active molecules to the nanowires: adsorption and displacement. Initially, as-produced silver nanowires capped with a uniaxial-growth-inducing polymer layer were functionalised by solution adsorption of a semiconducting conjugated polymer to generate fluorescent nanowire structures. The influence of nanowire surface chemistry was investigated by displacing the capping polymer with an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer, followed by solution adsorption functionalisation. The success of molecular attachment was monitored by electron microscopy, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence microscopy. We examined how the optical properties of such adsorbed molecules are affected by the metallic nanowires, and observed transfer of excitation energy between dye molecules mediated by surface plasmons propagating on the nanowires. Non-contact dynamic force microscopy measurements were used to map the work-function of individual wires, revealing inhomogeneity of the polymer surface coverage

  1. Stability of Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, F.; Schiek, M.; Wallmann, I.

    2011-01-01

    The morphological stability of organic nanowires over time and under thermal load is of major importance for their use in any device. In this study the growth and stability of organic nanowires from a naphthyl end-capped thiophene grown by organic molecular beam deposition is investigated via ato...

  2. Methanol, ethanol and hydrogen sensing using metal oxide and metal (TiO2–Pt) composite nanoclusters on GaN nanowires: a new route towards tailoring the selectivity of nanowire/nanocluster chemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluri, Geetha S; Motayed, Abhishek; Davydov, Albert V; Oleshko, Vladimir P; Bertness, Kris A; Sanford, Norman A; Mulpuri, Rao V

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a new method for tailoring the selectivity of chemical sensors using semiconductor nanowires (NWs) decorated with metal and metal oxide multicomponent nanoclusters (NCs). Here we present the change of selectivity of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanocluster-coated gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire sensor devices on the addition of platinum (Pt) nanoclusters. The hybrid sensor devices were developed by fabricating two-terminal devices using individual GaN NWs followed by the deposition of TiO 2 and/or Pt nanoclusters (NCs) using the sputtering technique. This paper present the sensing characteristics of GaN/(TiO 2 –Pt) nanowire–nanocluster (NWNC) hybrids and GaN/(Pt) NWNC hybrids, and compare their selectivity with that of the previously reported GaN/TiO 2 sensors. The GaN/TiO 2 NWNC hybrids showed remarkable selectivity to benzene and related aromatic compounds, with no measurable response for other analytes. Addition of Pt NCs to GaN/TiO 2 sensors dramatically altered their sensing behavior, making them sensitive only to methanol, ethanol and hydrogen, but not to any other chemicals we tested. The GaN/(TiO 2 –Pt) hybrids were able to detect ethanol and methanol concentrations as low as 100 nmol mol −1 (ppb) in air in approximately 100 s, and hydrogen concentrations from 1 µmol mol −1 (ppm) to 1% in nitrogen in less than 60 s. However, GaN/Pt NWNC hybrids showed limited sensitivity only towards hydrogen and not towards any alcohols. All these hybrid sensors worked at room temperature and are photomodulated, i.e. they responded to analytes only in the presence of ultraviolet (UV) light. We propose a qualitative explanation based on the heat of adsorption, ionization energy and solvent polarity to explain the observed selectivity of the different hybrids. These results are significant from the standpoint of applications requiring room-temperature hydrogen sensing and sensitive alcohol monitoring. These results demonstrate the tremendous potential

  3. Guided Growth of Horizontal p-Type ZnTe Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge toward large-scale integration of nanowires is the control over their alignment and position. A possible solution to this challenge is the guided growth process, which enables the synthesis of well-aligned horizontal nanowires that grow according to specific epitaxial or graphoepitaxial relations with the substrate. However, the guided growth of horizontal nanowires was demonstrated for a limited number of materials, most of which exhibit unintentional n-type behavior. Here we demonstrate the vapor–liquid–solid growth of guided horizontal ZnTe nanowires and nanowalls displaying p-type behavior on four different planes of sapphire. The growth directions of the nanowires are determined by epitaxial relations between the nanowires and the substrate or by a graphoepitaxial effect that guides their growth along nanogrooves or nanosteps along the surface. We characterized the crystallographic orientations and elemental composition of the nanowires using transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence. The optoelectronic and electronic properties of the nanowires were studied by fabricating photodetectors and top-gate thin film transistors. These measurements showed that the guided ZnTe nanowires are p-type semiconductors and are photoconductive in the visible range. The guided growth of horizontal p-type nanowires opens up the possibility of parallel nanowire integration into functional systems with a variety of potential applications not available by other means. PMID:27885331

  4. Semiconductor Nanowires and Nanotubes for Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardy, Melissa Anne

    benefit from the high surface area of nanomaterials. Recently, (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) has gained widespread attention as a high efficiency material for visible-light-driven H2 and O2 generation. To improve the crystallinity of the material and reduce charge recombination (Ga1-xZnx)(N 1-xOx) nanotubes were synthesized by epitaxial coating of GaN onto ZnO nanowires. The nanotubes were single-crystalline, solid solutions of GaN and ZnO with ZnO compositions up to 10% and bandgaps as low as 2.6 eV. Incorporation of In into these nanotubes pushed the absorption even further into the visible. After decoration with Rh2-yCryO3 nanoparticle cocatalysts, (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) nanotubes spontaneously generated H2 in aqueous solutions under illumination. The photoanodic properties of these nanotubes are still under investigation. The significant reductions in thermal conductivity achieved using lead chalcogenide and In2-xGaxO3(ZnO) n nanowires highlight their use in thermoelectric power generation. The promise of 1-dimensional materials for energy conversion is further evident in the superior crystalline quality and high surface areas of the (Ga 1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) nanotubes. As research continues along these direction we move ever closer toward implementation of nanowires and nanotubes for clean, renewable, and more efficient energy use.

  5. Mechanical properties of short random oil palm fibre reinforced epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zuhri Mohamed Yusoff; Mohd Sapuan Salit; Napsiah Ismail; Riza Wirawan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the study of mechanical properties of short random oil palm fibre reinforced epoxy (OPF/epoxy) composites. Empty fruit bunch (EFB) was selected as the fibre and epoxy as the matrix. Composite plate with four different volume fractions of oil palm fibre was fabricated, (5 vol %, 10 vol %, 15 vol % and 20 vol %). The fabrication was made by hand-lay up techniques. The tensile and flexural properties showed a decreasing trend as the fibre loading was increased. The highest tensile properties was obtained for the composite with fibre loading of 5 vol % and there were no significant effect for addition of more than 5 vol % to the flexural properties. Interaction between fibre and matrix was observed from the scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrograph. (author)

  6. Tunneling Conductivity and Piezoresistivity of Composites Containing Randomly Dispersed Conductive Nano-Platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskouyi, Amirhossein Biabangard; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman; Mertiny, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a three-dimensional continuum percolation model was developed based on a Monte Carlo simulation approach to investigate the percolation behavior of an electrically insulating matrix reinforced with conductive nano-platelet fillers. The conductivity behavior of composites rendered conductive by randomly dispersed conductive platelets was modeled by developing a three-dimensional finite element resistor network. Parameters related to the percolation threshold and a power-low describing the conductivity behavior were determined. The piezoresistivity behavior of conductive composites was studied employing a reoriented resistor network emulating a conductive composite subjected to mechanical strain. The effects of the governing parameters, i.e., electron tunneling distance, conductive particle aspect ratio and size effects on conductivity behavior were examined. PMID:28788580

  7. Silicon nanowire hybrid photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Garnett, Erik C.; Peters, Craig; Brongersma, Mark; Cui, Yi; McGehee, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Silicon nanowire Schottky junction solar cells have been fabricated using n-type silicon nanowire arrays and a spin-coated conductive polymer (PEDOT). The polymer Schottky junction cells show superior surface passivation and open-circuit voltages compared to standard diffused junction cells with native oxide surfaces. External quantum efficiencies up to 88% were measured for these silicon nanowire/PEDOT solar cells further demonstrating excellent surface passivation. This process avoids high temperature processes which allows for low-cost substrates to be used. © 2010 IEEE.

  8. Silicon nanowire hybrid photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Garnett, Erik C.

    2010-06-01

    Silicon nanowire Schottky junction solar cells have been fabricated using n-type silicon nanowire arrays and a spin-coated conductive polymer (PEDOT). The polymer Schottky junction cells show superior surface passivation and open-circuit voltages compared to standard diffused junction cells with native oxide surfaces. External quantum efficiencies up to 88% were measured for these silicon nanowire/PEDOT solar cells further demonstrating excellent surface passivation. This process avoids high temperature processes which allows for low-cost substrates to be used. © 2010 IEEE.

  9. Asymmetric current-phase relation due to spin-orbit interaction in semiconductor nanowire Josephson junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokoyama, T.; Eto, M.; Nazarov, Y.V.

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically study the current-phase relation in semiconductor nanowire Josephson junction in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. In the nanowire, the impurity scattering with strong SO interaction is taken into account using the random matrix theory. In the absence of magnetic field, the

  10. Preparation and Performance of Amphiphilic Random Copolymer Noncovalently Modified MWCNTs/Epoxy Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An amphiphilic random copolymer of polyglycidyl methacrylate-co-N-vinyl carbazole P(GMA-co-NVC was synthesized by free radical polymerization and was used to noncovalently modify multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. The obtained P(GMA-co-NVC/MWCNTs was mixed with epoxy resin and used to reinforce epoxy resin. Polymer modified carbon nanotubes/epoxy resin composites were prepared by a casting molding method. Tensile test, electrical resistivity test and differential scanning calorimeter(DSC analysis were used to study the effect of polymer modified carbon nanotubes on the mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties of epoxy resin. The results show that the epoxy composite reinforced with P(GMA-co-NVC/MWCNTs shows a remarkable enhancement in both tensile strength and elongation at break compared to either the pure epoxy or the pristine MWCNTs/epoxy composites. In addition, the electrical conductivity of epoxy is significantly improved and the volume resistivity decreases from 1014Ω·m to 106Ω·m with 0.25% mass fraction loading of P(GMA-co-NVC/MWCNTs. Moreover, glass transition temperature of the epoxy composite also increases from 144℃ to 149℃.

  11. Property-Composition-Temperature Modeling of Waste Glass Melt Data Subject to a Randomization Restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cooley, Scott K.

    2008-01-01

    Properties such as viscosity and electrical conductivity of glass melts are functions of melt temperature as well as glass composition. When measuring such a property for several glasses, the property is typically measured at several temperatures for one glass, then at several temperatures for the next glass, and so on. This data-collection process involves a restriction on randomization, which is referred to as split-plot experiment. The split-plot data structure must be accounted for in developing property-composition-temperature models and the corresponding uncertainty equations for model predictions. Instead of ordinary least squares (OLS) regression methods, generalized least squares (GLS) regression methods using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimation must be used. This article describes the methodology for developing property-composition-temperature models and corresponding prediction uncertainty equations using the GLS/REML regression approach. Viscosity data collected on 197 simulated nuclear waste glasses are used to illustrate the GLS/REML methods for developing a viscosity-composition-temperature model and corresponding equations for model prediction uncertainties. The correct results using GLS/REML regression are compared to the incorrect results obtained using OLS regression

  12. Nanotubes and nanowires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    junction nanotubes by the pyrolysis of appropriate organic precursors. ... By making use of carbon nanotubes, nanowires of metals, metal ..... The use of activated carbon in place of ..... required for the complete removal of the carbon template.

  13. Porous Silicon Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yongquan; Zhou, Hailong; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    In this minreview, we summarize recent progress in the synthesis, properties and applications of a new type of one-dimensional nanostructures — single crystalline porous silicon nanowires. The growth of porous silicon nanowires starting from both p- and n-type Si wafers with a variety of dopant concentrations can be achieved through either one-step or two-step reactions. The mechanistic studies indicate the dopant concentration of Si wafers, oxidizer concentration, etching time and temperature can affect the morphology of the as-etched silicon nanowires. The porous silicon nanowires are both optically and electronically active and have been explored for potential applications in diverse areas including photocatalysis, lithium ion battery, gas sensor and drug delivery. PMID:21869999

  14. Integration, gap formation, and sharpening of III-V heterostructure nanowires by selective etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesoe, C.; Mølhave, Kristian; Larsen, K. F.

    2010-01-01

    Epitaxial growth of heterostructure nanowires allows for the definition of narrow sections with specific semiconductor composition. The authors demonstrate how postgrowth engineering of III-V heterostructure nanowires using selective etching can form gaps, sharpening of tips, and thin sections...... lithography is used for deposition of catalyst particles on trench sidewalls and the lateral growth of III-V nanowires is achieved from such catalysts. The selectivity of a bromine-based etch on gallium arsenide segments in gallium phosphide nanowires is examined, using a hydrochloride etch to remove the III...

  15. Factor VIIa response to a fat-rich meal does not depend on fatty acid composition: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennen, L.; Maat, M. de; Meijer, G.; Zock, P.; Grobbee, D.; Kok, F.; Kluft, C.; Schouten, E.

    1998-01-01

    A fat-rich meal increases activated factor VII (FVIIa), but it is not clear whether this increase depends on the fatty acid composition of the meal. Therefore, we studied the FVIIa response to fat-rich meals with different fatty acid composition in a randomized controlled crossover trial and

  16. Randomized Clinical Trial of Indirect Resin Composite and Ceramic Veneers : Up to 3-year Follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresnigt, Marco M. M.; Kalk, Warner; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This randomized controlled split-mouth clinical trial evaluated the short-term survival rate of indirect resin composite and ceramic laminate veneers. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 patients (mean age: 48.6 years) received 46 indirect resin composite (Estenia; n = 23) and ceramic

  17. Biofunctionalized Magnetic Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2013-12-19

    Magnetic nanowires can be used as an alternative method overcoming the limitations of current cancer treatments that lack specificity and are highly cytotoxic. Nanowires are developed so that they selectively attach to cancer cells via antibodies, potentially destroying them when a magnetic field induces their vibration. This will transmit a mechanical force to the targeted cells, which is expected to induce apoptosis on the cancer cells.

  18. Biofunctionalized Magnetic Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jü rgen; Ravasi, Timothy; Contreras Gerenas, Maria Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic nanowires can be used as an alternative method overcoming the limitations of current cancer treatments that lack specificity and are highly cytotoxic. Nanowires are developed so that they selectively attach to cancer cells via antibodies, potentially destroying them when a magnetic field induces their vibration. This will transmit a mechanical force to the targeted cells, which is expected to induce apoptosis on the cancer cells.

  19. Engineering hybrid epitaxial InAsSb/Al nanowires for stronger topological protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sestoft, Joachim E.; Kanne, Thomas; Gejl, Aske Nørskov

    2018-01-01

    The combination of strong spin-orbit coupling, large g factors, and the coupling to a superconductor can be used to create a topologically protected state in a semiconductor nanowire. Here we report on growth and characterization of hybrid epitaxial InAsSb/Al nanowires, with varying composition a...

  20. A novel method for massive synthesis of SnO2 nanowires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Compositions of three reaction systems for synthesizing SnO2 nanowires by thermite reaction. Constituents (g) ... ing voltage and at a magnification of 3000. .... nanowires to obtain the distribution shown in figure 7. SnO2 ... The Sn drop sprayed ...

  1. Atomic-Resolution Spectrum Imaging of Semiconductor Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Reza R; Hage, Fredrik S; Lehmann, Sebastian; Ramasse, Quentin M; Dick, Kimberly A

    2018-03-14

    Over the past decade, III-V heterostructure nanowires have attracted a surge of attention for their application in novel semiconductor devices such as tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs). The functionality of such devices critically depends on the specific atomic arrangement at the semiconductor heterointerfaces. However, most of the currently available characterization techniques lack sufficient spatial resolution to provide local information on the atomic structure and composition of these interfaces. Atomic-resolution spectrum imaging by means of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is a powerful technique with the potential to resolve structure and chemical composition with sub-angstrom spatial resolution and to provide localized information about the physical properties of the material at the atomic scale. Here, we demonstrate the use of atomic-resolution EELS to understand the interface atomic arrangement in three-dimensional heterostructures in semiconductor nanowires. We observed that the radial interfaces of GaSb-InAs heterostructure nanowires are atomically abrupt, while the axial interface in contrast consists of an interfacial region where intermixing of the two compounds occurs over an extended spatial region. The local atomic configuration affects the band alignment at the interface and, hence, the charge transport properties of devices such as GaSb-InAs nanowire TFETs. STEM-EELS thus represents a very promising technique for understanding nanowire physical properties, such as differing electrical behavior across the radial and axial heterointerfaces of GaSb-InAs nanowires for TFET applications.

  2. Template-assisted fabrication of tin and antimony based nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaraska, Leszek; Kurowska, Elżbieta; Sulka, Grzegorz D.; Jaskuła, Marian

    2012-10-01

    Antimony nanowires with diameters ranging from 35 nm to 320 nm were successfully prepared by simple, galvanostatic electrodeposition inside the pores of anodic alumina membranes from a citrate based electrolyte. The use of the potassium antimonyl tartrate electrolyte for electrodeposition results in the formation of Sb/Sb2O3 nanowires. The structural features of the nanowire arrays were investigated by FE-SEM, and the nanowire composition was confirmed by EDS and XRD measurements. A distinct peak at about 27.5° in the XRD pattern recorded for nanowires formed in the tartrate electrolyte was attributed to the presence of co-deposited Sb2O3. Three types of dense arrays of Sn-SnSb nanowires with diameters ranging from 82 nm to 325 nm were also synthesized by DC galvanostatic electrodeposition into the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes for the first time. Only Sn and SnSb peaks appeared in the XRD pattern and both phases seem to have a relatively high degree of crystallinity. The influence of current density applied during electrodeposition on the composition of nanowires was investigated. It was found that the Sb content in fabricated nanowires decreases with increasing current density. The diameters of all synthesized nanowires roughly correspond to the dimensions of the nanochannels of AAO templates used for electrodeposition.

  3. Perspectives: Nanofibers and nanowires for disordered photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pisignano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As building blocks of microscopically non-homogeneous materials, semiconductor nanowires and polymer nanofibers are emerging component materials for disordered photonics, with unique properties of light emission and scattering. Effects found in assemblies of nanowires and nanofibers include broadband reflection, significant localization of light, strong and collective multiple scattering, enhanced absorption of incident photons, synergistic effects with plasmonic particles, and random lasing. We highlight recent related discoveries, with a focus on material aspects. The control of spatial correlations in complex assemblies during deposition, the coupling of modes with efficient transmission channels provided by nanofiber waveguides, and the embedment of random architectures into individually coded nanowires will allow the potential of these photonic materials to be fully exploited, unconventional physics to be highlighted, and next-generation optical devices to be achieved. The prospects opened by this technology include enhanced random lasing and mode-locking, multi-directionally guided coupling to sensors and receivers, and low-cost encrypting miniatures for encoders and labels.

  4. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2014-01-01

    Metal nanowires (NWs) have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance, and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production o...

  5. A Randomized 10-year Prospective Follow-up of Class II Nanohybrid and Conventional Hybrid Resin Composite Restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan Wv; Pallesen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the 10-year durability of a nanohybrid resin composite in Class II restorations in a randomized controlled intraindividual comparison with its conventional hybrid resin composite predecessor. Materials and Methods: Each of 52 participants received at least two Class II...... restorations that were as similar as possible. The cavities were chosen at random to be restored with a nanohybrid resin composite (Excite/Tetric EvoCeram (TEC); n = 61) and a conventional hybrid (Excite/Tetric Ceram (TC); n = 61). The restorations were evaluated with slightly modified USPHS criteria...... investigated resin composites. Conclusion: The nanohybrid and the conventional hybrid resin composite showed good clinical effectiveness in extensive Class II restorations during the 10-year study....

  6. Mechanical properties of banana/kenaf fiber-reinforced hybrid polyester composites: Effect of woven fabric and random orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavudeen, A.; Rajini, N.; Karthikeyan, S.; Thiruchitrambalam, M.; Venkateshwaren, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper is presents the fabrications of kenaf/banana fiber hybrid composites. • Effect of weaving pattern and random orientation on mechanical properties was studied. • Role of interfacial adhesion due to chemical modifications were analyzed with the aid of SEM. • Hybridization of kenaf and banana fibers in plain woven composites exhibits maximum mechanical strength. - Abstract: The present work deals with the effect of weaving patterns and random orientatation on the mechanical properties of banana, kenaf and banana/kenaf fiber-reinforced hybrid polyester composites. Composites were prepared using the hand lay-up method with two different weaving patterns, namely, plain and twill type. Of the two weaving patterns, the plain type showed improved tensile properties compared to the twill type in all the fabricated composites. Furthermore, the maximum increase in mechanical strength was observed in the plain woven hybrid composites rather than in randomly oriented composites. This indicates minimum stress development at the interface of composites due to the distribution of load transfer along the fiber direction. Moreover, alkali (NaOH) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) treatments appear to provide an additional improvement in mechanical strength through enhanced interfacial bonding. Morphological studies of fractured mechanical testing samples were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to understand the de-bonding of fiber/matrix adhesion

  7. The Self- and Directed Assembly of Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin David

    This thesis explores the self- and directed assembly of nanowires. Specifically, we examine the driving forces behind nanowire self-assembly and the macro-structures that are formed. Particle-dense, oriented nanowire structures show promise in the fields of photonics, energy, sensing, catalysis, and electronics. Arrays of spherical particles have already found uses in electronic inks, sensing arrays, and many other commercial applications; but, it is a challenge to create specific arrays of morphologically and/or compositionally anisotropic particles. The following chapters illuminate the interactions that drive the assembly of anisotropic particles in high density solutions in the absence of applied fields or solution drying. Special emphasis is placed on the structures that are formed. The properties of micro- and nanoparticles and their assembly are introduced in Chapter 1. In particular, the properties of shape and material anisotropic particles are highlighted, while challenges in producing desired arrays are discussed. In this thesis, metallic nanowires of increasing complexity were used to examine the self-assembly behavior of both shape and material anisotropic particles. Nanowires were synthesized through templated electrodeposition. In this process, porous alumina membranes served as a template in which metal salts were reduced to form particles. Upon template dissolution, billions of nominally identical particles were released. We specifically focused on segmented, metallic nanowires 2-13 mum in length and 180 to 350 nm in diameter. Since these particles have strong van der Waals (VDWs) attractions, an electrostatically repulsive coating was necessary to prevent aggregation; we used small molecule, DNA, or amorphous silica coatings. Nanowires and their coatings were characterized by electron microscopy. In order to study self-assembly behavior, particle-dense aqueous suspensions were placed within an assembly chamber defined by a silicone spacer. The

  8. Atomic characterization of Au clusters in vapor-liquid-solid grown silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wanghua; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere; Pareige, Philippe; Castro, Celia; Xu, Tao; Grandidier, Bruno; Stiévenard, Didier

    2015-01-01

    By correlating atom probe tomography with other conventional microscope techniques (scanning electron microscope, scanning transmission electron microscope, and scanning tunneling microscopy), the distribution and composition of Au clusters in individual vapor-liquid-solid grown Si nanowires is investigated. Taking advantage of the characteristics of atom probe tomography, we have developed a sample preparation method by inclining the sample at certain angle to characterize the nanowire sidewall without using focused ion beam. With three-dimensional atomic scale reconstruction, we provide direct evidence of Au clusters tending to remain on the nanowire sidewall rather than being incorporated into the Si nanowires. Based on the composition measurement of Au clusters (28% ± 1%), we have demonstrated the supersaturation of Si atoms in Au clusters, which supports the hypothesis that Au clusters are formed simultaneously during nanowire growth rather than during the cooling process

  9. Atomic characterization of Au clusters in vapor-liquid-solid grown silicon nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wanghua; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere [Laboratoire de Physique des Interfaces et Couches Minces (LPICM), UMR 7647, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Pareige, Philippe; Castro, Celia [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux (GPM), Université et INSA de Rouen, UMR 6634, CNRS, Av. de l' Université, BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Xu, Tao; Grandidier, Bruno; Stiévenard, Didier [Institut d' Electronique et de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologies (IEMN), UMR 8520, CNRS, Département ISEN, 41 bd Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France)

    2015-09-14

    By correlating atom probe tomography with other conventional microscope techniques (scanning electron microscope, scanning transmission electron microscope, and scanning tunneling microscopy), the distribution and composition of Au clusters in individual vapor-liquid-solid grown Si nanowires is investigated. Taking advantage of the characteristics of atom probe tomography, we have developed a sample preparation method by inclining the sample at certain angle to characterize the nanowire sidewall without using focused ion beam. With three-dimensional atomic scale reconstruction, we provide direct evidence of Au clusters tending to remain on the nanowire sidewall rather than being incorporated into the Si nanowires. Based on the composition measurement of Au clusters (28% ± 1%), we have demonstrated the supersaturation of Si atoms in Au clusters, which supports the hypothesis that Au clusters are formed simultaneously during nanowire growth rather than during the cooling process.

  10. Conducting polymer nanowire arrays for high performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Wu, Haiping; Meng, Yuena; Wei, Zhixiang

    2014-01-15

    This Review provides a brief summary of the most recent research developments in the fabrication and application of one-dimensional ordered conducting polymers nanostructure (especially nanowire arrays) and their composites as electrodes for supercapacitors. By controlling the nucleation and growth process of polymerization, aligned conducting polymer nanowire arrays and their composites with nano-carbon materials can be prepared by employing in situ chemical polymerization or electrochemical polymerization without a template. This kind of nanostructure (such as polypyrrole and polyaniline nanowire arrays) possesses high capacitance, superior rate capability ascribed to large electrochemical surface, and an optimal ion diffusion path in the ordered nanowire structure, which is proved to be an ideal electrode material for high performance supercapacitors. Furthermore, flexible, micro-scale, threadlike, and multifunctional supercapacitors are introduced based on conducting polyaniline nanowire arrays and their composites. These prototypes of supercapacitors utilize the high flexibility, good processability, and large capacitance of conducting polymers, which efficiently extend the usage of supercapacitors in various situations, and even for a complicated integration system of different electronic devices. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Magnetoimpedance effects in a CoNiFe nanowire array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atalay, S., E-mail: selcuk.atalay@inonu.edu.tr [Inonu University, Science and Arts Faculty, Physics Department, Malatya (Turkey); Kaya, H.; Atalay, F.E.; Aydogmus, E. [Inonu University, Science and Arts Faculty, Physics Department, Malatya (Turkey)

    2013-06-05

    Highlights: ► CoNiFe nanowires were produced by electrodeposition method. ► Magnetoimpedance effect of nanowires arrays were investigated. ► Single peak behaviour was observed in the magnetoimpedance curve. ► Nanowire arrays exhibit uniaxial magnetic anisotropy along the wire axis. -- Abstract: This report describes the growth of CoNiFe nanowires into highly ordered porous anodic alumina oxide (AAO) templates by DC electrodeposition at a pH value of 2.6. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations revealed that the wires have diameters of approximately 270–290 nm and a length of 25 μm. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated that the composition of the nanowires is Co{sub 12}Ni{sub 64}Fe{sub 24}. Electrical contacts were created on both sides of the nanowire array, and their magnetoimpedance (MI) properties were investigated. The impedance value was initially 1.2 ohm at low frequency and increased to approximately 1000 ohm for a 33-MHz driving current frequency under no applied magnetic field. All the MI curves exhibited single peak behaviour due to the high shape anisotropy. The maximum MI change at the 33-MHz driving current frequency was 2.72%. The maximum resistance change was 5.4% at 33 MHz.

  12. Probabilistic homogenization of random composite with ellipsoidal particle reinforcement by the iterative stochastic finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowski, Damian; Kamiński, Marcin

    2018-01-01

    This study proposes a framework for determination of basic probabilistic characteristics of the orthotropic homogenized elastic properties of the periodic composite reinforced with ellipsoidal particles and a high stiffness contrast between the reinforcement and the matrix. Homogenization problem, solved by the Iterative Stochastic Finite Element Method (ISFEM) is implemented according to the stochastic perturbation, Monte Carlo simulation and semi-analytical techniques with the use of cubic Representative Volume Element (RVE) of this composite containing single particle. The given input Gaussian random variable is Young modulus of the matrix, while 3D homogenization scheme is based on numerical determination of the strain energy of the RVE under uniform unit stretches carried out in the FEM system ABAQUS. The entire series of several deterministic solutions with varying Young modulus of the matrix serves for the Weighted Least Squares Method (WLSM) recovery of polynomial response functions finally used in stochastic Taylor expansions inherent for the ISFEM. A numerical example consists of the High Density Polyurethane (HDPU) reinforced with the Carbon Black particle. It is numerically investigated (1) if the resulting homogenized characteristics are also Gaussian and (2) how the uncertainty in matrix Young modulus affects the effective stiffness tensor components and their PDF (Probability Density Function).

  13. Effects of Nanowire Length and Surface Roughness on the Electrochemical Sensor Properties of Nafion-Free, Vertically Aligned Pt Nanowire Array Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyang Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, vertically aligned Pt nanowire arrays (PtNWA with different lengths and surface roughnesses were fabricated and their electrochemical performance toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 detection was studied. The nanowire arrays were synthesized by electroplating Pt in nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template. Different parameters, such as current density and deposition time, were precisely controlled to synthesize nanowires with different surface roughnesses and various lengths from 3 μm to 12 μm. The PtNWA electrodes showed better performance than the conventional electrodes modified by Pt nanowires randomly dispersed on the electrode surface. The results indicate that both the length and surface roughness can affect the sensing performance of vertically aligned Pt nanowire array electrodes. Generally, longer nanowires with rougher surfaces showed better electrochemical sensing performance. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA presented the largest sensitivity (654 μA·mM−1·cm−2 among all the nanowires studied, and showed a limit of detection of 2.4 μM. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA electrode also showed good anti-interference property from chemicals that are typically present in the biological samples such as ascorbic, uric acid, citric acid, and glucose. The sensing performance in real samples (river water was tested and good recovery was observed. These Nafion-free, vertically aligned Pt nanowires with surface roughness control show great promise as versatile electrochemical sensors and biosensors.

  14. EDITORIAL: Nanowires for energy Nanowires for energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPierre, Ray; Sunkara, Mahendra

    2012-05-01

    This special issue of Nanotechnology focuses on studies illustrating the application of nanowires for energy including solar cells, efficient lighting and water splitting. Over the next three decades, nanotechnology will make significant contributions towards meeting the increased energy needs of the planet, now known as the TeraWatt challenge. Nanowires in particular are poised to contribute significantly in this development as presented in the review by Hiralal et al [1]. Nanowires exhibit light trapping properties that can act as a broadband anti-reflection coating to enhance the efficiency of solar cells. In this issue, Li et al [2] and Wang et al [3] present the optical properties of silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays. In addition to enhanced optical properties, core-shell nanowires also have the potential for efficient charge carrier collection across the nanowire diameter as presented in the contribution by Yu et al [4] for radial junction a-Si solar cells. Hybrid approaches that combine organic and inorganic materials also have potential for high efficiency photovoltaics. A Si-based hybrid solar cell is presented by Zhang et al [5] with a photoconversion efficiency of over 7%. The quintessential example of hybrid solar cells is the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) where an organic absorber (dye) coats an inorganic material (typically a ZnO nanostructure). Herman et al [6] present a method of enhancing the efficiency of a DSSC by increasing the hetero-interfacial area with a unique hierarchical weeping willow ZnO structure. The increased surface area allows for higher dye loading, light harvesting, and reduced charge recombination through direct conduction along the ZnO branches. Another unique ZnO growth method is presented by Calestani et al [7] using a solution-free and catalyst-free approach by pulsed electron deposition (PED). Nanowires can also make more efficient use of electrical power. Light emitting diodes, for example, will eventually become the

  15. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM in women more so than in men. Objective To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Design Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Subjects Overweight (N = 130; 58 male (M, 72 female (F; BMI = 32.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2 middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500 kcal/d diets providing protein at 1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO or 0.8 g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB. LM and fat mass (FM were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. Results When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2 ± 7.1 %, F:-9.9 ± 6.0 %, as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7 ± 6.8 %, CARB:-10.1 ± 6.2 %, with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0 ± 12.8 %, F:-7.3 ± 8.1 %, p  Conclusion PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss and maintenance. Men lost percent total body fat and trunk fat more effectively than women. No interactive effects of protein intake and gender are evident.

  16. Effects of active video games on body composition: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Ralph; Foley, Louise; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jiang, Yannan; Jull, Andrew; Prapavessis, Harry; Hohepa, Maea; Rodgers, Anthony

    2011-07-01

    Sedentary activities such as video gaming are independently associated with obesity. Active video games, in which players physically interact with images on screen, may help increase physical activity and improve body composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of active video games over a 6-mo period on weight, body composition, physical activity, and physical fitness. We conducted a 2-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial in Auckland, New Zealand. A total of 322 overweight and obese children aged 10-14 y, who were current users of sedentary video games, were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to receive either an active video game upgrade package (intervention, n = 160) or to have no change (control group, n = 162). The primary outcome was the change from baseline in body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)). Secondary outcomes were changes in percentage body fat, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, video game play, and food snacking. At 24 wk, the treatment effect on BMI (-0.24; 95% CI: -0.44, -0.05; P = 0.02) favored the intervention group. The change (±SE) in BMI from baseline increased in the control group (0.34 ± 0.08) but remained the same in the intervention group (0.09 ± 0.08). There was also evidence of a reduction in body fat in the intervention group (-0.83%; 95% CI: -1.54%, -0.12%; P = 0.02). The change in daily time spent playing active video games at 24 wk increased (10.03 min; 95% CI: 6.26, 13.81 min; P video games (-9.39 min; 95% CI: -19.38, 0.59 min; P = 0.06). An active video game intervention has a small but definite effect on BMI and body composition in overweight and obese children. This trial was registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry at http://www.anzctr.org.au/ as ACTRN12607000632493.

  17. The influence of thermal annealing on structure and oxidation of iron nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewski Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy as well as Mössbauer spectroscopy were applied in order to study the phase composition of iron nanowires and its changes, caused by annealing in a neutral atmosphere at several temperatures ranging from 200°C to 800°C. As-prepared nanowires were manufactured via a simple chemical reduction in an external magnetic field. Both experimental techniques proved formation of the surface layer covered by crystalline iron oxides, with phase composition dependent on the annealing temperature (Ta. At higher Ta, hematite was the dominant phase in the nanowires.

  18. Nanoparticle Stability in Axial InAs-InP Nanowire Heterostructures with Atomically Sharp Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannier, Valentina; Rossi, Francesca; Dubrovskii, Vladimir G; Ercolani, Daniele; Battiato, Sergio; Sorba, Lucia

    2018-01-10

    The possibility to expand the range of material combinations in defect-free heterostructures is one of the main motivations for the great interest in semiconductor nanowires. However, most axial nanowire heterostructures suffer from interface compositional gradients and kink formation, as a consequence of nanoparticle-nanowire interactions during the metal-assisted growth. Understanding such interactions and how they affect the growth mode is fundamental to achieve a full control over the morphology and the properties of nanowire heterostructures for device applications. Here we demonstrate that the sole parameter affecting the growth mode (straight or kinked) of InP segments on InAs nanowire stems by the Au-assisted method is the nanoparticle composition. Indeed, straight InAs-InP nanowire heterostructures are obtained only when the In/Au ratio in the nanoparticles is low, typically smaller than 1.5. For higher In content, the InP segments tend to kink. Tailoring the In/Au ratio by the precursor fluxes at a fixed growth temperature enables us to obtain straight and radius-uniform InAs-InP nanowire heterostructures (single and double) with atomically sharp interfaces. We present a model that is capable of describing all the experimentally observed phenomena: straight growth versus kinking, the stationary nanoparticle compositions in pure InAs and InAs-InP nanowires, the crystal phase trends, and the interfacial abruptness. By taking into account different nanowire/nanoparticle interfacial configurations (forming wetting or nonwetting monolayers in vertical or tapered geometry), our generalized model provides the conditions of nanoparticle stability and abrupt heterointerfaces for a rich variety of growth scenarios. Therefore, our results provide a powerful tool for obtaining high quality InAs-InP nanowire heterostructures with well-controlled properties and can be extended to other material combinations based on the group V interchange.

  19. Composition–dependent growth dynamics of selectively grown InGaAs nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohashi, Y; Hara, S; Motohisa, J

    2014-01-01

    We grew gallium-rich (x > 0.50) and indium-rich (x < 0.50) In 1 − x Ga x As nanowires by catalyst–free selective-area metal–organic vapor-phase epitaxy (SA-MOVPE), and compared their growth dynamics dependence on V/III ratio. It was found that the growth dynamics of In 1 − x Ga x As nanowires is clearly dependent on the alloy composition x. Specifically, for gallium–rich nanowire growth, the axial growth rate of nanowires initially increased with decreasing V/III ratio, and then started to decrease when the V/III ratio continued to decrease below a critical value. On the other hand, axial growth rate of indium-rich nanowires monotonically decreased with decreasing V/III ratio. In addition, the alloy composition was strongly dependent on the V/III ratio for gallium-rich nanowire growth, while it was relatively independent of the V/III ratio for indium-rich nanowire growth. We discuss the origin of dissimilarity in the growth dynamics dependence on V/III ratio between gallium-rich and indium-rich InGaAs nanowire growth, and conclude that it is due to the inherent dissimilarity between GaAs and InAs. Our finding provides important guidelines for achieving precise control of the diameter, height, and alloy composition of nanowires suitable for future nanowire-based electronics. (papers)

  20. Room temperature photoluminescence in the visible range from silicon nanowires grown by a solid-state reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anguita, J V; Sharma, P; Henley, S J; Silva, S R P

    2009-01-01

    The solid-liquid-solid method (also known as the solid-state method) is used to produce silicon nanowires at the core of silica nanowires with a support catalyst layer structure of nickel and titanium layers sputtered on oxide-coated silicon wafers. This silane-free process is low cost and large-area compatible. Using electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy we deduce that the wires have crystalline silicon cores. The nanowires show photoluminescence in the visible range (orange), and we investigate the origin of this band. We further show that the nanowires form a random mesh that acts as an efficient optical trap, giving rise to an optically absorbing medium.

  1. Room temperature photoluminescence in the visible range from silicon nanowires grown by a solid-state reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguita, J. V.; Sharma, P.; Henley, S. J.; Silva, S. R. P.

    2009-11-01

    The solid-liquid-solid method (also known as the solid-state method) is used to produce silicon nanowires at the core of silica nanowires with a support catalyst layer structure of nickel and titanium layers sputtered on oxide-coated silicon wafers. This silane-free process is low cost and large-area compatible. Using electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy we deduce that the wires have crystalline silicon cores. The nanowires show photoluminescence in the visible range (orange), and we investigate the origin of this band. We further show that the nanowires form a random mesh that acts as an efficient optical trap, giving rise to an optically absorbing medium.

  2. Graphene templated Directional Growth of an Inorganic Nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-23

    14,23–25 have only formed randomly oriented or poorly aligned inorganic nanostructures. Here, we show that inorganic nanowires of gold(I) cyanide can... complex . TEM image simulation from the crystal structure The TEM image simulations are performed using MacTempas and CrystalKit. The imaging

  3. Microstructure Reconstruction of Sheet Molding Composite Using a Random Chips Packing Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Tianyu; Xu, Hongyi; Chen, Wei

    2017-04-06

    Fiber-reinforced polymer composites are strong candidates for structural materials to replace steel and light alloys in lightweight vehicle design because of their low density and relatively high strength. In the integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) development of carbon fiber composites, microstructure reconstruction algorithms are needed to generate material microstructure representative volume element (RVE) based on the material processing information. The microstructure RVE reconstruction enables the material property prediction by finite element analysis (FEA)This paper presents an algorithm to reconstruct the microstructure of a chopped carbon fiber/epoxy laminate material system produced by compression molding, normally known as sheet molding compounds (SMC). The algorithm takes the result from material’s manufacturing process as inputs, such as the orientation tensor of fibers, the chopped fiber sheet geometry, and the fiber volume fraction. The chopped fiber sheets are treated as deformable rectangle chips and a random packing algorithm is developed to pack these chips into a square plate. The RVE is built in a layer-by-layer fashion until the desired number of lamina is reached, then a fine tuning process is applied to finalize the reconstruction. Compared to the previous methods, this new approach has the ability to model bended fibers by allowing limited amount of overlaps of rectangle chips. Furthermore, the method does not need SMC microstructure images, for which the image-based characterization techniques have not been mature enough, as inputs. Case studies are performed and the results show that the statistics of the reconstructed microstructures generated by the algorithm matches well with the target input parameters from processing.

  4. Synthesis, fabrication and characterization of Ge/Si axial nanowire heterostructure tunnel FETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, Samuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dayeh, Shadi A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Axial Ge/Si heterostructure nanowires allow energy band-edge engineering along the axis of the nanowire, which is the charge transport direction, and the realization of asymmetric devices for novel device architectures. This work reports on two advances in the area of heterostructure nanowires and tunnel FETs: (i) the realization of 100% compositionally modulated Si/Ge axial heterostructure nanowires with lengths suitable for device fabrication and (ii) the design and implementation of Schottky barrier tunnel FETs on these nanowires for high-on currents and suppressed ambipolar behavior. Initial prototype devices resulted in a current drive in excess of 100 {micro}A/{micro}m (I/{pi}D) and 10{sup 5} I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratios. These results demonstrate the potential of such asymmetric heterostructures (both in the semiconductor channel and metal-semiconductor barrier heights) for low-power and high performance electronics.

  5. Angular dependence of coercivity with temperature in Co-based nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bran, C., E-mail: cristina.bran@icmm.csic.es [Institute of Materials Science of Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Espejo, A.P. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH) and Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), Avenida Ecuador 3493, 9170124 Santiago (Chile); Palmero, E.M. [Institute of Materials Science of Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Escrig, J. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH) and Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), Avenida Ecuador 3493, 9170124 Santiago (Chile); Vázquez, M. [Institute of Materials Science of Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    The magnetic behavior of arrays of Co and CoFe nanowire arrays has been measured in the temperature range between 100 and 300 K. We have paid particular attention to the angular dependence of magnetic properties on the applied magnetic field orientation. The experimental angular dependence of coercivity has been modeled according to micromagnetic analytical calculations, and we found that the propagation of a transversal domain wall mode gives the best fitting with experimental observations. That reversal mode holds in the whole measuring temperature range, for nanowires with different diameters and crystalline structure. Moreover, the quantitative strength of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and its magnetization easy axis are determined to depend on the crystalline structure and nanowires diameter. The evolution of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy with temperature for nanowires with different composition gives rise to an opposite evolution of coercivity with increasing temperature: it decreases for CoFe while it increases for Co nanowire arrays.

  6. Synthesis and Fluorescence Property of Mn-Doped ZnSe Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Han

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble Mn-doped ZnSe luminescent nanowires were successfully prepared by hydrothermal method without any heavy metal ions and toxic reagents. The morphology, composition, and property of the products were investigated. The experimental results showed that the Mn-doped ZnSe nanowires were single well crystallized and had a zinc blende structure. The average length of the nanowires was about 2-3 μm, and the diameter was 80 nm. With the increase of Mn2+-doped concentration, the absorbance peak showed large difference. The UV-vis absorbance spectrum showed that the Mn-doped ZnSe nanowires had a sharp absorption band appearing at 360 nm. The PL spectrum revealed that the nanowires had two distinct emission bands centered at 432 and 580 nm.

  7. DC electrodeposition of NiGa alloy nanowires in AAO template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleki, K. [Nanomaterials Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sanjabi, S., E-mail: sanjabi@modares.ac.ir [Nanomaterials Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alemipour, Z. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-01

    NiGa alloy nanowires were electrodeposited from an acidic sulfate bath into nanoporous anodized alumina oxide (AAO). This template was fabricated by two-step anodizing. The effects of bath composition and current density were explored on the Ga content of electrodeposited nanowires. The Ga content in the deposits was increased by increasing both Ga in the bath composition and electrodepositing current density. The NiGa alloy nanowires were synthesized for Ga content up to 2–4% without significant improving the magnetic properties. Above this threshold Ga clusters were formed and decreased the magnetic properties of the nanowires. For Ga content of the alloy above 30%, the wires were too short and incomplete. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the significant increase of Ga content in the nanowires, changes the FCC crystal structure of Ni to an amorphous phase. It also causes a sizeable increase in the Ga cluster size; these both lead to a significant reduction in the coercivity and the magnetization respectively. - Highlights: • NiGa alloy nanowires were electrodeposited from acidic sulphate baths into nanoporous anodized alumina oxide (AAO) template. • The Ga content was increased by increasing the Ga in the bath composition and electrodeposition current density. • The magnetic parameters such as coercivity and magnetization were not changed for the alloy nanowire with Ga content less than 4%.

  8. A randomized longitudinal dietary intervention study during pregnancy: effects on fish intake, phospholipids, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosaeus, Marja; Hussain, Aysha; Karlsson, Therese; Andersson, Louise; Hulthén, Lena; Svelander, Cecilia; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Larsson, Ingrid; Ellegård, Lars; Holmäng, Agneta

    2015-01-02

    Fish and meat intake may affect gestational weight gain, body composition and serum fatty acids. We aimed to determine whether a longitudinal dietary intervention during pregnancy could increase fish intake, affect serum phospholipid fatty acids, gestational weight gain and body composition changes during pregnancy in women of normal weight participating in the Pregnancy Obesity Nutrition and Child Health study. A second aim was to study possible effects in early pregnancy of fish intake and meat intake, respectively, on serum phospholipid fatty acids, gestational weight gain, and body composition changes during pregnancy. In this prospective, randomized controlled study, women were allocated to a control group or to a dietary counseling group that focused on increasing fish intake. Fat mass and fat-free mass were measured by air-displacement plethysmography. Reported intake of fish and meat was collected from a baseline population and from a subgroup of women who participated in each trimester of their pregnancies. Serum levels of phospholipid arachidonic acid (s-ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (s-EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (s-DHA) were measured during each trimester. Weekly fish intake increased only in the intervention group (n = 18) from the first to the second trimester (median difference 113 g, p = 0.03) and from the first to the third trimester (median difference 75 g, p = 0.01). In the first trimester, fish intake correlated with s-EPA (r = 0.36, p = 0.002, n = 69) and s-DHA (r = 0.34, p = 0.005, n = 69), and meat intake correlated with s-ARA (r = 0.28, p = 0.02, n = 69). Fat-free mass gain correlated with reported meat intake in the first trimester (r = 0.39, p = 0.01, n = 45). Dietary counseling throughout pregnancy could help women increase their fish intake. Intake of meat in early pregnancy may increase the gain in fat-free mass during pregnancy.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of single segment CoNiP and multisegment CoNiP/Au nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luu Van Thiem; Le Tuan Tu

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of CoNiP single segment and CoNiP/Au multisegment nanowires. We have fabricated these nanowires by electrodeposition method into polycarbonate templates with a nominal pore diameter about 100 nm. The hysteresis loops were measured with the applied magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to the wire axis using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The structure morphology was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the element composition of CoNiP/Au multisegment nanowires were analyzed by EDS. The results show that nanowires are very uniform with the diameter of 100 nm. The observed coercivity (H C ) and squareness (Mr/Ms) of CoNiP single segment nanowires are larger than the CoNiP/Au multisegment nanowires. (author)

  10. ZnO Piezoelectric Nanowires for Use in a Self-Powered Structural Health Monitoring Device for Fiber-Reinforced Composites Uploading Attachment Instructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this proposed research is to develop a new self-powered structural health monitoring (SHM) system for fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites by using...

  11. Switching behavior of resistive change memory using oxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Takashige; Sugawa, Kosuke; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Shingubara, Shoso; Takase, Kouichi

    2018-06-01

    Resistive change random access memory (ReRAM), which is expected to be the next-generation nonvolatile memory, often has wide switching voltage distributions due to many kinds of conductive filaments. In this study, we have tried to suppress the distribution through the structural restriction of the filament-forming area using NiO nanowires. The capacitor with Ni metal nanowires whose surface is oxidized showed good switching behaviors with narrow distributions. The knowledge gained from our study will be very helpful in producing practical ReRAM devices.

  12. Two-dimensional nanowires on homoepitaxial interfaces: Atomic-scale mechanism of breakdown and disintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailov, Michail; Ranguelov, Bogdan

    2018-03-01

    We present a model for hole-mediated spontaneous breakdown of ahomoepitaxial two-dimensional (2D) flat nanowire based exclusively on random, thermally-activated motion of atoms. The model suggests a consecutive three-step mechanism driving the rupture and complete disintegration of the nanowire on a crystalline surface. The breakdown scenario includes: (i) local narrowing of a part of the stripe to a monatomic chain, (ii) formation of a recoverable single vacancy or a 2D vacancy cluster that causes temporary nanowire rupture, (iii) formation of a non-recoverable 2D hole leading to permanent nanowire breakdown. These successive events in the temporal evolution of the nanowire morphology bring the nanowire stripe into an irreversible unstable state, leading to a dramatic change in its peculiar physical properties and conductivity. The atomistic simulations also reveal a strong increase of the nanowire lifetime with an enlargement of its width and open up a way for a fine atomic-scale control of the nanowire lifetime and structural, morphological and thermodynamic stability.

  13. Photoluminescence study of as-grown vertically standing wurtzite InP nanowire ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Azhar; Beech, Jason P; Anttu, Nicklas; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Samuelson, Lars; Borgström, Magnus T; Yartsev, Arkady

    2013-03-22

    We demonstrate a method that enables the study of photoluminescence of as-grown nanowires on a native substrate by non-destructively suppressing the contribution of substrate photoluminescence. This is achieved by using polarized photo-excitation and photoluminescence and by making an appropriate choice of incident angle of both excitation beam and photoluminescence collection direction. Using TE-polarized excitation at a wavelength of 488 nm at an incident angle of ∼70° we suppress the InP substrate photoluminescence relative to that of the InP nanowires by about 80 times. Consequently, the photoluminescence originating from the nanowires becomes comparable to and easily distinguishable from the substrate photoluminescence. The measured photoluminescence, which peaks at photon energies of ∼1.35 eV and ∼1.49 eV, corresponds to the InP substrate with zinc-blende crystal structure and to the InP nanowires with wurtzite crystal structure, respectively. The photoluminescence quantum yield of the nanowires was found to be ∼20 times lower than that of the InP substrate. The nanowires, grown vertically in a random ensemble, neither exhibit substantial emission polarization selectivity to the axis of the nanowires nor follow excitation polarization preferences observed previously for a single nanowire.

  14. Synthesis of vertical arrays of ultra long ZnO nanowires on noncrystalline substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Bong Jun; Lee, Kyung Moon; Shin, Hae-Young; Kim, Jinwoong; Liu, Jinzhang; Yoon, Seokhyun; Lee, Soonil; Ahn, Y.H.; Park, Ji-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Arrays of vertical ultra-long ZnO nanowires with lengths upto 300 μm. ► Controls of lengths and diameters of vertical arrays of ZnO nanowires on SiO 2 substrates. ► Luminescent and electrical properties of ZnO nanowires prepared with different growth conditions. - Abstract: Vertically aligned arrays of ultralong ZnO nanowires were synthesized on SiO 2 substrates with carbothermal vapor phase transport method with Au seeding layer. High density of vertically aligned ZnO nanowires with lengths from a few to ∼300 μm could be grown by controlling growth conditions. Supply of high concentration of Zn vapor and control of the ratio between Zn vapor and oxygen are found to have the most significant effects on the growth of long ZnO nanowires in the vapor–solid growth mechanism. The nanowires are of high crystalline quality as confirmed by various structural, compositional, and luminescent measurements. Luminescent and electrical properties of ZnO nanowires with different growth conditions were also investigated.

  15. Controlled surface diffusion in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of GaN nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, W C; Hong, Franklin Chau-Nan

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the growth of GaN nanowires by controlling the surface diffusion of Ga species on sapphire in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system. Under nitrogen-rich growth conditions, Ga has a tendency to adsorb on the substrate surface diffusing to nanowires to contribute to their growth. The significance of surface diffusion on the growth of nanowires is dependent on the environment of the nanowire on the substrate surface as well as the gas phase species and compositions. Under nitrogen-rich growth conditions, the growth rate is strongly dependent on the surface diffusion of gallium, but the addition of 5% hydrogen in nitrogen plasma instantly diminishes the surface diffusion effect. Gallium desorbs easily from the surface by reaction with hydrogen. On the other hand, under gallium-rich growth conditions, nanowire growth is shown to be dominated by the gas phase deposition, with negligible contribution from surface diffusion. This is the first study reporting the inhibition of surface diffusion effects by hydrogen addition, which can be useful in tailoring the growth and characteristics of nanowires. Without any evidence of direct deposition on the nanowire surface, gallium and nitrogen are shown to dissolve into the catalyst for growing the nanowires at 900 deg. C.

  16. Long Silver Nanowires Synthesis by Pulsed Electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Batevandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanowires were pulse electrodeposited into nanopore anodic alumina oxide templates. The effects of continuous and pulse electrodeposition waveform on the microstructure properties of the nanowire arrays were studied. It is seen that the microstructure of nanowire is depend to pulse condition. The off time duration of pulse waveform enables to control the growth direction of Ag nanowires.

  17. Optimal design of aperiodic, vertical silicon nanowire structures for photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chenxi; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2011-09-12

    We design a partially aperiodic, vertically-aligned silicon nanowire array that maximizes photovoltaic absorption. The optimal structure is obtained using a random walk algorithm with transfer matrix method based electromagnetic forward solver. The optimal, aperiodic structure exhibits a 2.35 times enhancement in ultimate efficiency compared to its periodic counterpart. The spectral behavior mimics that of a periodic array with larger lattice constant. For our system, we find that randomly-selected, aperiodic structures invariably outperform the periodic array.

  18. Conductive Au nanowires regulated by silk fibroin nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bo-Ju; Lu, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    Conductive Au-biopolymer composites have promising applications in tissue engineering such as nerve tissue regeneration. In this study, silk fibroin nanofibers were formed in aqueous solution by regulating silk self-assembly process and then used as template for Au nanowire fabrication. We performed the synthesis of Au seeds by repeating the seeding cycles for several times in order to increase the density of Au seeds on the nanofibers. After electroless plating, densely decorated Au seeds grew into irregularly shaped particles following silk nanofiber to fill the gaps between particles and finally form uniform continuous nanowires. The conductive property of the Au-silk fibroin nanowires was studied with current-voltage ( I-V) measurement. A typical ohmic behavior was observed, which highlighted their potential applications in nerve tissue regeneration.

  19. Aging of Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Osadnik, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Organic semiconductors formed by epitaxial growth from small molecules such as the para-phenylenes or squaraines promise a vast application potential as the active ingredient in electric and optoelectronic devices. Their self-organization into organic nanowires or "nanofibers" adds a peculiar...... attribute, making them especially interesting for light generation in OLEDs and for light-harvesting devices such as solar cells. Functionalization of the molecules allows the customization of optical and electrical properties. However, aging of the wires might lead to a considerable decrease in device...... performance over time. In this study the morphological stability of organic nanoclusters and nanowires from the methoxy functionalized quaterphenylene, 4,4'''dimethoxy-1,1':4',1''4'',1'''-quaterphenylene (MOP4), is investigated in detail. Aging experiments conducted by atomic force microscopy under ambient...

  20. Silicon nanowire transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Bindal, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the n and p-channel Silicon Nanowire Transistor (SNT) designs with single and dual-work functions, emphasizing low static and dynamic power consumption. The authors describe a process flow for fabrication and generate SPICE models for building various digital and analog circuits. These include an SRAM, a baseband spread spectrum transmitter, a neuron cell and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform in the digital domain, as well as high bandwidth single-stage and operational amplifiers, RF communication circuits in the analog domain, in order to show this technology’s true potential for the next generation VLSI. Describes Silicon Nanowire (SNW) Transistors, as vertically constructed MOS n and p-channel transistors, with low static and dynamic power consumption and small layout footprint; Targets System-on-Chip (SoC) design, supporting very high transistor count (ULSI), minimal power consumption requiring inexpensive substrates for packaging; Enables fabrication of different types...

  1. Effect of Silicon Nanowire on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ostadmahmoodi Do

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs are recently used in several sensor or actuator devices to improve their ordered characteristics. Silicon nanowire (Si NW is one of the most attractive one-dimensional nanostructures semiconductors because of its unique electrical and optical properties. In this paper, silicon nanowire (Si NW, is synthesized and characterized for application in photovoltaic device. Si NWs are prepared using wet chemical etching method which is commonly used as a simple and low cost method for producing nanowires of the same substrate material. The process conditions are adjusted to find the best quality of Si NWs. Morphology of Si NWs is studied using a field emission scanning electron microscopic technique. An energy dispersive X-Ray analyzer is also used to provide elemental identification and quantitative compositional information. Subsequently, Schottky type solar cell samples are fabricated on Si and Si NWs using ITO and Ag contacts. The junction properties are calculated using I-V curves in dark condition and the solar cell I-V characteristics are obtained under incident of the standardized light of AM1.5. The results for the two mentioned Schottky solar cell samples are compared and discussed. An improvement in short circuit current and efficiency of Schottky solar cell is found when Si nanowires are employed.

  2. Magnetic properties of ferromagnetic nanowires embedded in nanoporous alumina membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroell, M.; Blau, W.J.; Grandjean, D.; Benfield, R.E.; Luis, F.; Paulus, P.M.; Jongh, L.J. de

    2002-01-01

    Iron, nickel and cobalt nanowires are prepared within the pores of nanoporous alumina membranes using an electrochemical AC plating procedure. Nanowires produced in this way can be easily varied in diameter (5-250 nm) and length (up to several hundred microns). The magnetisation curves for these nanowire/alumina composites can then be determined not only as a function of the temperature but also as a function of the wire diameter and length. Conclusions regarding the magnetisation reversal processes that take place in the wires can be drawn. For Fe and Ni nanowires, we show that the magnetisation process in wires with a diameter smaller than the domain wall width is independent of the wire length and probably takes place via the formation of a small magnetic domain at the end of the wires and a subsequent propagation of the domain wall along the wire. For Co nanowires a competition between the shape anisotropy and the temperature- and size-dependent magnetocrystalline anisotropy could be observed

  3. Characterization of Nanowire Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-28

    characterization system and picosecond pulsed laser source will be used to provide deeper insight into the fast charge carrier dynamics in the GaAsSb and...value of the current fluctuations for a particular frequency, f is the effective measurement bandwidth at the discrete frequency point, and IDS is...GaAsSb CS nanowires. The best fit of the spectra with the simulation carried out using Matlab revealed flicker noise at lower frequency having 1/f

  4. Self-reference and random sampling approach for label-free identification of DNA composition using plasmonic nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Lindsay M; Pang, Lin; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2018-05-09

    The analysis of DNA has led to revolutionary advancements in the fields of medical diagnostics, genomics, prenatal screening, and forensic science, with the global DNA testing market expected to reach revenues of USD 10.04 billion per year by 2020. However, the current methods for DNA analysis remain dependent on the necessity for fluorophores or conjugated proteins, leading to high costs associated with consumable materials and manual labor. Here, we demonstrate a potential label-free DNA composition detection method using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in which we identify the composition of cytosine and adenine within single strands of DNA. This approach depends on the fact that there is one phosphate backbone per nucleotide, which we use as a reference to compensate for systematic measurement variations. We utilize plasmonic nanomaterials with random Raman sampling to perform label-free detection of the nucleotide composition within DNA strands, generating a calibration curve from standard samples of DNA and demonstrating the capability of resolving the nucleotide composition. The work represents an innovative way for detection of the DNA composition within DNA strands without the necessity of attached labels, offering a highly sensitive and reproducible method that factors in random sampling to minimize error.

  5. Magnetic behaviour of arrays of Ni nanowires by electrodeposition into self-aligned titania nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prida, V.M.; Hernandez-Velez, M.; Cervera, M.; Pirota, K.; Sanz, R.; Navas, D.; Asenjo, A.; Aranda, P.; Ruiz-Hitzky, E.; Batallan, F.; Vazquez, M.; Hernando, B.; Menendez, A.; Bordel, N.; Pereiro, R.

    2005-01-01

    Arrays of Ni nanowires electrodeposited into self-aligned and randomly disordered titania nanotube arrays grown by anodization process are investigated by X-ray diffraction, SEM, rf-GDOES and VSM magnetometry. The titania nanotube outer diameter is about 160 nm, wall thickness ranging from 60 to 70 nm and 300 nm in depth. The so-obtained Ni nanowires reach above 100 nm diameter and 240 nm length, giving rise to coercive fields of 98 and 200 Oe in the perpendicular or parallel to the nanowires axis hysteresis loops, respectively. The formation of magnetic vortex domain states is also discussed

  6. Quantum transport in semiconductor nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes a series of experiments aimed at understanding the low-temperature electrical transport properties of semiconductor nanowires. The semiconductor nanowires (1-100 nm in diameter) are grown from nanoscale gold particles via a chemical process called vapor-liquid-solid (VLS)

  7. Hydrothermal growth of highly textured BaTiO3 films composed of nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhi; Tang Haixiong; Sodano, Henry A; Lin Yirong

    2013-01-01

    Textured barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) films are attracting immense research interest due to their lead-free composition and excellent piezoelectric and dielectric properties. Most synthesis methods for these films require a high temperature, leading to the formation of a secondary phase and an overall decrease in the electrical properties of the ceramic. In order to alleviate these issues, a novel fabrication method is introduced by transferring oriented rutile TiO 2 nanowires to a textured BaTiO 3 film at temperatures below 160 °C. The microstructure and thickness of the fabricated BaTiO 3 films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and the crystal structure and degree of orientation were evaluated by x-ray diffraction patterns using the Lotgering method. It is shown that the thickness of the BaTiO 3 film can be controlled by the length of TiO 2 nanowire array template, and the degree of orientation of the textured BaTiO 3 films is highly dependent on the film thickness; the crystallographic orientation has been measured to reach up to 87%. The relative dielectric constant (ε r = 1300) and ferroelectric properties (P r = 2.7 μC cm −2 , E c = 4.0 kV mm −1 ) of the textured BaTiO 3 films were also characterized to demonstrate their potential application in sensors, random access memory, and micro-electromechanical systems. (paper)

  8. Self-catalyzed growth of dilute nitride GaAs/GaAsSbN/GaAs core-shell nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasanaboina, Pavan Kumar [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, North Carolina 27411 (United States); Ahmad, Estiak [Nanoengineering, Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, NCA& T State University, Greensboro, North Carolina 27401 (United States); Li, Jia; Iyer, Shanthi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, North Carolina 27411 (United States); Nanoengineering, Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, NCA& T State University, Greensboro, North Carolina 27401 (United States); Reynolds, C. Lewis; Liu, Yang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2015-09-07

    Bandgap tuning up to 1.3 μm in GaAsSb based nanowires by incorporation of dilute amount of N is reported. Highly vertical GaAs/GaAsSbN/GaAs core-shell configured nanowires were grown for different N contents on Si (111) substrates using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed close lattice matching of GaAsSbN with GaAs. Micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) revealed red shift as well as broadening of the spectra attesting to N incorporation in the nanowires. Replication of the 4K PL spectra for several different single nanowires compared to the corresponding nanowire array suggests good compositional homogeneity amongst the nanowires. A large red shift of the Raman spectrum and associated symmetric line shape in these nanowires have been attributed to phonon localization at point defects. Transmission electron microscopy reveals the dominance of stacking faults and twins in these nanowires. The lower strain present in these dilute nitride nanowires, as opposed to GaAsSb nanowires having the same PL emission wavelength, and the observation of room temperature PL demonstrate the advantage of the dilute nitride system offers in the nanowire configuration, providing a pathway for realizing nanoscale optoelectronic devices in the telecommunication wavelength region.

  9. Nanolithography based contacting method for electrical measurements on single template synthesized nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusil, S.; Piraux, L.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    A reliable method enabling electrical measurements on single nanowires prepared by electrodeposition in an alumina template is described. This technique is based on electrically controlled nanoindentation of a thin insulating resist deposited on the top face of the template filled by the nanowires....... We show that this method is very flexible, allowing us to electrically address single nanowires of controlled length down to 100 nm and of desired composition. Using this approach, current densities as large as 10 A cm were successfully injected through a point contact on a single magnetic...

  10. MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF RANDOMLY DISTRIBUTED SHORT BANANA FIBER REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Misra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Short banana fiber reinforced composites have been prepared in laboratory to determine mechanical properties. It has been observed that as soon as the percentage of the banana fiber increases slightly there is a tremendous increase in ultimate tensile strength, % of strain and young modulus of elasticity. Reinforcement of banana fibers in epoxy resin increases stiffness and decreases damping properties of the composites. Therefore, 2.468% banana fiber reinforced composite plate stabilizes early as compared to 7.7135 % banana fiber reinforced composite plate but less stiff as compared to 7.7135 % banana fiber reinforced composite plate

  11. The preparation and cathodoluminescence of ZnS nanowires grown by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Meng-Wen; Cheng, Yin-Wei; Pan, Ko-Ying; Chang, Chen-Chuan; Shieu, F.S.; Shih, Han C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ZnS nanowires have been achieved by thermal evaporation. ► The nanowires were 20–50 nm in diameter and up to tens of nanometers in length. ► Single-crystalline wurtzite and sphalerite ZnS phase are coexist in the nanowires. ► The ZnS nanowires showed almost identical blue luminescence at room temperature. ► ZnS nanowires may be appropriate for use in UV/blue LED phosphor materials. - Abstract: Single crystal ZnS nanowires were successfully synthesized in large quantities on Si (1 0 0) substrates by simple thermal chemical vapor deposition without using any catalyst. The morphology, composition, and crystal structure were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy. SEM observations show that the nanowires have diameters about 20–50 nm and lengths up to several tens of micrometers. XRD and TEM results confirmed that the nanowires exhibited both wurtzite and zinc blende structures with growth directions aligned along [0 0 0 2] and [1 1 1], respectively. The CL spectrum revealed emission bands in the UV and blue regions. The blue emissions at 449 and ∼581 nm were attributed to surface states and impurity-related defects of the nanowires, respectively. The perfect crystal structure of the nanowires indicates their potential applications in nanotechnology and in the fabrication of nanodevices.

  12. Site-Specific Growth and in Situ Integration of Different Nanowire Material Networks on a Single Chip: Toward a Nanowire-Based Electronic Nose for Gas Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrachowina, Lukas; Domènech-Gil, Guillem; Pardo, Antonio; Seifner, Michael S; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Romano-Rodríguez, Albert; Barth, Sven

    2018-03-23

    A new method for the site-selective synthesis of nanowires has been developed to enable material growth with defined morphology and, at the same time, different composition on the same chip surface. The chemical vapor deposition approach for the growth of these nanowire-based resistive devices using micromembranes can be easily modified and represents a simple, adjustable fabrication process for the direct integration of nanowire meshes in multifunctional devices. This proof-of-concept study includes the deposition of SnO 2 , WO 3 , and Ge nanowires on the same chip. The individual resistors exhibit adequate gas sensing responses toward changing gas concentrations of CO, NO 2 , and humidity diluted in synthetic air. The data have been processed by principal component analysis with cluster responses that can be easily separated, and thus, the devices described herein are in principle suitable for environmental monitoring.

  13. Atomistic simulations of the structures of Pd-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles and nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Kayoung; Cha, Pil-Ryung; Lee, Jaegab; Kim, Jiyoung; Nam, Ho-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Bimetallic nanoalloys such as nanoparticles and nanowires are attracting significant attention due to their vast potential applications such as in catalysis and nanoelectronics. Notably, Pd-Pt nanoparticles/nanowires are being widely recognized as catalysts and hydrogen sensors. Compared to unary systems, alloys present more structural complexity with various compositional configurations. Therefore, it is important to understand energetically preferred atomic structures of bimetallic nanoallo...

  14. Interfacial enhancement of carbon fiber composites by growing TiO2 nanowires onto amine-based functionalized carbon fiber surface in supercritical water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lichun; Li, Nan; Wu, Guangshun; Song, Guojun; Li, Xiaoru; Han, Ping; Wang, Gang; Huang, Yudong

    2018-03-01

    A novel amine-based functionalization method was developed to improve the interfacial adhesion between TiO2 NWs and CFs in supercritical water. The microstructure, morphology and mechanical properties of CFs were investigated. It was found that introducing hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) dendrimers and branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) on CF could increase significantly the adhesion strength between CF and TiO2 NWs and their interfacial shear strength with epoxy resin, and the order is CF-PEI-TiO2 NWs > CF-HMTA-TiO2 NWs > CF-COOH-TiO2 NWs > CF-TiO2 NW. Meanwhile, the reinforcing mechanisms and interfacial failure modes have also been discussed. We believe that these effective methods may provide theoretical foundation for the preparation of high performance composite materials.

  15. Superconductivity in nanowires

    CERN Document Server

    Bezryadin, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    The importance and actuality of nanotechnology is unabated and will be for years to come. A main challenge is to understand the various properties of certain nanostructures, and how to generate structures with specific properties for use in actual applications in Electrical Engineering and Medicine.One of the most important structures are nanowires, in particular superconducting ones. They are highly promising for future electronics, transporting current without resistance and at scales of a few nanometers. To fabricate wires to certain defined standards however, is a major challenge, and so i

  16. Optical Binding of Nanowires

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simpson, Stephen Hugh; Zemánek, Pavel; Marago, O.M.; Jones, P.H.; Hanna, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 6 (2017), s. 3485-3492 ISSN 1530-6984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36681G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) CNR-16-12 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : optical binding nanowires * Brownian motion * self-organization * non-equilibrium thermodynamics * non-equilibrium steady state * spin-orbit coupling * emergent phenomena Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 12.712, year: 2016

  17. Contact planarization of ensemble nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, A. C. E.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2011-06-01

    The viability of four organic polymers (S1808, SC200, SU8 and Cyclotene) as filling materials to achieve planarization of ensemble nanowire arrays is reported. Analysis of the porosity, surface roughness and thermal stability of each filling material was performed. Sonication was used as an effective method to remove the tops of the nanowires (NWs) to achieve complete planarization. Ensemble nanowire devices were fully fabricated and I-V measurements confirmed that Cyclotene effectively planarizes the NWs while still serving the role as an insulating layer between the top and bottom contacts. These processes and analysis can be easily implemented into future characterization and fabrication of ensemble NWs for optoelectronic device applications.

  18. Constitutive modelling of creep in a long fiber random glass mat thermoplastic composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasappa, Prasad

    The primary objective of this proposed research is to characterize and model the creep behaviour of Glass Mat Thermoplastic (GMT) composites under thermo-mechanical loads. In addition, tensile testing has been performed to study the variability in mechanical properties. The thermo-physical properties of the polypropylene matrix including crystallinity level, transitions and the variation of the stiffness with temperature have also been determined. In this work, the creep of a long fibre GMT composite has been investigated for a relatively wide range of stresses from 5 to 80 MPa and temperatures from 25 to 90°C. The higher limit for stress is approximately 90% of the nominal tensile strength of the material. A Design of Experiments (ANOVA) statistical method was applied to determine the effects of stress and temperature in the random mat material which is known for wild experimental scatter. Two sets of creep tests were conducted. First, preliminary short-term creep tests consisting of 30 minutes creep followed by recovery were carried out over a wide range of stresses and temperatures. These tests were carried out to determine the linear viscoelastic region of the material. From these tests, the material was found to be linear viscoelastic up-to 20 MPa at room temperature and considerable non-linearities were observed with both stress and temperature. Using Time-Temperature superposition (TTS) a long term master curve for creep compliance for up-to 185 years at room temperature has been obtained. Further, viscoplastic strains were developed in these tests indicating the need for a non-linear viscoelastic viscoplastic constitutive model. The second set of creep tests was performed to develop a general non-linear viscoelastic viscoplastic constitutive model. Long term creep-recovery tests consisting of 1 day creep followed by recovery has been conducted over the stress range between 20 and 70 MPa at four temperatures: 25°C, 40°C, 60°C and 80°C. Findley's model

  19. Laser Processed Silver Nanowire Network Transparent Electrodes for Novel Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spechler, Joshua Allen

    Silver nanowire network transparent conducting layers are poised to make headway into a space previously dominated by transparent conducting oxides due to the promise of a flexible, scaleable, lab-atmosphere processable alternative. However, there are many challenges standing in the way between research scale use and consumer technology scale adaptation of this technology. In this thesis we will explore many, and overcome a few of these challenges. We will address the poor conductivity at the narrow nanowire-nanowire junction points in the network by developing a laser based process to weld nanowires together on a microscopic scale. We address the need for a comparative metric for transparent conductors in general, by taking a device level rather than a component level view of these layers. We also address the mechanical, physical, and thermal limitations to the silver nanowire networks by making composites from materials including a colorless polyimide and titania sol-gel. Additionally, we verify our findings by integrating these processes into devices. Studying a hybrid organic/inorganic heterojunction photovoltaic device we show the benefits of a laser processed electrode. Green phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes fabricated on a solution phase processed silver nanowire based electrode show favorable device metrics compared to a conductive oxide electrode based control. The work in this thesis is intended to push the adoption of silver nanowire networks to further allow new device architectures, and thereby new device applications.

  20. Quantitative magnetometry analysis and structural characterization of multisegmented cobalt–nickel nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantu-Valle, Jesus [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Díaz Barriga-Castro, Enrique [Centro de Investigación de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas/Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Pedro de Alba s/n, San Nicolás de Los Garza, Nuevo León 66450 (Mexico); Vega, Víctor; García, Javier [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, Oviedo 33007 (Spain); Mendoza-Reséndez, Raquel [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica. Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Pedro de Alba s/n, San Nicolás de Los Garza, Nuevo León 66450 (Mexico); Luna, Carlos [Centro de Investigación de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas/Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Pedro de Alba s/n, San Nicolás de Los Garza, Nuevo León 66450 (Mexico); Manuel Prida, Víctor [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, Oviedo 33007 (Spain); and others

    2015-04-01

    Understanding and measuring the magnetic properties of an individual nanowire and their relationship with crystalline structure and geometry are of scientific and technological great interest. In this work, we report the localized study of the magnetic flux distribution and the undisturbed magnetization of a single ferromagnetic nanowire that poses a bar-code like structure using off-axis electron holography (EH) under Lorentz conditions. The nanowires were grown by template-assisted electrodeposition, using AAO templates. Electron holography allows the visualization of the magnetic flux distribution within and surroundings as well as its quantification. The magnetic analysis performed at individual nanowires was correlated with the chemical composition and crystalline orientation of the nanowires. - Highlights: • The structure-magnetic property relationship of CoNi nanowires is determined. • Off axis electron holography for the magnetic nanowires is used for the analysis. • The magnetization is quantitatively obtained from the retrieved phase images. • These results lead to a better comprehension of the magneto-crystalline phenomena.

  1. Structural characterization of Fe−Pd nanowires grown by electrodeposition using an acid electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenichini, P. [Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Condó, A.M. [Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Haberkorn, N., E-mail: nhaberk@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2016-07-01

    Fe{sub 70}Pd{sub 30} nanostructures have potential application in actuators due to their conventional and magnetic shape memory. Here, we report the microstructure of electrodeposition grown Fe−Pd nanowires in which the process was confined to polycarbonate membranes with a nominal pore diameter of 200 nm. We used an acid electrolyte (pH ≈ 5) in which the solution was stabilized with sulfosalicylic acid. The average chemical concentration of the nanowires can be systematically shifted from rich palladium to rich iron by changing the growth potential. The study of the microstructure by transmission electron microscopy indicates high chemical inhomogeneities due to phase coexistence between rich palladium regions (with FCC structure) and rich iron regions. The latter present a combination of BCC and amorphous phases. The average chemical composition of the nanowires can be better adjusted by using a low frequency square wave voltage excitation (alternating rich Pd and rich Fe regions). However, independently of the growth process, the nanowires morphology collapses after thermal annealing. This could be ascribed to fragile grain boundaries due to the presence of amorphous hydroxides and chemical impurities produced during the electrochemical process. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Fe−Pd nanowires by electrodeposition is reported. • Structural characterization of the nanowires by transmission electron microscopy. • The synthesis of nanowires with austenitic phase is limited by fragile grain boundaries.

  2. Quantitative magnetometry analysis and structural characterization of multisegmented cobalt–nickel nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantu-Valle, Jesus; Díaz Barriga-Castro, Enrique; Vega, Víctor; García, Javier; Mendoza-Reséndez, Raquel; Luna, Carlos; Manuel Prida, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and measuring the magnetic properties of an individual nanowire and their relationship with crystalline structure and geometry are of scientific and technological great interest. In this work, we report the localized study of the magnetic flux distribution and the undisturbed magnetization of a single ferromagnetic nanowire that poses a bar-code like structure using off-axis electron holography (EH) under Lorentz conditions. The nanowires were grown by template-assisted electrodeposition, using AAO templates. Electron holography allows the visualization of the magnetic flux distribution within and surroundings as well as its quantification. The magnetic analysis performed at individual nanowires was correlated with the chemical composition and crystalline orientation of the nanowires. - Highlights: • The structure-magnetic property relationship of CoNi nanowires is determined. • Off axis electron holography for the magnetic nanowires is used for the analysis. • The magnetization is quantitatively obtained from the retrieved phase images. • These results lead to a better comprehension of the magneto-crystalline phenomena

  3. Tree-like SnO2 nanowires and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Tao; Chen Qiyuan; Hu Huiping; Chen Ying

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Tree-like SnO 2 nanowires can be grown as low as 1100 deg. C by a vapour-solid process using a milled SnO 2 powder as the evaporation source. → FT-IR and PL measurements have shown that the tree-like nanostructures lead to superb physical properties. → The PL spectrum of such tree-like nanowires exhibits a strong PL peak at 548 nm. - Abstract: Tree-like SnO 2 nanowires have been grown by a vapor-solid process using a milled SnO 2 powder as the evaporation source. Phase, structural evolution and chemical composition were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The process yields a large proportion of ultra-long rutile nanowires of 50-150 nm diameter and lengths up to several tens of micrometers. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) shows that the SnO 2 nanowires are single crystals in the (1 0 1) growth direction with scattered smaller crystals or nanowires as the tree branches. The SnO 2 nanostructures were also examined using Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. A strong emission band centered at 548 nm dominated the PL spectrum of the tree-like nanowires.

  4. Interactions between semiconductor nanowires and living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Christelle N

    2015-06-17

    Semiconductor nanowires are increasingly used for biological applications and their small dimensions make them a promising tool for sensing and manipulating cells with minimal perturbation. In order to interface cells with nanowires in a controlled fashion, it is essential to understand the interactions between nanowires and living cells. The present paper reviews current progress in the understanding of these interactions, with knowledge gathered from studies where living cells were interfaced with vertical nanowire arrays. The effect of nanowires on cells is reported in terms of viability, cell-nanowire interface morphology, cell behavior, changes in gene expression as well as cellular stress markers. Unexplored issues and unanswered questions are discussed.

  5. Fabrication and magnetic investigations of highly uniform CoNiGa alloy nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wen-Jing; Khan, U.; Irfan, Muhammad [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Javed, K. [Department of Physics, Forman Christian College, Lahore 5400 (Pakistan); Liu, P. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Ban, S.L. [School of Physical Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Han, X.F., E-mail: xfhan@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Highly ordered CoNiGa alloy nanowires with different compositions were fabricated by DC electrodeposition. • The magnetic properties of CoNiGa nanowires can be easily tailored by varying its components. • Magnetostatic interactions plays an important role in the magnetization reversal process. • A linear dependence of coercivity on temperature was found for Co{sub 55}Ni{sub 28}Ga{sub 17} samples. - Abstract: CoNiGa ternary alloy nanowire arrays were successfully fabricated by simple DC electrodeposition into the anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. A systematic study of the potential and components of the electrolyte were conducted to obtain different components of CoNiGa nanowires. The largest Ga content in the prepared alloy nanowires was about 17%, while for Co and Ni contents which can be controlled in a wide range by adjusting the composition and pH value of the electrolyte appropriately. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the as-grown CoNiGa nanowire arrays were polycrystal with fcc phase of Co where Co atoms partially substituted by Ni and Ga. Magnetization curves of samples with different composition were measured at room temperature as well as low temperature. The results showed that the components of the alloy nanowires have a great impact on its magnetic properties. For Co{sub 55}Ni{sub 28}Ga{sub 17} nanowires, the magnetization reversal mode changes from curling mode to coherent rotation as the angle increases, and the temperature dependence of coercivity can be well described by the thermal activation effect.

  6. Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction in a Randomized Trial of a Specific Probiotic Composition in Acute Pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, Marc G.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; Renooij, Willem; de Smet, Martin B.; Boermeester, Marja A.; Fischer, Kathelijn; Timmerman, Harro M.; Ali, Usama Ahmed; Cirkel, Geert A.; Bollen, Thomas L.; van Ramshorst, Bert; Schaapherder, Alexander F.; Witteman, Ben J.; Ploeg, Rutger J.; van Goor, Harry; van Laarhoven, Cornelis J.; Tan, Adriaan C.; Brink, Menno A.; van der Harst, Erwin; Wahab, Peter J.; van Eijck, Casper H.; Dejong, Cornelis H.; van Erpecum, Karel J.; Akkermans, Louis M.; Gooszen, Hein G.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the relation between intestinal barrier dysfunction, bacterial translocation, and clinical outcome in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis and the influence of probiotics on these processes. Summary of Background data: Randomized, placebo-controlled,

  7. Electric Conductivity of Phosphorus Nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing-Xiang, Zhang; Hui, Li; Xue-Qing, Zhang; Kim-Meow, Liew

    2009-01-01

    We present the structures and electrical transport properties of nanowires made from different strands of phosphorus chains encapsulated in carbon nanotubes. Optimized by density function theory, our results indicate that the conductance spectra reveal an oscillation dependence on the size of wires. It can be seen from the density of states and current-voltage curves that the structure of nanowires affects their properties greatly. Among them, the DNA-like double-helical phosphorus nanowire exhibits the distinct characteristic of an approximately linear I – V relationship and has a higher conductance than others. The transport properties of phosphorus nanowires are highly correlated with their microstructures. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  8. Tunneling magnetoresistance in Si nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñ oz, Enrique; Rungger, I.; Sanvito, S.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    for quantum transport. Silicon nanowires represent an interesting platform for spin devices. They are compatible with mature silicon technology and their intrinsic electronic properties can be controlled by modifying the diameter and length. Here we

  9. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go eKawamura

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Metal nanowires (NWs have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production of composite devices. The resulting NWs are immobilized and spatially arranged, as dictated by the ordered porous structure of the template. This avoids the NWs from aggregating, which is common for NWs prepared with soft templates in solution. Herein, the hard template synthesis of metal NWs is reviewed, and the resulting structures, properties and potential applications are discussed.

  10. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2014-11-01

    Metal nanowires (NWs) have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production of composite devices. The resulting NWs are immobilized and spatially arranged, as dictated by the ordered porous structure of the template. This avoids the NWs from aggregating, which is common for NWs prepared with soft templates in solution. Herein, the hard template synthesis of metal NWs is reviewed, and the resulting structures, properties and potential applications are discussed.

  11. Biotemplated Synthesis of PZT Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    electromechanical coupling coefficient , Y is the Young’s modulus, and Ri is intrinsic resistance. The PZT nanowire- based film is taken to have negligible...robotic actuation, and bioMEMS. Lead zirconate titanate ( PZT ), in particular, has attracted significant attention, owing to its superior...electromechanical conversion performance. Yet, the ability to synthesize crystalline PZT nanowires with reproducible and well-controlled properties remains a

  12. Silicon nanowires: structure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nezhdanov, A.V.; Mashin, A.I.; Razuvaev, A.G.; Ershov, A.V.; Ignatov, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    An attempt to grow silicon nanowires has been made by electron beam evaporation on highly oriented pyrolytic substrate. Needle-like objects are located along the normal to a substrate (density 2 x 10 11 cm -2 ). For modeling quasi-one-dimensional objects calculations of nuclear structure and energy spectra have been accomplished. A fullerene-like structure Si 24 is proposed as a basic atomic configuration of silicon nanowires [ru

  13. Growth of uranyl hydroxide nanowires and nanotubes with electrodeposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lin; Yuan Liyong; Chai Zhifang; Shi Weiqun

    2013-01-01

    Actinides nanomaterials have great potential applications in fabrication of novel nuclear fuel and spent fuel reprocessing in advanced nuclear energy system. However, the relative research so far still lacks systematic investigation on the synthetic methods for actinides nanomaterials. In this work, we use track-etched membranes as hard templates to synthesize uranium based nanomaterials with novel structures by electrodeposition method. Through electrochemical behavior investigations and subsequent product characterizations such as energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the chemical composition of deposition products have been confirmed as the uranyl hydroxide. More importantly, accurate control of morphology and structures (nanowires and nanotubes) could be achieved by carefully adjusting the growth parameters such as deposition time and deposition current density. It was found that the preferred morphology of electrodeposition products is nanowire when a low current density was applied, whereas nanotubes could be formed only under conditions of high current density and the short deposition time. The mechanism for the formation of nanowires in track-etched membranes is based on the precipitation of uranyl hydroxide from uranyl nitrate solution, according to the previous researches about obtaining nanostructures of hydroxides from nitrate salt solutions. And we have concluded that the formation of nanotubes is attributed to the hydrogen bubbles generated by water electrolysis under the condition of over-potential electro-reduction. The conveying of hydrogen bubbles plays the role of dynamic template which can prevent the complete filling of uranyl hydroxide in the channels. Additionally, we transform the chemical composition of deposition products from uranyl hydroxide to triuranium octoxide by calcining them at 500 and 800 degree centigrade, respectively, and SEM results show the morphologies of nanowires and

  14. Fabrication of CdS nanowires with increasing anionic precursor by SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dariani, R. S.; Salehi, F.

    2016-05-01

    CdS nanowires were fabricated on glass substrate at room temperature by SILAR method with cadmium nitrate cationic and sodium sulfide anionic precursors. The deposition were done at different S:Cd concentration ratios of 1:1, 3:1, 5:1, and 7:1. Nanowires growth procedure was studied in the mentioned concentrations. The number of immersion cycles was kept constant at 15 cycles. EDX analysis showed that in all stoichiometric ratios, S/Cd composition ratio remains at about unity. Our results indicated that S:Cd concentration ratio of 7:1 had the longest nanowires with hexagonal structure. The main objective of this paper was to produce CdS nanowires with increasing concentration of sulfur.

  15. ZrTiO4 nanowire growth using membrane-assisted Pechini route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. de Lucena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The high surface-to-volume ratio of nanowires makes them natural competitors as new device components. In this regard, a current major challenge is to produce quasi-one-dimensional nanostructures composed of well established oxide-based materials. This article reports the synthesis of ZrTiO4 nanowires on a silicon (100 wafer in a single-step deposition/thermal treatment. The template-directed membrane synthesis strategy was associated with the Pechini route and spin-coating deposition technique. ZrTiO4 nanowires were obtained at 700 ˚C with diameters in the range of 80-100 nm. FEG- SEM images were obtained to investigate ZrTiO4 nanowire formation on the silicon surface and energy dispersive x-ray detection (EDS and x-ray diffraction (XRD analyses were performed to confirm the oxide composition and structure.

  16. ZrTiO4 Nanowire Growth Using Membrane-assisted Pechini Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poty Rodrigues de Lucena

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The high surface-to-volume ratio of nanowires makes them natural competitors as newer device components. In this regard, a current major challenge is to produce quasi-one-dimensional nanostructures composed of well-established oxide-based materials. This article reports the synthesis of ZrTiO4 nanowires on a silicon (100 wafer in a single-step deposition/thermal treatment. The template-directed membrane synthesis strategy was associated with the Pechini route and spin-coating deposition technique. ZrTiO4 nanowires were obtained at 700 °C with diameters in the range of 80-100 nm. FEGSEM images were obtained to investigate ZrTiO4 nanowire formation on the silicon surface and energy dispersive X-ray detection (EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD analyses were performed to confirm the oxide composition and structure. 

  17. Differential body composition effects of protease inhibitors recommended for initial treatment of HIV infection: A randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Esteban; Gonzalez-Cordon, Ana; Ferrer, Elena; Domingo, Pere; Negredo, Eugenia; Gutierrez, Felix; Portilla, Joaquin; Curran, Adrià; Podzamczer, Daniel; Ribera, Esteban; Murillas, Javier; Bernardino, Jose I.; Santos, Ignacio; Carton, Jose A.; Peraire, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    This article has been accepted for publication in Clinical Infectious Diseases ©2014 The Authors .Published by Oxford University Press on Clinical Infectious Disease 60.5. DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciu898 Background. It is unclear whether metabolic or body composition effects may differ between protease inhibitor-based regimens recommended for initial treatment of HIV infection. Methods. ATADAR is a phase IV, open-label, multicenter randomized clinical trial. Stable antiretroviral-naive HIV-in...

  18. Chemical composition separation of a propylene-ethylene random copolymer by high temperature solvent gradient interaction chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonggang; Phiri, Mohau Justice; Ndiripo, Anthony; Pasch, Harald

    2017-11-03

    A propylene-ethylene random copolymer was fractionated by preparative temperature rising elution fractionation (TREF). The structural heterogeneity of the bulk sample and its TREF fractions was studied by high temperature liquid chromatography with a solvent gradient elution from 1-decanol to 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene. HPLC alone cannot resolve those propylene-ethylene copolymers with high ethylene content in the bulk sample, due to their low weight fractions in the bulk sample and a small response factor of these components in the ELSD detector, as well as their broad chemical composition distribution. These components can only be detected after being separated and enriched by TREF followed by HPLC analysis. Chemical composition separations were achieved for TREF fractions with average ethylene contents between 2.1 and 22.0mol%, showing that copolymers with higher ethylene contents were adsorbed stronger in the Hypercarb column and eluted later. All TREF fractions, except the 40°C fraction, were relatively homogeneous in both molar mass and chemical composition. The 40°C fraction was rather broad in both molar mass and chemical composition distributions. 2D HPLC showed that the molar masses of the components containing more ethylene units were getting lower for the 40°C fraction. HPLC revealed and confirmed that co-crystallization influences the separation in TREF of the studied propylene-ethylene copolymer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrochemically grown rough-textured nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Pawan; Postetter, David; Saragnese, Daniel; Papadakis, Stergios J.; Gracias, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Nanowires with a rough surface texture show unusual electronic, optical, and chemical properties; however, there are only a few existing methods for producing these nanowires. Here, we describe two methods for growing both free standing and lithographically patterned gold (Au) nanowires with a rough surface texture. The first strategy is based on the deposition of nanowires from a silver (Ag)-Au plating solution mixture that precipitates an Ag-Au cyanide complex during electrodeposition at low current densities. This complex disperses in the plating solution, thereby altering the nanowire growth to yield a rough surface texture. These nanowires are mass produced in alumina membranes. The second strategy produces long and rough Au nanowires on lithographically patternable nickel edge templates with corrugations formed by partial etching. These rough nanowires can be easily arrayed and integrated with microscale devices.

  20. Structural and tunneling properties of Si nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique

    2013-12-06

    We investigate the electronic structure and electron transport properties of Si nanowires attached to Au electrodes from first principles using density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function method. We systematically study the dependence of the transport properties on the diameter of the nanowires, on the growth direction, and on the length. At the equilibrium Au-nanowire distance we find strong electronic coupling between the electrodes and nanowires, which results in a low contact resistance. With increasing nanowire length we study the transition from metallic to tunneling conductance for small applied bias. For the tunneling regime we investigate the decay of the conductance with the nanowire length and rationalize the results using the complex band structure of the pristine nanowires. The conductance is found to depend strongly on the growth direction, with nanowires grown along the ⟨110⟩ direction showing the smallest decay with length and the largest conductance and current.

  1. Structural and tunneling properties of Si nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñ oz, Enrique; Gkionis, Konstantinos; Rungger, Ivan; Sanvito, Stefano; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the electronic structure and electron transport properties of Si nanowires attached to Au electrodes from first principles using density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green's function method. We systematically study the dependence of the transport properties on the diameter of the nanowires, on the growth direction, and on the length. At the equilibrium Au-nanowire distance we find strong electronic coupling between the electrodes and nanowires, which results in a low contact resistance. With increasing nanowire length we study the transition from metallic to tunneling conductance for small applied bias. For the tunneling regime we investigate the decay of the conductance with the nanowire length and rationalize the results using the complex band structure of the pristine nanowires. The conductance is found to depend strongly on the growth direction, with nanowires grown along the ⟨110⟩ direction showing the smallest decay with length and the largest conductance and current.

  2. A silicon nanowire heater and thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingyan; Dan, Yaping

    2017-07-01

    In the thermal conductivity measurements of thermoelectric materials, heaters and thermometers made of the same semiconducting materials under test, forming a homogeneous system, will significantly simplify fabrication and integration. In this work, we demonstrate a high-performance heater and thermometer made of single silicon nanowires (SiNWs). The SiNWs are patterned out of a silicon-on-insulator wafer by CMOS-compatible fabrication processes. The electronic properties of the nanowires are characterized by four-probe and low temperature Hall effect measurements. The I-V curves of the nanowires are linear at small voltage bias. The temperature dependence of the nanowire resistance allows the nanowire to be used as a highly sensitive thermometer. At high voltage bias, the I-V curves of the nanowire become nonlinear due to the effect of Joule heating. The temperature of the nanowire heater can be accurately monitored by the nanowire itself as a thermometer.

  3. Controlling nanowire emission profile using conical taper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The influence of a conical taper on nanowire light emission is studied. For nanowires with divergent output beams, the introduction of tapers improves the emission profile and increase the collection efficiency of the detection optics....

  4. Epitaxy-enabled vapor-liquid-solid growth of tin-doped indium oxide nanowires with controlled orientations

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Youde

    2014-08-13

    Controlling the morphology of nanowires in bottom-up synthesis and assembling them on planar substrates is of tremendous importance for device applications in electronics, photonics, sensing and energy conversion. To date, however, there remain challenges in reliably achieving these goals of orientation-controlled nanowire synthesis and assembly. Here we report that growth of planar, vertical and randomly oriented tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires can be realized on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates via the epitaxy-assisted vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism, by simply regulating the growth conditions, in particular the growth temperature. This robust control on nanowire orientation is facilitated by the small lattice mismatch of 1.6% between ITO and YSZ. Further control of the orientation, symmetry and shape of the nanowires can be achieved by using YSZ substrates with (110) and (111), in addition to (100) surfaces. Based on these insights, we succeed in growing regular arrays of planar ITO nanowires from patterned catalyst nanoparticles. Overall, our discovery of unprecedented orientation control in ITO nanowires advances the general VLS synthesis, providing a robust epitaxy-based approach toward rational synthesis of nanowires. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  5. Tungsten oxide nanowires grown on graphene oxide sheets as high-performance electrochromic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Xueting; Sun, Shibin; Dong, Lihua; Hu, Xiong; Yin, Yansheng

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Electrochromic mechanism of tungsten oxide nanowires-reduced graphene oxide composite. - Highlights: • A novel inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid composite was prepared. • The hybrid composite has sandwich-like structure. • The hybrid composite exhibited high-quality electrohcromic performance. - Abstract: In this work, we report the synthesis of a novel hybrid electrochromic composite through nucleation and growth of ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires on graphene oxide sheets using a facile solvothermal route. The competition between the growth of tungsten oxide nanowires and the reduction of graphene oxide sheets leads to the formation of sandwich-structured tungsten oxide-reduced graphene oxide composite. Due to the strongly coupled effect between the ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires and the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets, the novel electrochromic composite exhibited high-quality electrochromic performance with fast color-switching speed, good cyclic stability, and high coloration efficiency. The present tungsten oxide-reduced graphene oxide composite represents a new approach to prepare other inorganic-reduced graphene oxide hybrid materials for electrochemical applications

  6. Posterior bulk-filled resin composite restorations. A 5-year randomized controlled clinical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    mm as needed to fill the cavity 2 mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with the nano-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono+). In the other cavity, the resin composite-only (Ceram X mono+) was placed in 2 mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using slightly......, 4 SDR-CeramX mono+ and 6 CeramX mono +-only restorations. The main reasons for failure were tooth fracture (6) and secondary caries (4). The annual failure rate (AFR) for all restorations (Class I and II) was for the bulk-filled-1.1% and for the resin composite-only restorations 1.3% (p = 0...

  7. Semiconducting silicon nanowires for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Coffer, JL

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical applications have benefited greatly from the increasing interest and research into semiconducting silicon nanowires. Semiconducting Silicon Nanowires for Biomedical Applications reviews the fabrication, properties, and applications of this emerging material. The book begins by reviewing the basics, as well as the growth, characterization, biocompatibility, and surface modification, of semiconducting silicon nanowires. It goes on to focus on silicon nanowires for tissue engineering and delivery applications, including cellular binding and internalization, orthopedic tissue scaffol

  8. Preparation and electrochemical characterization of MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lin; Wang Dianlong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide composites are prepared by hydrothermal reaction in distilled water or 5% ammonia aqueous solution at 130 deg. C, with MnO 2 -graphene oxide composites which are synthesized by a redox reaction between KMnO 4 and graphene oxide. → MnO 2 is deoxidized to MnOOH on graphene oxide through hydrothermal reaction without any extra reductants. → It is found that the electrochemical resistance of MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide composites decreases and the capacitance increases to 76 F g -1 when hydrothermal reaction is conducted in ammonia aqueous solution. → MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide composites prepared by hydrothermal reaction in 5% ammonia aqueous solution have excellent capacitance retention ratio at scan rate from 5 mV s -1 to 40 mV s -1 . - Abstract: MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide composites are prepared by hydrothermal reaction in distilled water or 5% ammonia aqueous solution at 130 deg. C with MnO 2 -graphene oxide composites which are synthesized by a redox reaction between KMnO 4 and graphene oxide. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses and energy dispersive X-ray analyses (EDAX) show MnO 2 is deoxidized to MnOOH on graphene oxide through hydrothermal reaction without any extra reductants. The electrochemical capacitance of MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide composites prepared in 5% ammonia aqueous solution is 76 F g -1 at current density of 0.1 A g -1 . Moreover, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) suggests the electrochemical resistance of MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide composites is reduced when hydrothermal reaction is conducted in ammonia aqueous solution. The relationship between the electrochemical capacitance and the structure of MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide composites is characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results indicate the electrochemical performance of MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide composites strongly depends on their

  9. From dopyballs to nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smalley, R E [Rice Quantum Inst. and Depts. of Chemistry and Physics, Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    1993-04-19

    Consideration of the factors involved in the production of fullerene nanotubes in carbon arcs leads to the notion that a high electric field may be the critical factor that causes the tubes to grow. This thought then leads to a suggestion that it may be possible to grow continuous fullerene fibers many centimeters in length by an electric-field-and-laser induced pyrolysis of gas phase hydrocarbons of fullerenes on the tip of the growing fiber as it extends out from its place of attachment on a high voltage needle. Use of metal- or boron-doped fullerenes (dopyballs) in such an apparatus may lead to the production of doped fullerene fiber nanowires of high strength and conductivity. (orig.)

  10. Indium Arsenide Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Hannibal

    -ray diffraction. InAs NWs can be used in a broad range of applications, including detectors, high speed electronics and low temperature transport measurements, but in this thesis focus will be put on biological experiments on living cells. Good control of Au-assisted InAs NW growth has been achieved......This thesis is about growth of Au-assisted and self-assisted InAs nanowires (NWs). The wires are synthesized using a solid source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system and characterized with several techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x...... by a systematic study to optimize the growth conditions; first the Au deposition, then the growth temperature and finally the beam fluxes. For further control of the growth, Au droplets have been positioned with electron beam lithography and large scale arrays with a > 99 % yield have been made on 2 inch...

  11. Resonance of curved nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabri, L [CNR-INFM-National Research Center on nanoStructures and bioSystems at Surfaces (S3), Via Campi 213/a, 41100 Modena (Italy); Pugno, N [Department of Structural Engineering and Geotechnics, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Ding, W [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3111 (United States); Ruoff, R S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3111 (United States)

    2006-08-23

    The effects of non-ideal experimental configuration on the mechanical resonance of boron (B) nanowires (NWs) were studied to obtain the corrected value for the Young's modulus. The following effects have been theoretically considered: (i) the presence of intrinsic curvature (ii) non-ideal clamps (iii) spurious masses (iv) coating layer, and (v) large displacements. An energy-based analytical analysis was developed to treat such effects and their interactions. Here, we focus on treating the effect of the intrinsic curvature on the mechanical resonance. The analytical approach has been confirmed by numerical FEM analysis. A parallax method was used to obtain the three-dimensional geometry of the NW.

  12. Corrosion detection of nanowires by magnetic sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jü rgen; Amara, Selma; Ivanov, Iurii; Blanco, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments related to a corrosion detection device for detecting corrosive environments. A corrosion detection device comprises a magnetic sensor and at least one magnetic nanowire disposed on the magnetic sensor. The magnetic sensor is configured to detect corrosion of the one or more magnetic nanowires based at least in part on a magnetic field of the one or more magnetic nanowires.

  13. Corrosion detection of nanowires by magnetic sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jürgen

    2017-10-05

    Disclosed are various embodiments related to a corrosion detection device for detecting corrosive environments. A corrosion detection device comprises a magnetic sensor and at least one magnetic nanowire disposed on the magnetic sensor. The magnetic sensor is configured to detect corrosion of the one or more magnetic nanowires based at least in part on a magnetic field of the one or more magnetic nanowires.

  14. Topological insulator nanowires and nanowire hetero-junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Haiming; Zhao, Lukas; Wade, Travis; Konczykowski, Marcin; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia

    2014-03-01

    The existing topological insulator materials (TIs) continue to present a number of challenges to complete understanding of the physics of topological spin-helical Dirac surface conduction channels, owing to a relatively large charge conduction in the bulk. One way to reduce the bulk contribution and to increase surface-to-volume ratio is by nanostructuring. Here we report on the synthesis and characterization of Sb2Te3, Bi2Te3 nanowires and nanotubes and Sb2Te3/Bi2Te3 heterojunctions electrochemically grown in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with varied (from 50 to 150 nm) pore diameters. Stoichiometric rigid polycrystalline nanowires with controllable cross-sections were obtained using cell voltages in the 30 - 150 mV range. Transport measurements in up to 14 T magnetic fields applied along the nanowires show Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) quantum oscillations with periods corresponding to the nanowire diameters. All nanowires were found to exhibit sharp weak anti-localization (WAL) cusps, a characteristic signature of TIs. In addition to A-B oscillations, new quantization plateaus in magnetoresistance (MR) at low fields (< 0 . 7T) were observed. The analysis of MR as well as I - V characteristics of heterojunctions will be presented. Supported in part by NSF-DMR-1122594, NSF-DMR-1312483-MWN, and DOD-W911NF-13-1-0159.

  15. Growth and properties of In(Ga)As nanowires on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertenberger, Simon

    2012-01-01

    properties and homogeneous array-like characteristics. High vertical growth yields of 90 % are achieved on substrates patterned either by e-beam lithography (for small scale arrays) or nanoimprint lithography (NIL, for large scale arrays > 5 x 5 mm 2 ). In addition, X-ray rocking curve measurements evidence very low crystal tilt and perfect vertical alignment along the (111) direction with full widths at half maximum (FWHM) as low as 0.6 . Furthermore, systematic investigations of the size scaling behavior as a function of the pitch (interwire distance) highlight the existence of two growth regimes: (i) a competitive growth regime for narrow pitches and (ii) a diffusion-limited regime for wider pitches, where growth is limited by the diffusion length of In adatoms on the SiO 2 surface (∝750 nm at T=480 C). Furthermore, the growth of ternary InGaAs nanowires on sputter-deposited SiO x /Si(111) and NIL-patterned SiO 2 /Si(111) substrates is investigated. Here, composition tuning with Ga contents ranging from 0-60 % was achieved as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Furthermore, the two different growth strategies are compared yielding a significantly lower FWHM of the 2θ-XRD-peak in the case of NIL-patterned substrates (0.031 ) as compared to self-assembled grown nanowires (0.084 ). This finding is further supported by Raman spectroscopy showing lower longitudinal optical to transversal optical (LO/TO) intensity ratios and lower LO-FWHM for both the InAs-like and GaAs-like LO modes in the case of NIL-patterned nanowire growth. These observations indicate superior composition homogeneity for positioned nanowire growth on patterned substrates. In addition, low-T photoluminescence (PL) measurements are presented showing band gap tuning over a wavelength range of ∝1800-2850 nm where PL peak linewidths are as narrow as ∝30 meV, independent of the Ga content. Finally, the effect of growth parameters on the microstructure are investigated

  16. Growth and properties of In(Ga)As nanowires on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertenberger, Simon

    2012-10-15

    nanowire properties and homogeneous array-like characteristics. High vertical growth yields of 90 % are achieved on substrates patterned either by e-beam lithography (for small scale arrays) or nanoimprint lithography (NIL, for large scale arrays > 5 x 5 mm{sup 2}). In addition, X-ray rocking curve measurements evidence very low crystal tilt and perfect vertical alignment along the (111) direction with full widths at half maximum (FWHM) as low as 0.6 . Furthermore, systematic investigations of the size scaling behavior as a function of the pitch (interwire distance) highlight the existence of two growth regimes: (i) a competitive growth regime for narrow pitches and (ii) a diffusion-limited regime for wider pitches, where growth is limited by the diffusion length of In adatoms on the SiO{sub 2} surface (∝750 nm at T=480 C). Furthermore, the growth of ternary InGaAs nanowires on sputter-deposited SiO{sub x}/Si(111) and NIL-patterned SiO{sub 2}/Si(111) substrates is investigated. Here, composition tuning with Ga contents ranging from 0-60 % was achieved as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Furthermore, the two different growth strategies are compared yielding a significantly lower FWHM of the 2θ-XRD-peak in the case of NIL-patterned substrates (0.031 ) as compared to self-assembled grown nanowires (0.084 ). This finding is further supported by Raman spectroscopy showing lower longitudinal optical to transversal optical (LO/TO) intensity ratios and lower LO-FWHM for both the InAs-like and GaAs-like LO modes in the case of NIL-patterned nanowire growth. These observations indicate superior composition homogeneity for positioned nanowire growth on patterned substrates. In addition, low-T photoluminescence (PL) measurements are presented showing band gap tuning over a wavelength range of ∝1800-2850 nm where PL peak linewidths are as narrow as ∝30 meV, independent of the Ga content. Finally, the effect of growth parameters on the

  17. Near field heat transfer between random composite materials. Applications and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, Eva Yazmin; Esquivel-Sirvent, Raul [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica

    2017-05-01

    We present a theoretical study of the limits and bounds of using effective medium approximations in the calculation of the near field radiative heat transfer between a composite system made of Au nanoparticles in a SiC host and an homogeneous SiC slab. The effective dielectric function of the composite slab is calculated using three different approximations: Maxwell-Garnett, Bruggeman, and Looyenga's. In addition, we considered an empirical fit to the effective dielectric function by Grundquist and Hunderi. We show that the calculated value of the heat flux in the near field is dependent on the model, and the difference in the effective dielectric function is larger around the plasmonic response of the Au nanoparticles. This, in turn, accounts for the difference in the near field radiative heat flux. For all values of filling fractions, the Looyenga approximation gives a lower bound for the heat flux.

  18. Oxygen uptake and body composition after aquatic physical training in women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Carolina P; Zamunér, Antonio R; Forti, Meire; França, Thalita F; Tamburús, Nayara Y; Silva, Ester

    2017-10-01

    Aquatic physical training (APT) has been strongly recommended to improve symptoms in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). However, its effects on body composition and whether lean body mass (LBM) directly influences the aerobic functional capacity of this population are still not clear. To investigate whether APT can help improve body composition and increase the aerobic functional capacity in women with FMS, and whether oxygen uptake (VO2) related to LBM can better quantify the functional capacity of this population. Randomized controlled trial. The Federal University of São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil. Fifty-four women with FMS were randomly assigned to trained group (TG, N.=27) or control group (CG, N.=27). All women underwent cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) to assess oxygen consumption at ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) and at peak exercise, and also to assess body composition. The TG was submitted to APT program, held twice a week for 16 weeks. The exercise intensity was adapted throughout the sessions in order to keep heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion achieved at VAT. After APT, body composition was not significantly different between groups (TG and CG). In VAT only TG showed increased VO2 related to LBM, since in peak CPET, VO2 in absolute units, VO2 related to total body mass (TBM), VO2 related to LBM and power showed significant differences. Significant difference between VO2 related to TBM and VO2 related to baseline LBM and after 16 weeks of follow-up, both in VAT as in peak CPET in both groups. Significant difference between VO2 related to TBM and VO2 related to LBM at VAT and at peak CPET in both groups at baseline and after 16 weeks of follow-up was observed. APT with standardized intensities did not cause significant changes in body composition, but was effective in promoting increased VO2 at peak CPET in women with FMS. However, VO2 related to LBM more accurately reflected changes in aerobic functional capacity at VAT level after to

  19. Rapid Processing of Net-Shape Thermoplastic Planar-Random Composite Preforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, S. T.; Baudry, F.; Schmäh, D.; Wakeman, M. D.; Michaud, V.; Blanchard, P.; Norris, R. E.; Månson, J.-A. E.

    2009-02-01

    A novel thermoplastic composite preforming and moulding process is investigated to target cost issues in textile composite processing associated with trim waste, and the limited mechanical properties of current bulk flow-moulding composites. The thermoplastic programmable powdered preforming process (TP-P4) uses commingled glass and polypropylene yarns, which are cut to length before air assisted deposition onto a vacuum screen, enabling local preform areal weight tailoring. The as-placed fibres are heat-set for improved handling before an optional preconsolidation stage. The preforms are then preheated and press formed to obtain the final part. The process stages are examined to optimize part quality and throughput versus processing parameters. A viable processing route is proposed with typical cycle times below 40 s (for a plate 0.5 × 0.5 m2, weighing 2 kg), enabling high production capacity from one line. The mechanical performance is shown to surpass that of 40 wt.% GMT and has properties equivalent to those of 40 wt.% GMTex at both 20°C and 80°C.

  20. Neuroprotective impact of a vitamin trace element composition - a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial with healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muss, Claus; Mosgoeller, Wilhelm; Endler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Neurotoxic metabolites and oxidative and nitrosative stress reactions play a crucial role in the pathways leading to neuronal cell death and neurodegeneration. The bioavailability of the many antioxidant ingredients a vitamin and trace element composition was investigated, to reveal the neuroprotective (preventive) potential of the composition. We recruited 159 healthy volunteers, assigned them randomly and double blind to a placebo and verum group. Physicians excluded volunteers with severe chronic diseases or interfeering medications. 142 participants finished the six month trial. Laboratory parameters were determined 1) before participation, and 2) after three and 3) six months. We confirmed the bioavailability of ingredients, and determined metabolic parameters associated with the integrity of the blood brain barrier, mitochondrial deficiency (Q 10), neurodegeneration (homocystein), and antioxidative capacity (e.g. lipidperoxidation), and superoxiddismutase activity. Starting from baseleine, after three months neuroprotective ingredients increased within their physiological borders, folic acid (p<0.003), pyridoxin (p<0.001), cobalamin (p=0.001), and the fat soluble vitamin tocopherol (p<0.001). In parallel, homocytein decreased after 3 and 6 months (p<0.001, and p<0.025, respectively). Other paramters like zinc reacted slower, significant changes were observed only after 6 months. The observed metabolic changes and alteration of the oxidative status after 3 and six month of regular intake underlines the compositions' potential to ameliorate neurodegenerative processes. We conclude that the subsitution of vitamins and trace-elements with natural source in a proper manner may be effective for neuroprotection in healthy population.

  1. Serum antioxidant capacity, biochemical profile and body composition of breast cancer survivors in a randomized Mediterranean dietary intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouroliakou, Maria; Grosomanidis, D; Massara, P; Kostara, C; Papandreou, P; Ntountaniotis, D; Xepapadakis, G

    2017-06-20

    Increasing evidence suggests that Mediterranean Diet (MD) is correlated with reduced risk of breast cancer (BC) and cancer mortality, since it modifies patients' serum antioxidant capacity, body composition and biochemical parameters. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a dietary intervention based on MD has a beneficial effect on these factors. In this intervention study, seventy female BC survivors were randomly assigned to (1) the intervention group (personalized dietary intervention based on MD) and (2) the control group (received the updated American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention and ad libitum diet). Both groups were assessed twice [beginning, end of study (after 6 months)] regarding their anthropometric and biochemical parameters, serum vitamin C, vitamin A, a-tocopherol and CoQ10 levels, dietary intake and adherence to MD. An additional intermediate analysis was conducted on participants' body composition and biochemical profile. Concerning the intervention group, body weight, body fat mass, waist circumference, body mass index as well as HDL-cholesterol were significantly decreased (P body weight, body fat mass and serum total cholesterol rose (P body composition, adherence to MD and glycemic profile of postmenopausal BC survivors.

  2. Gold nanowires and the effect of impurities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaes Frederico

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMetal nanowires and in particular gold nanowires have received a great deal of attention in the past few years. Experiments on gold nanowires have prompted theory and simulation to help answer questions posed by these studies. Here we present results of computer simulations for the formation, evolution and breaking of very thin Au nanowires. We also discuss the influence of contaminants, such as atoms and small molecules, and their effect on the structural and mechanical properties of these nanowires.

  3. Micromagnetic simulations of cylindrical magnetic nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2015-05-27

    This chapter reviews micromagnetic simulations of cylindrical magnetic nanowires and their ordered arrays. It starts with a description of the theoretical background of micromagnetism. The chapter discusses main magnetization reversal modes, domain wall types, and state diagrams in cylindrical nanowires of different types and sizes. The results of the hysteresis process in individual nanowires and nanowire arrays also are presented. Modeling results are compared with experimental ones. The chapter also discusses future trends in nanowire applications in relation to simulations, such as current-driven dynamics, spintronics, and spincaloritronics. The main micromagnetic programs are presented and discussed, together with the corresponding links.

  4. Nitrogen and Fluorine-Codoped Carbon Nanowire Aerogels as Metal-Free Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Shaofang [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 USA; Zhu, Chengzhou [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 USA; Song, Junhua [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 USA; Engelhard, Mark H. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Xiao, Biwei [Energy and Environmental Directory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Du, Dan [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 USA; Lin, Yuehe [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 USA

    2017-07-11

    The development of active, durable, and low-cost catalysts to replace noble metal-based materials is highly desirable to promote the sluggish oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Herein, nitrogen and fluorine-codoped three-dimensional carbon nanowire aerogels, composed of interconnected carbon nanowires, were synthesized for the first time by a hydrothermal carbonization process. Owing to their porous nanostructures and heteroatom-doping, the as-prepared carbon nanowire aerogels, with optimized composition, present excellent electrocatalytic activity that is comparable to commercial Pt/C. Remarkably, the aerogels also exhibit superior stability and methanol tolerance. This synthesis procedure paves a new way to design novel heteroatomdoped catalysts.

  5. Green urea synthesis catalyzed by hematite nanowires in magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahya, Noorhana; Qureshi, Saima; Rehman, Zia ur; Alqasem, Bilal; Fai Kait, Chong

    2017-01-01

    The catalytic activity of hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) nanowires under the influence of magnetic field on urea synthesis is considered green. The adsorption and subsequent dissociative reaction of hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases on the α-Fe 2 O 3 (111) nanowires were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The average adsorption energy is −4.12 kcal/mole at different sites. The adsorption of gases resulted in a difference in density and net spin of electrons from 68 to 120 and 0–21 respectively. In addition, it induces magnetic moment value of 36.33 µB, which confirms the enhanced magnetic behaviour of hematite. α-Fe 2 O 3 nanowires (NWs) synthesized by heating iron wire in a box furnace at (750−800) °C and as synthesized α-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles (NPs) were received to use as a catalyst in the magnetic reaction of urea synthesis. X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) confirms the peaks of rhombohedral structure of α-Fe 2 O 3 and Raman spectrum analyses confirms the α-Fe 2 O 3 peaks at 410 cm −1 , 500 cm −1 and 616 cm −1 . The needle-like shape of hematite nanowires with length ranging from 16–25) μm and diameter from 74 to 145 nm confirmed by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The magnetic properties of the nanowires exhibited different levels of saturation magnetization, for α-Fe 2 O 3 perpendicularly aligned direction (13.18 emu/g) and random direction (10.73 emu/g). Urea synthesis was done under magnetic field ranges from 0.0 to 2.5 T. The activation energy of α-Fe 2 O 3 NWs for urea production is lower than NPs in the range of 0–1 T, whereas it is reversed for higher magnetic induction values. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the formation of urea at the peaks of 1690–1600 cm −1 . This green urea employing magnetically induced method could be a contender to the Haber-Bosch process currently used by the current industry which utilizes high temperature and high pressure

  6. Nanowire modified carbon fibers for enhanced electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvo, Mohammad Arif Ishtiaque; (Bill) Tseng, Tzu-Liang; Ashiqur Rahaman Khan, Md.; Karim, Hasanul; Morton, Philip; Delfin, Diego; Lin, Yirong

    2013-09-01

    The study of electrochemical super-capacitors has become one of the most attractive topics in both academia and industry as energy storage devices because of their high power density, long life cycles, and high charge/discharge efficiency. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the development of multifunctional structural energy storage devices such as structural super-capacitors for applications in aerospace, automobiles, and portable electronics. These multifunctional structural super-capacitors provide structures combining energy storage and load bearing functionalities, leading to material systems with reduced volume and/or weight. Due to their superior materials properties, carbon fiber composites have been widely used in structural applications for aerospace and automotive industries. Besides, carbon fiber has good electrical conductivity which will provide lower equivalent series resistance; therefore, it can be an excellent candidate for structural energy storage applications. Hence, this paper is focused on performing a pilot study for using nanowire/carbon fiber hybrids as building materials for structural energy storage materials; aiming at enhancing the charge/discharge rate and energy density. This hybrid material combines the high specific surface area of carbon fiber and pseudo-capacitive effect of metal oxide nanowires, which were grown hydrothermally in an aligned fashion on carbon fibers. The aligned nanowire array could provide a higher specific surface area that leads to high electrode-electrolyte contact area thus fast ion diffusion rates. Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction measurements are used for the initial characterization of this nanowire/carbon fiber hybrid material system. Electrochemical testing is performed using a potentio-galvanostat. The results show that gold sputtered nanowire carbon fiber hybrid provides 65.9% higher energy density than bare carbon fiber cloth as super-capacitor.

  7. Ballistic superconductivity in semiconductor nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Nowak, Michał P.; Wimmer, Michael; Zuo, Kun; Mourik, Vincent; de Vries, Folkert K.; van Veen, Jasper; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Bommer, Jouri D. S.; van Woerkom, David J.; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P.A.M.; Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Cassidy, Maja C.; Koelling, Sebastian; Goswami, Srijit; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have opened new research avenues in quantum transport owing to their confined geometry and electrostatic tunability. They have offered an exceptional testbed for superconductivity, leading to the realization of hybrid systems combining the macroscopic quantum properties of superconductors with the possibility to control charges down to a single electron. These advances brought semiconductor nanowires to the forefront of efforts to realize topological superconductivity and Majorana modes. A prime challenge to benefit from the topological properties of Majoranas is to reduce the disorder in hybrid nanowire devices. Here we show ballistic superconductivity in InSb semiconductor nanowires. Our structural and chemical analyses demonstrate a high-quality interface between the nanowire and a NbTiN superconductor that enables ballistic transport. This is manifested by a quantized conductance for normal carriers, a strongly enhanced conductance for Andreev-reflecting carriers, and an induced hard gap with a significantly reduced density of states. These results pave the way for disorder-free Majorana devices. PMID:28681843

  8. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Strategies are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them in full...

  9. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Memory Pieces are open compositions to be realised solo by an improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them...

  10. Methods for synthesizing metal oxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Kumar, Vivekanand; Kim, Jeong H.; Clark, Ezra Lee

    2016-08-09

    A method of synthesizing a metal oxide nanowire includes the steps of: combining an amount of a transition metal or a transition metal oxide with an amount of an alkali metal compound to produce a mixture; activating a plasma discharge reactor to create a plasma discharge; exposing the mixture to the plasma discharge for a first predetermined time period such that transition metal oxide nanowires are formed; contacting the transition metal oxide nanowires with an acid solution such that an alkali metal ion is exchanged for a hydrogen ion on each of the transition metal oxide nanowires; and exposing the transition metal oxide nanowires to the plasma discharge for a second predetermined time period to thermally anneal the transition metal oxide nanowires. Transition metal oxide nanowires produced using the synthesis methods described herein are also provided.

  11. Electrically Injected UV-Visible Nanowire Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Changyi; Li, Qiming; Liu, Sheng; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting -Shan; Chow, Weng W.; Leung, Benjamin; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lu, Tzu-Ming

    2015-09-01

    There is strong interest in minimizing the volume of lasers to enable ultracompact, low-power, coherent light sources. Nanowires represent an ideal candidate for such nanolasers as stand-alone optical cavities and gain media, and optically pumped nanowire lasing has been demonstrated in several semiconductor systems. Electrically injected nanowire lasers are needed to realize actual working devices but have been elusive due to limitations of current methods to address the requirement for nanowire device heterostructures with high material quality, controlled doping and geometry, low optical loss, and efficient carrier injection. In this project we proposed to demonstrate electrically injected single nanowire lasers emitting in the important UV to visible wavelengths. Our approach to simultaneously address these challenges is based on high quality III-nitride nanowire device heterostructures with precisely controlled geometries and strong gain and mode confinement to minimize lasing thresholds, enabled by a unique top-down nanowire fabrication technique.

  12. Nanowire failure: long = brittle and short = ductile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaoxuan; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Jhon, Mark H; Gao, Huajian; Srolovitz, David J

    2012-02-08

    Experimental studies of the tensile behavior of metallic nanowires show a wide range of failure modes, ranging from ductile necking to brittle/localized shear failure-often in the same diameter wires. We performed large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of copper nanowires with a range of nanowire lengths and provide unequivocal evidence for a transition in nanowire failure mode with change in nanowire length. Short nanowires fail via a ductile mode with serrated stress-strain curves, while long wires exhibit extreme shear localization and abrupt failure. We developed a simple model for predicting the critical nanowire length for this failure mode transition and showed that it is in excellent agreement with both the simulation results and the extant experimental data. The present results provide a new paradigm for the design of nanoscale mechanical systems that demarcates graceful and catastrophic failure. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  13. Diameter-dependent coloration of silver nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Mindy S; Qiu Chao; Jiang Chaoyang; Kattumenu, Ramesh; Singamaneni, Srikanth

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanowires were synthesized with a green method and characterized with microscopic and diffractometric methods. The correlation between the colors of the nanowires deposited on a solid substrate and their diameters was explored. Silver nanowires that appear similar in color in the optical micrographs have very similar diameters as determined by atomic force microscopy. We have summarized the diameter-dependent coloration for these silver nanowires. An optical interference model was applied to explain such correlation. In addition, microreflectance spectra were obtained from individual nanowires and the observed spectra can be explained with the optical interference theory. This work provides a cheap, quick and simple screening method for studying the diameter distribution of silver nanowires, as well as the diameter variations of individual silver nanowires, without complicated sample preparation.

  14. Different growth regimes in InP nanowire growth mediated by Ag nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D S; Zavarize, M; Tizei, L H G; Walls, M; Ospina, C A; Iikawa, F; Ugarte, D; Cotta, M A

    2017-12-15

    We report on the existence of two different regimes in one-step Ag-seeded InP nanowire growth. The vapor-liquid-solid-mechanism is present at larger In precursor flows and temperatures, ∼500 °C, yielding high aspect ratio and pure wurtzite InP nanowires with a semi-spherical metal particle at the thin apex. Periodic diameter oscillations can be achieved under extreme In supersaturations at this temperature range, showing the presence of a liquid catalyst. However, under lower temperatures and In precursor flows, large diameter InP nanowires with mixed wurtzite/zincblende segments are obtained, similarly to In-assisted growth. Chemical composition analysis suggest that In-rich droplet formation is catalyzed at the substrate surface via Ag nanoparticles; this process might be facilitated by the sulfur contamination detected in these nanoparticles. Furthermore, part of the original Ag nanoparticle remains solid and is embedded inside the actual catalyst, providing an in situ method to switch growth mechanisms upon changing In precursor flow. Nevertheless, our Ag-seeded InP nanowires exhibit overall optical emission spectra consistent with the observed structural properties and similar to Au-catalyzed InP nanowires. We thus show that Ag nanoparticles may be a suitable replacement for Au in InP nanowire growth.

  15. Overweight and obesity in Slovak high school students and body composition indicators: a non-randomized cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Vadasova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical development can be considered as an indicator of the overall health status of the youth population. Currently, it appears that the increasing trend of the prevalence of obesity among children and youths has stopped in a number of countries worldwide. Studies point to the fact that adolescence is a critical period for the development of obesity. Body mass index (BMI seems to be an orientation parameter in the assessment of prevalence of obesity which is not sufficient for more accurate identification of at risk individuals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate association between BMI percentile zones as health-risk for being overweight and obese and body composition indicators in high-school students from the Prešov (Slovakia region. Methods A non-randomized cross-sectional study in high school students from the Prešov (Slovakia region was conducted. The research sample consisted of 1014 participants (boys n = 466, girls n = 549. Body composition was measured using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (DSM-BIA. To examine the association between obesity and selected body composition indicators, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Eta2 were used. The relationship between selected body composition indicators and percentile BMI zones was determined using the Kendall tau correlation. Results In groups with different BMI percentile zones (normal weight, overweight, obese, ANOVA showed significant differences for girls and boys (p ˂.05 with high effect size (η2 ˂.26 in body weight, body fat mass index, body fat percentage, fat free mass index, fat-free mass percentage, visceral fat area, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference, protein mass and mineral mass. The highest degree of correlation among boys was between BMI values indicating overweight and obesity and fat free mass index and waist circumference, respectively (τ = .71, τ = .70, respectively. In girls, the highest

  16. Tunneling magnetoresistance in Si nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique

    2016-11-09

    We investigate the tunneling magnetoresistance of small diameter semiconducting Si nanowires attached to ferromagnetic Fe electrodes, using first principles density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green\\'s functions method for quantum transport. Silicon nanowires represent an interesting platform for spin devices. They are compatible with mature silicon technology and their intrinsic electronic properties can be controlled by modifying the diameter and length. Here we systematically study the spin transport properties for neutral nanowires and both n and p doping conditions. We find a substantial low bias magnetoresistance for the neutral case, which halves for an applied voltage of about 0.35 V and persists up to 1 V. Doping in general decreases the magnetoresistance, as soon as the conductance is no longer dominated by tunneling.

  17. Tensor of effective susceptibility in random magnetic composites: Application to two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posnansky, Oleg P.

    2018-05-01

    The measuring of dynamic magnetic susceptibility by nuclear magnetic resonance is used for revealing information about the internal structure of various magnetoactive composites. The response of such material on the applied external static and time-varying magnetic fields encodes intrinsic dynamic correlations and depends on links between macroscopic effective susceptibility and structure on the microscopic scale. In the current work we carried out computational analysis of the frequency dependent dynamic magnetic susceptibility and demonstrated its dependence on the microscopic architectural elements while also considering Euclidean dimensionality. The proposed numerical method is efficient in the simulation of nuclear magnetic resonance experiments in two- and three-dimensional random magnetic media by choosing and modeling the influence of the concentration of components and internal hierarchical characteristics of physical parameters.

  18. New surface plasmon polariton waveguide based on GaN nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhu

    Full Text Available Lasers are nowadays widely used in industry, in hospitals and in many devices that we have at home. Random laser development is challenging given its high threshold and low integration. Surface plasmon polariton (SPP can improve random laser characteristics because of its ability to control diffraction. In this study, we establish a random laser structural model with silicon-based parcel GaN nanowires. The GaN nanowire gain and enhanced surface plasmon increase population inversion level. Our laser model is based on random particle scattering feedback mechanism, nanowire use, and surface plasmon enhancement effect, which causes stochastic laser emergence. Analysis shows that the SPP mode and nanowire waveguides coupled in the dielectric layer of low refractive index can store light energy like a capacitor under low refractive index clearance. The waveguide mode field area and limiting factors show that the modeled laser can achieve sub-wavelength constraints of the output light field. We also investigate emergent laser performance for a more limited light field capacity and lower threshold. Keywords: Random laser, Surface plasmon polariton, Feedback mechanism, Low threshold, Subwavelength constraints

  19. Epitaxial nanowire formation in metamorphic GaAs/GaPAs short-period superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nan; Ahrenkiel, S. Phillip

    2017-07-01

    Metamorphic growth presents routes to novel nanomaterials with unique properties that may be suitable for a range of applications. We discuss self-assembled, epitaxial nanowires formed during metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of metamorphic GaAs/GaPAs short-period superlattices. The heterostructures incorporate strain-engineered GaPAs compositional grades on 6°-B miscut GaAs substrates. Lateral diffusion within the SPS into vertically aligned, three-dimensional columns results in nanowires extending along A directions with a lateral period of 70-90 nm. The microstructure is probed by transmission electron microscopy to confirm the presence of coherent GaAs nanowires within GaPAs barriers. The compositional profile is inferred from analysis of {200} dark-field image contrast and lattice images.

  20. Synthesis, microstructure, and physical properties of metallic barcode nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bum Chul; Kim, Young Keun

    2017-05-01

    With rapid progress in nanotechnology, nanostructured materials have come closer to our life. Single-component nanowires are actively investigated because of their novel properties, attributed to their nanoscale dimensions and adjustable aspect ratio, but their technical limitations cannot be resolved easily. Heterostructured nanomaterials gained attention as alternatives because they can improve the existing single-component structure or add new functions to it. Among them, barcode nanowires (BNWs), comprising at least two different functional segments, can perform multiple functions for use in biomedical sensors, information encoding and security, and catalysts. BNW applications require reliable response to the external field. Hence, researchers have been attempting to improve the reliability of synthesis and regulate the properties precisely. This article highlights the recent progress and prospects for the synthesis, properties, and applications of metallic BNWs with focus on the dependence of the magnetic, optical, and mechanical properties on material, composition, shape, and microstructure.

  1. X-ray diffraction analysis of InAs nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydok, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have attracted great interest as building blocks for future electronic and optoelectronic devices. The variability of the growth process opens the opportunity to control and combine the various properties tailoring for specific application. It was shown that the electrical and optical characteristics of the nanowires are strongly connected with their structure. Despite intensive research in this field, the growth process is still not fully understood. In particular, extensive real structure investigations are required. Most of the reports dedicated on the structural researches are based on the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SEM provides an image of the surface with nanostructures and is mainly used to describe the morphology of the sample, but it does not bring information about the internal structure, phase composition and defect structure. At the same time, the internal structure can be examined by TEM down to atomic scale. TEM image of good quality are very expensive due to the efforts in sample preparation and in localisation of a single object. All these aspects make the statistical structural analysis difficult. In the present work, X-ray diffraction analysis has been applied for structural investigation of InAs nanowires grown by different techniques. Using various X-ray diffraction geometries, the nanowire systems were investigated in terms of the lattice parameters, phase composition, strains and displacement fields and stacking defects. In particular, realizing grazing incidence diffraction and controlling the penetration depth of X-ray beam, we characterized sample series grown by Au-assisted metal organic phase epitaxy on GaAs [111]B substrate with different growth time. According to the results of SEM and X-ray investigations, a model of the growth process has been proposed. A more detailed analysis was performed on InAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on

  2. Randomized Clinical Trial of a Self-Adhering Flowable Composite for Class I Restorations: 2-Year Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sabbagh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the clinical performances of a self-adhering resin composite and a conventional flowable composite with a self-etch bonding system on permanent molars. The influence of using rubber dam versus cotton roll isolation was also investigated. Materials and Methods. Patients aged between 6 and 12 years and presenting at least two permanent molars in need of small class I restorations were selected. Thirty-four pairs of restorations were randomly placed by the same operator. Fifteen patients were treated under rubber dam and nineteen using cotton rolls isolation and saliva ejector. They were evaluated according to the modified USPHS criteria at baseline, 6 months, and 1 and 2 years by two independent evaluators. Results. All patients attended the two-year recall. For all measured variables, there was no significant difference between rubber dam and cotton after 2 years of restoration with Premise Flowable or Vertise Flow (p value > 0.05. The percentage of restorations scored alpha decreased significantly over time with Premise Flowable and Vertise Flow for marginal adaptation and surface texture as well as marginal discoloration while it did not vary significantly for color matching. After 2 years, Vertise Flow showed a similar behaviour to the Premise Flowable used with a self-adhesive resin system.

  3. Six-month bracket failure rate with a flowable composite: A split-mouth randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhuja Krishnan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The use of flowable composites as an orthodontic bonding adhesive merits great attention because of their adequate bond strength, ease of clinical handling and reduced number of steps in bonding. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this Randomized Controlled Trial was to comparatively evaluate over a 6-month period the bond failure rate of a flowable composite (Heliosit Orthodontic, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan and a conventional orthodontic bonding adhesive (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek. METHODS: 53 consecutive patients (23 males and 30 females who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. A total of 891 brackets were analyzed, where 444 brackets were bonded using Heliosit Orthodontic and 447 brackets were bonded using Transbond XT. The survival rates of brackets were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Bracket survival distributions for bonding adhesives, tooth location and dental arch were compared with the log-rank test. RESULTS: The failure rates of the Transbond XT and the Heliosit Orthodontic groups were 8.1% and 6% respectively. No significant differences in the survival rates were observed between them (p= 0.242. There was no statistically significant difference in the bond failure rates when the clinical performance of the maxillary versus the mandibular arches and the anterior versus the posterior segments were compared. CONCLUSIONS: Both systems had clinically acceptable bond failure rates and are adequate for orthodontic bonding needs.

  4. Three-dimensional random resistor-network model for solid oxide fuel cell composite electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbaspour, Ali; Luo Jingli; Nandakumar, K.

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional reconstruction of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) composite electrodes was developed to evaluate the performance and further investigate the effect of microstructure on the performance of SOFC electrodes. Porosity of the electrode is controlled by adding pore former particles (spheres) to the electrode and ignoring them in analysis step. To enhance connectivity between particles and increase the length of triple-phase boundary (TPB), sintering process is mimicked by enlarging particles to certain degree after settling them inside the packing. Geometrical characteristics such as length of TBP and active contact area as well as porosity can easily be calculated using the current model. Electrochemical process is simulated using resistor-network model and complete Butler-Volmer equation is used to deal with charge transfer process on TBP. The model shows that TPBs are not uniformly distributed across the electrode and location of TPBs as well as amount of electrochemical reaction is not uniform. Effects of electrode thickness, particle size ratio, electron and ion conductor conductivities and rate of electrochemical reaction on overall electrochemical performance of electrode are investigated.

  5. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on weight loss and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumme, Karen; Stonehouse, Welma

    2015-02-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) may result in negative energy balance and weight loss through increased energy expenditure and lipid oxidation. However, results from human intervention studies investigating the weight reducing potential of MCTs, have been mixed. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing the effects of MCTs, specifically C8:0 and C10:0, to long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) on weight loss and body composition in adults. Changes in blood lipid levels were secondary outcomes. Randomized controlled trials >3 weeks' duration conducted in healthy adults were identified searching Web of Knowledge, Discover, PubMed, Scopus, New Zealand Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL until March 2014 with no language restriction. Identified trials were assessed for bias. Mean differences were pooled and analyzed using inverse variance models with fixed effects. Heterogeneity between studies was calculated using I(2) statistic. An I(2)>50% or P<0.10 indicated heterogeneity. Thirteen trials (n=749) were identified. Compared with LCTs, MCTs decreased body weight (-0.51 kg [95% CI-0.80 to -0.23 kg]; P<0.001; I(2)=35%); waist circumference (-1.46 cm [95% CI -2.04 to -0.87 cm]; P<0.001; I(2)=0%), hip circumference (-0.79 cm [95% CI -1.27 to -0.30 cm]; P=0.002; I(2)=0%), total body fat (standard mean difference -0.39 [95% CI -0.57 to -0.22]; P<0.001; I(2)=0%), total subcutaneous fat (standard mean difference -0.46 [95% CI -0.64 to -0.27]; P<0.001; I(2)=20%), and visceral fat (standard mean difference -0.55 [95% CI -0.75 to -0.34]; P<0.001; I(2)=0%). No differences were seen in blood lipid levels. Many trials lacked sufficient information for a complete quality assessment, and commercial bias was detected. Although heterogeneity was absent, study designs varied with regard to duration, dose, and control of energy intake. Replacement of LCTs with MCTs in the diet could potentially induce modest reductions in body weight and composition

  6. Body composition influenced by progressive elastic band resistance exercise of sarcopenic obesity elderly women: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Ku, Jan-Wen; Lin, Li-Fong; Liao, Chun-De; Chou, Lin-Chuan; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2017-08-01

    Sarcopenia involves age-related decreases in muscle strength and muscle mass, leading to frailty and disability in elderly people. When combined with obesity, it is defined as sarcopenic obesity (SO), which can result in more functional limitations and metabolic disorders than either disorder alone. The aim of this study was to investigate body composition changes after elastic band resistance training in elderly women with SO. Randomized single-blinded (assessor blinded) controlled pilot trial. Academic medical center. Thirty-five elderly (>60 years old) women with SO. This pilot randomized controlled trial focused on elderly women with SO. The study group underwent progressive elastic band resistance training for 12 weeks (3 times per week). The control group received only a 40-minute lesson about the exercise concept. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed before and after intervention to evaluate body composition. Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to analyze the differences within and between these groups. In total, 35 elderly women with SO were enrolled and divided into study (N.=18) and control groups (N.=17). No difference was observed in age, biochemical parameters, or Body Mass Index between both groups. After the intervention, the fat proportion of body composition in the right upper extremity (P=0.03), left upper extremity (P=0.04), total fat (P=0.035), and fat percentage (P=0.012) had decreased, and bone mineral density (BMD) (P=0.026), T-score (P=0.028), and Z-score (P=0.021) had increased in the study group. Besides, statistical difference was observed in outcome measurements of right upper extremity (P=0.013), total fat (P=0.023), and fat percentage (P=0.012) between the groups. Our study demonstrated that progressive elastic band resistance exercise can reduce fat mass and increase BMD in elderly women with SO, and that this exercise program is feasible for this demographic. Additional studies with larger sample sizes

  7. New Insights into the Origins of Sb-Induced Effects on Self-Catalyzed GaAsSb Nanowire Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dingding; Dheeraj, Dasa L; Jin, Chengjun; Nilsen, Julie S; Huh, Junghwan; Reinertsen, Johannes F; Munshi, A Mazid; Gustafsson, Anders; van Helvoort, Antonius T J; Weman, Helge; Fimland, Bjørn-Ove

    2016-02-10

    Ternary semiconductor nanowire arrays enable scalable fabrication of nano-optoelectronic devices with tunable bandgap. However, the lack of insight into the effects of the incorporation of Vy element results in lack of control on the growth of ternary III-V(1-y)Vy nanowires and hinders the development of high-performance nanowire devices based on such ternaries. Here, we report on the origins of Sb-induced effects affecting the morphology and crystal structure of self-catalyzed GaAsSb nanowire arrays. The nanowire growth by molecular beam epitaxy is changed both kinetically and thermodynamically by the introduction of Sb. An anomalous decrease of the axial growth rate with increased Sb2 flux is found to be due to both the indirect kinetic influence via the Ga adatom diffusion induced catalyst geometry evolution and the direct composition modulation. From the fundamental growth analyses and the crystal phase evolution mechanism proposed in this Letter, the phase transition/stability in catalyst-assisted ternary III-V-V nanowire growth can be well explained. Wavelength tunability with good homogeneity of the optical emission from the self-catalyzed GaAsSb nanowire arrays with high crystal phase purity is demonstrated by only adjusting the Sb2 flux.

  8. Photonic nanowires for quantum optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munsch, M.; Claudon, J.; Bleuse, J.

    Photonic nanowires (PWs) are simple dielectric structures for which a very efficient and broadband spontaneous emission (SE) control has been predicted [1]. Recently, a single photon source featuring a record high efficiency was demonstrated using this geometry [2]. Using time-resolved micro-phot...

  9. Nanowire-based gas sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Wong, C.K.Y.; Yuan, C.A.; Zhang, G.

    2013-01-01

    Gas sensors fabricated with nanowires as the detecting elements are powerful due to their many improved characteristics such as high surface-to-volume ratios, ultrasensitivity, higher selectivity, low power consumption, and fast response. This paper gives an overview on the recent process of the

  10. Non-Random Variability in Functional Composition of Coral Reef Fish Communities along an Environmental Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plass-Johnson, Jeremiah G; Taylor, Marc H; Husain, Aidah A A; Teichberg, Mirta C; Ferse, Sebastian C A

    2016-01-01

    degradation of coral reefs is associated with increased variability in fish community functional composition resulting from selective impacts on specific traits, thereby affecting the functional response of these communities to increasing perturbations.

  11. Suppression of alloy fluctuations in GaAs-AlGaAs core-shell nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loitsch, Bernhard; Winnerl, Julia; Parzinger, Eric; Matich, Sonja; Wurstbauer, Ursula; Riedl, Hubert; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Finley, Jonathan J.; Koblmüller, Gregor [Walter Schottky Institut and Physik Department, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Jeon, Nari; Lauhon, Lincoln J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Döblinger, Markus [Department of Chemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, 81377 München (Germany)

    2016-08-29

    Probing localized alloy fluctuations and controlling them by growth kinetics have been relatively limited so far in nanoscale structures such as semiconductor nanowires (NWs). Here, we demonstrate the tuning of alloy fluctuations in molecular beam epitaxially grown GaAs-AlGaAs core-shell NWs by modifications of shell growth temperature, as investigated by correlated micro-photoluminescence, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography. By reducing the shell growth temperature from T > 600 °C to below 400 °C, we find a strong reduction in alloy fluctuation mediated sharp-line luminescence, concurrent with a decrease in the non-randomness of the alloy distribution in the AlGaAs shell. This trend is further characterized by a change in the alloy compositional structure from unintentional quasi-superlattices of Ga- and Al-rich AlGaAs layers at high T to a nearly homogeneous random alloy distribution at low T.

  12. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Cue Rondo is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound/video files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample, or the visuals will not appear at all....... Please DOWNLOAD them to see/hear them in full length! This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it, performance instructions as well as specially designated recordings, as long as the author is mentioned. Please see http...

  13. Magnetostatic Interaction in Fe-Co Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Elbaile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arrays of Fe-Co alloy nanowires with diameter around 35 nm and several micrometers in length have been synthesized by codepositing Fe and Co into porous anodic alumina. The morphology, structure, and magnetic properties of the nanowires (hysteresis loops and remanence curves were characterized by SEM, TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and VSM, respectively. The XRD patterns indicate that the Fe-Co nanowires present a body-centered cubic (bcc structure and a preferred (110 orientation perpendicular to the template surface. From the hysteresis loops obtained with the magnetic field applied in the axis direction of the nanowires, we can observe that the coercive field slightly decreases when the nanowire length increases. This magnetic behaviour is analyzed considering the shape anisotropy and the dipolar interactions among nanowires.

  14. Redox exchange induced MnO2 nanoparticle enrichment in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanowires for electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran; Duay, Jonathon; Lee, Sang Bok

    2010-07-27

    MnO2 nanoparticle enriched poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanowires are fabricated by simply soaking the PEDOT nanowires in potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution. The structures of these MnO2 nanoparticle enriched PEDOT nanowires are characterized by SEM and TEM, which show that the MnO2 nanoparticles have uniform sizes and are finely dispersed in the PEDOT matrix. The chemical constituents and bonding of these composite nanowires are characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy, which indicate that the formation and dispersion of these MnO2 nanoparticles into the nanoscale pores of the PEDOT nanowires are most likely triggered by the reduction of KMnO4 via the redox exchange of permanganate ions with the functional group on PEDOT. Varying the concentrations of KMnO4 and the reaction time controls the loading amount and size of the MnO2 nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge are used to characterize the electrochemical properties of these MnO2 nanoparticle loaded PEDOT nanowires. Due to their extremely high exposed surface area with nanosizes, the pristine MnO2 nanoparticles in these MnO2 nanoparticle enriched PEDOT nanowires show very high specific capacitance (410 F/g) as the supercapacitor electrode materials as well as high Li+ storage capacity (300 mAh/g) as cathode materials of Li ion battery, which boost the energy storage capacity of PEDOT nanowires to 4 times without causing excessive volume expansion in the polymer. The highly conductive and porous PEDOT matrix facilitates fast charge/discharge of the MnO2 nanoparticles and prevents them from agglomerating. These synergic properties enable the MnO2 nanoparticle enriched PEDOT nanowires to be promising electrode materials for supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries.

  15. Variability study of Si nanowire FETs with different junction gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Sik Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Random dopant fluctuation effects of gate-all-around Si nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs are investigated in terms of different diameters and junction gradients. The nanowire FETs with smaller diameters or shorter junction gradients increase relative variations of the drain currents and the mismatch of the drain currents between source-drain and drain-source bias change in the saturation regime. Smaller diameters decreased current drivability critically compared to standard deviations of the drain currents, thus inducing greater relative variations of the drain currents. Shorter junction gradients form high potential barriers in the source-side lightly-doped extension regions at on-state, which determines the magnitude of the drain currents and fluctuates the drain currents greatly under thermionic-emission mechanism. On the other hand, longer junction gradients affect lateral field to fluctuate the drain currents greatly. These physical phenomena coincide with correlations of the variations between drain currents and electrical parameters such as threshold voltages and parasitic resistances. The nanowire FETs with relatively-larger diameters and longer junction gradients without degrading short channel characteristics are suggested to minimize the relative variations and the mismatch of the drain currents.

  16. Piezoelectric-nanowire-enabled power source for driving wireless microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sheng; Hansen, Benjamin J; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2010-10-19

    Harvesting energy from irregular/random mechanical actions in variable and uncontrollable environments is an effective approach for powering wireless mobile electronics to meet a wide range of applications in our daily life. Piezoelectric nanowires are robust and can be stimulated by tiny physical motions/disturbances over a range of frequencies. Here, we demonstrate the first chemical epitaxial growth of PbZr(x)Ti(1-x)O(3) (PZT) nanowire arrays at 230 °C and their application as high-output energy converters. The nanogenerators fabricated using a single array of PZT nanowires produce a peak output voltage of ~0.7 V, current density of 4 μA cm(-2) and an average power density of 2.8 mW cm(-3). The alternating current output of the nanogenerator is rectified, and the harvested energy is stored and later used to light up a commercial laser diode. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using nanogenerators for powering mobile and even personal microelectronics.

  17. Threshold Switching Induced by Controllable Fragmentation in Silver Nanowire Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Tao; Pan, Ying; Du, Haiwei; Qu, Bo; Yi, Jiabao; Chu, Dewei

    2018-01-24

    Silver nanowire (Ag NW) networks have been widely studied because of a great potential in various electronic devices. However, nanowires usually undergo a fragmentation process at elevated temperatures due to the Rayleigh instability that is a result of reduction of surface/interface energy. In this case, the nanowires become completely insulating due to the formation of randomly distributed Ag particles with a large distance and further applications are hindered. Herein, we demonstrate a novel concept based on the combination of ultraviolet/ozone irradiation and a low-temperature annealing process to effectively utilize and control the fragmentation behavior to realize the resistive switching performances. In contrast to the conventional fragmentation, the designed Ag/AgO x interface facilitates a unique morphology of short nanorod-like segments or chains of tiny Ag nanoparticles with a very small spacing distance, providing conduction paths for achieving the tunneling process between the isolated fragments under the electric field. On the basis of this specific morphology, the Ag NW network has a tunable resistance and shows volatile threshold switching characteristics with a high selectivity, which is the ON/OFF current ratio in selector devices. Our concept exploits a new function of Ag NW network, i.e., resistive switching, which can be developed by designing a controllable fragmentation.

  18. Novel epoxy-silicone thermolytic transparent packaging adhesives chemical modified by ZnO nanowires for HB LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Ying; Wang Junan; Pei Changlong; Song Jizhong; Zhu Di; Chen Jie

    2010-01-01

    A novel high transparent thermolytic epoxy-silicone for high-brightness light-emitting diode (HB-LED) is introduced, which was synthesized by polymerization using silicone matrix via diglycidyl ether bisphenol-A epoxy resin (DGEBA) as reinforcing agent, and filling ZnO nanowires to modify thermal conductivity and control refractive index of the hybrid material. The interactions of ZnO nanowires with polymers are mediated by the ligands attached to the nanoparticles. Thus, the ligands markedly influence the properties of ZnO nanowires/epoxy-silicone composites. The refractive indices of the prepared hybrid adhesives can be tuned by the ZnO nanowires from 1.4711 to 1.5605. Light transmittance can be increased by 20% from 80 to 95%. The thermal conductivity of the transparent packaging adhesives is 0.89-0.90 W/mK.

  19. InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire white light emitting diodes on (001) silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Wei; Banerjee, Animesh; Bhattacharya, Pallab K.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2011-01-01

    High density (? 1011 cm-2) GaN nanowires and InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire heterostructures have been grown on (001) silicon substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The nanowires exhibit excellent uniformity in length and diameter and a broad emission is obtained by incorporating InGaN disks of varying composition along the length of the nanowires. Monolithic lighting emitting diodes were fabricated with appropriate n- and p-doping of contact layers. White light emission with chromaticity coordinates of x=0.29 and y=0.37 and a correlated color temperature of 5500-6500 K at an injection current of 50 A/ cm2 is measured. The measured external quantum efficiency of the devices do not exhibit any rollover (droop) up to an injection current density of 400 A/ cm2. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  20. A six-year prospective randomized study of a nano-hybrid and a conventional hybrid resin composite in Class II restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this 6 year prospective randomized equivalence trial was to evaluate the long-term clinical performance of a new nano-hybrid resin composite (RC) in Class II restorations in an intraindividual comparison with its well-established conventional hybrid RC predecessor....

  1. Enhanced ionized impurity scattering in nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jung Hyun; Lee, Seok-Hee; Shin, Mincheol

    2013-06-01

    The electronic resistivity in silicon nanowires is investigated by taking into account scattering as well as the donor deactivation from the dielectric mismatch. The effects of poorly screened dopant atoms from the dielectric mismatch and variable carrier density in nanowires are found to play a crucial role in determining the nanowire resistivity. Using Green's function method within the self-consistent Born approximation, it is shown that donor deactivation and ionized impurity scattering combined with the charged interface traps successfully to explain the increase in the resistivity of Si nanowires while reducing the radius, measured by Björk et al. [Nature Nanotech. 4, 103 (2009)].

  2. Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong [El Cerrito, CA; Choi, Heonjin [Seoul, KR; Lee, Sangkwon [Daejeon, KR; He, Rongrui [Albany, CA; Zhang, Yanfeng [El Cerrito, CA; Kuykendal, Tevye [Berkeley, CA; Pauzauskie, Peter [Berkeley, CA

    2011-08-23

    A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.

  3. A generic approach for vertical integration of nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latu-Romain, E; Gilet, P; Noel, P; Garcia, J; Ferret, P; Rosina, M; Feuillet, G; Levy, F; Chelnokov, A

    2008-01-01

    We report on the collective integration technology of vertically aligned nanowires (NWs). Si and ZnO NWs have been used in order to develop a generic technological process. Both mineral and organic planarizations of the as-grown nanowires have been achieved. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) oxides, spin on glass (SOG), and polymer have been investigated as filling materials. Polishing and/or etching of the composite structures have been set up so as to obtain a suitable morphology for the top and bottom electrical contacts. Electrical and optical characterizations of the integrated NWs have been performed. Contacts ohmicity has been demonstrated and specific contact resistances have been reported. The photoconducting properties of polymer-integrated ZnO NWs have also been investigated in the UV-visible range through collective electrical contacts. A small increase of the resistivity in the ZnO NWs under sub-bandgap illumination has been observed and discussed. A comparison of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra at 300 K of the as-grown and SOG-integrated ZnO nanowires has shown no significant impact of the integration process on the crystal quality of the NWs

  4. A generic approach for vertical integration of nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latu-Romain, E; Gilet, P; Noel, P; Garcia, J; Ferret, P; Rosina, M; Feuillet, G; Levy, F; Chelnokov, A [CEA-LETI, MINATEC, 17 rue des Martyrs, Grenoble (France)

    2008-08-27

    We report on the collective integration technology of vertically aligned nanowires (NWs). Si and ZnO NWs have been used in order to develop a generic technological process. Both mineral and organic planarizations of the as-grown nanowires have been achieved. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) oxides, spin on glass (SOG), and polymer have been investigated as filling materials. Polishing and/or etching of the composite structures have been set up so as to obtain a suitable morphology for the top and bottom electrical contacts. Electrical and optical characterizations of the integrated NWs have been performed. Contacts ohmicity has been demonstrated and specific contact resistances have been reported. The photoconducting properties of polymer-integrated ZnO NWs have also been investigated in the UV-visible range through collective electrical contacts. A small increase of the resistivity in the ZnO NWs under sub-bandgap illumination has been observed and discussed. A comparison of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra at 300 K of the as-grown and SOG-integrated ZnO nanowires has shown no significant impact of the integration process on the crystal quality of the NWs.

  5. A generic approach for vertical integration of nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latu-Romain, E; Gilet, P; Noel, P; Garcia, J; Ferret, P; Rosina, M; Feuillet, G; Lévy, F; Chelnokov, A

    2008-08-27

    We report on the collective integration technology of vertically aligned nanowires (NWs). Si and ZnO NWs have been used in order to develop a generic technological process. Both mineral and organic planarizations of the as-grown nanowires have been achieved. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) oxides, spin on glass (SOG), and polymer have been investigated as filling materials. Polishing and/or etching of the composite structures have been set up so as to obtain a suitable morphology for the top and bottom electrical contacts. Electrical and optical characterizations of the integrated NWs have been performed. Contacts ohmicity has been demonstrated and specific contact resistances have been reported. The photoconducting properties of polymer-integrated ZnO NWs have also been investigated in the UV-visible range through collective electrical contacts. A small increase of the resistivity in the ZnO NWs under sub-bandgap illumination has been observed and discussed. A comparison of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra at 300 K of the as-grown and SOG-integrated ZnO nanowires has shown no significant impact of the integration process on the crystal quality of the NWs.

  6. Large-Area Cross-Aligned Silver Nanowire Electrodes for Flexible, Transparent, and Force-Sensitive Mechanochromic Touch Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seungse; Kang, Saewon; Pandya, Ashish; Shanker, Ravi; Khan, Ziyauddin; Lee, Youngsu; Park, Jonghwa; Craig, Stephen L; Ko, Hyunhyub

    2017-04-25

    Silver nanowire (AgNW) networks are considered to be promising structures for use as flexible transparent electrodes for various optoelectronic devices. One important application of AgNW transparent electrodes is the flexible touch screens. However, the performances of flexible touch screens are still limited by the large surface roughness and low electrical to optical conductivity ratio of random network AgNW electrodes. In addition, although the perception of writing force on the touch screen enables a variety of different functions, the current technology still relies on the complicated capacitive force touch sensors. This paper demonstrates a simple and high-throughput bar-coating assembly technique for the fabrication of large-area (>20 × 20 cm 2 ), highly cross-aligned AgNW networks for transparent electrodes with the sheet resistance of 21.0 Ω sq -1 at 95.0% of optical transmittance, which compares favorably with that of random AgNW networks (sheet resistance of 21.0 Ω sq -1 at 90.4% of optical transmittance). As a proof of concept demonstration, we fabricate flexible, transparent, and force-sensitive touch screens using cross-aligned AgNW electrodes integrated with mechanochromic spiropyran-polydimethylsiloxane composite film. Our force-sensitive touch screens enable the precise monitoring of dynamic writings, tracing and drawing of underneath pictures, and perception of handwriting patterns with locally different writing forces. The suggested technique provides a robust and powerful platform for the controllable assembly of nanowires beyond the scale of conventional fabrication techniques, which can find diverse applications in multifunctional flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  7. Solution-Grown Silicon Nanowires for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Candace K.

    2010-03-23

    Composite electrodes composed of silicon nanowires synthesized using the supercritical fluid-liquid-solid (SFLS) method mixed with amorphous carbon or carbon nanotubes were evaluated as Li-ion battery anodes. Carbon coating of the silicon nanowires using the pyrolysis of sugar was found to be crucial for making good electronic contact to the material. Using multiwalled carbon nanotubes as the conducting additive was found to be more effective for obtaining good cycling behavior than using amorphous carbon. Reversible capacities of 1500 mAh/g were observed for 30 cycles. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. Solution-grown silicon nanowires for lithium-ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Candace K; Patel, Reken N; O'Connell, Michael J; Korgel, Brian A; Cui, Yi

    2010-03-23

    Composite electrodes composed of silicon nanowires synthesized using the supercritical fluid-liquid-solid (SFLS) method mixed with amorphous carbon or carbon nanotubes were evaluated as Li-ion battery anodes. Carbon coating of the silicon nanowires using the pyrolysis of sugar was found to be crucial for making good electronic contact to the material. Using multiwalled carbon nanotubes as the conducting additive was found to be more effective for obtaining good cycling behavior than using amorphous carbon. Reversible capacities of 1500 mAh/g were observed for 30 cycles.

  9. Efficient photogeneration of charge carriers in silicon nanowires with a radial doping gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, D H K; Houtepen, A J; Savenije, T J; Siebbeles, L D A; Xu, T; Nys, J P; Krzeminski, C; Grandidier, B; Stievenard, D; Chen, W H; Pareige, P; Jomard, F; Patriarche, G; Lebedev, O I

    2011-01-01

    by performing electrodeless time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements, the efficiency of charge carrier generation, their mobility, and the decay kinetics on photoexcitation were studied in arrays of Si nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. Large enhancements in the magnitude of the photoconductance and charge carrier lifetime are found depending on the incorporation of impurities during the growth. They are explained by the internal electric field that builds up, due to higher doped sidewalls, as revealed by detailed analysis of the nanowire morphology and chemical composition.

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of Si and Sr co-substituted hydroxyapatite nanowires using strontium containing calcium silicate as precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Na; Zhai, Dong; Chen, Lei; Zou, Zhaoyong; Lin, Kaili; Chang, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of any organic surfactants and solvents, the silicon (Si) and strontium (Sr) co-substituted hydroxyapatite [Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , Si/Sr-HAp] nanowires were synthesized via hydrothermal treatment of the Sr-containing calcium silicate (Sr-CS) powders as the precursors in trisodium phosphate (Na 3 PO 4 ) aqueous solution. The morphology, phase, chemical compositions, lattice constants and the degradability of the products were characterized. The Si/Sr-HAp nanowires with diameter of about 60 nm and up to 2 μm in length were obtained after hydrothermal treatment of the Sr-CS precursors. The Sr and Si substitution amount of the HAp nanowires could be well regulated by facile tailoring the Sr substitution level of the precursors and the reaction ratio of the precursor/solution, respectively. The SiO 4 tetrahedra and Sr 2+ ions occupied the crystal sites of the HAp, and the lattice constants increased apparently with the increase of the substitution amount. EDS mapping also suggested the uniform distribution of Si and Sr in the synthetic nanowires. Moreover, the Si/Sr-substitution apparently improved the degradability of the HAp materials. Our study suggested that the precursor transformation method provided a facile approach to synthesize the Si/Sr co-substituted HAp nanowires with controllable substitution amount, and the synthetic Si/Sr-HAp nanowires might be used as bioactive materials for hard tissue regeneration applications. - Highlights: • Si/Sr-HAp nanowires were hydrothermally transformed from Sr x -CaSiO 3 precursors. • The Si/Sr-substitution level could be facilely regulated. • The nanowire-like morphology and composition could be simultaneously regulated

  11. Electrochemically synthesized amorphous and crystalline nanowires: dissimilar nanomechanical behavior in comparison with homologous flat films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeshan, M. A.; Esqué-de Los Ojos, D.; Castro-Hartmann, P.; Guerrero, M.; Nogués, J.; Suriñach, S.; Baró, M. D.; Nelson, B. J.; Pané, S.; Pellicer, E.; Sort, J.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of constrained sample dimensions on the mechanical behavior of crystalline materials have been extensively investigated. However, there is no clear understanding of these effects in nano-sized amorphous samples. Herein, nanoindentation together with finite element simulations are used to compare the properties of crystalline and glassy CoNi(Re)P electrodeposited nanowires (φ ~ 100 nm) with films (3 μm thick) of analogous composition and structure. The results reveal that amorphous nanowires exhibit a larger hardness, lower Young's modulus and higher plasticity index than glassy films. Conversely, the very large hardness and higher Young's modulus of crystalline nanowires are accompanied by a decrease in plasticity with respect to the homologous crystalline films. Remarkably, proper interpretation of the mechanical properties of the nanowires requires taking the curved geometry of the indented surface and sink-in effects into account. These findings are of high relevance for optimizing the performance of new, mechanically-robust, nanoscale materials for increasingly complex miniaturized devices.The effects of constrained sample dimensions on the mechanical behavior of crystalline materials have been extensively investigated. However, there is no clear understanding of these effects in nano-sized amorphous samples. Herein, nanoindentation together with finite element simulations are used to compare the properties of crystalline and glassy CoNi(Re)P electrodeposited nanowires (φ ~ 100 nm) with films (3 μm thick) of analogous composition and structure. The results reveal that amorphous nanowires exhibit a larger hardness, lower Young's modulus and higher plasticity index than glassy films. Conversely, the very large hardness and higher Young's modulus of crystalline nanowires are accompanied by a decrease in plasticity with respect to the homologous crystalline films. Remarkably, proper interpretation of the mechanical properties of the nanowires

  12. An innovative large scale integration of silicon nanowire-based field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legallais, M.; Nguyen, T. T. T.; Mouis, M.; Salem, B.; Robin, E.; Chenevier, P.; Ternon, C.

    2018-05-01

    Since the early 2000s, silicon nanowire field effect transistors are emerging as ultrasensitive biosensors while offering label-free, portable and rapid detection. Nevertheless, their large scale production remains an ongoing challenge due to time consuming, complex and costly technology. In order to bypass these issues, we report here on the first integration of silicon nanowire networks, called nanonet, into long channel field effect transistors using standard microelectronic process. A special attention is paid to the silicidation of the contacts which involved a large number of SiNWs. The electrical characteristics of these FETs constituted by randomly oriented silicon nanowires are also studied. Compatible integration on the back-end of CMOS readout and promising electrical performances open new opportunities for sensing applications.

  13. Direct observation of stochastic domain-wall depinning in magnetic nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Mi-Young; Bocklage, Lars; Fischer, Peter; Meier, Guido

    2008-11-01

    The stochastic field-driven depinning of a domain wall pinned at a notch in a magnetic nanowire is directly observed using magnetic X-ray microscopy with high lateral resolution down to 15 nm. The depinning-field distribution in Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} nanowires considerably depends on the wire width and the notch depth. The difference in the multiplicity of domain-wall types generated in the vicinity of a notch is responsible for the observed dependence of the stochastic nature of the domain wall depinning field on the wire width and the notch depth. Thus the random nature of the domain wall depinning process is controllable by an appropriate design of the nanowire.

  14. Asymmetric current-phase relation due to spin-orbit interaction in semiconductor nanowire Josephson junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Tomohiro; Eto, Mikio [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Nazarov, Yuli V. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft, The Netherlands (Netherlands)

    2013-12-04

    We theoretically study the current-phase relation in semiconductor nanowire Josephson junction in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. In the nanowire, the impurity scattering with strong SO interaction is taken into account using the random matrix theory. In the absence of magnetic field, the Josephson current I and phase difference φ between the superconductors satisfy the relation of I(φ) = –I(–φ). In the presence of magnetic field along the nanowire, the interplay between the SO interaction and Zeeman effect breaks the current-phase relation of I(φ) = –I(–φ). In this case, we show that the critical current depends on the current direction, which qualitatively agrees with recent experimental findings.

  15. Mean curvature and texture constrained composite weighted random walk algorithm for optic disc segmentation towards glaucoma screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rashmi; Puhan, N B; Panda, Ganapati

    2018-02-01

    Accurate optic disc (OD) segmentation is an important step in obtaining cup-to-disc ratio-based glaucoma screening using fundus imaging. It is a challenging task because of the subtle OD boundary, blood vessel occlusion and intensity inhomogeneity. In this Letter, the authors propose an improved version of the random walk algorithm for OD segmentation to tackle such challenges. The algorithm incorporates the mean curvature and Gabor texture energy features to define the new composite weight function to compute the edge weights. Unlike the deformable model-based OD segmentation techniques, the proposed algorithm remains unaffected by curve initialisation and local energy minima problem. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified with DRIVE, DIARETDB1, DRISHTI-GS and MESSIDOR database images using the performance measures such as mean absolute distance, overlapping ratio, dice coefficient, sensitivity, specificity and precision. The obtained OD segmentation results and quantitative performance measures show robustness and superiority of the proposed algorithm in handling the complex challenges in OD segmentation.

  16. Crystallization behavior and mechanical properties of nano-CaCO3/β-nucleated ethylene-propylene random copolymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Ruan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To provide ethylene-propylene random copolymer (PPR with balanced mechanical properties, β-nucleating agent and CaCO3 nanoparticles are incorporated into PPR matrix by melt blending. It is found that crystallization rate and relative content of β-crystal increase with the addition of β-nucleating agent together with nanoparticles. Size of PPR spherulite is greatly reduced, and a specific morphology appears, in which α-crystal lamella is grown upon the β-nucleus. The results suggest that both β-nucleating agent and nano-CaCO3 have heterogeneous nucleation and synergistic effects on β-nucleation of PPR. Mechanical characterization shows that mechanical properties of PPR can be tuned by incorporation of β-nucleating agent and nano-CaCO3 particles. Under suitable compositions, low temperature impact strength and high temperature creep resistance of PPR, the bottlenecks of application of such material, can be simultaneously improved without sacrificing the Youngs’modulus and tensile strength.

  17. Benefits of different intensity of aerobic exercise in modulating body composition among obese young adults: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chih-Hui; Ko, Ming-Chen; Wu, Long-Shan; Yeh, Ding-Peng; Kan, Nai-Wen; Lee, Po-Fu; Hsieh, Jenn-Woei; Tseng, Ching-Yu; Ho, Chien-Chang

    2017-08-24

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of different aerobic exercise intensities and energy expenditures on the body composition of sedentary obese college students in Taiwan. Forty-eight obese participants [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 27 kg/m 2 , age 18-26 years] were randomized into four equal groups (n = 12): light-intensity training group (LITG), 40%-50% heart rate reserve (HRR); middle-intensity training group (MITG), 50%-70% HRR; high-intensity training group (HITG), 70%-80% HRR; and control group (CG). The aerobic exercise training program was conducted for 60 min per day on a treadmill 3 days per week for 12 weeks. All participant anthropometric data, blood biochemical parameters, and health-related physical fitness components were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. At baseline, the anthropometric indices did not differ significantly among the four groups (p > 0.05). After 12-week exercise intervention, the HITG and MITG had significantly more changes in body weight, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) than the LITG. The changes in BMI and body fat percentage differed among all four groups (p exercise intervention with high energy expenditure can considerably reduce body weight, body fat, WC, WHR, and WHtR, whereas a light-intensity exercise intervention can significantly reduce body weight and body fat. Current Controlled Trials TPECTR09831410900 , registered on 24 th Dec 2009.

  18. Magnetic properties and crystalline structures of Fe{sub 21}Ni{sub 79} nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwan Hyi; Lee, Woo Young; Lee, Hwa Young; Jeung, Won Young [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-01

    Fe{sub 21}Ni{sub 79} nanowire arrays have been fabricated by the electroforming method using AAO (anodic aluminum oxide) as a template, which was prepared by anodizing the pure aluminum foil. According to the magnetic property of Fe{sub 21}Ni{sub 79} nanowire prepared, it was found to have the coercivity more than 1 kOe due to the shape anisotropy and squareness (Mr/Ms) very close to 1. Especially, it could be noted that Fe{sub 21}Ni{sub 79} nanowire showed the preferred crystallographic orientation of (220). Annealing treatment of Fe{sub 21}Ni{sub 79} nanowire at 500 degree C resulted in the enhancement of coercivity by 18% while the squareness was not varied by annealing treatment. However, the random orientation of Fe{sub 21}Ni{sub 79} disk and the preferred orientation of nanowire arrays were maintained without respect to the annealing treatment up to 500 degree C.

  19. Terahertz plasmon and surface-plasmon modes in cylindrical metallic nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ping; Xu Wen; Li Long-Long; Lu Tie-Cheng; Wu Wei-Dong

    2014-01-01

    We present a theoretical study on collective excitation modes associated with plasmon and surface-plasmon oscillations in cylindrical metallic nanowires. Based on a two-subband model, the dynamical dielectric function matrix is derived under the random-phase approximation. An optic-like branch and an acoustic-like branch, which are free of Landau damping, are observed for both plasmon and surface-plasmon modes. Interestingly, for surface-plasmon modes, we find that two branches of the dispersion relation curves converge at a wavevector q z = q max beyond which no surface-plasmon mode exists. Moreover, we examine the dependence of these excitation modes on sample parameters such as the radius of the nanowires. It is found that in metallic nanowires realized by state-of-the-art nanotechnology the intra- and inter-subband plasmon and surface-plasmon frequencies are in the terahertz bandwidth. The frequency of the optic-like modes decreases with increasing radius of the nanowires, whereas that of the acoustic-like modes is not sensitive to the variation of the radius. This study is pertinent to the application of metallic nanowires as frequency-tunable terahertz plasmonic devices. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  20. PREFACE: Synthesis and integration of nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, L.

    2006-06-01

    The field of semiconductor nanowires has attracted much attention in recent years, from the areas of basic materials science, advanced characterization and technology, as well as from the perspective of the applications of nanowires. Research on large-sized whiskers and wires had already begun in the 1960s with the pioneering work of Wagner, as well as by other researchers. It was, however, in the early 1990s that Kenji Hiruma at Hitachi Central Research Laboratories in Japan first succeeded in developing methods for the growth of nanowires with dimensions on the scale of 10-100 nm, thereby initiating the field of growth and applications of nanowires, with a strong emphasis on epitaxial nucleation of nanowires on a single-crystalline substrate. Starting from the mid-1990s, the field developed very rapidly with the number of papers on the subject growing from ten per year to several thousand papers on the subject published annually today, although with a rather generous definition of the concept of nanowires. With this rapid development we have seen many new and different approaches to the growth of nanowires, technological advances leading to a more well-controlled formation of nanowires, new innovative methods for the characterization of structures, as well as a wealth of approaches towards the use of nanowires in electronics, photonics and sensor applications. This issue contains contributions from many different laboratories, each adding significant detail to the development of the field of research. The contributions cover issues such as basic growth, advanced characterization and technology, and application of nanowires. I would like to acknowledge the shared responsibilities for this special issue of Nanotechnology on the synthesis and integration of nanowires with my co-Editors, S Tong Lee and M Sunkara, as well as the highly professional support from Dr Nina Couzin, Dr Ian Forbes and the Nanotechnology team from the Institute of Physics Publishing.

  1. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanoclusters of ZnS Comprised on Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Willander

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide cationic (CTAB surfactant was used as template for the synthesis of nanoclusters of ZnS composed of nanowires, by hydrothermal method. The structural and morphological studies were performed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM techniques. The synthesized ZnS nanoclusters are composed of nanowires and high yield on the substrate was observed. The ZnS nanocrystalline consists of hexagonal phase and polycrystalline in nature. The chemical composition of ZnS nanoclusters composed of nanowires was studied by X-ray photo electron microscopy (XPS. This investigation has shown that the ZnS nanoclusters are composed of Zn and S atoms.

  2. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanoclusters of ZnS Comprised on Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Liu, Xianjie; Willander, Magnus

    2013-09-09

    Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide cationic (CTAB) surfactant was used as template for the synthesis of nanoclusters of ZnS composed of nanowires, by hydrothermal method. The structural and morphological studies were performed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. The synthesized ZnS nanoclusters are composed of nanowires and high yield on the substrate was observed. The ZnS nanocrystalline consists of hexagonal phase and polycrystalline in nature. The chemical composition of ZnS nanoclusters composed of nanowires was studied by X-ray photo electron microscopy (XPS). This investigation has shown that the ZnS nanoclusters are composed of Zn and S atoms.

  3. ZnTe Amorphous Semiconductor Nanowires Array Electrodeposited into Polycarbonate Membrane Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgai, T; Ikeda, T; Ohta, J

    2013-01-01

    ZnTe amorphous semiconductor nanowires array was electrodeposited into the nanochannels of ion-track etched polycarbonate membrane thin films from acidic aqueous solution at 313 K. ZnTe electrodeposits with Zn-rich composition was obtained over the wide range of cathode potential from −0.8 V to −1.1 V and the growth rate of ZnTe amorphous nanowires was around 3 nm.sec −1 at the cathode potential of −0.8 V. Cylindrical shape of the nanowires was precisely transferred from the nanochannels and the aspect ratio reached up to ca. 40. ZnTe amorphous phase electrodeposited at 313 K was crystallized by annealing at 683 K and the band gap energy of ZnTe crystalline phase reached up to ca. 2.13 eV.

  4. Electrodeposition of high-density lithium vanadate nanowires for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Kang; Li, Xiujuan; Fang, Dong; Yi, Jianhong; Bao, Rui; Luo, Zhiping

    2018-07-01

    Lithium vanadate nanowires have been electrodeposited onto a titanium (Ti) foil by a direct current electrodeposition without template. The morphology, crystal structure, and the effects of deposition voltage, temperature and time on the prepared samples were tested and presented. The as-prepared lithium vanadate nanowires/Ti composite can be used as electrode for lithium-ion battery. Electrochemical measurements showed that the electrode displayed a specific discharge capacitance as high as 235.1 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 30 mA g-1. This research provides a new pathway to explore high tap density vanadates nanowires on metals with enhanced electrochemical performance.

  5. Nanowire NMOS Logic Inverter Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Yasir

    2016-06-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate characteristics optimization of nanowire N-Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (NW-MOS) logic inverter. Noise margins and inflection voltage of transfer characteristics are used as limiting factors in this optimization. A computer-based model used to produce static characteristics of NW-NMOS logic inverter. In this research two circuit configuration of NW-NMOS inverter was studied, in first NW-NMOS circuit, the noise margin for (low input-high output) condition was very low. For second NMOS circuit gives excellent noise margins, and results indicate that optimization depends on applied voltage to the inverter. Increasing gate to source voltage with (2/1) nanowires ratio results better noise margins. Increasing of applied DC load transistor voltage tends to increasing in decreasing noise margins; decreasing this voltage will improve noise margins significantly.

  6. Electrochemical Synthesis of Mesoporous CoPt Nanowires for Methanol Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Serrà

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new electrochemical method to synthesize mesoporous nanowires of alloys has been developed. Electrochemical deposition in ionic liquid-in-water (IL/W microemulsion has been successful to grow mesoporous CoPt nanowires in the interior of polycarbonate membranes. The viscosity of the medium was high, but it did not avoid the entrance of the microemulsion in the interior of the membrane’s channels. The structure of the IL/W microemulsions, with droplets of ionic liquid (4 nm average diameter dispersed in CoPt aqueous solution, defined the structure of the nanowires, with pores of a few nanometers, because CoPt alloy deposited only from the aqueous component of the microemulsion. The electrodeposition in IL/W microemulsion allows obtaining mesoporous structures in which the small pores must correspond to the size of the droplets of the electrolytic aqueous component of the microemulsion. The IL main phase is like a template for the confined electrodeposition. The comparison of the electrocatalytic behaviours towards methanol oxidation of mesoporous and compact CoPt nanowires of the same composition, demonstrated the porosity of the material. For the same material mass, the CoPt mesoporous nanowires present a surface area 16 times greater than compact ones, and comparable to that observed for commercial carbon-supported platinum nanoparticles.

  7. Effects of Precursor-Substrate Distances on the Growth of GaN Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available GaN nanowires were synthesized through the Ni-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD method using Ga2O3/GaN mixtures as gallium sources, and precursor-substrate distances were investigated as the important factor for the growth of GaN nanowires. The microstructure, composition, and photoluminescence property were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence spectra. The results showed that single crystalline GaN nanowires with the diameter of about 90 nm and the length up to tens of micrometers had been grown thickly across Si (100 substrates with uniform density. Moreover, the variations of the GaN nanowire morphology, density, and size were largely attributed to substrate positions which would influence Ga precursor density in the carrier gas, the saturation degree of gaseous reactants, and the catalyst activity, respectively, in the fabrication of GaN nanowires by the vapour liquid solid mechanism.

  8. The preparation and cathodoluminescence of ZnS nanowires grown by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng-Wen; Cheng, Yin-Wei; Pan, Ko-Ying; Chang, Chen-Chuan; Shieu, F. S.; Shih, Han C.

    2012-11-01

    Single crystal ZnS nanowires were successfully synthesized in large quantities on Si (1 0 0) substrates by simple thermal chemical vapor deposition without using any catalyst. The morphology, composition, and crystal structure were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy. SEM observations show that the nanowires have diameters about 20-50 nm and lengths up to several tens of micrometers. XRD and TEM results confirmed that the nanowires exhibited both wurtzite and zinc blende structures with growth directions aligned along [0 0 0 2] and [1 1 1], respectively. The CL spectrum revealed emission bands in the UV and blue regions. The blue emissions at 449 and ˜581 nm were attributed to surface states and impurity-related defects of the nanowires, respectively. The perfect crystal structure of the nanowires indicates their potential applications in nanotechnology and in the fabrication of nanodevices.

  9. Fabrication of free-standing copper foils covered with highly-ordered copper nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaraska, Leszek; Sulka, Grzegorz D.; Jaskuła, Marian

    2012-07-01

    The through-hole nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with relatively large surface area (ca. 2 cm2) were employed for fabrication of free-standing and mechanically stable copper foils covered with close-packed and highly-ordered copper nanowire arrays. The home-made AAO membranes with different pore diameters and interpore distances were fabricated via a two-step self-organized anodization of aluminum performed in sulfuric acid, oxalic acid and phosphoric acid followed by the pore opening/widening procedure. The direct current (DC) electrodeposition of copper was performed efficiently on both sides of AAO templates. The bottom side of the AAO templates was not insulated and consequently Cu nanowire arrays on thick Cu layers were obtained. The proposed template-assisted fabrication of free-standing copper nanowire array electrodes is a promising method for synthesis of nanostructured current collectors. The composition of Cu nanowires was confirmed by energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The structural features of nanowires were evaluated from field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images and compared with the characteristic parameters of anodic alumina membranes.

  10. Fabrication of free-standing copper foils covered with highly-ordered copper nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaraska, Leszek; Sulka, Grzegorz D.; Jaskuła, Marian

    2012-01-01

    The through-hole nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with relatively large surface area (ca. 2 cm 2 ) were employed for fabrication of free-standing and mechanically stable copper foils covered with close-packed and highly-ordered copper nanowire arrays. The home-made AAO membranes with different pore diameters and interpore distances were fabricated via a two-step self-organized anodization of aluminum performed in sulfuric acid, oxalic acid and phosphoric acid followed by the pore opening/widening procedure. The direct current (DC) electrodeposition of copper was performed efficiently on both sides of AAO templates. The bottom side of the AAO templates was not insulated and consequently Cu nanowire arrays on thick Cu layers were obtained. The proposed template-assisted fabrication of free-standing copper nanowire array electrodes is a promising method for synthesis of nanostructured current collectors. The composition of Cu nanowires was confirmed by energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The structural features of nanowires were evaluated from field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images and compared with the characteristic parameters of anodic alumina membranes.

  11. Ordered ZnO/AZO/PAM nanowire arrays prepared by seed-layer-assisted electrochemical deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yu-Min; Pan, Chih-Huang; Wang, Sheng-Chang; Huang, Jow-Lay

    2011-01-01

    An Al-doped ZnO (AZO) seed layer is prepared on the back side of a porous alumina membrane (PAM) substrate by spin coating followed by annealing in a vacuum at 400 °C. Zinc oxide in ordered arrays mediated by a high aspect ratio and an ordered pore array of AZO/PAM is synthesized. The ZnO nanowire array is prepared via a 3-electrode electrochemical deposition process using ZnSO 4 and H 2 O 2 solutions at a potential of − 1 V (versus saturated calomel electrode) and temperatures of 65 and 80 °C. The microstructure and chemical composition of the AZO seed layer and ZnO/AZO/PAM nanowire arrays are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Results indicate that the ZnO/AZO/PAM nanowire arrays were assembled in the nanochannel of the porous alumina template with diameters of 110–140 nm. The crystallinity of the ZnO nanowires depends on the AZO seed layer during the annealing process. The nucleation and growth process of ZnO/AZO/PAM nanowires are interpreted by the seed-layer-assisted growth mechanism.

  12. Selective growth of gallium nitride nanowires by femtosecond laser patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, D.K.T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Hong, M.H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore)], E-mail: HONG_Minghui@dsi.a-star.edu.sg; Tan, L.S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Zhou, Y. [Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Chen, G.X. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2008-01-31

    We report on gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires grown using pulsed laser ablation, adopting the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism. The GaN nanowires are obtained based on the principle that a catalyst is required to initiate the nanowires growth. Locations of the GaN nanowires are patterned using femtosecond laser and focused ion beam. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to characterize the nanowires. This patterning of GaN nanowires will enable selective growth of nanowires and bottom-up assembly of integrated electronic and photonic devices.

  13. Selective growth of gallium nitride nanowires by femtosecond laser patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, D.K.T.; Hong, M.H.; Tan, L.S.; Zhou, Y.; Chen, G.X.

    2008-01-01

    We report on gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires grown using pulsed laser ablation, adopting the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism. The GaN nanowires are obtained based on the principle that a catalyst is required to initiate the nanowires growth. Locations of the GaN nanowires are patterned using femtosecond laser and focused ion beam. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to characterize the nanowires. This patterning of GaN nanowires will enable selective growth of nanowires and bottom-up assembly of integrated electronic and photonic devices

  14. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of an inclined nanowire array solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2015-11-30

    An innovative solar cell based on inclined p-i-n nanowire array is designed and analyzed. The results show that the inclined geometry can sufficiently increase the conversion efficiency of solar cells by enhancing the absorption of light in the active region. By tuning the nanowire array density, nanowire diameter, nanowire length, as well as the proportion of intrinsic region of the inclined nanowire solar cell, a remarkable efficiency in excess of 16% can be obtained in GaAs. Similar results have been obtained in InP and Si nanowire solar cells, demonstrating the universality of the performance enhancement of inclined nanowire arrays.

  15. Growth and properties of low-dimensional III-V semiconductor nanowire heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiss, Martin

    2010-08-25

    symmetry from cubic zinc-blende to hexagonal wurtzite structure, while the chemical composition of the material remains constant. The GaAs nanowires synthesized with the Au-free technique can be grown under conditions where a statistical wurtzite/zinc-blende polytypism occurs. A novel method for the direct correlation at the nanoscale of structural and optical properties of single GaAs nanowires is developed in order to characterize the resulting statistically distributed quantum heterostructures. Nanowires consisting of {approx}100% wurtzite and nanowires presenting zinc-blende/wurtzite polytypism are studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The photoluminescence of wurtzite GaAs is found to be consistent with a bulk wurtzite band gap of 1.50 eV, slightly smaller compared to the zinc-blende GaAs band gap. In the polytypic nanowires, it is shown that the regions that are predominantly composed of either zinc-blende or wurtzite phase show photoluminescence emission close to the according bulk band gaps, while regions composed of a non periodic superlattice of wurtzite and zinc-blende phases exhibit a redshift of the photoluminescence spectra as low as 1.455 eV. The dimensions of the quantum heterostructures are correlated with the light emission, allowing us to estimate the band offsets of {delta}E{sub CB}=53{+-}20 meV and {delta}E{sub VB}=76{+-}12 meV between the two crystalline phases. These results are in excellent agreement with recent theoretical band structure calculations. (orig.)

  16. Angular Magnetoresistance of Nanowires with Alternating Cobalt and Nickel Segments

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Hanan

    2017-06-22

    Magnetization reversal in segmented Co/Ni nanowires with varying number of segments was studied using angular Magnetoresistance (MR) measurements on isolated nanowires. The MR measurements offer an insight into the pinning of domain walls within the nanowires. Angular MR measurements were performed on nanowires with two and multiple segments by varying the angle between the applied magnetic field and nanowire (−90° ≤θ≤90°). The angular MR measurements reveal that at lower values of θ the switching fields are nearly identical for the multisegmented and two-segmented nanowires, whereas at higher values of θ, a decrease in the switching field is observed in the case of two segmented nanowires. The two segmented nanowires generally exhibit a single domain wall pinning event, whereas an increased number of pinning events are characteristic of the multisegmented nanowires at higher values of θ. In-situ magnetic force microscopy substantiates reversal by domain wall nucleation and propagation in multisegmented nanowires.

  17. Nanowire sensor, sensor array, and method for making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Minhee (Inventor); Myung, Nosang (Inventor); Vasquez, Richard (Inventor); Homer, Margie (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar (Inventor); Choi, Daniel (Inventor); Goddard, William (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a nanowire sensor and method for forming the same. More specifically, the nanowire sensor comprises at least one nanowire formed on a substrate, with a sensor receptor disposed on a surface of the nanowire, thereby forming a receptor-coated nanowire. The nanowire sensor can be arranged as a sensor sub-unit comprising a plurality of homogeneously receptor-coated nanowires. A plurality of sensor subunits can be formed to collectively comprise a nanowire sensor array. Each sensor subunit in the nanowire sensor array can be formed to sense a different stimulus, allowing a user to sense a plurality of stimuli. Additionally, each sensor subunit can be formed to sense the same stimuli through different aspects of the stimulus. The sensor array is fabricated through a variety of techniques, such as by creating nanopores on a substrate and electrodepositing nanowires within the nanopores.

  18. Angular Magnetoresistance of Nanowires with Alternating Cobalt and Nickel Segments

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Hanan; Corte-Leon, H.; Ivanov, Yurii P.; Moreno, J. A.; Kazakova, O.; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2017-01-01

    Magnetization reversal in segmented Co/Ni nanowires with varying number of segments was studied using angular Magnetoresistance (MR) measurements on isolated nanowires. The MR measurements offer an insight into the pinning of domain walls within the nanowires. Angular MR measurements were performed on nanowires with two and multiple segments by varying the angle between the applied magnetic field and nanowire (−90° ≤θ≤90°). The angular MR measurements reveal that at lower values of θ the switching fields are nearly identical for the multisegmented and two-segmented nanowires, whereas at higher values of θ, a decrease in the switching field is observed in the case of two segmented nanowires. The two segmented nanowires generally exhibit a single domain wall pinning event, whereas an increased number of pinning events are characteristic of the multisegmented nanowires at higher values of θ. In-situ magnetic force microscopy substantiates reversal by domain wall nucleation and propagation in multisegmented nanowires.

  19. Electrodeposition of textured Bi27Sb28Te45 nanowires with enhanced electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, Maksudul; Gautam, Devendraprakash; Enright, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the template based pulsed potential electrodeposition technique of highly textured single crystalline bismuth antimony telluride (Bi 1-x Sb x ) 2 Te 3 nanowires from a single aqueous electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry was used as an electroanalytical tool to assess the effect of the precursor concentrations on the composition of the deposits and to determine the deposition potential for each element. Pulsed potential electrodeposition was then applied on a gold-coated anodised alumina template to examine the effect of the pulse parameters on the composition and texture of Bi 27 Sb 28 Te 45 nanowires. The nanowires are cylindrical in shape formed during the deposition inside the porous template and highly textured as they are decorated with sparse distribution of small crystal domains. The electrical conductivity (24.1 × 10 4  S m −1 ) of a single nanowire was measured using a four-point probe technique implemented on a custom fabricated test chip. In this work, we demonstrated that crystal orientation with respect to the transport direction controlled by tuning the pulsed electrodeposition parameters. This allowed us to realise electrical conductivities ∼2.5 times larger than Sb doped bismuth-tellurium based ternary material systems and similar to what is typically seen in binary systems. - Highlights: • Pulsed electrodeposition is described towards fabrication of (Bi 1-x Sb x ) 2 Te 3 nanowires. • The adopted method is compatible with existing CMOS process. • The nanowires were fabricated as highly textured to enhance phonon scattering. • The electrical conductivity is ∼2.5 times larger than the current ternary materials.

  20. Electron Transport Properties of Ge nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrath, Tobias; Khondaker, Saiful I.; Yao, Zhen; Korgel, Brian A.

    2003-03-01

    Electron Transport Properties of Ge nanowires Tobias Hanrath*, Saiful I. Khondaker, Zhen Yao, Brian A. Korgel* *Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Dept. of Physics, Texas Materials Institute, and Center for Nano- and Molecular Science and Technology University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1062 e-mail: korgel@mail.che.utexas.edu Germanium (Ge) nanowires with diameters ranging from 6 to 50 nm and several micrometer in length were grown via a supercritical fluid-liquid-solid synthesis. Parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS) was employed to study the band structure and electron density in the Ge nanowires. The observed increase in plasmon peak energy and peak width with decreasing nanowire diameter is attributed to quantum confinement effects. For electrical characterization, Ge nanowires were deposited onto a patterned Si/SiO2 substrate. E-beam lithography was then used to form electrode contacts to individual nanowires. The influence of nanowire diameter, surface chemistry and crystallographic defects on electron transport properties were investigated and the comparison of Ge nanowire conductivity with respect to bulk, intrinsic Ge will be presented.

  1. Epitaxy of advanced nanowire quantum devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazibegovic, S.; Car, D.; Zhang, H.; Balk, S.C.; Logan, J.A.; De Moor, M.W.A.; Cassidy, M.C.; Schmits, R.; Xu, D.; Wang, G.; Krogstrup, P.; Op Het Veld, R.L.M.; Zuo, K.; Vos, Y.; Shen, J.; Bouman, D.; Shojaei, B.; Pennachio, D.; Lee, J.S.; van Veldhoven, P.J.; Koelling, S.; Verheijen, M.A.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Palmstrøm, C.J.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires are ideal for realizing various low-dimensional quantum devices. In particular, topological phases of matter hosting non-Abelian quasiparticles (such as anyons) can emerge when a semiconductor nanowire with strong spin-orbit coupling is brought into contact with a

  2. High-Performance Single Nanowire Tunnel Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Jesper; Persson, Johan Mikael; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate single nanowire tunnel diodes with room temperature peak current densities of up to 329 A/cm(2). Despite the large surface to volume ratio of the type-II InP-GaAs axial heterostructure nanowires, we measure peak to valley current ratios (PVCR) of up to 8.2 at room temperature and 27...

  3. Functionalization of magnetic nanowires by charged biopolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnin, D.; Callegari, V.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    We report on a facile method for the preparation of biocompatible and bioactive magnetic nanowires. The method consists of the direct deposition of polysaccharides by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly onto a brush of metallic nanowires; obtained by electrodeposition of the metal within the nanopores ...

  4. Nanowire-decorated microscale metallic electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlad, A.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Antohe, V.A.

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication of metallic nanowire patterns within anodic alumina oxide (AAO) membranes on top of continuous conducting substrates are discussed. The fabrication protocol is based on the realization of nanowire patterns using supported nanoporous alumina templates (SNAT) prepared on top...... of lithographically defined metallic microelectrodes. The anodization of the aluminum permits electroplating only on top of the metallic electrodes, leading to the nanowire patterns having the same shape as the underlying metallic tracks. The variation in the fabricated structures between the patterned and non......-patterned substrates can be interpreted in terms of different behavior during anodization. The improved quality of fabricated nanowire patterns is clearly demonstrated by the SEM imaging and the uniform growth of nanowires inside the alumina template is observed without any significant height variation....

  5. Diamond nanowires: fabrication, structure, properties, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuan; Wu, Liangzhuan; Zhi, Jinfang

    2014-12-22

    C(sp(3) )C-bonded diamond nanowires are wide band gap semiconductors that exhibit a combination of superior properties such as negative electron affinity, chemical inertness, high Young's modulus, the highest hardness, and room-temperature thermal conductivity. The creation of 1D diamond nanowires with their giant surface-to-volume ratio enhancements makes it possible to control and enhance the fundamental properties of diamond. Although theoretical comparisons with carbon nanotubes have shown that diamond nanowires are energetically and mechanically viable structures, reproducibly synthesizing the crystalline diamond nanowires has remained challenging. We present a comprehensive, up-to-date review of diamond nanowires, including a discussion of their synthesis along with their structures, properties, and applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Excitonic terahertz photoconductivity in intrinsic semiconductor nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jie-Yun

    2018-06-01

    Excitonic terahertz photoconductivity in intrinsic semiconductor nanowires is studied. Based on the excitonic theory, the numerical method to calculate the photoconductivity spectrum in the nanowires is developed, which can simulate optical pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy measurements on real nanowires and thereby calculate the typical photoconductivity spectrum. With the help of the energetic structure deduced from the calculated linear absorption spectrum, the numerically observed shift of the resonant peak in the photoconductivity spectrum is found to result from the dominant exciton transition between excited or continuum states to the ground state, and the quantitative analysis is in good agreement with the quantum plasmon model. Besides, the dependence of the photoconductivity on the polarization of the terahertz field is also discussed. The numerical method and supporting theoretical analysis provide a new tool for experimentalists to understand the terahertz photoconductivity in intrinsic semiconductor nanowires at low temperatures or for nanowires subjected to below bandgap photoexcitation, where excitonic effects dominate.

  7. Superconductive silicon nanowires using gallium beam lithography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Michael David; Jarecki, Robert Leo,

    2014-01-01

    This work was an early career LDRD investigating the idea of using a focused ion beam (FIB) to implant Ga into silicon to create embedded nanowires and/or fully suspended nanowires. The embedded Ga nanowires demonstrated electrical resistivity of 5 m-cm, conductivity down to 4 K, and acts as an Ohmic silicon contact. The suspended nanowires achieved dimensions down to 20 nm x 30 nm x 10 m with large sensitivity to pressure. These structures then performed well as Pirani gauges. Sputtered niobium was also developed in this research for use as a superconductive coating on the nanowire. Oxidation characteristics of Nb were detailed and a technique to place the Nb under tensile stress resulted in the Nb resisting bulk atmospheric oxidation for up to years.

  8. Precise Placement of Metallic Nanowires on a Substrate by Localized Electric Fields and Inter-Nanowire Electrostatic Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Hyeok Choi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Placing nanowires at the predetermined locations on a substrate represents one of the significant hurdles to be tackled for realization of heterogeneous nanowire systems. Here, we demonstrate spatially-controlled assembly of a single nanowire at the photolithographically recessed region at the electrode gap with high integration yield (~90%. Two popular routes, such as protruding electrode tips and recessed wells, for spatially-controlled nanowire alignment, are compared to investigate long-range dielectrophoretic nanowire attraction and short-range nanowire-nanowire electrostatic interaction for determining the final alignment of attracted nanowires. Furthermore, the post-assembly process has been developed and tested to make a robust electrical contact to the assembled nanowires, which removes any misaligned ones and connects the nanowires to the underlying electrodes of circuit.

  9. Influence factors of the inter-nanowire thermal contact resistance in the stacked nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongxu; Huang, Congliang; Zhong, Jinxin; Lin, Zizhen

    2018-05-01

    The inter-nanowire thermal contact resistance is important for tuning the thermal conductivity of a nanocomposite for thermoelectric applications. In this paper, the stacked copper nanowires are applied for studying the thermal contact resistance. The stacked copper nanowires are firstly made by the cold-pressing method, and then the nanowire stacks are treated by sintering treatment. With the effect of the volumetric fraction of nanowires in the stack and the influence of the sintering-temperature on the thermal contact resistance discussed, results show that: The thermal conductivity of the 150-nm copper nanowires can be enlarged almost 2 times with the volumetric fraction increased from 32 to 56% because of the enlarged contact-area and contact number of a copper nanowire. When the sintering temperature increases from 293 to 673 K, the thermal conductivity of the stacked 300-nm nanowires could be enlarged almost 2.5 times by the sintering treatment, because of the improved lattice property of the contact zone. In conclusion, application of a high volumetric fraction or/and a sintering-treatment are effectivity to tune the inter-nanowire thermal contact resistance, and thus to tailor the thermal conductivity of a nanowire network or stack.

  10. Mechanical behavior enhancement of ZnO nanowire by embedding different nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Vazinishayan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we employed commercial finite element modeling (FEM software package ABAQUS to analyze mechanical properties of ZnO nanowire before and after embedding with different kinds of nanowires, having different materials and cross-section models such as Au (circular, Ag (pentagonal and Si (rectangular using three point bending technique. The length and diameter of the ZnO nanowire were measured to be 12,280 nm and 103.2 nm, respectively. In addition, Au, Ag and Si nanowires were considered to have the length of 12,280 nm and the diameter of 27 nm. It was found that after embedding Si nanowire with rectangular cross-section into the ZnO nanowire, the distribution of Von Misses stresses criterion, displacement and strain were decreased than the other nanowires embedded. The highest stiffness, the elastic deformation and the high strength against brittle failure have been made by Si nanowire comparison to the Au and Ag nanowires, respectively. Keywords: Nanowires, Material effects, Mechanical properties, Brittle failure

  11. Probability of conductive bond formation in a percolating network of nanowires with fusible tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykaczewski, Konrad; Wang, Robert Y.

    2018-03-01

    Meeting the heat dissipation demands of microelectronic devices requires development of polymeric composites with high thermal conductivity. This property is drastically improved by percolation networks of metallic filler particles that have their particle-to-particle contact resistances reduced through thermal or electromagnetic fusing. However, composites with fused metallic fillers are electrically conductive, which prevents their application within the chip-board and the inter-chip gaps. Here, we propose that electrically insulating composites for these purposes can be achieved by the application of fusible metallic coatings to the tips of nanowires with thermally conductive but electrically insulating cores. We derive analytical models that relate the ratio of the coated and total nanowire lengths to the fraction of fused, and thus conductive, bonds within percolating networks of these structures. We consider two types of materials for these fusible coatings. First, we consider silver-like coatings, which form only conductive bonds when contacting the silver-like coating of another nanowire. Second, we consider liquid metal-like coatings, which form conductive bonds regardless of whether they contact a coated or an uncoated segment of another nanowire. These models were validated using Monte Carlo simulations, which also revealed that electrical short-circuiting is highly unlikely until most of the wire is coated. Furthermore, we demonstrate that switching the tip coating from silver- to liquid metal-like materials can double the fraction of conductive bonds. Consequently, this work provides motivation to develop scalable methods for fabrication of the hybrid liquid-coated nanowires, whose dispersion in a polymer matrix is predicted to yield highly thermally conductive but electrically insulating composites.

  12. Children with autism spectrum disorder and social skills groups at school: a randomized trial comparing intervention approach and peer composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasari, Connie; Dean, Michelle; Kretzmann, Mark; Shih, Wendy; Orlich, Felice; Whitney, Rondalyn; Landa, Rebecca; Lord, Catherine; King, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    Peer relationships improve for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based social skills groups but rarely generalize to real world contexts. This study compares child outcomes of two social skills interventions conducted in schools with children in Kindergarten through fifth grade. Children with ASD were randomized to one of two interventions that varied on group composition (mixed typical and ASD vs. all ASD or social difficulties) and intervention approach (didactic SKILLS based vs. activity-based ENGAGE groups). Interventions were implemented at school for 8 weeks (16 sessions) with an 8-week follow-up. Innovative measures of peer nomination and playground peer engagement, as well as teacher reports of child behavior problems and teacher-child relationship were analyzed for 137 children with ASD across four sites. On the primary outcome of social network connections from the peer nomination measure, there was no main effect of treatment, but there were moderator effects. Children with low teacher-child closeness or high conflict improved more in their social connections if they received the SKILLS intervention, whereas children with higher teacher-child closeness improved more if they received the ENGAGE intervention. Only two secondary outcome measures yielded significant effects of treatment. Children in the SKILLS groups increased peer engagement and decreased isolation during recess. Child behavior problems and teacher-child closeness moderated peer engagement such that children with higher behavior problems and lower closeness benefitted more from SKILLS groups. These findings suggest that social skills groups conducted at school can affect both peer engagement during recess as well as peer acceptability. Child characteristics and teacher-child relationship prior to intervention yield important information on who might benefit from a specific social skills intervention. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  13. A Preliminary Study on the Synthesis and Characterization of Multilayered Ag/Co Magnetic Nanowires Fabricated via the Electrodeposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsiung Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A single-bath electrodeposition method was developed to integrate multilayer Ag/Co nanowires with a commercial anodic alumina oxide (AAO template with a pore diameter of 100–200 nm. An electrolyte system containing silver nitride and cobalt sulfide was studied using cyclic voltammetry, and the electrodeposition rate was varied to optimize the electrodeposition conditions. A constant stepwise potential and a variable cation ratio of [Co2+]/[Ag+] were used during electrodeposition. After the dissolution of the template in aqueous NaOH solution, multilayered Ag/Co nanowires were obtained with a composition of [Co]/[Ag80Co20], as identified by XRD and TEM, when [Co2+]/[Ag+] = 150. By annealing at 200°C for 1 h, uniformly structured (Co99.57/Ag100 nanowires were obtained. Compared with pure Co nanowires, the magnetic hysteresis loops showed a greater magnetic anisotropy for (Co99.57/Ag100 nanowires than for pure Co nanowires, corresponding to a change in the easy axis upon magnetization.

  14. Crystal phase-based epitaxial growth of hybrid noble metal nanostructures on 4H/fcc Au nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qipeng; Wang, An-Liang; Gong, Yue; Hao, Wei; Cheng, Hongfei; Chen, Junze; Li, Bing; Yang, Nailiang; Niu, Wenxin; Wang, Jie; Yu, Yifu; Zhang, Xiao; Chen, Ye; Fan, Zhanxi; Wu, Xue-Jun; Chen, Jinping; Luo, Jun; Li, Shuzhou; Gu, Lin; Zhang, Hua

    2018-03-01

    Crystal-phase engineering offers opportunities for the rational design and synthesis of noble metal nanomaterials with unusual crystal phases that normally do not exist in bulk materials. However, it remains a challenge to use these materials as seeds to construct heterometallic nanostructures with desired crystal phases and morphologies for promising applications such as catalysis. Here, we report a strategy for the synthesis of binary and ternary hybrid noble metal nanostructures. Our synthesized crystal-phase heterostructured 4H/fcc Au nanowires enable the epitaxial growth of Ru nanorods on the 4H phase and fcc-twin boundary in Au nanowires, resulting in hybrid Au-Ru nanowires. Moreover, the method can be extended to the epitaxial growth of Rh, Ru-Rh and Ru-Pt nanorods on the 4H/fcc Au nanowires to form unique hybrid nanowires. Importantly, the Au-Ru hybrid nanowires with tunable compositions exhibit excellent electrocatalytic performance towards the hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline media.

  15. Properties of Fe{sub 8−N}Co{sub N} nanoribbons and nanowires: A DFT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Francisco [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago 7800024 (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología, CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago 9170124 (Chile); Altbir, D. [Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología, CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago 9170124 (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago (Chile); Kiwi, Miguel, E-mail: m.kiwi.t@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago 7800024 (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología, CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago 9170124 (Chile); Morán-López, J.L. [Departamento de Física, Laboratorio Interdisciplinario, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-08-15

    The structural configurations and magnetic properties of zig-zag nanoribbons and nanowires of Fe{sub 8−N}Co{sub N}, for 0≤N≤8, are calculated within the density functional theory. Both, for the zig-zag nanoribbons and the nanowires, there is a tendency towards forming Fe–Co bonds, while segregation of the Fe and Co is energetically unfavorable. For the nanowire structures a transition from bcc Fe to hcp Co spatial arrangements is observed when N is increased from 4 to 6, in spite of the small size of the systems under investigation. The energy minimization was performed taking into consideration the electronic and magnetic structures, since for each crystalline structure, chemical composition, and short range order, particular magnetic properties of these systems do correspond. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy is calculated, and it is found that the easy axis changes from a transverse direction in Fe-rich systems, to the axial direction as the Co concentration increases. It is also found that although there are important variations of the local magnetic moment of the components, and their particular location in the system, the average magnetic moment is an almost linear function of N. - Highlights: ► Properties of Fe{sub 8−N}Co{sub N} nanoribbons and nanowires are calculated ab initio. ► Structural and magnetic properties of nanoribbons and nanowires are calculated. ► Shape and crystalline anisotropies of nanoribbons and nanowires are contrasted.

  16. Effect of e-beam dose on the fractional density of Au-catalyzed GaAs nanowire growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeung Hun, E-mail: jeunghunpark@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Gambin, Vincent [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Kodambaka, Suneel, E-mail: kodambaka@ucla.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-05-31

    Using Au/GaAs as a model system, the effect of initial catalyst patterning conditions on the growth of nanowire was studied. Resulting morphologies and fractional surface densities are determined as a function of e-beam dose, dot size, and inter-dot spacing using scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The majority of resulting nanowires grow randomly oriented with respect to the substrate. The nanowires are tapered with narrow tops, wider bases, and catalysts at the wire tips — characteristics of vapor–liquid–solid process. The base diameters of the wires are larger than the dot size, which is likely due to the non-catalyzed vapor–solid deposition along the sidewalls. The higher dose rate used in pattering leads to the formation of higher aspect ratio nanowires with narrower bases. The fractional surface density is found to increase linearly with the clearing dose and the critical dose for nanowire growth increases with decreasing catalyst pattern size and spacing. At a given dose, the fractional density increases with increasing Au dot size and with decreasing inter-dot spacing. Our results may provide new insights into the role of catalyst preparing conditions on the high density, wafer-scale growth of nanowires. - Highlights: • Initial Au catalyst layers are prepared using electron beam lithography. • GaAs nanowires are grown on GaAs(111)B using molecular beam epitaxy. • Effect of dose, size and spacing of Au dots on morphology and density is studied. • Density of nanowires is controlled by changing exposed dose on Au catalyst.

  17. New transparent conductive metal based on polymer composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshavarz Hedayati, Mehdi; Jamali, Mohammad [Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel (Germany); Strunkus, Thomas; Zaporochentko, Vladimir; Faupel, Franz [Multicomponent Materials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel (Germany); Elbahri, Mady [Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Institute of Polymer Research, Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Currently great efforts are made to develop new kind of transparent conductors (TCs) to replace ITO. In this regard different materials and composites have been proposed and studied including conductive polymers, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), metal grids, and random networks of metallic nanowires. But so far none of them could be used as a replacing material, since either they are either fragile and brittle or their electrical conductivity is below the typical ITO. Thin metallic films due to their high electrical conductivity could be one of the best replacing materials for ITO, however their poor transparency makes their application as TCs limited. Here we design and fabricate a new polymeric composite coating which enhances the transparency of the thin metal film up to 100% relative to the initial value while having a high electrical conductivity of typical metals. Therefore our proposed device has a great potential to be used as new transparent conductor.

  18. Green urea synthesis catalyzed by hematite nanowires in magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Noorhana; Qureshi, Saima; Rehman, Zia ur; Alqasem, Bilal; Fai Kait, Chong

    2017-04-01

    The catalytic activity of hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanowires under the influence of magnetic field on urea synthesis is considered green. The adsorption and subsequent dissociative reaction of hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases on the α-Fe2O3 (111) nanowires were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The average adsorption energy is -4.12 kcal/mole at different sites. The adsorption of gases resulted in a difference in density and net spin of electrons from 68 to 120 and 0-21 respectively. In addition, it induces magnetic moment value of 36.33 μB, which confirms the enhanced magnetic behaviour of hematite. α-Fe2O3 nanowires (NWs) synthesized by heating iron wire in a box furnace at (750-800) °C and as synthesized α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) were received to use as a catalyst in the magnetic reaction of urea synthesis. X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) confirms the peaks of rhombohedral structure of α-Fe2O3 and Raman spectrum analyses confirms the α-Fe2O3 peaks at 410 cm-1, 500 cm-1 and 616 cm-1. The needle-like shape of hematite nanowires with length ranging from 16-25) μm and diameter from 74 to 145 nm confirmed by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The magnetic properties of the nanowires exhibited different levels of saturation magnetization, for α-Fe2O3 perpendicularly aligned direction (13.18 emu/g) and random direction (10.73 emu/g). Urea synthesis was done under magnetic field ranges from 0.0 to 2.5 T. The activation energy of α-Fe2O3 NWs for urea production is lower than NPs in the range of 0-1 T, whereas it is reversed for higher magnetic induction values. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the formation of urea at the peaks of 1690-1600 cm-1. This green urea employing magnetically induced method could be a contender to the Haber-Bosch process currently used by the current industry which utilizes high temperature and high pressure.

  19. Nature of magnetization and lateral spin–orbit interaction in gated semiconductor nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, H.; Yakimenko, I. I.; Berggren, K.-F.

    2018-05-01

    Semiconductor nanowires are interesting candidates for realization of spintronics devices. In this paper we study electronic states and effects of lateral spin–orbit coupling (LSOC) in a one-dimensional asymmetrically biased nanowire using the Hartree–Fock method with Dirac interaction. We have shown that spin polarization can be triggered by LSOC at finite source-drain bias,as a result of numerical noise representing a random magnetic field due to wiring or a random background magnetic field by Earth magnetic field, for instance. The electrons spontaneously arrange into spin rows in the wire due to electron interactions leading to a finite spin polarization. The direction of polarization is, however, random at zero source-drain bias. We have found that LSOC has an effect on orientation of spin rows only in the case when source-drain bias is applied.

  20. Hole-dominated transport in InSb nanowires grown on high-quality InSb films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algarni, Zaina; George, David; Singh, Abhay; Lin, Yuankun; Philipose, U., E-mail: usha.philipose@unt.edu [University of North Texas, Department of Physics (United States)

    2016-12-15

    We have developed an effective strategy for synthesizing p-type indium antimonide (InSb) nanowires on a thin film of InSb grown on glass substrate. The InSb films were grown by a chemical reaction between Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and In and were characterized by structural, compositional, and optical studies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies reveal that the surface of the substrate is covered with a polycrystalline InSb film comprised of sub-micron sized InSb islands. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) results show that the film is stoichiometric InSb. The optical constants of the InSb film, characterized using a variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometer (VASE) shows a maximum value for refractive index at 3.7 near 1.8 eV, and the extinction coefficient (k) shows a maximum value 3.3 near 4.1 eV. InSb nanowires were subsequently grown on the InSb film with 20 nm sized Au nanoparticles functioning as the metal catalyst initiating nanowire growth. The InSb nanowires with diameters in the range of 40–60 nm exhibit good crystallinity and were found to be rich in Sb. High concentrations of anions in binary semiconductors are known to introduce acceptor levels within the band gap. This un-intentional doping of the InSb nanowire resulting in hole-dominated transport in the nanowires is demonstrated by the fabrication of a p-channel nanowire field effect transistor. The hole concentration and field effect mobility are estimated to be ≈1.3 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} and 1000 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, respectively, at room temperature, values that are particularly attractive for the technological implications of utilizing p-InSb nanowires in CMOS electronics.

  1. Hole-dominated transport in InSb nanowires grown on high-quality InSb films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarni, Zaina; George, David; Singh, Abhay; Lin, Yuankun; Philipose, U.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed an effective strategy for synthesizing p-type indium antimonide (InSb) nanowires on a thin film of InSb grown on glass substrate. The InSb films were grown by a chemical reaction between S b 2 S 3 and I n and were characterized by structural, compositional, and optical studies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies reveal that the surface of the substrate is covered with a polycrystalline InSb film comprised of sub-micron sized InSb islands. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) results show that the film is stoichiometric InSb. The optical constants of the InSb film, characterized using a variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometer (VASE) shows a maximum value for refractive index at 3.7 near 1.8 eV, and the extinction coefficient (k) shows a maximum value 3.3 near 4.1 eV. InSb nanowires were subsequently grown on the InSb film with 20 nm sized Au nanoparticles functioning as the metal catalyst initiating nanowire growth. The InSb nanowires with diameters in the range of 40-60 nm exhibit good crystallinity and were found to be rich in Sb. High concentrations of anions in binary semiconductors are known to introduce acceptor levels within the band gap. This un-intentional doping of the InSb nanowire resulting in hole-dominated transport in the nanowires is demonstrated by the fabrication of a p-channel nanowire field effect transistor. The hole concentration and field effect mobility are estimated to be ≈1.3 × 1017 cm-3 and 1000 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively, at room temperature, values that are particularly attractive for the technological implications of utilizing p-InSb nanowires in CMOS electronics.

  2. Three-year randomized controlled clinical study of a one step universal adhesive and a two-step self-etch adhesive in Class II resin composite restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate in a randomized clinical evaluation the 3-year clinical durability of a one-step universal adhesive bonding system and compare it intraindividually with a 2-step self-etch adhesive in Class II restorations. Materials and Methods: Each of 57 participants (mean age 58.3 yr......) received at least two, as similar as possible, extended Class II restorations. The cavities in each of the 60 individual pairs of cavities were randomly distributed to the 1-step universal adhesive (All Bond Universal: AU) and the control 2-step self-etch adhesive (Optibond XTR: OX). A low shrinkage resin......) success rates (p>0.05). Annual failure rates were 1.8% and 2.6%, respectively.The main reason for failure was resin composite fracture. Conclusion: Class II resin composite restorations placed with a one-step universal adhesive showed good short time effectiveness....

  3. Bayesian analysis of systems with random chemical composition: renormalization-group approach to Dirichlet distributions and the statistical theory of dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, Marcel Ovidiu; Tsuchiya, Masa; Oefner, Peter; Ross, John

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of systems with random chemical composition and try to obtain a theoretical derivation of the self-similar Dirichlet distribution, which is used empirically in molecular biology, environmental chemistry, and geochemistry. We consider a system made up of many chemical species and assume that the statistical distribution of the abundance of each chemical species in the system is the result of a succession of a variable number of random dilution events, which can be described by using the renormalization-group theory. A Bayesian approach is used for evaluating the probability density of the chemical composition of the system in terms of the probability densities of the abundances of the different chemical species. We show that for large cascades of dilution events, the probability density of the composition vector of the system is given by a self-similar probability density of the Dirichlet type. We also give an alternative formal derivation for the Dirichlet law based on the maximum entropy approach, by assuming that the average values of the chemical potentials of different species, expressed in terms of molar fractions, are constant. Although the maximum entropy approach leads formally to the Dirichlet distribution, it does not clarify the physical origin of the Dirichlet statistics and has serious limitations. The random theory of dilution provides a physical picture for the emergence of Dirichlet statistics and makes it possible to investigate its validity range. We discuss the implications of our theory in molecular biology, geochemistry, and environmental science.

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Different Macronutrient Profiles on Weight, Body Composition and Metabolic Parameters in Obese Adolescents Seeking Weight Loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Truby

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity is difficult to treat and the optimal dietary pattern, particularly in relation to macronutrient composition, remains controversial. This study tested the effect of two structured diets with differing macronutrient composition versus control, on weight, body composition and metabolic parameters in obese adolescents.A randomized controlled trial conducted in a children's hospital.Eighty seven obese youth (means: age 13.6 years, BMI z-score 2.2, waist: height ratio 0.65, 69% female completed a psychological preparedness program and were then randomized to a short term 'structured modified carbohydrate' (SMC, 35% carbohydrate; 30% protein; 35% fat, n = 37 or a 'structured low fat' (SLF, 55% carbohydrate; 20% protein; 25% fat, n = 36 or a wait listed control group (n = 14. Anthropometric, body composition and biochemical parameters were measured at randomization and after 12 weeks, and analyzed under the intention to treat principle using analysis of variance models.After 12 weeks, data was collected from 79 (91% participants. BMI z-scores were significantly lower in both intervention groups compared to control after adjusting for baseline values, SLF vs. control, mean difference = -0.13 (95%CI = -0.18, -0.07, P<0.001; SMC vs. control, -0.14 (-0.19, -0.09, P<0.001, but there was no difference between the two intervention diet groups: SLF vs. SMC, 0.00 (-0.05, 0.04, P = 0.83.Both dietary patterns resulted in similar changes in weight, body composition and metabolic improvements compared to control. The use of a structured eating system which allows flexibility but limited choices can assist in weight change and the rigid application of a low fat eating pattern is not exclusive in its efficacy.International Clinical Trials Registry ISRCTN49438757.

  5. Examination Of Si-Ge Heterostructure Nanowire Growth Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastovjak, A. G.; Neizvestny, I. G.; Shwartz, N. L.

    2011-01-01

    The process of Si-Ge heterostructures formation in nanowires (NWs) grown by vapor-liquid-solid mechanism was investigated using Monte Carlo simulation. Dependences of catalyst drop composition on temperature, flux intensity and nanowire diameter were obtained. Periodical oscillations of drop composition near mean value were observed. Oscillation results from layer-by-layer growth at the drop-whisker interface and necessity of supersaturation onset to start new layer formation. It was demonstrated that it is impossible to grow atomically abrupt axial heterojunctions via classical vapor-liquid-solid mechanism due to gradual change of catalyst drop composition when switching the fluxes. This phenomenon is the main reason of heterojunction blurriness. Junction abruptness was found to be dependent on nanowhisker diameter: in adsorption-induced growth mode abruptness of heterojunction decreases with diameter and in diffusion-induced mode it increases.

  6. Polarized Emission from CsPbBr3 Nanowires Embedded-Electrospun PU fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Tugrul; Topçu, Gökhan; Savacı, Umut; Genç, Aziz; Turan, Servet; Sarı, Emre; Demir, Mustafa M

    2018-01-29

    The interest in all-inorganic halide perovskites has been increasing dramatically due to their high quantum yield, band gap tunability, and ease of fabrication in compositional and geometric diversity. In this study, we synthesized µm long and ~4 nm thick CsPbBr3 nanowires (NWs). They were, then, integrated into electrospun polyurethane (PU) fibers to examine polarization behavior of the composite fiber assembly. Aligned electrospun fibers containing CsPbBr3 nanowires show remarkable increase in degree of polarization from 0.17 to 0.30. This combination of NWs and PU fibers provides a promising composite material for various applications such as optoelectronic devices and solar cells. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Epitaxy of advanced nanowire quantum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazibegovic, Sasa; Car, Diana; Zhang, Hao; Balk, Stijn C.; Logan, John A.; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Cassidy, Maja C.; Schmits, Rudi; Xu, Di; Wang, Guanzhong; Krogstrup, Peter; Op Het Veld, Roy L. M.; Zuo, Kun; Vos, Yoram; Shen, Jie; Bouman, Daniël; Shojaei, Borzoyeh; Pennachio, Daniel; Lee, Joon Sue; van Veldhoven, Petrus J.; Koelling, Sebastian; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.; Palmstrøm, Chris J.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.

    2017-08-01

    Semiconductor nanowires are ideal for realizing various low-dimensional quantum devices. In particular, topological phases of matter hosting non-Abelian quasiparticles (such as anyons) can emerge when a semiconductor nanowire with strong spin-orbit coupling is brought into contact with a superconductor. To exploit the potential of non-Abelian anyons—which are key elements of topological quantum computing—fully, they need to be exchanged in a well-controlled braiding operation. Essential hardware for braiding is a network of crystalline nanowires coupled to superconducting islands. Here we demonstrate a technique for generic bottom-up synthesis of complex quantum devices with a special focus on nanowire networks with a predefined number of superconducting islands. Structural analysis confirms the high crystalline quality of the nanowire junctions, as well as an epitaxial superconductor-semiconductor interface. Quantum transport measurements of nanowire ‘hashtags’ reveal Aharonov-Bohm and weak-antilocalization effects, indicating a phase-coherent system with strong spin-orbit coupling. In addition, a proximity-induced hard superconducting gap (with vanishing sub-gap conductance) is demonstrated in these hybrid superconductor-semiconductor nanowires, highlighting the successful materials development necessary for a first braiding experiment. Our approach opens up new avenues for the realization of epitaxial three-dimensional quantum architectures which have the potential to become key components of various quantum devices.

  8. Bending and tensile deformation of metallic nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, Matthew T; Leach, Austin M; Gall, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Using molecular statics simulations and the embedded atom method, a technique for bending silver nanowires and calculating Young's modulus via continuum mechanics has been developed. The measured Young's modulus values extracted from bending simulations were compared with modulus values calculated from uniaxial tension simulations for a range of nanowire sizes, orientations and geometries. Depending on axial orientation, the nanowires exhibit stiffening or softening under tension and bending as size decreases. Bending simulations typically result in a greater variation of Young's modulus values with nanowire size compared with tensile deformation, which indicates a loading-method-dependent size effect on elastic properties at sub-5 nm wire diameters. Since the axial stress is maximized at the lateral surfaces in bending, the loading-method-dependent size effect is postulated to be primarily a result of differences in nanowire surface and core elastic modulus. The divergence of Young's modulus from the bulk modulus in these simulations occurs at sizes below the range in which experiments have demonstrated a size scale effect on elastic properties of metallic nanowires. This difference indicates that other factors beyond native metallic surface properties play a role in experimentally observed nanowire elastic modulus size effects

  9. Spontaneous core–shell elemental distribution in In-rich InxGa1−xN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Gómez, M; Garro, N; Cantarero, A; Mengistu, H T; García-Cristóbal, A; Murcia-Mascarós, S; Segura-Ruiz, J; Martinez-Criado, G; Denker, C; Malindretos, J; Rizzi, A

    2014-01-01

    The elemental distribution of self-organized In-rich In x Ga 1−x N nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy has been investigated using three different techniques with spatial resolution on the nanoscale. Two-dimensional images and elemental profiles of single nanowires obtained by x-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, respectively, have revealed a radial gradient in the alloy composition of each individual nanowire. The spectral selectivity of resonant Raman scattering has been used to enhance the signal from very small volumes with different elemental composition within single nanowires. The combination of the three techniques has provided sufficient sensitivity and spatial resolution to prove the spontaneous formation of a core–shell nanowire and to quantify the thicknesses and alloy compositions of the core and shell regions. A theoretical model based on continuum elastic theory has been used to estimate the strain fields present in such inhomogeneous nanowires. These results suggest new strategies for achieving high quality non-polar heterostructures. (paper)

  10. Spontaneous core-shell elemental distribution in In-rich InxGa1-xN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, M.; Garro, N.; Segura-Ruiz, J.; Martinez-Criado, G.; Cantarero, A.; Mengistu, H. T.; García-Cristóbal, A.; Murcia-Mascarós, S.; Denker, C.; Malindretos, J.; Rizzi, A.

    2014-02-01

    The elemental distribution of self-organized In-rich InxGa1-xN nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy has been investigated using three different techniques with spatial resolution on the nanoscale. Two-dimensional images and elemental profiles of single nanowires obtained by x-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, respectively, have revealed a radial gradient in the alloy composition of each individual nanowire. The spectral selectivity of resonant Raman scattering has been used to enhance the signal from very small volumes with different elemental composition within single nanowires. The combination of the three techniques has provided sufficient sensitivity and spatial resolution to prove the spontaneous formation of a core-shell nanowire and to quantify the thicknesses and alloy compositions of the core and shell regions. A theoretical model based on continuum elastic theory has been used to estimate the strain fields present in such inhomogeneous nanowires. These results suggest new strategies for achieving high quality non-polar heterostructures.

  11. Spontaneous core–shell elemental distribution in In-rich In(x)Ga1-xN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, M; Garro, N; Segura-Ruiz, J; Martinez-Criado, G; Cantarero, A; Mengistu, H T; García-Cristóbal, A; Murcia-Mascarós, S; Denker, C; Malindretos, J; Rizzi, A

    2014-02-21

    The elemental distribution of self-organized In-rich In(x)Ga1-xN nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy has been investigated using three different techniques with spatial resolution on the nanoscale. Two-dimensional images and elemental profiles of single nanowires obtained by x-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, respectively, have revealed a radial gradient in the alloy composition of each individual nanowire. The spectral selectivity of resonant Raman scattering has been used to enhance the signal from very small volumes with different elemental composition within single nanowires. The combination of the three techniques has provided sufficient sensitivity and spatial resolution to prove the spontaneous formation of a core–shell nanowire and to quantify the thicknesses and alloy compositions of the core and shell regions. A theoretical model based on continuum elastic theory has been used to estimate the strain fields present in such inhomogeneous nanowires. These results suggest new strategies for achieving high quality nonpolar heterostructures.

  12. A Role of Electron Beam Irradiation in the Property Improvement of Random and 2-D Type Jute/PLA Green Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Donghwan; Ji, Sanggyu; Hwang, Junghyu; Lee, Byungchul [Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to improve the interfacial adhesion between natural jute fibers and PlA and the mechanical and thermal properties of jute/PLA green composites by means of electron beam irradiation under optimal conditions for the modification of sustainable and naturally calculably natural fibers. In ths present study, randomly aligned jute fiber/PLA and 2-directionally aligned jute fabric/PLA green composites with jute treated with electron beam at different dosages were fabricated by compression molding method and the effect of electron beam treatment on their mechanical, impact and thermal properties and fracture surfaces was extensively investigated. It was clearly concluded that electron beam irradiation to jute fibers and jute fabrics at 10 kGy was surely improved the tensile, flexural, impact, dynamic mechanical properties, thermal expansion, heat deflection temperature and thermal stability of random jute fiber/PLA and 2-D jute fabric/PLA green composites, All the results were consistent with each other, supporting the positive role of electron beam irradiation on the improved properties of their green composites.

  13. Survey of Synergistic Effect of L-carnitine with Glutamine on Body Composition and Dietary Intake in Soccer Players: A Double-blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hozoori

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was conducted to investigate the possible effects of L-carnitine and glutamine and their synergistic effects on male soccer athletes. Methods: 28 male soccer players (21.1 ± 0.7 y were enrolled in a randomized pre and post intervention, double-blind design. Before the intervention, their performances were assessed by Bruce protocol, and their body composition was measured with the body composition analyzer. Then, athletes were randomly allocated into four groups: 2 g L-glutamine, 2 g L-carnitine, 2 g L-carnitine + 2 g L-glutamine and placebo. Supplements were prescribed for 21 days and after three weeks, athletes' performances and body composition were re-evaluated. Results: The results showed that body weight, body fat percentage, lean muscle mass, and dietary intake made no significant changes in different groups of athletes. In between groups comparison, results did not significantly change in any performance indices. However, in L-carnitine supplement group, the results of pre and post intervention showed that the running distance and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max increased significantly while the subjective sense of fatigue decreased significantly. Conclusions: Based on our findings, a three-week prescription of separateor combined glutamine and L-carnitine, had no effects on body composition or dietary intake in soccer players. But, the athletes' energy intake was more than the one reported in other studies. Although further studies are required to assess these effects on athletic performance.

  14. Mechanical behavior enhancement of ZnO nanowire by embedding different nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazinishayan, Ali; Yang, Shuming; Lambada, Dasaradha Rao; Wang, Yiming

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we employed commercial finite element modeling (FEM) software package ABAQUS to analyze mechanical properties of ZnO nanowire before and after embedding with different kinds of nanowires, having different materials and cross-section models such as Au (circular), Ag (pentagonal) and Si (rectangular) using three point bending technique. The length and diameter of the ZnO nanowire were measured to be 12,280 nm and 103.2 nm, respectively. In addition, Au, Ag and Si nanowires were considered to have the length of 12,280 nm and the diameter of 27 nm. It was found that after embedding Si nanowire with rectangular cross-section into the ZnO nanowire, the distribution of Von Misses stresses criterion, displacement and strain were decreased than the other nanowires embedded. The highest stiffness, the elastic deformation and the high strength against brittle failure have been made by Si nanowire comparison to the Au and Ag nanowires, respectively.

  15. Synthesis of Oxidation-Resistant Cupronickel Nanowires for Transparent Conducting Nanowire Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathmall, Aaron [Duke University; Nguyen, Minh [Duke University; Wiley, Benjamin J [Duke University

    2012-01-01

    Nanowires of copper can be coated from liquids to create flexible, transparent conducting films that can potentially replace the dominant transparent conductor, indium tin oxide, in displays, solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, and electrochromic windows. One issue with these nanowire films is that copper is prone to oxidation. It was hypothesized that the resistance to oxidation could be improved by coating copper nanowires with nickel. This work demonstrates a method for synthesizing copper nanowires with nickel shells as well as the properties of cupronickel nanowires in transparent conducting films. Time- and temperature-dependent sheet resistance measurements indicate that the sheet resistance of copper and silver nanowire films will double after 3 and 36 months at room temperature, respectively. In contrast, the sheet resistance of cupronickel nanowires containing 20 mol % nickel will double in about 400 years. Coating copper nanowires to a ratio of 2:1 Cu:Ni gave them a neutral gray color, making them more suitable for use in displays and electrochromic windows. These properties, and the fact that copper and nickel are 1000 times more abundant than indium or silver, make cupronickel nanowires a promising alternative for the sustainable, efficient production of transparent conductors.

  16. TiO2 nanowire-templated hierarchical nanowire network as water-repelling coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Tian; Chen, Hui-Jiuan; Xiao, Shuai; Yang, Chengduan; Chen, Meiwan; Tao, Jun; Shieh, Han-ping; Yang, Bo-ru; Liu, Chuan; Xie, Xi

    2017-12-01

    Extraordinary water-repelling properties of superhydrophobic surfaces make them novel candidates for a great variety of potential applications. A general approach to achieve superhydrophobicity requires low-energy coating on the surface and roughness on nano- and micrometre scale. However, typical construction of superhydrophobic surfaces with micro-nano structure through top-down fabrication is restricted by sophisticated fabrication techniques and limited choices of substrate materials. Micro-nanoscale topographies templated by conventional microparticles through surface coating may produce large variations in roughness and uncontrollable defects, resulting in poorly controlled surface morphology and wettability. In this work, micro-nanoscale hierarchical nanowire network was fabricated to construct self-cleaning coating using one-dimensional TiO2 nanowires as microscale templates. Hierarchical structure with homogeneous morphology was achieved by branching ZnO nanowires on the TiO2 nanowire backbones through hydrothermal reaction. The hierarchical nanowire network displayed homogeneous micro/nano-topography, in contrast to hierarchical structure templated by traditional microparticles. This hierarchical nanowire network film exhibited high repellency to both water and cell culture medium after functionalization with fluorinated organic molecules. The hierarchical structure templated by TiO2 nanowire coating significantly increased the surface superhydrophobicity compared to vertical ZnO nanowires with nanotopography alone. Our results demonstrated a promising strategy of using nanowires as microscale templates for the rational design of hierarchical coatings with desired superhydrophobicity that can also be applied to various substrate materials.

  17. Angular dependence of switching behaviour in template released isolated NiFe nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Musaab Salman

    2017-12-01

    In this article, the magnetisation behaviour and magnetisation reversal process of both single and bundles of 3 and 7 closely-packed template released Ni60Fe40 nanowires were investigated using high-sensitivity Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE) magnetometry. The nanowires were deposited from a dilute suspension onto gold pre-patterned silicon substrates. They were typically 9 μm in length with a diameter of approximately 200 nm. By increasing the number of clumped wires a reduction in the switching field was observed, suggesting that overall the bundle behaves like a single system and decreasing the effective external field required to switch the magnetisation. Square hysteresis loops with a sharp jump in the Kerr signal were seen for all MOKE measurement angles. This result may reflect the surface magnetisation of the nanowire, compared to their bulk behaviour as compared with the literature that adopted the same and different investigative techniques on comparable compositions and dimensions of wires. The influence of applying the magnetic field at different angles with respect to the long axis of the nanowire on the switching behaviour was analysed and compared with the theoretical calculations of non-uniform rotation of the curling model of domain reversal. An agreement and disagreement with this model was seen, respectively, for low and high angles, indicating the complexity of the magnetic state of such isolated nanowires. To confirm the results presented here, further studies are recommended using a combination of techniques sensitive to surface and bulk magnetisation on similar isolated ferromagnetic nanowires.

  18. Fabrication of nanowires and nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.

    2009-01-01

    We report on different approaches that we have adopted and developed for the fabrication of nanowires and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization seem to be the most promising for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures due to their easiness and low...... cost. The development of a supported nanoporous alumina template and the possibility of using this template to combine electrochemical synthesis with lithographic methods open new ways for the fabrication of complex nanostructures. The numerous advantages of the supported template and its compatibility...

  19. Green urea synthesis catalyzed by hematite nanowires in magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahya, Noorhana, E-mail: noorhana_yahya@petronas.com.my; Qureshi, Saima; Rehman, Zia ur; Alqasem, Bilal; Fai Kait, Chong

    2017-04-15

    The catalytic activity of hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanowires under the influence of magnetic field on urea synthesis is considered green. The adsorption and subsequent dissociative reaction of hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases on the α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (111) nanowires were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The average adsorption energy is −4.12 kcal/mole at different sites. The adsorption of gases resulted in a difference in density and net spin of electrons from 68 to 120 and 0–21 respectively. In addition, it induces magnetic moment value of 36.33 µB, which confirms the enhanced magnetic behaviour of hematite. α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires (NWs) synthesized by heating iron wire in a box furnace at (750−800) °C and as synthesized α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (NPs) were received to use as a catalyst in the magnetic reaction of urea synthesis. X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) confirms the peaks of rhombohedral structure of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Raman spectrum analyses confirms the α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} peaks at 410 cm{sup −1}, 500 cm{sup −1} and 616 cm{sup −1}. The needle-like shape of hematite nanowires with length ranging from 16–25) μm and diameter from 74 to 145 nm confirmed by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The magnetic properties of the nanowires exhibited different levels of saturation magnetization, for α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} perpendicularly aligned direction (13.18 emu/g) and random direction (10.73 emu/g). Urea synthesis was done under magnetic field ranges from 0.0 to 2.5 T. The activation energy of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NWs for urea production is lower than NPs in the range of 0–1 T, whereas it is reversed for higher magnetic induction values. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the formation of urea at the peaks of 1690–1600 cm{sup −1}. This green urea employing magnetically induced method could be a contender to the Haber-Bosch process

  20. Semiconductor Nanowires: What's Next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Peidong; Yan, Ruoxue; Fardy, Melissa

    2010-04-28

    In this perspective, we take a critical look at the research progress within the nanowire community for the past decade. We discuss issues on the discovery of fundamentally new phenomena versus performance benchmarking for many of the nanowire applications. We also notice that both the bottom-up and top-down approaches have played important roles in advancing our fundamental understanding of this new class of nanostructures. Finally we attempt to look into the future and offer our personal opinions on what the future trends will be in nanowire research.

  1. Rare earth silicide nanowires on silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanke, Martina

    2008-01-01

    The growth, structure and electronic properties of rare earth silicide nanowires are investigated on planar and vicinal Si(001) und Si(111) surfaces with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). On all surfaces investigated within this work hexagonal disilicides are grown epitaxially with a lattice mismatch of -2.55% up to +0.83% along the hexagonal a-axis. Along the hexagonal c-axis the lattice mismatch is essentially larger with 6.5%. On the Si(001)2 x 1 surface two types of nanowires are grown epitaxially. The socalled broad wires show a one-dimensional metallic valence band structure with states crossing the Fermi level. Along the nanowires two strongly dispersing states at the anti J point and a strongly dispersing state at the anti Γ point can be observed. Along the thin nanowires dispersing states could not be observed. Merely in the direction perpendicular to the wires an intensity variation could be observed, which corresponds to the observed spacial structure of the thin nanowires. The electronic properties of the broad erbium silicide nanowires are very similar to the broad dysprosium silicide nanowires. The electronic properties of the DySi 2 -monolayer and the Dy 3 Si 5 -multilayer on the Si(111) surface are investigated in comparison to the known ErSi 2 /Si(111) and Er 3 Si 5 /Si(111) system. The positions and the energetic locations of the observed band in the surface Brillouin zone will be confirmed for dysprosium. The shape of the electron pockets in the vector k parallel space is elliptical at the anti M points, while the hole pocket at the anti Γ point is showing a hexagonal symmetry. On the Si(557) surface the structural and electronic properties depend strongly on the different preparation conditions likewise, in particular on the rare earth coverage. At submonolayer coverage the thin nanowires grow in wide areas of the sample surface, which are oriented

  2. Perspectives of single cast nanowires technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioisher, Anatolii; Badinter, Efim; Postolache, Vitalie; Leporda, Nicolae; Tiginyanu, Ion; Monaico, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    The paper is dedicated to production potential of glass-coated cast nanowire with metal-, semimetal- and semiconductor-based cores by means of Taylor-Ulitovsky method. Criteria of melted core-formative material penetration into a drawing capillary were analyzed. Theoretical preconditions of the reduction of cast microwire diameter up to nano-dimensions of core are reviewed and an improved method of cast nanowire manufacturing is proposed. Correctness of conclusions was experimentally proved and laboratory samples of micro- and nano-wires with core diameter of about 200-300 nanometers were produced, even in case of materials with poor adhesion.

  3. Silicon nanowire-based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelzner, Th; Pietsch, M; Andrae, G; Falk, F; Ose, E; Christiansen, S [Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, D-07745 Jena (Germany)], E-mail: thomas.stelzner@ipht-jena.de

    2008-07-23

    The fabrication of silicon nanowire-based solar cells on silicon wafers and on multicrystalline silicon thin films on glass is described. The nanowires show a strong broadband optical absorption, which makes them an interesting candidate to serve as an absorber in solar cells. The operation of a solar cell is demonstrated with n-doped nanowires grown on a p-doped silicon wafer. From a partially illuminated area of 0.6 cm{sup 2} open-circuit voltages in the range of 230-280 mV and a short-circuit current density of 2 mA cm{sup -2} were obtained.

  4. Silicon nanowire-based solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelzner, Th; Pietsch, M; Andrae, G; Falk, F; Ose, E; Christiansen, S

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication of silicon nanowire-based solar cells on silicon wafers and on multicrystalline silicon thin films on glass is described. The nanowires show a strong broadband optical absorption, which makes them an interesting candidate to serve as an absorber in solar cells. The operation of a solar cell is demonstrated with n-doped nanowires grown on a p-doped silicon wafer. From a partially illuminated area of 0.6 cm 2 open-circuit voltages in the range of 230-280 mV and a short-circuit current density of 2 mA cm -2 were obtained

  5. Environmental-Friendly and Facile Synthesis of Co3O4 Nanowires and Their Promising Application with Graphene in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wei; Yang, Yuanyi; Sun, Lijuan; Deng, Yi; Liao, Li

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we developed an eco-friendly strategy for preparing Co3O4 nanowires. The process consisted of two steps: controllable synthesis of metal cobalt nanowires followed by a facile air-oxidization step. The 1D nanowire structure with a high aspect ratio was easily achieved via a magnetic-field-assisted self-assembly of cobalt ion complexes during reduction. After air-calcinations, the Co3O4 nanowires were prepared in large scale and ready to be used as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The Co3O4 nanowires, which possessed a length ranging from 3 to 8 μm with the aspect ratio more than 15, exhibited a reversible lithium storage capacity up to 790 mAh/g when using a small amount of defect-free graphene flakes as conductive additives. The superior electrochemical performances were ascribable to the synergistic "flat-on" effect between the 1D nanowires and the 2D graphene. Therefore, the Co3O4 nanowire/graphene composite holds promising application for lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Template-based fabrication of nanowire-nanotube hybrid arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zuxin; Liu Haidong; Schultz, Isabel; Wu Wenhao; Naugle, D G; Lyuksyutov, I

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication and structure characterization of ordered nanowire-nanotube hybrid arrays embedded in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are reported. Arrays of TiO 2 nanotubes were first deposited into the pores of AAO membranes by a sol-gel technique. Co nanowires were then electrochemically deposited into the TiO 2 nanotubes to form the nanowire-nanotube hybrid arrays. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy measurements showed a high nanowire filling factor and a clean interface between the Co nanowire and the TiO 2 nanotube. Application of these hybrids to the fabrication of ordered nanowire arrays with highly controllable geometric parameters is discussed

  7. Biofunctionalization of zinc oxide nanowires for DNA sensory applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph Bettina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on the biofunctionalization of zinc oxide nanowires for the attachment of DNA target molecules on the nanowire surface. With the organosilane glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane acting as a bifunctional linker, amino-modified capture molecule oligonucleotides have been immobilized on the nanowire surface. The dye-marked DNA molecules were detected via fluorescence microscopy, and our results reveal a successful attachment of DNA capture molecules onto the nanowire surface. The electrical field effect induced by the negatively charged attached DNA molecules should be able to control the electrical properties of the nanowires and gives way to a ZnO nanowire-based biosensing device.

  8. Five-year evaluation of a low-shrinkage Silorane resin composite material: A randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Malene; Dige, Irene; Kirkevang, Lise-Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical performance of a low-shrinkage silorane-based composite material (Filtek™ Silorane, 3 M-Espe) by comparing it with a methacrylate-based composite material (Ceram•X™, Dentsply DeTrey). Material and methods A number of 72patien...

  9. Silicon nanowire hot carrier electroluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessis, M. du, E-mail: monuko@up.ac.za; Joubert, T.-H.

    2016-08-31

    Avalanche electroluminescence from silicon pn junctions has been known for many years. However, the internal quantum efficiencies of these devices are quite low due to the indirect band gap nature of the semiconductor material. In this study we have used reach-through biasing and SOI (silicon-on-insulator) thin film structures to improve the internal power efficiency and the external light extraction efficiency. Both continuous silicon thin film pn junctions and parallel nanowire pn junctions were manufactured using a custom SOI technology. The pn junctions are operated in the reach-through mode of operation, thus increasing the average electric field within the fully depleted region. Experimental results of the emission spectrum indicate that the most dominant photon generating mechanism is due to intraband hot carrier relaxation processes. It was found that the SOI nanowire light source external power efficiency is at least an order of magnitude better than the comparable bulk CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) light source. - Highlights: • We investigate effect of electric field on silicon avalanche electroluminescence. • With reach-through pn junctions the current and carrier densities are kept constant. • Higher electric fields increase short wavelength radiation. • Higher electric fields decrease long wavelength radiation. • The effect of the electric field indicates intraband transitions as main mechanism.

  10. Topological Insulator Nanowires and Nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, Desheng

    2010-01-13

    Recent theoretical calculations and photoemission spectroscopy measurements on the bulk Bi2Se3 material show that it is a three-dimensional topological insulator possessing conductive surface states with nondegenerate spins, attractive for dissipationless electronics and spintronics applications. Nanoscale topological insulator materials have a large surface-to-volume ratio that can manifest the conductive surface states and are promising candidates for devices. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of high quality single crystalline Bi2Se5 nanomaterials with a variety of morphologies. The synthesis of Bi 2Se5 nanowires and nanoribbons employs Au-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Nanowires, which exhibit rough surfaces, are formed by stacking nanoplatelets along the axial direction of the wires. Nanoribbons are grown along [1120] direction with a rectangular cross-section and have diverse morphologies, including quasi-one-dimensional, sheetlike, zigzag and sawtooth shapes. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies on nanoribbons show atomically smooth surfaces with ∼ 1 nm step edges, indicating single Se-Bi-Se-Bi-Se quintuple layers. STM measurements reveal a honeycomb atomic lattice, suggesting that the STM tip couples not only to the top Se atomic layer, but also to the Bi atomic layer underneath, which opens up the possibility to investigate the contribution of different atomic orbitais to the topological surface states. Transport measurements of a single nanoribbon device (four terminal resistance and Hall resistance) show great promise for nanoribbons as candidates to study topological surface states. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  11. Quantification of nanowire uptake by live cells

    KAUST Repository

    Margineanu, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    attempts have been made at tagging and investigating their interaction with living cells. In this study, magnetic iron nanowires with an iron oxide layer are coated with (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), and subsequently labeled with a fluorogenic p

  12. Micromagnetic simulations of cylindrical magnetic nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews micromagnetic simulations of cylindrical magnetic nanowires and their ordered arrays. It starts with a description of the theoretical background of micromagnetism. The chapter discusses main magnetization reversal modes, domain

  13. Optical properties of nanowire metamaterials with gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isidio de Lima, Joaquim Junior; Adam, Jost; Rego, Davi

    2016-01-01

    The transmittance, reflectance and absorption of a nanowire metamaterial with optical gain are numerically simulated and investigated. It is assumed that the metamaterial is represented by aligned silver nanowires embedded into a semiconductor matrix, made of either silicon or gallium phosphide....... The gain in the matrix is modeled by adding a negative imaginary part to the dielectric function of the semiconductor. It is found that the optical coefficients of the metamaterial depend on the gain magnitude in a non-trivial way: they can both increase and decrease with gain depending on the lattice...... constant of the metamaterial. This peculiar behavior is explained by the field redistribution between the lossy metal nanowires and the amplifying matrix material. These findings are significant for a proper design of nanowire metamaterials with low optical losses for diverse applications....

  14. Electrical conductivity measurements of bacterial nanowires from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruthupandy, Muthusamy; Anand, Muthusamy; Beevi, Akbar Sait Hameedha; Priya, Radhakrishnan Jeeva; Maduraiveeran, Govindhan

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular appendages of bacteria (flagella) that transfer electrons to electrodes are called bacterial nanowires. This study focuses on the isolation and separation of nanowires that are attached via Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial culture. The size and roughness of separated nanowires were measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The obtained bacterial nanowires indicated a clear image of bacterial nanowires measuring 16 nm in diameter. The formation of bacterial nanowires was confirmed by microscopic studies (AFM and TEM) and the conductivity nature of bacterial nanowire was investigated by electrochemical techniques. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which are nondestructive voltammetry techniques, suggest that bacterial nanowires could be the source of electrons—which may be used in various applications, for example, microbial fuel cells, biosensors, organic solar cells, and bioelectronic devices. Routine analysis of electron transfer between bacterial nanowires and the electrode was performed, providing insight into the extracellular electron transfer (EET) to the electrode. CV revealed the catalytic electron transferability of bacterial nanowires and electrodes and showed excellent redox activities. CV and EIS studies showed that bacterial nanowires can charge the surface by producing and storing sufficient electrons, behave as a capacitor, and have features consistent with EET. Finally, electrochemical studies confirmed the development of bacterial nanowires with EET. This study suggests that bacterial nanowires can be used to fabricate biomolecular sensors and nanoelectronic devices. (paper)

  15. Band structure analysis in SiGe nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, Michele [' Centro S3' , CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, via Campi 213/A, 41100 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Amendola 2 Pad. Morselli, I-42100 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Palummo, Maurizia [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) (Italy); CNR-INFM-SMC, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma, ' Tor Vergata' , via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Ossicini, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.ossicini@unimore.it [' Centro S3' , CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, via Campi 213/A, 41100 Modena (Italy) and Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Amendola 2 Pad. Morselli, I-42100 Reggio Emilia (Italy) and European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility - ETSF (Italy) and Centro Interdipartimentale ' En and Tech' , Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Amendola 2 Pad. Morselli, I-42100 Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    2012-06-05

    One of the main challenges for Silicon-Germanium nanowires (SiGe NWs) electronics is the possibility to modulate and engine their electronic properties in an easy way, in order to obtain a material with the desired electronic features. Diameter and composition constitute two crucial ways for the modification of the band gap and of the band structure of SiGe NWs. Within the framework of density functional theory we present results of ab initio calculations regarding the band structure dependence of SiGe NWs on diameter and composition. We point out the main differences with respect to the case of pure Si and Ge wires and we discuss the particular features of SiGe NWs that are useful for future technological applications.

  16. Axial Ge/Si nanowire heterostructure tunnel FETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, Sanuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daych, Shadi A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of semiconductor nanowires allows doping and composition modulation along their axis and the realization of axial 1 D heterostructures. This provides additional flexibility in energy band-edge engineering along the transport direction which is difficult to attain by planar materials growth and processing techniques. We report here on the design, growth, fabrication, and characterization of asymmetric heterostructure tunnel field-effect transistors (HTFETs) based on 100% compositionally modulated Si/Ge axial NWs for high on-current operation and low ambipolar transport behavior. We discuss the optimization of band-offsets and Schottky barrier heights for high performance HTFETs and issues surrounding their experimental realization. Our HTFET devices with 10 nm PECVD SiN{sub x} gate dielectric resulted in a measured current drive exceeding 100 {mu}A/{mu}m (I/{pi}D) and 10{sup 5} I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratios.

  17. Band structure analysis in SiGe nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, Michele; Palummo, Maurizia; Ossicini, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges for Silicon-Germanium nanowires (SiGe NWs) electronics is the possibility to modulate and engine their electronic properties in an easy way, in order to obtain a material with the desired electronic features. Diameter and composition constitute two crucial ways for the modification of the band gap and of the band structure of SiGe NWs. Within the framework of density functional theory we present results of ab initio calculations regarding the band structure dependence of SiGe NWs on diameter and composition. We point out the main differences with respect to the case of pure Si and Ge wires and we discuss the particular features of SiGe NWs that are useful for future technological applications.

  18. Silver Nanowire Arrays : Fabrication and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yuyi

    2016-01-01

    Nanowire arrays have increasingly received attention for their use in a variety of applications such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), plasmonic sensing, and electrodes for photoelectric devices. However, until now, large scale fabrication of device-suitable metallic nanowire arrays on supporting substrates has seen very limited success. This thesis describes my work rst on the development of a novel successful processing route for the fabrication of uniform noble metallic (e.g. A...

  19. Optical Properties of Rotationally Twinned Nanowire Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Jiming; Bell, David C.; Capasso, Federico

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a technique so that both transmission electron microscopy and microphotoluminescence can be performed on the same semiconductor nanowire over a large range of optical power, thus allowing us to directly correlate structural and optical properties of rotationally twinned zinc...... a heterostructure in a chemically homogeneous nanowire material and alter in a major way its optical properties opens new possibilities for band-structure engineering....

  20. Plasmonic Waveguide-Integrated Nanowire Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bermudez-Urena, Esteban; Tutuncuoglu, Gozde; Cuerda, Javier

    2017-01-01

    technologies. Despite significant advances in their fundamental aspects, the integration within scalable photonic circuitry remains challenging. Here we report on the realization of hybrid photonic devices consisting of nanowire lasers integrated with wafer-scale lithographically designed V-groove plasmonic......Next-generation optoelectronic devices and photonic circuitry will have to incorporate on-chip compatible nanolaser sources. Semiconductor nanowire lasers have emerged as strong candidates for integrated systems with applications ranging from ultrasensitive sensing to data communication...

  1. Facile synthesis of Co3O4 nanowires grown on hollow NiO microspheres with superior electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Meiqing; Ren, Bo; Yu, Lei; Song, Dalei; Liu, Qi; Liu, Jingyuan; Wang, Jun; Jing, Xiaoyan; Liu, Lianhe

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The NiO hollow spheres were decorated by Co 3 O 4 nanowires. • The NiO hollow spheres were comprised of many NiO particles. • The Co 3 O 4 nanowires were composed of nanoparticles. • The NiO/Co 3 O 4 core/shell nanocomposites have good electrochemical properties. - Abstract: The NiO/Co 3 O 4 core/shell composites as a promising supercapacitor material have been fabricated by facile hydrothermal process. The structure and morphology of the NiO/Co 3 O 4 core/shell composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that the NiO hollow spheres were decorated by Co 3 O 4 nanowires, and the nanowires were composed of nanoparticles. Electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results suggested that the NiO/Co 3 O 4 core/shell composites had good electrochemical reversibility and displayed superior capacitive performance with large capacitance (510 F g −1 ). Moreover, NiO/Co 3 O 4 core/shell composites showed excellent cyclic performanceafter 1000 cycles

  2. Indium antimonide nanowires arrays for promising thermoelectric converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorokh G. G.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors have theoretically substantiated the possibility to create promising thermoelectric converters based on quantum wires. The calculations have shown that the use of quantum wires with lateral dimensions smaller than quantum confinement values and high concentration and mobility of electrons, can lead to a substantial cooling of one of the contacts up to tens of degrees and to the heating of the other. The technological methods of manufacturing of indium antimonide nanowires arrays with high aspect ratio of the nanowire diameters to their length in the modified nanoporous anodic alumina matrixes were developed and tested. The microstructure and composition of the formed nanostructures were investigated. The electron microscopy allowed establishing that within each pore nanowires are formed with diameters of 35 nm and a length of 35 microns (equal to the matrix thickness. The electron probe x-ray microanalysis has shown that the atomic ratio of indium and antimony in the semiconductor nanostructures amounted to 38,26% and 61,74%, respectively. The current-voltage measurement between the upper and lower contacts of Cu/InSb/Cu structure (1 mm2 has shown that at 2.82 V negative voltage at the emitter contact, current density is 129,8 A/cм2, and the collector contact is heated up to 75 degrees during 150 sec. Thus, the experimental results confirmed the theoretical findings that the quantum wire systems can be used to create thermoelectric devices, which can be widely applied in electronics, in particular, for cooling integrated circuits (processors, thermal controlling of the electrical circuits by changing voltage value.

  3. A Six-Month Randomized Controlled Trial of Whole Soy and Isoflavones Daidzein on Body Composition in Equol-Producing Postmenopausal Women with Prehypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-min Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This paper reported the effects of commonly used whole soy foods (soy flour and purified daidzein (one of the major isoflavones and the precursor of equol on changes in anthropometric measurements and body composition in a 6-month double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial among prehypertensive postmenopausal women who are also equol producers. Methods. 270 eligible women were randomized to either one of the three treatments: 40 g soy flour (whole soy group, 40 g low-fat milk powder + 63 mg daidzein (daidzein group, or 40 g low-fat milk powder (placebo group daily each for 6 months. Anthropometric indicators and body composition were measured before and after intervention. Results. 253 subjects completed the study with good compliance. Urinary isoflavones levels suggested good compliance of subjects with supplementation. Whole soy and purified daidzein had no significant effect on body weight, body mass index (BMI, waist and hip circumferences, waist to hip ratio (WHR, body fat percentage, fat mass, and free fat mass. Conclusion. Six-month consumption of whole soy and purified daidzein at provided dosage had no improvement on body weight and composition compared with isocaloric milk placebo among prehypertensive equol-producing postmenopausal women. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01270737.

  4. Constricted nanowire with stabilized magnetic domain wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbiaa, R.; Al Bahri, M.

    2016-01-01

    Domain wall (DW)-based magnetic memory offers the possibility for increasing the storage capacity. However, stability of DW remains the major drawback of this scheme. In this letter, we propose a stepped nanowire for pinning DW in a desirable position. From micromagnetic simulation, the proposed design applied to in-plane magnetic anisotropy materials shows that by adjusting the nanowire step size and its width it is possible to stabilize DW for a desirable current density range. In contrast, only a movement of DW could be seen for conventional nanowire. An extension to a multi-stepped nanowire could be used for multi-bit per cell magnetic memory. - Highlights: • A stepped nanowire is proposed to pin domain wall in desired position. • The new structure can be made by a simple off set of two single nanowires. • The critical current for moving domain wall from one state to the other could be tuned by adjusting the geometry of the device. • The device could be used for multi-bit per cell memory by extending the steps in the device.

  5. Reversal modes in asymmetric Ni nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighton, B.; Pereira, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Escrig, J., E-mail: jescrigm@gmail.com [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile)

    2012-11-15

    We have investigated the evolution of the magnetization reversal mechanism in asymmetric Ni nanowires as a function of their geometry. Circular nanowires are found to reverse their magnetization by the propagation of a vortex domain wall, while in very asymmetric nanowires the reversal is driven by the propagation of a transverse domain wall. The effect of shape asymmetry of the wire on coercivity and remanence is also studied. Angular dependence of the remanence and coercivity is also addressed. Tailoring the magnetization reversal mechanism in asymmetric nanowires can be useful for magnetic logic and race-track memory, both of which are based on the displacement of magnetic domain walls. Finally, an alternative method to detect the presence of magnetic drops is proposed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Asymmetry strongly modifies the magnetic behavior of a wire. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Very asymmetric nanowires reverse their magnetization by a transverse domain wall. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An alternative method to detect the presence of magnetic drops is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tailoring the reversal mode in asymmetric nanowires can be useful for potential applications.

  6. Silicon nanowires in polymer nanocomposites for photovoltaic hybrid thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Dkhil, S.; Bourguiga, R.; Davenas, J.; Cornu, D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hybrid solar cells based on blends of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) and silicon nanowires have been fabricated. ► We have investigated the charge transfer between PVK and SiNWs by the way of the quenching of the PVK photoluminescence. ► The relation between the morphology of the composite thin films and the charge transfer between SiNWs and PVK has been examined. ► We have investigated the effects of SiNWs concentration on the photovoltaic characteristics leading to the optimization of a critical SiNWs concentration. - Abstract: Hybrid thin films combining the high optical absorption of a semiconducting polymer film and the electronic properties of silicon fillers have been investigated in the perspective of the development of low cost solar cells. Bulk heterojunction photovoltaic materials based on blends of a semiconductor polymer poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) as electron donor and silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as electron acceptor have been studied. Composite PVK/SiNWs films were cast from a common solvent mixture. UV–visible spectrometry and photoluminescence of the composites have been studied as a function of the SiNWs concentration. Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) shows the existence of a critical SiNWs concentration of about 10 wt % for PL quenching corresponding to the most efficient charge pair separation. The photovoltaic (PV) effect has been studied under illumination. The optimum open-circuit voltage V oc and short-circuit current density J sc are obtained for 10 wt % SiNWs whereas a degradation of these parameters is observed at higher SiNWs concentrations. These results are correlated to the formation of aggregates in the composite leading to recombination of the photogenerated charge pairs competing with the dissociation mechanism.

  7. Radial Nanowire Light-Emitting Diodes in the (AlxGa1-x)yIn1-yP Material System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Alexander; Yazdi, Sadegh; Nowzari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    layer for emission and AlGaInP as charge carrier barriers. The different layers were analyzed by X-ray diffraction to ensure lattice-matched radial structures. Furthermore, we evaluated the material composition and heterojunction interface sharpness by scanning transmission electron microscopy energy......Nanowires have the potential to play an important role for next-generation light-emitting diodes. In this work, we present a growth scheme for radial nanowire quantum-well structures in the AlGaInP material system using a GaInP nanowire core as a template for radial growth with GaInP as the active...... dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The electro-optical properties were investigated by injection luminescence measurements. The presented results can be a valuable track toward radial nanowire light-emitting diodes in the AlGaInP material system in the red/orange/yellow color spectrum....

  8. High Strain Rate Tensile Testing of Silver Nanowires: Rate-Dependent Brittle-to-Ductile Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandramoorthy, Rajaprakash; Gao, Wei; Bernal, Rodrigo; Espinosa, Horacio

    2016-01-13

    The characterization of nanomaterials under high strain rates is critical to understand their suitability for dynamic applications such as nanoresonators and nanoswitches. It is also of great theoretical importance to explore nanomechanics with dynamic and rate effects. Here, we report in situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) tensile testing of bicrystalline silver nanowires at strain rates up to 2/s, which is 2 orders of magnitude higher than previously reported in the literature. The experiments are enabled by a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) with fast response time. It was identified that the nanowire plastic deformation has a small activation volume (ductile failure mode transition was observed at a threshold strain rate of 0.2/s. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that along the nanowire, dislocation density and spatial distribution of plastic regions increase with increasing strain rate. Furthermore, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations show that deformation mechanisms such as grain boundary migration and dislocation interactions are responsible for such ductility. Finally, the MD and experimental results were interpreted using dislocation nucleation theory. The predicted yield stress values are in agreement with the experimental results for strain rates above 0.2/s when ductility is pronounced. At low strain rates, random imperfections on the nanowire surface trigger localized plasticity, leading to a brittle-like failure.

  9. Initialization of a spin qubit in a site-controlled nanowire quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G; McMahon, Peter L; Fischer, Kevin A; Müller, Kai; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Vučković, Jelena; Puri, Shruti; Dan Dalacu; Poole, Philip J; Reimer, Michael E; Zwiller, Val

    2016-01-01

    A fault-tolerant quantum repeater or quantum computer using solid-state spin-based quantum bits will likely require a physical implementation with many spins arranged in a grid. Self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) have been established as attractive candidates for building spin-based quantum information processing devices, but such QDs are randomly positioned, which makes them unsuitable for constructing large-scale processors. Recent efforts have shown that QDs embedded in nanowires can be deterministically positioned in regular arrays, can store single charges, and have excellent optical properties, but so far there have been no demonstrations of spin qubit operations using nanowire QDs. Here we demonstrate optical pumping of individual spins trapped in site-controlled nanowire QDs, resulting in high-fidelity spin-qubit initialization. This represents the next step towards establishing spins in nanowire QDs as quantum memories suitable for use in a large-scale, fault-tolerant quantum computer or repeater based on all-optical control of the spin qubits. (paper)

  10. Zinc oxide nanowire-poly(methyl methacrylate) dielectric layers for polymer capacitive pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Sheng; Hsieh, Gen-Wen; Chen, Shih-Ping; Tseng, Pin-Yen; Wang, Cheng-Wei

    2015-01-14

    Polymer capacitive pressure sensors based on a dielectric composite layer of zinc oxide nanowire and poly(methyl methacrylate) show pressure sensitivity in the range of 2.63 × 10(-3) to 9.95 × 10(-3) cm(2) gf(-1). This represents an increase of capacitance change by as much as a factor of 23 over pristine polymer devices. An ultralight load of only 10 mg (corresponding to an applied pressure of ∼0.01 gf cm(-2)) can be clearly recognized, demonstrating remarkable characteristics of these nanowire-polymer capacitive pressure sensors. In addition, optical transmittance of the dielectric composite layer is approximately 90% in the visible wavelength region. Their low processing temperature, transparency, and flexible dielectric film makes them a highly promising means for flexible touching and pressure-sensing applications.

  11. Polyaniline nanowire arrays aligned on nitrogen-doped carbon fabric for high-performance flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pingping; Li, Yingzhi; Yu, Xinyi; Zhao, Xin; Wu, Lihao; Zhang, Qinghua

    2013-09-24

    A combination of vertical polyaniline (PANI) nanowire arrays and nitrogen plasma etched carbon fiber cloths (eCFC) was fabricated to create 3D nanostructured PANI/eCFC composites. The small size of the highly ordered PANI nanowires can greatly reduce the scale of the diffusion length, allowing for the improved utilization of electrode materials. A two-electrode flexible supercapacitor based on PANI/eCFC demonstrates a high specific capacitance (1035 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1)), good rate capability (88% capacity retention at 8 A g(-1)), and long-term cycle life (10% capacity loss after 5000 cycles). The lightweight, low-cost, flexible composites are promising candidates for use in energy storage device applications.

  12. Physical properties and applications of InxGa1−xN nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura-Ruiz, J.; Gómez-Gómez, M.; Garro, N.; Cantarero, A.; Martínez-Criado, G.; Denker, C.; Malindretos, J.; Rizzi, A.

    2014-01-01

    We have successfully grown In x Ga 1−x N nanowires by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on silicon substrates. The alloy composition and crystal quality have been analyzed by Raman scattering, photoluminescence spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence nanoprobe techniques. In x Ga 1−x N is an one-mode alloy, where the different optical modes have an intermediate frequency of that of pure InN and GaN. The sample composition can be derived from the Raman data. On the other hand, by using the optical gap provided by the emission spectra, we conclude that the samples have a lower Ga content than that provided by the Raman analysis. X-ray fluorescence maps and photoluminescence measured in single nanowires help to explain this contradictory result

  13. Physical properties and applications of InxGa1-xN nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Ruiz, J.; Gómez-Gómez, M.; Garro, N.; Martínez-Criado, G.; Cantarero, A.; Denker, C.; Malindretos, J.; Rizzi, A.

    2014-05-01

    We have successfully grown InxGa1-xN nanowires by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on silicon substrates. The alloy composition and crystal quality have been analyzed by Raman scattering, photoluminescence spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence nanoprobe techniques. InxGa1-xN is an one-mode alloy, where the different optical modes have an intermediate frequency of that of pure InN and GaN. The sample composition can be derived from the Raman data. On the other hand, by using the optical gap provided by the emission spectra, we conclude that the samples have a lower Ga content than that provided by the Raman analysis. X-ray fluorescence maps and photoluminescence measured in single nanowires help to explain this contradictory result.

  14. High performance field emission of silicon carbide nanowires and their applications in flexible field emission displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yunkang; Chen, Jing; Di, Yunsong; Zhang, Xiaobing; Lei, Wei

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a facile method to fabricate the flexible field emission devices (FEDs) based on SiC nanostructure emitters by a thermal evaporation method has been demonstrated. The composition characteristics of SiC nanowires was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), while the morphology was revealed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results showed that the SiC nanowires grew along the [111] direction with the diameter of ˜110 nm and length of˜30 μm. The flexible FEDs have been fabricated by transferring and screen-printing the SiC nanowires onto the flexible substrates exhibited excellent field emission properties, such as the low turn-on field (˜0.95 V/μm) and threshold field (˜3.26 V/μm), and the high field enhancement factor (β=4670). It is worth noting the current density degradation can be controlled lower than 2% per hour during the stability tests. In addition, the flexible FEDs based on SiC nanowire emitters exhibit uniform bright emission modes under bending test conditions. As a result, this strategy is very useful for its potential application in the commercial flexible FEDs.

  15. High performance field emission of silicon carbide nanowires and their applications in flexible field emission displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunkang Cui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a facile method to fabricate the flexible field emission devices (FEDs based on SiC nanostructure emitters by a thermal evaporation method has been demonstrated. The composition characteristics of SiC nanowires was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, selected area electron diffraction (SAED and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX, while the morphology was revealed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. The results showed that the SiC nanowires grew along the [111] direction with the diameter of ∼110 nm and length of∼30 μm. The flexible FEDs have been fabricated by transferring and screen-printing the SiC nanowires onto the flexible substrates exhibited excellent field emission properties, such as the low turn-on field (∼0.95 V/μm and threshold field (∼3.26 V/μm, and the high field enhancement factor (β=4670. It is worth noting the current density degradation can be controlled lower than 2% per hour during the stability tests. In addition, the flexible FEDs based on SiC nanowire emitters exhibit uniform bright emission modes under bending test conditions. As a result, this strategy is very useful for its potential application in the commercial flexible FEDs.

  16. Light-induced antifungal activity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles/ZnO nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi, N. [Nano-Physics Research Lab., Department of Physics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdi, Y., E-mail: y.abdi@ut.ac.ir [Nano-Physics Research Lab., Department of Physics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghighi, F. [Department of Medical Mycology, School of Medical sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Antifungal activity of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanostructures under visible light irradiation was investigated. A simple chemical method was used to synthesize ZnO nanowires. Zinc acetate dihydrate, Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone and deionized water were used as precursor, capping and solvent, respectively. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were deposited on ZnO nanowires using an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition system. X-ray diffraction pattern of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nano-composite has represented the diffraction peaks relating to the crystal planes of the TiO{sub 2} (anatase and rutile) and ZnO. TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanostructure antifungal effect on Candida albicans biofilms was studied and compared with the activity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and ZnO nanowires. The high efficiency photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles leads to increased antifungal activity of ZnO nanowires. Scanning electron microscope was utilized to study the morphology of the as prepared nanostructures and the degradation of the yeast.

  17. Solution-Based Epitaxial Growth of Magnetically Responsive Cu@Ni Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Shengmao

    2010-02-23

    An experiment was conducted to show the solution-based epitaxial growth of magnetically responsive Cu@Ni nanowires. The Ni-sheathed Cu nanowires were synthesized with a one-pot approach. 30 mL of high concentration NaOH, Cu(NO3)2. 3H2O, Cu(NO3)2. 3H2O and 0.07-0.30 mL of Ni(NO3)2. 6H 2O aqueous solutions were added into a plastic reactor with a capacity of 50.0 mL. A varying amount of ethylenediamine (EDA) and hydrazine were also added sequentially, followed by thorough mixing of all reagents. The dimension, morphology, and chemical composition of the products were examined with scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The XPS analysis on the as formed Cu nanowires confirms that there is indeed no nickel inclusion in the nanowires prior to the formation of nickel overcoat, which rules out the possibility of Cu-Ni alloy formation.

  18. Broad spectral response photodetector based on individual tin-doped CdS nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichang Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High purity and tin-doped 1D CdS micro/nano-structures were synthesized by a convenient thermal evaporation method. SEM, EDS, XRD and TEM were used to examine the morphology, composition, phase structure and crystallinity of as-prepared samples. Raman spectrum was used to confirm tin doped into CdS effectively. The effect of impurity on the photoresponse properties of photodetectors made from these as-prepared pure and tin-doped CdS micro/nano-structures under excitation of light with different wavelength was investigated. Various photoconductive parameters such as responsivity, external quantum efficiency, response time and stability were analyzed to evaluate the advantage of doped nanowires and the feasibility for photodetector application. Comparison with pure CdS nanobelt, the tin-doped CdS nanowires response to broader spectral range while keep the excellect photoconductive parameters. Both trapped state induced by tin impurity and optical whispering gallery mode microcavity effect in the doped CdS nanowires contribute to the broader spectral response. The micro-photoluminescence was used to confirm the whispering gallery mode effect and deep trapped state in the doped CdS nanowires.

  19. Light-induced antifungal activity of TiO2 nanoparticles/ZnO nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighi, N.; Abdi, Y.; Haghighi, F.

    2011-01-01

    Antifungal activity of TiO 2 /ZnO nanostructures under visible light irradiation was investigated. A simple chemical method was used to synthesize ZnO nanowires. Zinc acetate dihydrate, Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone and deionized water were used as precursor, capping and solvent, respectively. TiO 2 nanoparticles were deposited on ZnO nanowires using an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition system. X-ray diffraction pattern of TiO 2 /ZnO nano-composite has represented the diffraction peaks relating to the crystal planes of the TiO 2 (anatase and rutile) and ZnO. TiO 2 /ZnO nanostructure antifungal effect on Candida albicans biofilms was studied and compared with the activity of TiO 2 nanoparticles and ZnO nanowires. The high efficiency photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanoparticles leads to increased antifungal activity of ZnO nanowires. Scanning electron microscope was utilized to study the morphology of the as prepared nanostructures and the degradation of the yeast.

  20. Suspended tungsten-based nanowires with enhanced mechanical properties grown by focused ion beam induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Rosa; Lorenzoni, Matteo; Pablo-Navarro, Javier; Magén, César; Pérez-Murano, Francesc; María De Teresa, José

    2017-11-01

    The implementation of three-dimensional (3D) nano-objects as building blocks for the next generation of electro-mechanical, memory and sensing nano-devices is at the forefront of technology. The direct writing of functional 3D nanostructures is made feasible by using a method based on focused ion beam induced deposition (FIBID). We use this technique to grow horizontally suspended tungsten nanowires and then study their nano-mechanical properties by three-point bending method with atomic force microscopy. These measurements reveal that these nanowires exhibit a yield strength up to 12 times higher than that of the bulk tungsten, and near the theoretical value of 0.1 times the Young’s modulus (E). We find a size dependence of E that is adequately described by a core-shell model, which has been confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and compositional analysis at the nanoscale. Additionally, we show that experimental resonance frequencies of suspended nanowires (in the MHz range) are in good agreement with theoretical values. These extraordinary mechanical properties are key to designing electro-mechanically robust nanodevices based on FIBID tungsten nanowires.

  1. Solution-Based Epitaxial Growth of Magnetically Responsive Cu@Ni Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Shengmao; Zeng, Hua Chun

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to show the solution-based epitaxial growth of magnetically responsive Cu@Ni nanowires. The Ni-sheathed Cu nanowires were synthesized with a one-pot approach. 30 mL of high concentration NaOH, Cu(NO3)2. 3H2O, Cu(NO3)2. 3H2O and 0.07-0.30 mL of Ni(NO3)2. 6H 2O aqueous solutions were added into a plastic reactor with a capacity of 50.0 mL. A varying amount of ethylenediamine (EDA) and hydrazine were also added sequentially, followed by thorough mixing of all reagents. The dimension, morphology, and chemical composition of the products were examined with scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The XPS analysis on the as formed Cu nanowires confirms that there is indeed no nickel inclusion in the nanowires prior to the formation of nickel overcoat, which rules out the possibility of Cu-Ni alloy formation.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of CdS/CdSxSe1-x Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agueda Lopez, Kleyser; Wu, Marvin

    Semiconductor nanowire heterostructures are of interest for potential applications in solar cells and other advanced optoelectronic devices. We report here on synthesis of CdS/CdSxSe1-x nanowires (NWs) using a dual source vapor = liquid - solid technique, and characterization of these NWs with scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. We determine the effect of growth parameters, including source / substrate temperatures and time of exposure, on NW size, shape, and composition. The crystal structure and optical properties individual NWs from selected substrates has been mapped using transmission Kikuchi diffraction and photoluminescence (PL) microscopy. NWs consistently exhibit a hexagonal structure, with growth along the c-axis. Strong PL peaks are observed between the expected bandgap emission from CdS and CdSe, confirming formation of CdSxSe1-x. PL peaks vary significantly with intensity along the long axis of the nanowire, suggesting that the NW surface is not uniformly passivated. These nanowires show promise for future investigation and manipulation of energy band gaps contain in CdS/CdSe. CREST.

  3. Low temperature synthesis of seed mediated CuO bundle of nanowires, their structural characterisation and cholesterol detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibupoto, Z H; Khun, K; Liu, X; Willander, M

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we have successfully synthesised CuO bundle of nanowires using simple, cheap and low temperature hydrothermal growth method. The growth parameters such as precursor concentration and time for duration of growth were optimised. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) has demonstrated that the CuO bundles of nanowires are highly dense, uniform and perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has demonstrated that the CuO nanostructures consist of bundle of nanowires and their growth pattern is along the [010] direction. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique described that CuO bundle of nanowires possess the monoclinic crystal phase. The surface and chemical composition analyses were carried out with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique and the obtained results suggested the pure crystal state of CuO nanostructures. In addition, the CuO nanowires were used for the cholesterol sensing application by immobilising the cholesterol oxidase through electrostatic attraction. The infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy study has also revealed that CuO nanostructures are consisting of only CuO bonding and has also shown the possible interaction of cholesterol oxidase with the sharp edge surface of CuO bundle of nanowires. The proposed cholesterol sensor has demonstrated the wide range of detection of cholesterol with good sensitivity of 33.88±0.96 mV/decade. Moreover, the CuO bundle of nanowires based sensor electrode has revealed good repeatability, reproducibility, stability, selectivity and a fast response time of less than 10s. The cholesterol sensor based on the immobilised cholesterol oxidase has good potential applicability for the determination of cholesterol from the human serum and other biological samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Interface studies of N2 plasma-treated ZnSnO nanowire transistors using low-frequency noise measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seongmin; Janes, David B; Kim, Hwansoo; Ju, Sanghyun

    2013-01-01

    Due to the large surface-to-volume ratio of nanowires, the quality of nanowire–insulator interfaces as well as the nanowire surface characteristics significantly influence the electrical characteristics of nanowire transistors (NWTs). To improve the electrical characteristics by doping or post-processing, it is important to evaluate the interface characteristics and stability of NWTs. In this study, we have synthesized ZnSnO (ZTO) nanowires using the chemical vapor deposition method, characterized the composition of ZTO nanowires using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and fabricated ZTO NWTs. We have characterized the current–voltage characteristics and low-frequency noise of ZTO NWTs in order to investigate the effects of interface states on subthreshold slope (SS) and the noise before and after N 2 plasma treatments. The as-fabricated device exhibited a SS of 0.29 V/dec and Hooge parameter of ∼1.20 × 10 −2 . Upon N 2 plasma treatment with N 2 gas flow rate of 40 sccm (20 sccm), the SS improved to 0.12 V/dec (0.21 V/dec) and the Hooge parameter decreased to ∼4.99 × 10 −3 (8.14 × 10 −3 ). The interface trap densities inferred from both SS and low-frequency noise decrease upon plasma treatment, with the highest flow rate yielding the smallest trap density. These results demonstrate that the N 2 plasma treatment decreases the interface trap states and defects on ZTO nanowires, thereby enabling the fabrication of high-quality nanowire interfaces. (paper)

  5. Long-range magnetostatic interactions in arrays of nanowires

    CERN Document Server

    Raposo, V; González, J M; Vázquez, M

    2000-01-01

    Experimental measurements and micromagnetic simulations of the hysteresis loops of arrays of cobalt nanowires are compared here. Arrays of cobalt nanowires (200 nm in diameter) were electrodeposited into the pores of alumina membranes (thickness 60 mu m). Their hysteresis loops along the axial direction of nanowires were measured using vibrating sample magnetometry. Micromagnetic simulations were performed considering dipolar interaction between nanowires leading to similar hysteresis loops as those obtained experimentally.

  6. A superconducting nanowire can be modeled by using SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Karl K.; Zhao, Qing-Yuan; Abebe, Nathnael; Chen, Minjie; Ravindran, Prasana; McCaughan, Adam; Bardin, Joseph C.

    2018-05-01

    Modeling of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors typically requires custom simulations or finite-element analysis in one or two dimensions. Here, we demonstrate two simplified one-dimensional SPICE models of a superconducting nanowire that can quickly and efficiently describe the electrical characteristics of a superconducting nanowire. These models may be of particular use in understanding alternative architectures for nanowire detectors and readouts.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of Au incorporated Alq3 nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Bilal; Ahmad, Sultan; Parwaz, M.; Rahul, Khan, Zishan H.

    2018-05-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of pure and Au incorporated Alq3 nanowires. These nanowires are synthesized using thermal vapor transport method. The luminescence intensity of Au incorporated Alq3 nanowires are recorded to be higher than that of pure Alq3 nanowires, which is found to increase with the increase in Au concentration. Fluorescence quenching is also observed when Au concentration is increased beyond the certain limit.

  8. Template synthesis of indium nanowires using anodic aluminum oxide membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Kitai, Adrian H

    2008-09-01

    Indium nanowires with diameters approximately 300 nm have been synthesized by a hydraulic pressure technique using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The indium melt is injected into the AAO template and solidified to form nanostructures. The nanowires are dense, continuous and uniformly run through the entire approximately 60 microm thickness of the AAO template. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals that the nanowires are polycrystalline with a preferred orientation. SEM is performed to characterize the morphology of the nanowires.

  9. Understanding InP Nanowire Array Solar Cell Performance by Nanoprobe-Enabled Single Nanowire Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otnes, Gaute; Barrigón, Enrique; Sundvall, Christian; Svensson, K Erik; Heurlin, Magnus; Siefer, Gerald; Samuelson, Lars; Åberg, Ingvar; Borgström, Magnus T

    2018-05-09

    III-V solar cells in the nanowire geometry might hold significant synthesis-cost and device-design advantages as compared to thin films and have shown impressive performance improvements in recent years. To continue this development there is a need for characterization techniques giving quick and reliable feedback for growth development. Further, characterization techniques which can improve understanding of the link between nanowire growth conditions, subsequent processing, and solar cell performance are desired. Here, we present the use of a nanoprobe system inside a scanning electron microscope to efficiently contact single nanowires and characterize them in terms of key parameters for solar cell performance. Specifically, we study single as-grown InP nanowires and use electron beam induced current characterization to understand the charge carrier collection properties, and dark current-voltage characteristics to understand the diode recombination characteristics. By correlating the single nanowire measurements to performance of fully processed nanowire array solar cells, we identify how the performance limiting parameters are related to growth and/or processing conditions. We use this understanding to achieve a more than 7-fold improvement in efficiency of our InP nanowire solar cells, grown from a different seed particle pattern than previously reported from our group. The best cell shows a certified efficiency of 15.0%; the highest reported value for a bottom-up synthesized InP nanowire solar cell. We believe the presented approach have significant potential to speed-up the development of nanowire solar cells, as well as other nanowire-based electronic/optoelectronic devices.

  10. Study of GaN nanowires converted from β-Ga2O3 and photoconduction in a single nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Sudheer; Chauhan, Neha; Sakthi Kumar, D.; Kumar, Vikram; Singh, R.

    2017-08-01

    The formation of GaN nanowires from β-Ga2O3 nanowires and photoconduction in a fabricated single GaN nanowire device has been studied. Wurtzite phase GaN were formed from monoclinic β-Ga2O3 nanowires with or without catalyst particles at their tips. The formation of faceted nanostructures from catalyst droplets presented on a nanowire tip has been discussed. The nucleation of GaN phases in β-Ga2O3 nanowires and their subsequent growth due to interfacial strain energy has been examined using a high resolution transmission electron microscope. The high quality of the converted GaN nanowire is confirmed by fabricating single nanowire photoconducting devices which showed ultra high responsivity under ultra-violet illumination.

  11. Time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation for composite bosons as the strong-coupling limit of the fermionic broken-symmetry random-phase approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strinati, G.C.; Pieri, P.

    2004-01-01

    The linear response to a space- and time-dependent external disturbance of a system of dilute condensed composite bosons at zero temperature, as obtained from the linearized version of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation, is shown to result also from the strong-coupling limit of the time-dependent BCS (or broken-symmetry random-phase) approximation for the constituent fermions subject to the same external disturbance. In this way, it is possible to connect excited-state properties of the bosonic and fermionic systems by placing the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in perspective with the corresponding fermionic approximations

  12. Nanowires: properties, applications and synthesis via porous anodic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moreover, periodic arrays of magnetic nanowires hold high potential for recording media application. Nanowires are also potential candidates for sensor and bio-medical applications. In the present article, the physical and chemical properties of nanowires along with their probable applications in different fields have been ...

  13. Failure mechanisms and electromechanical coupling in semiconducting nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng B.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One dimensional nanostructures, like nanowires and nanotubes, are increasingly being researched for the development of next generation devices like logic gates, transistors, and solar cells. In particular, semiconducting nanowires with a nonsymmetric wurtzitic crystal structure, such as zinc oxide (ZnO and gallium nitride (GaN, have drawn immense research interests due to their electromechanical coupling. The designing of the future nanowire-based devices requires component-level characterization of individual nanowires. In this paper, we present a unique experimental set-up to characterize the mechanical and electromechanical behaviour of individual nanowires. Using this set-up and complementary atomistic simulations, mechanical properties of ZnO nanowires and electromechanical properties of GaN nanowires were investigated. In ZnO nanowires, elastic modulus was found to depend on nanowire diameter decreasing from 190 GPa to 140 GPa as the wire diameter increased from 5 nm to 80 nm. Inconsistent failure mechanisms were observed in ZnO nanowires. Experiments revealed a brittle fracture, whereas simulations using a pairwise potential predicted a phase transformation prior to failure. This inconsistency is addressed in detail from an experimental as well as computational perspective. Lastly, in addition to mechanical properties, preliminary results on the electromechanical properties of gallium nitride nanowires are also reported. Initial investigations reveal that the piezoresistive and piezoelectric behaviour of nanowires is different from bulk gallium nitride.

  14. Controlled growth of single nanowires within a supported alumina template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlad, A.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Faniel, S.

    2006-01-01

    A simple technique for fabricating single nanowires with well-defined position is presented. The process implies the use of a silicon nitride mask for selective electrochemical growth of the nanowires in a porous alumina template. We show that this method allows the realization of complex nanowire...

  15. Interaction between an ADCY3 Genetic Variant and Two Weight-Lowering Diets Affecting Body Fatness and Body Composition Outcomes Depending on Macronutrient Distribution: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Goni

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3 gene is involved in the regulation of several metabolic processes including the development and function of adipose tissue. The effects of the ADCY3 rs10182181 genetic variant on changes in body composition depending on the macronutrient distribution intake after 16 weeks of the dietary intervention were tested. The ADCY3 genetic variant was genotyped in 147 overweight or obese subjects, who were randomly assigned to one of the two diets varying in macronutrient content: a moderately-high-protein diet and a low-fat diet. Anthropometric and body composition measurements (DEXA scan were recorded. Significant interactions between the ADCY3 genotype and dietary intervention on changes in weight, waist circumference, and body composition were found after adjustment for covariates. Thus, in the moderately-high-protein diet group, the G allele was associated with a lower decrease of fat mass, trunk and android fat, and a greater decrease in lean mass. Conversely, in the low-fat diet group carrying the G allele was associated with a greater decrease in trunk, android, gynoid, and visceral fat. Subjects carrying the G allele of the rs10182181 polymorphism may benefit more in terms of weight loss and improvement of body composition measurements when undertaking a hypocaloric low-fat diet as compared to a moderately-high-protein diet.

  16. A randomized comparison of the Saphenous Vein Versus Right Internal Thoracic Artery as a Y-Composite Graft (SAVE RITA) trial: early results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ho Young; Kim, Jun Sung; Oh, Se Jin; Kim, Ki-Bong

    2012-11-01

    The Saphenous Vein Versus Right Internal Thoracic Artery as a Y-Composite Graft trial was designed to evaluate the saphenous vein compared with the right internal thoracic artery as a Y-composite graft anastomosed to the side of the left internal thoracic artery. In this early analysis, we compared early angiographic patency rates and clinical outcomes. From September 2008 to October 2011, 224 patients with multivessel coronary artery disease were randomized prospectively to undergo off-pump revascularization using the saphenous vein group (n = 112) or the right internal thoracic artery group (n = 112) as Y-composite grafts. Early postoperative (1.4 ± 1.1 days) angiographic patency and clinical outcomes were compared. There was 1 operative death in the right internal thoracic artery group. No statistically significant differences in postoperative morbidities, including atrial fibrillation and acute renal failure, were observed between the groups. The number of distal anastomoses using the side-arm Y-composite graft (saphenous vein vs right internal thoracic artery) were 2.3 ± 0.8 and 1.9 ± 0.7 in the saphenous vein and right internal thoracic artery groups, respectively (P < .001). A third conduit was used in 44 patients (saphenous vein group vs right internal thoracic artery group, 4/109 vs 40/110; P < .001) to extend the side-arm Y-composite graft for complete revascularization. Early angiography demonstrated an overall patency rate of 99.4% (771 of 776 distal anastomoses). Patency rates of the side-arm Y-composite graft (saphenous vein vs right internal thoracic artery) were 98.8% (245 of 248) and 99.5% (207 of 208) in the saphenous vein and right internal thoracic artery groups, respectively (P = .629). A third conduit was needed to extend the right internal thoracic artery composite graft and reach the target vessels in 36.4% (40/110) of the patients. The saphenous vein composite graft was comparable with the right internal thoracic artery composite graft

  17. Growth and characterization of InGaAs based nanowire-heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treu, Julian Pascal

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate III-V semiconductor nanowires integrated on silicon. Focusing on InGaAs-based heterostructures, we use molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) to obtain high purity material without the use of foreign metal catalysts such as gold. Instead of catalystassisted growth we use selective-area growth using prepatterned SiO 2 /Si(111) substrates prepared by improved nanoimprint lithography, resulting in highly periodic large scale arrays (1 x 1 cm 2 ) of vertically aligned nanowires with hexagonal cross-section. Studying the influence of the main growth parameter substrate temperature, arsenic- and III-material flux we systematically optimize yield and aspect ratio of InAs nanowires for different spacings. Capitalizing on the superior morphological homogeneity of arrays with more than 90% yield, we study their use as efficient surface emitters in the Terahertz regime and find excellent performance, clearly outperforming state-of the art bulk material, when taking the surface coverage into account. Furthermore, we explore nanowires with strongly reduced diameter, where adapted growth conditions result in dimensions as small as 20 nm, well within a quantum confined regime. Starting from optimized high-temperature InAs growth, we further investigate incorporation of gallium for composition tuned ternary InGaAs structures. Delineating the optimized growth parameter space we are able to address nearly the entire compositional range up to more than 80% Ga. Correlating X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy, we find a characteristic transition in crystal structure from wurtzite to zincblende dominated phase for intermediate Ga-content, a regime with luminescence mainly limited by compositional inhomogeneities, while structural defects prevail according linewidths of In- and Ga-rich samples. Furthermore, this successfully demonstrates position-controlled integration of InGaAs nanowires with composition

  18. A comparative assessment of enamel mineral content and Streptococcus mutans population between conventional composites and composites containing nano amorphous calcium phosphate in fixed orthodontic patients: a split-mouth randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbin, Arezoo; Farzanegan, Fahimeh; Atai, Mohammad; Jamehdar, Saeed Amel; Golfakhrabadi, Parvaneh; Shafaee, Hooman

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this 'split-mouth design' trial was to evaluate the effect of the nano amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) containing composite on enamel mineral contents and streptococcus mutans population in fixed orthodontic patients. Randomized, prospective, single-center controlled trial. Twenty-four patients between the ages of 13-18 years participated in this study. The control and test sides were randomly selected by a coin toss (1:1 ratio). On the control side orthodontic brackets were bonded on the buccal surfaces of upper premolars and laterals using an orthodontic composite (Transbond XT), and on the study side NACP-containing composite was used. Outcome measures were the mineral content around the brackets and S.mutans count. The later were calculated in the plaque around the brackets by real-time PCR at 3 months, and 6 months after the initiation of treatment. All stages of the study were blind using coding system. Paired t-test and repeated measurements were used for data analysis. In the third and sixth month, the bacterial population was significantly lower in the study side than the control side (P = 0.01 and 0.000).The mineral content of the study side was significantly higher than the controls, 6 months after brocket bonding (P = 0.004). There were no significant differences between the premolars and lateral teeth for all measurements. This research was performed in a single-center by one experienced clinician. NACP-containing composites have the potential to inhibit mineral content loss and S.mutans colonization around orthodontic brackets during fixed orthodontic treatments. This trial was not registered. The protocol was not published before trial commencement. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 nanowires are outer membrane and periplasmic extensions of the extracellular electron transport components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirbadian, Sahand; Barchinger, Sarah E; Leung, Kar Man; Byun, Hye Suk; Jangir, Yamini; Bouhenni, Rachida A; Reed, Samantha B; Romine, Margaret F; Saffarini, Daad A; Shi, Liang; Gorby, Yuri A; Golbeck, John H; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y

    2014-09-02

    Bacterial nanowires offer an extracellular electron transport (EET) pathway for linking the respiratory chain of bacteria to external surfaces, including oxidized metals in the environment and engineered electrodes in renewable energy devices. Despite the global, environmental, and technological consequences of this biotic-abiotic interaction, the composition, physiological relevance, and electron transport mechanisms of bacterial nanowires remain unclear. We report, to our knowledge, the first in vivo observations of the formation and respiratory impact of nanowires in the model metal-reducing microbe Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Live fluorescence measurements, immunolabeling, and quantitative gene expression analysis point to S. oneidensis MR-1 nanowires as extensions of the outer membrane and periplasm that include the multiheme cytochromes responsible for EET, rather than pilin-based structures as previously thought. These membrane extensions are associated with outer membrane vesicles, structures ubiquitous in Gram-negative bacteria, and are consistent with bacterial nanowires that mediate long-range EET by the previously proposed multistep redox hopping mechanism. Redox-functionalized membrane and vesicular extensions may represent a general microbial strategy for electron transport and energy distribution.

  20. Ultra-thin graphene edges at the nanowire tips: a cascade cold cathode with two-stage field amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, Uday N; Majumder, Tapas Pal; Maiti, Soumen; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan K

    2011-01-01

    A multistage field emitter based on graphene-linked ZnO nanowire array is realized by means of spin-coating a graphene dispersion (reduced graphene oxide) over a nanostructured platform followed by plasma modification. Spin-coating leads to interlinking of graphene sheets between the neighboring nanowires whereas plasma etching in the subsequent step generates numerous ultra-sharp graphene edges at the nanowire tips. The inherent tendency of graphene to lay flat over a plane substrate can easily be bypassed through the currently presented nanostructure platform based technique. The turn-on and threshold field significantly downshifted compared to the individual components in the cascade emitter. Through the facile electron transfer from nanowires to graphene due to band bending at the ZnO–graphene interface together with multistage geometrical field enhancement at both the nanowire and graphene edges remain behind this enriched field emission from the composite cold cathode. This strategy will open up a new direction to integrate the functionalities of both the graphene array and several other inorganic nanostructure array for practical electronic devices.

  1. Simple hydrothermal synthesis and sintering of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xiangping; Lin Mei; Tu Na; Chen Chao; Zhou Shulan; Zhan Hongquan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Single-crystalline NBT nanowires were synthesized using a simple hydrothermal route. → Reaction time can significantly influence the growth behavior of powders. → 1D growth mechanism of NBT corresponds to the dissolution-recrystallization mechanism. → NBT ceramics derived from nanowires showed typical characteristics of relax or ferroelectrics. - Abstract: Single-crystalline Na 0.5 Bi 0.5 TiO 3 (NBT) nanowires, with diameters of 100 nm and lengths of about 4 μm, were synthesized by using a simple hydrothermal method. Phase composition, morphology and microstructure of the as-prepared powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The effects of reaction temperature and reaction time on precipitation of the NBT nanowires were investigated. It was found that reaction time significantly influenced the growth behavior of the powders in the hydrothermal system. Based on the experimental results, the one-dimensional (1D) growth mechanism of the NBT was governed by a dissolution-recrystallization mechanism. NBT ceramics derived from the nanowires showed typical characteristics of relaxor ferroelectrics, with diffuseness exponent γ of as high as 1.73.

  2. Quantification of nanowire uptake by live cells

    KAUST Repository

    Margineanu, Michael B.

    2015-05-01

    Nanostructures fabricated by different methods have become increasingly important for various applications at the cellular level. In order to understand how these nanostructures “behave” and for studying their internalization kinetics, several attempts have been made at tagging and investigating their interaction with living cells. In this study, magnetic iron nanowires with an iron oxide layer are coated with (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), and subsequently labeled with a fluorogenic pH-dependent dye pHrodo™ Red, covalently bound to the aminosilane surface. Time-lapse live imaging of human colon carcinoma HCT 116 cells interacting with the labeled iron nanowires is performed for 24 hours. As the pHrodo™ Red conjugated nanowires are non-fluorescent outside the cells but fluoresce brightly inside, internalized nanowires are distinguished from non-internalized ones and their behavior inside the cells can be tracked for the respective time length. A machine learning-based computational framework dedicated to automatic analysis of live cell imaging data, Cell Cognition, is adapted and used to classify cells with internalized and non-internalized nanowires and subsequently determine the uptake percentage by cells at different time points. An uptake of 85 % by HCT 116 cells is observed after 24 hours incubation at NW-to-cell ratios of 200. While the approach of using pHrodo™ Red for internalization studies is not novel in the literature, this study reports for the first time the utilization of a machine-learning based time-resolved automatic analysis pipeline for quantification of nanowire uptake by cells. This pipeline has also been used for comparison studies with nickel nanowires coated with APTES and labeled with pHrodo™ Red, and another cell line derived from the cervix carcinoma, HeLa. It has thus the potential to be used for studying the interaction of different types of nanostructures with potentially any live cell types.

  3. Vibrational spectra of nanowires measured using laser doppler vibrometry and STM studies of epitaxial graphene : an LDRD fellowship report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermann, Laura Butler

    2009-09-01

    MWNTs, their vibration spectra was more extensively studied. The thermal vibration spectra of Ag{sub 2}Ga nanoneedles was measured under both ambient and low-vacuum conditions. The operational deflection shapes of the vibrating Ag{sub 2}Ga nanoneedles was also measured, allowing confirmation of the eigenmodes of vibration. The modulus of the crystalline nanoneedles was 84.3 {+-} 1.0 GPa. Gas damping is the dominate mechanism of energy loss for nanowires oscillating under ambient conditions. The measured quality factors, Q, of oscillation are in line with theoretical predictions of air damping in the free molecular gas damping regime. In the free molecular regime, Q{sub gas} is linearly proportional to the density and diameter of the nanowire and inversely proportional to the air pressure. Since the density of the Ag{sub 2}Ga nanoneedles is three times that of the MWNTs, the Ag{sub 2}Ga nanoneedles have greater Q at atmospheric pressures. Our initial measurements of Q for Ag{sub 2}Ga nanoneedles in low-vacuum (10 Torr) suggest that the intrinsic Q of these nanoneedles may be on the order of 1000. The epitaxial carbon that grows after heating (000{bar 1}) silicon carbide (SiC) to high temperatures (1450-1600) in vacuum was also studied. At these high temperatures, the surface Si atoms sublime and the remaining C atoms reconstruct to form graphene. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) were used to characterize the quality of the few-layer graphene (FLG) surface. The XPS studies were useful in confirming the graphitic composition and measuring the thickness of the FLG samples. STM studies revealed a wide variety of nanometer-scale features that include sharp carbon-rich ridges, moire superlattices, one-dimensional line defects, and grain boundaries. By imaging these features with atomic scale resolution, considerable insight into the growth mechanisms of FLG on the carbon-face of SiC is obtained.

  4. Electrodeposition of textured Bi{sub 27}Sb{sub 28}Te{sub 45} nanowires with enhanced electrical conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Maksudul, E-mail: maksudul.hasan@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Gautam, Devendraprakash [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Enright, Ryan [Thermal Management Research Group, Efficient Energy Transfer Department, Bell Labs Ireland, Alcatel-Lucent Ireland Ltd., Dublin (Ireland)

    2016-04-15

    This work presents the template based pulsed potential electrodeposition technique of highly textured single crystalline bismuth antimony telluride (Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x}){sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowires from a single aqueous electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry was used as an electroanalytical tool to assess the effect of the precursor concentrations on the composition of the deposits and to determine the deposition potential for each element. Pulsed potential electrodeposition was then applied on a gold-coated anodised alumina template to examine the effect of the pulse parameters on the composition and texture of Bi{sub 27}Sb{sub 28}Te{sub 45} nanowires. The nanowires are cylindrical in shape formed during the deposition inside the porous template and highly textured as they are decorated with sparse distribution of small crystal domains. The electrical conductivity (24.1 × 10{sup 4} S m{sup −1}) of a single nanowire was measured using a four-point probe technique implemented on a custom fabricated test chip. In this work, we demonstrated that crystal orientation with respect to the transport direction controlled by tuning the pulsed electrodeposition parameters. This allowed us to realise electrical conductivities ∼2.5 times larger than Sb doped bismuth-tellurium based ternary material systems and similar to what is typically seen in binary systems. - Highlights: • Pulsed electrodeposition is described towards fabrication of (Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x}){sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowires. • The adopted method is compatible with existing CMOS process. • The nanowires were fabricated as highly textured to enhance phonon scattering. • The electrical conductivity is ∼2.5 times larger than the current ternary materials.

  5. Effect of almond and pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition in a randomized cross-over human feeding study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, M; Wang, X; Baer, D J

    2014-01-01

    for 18 d. Gut microbiota composition was analysed using a 16S rRNA-based approach for bacteria and an internal transcribed spacer region sequencing approach for fungi. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 528 028 sequence reads, retained after removing low-quality and short-length reads, revealed various...

  6. Dosage of estradiol, bone and body composition in Turner syndrome: a 5-year randomized controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line; Holm, Kirsten; Kobbernagel, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is seen in Turner syndrome (TS) with an increased risk of fractures, and body composition is characterized by increased body fat and decreased lean body mass. To evaluate the effect of two different doses of oral 17ß-estradiol in young TS women on bone...

  7. Five-year evaluation of a low-shrinkage Silorane resin composite material: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Malene; Dige, Irene; Kirkevang, Lise-Lotte; Vaeth, Michael; Hørsted-Bindslev, Preben

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical performance of a low-shrinkage silorane-based composite material (Filtek™ Silorane, 3 M-Espe) by comparing it with a methacrylate-based composite material (Ceram•X™, Dentsply DeTrey). A number of 72 patients (158 restorations) participated in the study. After 5 years, a total of 107 restorations (52 Filtek™ Silorane, 55 Ceram•X™) in 48 patients were evaluated. Only class II restorations were included. All the restorations were placed by the same dentist, and the restorations were scored by one experienced dentist/evaluator. Materials were applied following the manufacturer's instructions. The primary outcome was marginal adaptation. Secondary outcomes were: marginal discoloration, approximal contact, anatomic form, fracture, secondary caries, and hypersensitivity. After 5 years, no statistically significant differences between the two materials were found in marginal adaptation either occlusally (p = 0.96) or approximally (p = 0.62). No statistically significant differences were found between the two materials in terms of approximal contact, anatomic form, fractures, or discoloration. Secondary caries was found in two teeth (Filtek™ Silorane). One tooth showed hypersensitivity (Ceram•X™). Restorations of both materials were clinically acceptable after 5 years. This study did not find any advantage of the silorane-based composite over the methacrylate-based composite, which indicates that the low-shrinkage of Filtek™ Silorane may not be a determinant factor for clinical success in class II cavities. This paper is the first to evaluate the 5-year clinical performance of a low-shrinkage composite material.

  8. Nanowire Electrodes for Advanced Lithium Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lei; Wei, Qiulong; Sun, Ruimin; Mai, Liqiang, E-mail: mlq518@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, WUT-Harvard Joint Nano Key Laboratory, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2014-10-27

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in the past two decades, rechargeable LIBs have become widespread power sources for portable devices used in daily life. However, current demands require higher energy density and power density of batteries. The electrochemical energy storage performance of LIBs could be improved by applying nanomaterial electrodes, but their fast capacity fading is still one of the key limitations and the mechanism need to be clearly understood. Single nanowire electrode devices are considered as a versatile platform for in situ probing the direct relationship between electrical transport, structure change, and other properties of the single nanowire electrode along with the charge/discharge process. The results indicate that the conductivity decrease of the nanowire electrode and the structural disorder/destruction during electrochemical reaction limit the cycling performance of LIBs. Based on the in situ observations, some feasible optimization strategies, including prelithiation, coaxial structure, nanowire arrays, and hierarchical structure architecture, are proposed and utilized to restrain the conductivity decrease and structural disorder/destruction. Further, the applications of nanowire electrodes in some “beyond Li-ion” batteries, such as Li-S and Li-air batteries are also described.

  9. Preparation and characterization of electrodeposited cobalt nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irshad, M. I., E-mail: imrancssp@gmail.com; Mohamed, N. M., E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 PERAK (Malaysia); Ahmad, F., E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Abdullah, M. Z., E-mail: zaki-abdullah@petronas.com.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 PERAK (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Electrochemical deposition technique has been used to deposit cobalt nanowires into the nano sized channels of Anodized Aluminium Oxide (AAO) templates. CoCl{sub 2}Ðœ‡6H2O salt solution was used, which was buffered with H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and acidified by dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to increase the plating life and control pH of the solution. Thin film of copper around 150 nm thick on one side of AAO template coated by e-beam evaporation system served as cathode to create electrical contact. FESEM analysis shows that the as-deposited nanowires are highly aligned, parallel to one another and have high aspect ratio with a reasonably high pore-filing factor. The TEM results show that electrodeposited cobalt nanowires are crystalline in nature. The Hysteresis loop shows the magnetization properties for in and out of plane configuration. The in plane saturation magnetization (Ms) is lower than out of plane configuration because of the easy axis of magnetization is perpendicular to nanowire axis. These magnetic nanowires could be utilized for applications such as spintronic devices, high density magnetic storage, and magnetic sensor applications.

  10. Preparation and characterization of electrodeposited cobalt nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irshad, M. I.; Mohamed, N. M.; Ahmad, F.; Abdullah, M. Z.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical deposition technique has been used to deposit cobalt nanowires into the nano sized channels of Anodized Aluminium Oxide (AAO) templates. CoCl 2 Ðœ‡6H2O salt solution was used, which was buffered with H 3 BO 3 and acidified by dilute H 2 SO 4 to increase the plating life and control pH of the solution. Thin film of copper around 150 nm thick on one side of AAO template coated by e-beam evaporation system served as cathode to create electrical contact. FESEM analysis shows that the as-deposited nanowires are highly aligned, parallel to one another and have high aspect ratio with a reasonably high pore-filing factor. The TEM results show that electrodeposited cobalt nanowires are crystalline in nature. The Hysteresis loop shows the magnetization properties for in and out of plane configuration. The in plane saturation magnetization (Ms) is lower than out of plane configuration because of the easy axis of magnetization is perpendicular to nanowire axis. These magnetic nanowires could be utilized for applications such as spintronic devices, high density magnetic storage, and magnetic sensor applications

  11. Growth Mechanism of Nanowires: Ternary Chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N. B.; Coriell, S. R.; Hopkins, R. H.; Su, Ching Hua; Arnold, B.; Choa, Fow-Sen; Cullum, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In the past two decades there has been a large rise in the investment and expectations for nanotechnology use. Almost every area of research has projected improvements in sensors, or even a promise for the emergence of some novel device technologies. For these applications major focuses of research are in the areas of nanoparticles and graphene. Although there are some near term applications with nanowires in photodetectors and other low light detectors, there are few papers on the growth mechanism and fabrication of nanowire-based devices. Semiconductor nanowires exhibit very favorable and promising optical properties, including high transparency and a several order of magnitude better photocurrent than thin film and bulk materials. We present here an overview of the mechanism of nanowire growth from the melt, and some preliminary results for the thallium arsenic selenide material system. Thallium arsenic selenide (TAS) is a multifunctional material combining excellent acousto-optical, nonlinear and radiation detection properties. We observed that small units of (TAS) nanocubes arrange and rearrange at moderate melt undercooling to form the building block of a nanowire. In some cases very long wires (less than mm) are formed. Since we avoided the catalyst, we observed self-nucleation and uncontrolled growth of wires from different places.

  12. Nanowire Electrodes for Advanced Lithium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eHuang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs in the past two decades, rechargeable LIBs have become widespread power sources for portable devices used in daily life. However, current demands require higher energy density and power density of batteries. The electrochemical energy storage performance of LIBs could be improved by applying nanomaterial electrodes, but their fast capacity fading is still one of the key limitations and the mechanism needs to be clearly understood. Single nanowire electrode devices are considered as a versatile platform for in situ probing the direct relationship between electrical transport, structure change, and other properties of the single nanowire electrode along with the charge/discharge process. The results indicate the conductivity decrease of the nanowire electrode and the structural disorder/destruction during electrochemical reactions which limit the cycling performance of LIBs. Based on the in situ observations, some feasible structure architecture strategies, including prelithiation, coaxial structure, nanowire arrays and hierarchical structure architecture, are proposed and utilized to restrain the conductivity decrease and structural disorder/destruction. Further, the applications of nanowire electrodes in some beyond Li-ion batteries, such as Li-S and Li-air battery, are also described.

  13. Nanowire Electrodes for Advanced Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lei; Wei, Qiulong; Sun, Ruimin; Mai, Liqiang

    2014-01-01

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in the past two decades, rechargeable LIBs have become widespread power sources for portable devices used in daily life. However, current demands require higher energy density and power density of batteries. The electrochemical energy storage performance of LIBs could be improved by applying nanomaterial electrodes, but their fast capacity fading is still one of the key limitations and the mechanism need to be clearly understood. Single nanowire electrode devices are considered as a versatile platform for in situ probing the direct relationship between electrical transport, structure change, and other properties of the single nanowire electrode along with the charge/discharge process. The results indicate that the conductivity decrease of the nanowire electrode and the structural disorder/destruction during electrochemical reaction limit the cycling performance of LIBs. Based on the in situ observations, some feasible optimization strategies, including prelithiation, coaxial structure, nanowire arrays, and hierarchical structure architecture, are proposed and utilized to restrain the conductivity decrease and structural disorder/destruction. Further, the applications of nanowire electrodes in some “beyond Li-ion” batteries, such as Li-S and Li-air batteries are also described.

  14. Growth and morphological analysis of segmented AuAg alloy nanowires created by pulsed electrodeposition in ion-track etched membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Schubert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multicomponent heterostructure nanowires and nanogaps are of great interest for applications in sensorics. Pulsed electrodeposition in ion-track etched polymer templates is a suitable method to synthesise segmented nanowires with segments consisting of two different types of materials. For a well-controlled synthesis process, detailed analysis of the deposition parameters and the size-distribution of the segmented wires is crucial.Results: The fabrication of electrodeposited AuAg alloy nanowires and segmented Au-rich/Ag-rich/Au-rich nanowires with controlled composition and segment length in ion-track etched polymer templates was developed. Detailed analysis by cyclic voltammetry in ion-track membranes, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy was performed to determine the dependency between the chosen potential and the segment composition. Additionally, we have dissolved the middle Ag-rich segments in order to create small nanogaps with controlled gap sizes. Annealing of the created structures allows us to influence their morphology.Conclusion: AuAg alloy nanowires, segmented wires and nanogaps with controlled composition and size can be synthesised by electrodeposition in membranes, and are ideal model systems for investigation of surface plasmons.

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis of NiCo2O4 nanowires/nitrogen-doped graphene for high-performance supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Mei; Chen, Jianpeng; Ma, Yuxiao; Zhang, Jingdan; Liu, Jianhua; Li, Songmei; An, Junwei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • NCO/NG composites were synthesized in a water–glycerol mixed solvent via hydrothermal treatment and subsequent calcination. • NiCo 2 O 4 nanowires are dispersed on NG nanosheets and the composite has porous structure. • The NCO/NG composite exhibits a high specific capacitance and long cycling performance. - Abstract: NiCo 2 O 4 nanowires/nitrogen-doped graphene (NCO/NG) composite materials were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment in a water–glycerol mixed solvent and subsequent thermal transformation. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical performance of the composites was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectrum techniques. NiCo 2 O 4 nanowires are densely coated by nitrogen-doped graphene and the composite displays good electrochemical performance. The maximum specific capacitance of NCO/NG is 1273.13 F g −1 at 0.5 A g −1 in 6 M KOH aqueous solution, and it exhibits good capacity retention without noticeable degradation after 3000 cycles at 4 A g −1

  16. Patient-reported outcomes, body composition, and nutrition status in patients with head and neck cancer: Results from an exploratory randomized controlled exercise trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Lauren C; McNeely, Margaret L; Lau, Harold Y; Reimer, Raylene A; Giese-Davis, Janine; Fung, Tak S; Culos-Reed, S Nicole

    2016-04-15

    Patients with head and neck cancer experience loss of weight and muscle mass, decreased functioning, malnutrition, depression, and declines in quality of life during and after treatment. The purpose of this exploratory randomized study was to determine the optimal timing for the initiation of a lifestyle and progressive resistance exercise training intervention (during or after radiation therapy), as determined by intervention adherence and by comparing between-group outcomes across 24 weeks. Sixty patients with head and neck cancer were randomized to engage in a 12-week lifestyle intervention and progressive resistance-training program either during radiation treatment or immediately after completion. The primary outcome of body composition--specifically, lean body mass, body mass index, and body fat--as well as secondary outcomes of fitness, quality of life, depression, and nutrition status were evaluated. The progressive resistance-training intervention carried out during treatment did not significantly influence the primary outcome of body composition, despite a significant increase in weekly physical activity reported by the intervention group. A small-to-medium intervention effect was noted for some secondary outcomes, including fitness, quality of life, and nutrition status. Regardless of whether patients received the immediate or delayed progressive resistance-training intervention, the analysis revealed a main effect of time on body composition, fitness, quality of life, depression, and nutritional scores. Although the intervention during treatment did not reduce the loss of lean body mass, delaying the exercise program until after treatment completion was associated with improved intervention adherence, a finding with important clinical implications. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  17. Effects of elastic resistance exercise on body composition and physical capacity in older women with sarcopenic obesity: A CONSORT-compliant prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chun-De; Tsauo, Jau-Yih; Lin, Li-Fong; Huang, Shih-Wei; Ku, Jan-Wen; Chou, Lin-Chuan; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2017-06-01

    Sarcopenia is associated with loss of muscle mass and an increased risk of physical disability in elderly people. However, the prevalence of sarcopenia has increased in obese elderly populations. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical efficacy of elastic resistance exercise training (RET) in patients with sarcopenic obesity. This study was conducted at the rehabilitation center of a university-based teaching hospital and was designed as a prospective and randomized controlled trial with an intention-to-treat analysis. A total of 46 women aged 67.3 (5.2) years were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) and control group (CG). The EG underwent elastic RET for 12 weeks, and the CG received no RET intervention. All outcome measures were assessed at the baseline and posttest, including body composition measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, muscle quality (MQ) defined as a ratio of muscular strength to muscle mass, and physical capacity assessed using functional mobility tests. One-way analysis of covariance and Pearson correlation were used to compare outcomes between the 2 groups and to identify the relationship between changes in body composition and physical outcomes, respectively. A chi-square test was performed to identify differences in qualitative data between the 2 groups. At the posttest, a significant between-group difference was observed in fat-free mass, MQ, and physical capacity (all P exercise exerted benefits on the body composition, MQ, and physical function in patients with sarcopenic obesity. Regular exercise incorporating elastic RET should be used to attenuate muscle mass loss and prevent physical difficulty in obese older adults with sarcopenia on reconditioning therapy. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-IPR-15006069.

  18. Tunable magnetic nanowires for biomedical and harsh environment applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Al-Nassar, Mohammed Y.; Perez, Jose E.; Vazquez, Manuel; Chuvilin, Andrey; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    We have synthesized nanowires with an iron core and an iron oxide (magnetite) shell by a facile low-cost fabrication process. The magnetic properties of the nanowires can be tuned by changing shell thicknesses to yield remarkable new properties and multi-functionality. A multi-domain state at remanence can be obtained, which is an attractive feature for biomedical applications, where a low remanence is desirable. The nanowires can also be encoded with different remanence values. Notably, the oxidation process of single-crystal iron nanowires halts at a shell thickness of 10 nm. The oxide shell of these nanowires acts as a passivation layer, retaining the magnetic properties of the iron core even during high-temperature operations. This property renders these core-shell nanowires attractive materials for application to harsh environments. A cell viability study reveals a high degree of biocompatibility of the core-shell nanowires.

  19. Optical properties of indium phosphide nanowire ensembles at various temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohn, Andrew J; Onishi, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P [Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR), Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California Santa Cruz-NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2010-09-03

    Ensembles that contain two types (zincblende and wurtzite) of indium phosphide nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces were studied by micro-photoluminescence and micro-Raman spectroscopy at various low temperatures. The obtained spectra are discussed with the emphasis on the effects of differing lattice types, geometries, and crystallographic orientations present within an ensemble of nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces. In the photoluminescence spectra, a typical Varshni dependence of band gap energy on temperature was observed for emissions from zincblende nanowires and in the high temperature regime energy transfer from excitonic transitions and band-edge transitions was identified. In contrast, the photoluminescence emissions associated with wurtzite nanowires were rather insensitive to temperature. Raman spectra were collected simultaneously from zincblende and wurtzite nanowires coexisting in an ensemble. Raman peaks of the wurtzite nanowires are interpreted as those related to the zincblende nanowires by a folding of the phonon dispersion.

  20. Optical properties of indium phosphide nanowire ensembles at various temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohn, Andrew J; Onishi, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P

    2010-01-01

    Ensembles that contain two types (zincblende and wurtzite) of indium phosphide nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces were studied by micro-photoluminescence and micro-Raman spectroscopy at various low temperatures. The obtained spectra are discussed with the emphasis on the effects of differing lattice types, geometries, and crystallographic orientations present within an ensemble of nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces. In the photoluminescence spectra, a typical Varshni dependence of band gap energy on temperature was observed for emissions from zincblende nanowires and in the high temperature regime energy transfer from excitonic transitions and band-edge transitions was identified. In contrast, the photoluminescence emissions associated with wurtzite nanowires were rather insensitive to temperature. Raman spectra were collected simultaneously from zincblende and wurtzite nanowires coexisting in an ensemble. Raman peaks of the wurtzite nanowires are interpreted as those related to the zincblende nanowires by a folding of the phonon dispersion.

  1. Preparation and characterization of CuO nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dongliang; Ge Chuannan; Du Youwei

    2009-01-01

    CuO nanowire arrays were prepared by oxidation of copper nanowires embedded in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. The AAO was fabricated in an oxalic acid at a constant voltage. Copper nanowires were formed in the nanopores of the AAO membranes in an electrochemical deposition process. The oxidized copper nanowires at different temperatures were studied. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of a CuO phase after calcining at 500 0 C in air for 30 h. A transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the nanowire morphologies. Raman spectra were performed to study the CuO nanowire arrays. After measuring, we found that the current-voltage curve of the CuO nanowires is nonlinear.

  2. A detailed study of magnetization reversal in individual Ni nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Vidal, Enrique Vilanova; Ivanov, Yurii P.; Mohammed, Hanan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanowires have emerged as essential components for a broad range of applications. In many cases, a key property of these components is the switching field, which is studied as a function of the angle between the field and the nanowire. We found remarkable differences of up to 100% between the switching fields of different nanowires from the same fabrication batch. Our experimental results and micromagnetic simulations indicate that the nanowires exhibit a single domain behavior and that the switching mechanism includes vortex domain wall motion across the nanowire. The differences between the switching fields are attributed to different cross-sections of the nanowires, as found by electron microscopy. While a circular cross-section yields the smallest switching field values, any deviation from this shape results in an increase of the switching field. The shape of the nanowires' cross-sections is thus a critical parameter that has not been previously taken into account.

  3. Vertically aligned nanowires from boron-doped diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nianjun; Uetsuka, Hiroshi; Osawa, Eiji; Nebel, Christoph E

    2008-11-01

    Vertically aligned diamond nanowires with controlled geometrical properties like length and distance between wires were fabricated by use of nanodiamond particles as a hard mask and by use of reactive ion etching. The surface structure, electronic properties, and electrochemical functionalization of diamond nanowires were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as well as electrochemical techniques. AFM and STM experiments show that diamond nanowire etched for 10 s have wire-typed structures with 3-10 nm in length and with typically 11 nm spacing in between. The electrode active area of diamond nanowires is enhanced by a factor of 2. The functionalization of nanowire tips with nitrophenyl molecules is characterized by STM on clean and on nitrophenyl molecule-modified diamond nanowires. Tip-modified diamond nanowires are promising with respect to biosensor applications where controlled biomolecule bonding is required to improve chemical stability and sensing significantly.

  4. Tunable magnetic nanowires for biomedical and harsh environment applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2016-04-13

    We have synthesized nanowires with an iron core and an iron oxide (magnetite) shell by a facile low-cost fabrication process. The magnetic properties of the nanowires can be tuned by changing shell thicknesses to yield remarkable new properties and multi-functionality. A multi-domain state at remanence can be obtained, which is an attractive feature for biomedical applications, where a low remanence is desirable. The nanowires can also be encoded with different remanence values. Notably, the oxidation process of single-crystal iron nanowires halts at a shell thickness of 10 nm. The oxide shell of these nanowires acts as a passivation layer, retaining the magnetic properties of the iron core even during high-temperature operations. This property renders these core-shell nanowires attractive materials for application to harsh environments. A cell viability study reveals a high degree of biocompatibility of the core-shell nanowires.

  5. A detailed study of magnetization reversal in individual Ni nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Vidal, Enrique Vilanova

    2015-01-19

    Magnetic nanowires have emerged as essential components for a broad range of applications. In many cases, a key property of these components is the switching field, which is studied as a function of the angle between the field and the nanowire. We found remarkable differences of up to 100% between the switching fields of different nanowires from the same fabrication batch. Our experimental results and micromagnetic simulations indicate that the nanowires exhibit a single domain behavior and that the switching mechanism includes vortex domain wall motion across the nanowire. The differences between the switching fields are attributed to different cross-sections of the nanowires, as found by electron microscopy. While a circular cross-section yields the smallest switching field values, any deviation from this shape results in an increase of the switching field. The shape of the nanowires\\' cross-sections is thus a critical parameter that has not been previously taken into account.

  6. Investigation of composite electromagnetic scattering from ship-like target on the randomly rough sea surface using FDTD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, Li; Li-Xin, Guo; Hao, Zeng; Xu-Biao, Han

    2009-01-01

    Composite electromagnetic scattering from a two-dimensional (2D) ship-like target on a one-dimensional sea surface is investigated by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. A uniaxial perfectly matched layer is adopted for truncation of FDTD lattices. The FDTD updated equations can be used for the total computation domain by choosing the uniaxial parameters properly. To validate the proposed numerical technique, a 2D infinitely long cylinder over the sea surface is taken into account first. The variation of angular distribution of the scattering changing with incident angle is calculated. The results show good agreement with the conventional moment method. Finally, the influence of the incident angle, the polarization, and the size of the ship-like target on the composite scattering coefficient is discussed in detail. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  7. Construction of carbon nanoflakes shell on CuO nanowires core as enhanced core/shell arrays anode of lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, F.; Xia, X.H.; Pan, G.X.; Chen, J.; Zhang, Y.J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CuO/C core/shell nanowire arrays are prepared by electro-deposition + ALD method. • Carbon shell is favorable for structural stability. • CuO/C core/shell arrays show enhanced cycle stability and high capacity. - Abstract: Tailored metal oxide/carbon composite structures have attracted great attention due to potential synergistic effects and enhanced properties. In this work, novel CuO/C core/shell nanowire arrays are prepared by the combination of electro-deposition of CuO and atomic-layer-deposition-assisted formation of carbon nanoflakes shell. The CuO nanowires with diameters of ∼200 nm are homogenously coated by carbon nanoflakes shell. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), compared to the unmodified CuO nanowire arrays, the CuO/C core/shell nanowire arrays exhibit improved electrochemical performances with higher capacity, better electrochemical reactivity and high-rate capability as well as superior cycling life (610 mAh g"−"1 at 0.5C after 290 cycles). The enhanced electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the introduction of carbon flake shell in the core/shell nanowire arrays structure, which provides higher active material-electrolyte contact area, improved electrical conductivity, and better accommodation of volume change. The proposed method provides a new way for fabrication of high-performance metal oxides anodes of LIBs.

  8. Fabrication of Two-Dimensional Arrays of Diameter-Tunable PS-b-P2VP Nanowires at the Air/Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingjuan; Yu, Xiaoli; Lee, Yong-Ill; Liu, Hong-Guo

    2016-11-15

    Composite thin films with well-defined and parallel nanowires were fabricated from the binary blends of a diblock copolymer polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) and several homopolystyrenes (h-PSs) at the air/liquid interface through a facile technique, which involves solution self-assembly, interface adsorption, and further self-organization processes. It was confirmed that the nanowires that appeared at the air/water interface came from the cylindrical micelles formed in solution. Interestingly, the diameters of the nanowires are uniform and can be tuned precisely from 45 to 247 nm by incorporating the h-PS molecules into the micellar core. This parallel alignment of the nanowires has potential applications in optical devices and enables the nanowires to be used as templates to prepare functional nanostructures. The extent to which h-PS molecules with different molecular weights are able to influence the diameter control of the nanowires was also systematically investigated.

  9. Lactobacillus casei Shirota Supplementation Does Not Restore Gut Microbiota Composition and Gut Barrier in Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Stadlbauer

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is associated with disturbances in gut microbiota composition. We aimed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS on gut microbiota composition, gut barrier integrity, intestinal inflammation and serum bile acid profile in metabolic syndrome. In a single-centre, prospective, randomised controlled pilot study, 28 subjects with metabolic syndrome received either LcS for 12 weeks (n = 13 or no LcS (n = 15. Data were compared to healthy controls (n = 16. Gut microbiota composition was characterised from stool using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Serum bile acids were quantified by tandem mass spectrometry. Zonulin and calprotectin were measured in serum and stool by ELISA. Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio was significantly higher in healthy controls compared to metabolic syndrome but was not influenced by LcS. LcS supplementation led to enrichment of Parabacteroides. Zonulin and calprotectin were increased in metabolic syndrome stool samples but not influenced by LcS supplementation. Serum bile acids were similar to controls and not influenced by LcS supplementation. Metabolic syndrome is associated with a higher Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio and gut barrier dysfunction but LcS was not able to change this. LcS administration was associated with subtle microbiota changes at genus level.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01182844.

  10. A Comparison of Regular Consumption of Fresh Lean Pork, Beef and Chicken on Body Composition: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Murphy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world and recent evidence shows that diets high in pork protein, with and without energy restriction, may have favourable effects on body composition. However, it is unclear whether these effects on body composition are specific to pork or whether consumption of other high protein meat diets may have the same benefit. Therefore we aimed to compare regular consumption of pork, beef and chicken on indices of adiposity. In a nine month randomised open-labelled cross-over intervention trial, 49 overweight or obese adults were randomly assigned to consume up to 1 kg/week of pork, chicken or beef, in an otherwise unrestricted diet for three months, followed by two further three month periods consuming each of the alternative meat options. BMI and waist/hip circumference were measured and body composition was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was assessed using three day weighed food diaries. Energy expenditure was estimated from activity diaries. There was no difference in BMI or any other marker of adiposity between consumption of pork, beef and chicken diets. Similarly there were no differences in energy or nutrient intakes between diets. After three months, regular consumption of lean pork meat as compared to that of beef and chicken results in similar changes in markers of adiposity of overweight and obese Australian middle-aged men and women.

  11. A Comparison of Regular Consumption of Fresh Lean Pork, Beef and Chicken on Body Composition: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Karen J.; Parker, Barbara; Dyer, Kathryn A.; Davis, Courtney R.; Coates, Alison M.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Howe, Peter R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world and recent evidence shows that diets high in pork protein, with and without energy restriction, may have favourable effects on body composition. However, it is unclear whether these effects on body composition are specific to pork or whether consumption of other high protein meat diets may have the same benefit. Therefore we aimed to compare regular consumption of pork, beef and chicken on indices of adiposity. In a nine month randomised open-labelled cross-over intervention trial, 49 overweight or obese adults were randomly assigned to consume up to 1 kg/week of pork, chicken or beef, in an otherwise unrestricted diet for three months, followed by two further three month periods consuming each of the alternative meat options. BMI and waist/hip circumference were measured and body composition was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was assessed using three day weighed food diaries. Energy expenditure was estimated from activity diaries. There was no difference in BMI or any other marker of adiposity between consumption of pork, beef and chicken diets. Similarly there were no differences in energy or nutrient intakes between diets. After three months, regular consumption of lean pork meat as compared to that of beef and chicken results in similar changes in markers of adiposity of overweight and obese Australian middle-aged men and women. PMID:24534884

  12. The effects of free-living interval-walking training on glycemic control, body composition, and physical fitness in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Winding, Kamilla; Knudsen, Sine H; Nielsen, Jens S; Thomsen, Carsten; Pedersen, Bente K; Solomon, Thomas P J

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of free-living walking training in type 2 diabetic patients and to investigate the effects of interval-walking training versus continuous-walking training upon physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control. Subjects with type 2 diabetes were randomized to a control (n = 8), continuous-walking (n = 12), or interval-walking group (n = 12). Training groups were prescribed five sessions per week (60 min/session) and were controlled with an accelerometer and a heart-rate monitor. Continuous walkers performed all training at moderate intensity, whereas interval walkers alternated 3-min repetitions at low and high intensity. Before and after the 4-month intervention, the following variables were measured: VO(2)max, body composition, and glycemic control (fasting glucose, HbA(1c), oral glucose tolerance test, and continuous glucose monitoring [CGM]). Training adherence was high (89 ± 4%), and training energy expenditure and mean intensity were comparable. VO(2)max increased 16.1 ± 3.7% in the interval-walking group (P Body mass and adiposity (fat mass and visceral fat) decreased in the interval-walking group only (P interval-walking group. The continuous walkers showed no changes in glycemic control. Free-living walking training is feasible in type 2 diabetic patients. Continuous walking offsets the deterioration in glycemia seen in the control group, and interval walking is superior to energy expenditure-matched continuous walking for improving physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control.

  13. Rare earth silicide nanowires on silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanke, Martina

    2008-11-10

    The growth, structure and electronic properties of rare earth silicide nanowires are investigated on planar and vicinal Si(001) und Si(111) surfaces with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). On all surfaces investigated within this work hexagonal disilicides are grown epitaxially with a lattice mismatch of -2.55% up to +0.83% along the hexagonal a-axis. Along the hexagonal c-axis the lattice mismatch is essentially larger with 6.5%. On the Si(001)2 x 1 surface two types of nanowires are grown epitaxially. The socalled broad wires show a one-dimensional metallic valence band structure with states crossing the Fermi level. Along the nanowires two strongly dispersing states at the anti J point and a strongly dispersing state at the anti {gamma} point can be observed. Along the thin nanowires dispersing states could not be observed. Merely in the direction perpendicular to the wires an intensity variation could be observed, which corresponds to the observed spacial structure of the thin nanowires. The electronic properties of the broad erbium silicide nanowires are very similar to the broad dysprosium silicide nanowires. The electronic properties of the DySi{sub 2}-monolayer and the Dy{sub 3}Si{sub 5}-multilayer on the Si(111) surface are investigated in comparison to the known ErSi{sub 2}/Si(111) and Er{sub 3}Si{sub 5}/Si(111) system. The positions and the energetic locations of the observed band in the surface Brillouin zone will be confirmed for dysprosium. The shape of the electron pockets in the (vector)k {sub parallel} space is elliptical at the anti M points, while the hole pocket at the anti {gamma} point is showing a hexagonal symmetry. On the Si(557) surface the structural and electronic properties depend strongly on the different preparation conditions likewise, in particular on the rare earth coverage. At submonolayer coverage the thin nanowires grow in wide areas

  14. Thermoelectric properties of semiconductor nanowire networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyak, Oleksiy; Piryatinski, Andrei

    2016-03-01

    To examine the thermoelectric (TE) properties of a semiconductor nanowire (NW) network, we propose a theoretical approach mapping the TE network on a two-port network. In contrast to a conventional single-port (i.e., resistor) network model, our model allows for large scale calculations showing convergence of TE figure of merit, ZT, with an increasing number of junctions. Using this model, numerical simulations are performed for the Bi2Te3 branched nanowire (BNW) and Cayley tree NW (CTNW) network. We find that the phonon scattering at the network junctions plays a dominant role in enhancing the network ZT. Specifically, disordered BNW and CTNW demonstrate an order of magnitude higher ZT enhancement compared to their ordered counterparts. Formation of preferential TE pathways in CTNW makes the network effectively behave as its BNW counterpart. We provide formalism for simulating large scale nanowire networks hinged upon experimentally measurable TE parameters of a single T-junction.

  15. Plasmonic Waveguide-Integrated Nanowire Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bermudez-Urena, Esteban; Tutuncuoglu, Gozde; Cuerda, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Next-generation optoelectronic devices and photonic circuitry will have to incorporate on-chip compatible nanolaser sources. Semiconductor nanowire lasers have emerged as strong candidates for integrated systems with applications ranging from ultrasensitive sensing to data communication technolog......Next-generation optoelectronic devices and photonic circuitry will have to incorporate on-chip compatible nanolaser sources. Semiconductor nanowire lasers have emerged as strong candidates for integrated systems with applications ranging from ultrasensitive sensing to data communication...... technologies. Despite significant advances in their fundamental aspects, the integration within scalable photonic circuitry remains challenging. Here we report on the realization of hybrid photonic devices consisting of nanowire lasers integrated with wafer-scale lithographically designed V-groove plasmonic...

  16. Longitudinal magnetoresistance and magnototermopower in Bi nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Para, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The galvanomagnetic effect of single crystals Bi nanowires have been studied in longitudinal magnetic fields up to 14 T. The influence of diameters, temperature and deformation extension on the longitudinal magnetoresistance and magnetotermopower (H||I, H||ΔT) of bismuth nanowires is studied. Elastic deformation measurements were conducted at maximum relative elongation 2 %. For the first time have been investigated the magnetotermopower of Bi nanowires with d=45 nm. Essentially non monotonic dependence H max on temperature in longitudinal thermopower in wires with d=45-60 nm is found out. Such difference in behavior of maximum on R(H) and on α(H) in wires with d<100nm says that the behavior of resistance is caused by other mechanism, then thermopower. (author)

  17. Solution-Phase Synthesis of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskite Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Eaton, Samuel W; Yu, Yi; Dou, Letian; Yang, Peidong

    2015-07-29

    Halide perovskites have attracted much attention over the past 5 years as a promising class of materials for optoelectronic applications. However, compared to hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites, the study of their pure inorganic counterparts, like cesium lead halides (CsPbX3), lags far behind. Here, a catalyst-free, solution-phase synthesis of CsPbX3 nanowires (NWs) is reported. These NWs are single-crystalline, with uniform growth direction, and crystallize in the orthorhombic phase. Both CsPbBr3 and CsPbI3 are photoluminescence active, with composition-dependent temperature and self-trapping behavior. These NWs with a well-defined morphology could serve as an ideal platform for the investigation of fundamental properties and the development of future applications in nanoscale optoelectronic devices based on all-inorganic perovskites.

  18. Design and Characterisation of III-V Semiconductor Nanowire Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Dhruv

    The development of small, power-efficient lasers underpins many of the technologies that we utilise today. Semiconductor nanowires are promising for miniaturising lasers to even smaller dimensions. III-V semiconductors, such as Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) and Indium Phosphide (InP), are the most widely used materials for optoelectronic devices and so the development of nanowire lasers based on these materials is expected to have technologically significant outcomes. This PhD dissertation presents a comprehensive study of the design of III-V semiconductor nanowire lasers, with bulk and quantum confined active regions. Based on the design, various III-V semiconductor nanowire lasers are demonstrated, namely, GaAs nanowire lasers, GaAs/AlGaAs multi-quantum well (MQW) nanowire lasers and InP nanowire lasers. These nanowire lasers are shown to operate at room temperature, have low thresholds, and lase from different transverse modes. The structural and optoelectronic quality of nanowire lasers are characterised via electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopic techniques. Lasing is characterised in all these devices by optical pumping. The lasing characteristics are analysed by rate equation modelling and the lasing mode(s) in these devices is characterised by threshold gain modelling, polarisation measurements and Fourier plane imaging. Firstly, GaAs nanowire lasers that operate at room temperature are demonstrated. This is achieved by determining the optimal nanowire diameter to reduce threshold gain and by passivating nanowires to improve their quantum efficiency (QE). High-quality surface passivated GaAs nanowires of suitable diameters are grown. The growth procedure is tailored to improve both QE and structural uniformity of nanowires. Room-temperature lasing is demonstrated from individual nanowires and lasing is characterised to be from TM01 mode by threshold gain modelling. To lower threshold even further, nanowire lasers with GaAs/AlGaAs coaxial multi

  19. Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ruffo, Riccardo

    2009-07-02

    The impedance behavior of silicon nanowire electrodes has been investigated to understand the electrochemical process kinetics that influences the performance when used as a high-capacity anode in a lithium ion battery. The ac response was measured by using impedance spectroscopy in equilibrium conditions at different lithium compositions and during several cycles of charge and discharge in a half cell vs. metallic lithium. The impedance analysis shows the contribution of both surface resistance and solid state diffusion through the bulk of the nanowires. The surface process is dominated by a solid electrolyte layer (SEI) consisting of an inner, inorganic insoluble part and several organic compounds at the outer interface, as seen by XPS analysis. The surface resistivity, which seems to be correlated with the Coulombic efficiency of the electrode, grows at very high lithium contents due to an increase in the inorganic SEI thickness. We estimate the diffusion coefficient of about 2 × 10 -10 cm 2/s for lithium diffusion in silicon. A large increase in the electrode impedance was observed at very low lithium compositions, probably due to a different mechanism for lithium diffusion inside the wires. Restricting the discharge voltage to 0.7 V prevents this large impedance and improves the electrode lifetime. Cells cycled between 0.07 and 0.70 V vs. metallic lithium at a current density of 0.84 A/g (C/5) showed good Coulombic efficiency (about 99%) and maintained a capacity of about 2000 mAh/g after 80 cycles. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  20. Nanowire and microwire fabrication technique and product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Zach, Michael; Marten, Alan David

    2018-02-27

    A continuous or semi-continuous process for fabricating nanowires or microwires makes use of the substantially planar template that may be moved through electrochemical solution to grow nanowires or microwires on exposed conductive edges on the surface of that template. The planar template allows fabrication of the template using standard equipment and techniques. Adhesive transfer may be used to remove the wires from the template and in one embodiment to draw a continuous wire from the template to be wound around the drum.