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Sample records for random motor commands

  1. Imagining is not doing but involves specific motor commands: a review of experimental data related to motor inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymeric eGuillot

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There is now compelling evidence that motor imagery (MI and actual movement share common neural substrate. However, the question of how MI inhibits the transmission of motor commands into the efferent pathways in order to prevent any movement is largely unresolved. Similarly, little is known about the nature of the electromyographic activity that is apparent during MI. In addressing these gaps in the literature, the present paper argues that MI includes motor execution commands for muscle contractions which are blocked at some level of the motor system by inhibitory mechanisms. We first assemble data from neuroimaging studies that demonstrate that the neural networks mediating MI and motor performance are not totally overlapping, thereby highlighting potential differences between MI and actual motor execution. We then review MI data indicating the presence of subliminal muscular activity reflecting the intrinsic characteristics of the motor command as well as increased corticomotor excitability. The third section not only considers the inhibitory mechanisms involved during MI but also examines how the brain resolves the problem of issuing the motor command for action while supervising motor inhibition when people engage in voluntary movement during MI. The last part of the paper draws on imagery research in clinical contexts to suggest that some patients move while imagining an action, although they are not aware of such movements. In particular, experimental data from amputees as well as from patients with Parkinson’s disease are discussed. We also review recent studies based on comparing brain activity in tetraplegic patients with that from healthy matched controls that provide insights into inhibitory processes during MI. We conclude by arguing that based on available evidence, a multifactorial explanation of motor inhibition during MI is warranted.

  2. Imagining is Not Doing but Involves Specific Motor Commands: A Review of Experimental Data Related to Motor Inhibition

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    Guillot, Aymeric; Di Rienzo, Franck; MacIntyre, Tadhg; Moran, Aidan; Collet, Christian

    2012-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that motor imagery (MI) and actual movement share common neural substrate. However, the question of how MI inhibits the transmission of motor commands into the efferent pathways in order to prevent any movement is largely unresolved. Similarly, little is known about the nature of the electromyographic activity that is apparent during MI. In addressing these gaps in the literature, the present paper argues that MI includes motor execution commands for muscle contractions which are blocked at some level of the motor system by inhibitory mechanisms. We first assemble data from neuroimaging studies that demonstrate that the neural networks mediating MI and motor performance are not totally overlapping, thereby highlighting potential differences between MI and actual motor execution. We then review MI data indicating the presence of subliminal muscular activity reflecting the intrinsic characteristics of the motor command as well as increased corticomotor excitability. The third section not only considers the inhibitory mechanisms involved during MI but also examines how the brain resolves the problem of issuing the motor command for action while supervising motor inhibition when people engage in voluntary movement during MI. The last part of the paper draws on imagery research in clinical contexts to suggest that some patients move while imagining an action, although they are not aware of such movements. In particular, experimental data from amputees as well as from patients with Parkinson’s disease are discussed. We also review recent studies based on comparing brain activity in tetraplegic patients with that from healthy matched controls that provide insights into inhibitory processes during MI. We conclude by arguing that based on available evidence, a multifactorial explanation of motor inhibition during MI is warranted. PMID:22973214

  3. A velocity command stepper motor for CSI application

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    Sulla, Jeffrey L.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Horta, Lucas G.

    1991-01-01

    The application of linear force actuators for vibration suppression of flexible structures has received much attention in recent years. A linear force actuator consists of a movable mass that is restrained such that its motion is linear. By application of a force to the mass, an equal and opposite reaction force can be applied to a structure. The use of an industrial linear stepper motor as a reaction mass actuator is described. With the linear stepper motor mounted on a simple test beam and the NASA Mini-Mast, output feedback of acceleration or displacement are used to augment the structural damping of the test articles. Significant increases in damping were obtained for both the test beam and the Mini-Mast.

  4. Acquiring a novel coordination skill without practicing the correct motor commands

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    Feijen, L.; Hodges, N.J.; Beek, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that experience of the sensory consequences, in the absence of practice of the required motor commands, is sufficient to learn new bimanual coordination patterns. This was shown through improvements of an incongruent group who practiced a desired 30° phase offset between the limbs

  5. Molecular motors: thermodynamics and the random walk.

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    Thomas, N; Imafuku, Y; Tawada, K

    2001-10-22

    The biochemical cycle of a molecular motor provides the essential link between its thermodynamics and kinetics. The thermodynamics of the cycle determine the motor's ability to perform mechanical work, whilst the kinetics of the cycle govern its stochastic behaviour. We concentrate here on tightly coupled, processive molecular motors, such as kinesin and myosin V, which hydrolyse one molecule of ATP per forward step. Thermodynamics require that, when such a motor pulls against a constant load f, the ratio of the forward and backward products of the rate constants for its cycle is exp [-(DeltaG + u(0)f)/kT], where -DeltaG is the free energy available from ATP hydrolysis and u(0) is the motor's step size. A hypothetical one-state motor can therefore act as a chemically driven ratchet executing a biased random walk. Treating this random walk as a diffusion problem, we calculate the forward velocity v and the diffusion coefficient D and we find that its randomness parameter r is determined solely by thermodynamics. However, real molecular motors pass through several states at each attachment site. They satisfy a modified diffusion equation that follows directly from the rate equations for the biochemical cycle and their effective diffusion coefficient is reduced to D-v(2)tau, where tau is the time-constant for the motor to reach the steady state. Hence, the randomness of multistate motors is reduced compared with the one-state case and can be used for determining tau. Our analysis therefore demonstrates the intimate relationship between the biochemical cycle, the force-velocity relation and the random motion of molecular motors.

  6. Sensory Feedback Interferes with Mu Rhythm Based Detection of Motor Commands from Electroencephalographic Signals

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    Maximilian Hommelsen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electroencephalogram (EEG-based brain-computer interfaces (BCI represent a promising component of restorative motor therapies in individuals with partial paralysis. However, in those patients, sensory functions such as proprioception are at least partly preserved. The aim of this study was to investigate whether afferent feedback interferes with the BCI-based detection of efferent motor commands during execution of movements.Methods: Brain activity of 13 able-bodied subjects (age: 29.1 ± 4.8 years; 11 males was compared between a motor task (MT consisting of an isometric, isotonic grip and a somatosensory electrical stimulation (SS of the fingertips. Modulation of the mu rhythm (8–13 Hz was investigated to identify changes specifically related to the generation of efferent commands. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA was used to investigate the activation pattern on a single-trial basis. Classifiers were trained with MT vs. REST (periods without MT/SS and tested with SS and vice versa to quantify the impact of afferent feedback on the classification results.Results: Few differences in the spatial pattern between MT and SS were found in the modulation of the mu rhythm. All were characterized by event-related desynchronization (ERD peaks at electrodes C3, C4, and CP3. Execution of the MT was associated with a significantly stronger ERD in the majority of sensorimotor electrodes [C3 (p < 0.01; CP3 (p < 0.05; C4 (p < 0.01]. Classification accuracy of MT vs. REST was significantly higher than SS vs. REST (77% and 63%; p < 10-8. Classifiers trained on MT vs. REST were able to classify SS trials significantly above chance even though no motor commands were present during SS. Classifiers trained on SS performed better in classifying MT instead of SS.Conclusion: Our results challenge the notion that the modulation of the mu rhythm is a robust phenomenon for detecting efferent commands when afferent feedback is present. Instead, they

  7. Evidence that the cortical motor command for the initiation of dynamic plantarflexion consists of excitation followed by inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taube, Wolfgang; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Schubert, Martin

    2011-01-01

    At the onset of dynamic movements excitation of the motor cortex (M1) is spatially restricted to areas representing the involved muscles whereas adjacent areas are inhibited. The current study elucidates whether the cortical motor command for dynamic contractions is also restricted to a certain...... population of cortical neurons responsible for the fast corticospinal projections. Therefore, corticospinal transmission was assessed with high temporal resolution during dynamic contractions after both, magnetic stimulation over M1 and the brainstem. The high temporal resolution could be obtained...... a temporally focused motor command during the execution of dynamic movements....

  8. The contribution of motor commands to position sense differs between elbow and wrist

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    Walsh, Lee D; Proske, Uwe; Allen, Trevor J; Gandevia, Simon C

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that centrally generated motor commands contribute to the perception of position and movement at the wrist, but not at the elbow. Because the wrist and elbow experiments used different methods, this study was designed to resolve the discrepancy. Two methods were used to test both the elbow and wrist (20 subjects each). For the wrist, subjects sat with their right arm strapped to a device that restricted movement to the wrist. Before each test, voluntary contraction of wrist flexor or extensor muscles controlled for muscle spindle thixotropy. After relaxation, the wrist was moved to a test angle. Position was indicated either with a pointer, or by matching with the contralateral wrist, under two conditions: when the reference wrist was relaxed or when its muscles were contracted isometrically (30% maximum). The elbow experiment used the same design to measure position sense in the passive elbow and with elbow muscles contracting (30% maximum). At the wrist when using a pointer, muscle contraction altered significantly the perceived wrist angle in the direction of contraction by 7 deg [3 deg, 12 deg] (mean [95% confidence interval]) with a flexor contraction and 8 deg [4 deg, 12 deg] with an extensor contraction. Similarly, in the wrist matching task, there was a change of 13 deg [9 deg, 16 deg] with a flexor contraction and 4 deg [1 deg, 8 deg] with an extensor contraction. In contrast, contraction of elbow flexors or extensors did not alter significantly the perceived position of the elbow, compared with rest. The contribution of central commands to position sense differs between the elbow and the wrist. PMID:24099798

  9. Central command does not decrease cardiac parasympathetic efferent nerve activity during spontaneous fictive motor activity in decerebrate cats.

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    Kadowaki, Akito; Matsukawa, Kanji; Wakasugi, Rie; Nakamoto, Tomoko; Liang, Nan

    2011-04-01

    To examine whether withdrawal of cardiac vagal efferent nerve activity (CVNA) predominantly controls the tachycardia at the start of exercise, the responses of CVNA and cardiac sympathetic efferent nerve activity (CSNA) were directly assessed during fictive motor activity that occurred spontaneously in unanesthetized, decerebrate cats. CSNA abruptly increased by 71 ± 12% at the onset of the motor activity, preceding the tachycardia response. The increase in CSNA lasted for 4-5 s and returned to the baseline, even though the motor activity was not ended. The increase of 6 ± 1 beats/min in heart rate appeared with the same time course of the increase in CSNA. In contrast, CVNA never decreased but increased throughout the motor activity, in parallel with a rise in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). The peak increase in CVNA was 37 ± 9% at 5 s after the motor onset. The rise in MAP gradually developed to 21 ± 2 mmHg and was sustained throughout the spontaneous motor activity. Partial sinoaortic denervation (SAD) blunted the baroreflex sensitivity of the MAP-CSNA and MAP-CVNA relationship to 22-33% of the control. Although partial SAD blunted the initial increase in CSNA to 53% of the control, the increase in CSNA was sustained throughout the motor activity. In contrast, partial SAD almost abolished the increase in CVNA during the motor activity, despite the augmented elevation of 31 ± 1 mmHg in MAP. Because afferent inputs from both muscle receptors and arterial baroreceptors were absent or greatly attenuated in the partial SAD condition, only central command was operating during spontaneous fictive motor activity in decerebrate cats. Therefore, it is likely that central command causes activation of cardiac sympathetic outflow but does not produce withdrawal of cardiac parasympathetic outflow during spontaneous motor activity.

  10. Random walk of motor planning in task-irrelevant dimensions

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    van Beers, R.J.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    The movements that we make are variable. It is well established that at least a part of this variability is caused by noise in central motor planning. Here, we studied how the random effects of planning noise translate into changes in motor planning. Are the random effects independently added to a

  11. Gravity-dependent estimates of object mass underlie the generation of motor commands for horizontal limb movements.

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    Crevecoeur, F; McIntyre, J; Thonnard, J-L; Lefèvre, P

    2014-07-15

    Moving requires handling gravitational and inertial constraints pulling on our body and on the objects that we manipulate. Although previous work emphasized that the brain uses internal models of each type of mechanical load, little is known about their interaction during motor planning and execution. In this report, we examine visually guided reaching movements in the horizontal plane performed by naive participants exposed to changes in gravity during parabolic flight. This approach allowed us to isolate the effect of gravity because the environmental dynamics along the horizontal axis remained unchanged. We show that gravity has a direct effect on movement kinematics, with faster movements observed after transitions from normal gravity to hypergravity (1.8g), followed by significant movement slowing after the transition from hypergravity to zero gravity. We recorded finger forces applied on an object held in precision grip and found that the coupling between grip force and inertial loads displayed a similar effect, with an increase in grip force modulation gain under hypergravity followed by a reduction of modulation gain after entering the zero-gravity environment. We present a computational model to illustrate that these effects are compatible with the hypothesis that participants partially attribute changes in weight to changes in mass and scale incorrectly their motor commands with changes in gravity. These results highlight a rather direct internal mapping between the force generated during stationary holding against gravity and the estimation of inertial loads that limb and hand motor commands must overcome. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Movements of molecular motors: Ratchets, random walks and traffic phenomena

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    Klumpp, Stefan; Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2005-10-01

    Processive molecular motors which drive the traffic of organelles in cells move in a directed way along cytoskeletal filaments. On large time scales, they perform motor walks, i.e., peculiar random walks which arise from the repeated unbinding from and rebinding to filaments. Unbound motors perform Brownian motion in the surrounding fluid. In addition, the traffic of molecular motors exhibits many cooperative phenomena. In particular, it faces similar problems as the traffic on streets such as the occurrence of traffic jams and the coordination of (two-way) traffic. These issues are studied here theoretically using lattice models.

  13. Sparse optimal motor estimation (SOME) for extracting commands for prosthetic limbs.

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    Li, Yao; Smith, Lauren H; Hargrove, Levi J; Weber, Douglas J; Loeb, Gerald E

    2013-01-01

    It is possible to replace amputated limbs with mechatronic prostheses, but their operation requires the user's intentions to be detected and converted into control signals to the actuators. Fortunately, the motoneurons (MNs) that controlled the amputated muscles remain intact and capable of generating electrical signals, but these signals are difficult to record. Even the latest microelectrode array technologies and targeted motor reinnervation can provide only sparse sampling of the hundreds of motor units that comprise the motor pool for each muscle. Simple rectification and integration of such records is likely to produce noisy and delayed estimates of the actual intentions of the user. We have developed a novel algorithm for optimal estimation of motor pool excitation based on the recruitment and firing rates of a small number (2-10) of discriminated motor units. We first derived the motor estimation algorithm from normal patterns of modulated MN activity based on a previously published model of individual MN recruitment and asynchronous frequency modulation. The algorithm was then validated on a target motor reinnervation subject using intramuscular fine-wire recordings to obtain single motor units.

  14. Evidence that the cortical motor command for the initiation of dynamic plantarflexion consists of excitation followed by inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Taube

    Full Text Available At the onset of dynamic movements excitation of the motor cortex (M1 is spatially restricted to areas representing the involved muscles whereas adjacent areas are inhibited. The current study elucidates whether the cortical motor command for dynamic contractions is also restricted to a certain population of cortical neurons responsible for the fast corticospinal projections. Therefore, corticospinal transmission was assessed with high temporal resolution during dynamic contractions after both, magnetic stimulation over M1 and the brainstem. The high temporal resolution could be obtained by conditioning the soleus H-reflex with different interstimulus intervals by cervicomedullary stimulation (CMS-conditioning and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS of M1 (M1-conditioning. This technique provides a precise time course of facilitation and inhibition. CMS- and M1-conditioning produced an 'early facilitation' of the H-reflex, which occurred around 3 ms earlier with CMS-conditioning. The early facilitation is believed to be caused by activation of direct monosynaptic projections to the spinal motoneurons. CMS-conditioning resulted in a subsequent 'late facilitation', which is considered to reflect activity of slow-conducting and/or indirect corticospinal pathways. In contrast, M1-conditioning produced a 'late dis-facilitation' or even 'late inhibition'. As the late dis-facilitation was only seen following M1- but not CMS-conditioning, it is argued that cortical activation during dynamic tasks is restricted to fast, direct corticospinal projections whereas corticomotoneurons responsible for slow and/or indirectly projecting corticospinal pathways are inhibited. The functional significance of restricting the descending cortical drive to fast corticospinal pathways may be to ensure a temporally focused motor command during the execution of dynamic movements.

  15. Detection of randomized bot command and control traffic on an end-point host

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    B. Soniya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bots are malicious software entities that unobtrusively infect machines and silently engage in activities ranging from data stealing to cyber warfare. Most recent bot detection methods rely on regularity of bot command and control (C&C traffic for bot detection but state-of-the-art bots randomize traffic properties to evade regularity based detection techniques. We propose a bot detection system that aims to detect randomized bot C&C traffic and also aim at early bot detection. To this end, separate strategies are devised for bot detection: (i over a user session and (ii time periods larger than a user session. Normal HTTP traffic and bot control traffic are modeled over a user session and a Multi-Layer Perceptron Classifier is trained on the two models and later used to classify unlabeled destinations as benign or malicious. For traffic spanning time intervals larger than a user session, temporal persistence, is used to differentiate between traffic to benign and malicious destinations. Testing with multiple datasets yielded good results.

  16. Motor effort training with low exercise intensity improves muscle strength and descending command in aging.

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    Jiang, Changhao; Ranganathan, Vinoth K; Zhang, Junmei; Siemionow, Vlodek; Yue, Guang H

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the effect of high mental effort training (MET) and conventional strength training (CST) on increasing voluntary muscle strength and brain signal associated with producing maximal muscle force in healthy aging. Twenty-seven older adults (age: 75 ± 7.9 yr, 8 women) were assigned into 1 of 3 groups: MET group-trained with low-intensity (30% maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]) physical exercise combined with MET, CST group-trained with high-intensity muscle contractions, or control (CTRL) group-no training of any kind. MET and CST lasted for 12 weeks (5 sessions/week). The participants' elbow flexion strength of the right arm, electromyography (EMG), and motor activity-related cortical potential (MRCP) directly related to the strength production were measured before and after training. The CST group had the highest strength gain (17.6%, P group also had significant strength gain (13.8%, P different from that of the CST group even though the exercise intensity for the MET group was only at 30% MVC level. The CTRL group did not have significant strength changes. Surprisingly, only the MET group demonstrated a significant augmentation in the MRCP (29.3%, P group was at boarder-line significance level (12.11%, P = 0.061) and that for CTRL group was only 4.9% (P = 0.539). These results suggest that high mental effort training combined with low-intensity physical exercise is an effective method for voluntary muscle strengthening and this approach is especially beneficial for those who are physically weak and have difficulty undergoing conventional strength training.

  17. Signal transduction of aortic and carotid sinus baroreceptors is not modified by central command during spontaneous motor activity in decerebrate cats.

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    Matsukawa, Kanji; Ishii, Kei; Kadowaki, Akito; Ishida, Tomoko; Idesako, Mitsuhiro; Liang, Nan

    2014-05-15

    Our laboratory has suggested that central command provides selective inhibition of the cardiomotor component of aortic baroreflex at the start of exercise, preserving carotid sinus baroreflex. It is postulated that central command may modify the signal transduction of aortic baroreceptors, so as to decrease aortic baroreceptor input to the cardiovascular centers, and, thereby, can cause the selective inhibition of aortic baroreflex. To test the hypothesis, we directly analyzed the responses in multifiber aortic nerve activity (AoNA) and carotid sinus nerve activity (CsNA) during spontaneous motor activity in decerebrate, paralyzed cats. The increases of 62-104% in mean AoNA and CsNA were found during spontaneous motor activity, in proportion to a rise of 35 ± 3 mmHg (means ± SE) in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and had an attenuating tendency by restraining heart rate (HR) at the lower intrinsic frequency of 154 ± 6 beats/min. Brief occlusion of the abdominal aorta was conducted before and during spontaneous motor activity to produce a mechanically evoked increase in MAP and, thereby, to examine the stimulus-response relationship of arterial baroreceptors. Although the sensitivity of the MAP-HR baroreflex curve was markedly blunted during spontaneous motor activity, the stimulus-response relationships of AoNA and CsNA were not influenced by spontaneous motor activity, irrespective of the absence or presence of the HR restraint. Thus, it is concluded that aortic and carotid sinus baroreceptors can code beat-by-beat blood pressure during spontaneous motor activity in decerebrate cats and that central command is unlikely to modulate the signal transduction of arterial baroreceptors. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Central command does not suppress baroreflex control of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity at the onset of spontaneous motor activity in the decerebrate cat.

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    Matsukawa, Kanji; Ishii, Kei; Asahara, Ryota; Idesako, Mitsuhiro

    2016-10-01

    Our laboratory has reported that central command blunts the sensitivity of the aortic baroreceptor-heart rate (HR) reflex at the onset of voluntary static exercise in animals. We have examined whether baroreflex control of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) and/or cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity are altered at the onset of spontaneously occurring motor behavior, which was monitored with tibial nerve activity in paralyzed, decerebrate cats. CSNA exhibited a peak increase (126 ± 17%) immediately after exercise onset, followed by increases in HR and mean arterial pressure (MAP). With development of the pressor response, CSNA and HR decreased near baseline, although spontaneous motor activity was not terminated. Atropine methyl nitrate (0.1-0.2 mg/kg iv) with little central influence delayed the initial increase in HR but did not alter the response magnitudes of HR and CSNA, while atropine augmented the pressor response. The baroreflex-induced decreases in CSNA and HR elicited by brief occlusion of the abdominal aorta were challenged at the onset of spontaneous motor activity. Spontaneous motor activity blunted the baroreflex reduction in HR by aortic occlusion but did not alter the baroreflex inhibition of CSNA. Similarly, atropine abolished the baroreflex reduction in HR but did not influence the baroreflex inhibition of CSNA. Thus it is likely that central command increases CSNA and decreases cardiac vagal outflow at the onset of spontaneous motor activity while preserving baroreflex control of CSNA. Accordingly, central command must attenuate cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity against an excess rise in MAP as estimated from the effect of muscarinic blockade. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Transcutaneus electrical nerve stimulation for overactive bladder increases rectal motor activity in children: a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Iben; Hagstrøm, Søren; Siggaard, Charlotte

    Transcutaneus electrical nerve stimulation for overactive bladder increases rectal motor activity in children: a randomized controlled study......Transcutaneus electrical nerve stimulation for overactive bladder increases rectal motor activity in children: a randomized controlled study...

  20. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...

  1. Randomized controlled trial of surface peroneal nerve stimulation for motor relearning in lower limb hemiparesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheffler, L.R.; Taylor, P.N.; Gunzler, D.D.; Buurke, Jaap; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Chae, J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the motor relearning effect of a surface peroneal nerve stimulator (PNS) versus usual care on lower limb motor impairment, activity limitation, and quality of life among chronic stroke survivors. Design: Single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Setting: Teaching hospital of

  2. Random intermittent search and the tug-of-war model of motor-driven transport

    KAUST Repository

    Newby, Jay

    2010-04-16

    We formulate the \\'tug-of-war\\' model of microtubule cargo transport by multiple molecular motors as an intermittent random search for a hidden target. A motor complex consisting of multiple molecular motors with opposing directional preference is modeled using a discrete Markov process. The motors randomly pull each other off of the microtubule so that the state of the motor complex is determined by the number of bound motors. The tug-of-war model prescribes the state transition rates and corresponding cargo velocities in terms of experimentally measured physical parameters. We add space to the resulting Chapman-Kolmogorov (CK) equation so that we can consider delivery of the cargo to a hidden target at an unknown location along the microtubule track. The target represents some subcellular compartment such as a synapse in a neuron\\'s dendrites, and target delivery is modeled as a simple absorption process. Using a quasi-steady-state (QSS) reduction technique we calculate analytical approximations of the mean first passage time (MFPT) to find the target. We show that there exists an optimal adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration that minimizes the MFPT for two different cases: (i) the motor complex is composed of equal numbers of kinesin motors bound to two different microtubules (symmetric tug-of-war model) and (ii) the motor complex is composed of different numbers of kinesin and dynein motors bound to a single microtubule (asymmetric tug-of-war model). © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. Correlations between Motor Symptoms across Different Motor Tasks, Quantified via Random Forest Feature Classification in Parkinson’s Disease

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    Andreas Kuhner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundObjective assessments of Parkinson’s disease (PD patients’ motor state using motion capture techniques are still rarely used in clinical practice, even though they may improve clinical management. One major obstacle relates to the large dimensionality of motor abnormalities in PD. We aimed to extract global motor performance measures covering different everyday motor tasks, as a function of a clinical intervention, i.e., deep brain stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus.MethodsWe followed a data-driven, machine-learning approach and propose performance measures that employ Random Forests with probability distributions. We applied this method to 14 PD patients with DBS switched-off or -on, and 26 healthy control subjects performing the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG, the Functional Reach Test (FRT, a hand coordination task, walking 10-m straight, and a 90° curve.ResultsFor each motor task, a Random Forest identified a specific set of metrics that optimally separated PD off DBS from healthy subjects. We noted the highest accuracy (94.6% for standing up. This corresponded to a sensitivity of 91.5% to detect a PD patient off DBS, and a specificity of 97.2% representing the rate of correctly identified healthy subjects. We then calculated performance measures based on these sets of metrics and applied those results to characterize symptom severity in different motor tasks. Task-specific symptom severity measures correlated significantly with each other and with the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, part III, correlation of r2 = 0.79. Agreement rates between different measures ranged from 79.8 to 89.3%.ConclusionThe close correlation of PD patients’ various motor abnormalities quantified by different, task-specific severity measures suggests that these abnormalities are only facets of the underlying one-dimensional severity of motor deficits. The identification and characterization of this underlying motor deficit

  4. Improving motor control in walking: a randomized clinical trial in older adults with subclinical walking difficulty.

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    Brach, Jennifer S; Lowry, Kristin; Perera, Subashan; Hornyak, Victoria; Wert, David; Studenski, Stephanie A; VanSwearingen, Jessie M

    2015-03-01

    To test the proposed mechanism of action of a task-specific motor learning intervention by examining its effect on measures of the motor control of gait. Single-blinded randomized clinical trial. University research laboratory. Adults (N=40) aged ≥65 years with gait speed >1.0m/s and impaired motor skill (figure-of-8 walk time >8s). The 2 interventions included a task-oriented motor learning and a standard exercise program; both interventions included strength training. Both lasted 12 weeks, with twice-weekly, 1-hour, physical therapist-supervised sessions. Two measures of the motor control of gait, gait variability and smoothness of walking, were assessed pre- and postintervention by assessors masked to the treatment arm. Of 40 randomized subjects, 38 completed the trial (mean age ± SD, 77.1±6.0y). The motor learning group improved more than the standard group in double-support time variability (.13m/s vs .05m/s; adjusted difference [AD]=.006, P=.03). Smoothness of walking in the anteroposterior direction improved more in the motor learning than standard group for all conditions (usual: AD=.53, P=.05; narrow: AD=.56, P=.01; dual task: AD=.57, P=.04). Smoothness of walking in the vertical direction also improved more in the motor learning than standard group for the narrow-path (AD=.71, P=.01) and dual-task (AD=.89, P=.01) conditions. Among older adults with subclinical walking difficulty, there is initial evidence that task-oriented motor learning exercise results in gains in the motor control of walking, while standard exercise does not. Task-oriented motor learning exercise is a promising intervention for improving timing and coordination deficits related to mobility difficulties in older adults, and needs to be evaluated in a definitive larger trial. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An analysis of noise reduction in variable reluctance motors using pulse position randomization

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    Smoot, Melissa C.

    1994-05-01

    The design and implementation of a control system to introduce randomization into the control of a variable reluctance motor (VRM) is presented. The goal is to reduce noise generated by radial vibrations of the stator. Motor phase commutation angles are dithered by 1 or 2 mechanical degrees to investigate the effect of randomization on acoustic noise. VRM commutation points are varied using a uniform probability density function and a 4 state Markov chain among other methods. The theory of VRM and inverter operation and a derivation of the major source of acoustic noise are developed. The experimental results show the effects of randomization. Uniform dithering and Markov chain dithering both tend to spread the noise spectrum, reducing peak noise components. No clear evidence is found to determine which is the optimum randomization scheme. The benefit of commutation angle randomization in reducing VRM loudness as perceived by humans is found to be questionable.

  6. Recovery of motor deficit accompanying sciatica--subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

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    Overdevest, Gijsbert M; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L A M; Jacobs, Wilco C H; Brand, Ronald; Koes, Bart W; Peul, Wilco C

    2014-09-01

    In patients with sciatica due to a lumbar disc herniation, it is generally recommended to reserve surgical treatment for those who suffer from intolerable pain or those who demonstrate persistent symptoms after conservative management. Controversy exists about the necessity of early surgical intervention for those patients that have an additional motor deficit. The aim of this study was to compare the recovery of motor deficit among patients receiving early surgery to those receiving prolonged conservative treatment. Subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial. This subgroup analysis focuses on 150 (53%) of 283 patients with sciatica due to a lumbar disc herniation and whose symptoms at baseline (before randomization) were accompanied by a motor deficit. Motor deficit was assessed through manual muscle testing and graded according to the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. In total, 150 patients with 6 to 12 weeks of sciatica due to a lumbar disc herniation and whose symptoms were accompanied by a moderate (MRC Grade 4) or severe (MRC Grade 3) motor deficit were randomly allocated to early surgery or prolonged conservative treatment. Repeated standardized neurologic examinations were performed at baseline and at 8, 26, and 52 weeks after randomization. This study was supported by a grant from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMW) and the Hoelen Foundation The Hague. Sciatica recovered among seven (10%) of the 70 patients assigned to early surgery before surgery could be performed, and of the 80 patients assigned to conservative treatment, 32 patients (40%) were treated surgically because of intolerable pain. Baseline severity of motor deficit was graded moderate in 84% of patients and severe in 16% of patients. Motor deficit recovered significantly faster among patients allocated to early surgery (p=.01), but the difference was no longer significant at 26 (p=.21) or 52 weeks (p=.92). At 1 year, complete recovery of motor

  7. Random practice - one of the factors of the motor learning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Valach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An important concept of acquiring motor skills is the random practice (contextual interference - CI. The explanation of the effect of contextual interference is that the memory has to work more intensively, and therefore it provides higher effect of motor skills retention than the block practice. Only active remembering of a motor skill assigns the practical value for appropriate using in the future. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to determine the difference in how the motor skills in sport gymnastics are acquired and retained using the two different teaching methods - blocked and random practice. METHODS: The blocked and random practice on the three selected gymnastics tasks were applied in the two groups students of physical education (blocked practice - the group BP, random practice - the group RP during two months, in one session a week (totally 80 trials. At the end of the experiment and 6 months after (retention tests the groups were tested on the selected gymnastics skills. RESULTS: No significant differences in a level of the gymnastics skills were found between BP group and RP group at the end of the experiment. However, the retention tests showed significantly higher level of the gymnastics skills in the RP group in comparison with the BP group. CONCLUSION: The results confirmed that a retention of the gymnastics skills using the teaching method of the random practice was significantly higher than with use of the blocked practice.

  8. Comparison of Effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Primary Motor Cortex and Supplementary Motor Area in Motor Skill Learning (Randomized, Cross over Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YONG KYUN eKIM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Motor skills require quick visuomotor reaction time, fast movement time, and accurate performance. Primary motor cortex (M1 and supplementary motor area (SMA are closely related in learning motor skills. Also, it is well known that high frequency repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS on these sites has a facilitating effect. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high frequency rTMS activation of these two brain sites on learning of motor skills. Twenty three normal volunteers participated. Subjects were randomly stimulated on either brain area, SMA or M1. The motor task required the learning of sequential finger movements, explicitly or implicitly. It consisted of pressing the keyboard sequentially with their right hand on seeing 7 digits on the monitor explicitly, and then tapping the 7 digits by memorization, implicitly. Subjects were instructed to hit the keyboard as fast and accurately as possible. Using MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface, the keyboard pressing task was measured before and after high frequency rTMS for motor performance, which was measured by response time, movement time, and accuracy., A week later, the same task was repeated by cross-over study design. At this time, rTMS was applied on the other brain area. Two-way ANOVA was used to assess the carry over time effect and stimulation sites (M1 and SMA, as factors. Results indicated that no carry-over effect was observed. The AC and RT were not different between the two stimulating sites (M1 and SMA. But movement time was significantly decreased after rTMS on both SMA and M1. The amount of shortened movement time after rTMS on SMA was significantly increased as compared to the movement time after rTMS on M1 (p < 0.05, especially for implicit learning of motor tasks. The coefficient of variation was lower in implicit trial than in explicit trial. In conclusion, this finding indicated an important role of SMA compared to M1, in implicit motor

  9. A randomized controlled clinical trial of a hypnosis-based treatment for patients with conversion disorder, motor type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moene, F.C.; Spinhoven, P.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Dyck, R. van

    2003-01-01

    This study tested whether a hypnosis-based intervention showed promise as a treatment for patients with conversion disorder, motor type. Forty-four outpatients with conversion disorder, motor type, or somatization disorder with motor conversion symptoms, were randomly assigned to a hypnosis or a

  10. Tango for treatment of motor and non-motor manifestations in Parkinson's disease: a randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Romenets, Silvia; Anang, Julius; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Pelletier, Amelie; Postuma, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    To determine effects of Argentine tango on motor and non-motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease. Randomized control trial. Forty patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Movement disorder clinic and dance studio. Two randomized groups: group (N=18) with 24 partnered tango classes, and control self-directed exercise group (N=15). The primary outcome was overall motor severity. Secondary outcomes included other motor measures, balance, cognition, fatigue, apathy, depression and quality of life. On the primary intention-to-treat analysis there was no difference in motor severity between groups MDS-UPDRS-3 (1.6 vs.1.2-point reduction, p=0.85). Patient-rated clinical global impression of change did not differ (p=0.33), however examiner rating improved in favor of tango (p=0.02). Mini-BESTest improved in the tango group compared to controls (0.7±2.2 vs. -2.7±5.9, p=0.032). Among individual items, tango improved in both simple TUG time (-1.3±1.6s vs. 0.1±2.3, p=0.042) and TUG Dual Task score (0.4±0.9 vs. -0.2±0.4, p=0.012), with borderline improvement in walk with pivot turns (0.2±0.5 vs. -0.1±0.5, p=0.066). MoCa (0.4±1.6 vs. -0.6±1.5, p=0.080) and FSS (-3.6±10.5 vs. 2.5±6.2, p=0.057) showed a non-significant trend toward improvement in the tango group. Tango participants found the activity more enjoyable (ptango can improve balance, and functional mobility, and may have modest benefits upon cognition and fatigue in Parkinson's disease. These findings must be confirmed in longer-term trials explicitly powered for cognition and fatigue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanisms within the Parietal Cortex Correlate with the Benefits of Random Practice in Motor Adaptation

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    Benjamin Thürer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The motor learning literature shows an increased retest or transfer performance after practicing under unstable (random conditions. This random practice effect (also known as contextual interference effect is frequently investigated on the behavioral level and discussed in the context of mechanisms of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and increased cognitive efforts during movement planning. However, there is a lack of studies examining the random practice effect in motor adaptation tasks and, in general, the underlying neural processes of the random practice effect are not fully understood. We tested 24 right-handed human subjects performing a reaching task using a robotic manipulandum. Subjects learned to adapt either to a blocked or a random schedule of different force field perturbations while subjects’ electroencephalography (EEG was recorded. The behavioral results showed a distinct random practice effect in terms of a more stabilized retest performance of the random compared to the blocked practicing group. Further analyses showed that this effect correlates with changes in the alpha band power in electrodes over parietal areas. We conclude that the random practice effect in this study is facilitated by mechanisms within the parietal cortex during movement execution which might reflect online feedback mechanisms.

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF MOTOR TASK INTERFERENCE DURING GAIT IN SUBJECTS WITH PARKINSON'S DISEASE: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRAIL

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    Jaya ShankerTedla

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, was to evaluated the effectiveness of motor task and cognitive task interference while walking to improve gait parameters of subjects with Parkinson’s disease. Methods: In this Randomized Controlled trial, 30 subjects with Parkinson’s disease of age group between 50and 70 years randomly divided into two groups. The first group had motor task interference, and the second group had calculation task interference while walking along with conventional physical therapy. Gait parameters recorded as outcome measures. Both the groups received 1-hour training for three weeks for one month. Results: As per the paired t-test values, there was significant (p<0.001 improvement in the gait parameters for both the group's pre and post training. Motor task interference showed better improvements than calculation-task interference group among subjects with Parkinson’s disease in all the gait parameters measured with a p-value less than 0.001. Conclusion: To improve the gait parameters for mild to moderately disabled patients with Parkinson’s disease, the dual task training by using motor task while gait training along with conventional Physical Therapy will be more useful than using cognitive task.

  13. Control of asynchronous motors. Volume 1. Modeling, vectorial control and direct torque control; Commande des moteurs asynchrones. Volume 1. Modelisation, controle vectoriel et DTC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canudas de Wit, C. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Ingenieurs de Genie Chimique, ENSIGC, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2000-07-01

    This first volume deals with the problems of control of asynchronous motors in industrial environments: industrial environment, variable speed, asynchronous motors and power supplies, modeling, direct torque control laws, control by controlled limit cycles under frequency constraints. (J.S.)

  14. Effect of therapist-based constraint-induced therapy at home on motor control, motor performance and daily function in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-ling; Kang, Lin-ju; Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Fei-Chuan; Chen, Hsieh-Ching; Wu, Ching-yi

    2013-03-01

    To determine the effect of therapist-based constraint-induced therapy at home on motor performance, daily function and reaching control for children with cerebral palsy. A single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Forty-seven children (23 boys; 24 girls) with unilateral cerebral palsy, aged 6-12 years, were randomized to constraint-induced therapy (n = 24) or traditional rehabilitation (n = 23). Constraint-induced therapy involved intensive functional training of the more affected arm while the less affected arm was restrained. Traditional rehabilitation involved functional unilateral and bilateral arm training. Both groups received individualized therapist-based interventions at home for 3.5-4 hours/day, two days a week for four weeks. Motor performance and daily function were measured by the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale, Second Edition and the Pediatric Motor Activity Log. Reaching control was assessed by the kinematics of reaction time, movement time, movement unit and peak velocity. There were larger effects in favour of constraint-induced therapy on motor performance, daily function, and some aspects of reaching control compared with traditional rehabilitation. Children receiving constraint-induced therapy demonstrated higher scores for Peabody Developmental Motor Scale, Second Edition - Grasping (pretest mean ± SD, 39.9 ± 3.1; posttest, 44.1 ± 2.8; P Motor Activity Log (pretest, 1.8 ± 0.3; posttest, 2.5 ± 0.3; P control of reaching in children with unilateral cerebral palsy than traditional rehabilitation.

  15. Effect of hippotherapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong-Yi; Chang, Hyun Jung; Yi, Sook-Hee; Lee, Ji Young; Shin, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether hippotherapy has a clinically significant effect on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Randomized controlled trial. Outpatient therapy center. Ninety-two children with CP, aged 4-10 years, presenting variable function (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels I-IV). Hippotherapy (30 minutes twice weekly for 8 consecutive weeks). Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-88, GMFM-66, and Pediatric Balance Scale. Pre- and post-treatment measures were completed by 91 children (45 in the intervention group and 46 in the control group). Differences in improvement on all three measures significantly differed between groups after the 8-week study period. Dimensions of GMFM-88 improved significantly after hippotherapy varied by GMFCS level: dimension E in level I, dimensions D and E in level II, dimensions C and D in level III, and dimensions B and C in level IV. Hippotherapy positively affects gross motor function and balance in children with CP of various functional levels.

  16. Musical motor feedback (MMF) in walking hemiparetic stroke patients: randomized trials of gait improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Michael; Mauritz, Karl-Heinz

    2003-11-01

    To demonstrate the effect of rhythmical auditory stimulation in a musical context for gait therapy in hemiparetic stroke patients, when the stimulation is played back measure by measure initiated by the patient's heel-strikes (musical motor feedback). Does this type of musical feedback improve walking more than a less specific gait therapy? The randomized controlled trial considered 23 registered stroke patients. Two groups were created by randomization: the control group received 15 sessions of conventional gait therapy and the test group received 15 therapy sessions with musical motor feedback. Inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Median post-stroke interval was 44 days and the patients were able to walk without technical aids with a speed of approximately 0.71 m/s. Gait velocity, step duration, gait symmetry, stride length and foot rollover path length (heel-on-toe-off distance). The test group showed more mean improvement than the control group: stride length increased by 18% versus 0%, symmetry deviation decreased by 58% versus 20%, walking speed increased by 27% versus 4% and rollover path length increased by 28% versus 11%. Musical motor feedback improves the stroke patient's walk in selected parameters more than conventional gait therapy. A fixed memory in the patient's mind about the song and its timing may stimulate the improvement of gait even without the presence of an external pacemaker.

  17. Core stability exercise is as effective as task-oriented motor training in improving motor proficiency in children with developmental coordination disorder: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Mei K; Chan, Wai M; Lee, Lin; Chen, Tracy Mk; Chau, Rosanna Mw; Pang, Marco Yc

    2014-10-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a core stability program with a task-oriented motor training program in improving motor proficiency in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Randomized controlled pilot trial. Outpatient unit in a hospital. Twenty-two children diagnosed with DCD aged 6-9 years were randomly allocated to the core stability program or the task-oriented motor program. Both groups underwent their respective face-to-face training session once per week for eight consecutive weeks. They were also instructed to carry out home exercises on a daily basis during the intervention period. Short Form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (Second Edition) and Sensory Organization Test at pre- and post-intervention. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no significant between-group difference in the change of motor proficiency standard score (P=0.717), and composite equilibrium score derived from the Sensory Organization Test (P=0.100). Further analysis showed significant improvement in motor proficiency in both the core stability (mean change (SD)=6.3(5.4); p=0.008) and task-oriented training groups (mean change(SD)=5.1(4.0); P=0.007). The composite equilibrium score was significantly increased in the task-oriented training group (mean change (SD)=6.0(5.5); P=0.009), but not in the core stability group (mean change(SD) =0.0(9.6); P=0.812). In the task-oriented training group, compliance with the home program was positively correlated with change in motor proficiency (ρ=0.680, P=0.030) and composite equilibrium score (ρ=0.638, P=0.047). The core stability exercise program is as effective as task-oriented training in improving motor proficiency among children with DCD. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Extracting motor synergies from random movements for low-dimensional task-space control of musculoskeletal robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kin Chung Denny; Dalla Libera, Fabio; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2015-10-08

    In the field of human motor control, the motor synergy hypothesis explains how humans simplify body control dimensionality by coordinating groups of muscles, called motor synergies, instead of controlling muscles independently. In most applications of motor synergies to low-dimensional control in robotics, motor synergies are extracted from given optimal control signals. In this paper, we address the problems of how to extract motor synergies without optimal data given, and how to apply motor synergies to achieve low-dimensional task-space tracking control of a human-like robotic arm actuated by redundant muscles, without prior knowledge of the robot. We propose to extract motor synergies from a subset of randomly generated reaching-like movement data. The essence is to first approximate the corresponding optimal control signals, using estimations of the robot's forward dynamics, and to extract the motor synergies subsequently. In order to avoid modeling difficulties, a learning-based control approach is adopted such that control is accomplished via estimations of the robot's inverse dynamics. We present a kernel-based regression formulation to estimate the forward and the inverse dynamics, and a sliding controller in order to cope with estimation error. Numerical evaluations show that the proposed method enables extraction of motor synergies for low-dimensional task-space control.

  19. Feature selection and classification of mechanical fault of an induction motor using random forest classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Patel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fault detection and diagnosis is the most important technology in condition-based maintenance (CBM system for rotating machinery. This paper experimentally explores the development of a random forest (RF classifier, a recently emerged machine learning technique, for multi-class mechanical fault diagnosis in bearing of an induction motor. Firstly, the vibration signals are collected from the bearing using accelerometer sensor. Parameters from the vibration signal are extracted in the form of statistical features and used as input feature for the classification problem. These features are classified through RF classifiers for four class problems. The prime objective of this paper is to evaluate effectiveness of random forest classifier on bearing fault diagnosis. The obtained results compared with the existing artificial intelligence techniques, neural network. The analysis of results shows the better performance and higher accuracy than the well existing techniques.

  20. Can inhibitory and facilitatory kinesiotaping techniques affect motor neuron excitability? A randomized cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoosefinejad, Amin Kordi; Motealleh, Alireza; Abbasalipur, Shekoofeh; Shahroei, Mahan; Sobhani, Sobhan

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of facilitatory and inhibitory kinesiotaping on motor neuron excitability. Randomized cross-over trial. Twenty healthy people received inhibitory and facilitatory kinesiotaping on two testing days. The H- and M-waves of the lateral gasterocnemius were recorded before and immediately after applying the two modes of taping. The Hmax/Mmax ratio (a measure of motor neuron excitability) was determined and analyzed. The mean Hmax/Mmax ratios were -0.013 (95% CI: -0.033 to 0.007) for inhibitory taping and 0.007 (95% CI: -0.013 to 0.027) for facilitatory taping. The mean difference between groups was -0.020 (95% CI: -0.048 to 0.008). The statistical model revealed no significant differences between the two interventions (P = 0.160). Furthermore, there were no within-group differences in Hmax/Mmax ratio for either group. Our findings did not disclose signs of immediate change in motor neuron excitability in the lateral gasterocnemius. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Comparison of Brunnstrom movement therapy and Motor Relearning Program in rehabilitation of post-stroke hemiparetic hand: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, Shanta; Arya, Kamal Narayan; Davidson, E W Rajkumar

    2012-07-01

    Motor recovery of the hand usually plateaus in chronic stroke patients. Various conventional and contemporary approaches have been used to rehabilitate the hand post-stroke. However, the evidence for their effectiveness is still limited. To compare the hand therapy protocols based on Brunnstrom approach and motor relearning program in rehabilitation of the hand of chronic stroke patients. Randomized trial. Outpatients attending the occupational therapy department of a rehabilitation institute. 30 post-stroke subjects (35.06 ± 14.52 months) were randomly assigned into two equal groups (Group A and Group B), Outcome Measures: Brunnstrom recovery stages of hand (BRS-H), Fugl-Meyer assessment: wrist and hand (FMA-WH). Group A received Brunnstrom hand manipulation (BHM). BHM is the hand treatment protocol of the Brunnstrom movement therapy, which uses synergies and reflexes to develop voluntary motor control. Group B received the Motor Relearning Program (MRP) based hand protocol. MRP is the practice of specific motor skills, which results in the ability to perform a task. Active practice of context-specific motor task such as reaching and grasping helps regain the lost motor functions. Both the therapy protocols were effective in rehabilitation of the hand (BRS-H; p = 0.003 to 0.004, FMA-WH; p hand motor recovery) (p hand in chronic post-stroke patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of vibration therapy on spasticity and motor function in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusic, Ana; Alimovic, Sonja; Mejaski-Bosnjak, Vlatka

    2013-01-01

    As the motor system relies heavily on deep sensory stimulation, recent studies have investigated the effect of vibration stimuli. Although research suggests a positive influence of vibration on motor performance in individuals with neurological disorders, there are very limited numbers of studies in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sound wave vibration therapy on spasticity and motor function in children with CP. In this 3-month trial, 89 children with spastic CP were randomized to either continue their physiotherapy treatment (PT) or to receive vibration therapy twice a week in addition to their PT program. The randomization was stratified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level to ensure similar functional ability. Children were assessed at baseline and after the 12-week intervention period. The outcomes measured were spasticity level as assessed by Modified Modified Ashworth Scale (MMAS) and gross motor function as assessed by Gross Motor Function Measurement (GMFM-88). Subgroup analysis was performed for the GMFCS. Significant differences between groups were detected for changes in spasticity level and gross motor function after the three months intervention. In conclusion, vibration therapy may decrease spasticity and improve motor performance in children with CP. The results of the present trial serve as valuable input for evidence-based treatments in paediatric neurorehabilitation.

  3. The Effect of Blocked, Random and Mixed Practice Schedules on Speech Motor Learning of Tongue Twisters in Unimpaired Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelly; Croot, Karen

    2016-10-01

    There are few investigations comparing practice schedules in speech motor learning, despite certain schedules being recommended for the clinical treatment of speech motor disorders. This study compared effects of random, blocked and mixed practice on tongue twister accuracy in unimpaired speakers. We hypothesized that blocked practice would benefit acquisition of learning, but that random practice and mixed blocked-then-random practice would yield superior retention of learning. We found that the random and blocked-random practice schedules yielded superior accuracy at the end of the acquisition phase of learning and at a 1-week retention test. Exploratory post hoc analyses raised the possibility that the retention effects were most evident when tongue twisters were elicited in a random schedule. Theoretical accounts of these results are discussed.

  4. Nonlinear predictive control based on the induction motor flatness; Commande predictive non lineaire fondee sur la platitude du moteur a induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaleau, E.; Hagenmeyer, V. [Paris-11 Univ., Lab. des Signaux et Systemes, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear predictive control law, based on differential flatness, designed in order to make the variables of the induction motor track the trajectories defined in the benchmark 'fast positioning'. An important point to notice is the utilisation of an online re-planing of the predicted trajectories of the control variables by the estimation of the motor load torque using a fast converging observer. (authors)

  5. Non-Speech Oro-Motor Exercises in Post-Stroke Dysarthria Intervention: A Randomized Feasibility Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, C.; Muir, M.; Allen, C.; Jensen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been little robust evaluation of the outcome of speech and language therapy (SLT) intervention for post-stroke dysarthria. Non-speech oro-motor exercises (NSOMExs) are a common component of dysarthria intervention. A feasibility study was designed and executed, with participants randomized into two groups, in one of which…

  6. Robot training for hand motor recovery in subacute stroke patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Roldán, Giovana Femat; Sánchez-Villavicencio, Israel; Palafox, Lorena; Leder, Ronald; Sucar, Luis Enrique; Hernández-Franco, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of superiority of robot training for the hand over classical therapies in stroke patients remains controversial. During the subacute stage, hand training is likely to be the most useful. To establish whether robot active assisted therapies provides any additional motor recovery for the hand when administered during the subacute stage (occupational therapy, robot based therapies for hand recovery will show significant differences at subacute stages. A randomized clinical trial. A between subjects randomized controlled trial was carried out on subacute stroke patients (n = 17) comparing robot active assisted therapy (RT) with a classical occupational therapy (OT). Both groups received 40 sessions ensuring at least 300 repetitions per session. Treatment duration was (mean ± std) 2.18 ± 1.25 months for the control group and 2.44 ± 0.88 months for the study group. The primary outcome was motor dexterity changes assessed with the Fugl-Meyer (FMA) and the Motricity Index (MI). Both groups (OT: n = 8; RT: n = 9) exhibited significant improvements over time (Non-parametric Cliff's delta-within effect sizes: dwOT-FMA = 0.5, dwOT-MI = 0.5, dwRT-FMA = 1, dwRT-MI = 1). Regarding differences between the therapies; the Fugl-Meyer score indicated a significant advantage for the hand training with the robot (FMA hand: WRS: W = 8, p hand prehension for RT with respect to OT but failed to reach significance (MI prehension: W = 17.5, p = 0.080). No harm occurred. Robotic therapies may be useful during the subacute stages of stroke - both endpoints (FM hand and MI prehension) showed the expected trend with bigger effect size for the robotic intervention. Additional benefit of the robotic therapy over the control therapy was only significant when the difference was measured with FM, demanding further investigation with larger samples. Implications of this study are important for decision making during therapy administration and resource allocation

  7. [Motor dysfunction in stroke of subacute stage treated with acupuncture: multi-central randomized controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Fang; Fang, Jian-Qiao; Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Rui-Jie; Xu, Shou-Yu; Shen, Lai-Hua; Luo, Kai-Tao; Gao, Feng; Bao, Ye-Hua; Ni, Ke-Feng; Li, Li-Ping

    2014-04-01

    To verify the clinical efficacy of acupuncture on motor dysfunction in ischemic stroke of subacute stage. The multi-central randomized controlled trial was adopted. One hundred and twenty-six cases of ischemic stroke of subacute stage were randomized into an acupuncture group (61 cases) and a conventional treatment group (65 cases). The basic treatment of western internal medicine and rehabilitation training were applied to the patients of the two groups. In the acupuncture group, acupuncture was supplemented at the body points located on the extensor of the upper limbs and the flexor of the lower limbs. In combination, scalp acupuncture was applied to NS5, MS6 and MS6 on the affected side. The treatment was given 5 times a week and totally 8 weeks were required. The follow-up observation lasted for 3 months. The scores in Fugl-Meyer scale and NIHSS scale and Barthel index were compared between the two groups before treatment, in 4 and 8 weeks of treatment and the 3-month follow-up observation after treatment separately. In 4 and 8 weeks of treatment and the follow-up observation, Fugl-Meyer scale score was improved obviously in the patients of the two groups (all Pacupuncture groupwas im proved much apparently as compared with that in the conventional treatment group [68. 0 (43. 0,86. 5) vs 52. 5 (30.3, 77.0), 77.0 (49.5, 89.0) vs 63. 0 (33.0, 84.0), both P0.05), the results of NIHSS scale at the other time points were all decreased obviously as compared with those before treatment in the patients of the two groups (all Pacupuncture group were reduced much apparently as compared with those in the conventional treatment group [5. 0 (3.0,8.0) vs 7. 0 (3.0,13.8), 4. 0 (1.5,7.0) vs 6.0 (2.0,11.7) ,both Pacupuncture group was much more significant as compared with the conventional treatment group [75. 0 (60. 0,87. 5) vs 65. O (36. 3, 87. 5), PAcupuncture achieves the satisfactory clinical efficacy on motor dysfunction in ischemic stroke of subacute stage.

  8. Sensory-motor training versus resistance training among patients with knee osteoarthritis: randomized single-blind controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bassoli Gomiero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis of the knee is defined as a progressive disease of the synovial joints and is characterized by failure of joint damage repair. The objective here was to compare the effectiveness of sensory-motor training versus resistance training among patients with knee osteoarthritis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized, single-blinded controlled trial conducted at the outpatient service of the University of Santo Amaro. METHODS: A total of 64 patients were randomly assigned to sensory-motor training or resistance training. The evaluations were performed at baseline and 16 weeks after the intervention and included pain evaluation on a visual analogue scale, isometric quadriceps femoris force measurement using a dynamometer, Timed Up and Go test, Tinetti balance scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index, and the SF-36 quality-of-life questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using analysis of variance with repeated measurements and Cohen’s effect size. RESULTS: Sensory-motor training may be a plausible alternative and showed a small effect on pain and a medium effect on maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Resistance training showed a small effect on balance and a medium effect on mobility. CONCLUSION: Resistance training and sensory motor training for the lower limbs among patients with knee osteoarthritis seemed to present similar effects on pain and function. However, because there was a considerable risk of type 2 error, further randomized clinical trials are still needed to provide a sound conclusion.

  9. Effect of Early Physical Activity Programs on Motor Performance and Neuromuscular Development in Infants Born Preterm: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Leila; Sanaeefar, Mahnaz; Hosseini, Mohammad Bager; Asgari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Shamili, Aryan

    2017-03-01

    Introduction: Although the survival rate of infants born preterm has increased, the prevalence of developmental problems and motor disorders among this population of infants remains the same. This study investigated the effect of physical activity programs in and out of water on motor performance and neuromuscular development of infants born preterm and had induced immobility by mechanical ventilation. Methods: This study was carried out in Al-Zahra hospital, Tabriz. 76 premature infants were randomly assigned into four groups. One group received daily passive range of motion to all extremities based on the Moyer-Mileur protocol. Hydrotherapy group received exercises for shoulders and pelvic area in water every other day. A combination group received physical activity programs in and out of water on alternating days. Infants in a containment group were held in a fetal position. Duration of study was two weeks 'from 32 through 33 weeks post menstrual age (PMA). Motor outcomes were measured by the Test of Infant Motor Performance. Neuromuscular developmental was assessed by New Ballard scale and leg recoil and Ankle dorsiflexion items from Dubowitz scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13. Results: TIMP and neuromuscular scores improved in all groups. Motor performance did not differ between groups at 34 weeks PMA. Postural tone of leg recoil was significantly higher in physical activity groups post intervention. Conclusion: Physical activities and containment didn't have different effects on motor performance in infants born preterm. Leg recoil of neuromuscular development items was affected by physical activity programs.

  10. Organ donation video messaging in motor vehicle offices: results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, James R; Fleishman, Aaron; Fitzpatrick, Sean; Boger, Matthew

    2015-12-01

    Since nearly all registered organ donors in the United States signed up via a driver's license transaction, motor vehicle (MV) offices represent an important venue for organ donation education. To evaluate the impact of organ donation video messaging in MV offices. A 2-group (usual care vs usual care+video messaging) randomized trial with baseline, intervention, and follow-up assessment phases. Twenty-eight MV offices in Massachusetts. Usual care comprised education of MV clerks, display of organ donation print materials (ie, posters, brochures, signing mats), and a volunteer ambassador program. The intervention included video messaging with silent (subtitled) segments highlighting individuals affected by donation, playing on a recursive loop on monitors in MV waiting rooms. Aggregate monthly donor designation rates at MV offices (primary) and percentage of MV customers who registered as donors after viewing the video (secondary). Controlling for baseline donor designation rate, analysis of covariance showed a significant group effect for intervention phase (F=7.3, P=.01). The usual-care group had a significantly higher aggregate monthly donor designation rate than the intervention group had. In the logistic regression model of customer surveys (n=912), prior donor designation (β=-1.29, odds ratio [OR]=0.27 [95% CI=0.20-0.37], Pcustomers most likely contributed to the negative trial finding.

  11. Dresden PTSD treatment study: randomized controlled trial of motor vehicle accident survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menning Hans

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We translated, modified, and extended a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT protocol by Blanchard and Hickling (2003 for the purpose of treating survivors of MVA with full or subsyndromal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD whose native language is German. The treatment manual included some additional elements, e. g. cognitive procedures, imaginal reliving, and facilitating of posttraumatic growth. The current study was conducted in order to test the efficacy of the modified manual by administering randomized controlled trial in which a CBT was compared to a wait-list control condition. Methods Forty-two motor vehicle accident survivors with chronic or severe subsyndromal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD completed the treatment trial with two or three detailed assessments (pre, post, and 3-month follow-up. Results CAPS-scores showed significantly greater improvement in the CBT condition as compared to the wait list condition (group × time interaction effect size d = 1.61. Intent-to-treat analysis supported the outcome (d = 1.34. Categorical diagnostic data indicated clinical recovery of 67% (post-treatment and 76% (3 months FU in the treatment group. Additionally, patients of the CBT condition showed significantly greater reductions in co-morbid major depression than the control condition. At follow-up the improvements were stable in the active treatment condition. Conclusion The degree of improvement in our treatment group was comparable to that in previously reported treatment trials of PTSD with cognitive behavioral therapy. Trial registration ISRCTN66456536

  12. Comparison of Mobilizing and Immobilizing Splints on Hand Motor Function in Stroke Patients: A Randomize Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Fard H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Among several methods for the treatment of wrist-fingers motor function impairment after stroke, splinting is a method commonly used as complementary option. But there are so many controversies surrounding its efficacy. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of mobilizing and immobilizing splints on wrist-fingers motor function after stroke.Methods: In this experimental study, 31 stroke patients were selected and divided randomly into three groups including: mobilizing splint, immobilizing splint and control group. Participants in intervention groups wore their own splints for eight weeks, five days per week and on average six hours per day. Motor function was measured at baseline and the eighth week by fugl-meyer (FM scale. The one-way ANOVA was used to compare scores of FM scale between three groups.Results: Data analysis showed significant increase in motor function only in mobilizing splint group (p=0/001 and this increase was significant compared with other groups (p=0/001.Conclusion: Based on these findings, using a mobilizing splint compared with immobilizing splint could have better functional results for treating wrist and finger motor impairment in post-stroke patients.

  13. EFFECTIVENESS OF A MOTOR CONTROL THERAPEUTIC EXERCISE PROGRAM COMBINED WITH MOTOR IMAGERY ON THE SENSORIMOTOR FUNCTION OF THE CERVICAL SPINE: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Peréz, Amanda; Fernández-García, Ángela; López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Paris-Alemany, Alba; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; La Touche, Roy

    2015-11-01

    Motor control therapeutic exercise (MCTE) for the neck is a motor relearning program that emphasizes the coordination and contraction of specific neck flexor, extensor, and shoulder girdle muscles. Because motor imagery (MI) improves sensorimotor function and it improves several motor aspects, such as motor learning, neuromotor control, and acquisition of motor skills, the authors hypothesized that a combination of MCTE and MI would improve the sensorimotor function of the cervical spine more effectively than a MCTE program alone. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of MI combined with a MCTE program on sensorimotor function of the craniocervical region in asymptomatic subjects. This study was a single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Forty asymptomatic subjects were assigned to a MCTE group or a MCTE+MI group. Both groups received the same MCTE program for the cervical region (60 minutes), but the MCTE+MI group received an additional intervention based on MI (15 minutes). The primary outcomes assessed were craniocervical neuromotor control (activation pressure value and highest pressure value), cervical kinesthetic sense (joint position error [JPE]), and the subjective perception of fatigue after effort. Intra-group significant differences were obtained between pre- and post interventions for all evaluated variables (pfatigue after effort in the MCTE group. In the MCTE+MI group a large effect size was found for craniocervical neuromotor control (d between -0.94 and -1.41), cervical kinesthetic sense (d between 0.97 and 2.14), neck flexor muscle endurance test (d = -1.50), and subjective perception of fatigue after effort (d = 0.79). There were significant inter-group differences for the highest pressure value, joint position error (JPE) extension, JPE left rotation, and subjective perception of fatigue after effort. The combined MI and MCTE intervention produced statistically significant changes in sensorimotor function variables

  14. Effect of Early Physical Activity Programs on Motor Performance and Neuromuscular Development in Infants Born Preterm: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Valizadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the survival rate of infants born preterm has increased, the prevalence of developmental problems and motor disorders among this population of infants remains the same. This study investigated the effect of physical activity programs in and out of water on motor performance and neuromuscular development of infants born preterm and had induced immobility by mechanical ventilation.Methods: This study was carried out in Al-Zahra hospital, Tabriz. 76 premature infants were randomly assigned into four groups. One group received daily passive range of motion to all extremities based on the Moyer-Mileur protocol. Hydrotherapy group received exercises for shoulders and pelvic area in water every other day. A combination group received physical activity programs in and out of water on alternating days. Infants in a containment group were held in a fetal position. Duration of study was two weeks ‘from 32 through 33 weeks post menstrual age (PMA. Motor outcomes were measured by the Test of Infant Motor Performance. Neuromuscular developmental was assessed by New Ballard scale and leg recoil and Ankle dorsiflexion items from Dubowitz scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.Results: TIMP and neuromuscular scores improved in all groups. Motor performance did not differ between groups at 34 weeks PMA. Postural tone of leg recoil was significantly higher in physical activity groups post intervention.Conclusion: Physical activities and containment didn’t have different effects on motor performance in infants born preterm. Leg recoil of neuromuscular development items was affected by physical activity programs.

  15. Bobath or motor relearning programme? A comparison of two different approaches of physiotherapy in stroke rehabilitation: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhammer, B; Stanghelle, J K

    2000-08-01

    To examine whether two different physiotherapy regimes caused any differences in outcome in rehabilitation after acute stroke. A double-blind study of patients with acute first-ever stroke. Sixty-one patients were consecutively included, block randomized into two groups, and stratified according to gender and hemiplegic site. Group 1 (33 patients) and group 2 (28 patients) had physiotherapy according to Motor Relearning Programme (MRP) and Bobath, respectively. The supplemental treatment did not differ in the two groups. The Motor Assessment Scale (MAS), the Sødring Motor Evaluation Scale (SMES), the Barthel ADL Index and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) were used. The following parameters were also registered: length of stay in the hospital, use of assistive devices for mobility, and the patient's accommodation after discharge from the hospital. Patients treated according to MRP stayed fewer days in hospital than those treated according to Bobath (mean 21 days versus 34 days, p = 0.008). Both groups improved in MAS and SMES, but the improvement in motor function was significantly better in the MRP group. The two groups improved in Barthel ADL Index without significant differences between the groups. However, women treated by MRP improved more in ADL than women treated by Bobath. There were no differences between the groups in the life quality test (NHP), use of assistive devices or accommodation after discharge from the hospital. The present study indicates that physiotherapy treatment using the MRP is preferable to that using the Bobath programme in the acute rehabilitation of stroke patients.

  16. Randomized controlled trial of yoga for chronic poststroke hemiparesis: motor function, mental health, and quality of life outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immink, Maarten A; Hillier, Susan; Petkov, John

    2014-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of yoga for motor function, mental health, and quality of life outcomes in persons with chronic poststroke hemiparesis. Twenty-two individuals participated in a randomized controlled trial involving assessment of task-orientated function, balance, mobility, depression, anxiety, and quality of life domains before and after either a 10-week yoga intervention (n = 11) or no treatment (n = 11). The yoga intervention did not result in any significant improvements in objective motor function measures, however there was a significant improvement in quality of life associated with perceived motor function (P = .0001) and improvements in perceived recovery approached significance (P = .072). Memory-related quality of life scores significantly improved after yoga intervention (P = .022), and those participating in the intervention exhibited clinically relevant decreases in state and trait anxiety. Preliminary results offer promise for yoga as an intervention to address mental health and quality of life in persons with stroke-related activity limitations. There is a need to more rigorously evaluate these yoga benefits with a larger randomized controlled trial, which, based on this preliminary trial, is feasible.

  17. Continuous vs. blocks of physiotherapy for motor development in children with cerebral palsy and similar syndromes: A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Anne-Louise; Rutz, Erich; Juenemann, Stephanie; Brunner, Reinald

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether physiotherapy is more effective when applied in blocks or continuously in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A prospective randomized cross-over design study compared the effect of regular physiotherapy (baseline) with blocks of physiotherapy alternating with no physiotherapy over one year. Thirty-nine institutionalized children with CP and clinically similar syndromes (6-16 years old, Gross Motor Function Classification Scale II-IV) were included. During the first scholastic year, group A received regular physiotherapy, group B blocks of physiotherapy and vice versa in the second year. The Gross Motor Function Measure 66 (GMFM-66) was the outcome measure. Thirteen children in each group completed the study. GMFM-66 improved (p Physiotherapy may be more effective when provided regularly rather than in blocks.

  18. Skill-building through Task-Oriented Motor Practice (STOMP) intervention for activities of daily living: study protocol for a randomized, single blinded clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciro, C A; Stoner, J; Prodan, C; Hershey, L

    2016-01-01

    Progressive disability in activities of daily living (ADL) is inevitable for people with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD). Attempts to slow or prevent ADL disability have been unsuccessful despite making progress in behavioral training methods. Missing from this research is an emphasis on how we maximize a patient's engagement during training and the rigorous examination of implementation protocols (dosing and training methods) which may advantage learning in people with ADRD. Our team addressed this gap with the development of the STOMP (Skill-building through Task-Oriented Motor Practice) intervention which creates methods for obtaining ADL goals that support "personhood" and tests high-intensity protocols that appear to advantage learning and sustained learning over time. Through this study, we aim to evaluate differential outcomes by dose levels as well as assess the moderating effects of attention to task during training. Randomized-controlled trial with 32 participants with dementia assigned to either the original, intensive STOMP protocol (3 hours/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks) or a less-intensive STOMP protocol (1 hour/day, 2 days/week for 2 weeks) delivered by an occupational therapy assistant in the home. ADL training is delivered using motor learning theory techniques of blocked practice, continuous verbal praise, errorless learning and intense dosing schedules. Inclusion criteria: English speaking, adults 50-80 years old that live with a legally-authorized representative that can provide consent, who can follow a one-step command, have three ADL goals they want to address and can participate in an intense therapy protocol. Exclusions include diagnoses of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Dementia, delirium or receptive/global aphasia. Recruitment will occur through direct mailing, physician referral and media/support group presentations. Blinded occupational therapists will complete baseline, post-intervention and 3-month follow-up assessments in the

  19. Effects of aerobic and strength exercise on motor fatigue in men and women with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surakka, Jukka; Romberg, Anders; Ruutiainen, Juhani; Aunola, Sirkka; Virtanen, Arja; Karppi, Sirkka-Liisa; Mäentaka, Kari

    2004-11-01

    To investigate the effects of aerobic and strength exercise on motor fatigue of knee flexor and extensor muscles in subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS). A randomized controlled trial. At Masku Neurological Rehabilitation Centre, Masku, and the Social Insurance Institution, Research Department, Turku, Finland. Ninety-five MS patients with mild to moderate disability were randomized into exercise group (n =47) and a control group (n =48). Participants in the exercise group attended in a supervised exercise period of three weeks, which was followed by a home exercise programme lasting for 23 weeks. Patients in the control group continued with their normal living. Motor fatigue of knee flexor and extensor muscles was measured during a static 30-s maximal sustained muscle contraction. The decline in force (Nm) during the 30 s was recorded, and a fatigue index (FI) was calculated. Subjective fatigue was measured by using the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). The Ambulatory Fatigue Index (AFI) was calculated on the basis of a 500-m walking test. Assessment took place at baseline, at the third week (not for the control group) and at the 26th week. All outcome variables were analysed, men and women together, and some interesting contrasts were analysed by gender. Associations were observed with changes in extension FI and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score and mean extension torque (Nm), but not with changes in FI and aerobic or strength exercise activity, mean AFI, mean FSS or in mean knee flexion torque. AFI was decreased in all subject groups (p =0.007). Motor fatigue was reduced in knee flexion (p=0.0014) and extension (ns) among female but not in male exercisers after six months of exercise. The exercise activity of women was 25% higher than that of the men. Six months of exercise reduced motor fatigue in women, but not in men.

  20. Effect of motor control exercises versus graded activity in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Luciana Gazzi; Latimer, Jane; Maher, Christopher G; Hodges, Paul W; McAuley, James H; Nicholas, Michael K; Tonkin, Lois; Stanton, Chris J; Stanton, Tasha R; Stafford, Ryan

    2012-03-01

    Motor control exercises to improve control and coordination of trunk muscles and graded activity under the principles of cognitive-behavioral therapy are 2 commonly used exercise therapies, yet there is little evidence to support the use of one intervention over the other. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of motor control exercises and graded activity for patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. This study was a prospectively registered randomized controlled trial with outcome assessment and statistical analyses conducted blind to group. The study was conducted in primary care settings. The participants were 172 patients with chronic (>12 weeks) nonspecific low back pain. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either motor control exercises or graded activity. There was no attempt to subclassify patients to match them to a treatment. Patients in both groups received 14 sessions of individualized, supervised exercise therapy. Primary outcomes were average pain over the previous week (numeric rating scale) and function (Patient-Specific Functional Scale); secondary outcomes were disability (24-item Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire), global impression of change (Global Perceived Effect Scale), and quality of life (36-Item Short-Form Health Survey questionnaire [SF-36]). Outcome measures were collected at baseline and at 2, 6, and 12 months after intervention. A linear mixed models analysis showed that there were no significant differences between treatment groups at any of the time points for any of the outcomes studied. For example, the effect for pain at 2 months was 0.0 (-0.7 to 0.8). Clinicians could not be blinded to the interventions. results of this study suggest that motor control exercises and graded activity have similar effects for patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain.

  1. Comparison of general exercise, motor control exercise and spinal manipulative therapy for chronic low back pain: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Manuela L; Ferreira, Paulo H; Latimer, Jane; Herbert, Robert D; Hodges, Paul W; Jennings, Matthew D; Maher, Christopher G; Refshauge, Kathryn M

    2007-09-01

    Practice guidelines recommend various types of exercise and manipulative therapy for chronic back pain but there have been few head-to-head comparisons of these interventions. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to compare effects of general exercise, motor control exercise and manipulative therapy on function and perceived effect of intervention in patients with chronic back pain. Two hundred and forty adults with non-specific low back pain 3months were allocated to groups that received 8weeks of general exercise, motor control exercise or spinal manipulative therapy. General exercise included strengthening, stretching and aerobic exercises. Motor control exercise involved retraining specific trunk muscles using ultrasound feedback. Spinal manipulative therapy included joint mobilization and manipulation. Primary outcomes were patient-specific function (PSFS, 3-30) and global perceived effect (GPE, -5 to 5) at 8weeks. These outcomes were also measured at 6 and 12months. Follow-up was 93% at 8weeks and 88% at 6 and 12months. The motor control exercise group had slightly better outcomes than the general exercise group at 8weeks (between-group difference: PSFS 2.9, 95% CI: 0.9-4.8; GPE 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-2.4), as did the spinal manipulative therapy group (PSFS 2.3, 95% CI: 0.4-4.2; GPE 1.2, 95% CI: 0.4-2.0). The groups had similar outcomes at 6 and 12months. Motor control exercise and spinal manipulative therapy produce slightly better short-term function and perceptions of effect than general exercise, but not better medium or long-term effects, in patients with chronic non-specific back pain.

  2. Motor imagery training for children with developmental coordination disorder - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, I.L.; Steenbergen, B.; Lust, J.M.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the predictive control of movements is impaired in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), most likely due to a deficit in the internal modeling of movements. Motor imagery paradigms have been used to test this internal modeling deficit.

  3. Motor imagery training for children with developmental coordination disorder: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, I.L.J.; Steenbergen, B.; Lust, J.M.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that the predictive control of movements is impaired in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), most likely due to a deficit in the internal modeling of movements. Motor imagery paradigms have been used to test this internal modeling deficit.

  4. Detonation command and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2016-05-31

    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link there between. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  5. Detonation command and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2015-11-10

    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link therebetween. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  6. Detonation command and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Jonathan Lee; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2017-12-05

    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link therebetween. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  7. Ultrasound-Guided Motor-Sparing Knee Blocks for Postoperative Analgesia Following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Blinded Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogbein, Olawale A; Sondekoppam, Rakesh V; Bryant, Dianne; Johnston, David F; Vasarhelyi, Edward M; MacDonald, Steven; Lanting, Brent; Ganapathy, Sugantha; Howard, James L

    2017-08-02

    Pain following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often severe and can inhibit rehabilitation. Motor-sparing analgesic techniques such as periarticular infiltrations and adductor canal blocks have been popularized for knee analgesia since they preserve motor strength and permit early mobilization. Our primary objective was to compare the duration of analgesia from motor-sparing blocks with that of a standard periarticular infiltration. We used the time to first rescue analgesia as the end point. We randomized 82 patients scheduled for elective TKA to receive either the preoperative motor-sparing block (0.5% ropivacaine, 2.5 μg/mL of epinephrine, 10 mg of morphine, and 30 mg of ketorolac) or intraoperative periarticular infiltration (0.3% ropivacaine, 2.5 μg/mL of epinephrine, 10 mg of morphine, and 30 mg of ketorolac). For the motor-sparing block, we modified the ultrasound-guided adductor canal block by combining it with a lateral femoral cutaneous nerve block and posterior knee infiltration. The patients, surgeons, anesthetists administering the blocks, and outcome assessors all remained blinded to group allocation. Our primary outcome was duration of analgesia (time to first rescue analgesia). Secondary outcomes included quadriceps strength, function, side effects, satisfaction, and length of hospital stay. The duration of analgesia was significantly longer (mean difference, 8.8 hours [95% confidence interval = 3.98 to 13.62], p block group (mean [and standard error], 18.1 ± 1.7 hours) compared with the periarticular infiltration group (mean, 9.25 ± 1.7 hours). The infiltration group had significantly higher scores for pain at rest for the first 2 postoperative hours and for pain with knee movement at 2 and 4 hours. There were no significant differences between groups with regard to any other secondary outcomes. In patients undergoing a TKA, a motor-sparing block provides longer analgesia than periarticular infiltration with retention of quadriceps muscle

  8. Growth hormone combined with child-specific motor training improves motor development in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, L.; Pelzer, B.J.; Otten, B.J.; Siemensma, E.P.C.; Velden, J.A.M. van der; Festen, D.A.M.; Hokken-Koelega, A.C.S.; Sanden, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    Although severe motor problems in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are striking, motor development has never been studied longitudinally and the results of growth hormone (GH) treatment on motor development are contradictory. The authors studied whether GH treatment can enhance the effect of

  9. Prevention of the development of psychological distress following a motor vehicle crash: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Rebecca; Tran, Yvonne; Gopinath, Bamini; Cameron, Ian D; Craig, Ashley

    2016-07-16

    It is estimated that up to 50 % of motor vehicle crash survivors develop significant psychological distress, such as depressive mood and anxiety, within 6 months of the crash. Associated impacts include loss of employment, delayed return to work, financial and familial stress, and increased medical and compensation costs. The major aim of this research is to investigate the efficacy of interventions for preventing the development of psychological distress following a motor vehicle crash. The efficacy of two brief interventions will be examined: a cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) programme, targeting mood and anxiety, and a lifestyle programme, targeting sleep, diet and physical activity. This is a randomized, controlled multisite study. Participants include at least 180 adults injured in a motor vehicle crash who have entered a compensation process. Research will compare outcomes in three groups randomly assigned to: one group of 60 adults, who receive a brief email-delivered CBT programme, with one session every 2 weeks for 10 weeks and telephone contact every 2 weeks; a second group of 60 adults, who receive a brief email-delivered lifestyle intervention involving one session every 2 weeks for 10 weeks with telephone contact; and an active waiting-list control group of 60 adults who are provided claims processing-related reading material along with telephone contact every 2 weeks for 10 weeks. Participants will be recruited within 12 weeks of the motor vehicle crash, and will be comprehensively assessed before and after treatment, and 6 and 12 months post-injury. Assuming an α probability level of 0.05 and a power of 80 %, at least 180 participants will be recruited. The primary outcome measure is the presence and severity of psychological distress or disorder. Secondary outcome measures include assessment of self-efficacy, resilience employment status, social activity and support, lifestyle and physical health factors, along with process outcome

  10. Neuropathic pain: transcranial electric motor cortex stimulation using high frequency random noise. Case report of a novel treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alm PA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Per A Alm, Karolina DreimanisDepartment of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, SwedenObjectives: Electric motor cortex stimulation has been reported to be effective for many cases of neuropathic pain, in the form of epidural stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS. A novel technique is transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS, which increases the cortical excitability irrespective of the orientation of the current. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tRNS on neuropathic pain in a small number of subjects, and in a case study explore the effects of different stimulation parameters and the long-term stability of treatment effects.Methods: The study was divided into three phases: (1 a double-blind 100–600 Hz, varying from 0.5 to 10 minutes and from 50 to 1500 µA, at intervals ranging from daily to fortnightly.crossover study, with four subjects; (2 a double-blind extended case study with one responder; and (3 open continued treatment. The motor cortex stimulation consisted of alternating current random noise (100–600 Hz, varying from 0.5 to 10 minutes and from 50 to 1500 μA, at intervals ranging from daily to fortnightly.Results: One out of four participants showed a strong positive effect (also compared with direct-current-sham, P = 0.006. Unexpectedly, this effect was shown to occur also for very weak (100 µA, P = 0.048 and brief (0.5 minutes, P = 0.028 stimulation. The effect was largest during the first month, but remained at a highly motivating level for the patient after 6 months.Discussion: The study suggests that tRNS may be an effective treatment for some cases of neuropathic pain. An important result was the indication that even low levels of stimulation may have substantial effects.Keywords: neuropathic pain, central pain, transcranial direct current stimulation, motor cortex stimulation, random noise stimulation

  11. Joint Mission Command Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-22

    1 AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY JOINT MISSION COMMAND IMPLEMENTATION by Michael Dane Acord, COL, US Army A Research Report Submitted to...assigned to the Air War College, Air University, Maxwell Air Force Base (AFB), AL. Following the Army Command and General Staff College and School...holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Biology and two Masters Degrees, a Masters in Management from Troy University and a Master of Military Arts and Sciences

  12. Understanding Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    UNDERSTANDING COMMAND AND CONTROL David S. Alberts Richard E. Hayes THE FUTURE OF COMMAND AND CONTROL Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...comprehensive C2 Conceptual Reference Model. We benefited greatly from participating in that activity. 1 The members of SAS-050 included: Dr. David Alberts...Sinclair (US), M.Sc. Mink Spaans (NL), Ms. Kristi Sugarman (US), LTC (Ret) Klaus Titze (GE), Mr. Rick van der Kleij (NL) W vi We were also fortunate to

  13. Effects of Computer-Aided Interlimb Force Coupling Training on Paretic Hand and Arm Motor Control following Chronic Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chueh-Ho; Chou, Li-Wei; Luo, Hong-Ji; Tsai, Po-Yi; Lieu, Fu-Kong; Chiang, Shang-Lin; Sung, Wen-Hsu

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the training effects of interlimb force coupling training on paretic upper extremity outcomes in patients with chronic stroke and analyzed the relationship between motor recovery of the paretic hand, arm and functional performances on paretic upper limb. A randomized controlled trial with outcome assessment at baseline and after 4 weeks of intervention. Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming University. Thirty-three subjects with chronic stroke were recruited and randomly assigned to training (n = 16) and control groups (n = 17). The computer-aided interlimb force coupling training task with visual feedback included different grip force generation methods on both hands. The Barthel Index (BI), the upper extremity motor control Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA-UE), the Motor Assessment Score (MAS), and the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). All assessments were executed by a blinded evaluator, and data management and statistical analysis were also conducted by a blinded researcher. The training group demonstrated greater improvement on the FMA-UE (pcontrol group after 4 weeks of intervention. In addition, a moderate correlation was found between the improvement of scores for hand scales of the FMA and other portions of the FMA UE (r = .528, p = .018) or MAS (r = .596, p = .015) in the training group. Computer-aided interlimb force coupling training improves the motor recovery of a paretic hand, and facilitates motor control and enhances functional performance in the paretic upper extremity of people with chronic stroke. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02247674.

  14. Mirror Therapy with Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for improving motor function of stroke survivors: A pilot randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, DongGeon; Lee, GyuChang; Jeong, JiSim

    2016-07-27

    This study was to investigate the effects of Mirror Therapy (MT) combined with Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) on muscle strength and tone, motor function, balance, and gait ability in stroke survivors with hemiplegia. This study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven hemiplegic stroke survivors from a rehabilitation center participated in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. The experimental group (n = 14) underwent MT combined with NMES and conventional physical therapy, and the control group (n = 13) underwent conventional physical therapy alone. Muscle strength and tone, balance, and gait ability were examined at baseline and after 4 weeks of intervention. A hand-held dynamometer was used to assess muscle strength, the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) was used to assess muscle tone, the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Timed Up and Go test (TUG) were used to ascertain balance, and the 6-m Walk Test (6mWT) was used to examine gait ability. After the intervention, compared to baseline values, there were significant improvements in muscle strength and MAS, BBS, TUG, and 6mWT values in the experimental group (Pstroke survivors. However, further studies are necessary to demonstrate brain reorganization after MT combined with NMES.

  15. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Combined with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over Premotor Cortex Improves Motor Function in Severe Stroke: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen M. Andrade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We compared the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation at different cortical sites (premotor and motor primary cortex combined with constraint-induced movement therapy for treatment of stroke patients. Design. Sixty patients were randomly distributed into 3 groups: Group A, anodal stimulation on premotor cortex and constraint-induced movement therapy; Group B, anodal stimulation on primary motor cortex and constraint-induced movement therapy; Group C, sham stimulation and constraint-induced movement therapy. Evaluations involved analysis of functional independence, motor recovery, spasticity, gross motor function, and muscle strength. Results. A significant improvement in primary outcome (functional independence after treatment in the premotor group followed by primary motor group and sham group was observed. The same pattern of improvement was highlighted among all secondary outcome measures regarding the superior performance of the premotor group over primary motor and sham groups. Conclusions. Premotor cortex can contribute to motor function in patients with severe functional disabilities in early stages of stroke. This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov database (NCT 02628561.

  16. Does physiotherapeutic intervention affect motor outcome in high-risk infants? An approach combining a randomized controlled trial and process evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hielkema, Tjitske; Blauw-Hospers, Cornill H.; Dirks, Tineke; Drijver-Messelink, Marieke; Bos, Arend F.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    AIM The aim of this study was to examine the effects of intervention in infants at risk of developmental disorders onmotor outcome, as measured by the InfantMotor Profile (IMP) and using the combined approach of a randomized controlled trial and process evaluation. METHOD At a corrected age of 3

  17. Cost efficient command management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Theresa; Murphy, C. W.; Kuntz, Jon; Barlett, Tom

    1996-01-01

    The design and implementation of a command management system (CMS) for a NASA control center, is described. The technology innovations implemented in the CMS provide the infrastructure required for operations cost reduction and future development cost reduction through increased operational efficiency and reuse in future missions. The command management design facilitates error-free operations which enables the automation of the routine control center functions and allows for the distribution of scheduling responsibility to the instrument teams. The reusable system was developed using object oriented methodologies.

  18. Randomized trial comparing interferential therapy with motorized lumbar traction and massage in the management of low back pain in a primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werners, R; Pynsent, P B; Bulstrode, C J

    1999-08-01

    A randomized trial designed to compare interferential therapy with motorized lumbar traction and massage management for low back pain in a primary care setting. To measure and compare the outcome of interferential therapy and management by motorized lumbar traction and massage. Management of low back pain by interferential therapy and motorized lumbar traction and massage is common in Germany. No reports of previous randomized trials for the outcome from interferential therapy were found. Consenting patients were randomly assigned into one of two groups. A pretreatment interview was performed by the patient using a computer-based questionnaire. It also incorporated the Oswestry Disability Index and a pain visual analog scale. Management consisted of six sessions over a 2- to 3-week period. Oswestry Disability Indexes and pain visual analog scale scores also were obtained immediately after and at 3 months after treatment. A total of 152 patients were recruited. The two treatment groups had similar demographic and clinical baseline characteristics. The mean Oswestry Disability Index before treatment was 30 for both groups (n = 147). After treatment, this had dropped to 25, and, at 3 months, were 21 (interferential therapy) and 22 (motorized lumbar traction and massage). The mean pain visual analog scale score before treatment was 50 (interferential therapy) and 51 (motorized lumbar traction and massage). This had dropped, respectively, to 46 and 44 after treatment and to 42 and 39 at 3 months. This study shows a progressive fall in Oswestry Disability Index and pain visual analog scale scores in patients with low back pain treated with either-interferential therapy or motorized lumbar traction and massage. There was no difference in the improvement between the two groups at the end of treatment. Although there is evidence from several trials that traction alone is ineffective in the management of low back pain, this study could not exclude some effect from the

  19. Stimulation targeting higher motor areas in stroke rehabilitation: A proof-of-concept, randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled study of effectiveness and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, David A; Varnerin, Nicole; Machado, Andre; Bonnett, Corin; Janini, Daniel; Roelle, Sarah; Potter-Baker, Kelsey; Sankarasubramanian, Vishwanath; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yue, Guang; Plow, Ela B

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate, in a proof-of-concept study, whether potentiating ipsilesional higher motor areas (premotor cortex and supplementary motor area) augments and accelerates recovery associated with constraint induced movement. In a randomized, double-blinded pilot clinical study, 12 patients with chronic stroke were assigned to receive anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) (n = 6) or sham (n = 6) to the ipsilesional higher motor areas during constraint-induced movement therapy. We assessed functional and neurophysiologic outcomes before and after 5 weeks of therapy. Only patients receiving tDCS demonstrated gains in function and dexterity. Gains were accompanied by an increase in excitability of the contralesional rather than the ipsilesional hemisphere. Our proof-of-concept study provides early evidence that stimulating higher motor areas can help recruit the contralesional hemisphere in an adaptive role in cases of greater ipsilesional injury. Whether this early evidence of promise translates to remarkable gains in functional recovery compared to existing approaches of stimulation remains to be confirmed in large-scale clinical studies that can reasonably dissociate stimulation of higher motor areas from that of the traditional primary motor cortices.

  20. Comparison of respiratory muscle training methods in individuals with motor and sensory complete tetraplegia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Gabi; Hopman, Maria T E; Perret, Claudio

    2013-03-01

    To compare the effects of inspiratory resistance training and isocapnic hyperpnoea vs incentive spirometry (placebo) on respiratory function, voice, thorax mobility and quality of life in individuals with tetraplegia. Randomized controlled trial. A total of 24 individuals with traumatic, complete tetraplegia (C5-C8, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale; AIS A) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. They completed 32 supervised training sessions over a period of 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, the following tests were performed: body plethysmography, inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength, subjective breathing parameters using a visual analogue scale, voice measurements, thorax mobility and quality of life. Cohen's effect sizes and Kruskal-Wallis tests for differences between pre- and post-training values were calculated. Compared with placebo training, inspiratory resistance training showed high effect sizes for inspiratory muscle strength (d = 1.13), the subjective ability "to blow one's nose" (d = 0.97) and the physical component of quality of life (d = 0.82). Isocapnic hyperpnoea compared with placebo showed a high effect size for breathlessness during exercise (d = 0.81). We found a significant effect of inspiratory resistance training vs placebo (p = 0.016) and vs isocapnic hyperpnoea (p = 0.012) for inspiratory muscle strength. In individuals with motor and sensory complete tetraplegia during the first year post-injury, inspiratory resistance training is more advantageous than isocapnic hyperpnoea, performed 4 times a week for 10 min.

  1. Stepper motor control that adjusts to motor loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Nola, Frank J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system and method are provided for controlling a stepper motor having a rotor and a multi-phase stator. Sinusoidal command signals define a commanded position of the motor's rotor. An actual position of the rotor is sensed as a function of an electrical angle between the actual position and the commanded position. The actual position is defined by sinusoidal position signals. An adjustment signal is generated using the sinusoidal command signals and sinusoidal position signals. The adjustment signal is defined as a function of the cosine of the electrical angle. The adjustment signal is multiplied by each sinusoidal command signal to generate a corresponding set of excitation signals, each of which is applied to a corresponding phase of the multi-phase stator.

  2. Opicapone as Adjunct to Levodopa Therapy in Patients With Parkinson Disease and Motor Fluctuations: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Andrew J; Ferreira, Joaquim; Rascol, Olivier; Poewe, Werner; Rocha, José-Francisco; McCrory, Michelle; Soares-da-Silva, Patricio

    2017-02-01

    Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors are an established treatment for end-of-dose motor fluctuations associated with levodopa therapy in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Current COMT inhibitors carry a high risk for toxic effects to hepatic cells or show moderate improvement. Opicapone was designed to be effective without the adverse effects. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 25- and 50-mg/d dosages of opicapone compared with placebo as adjunct to levodopa therapy in patients with PD experiencing end-of-dose motor fluctuations. This phase 3 international, multicenter outpatient study evaluated a 25- and a 50-mg/d dosage of opicapone in a randomized, double-blind, 14- to 15-week, placebo-controlled clinical trial, followed by a 1-year open-label phase during which all patients received active treatment with opicapone. Patients with PD who experienced signs of end-of-dose deterioration and had a mean total awake off-time (state of akinesia or decreased mobility) of at least 1.5 hours, not including morning akinesia, were enrolled. Data were collected from March 18, 2011, through June 25, 2013. Data from the evaluable population were analyzed from July 31, 2013, to July 31, 2014. The primary efficacy outcome of the double-blind phase was the change from baseline in absolute off-time vs placebo based on patient diaries. The open-label phase focused on maintenance of treatment effect in off-time. A total of 427 patients (258 men [60.4%] and 169 women [39.6%]; mean [SD] age, 63.1 [8.8] years) were randomized to a 25-mg/d (n = 129) or a 50-mg/d (n = 154) dosage of opicapone or to placebo (n = 144). Of these, 376 patients completed the double-blind phase and entered the open-label phase, of whom 286 completed 1 year of open-label treatment. At the end of the double-blind phase, the least squares mean change (SE) in off-time was -64.5 (14.4) minutes for the placebo group, -101.7 (14.9) minutes for the 25-mg/d opicapone group, and -118.8

  3. Prospective, randomized controlled trial of physiotherapy and acupuncture on motor function and daily activities in patients with ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu-Long; Li, Li; Hu, Yong-Shan; Wu, Yi; Xie, Pei-Jing; Wang, Song-Wei; Yang, Ming; Xu, Yi-Ming; Zhu, Bing

    2013-08-01

    To assess the value of acupuncture for promoting the recovery of patients with ischemic stroke and to determine whether the outcomes of combined physiotherapy and acupuncture are superior to those with physiotherapy alone. Prospective randomized controlled trial. Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, P. R. China. 120 inpatients and outpatients (84 men and 36 women). Acupuncture, physiotherapy, and physiotherapy combined with acupuncture. Motor function in the limbs was measured with the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA). The modified Barthel index (MBI) was used to rate activities of daily living. All evaluations were performed by assessors blinded to treatment group. On the first day of therapy (day 0, baseline), FMA and MBI scores did not significantly differ among the treatment groups. Compared with baseline, on the 28th day of therapy the mean FMA scores of the physiotherapy, acupuncture, and combined treatment groups had increased by 65.6%, 57.7%, and 67.2%, respectively; on the 56th day, FMA scores had increased by 88.1%, 64.5%, and 88.6%, respectively (pphysiotherapy group were 46.1% and 33.2% greater, respectively, than those in the acupuncture group pphysiotherapy. Moreover, the therapeutic effect of combining acupuncture with physiotherapy was not superior to that of physiotherapy alone. A larger-scale clinical trial is necessary to confirm these findings.

  4. MILITARY COMMANDERS OF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    who first saw active service in the Ashanti. Campaign. (1873-74), was employed as an instructor of musketry prior to his promotion to. Captain in October 1878. In the following year he was present at the Battle of Ulundi and took part in the expedition against Sekukuni (1879). During the First Anglo-Boer War he commanded.

  5. A comparison of alcohol and drug use by random motor vehicle drivers in Brazil and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Hallvard; Sousa, Tanara R; De Boni, Raquel; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Limberger, Renata P; Zancanaro, Ivomar; Oiestad, Elisabeth L; Normann, Per T; Mørland, Jørg; Pechansky, Flavio

    2014-05-01

    A large proportion of road traffic crashes are related to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol or drugs. The aim of this study was to compare the use of alcohol, illegal drugs and psychoactive medicinal drugs among random drivers in Brazil and Norway, two countries with the same legal limit for drunk driving, but with marked differences in legislation history, enforcement and penalties for DUI, and to discuss any differences found. Roadside surveys were conducted on Fridays and Saturdays between noon and midnight. Samples of oral fluid were collected for analysis of drugs, whereas alcohol was determined by breath testing or by analysis of oral fluid. High participation rates of 94-97% were obtained in both countries. The weighted prevalence of driving with alcohol concentrations in breath or oral fluid equivalent to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) above 0.2g/L was 2.7% (95% CI 2.2-3.3) in Brazil and 0.2% (95% CI 0.0-0.5) in Norway. Stimulants (amphetamines or cocaine) were found in samples from 1.0% (95% CI 0.7-1.4) of drivers in Brazil and 0.3% (95% CI 0.1-0.7) in Norway. The prevalence of amphetamines was highest among Brazilian truck drivers (3.6%; 95% CI 2.0-6.4). Tetrahydrocannabinol was found in samples from 0.5% (95% CI 0.3-0.8) of drivers in Brazil and 1.0% (95% CI 0.6-1.5) in Norway, whereas benzodiazepines or zopiclone were found in 1.0% (95% CI 0.7-1.4) and 1.7% (95% CI 1.2-2.4) of the samples from Brazil and Norway, respectively. The difference in the prevalence of alcohol may be related to the fact that Norway has implemented steps to reduce drunk driving since 1936, whereas Brazil has attempted to do the same for only a few years. Differences for drugs may be related to different patterns in the use of stimulants, cannabis and medicines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    interneurons and exert a direct (willful) muscle control with the aid of a context-dependent integration of somatosensory and visual information at cortical level. However, spinal networks also play an important role. Sensory feedback through spinal circuitries is integrated with central motor commands...... and contributes importantly to the muscle activity underlying voluntary movements. Regulation of spinal interneurons is used to switch between motor states such as locomotion (reciprocal innervation) and stance (coactivation pattern). Cortical regulation of presynaptic inhibition of sensory afferents may focus...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...

  7. Effect of methylphenidate and/or levodopa coupled with physiotherapy on functional and motor recovery after stroke--a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokk, J; Salman Roghani, R; Delbari, A

    2011-04-01

    Amphetamine-like drugs are reported to enhance motor recovery and activities of daily living (ADL) in stroke rehabilitation, but results from trials with humans are inconclusive. This study is aimed at investigating whether levodopa (LD) and/or methylphenidate (MPH) in combination with physiotherapy could improve functional motor recovery and ADL in patients with stroke. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with ischemic stroke patients randomly allocated to one of four treatment groups of either MPH, LD or MPH+LD or placebo combined with physiotherapy was performed. Motor function, ADL, and stroke severity were assessed by Fugl-Meyer (FM), Barthel index (BI), and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at baseline, 15, 90, and 180 days respectively. All participants showed recovery of motor function and ADL during treatment and at 6-month follow-up. There were slightly but significant differences in BI and NIHSS compared to placebo at the 6-month follow-up. Ischemic chronic stroke patients having MPH and/or LD in combination with physiotherapy showed a slight ADL and stroke severity improvement over time. Future studies should address the issue of the optimal therapeutic window and dosage of medications to identify those patients who would benefit most. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Randomized controlled comparative study on effect of training to improve lower limb motor paralysis in convalescent patients with post-stroke hemiplegia

    OpenAIRE

    Kawakami, Kenji; Miyasaka, Hiroyuki; Nonoyama, Sayaka; Hayashi, Kazuya; Tonogai, Yusuke; Tanino,Genichi; Wada, Yosuke; Narukawa, Akihisa; Okuyama, Yuko; Tomita, Yutaka; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The motor paralysis-improving effect on the hemiplegic lower limb was compared among mirror therapy, integrated volitional-control electrical stimulation, therapeutic electrical stimulation, repetitive facilitative exercises, and the standard training method in post-stroke hemiplegia patients. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty one stroke patients admitted to a convalescent rehabilitation ward were randomly allocated to the above 5 treatment groups. Each patient performed functional trai...

  9. Command and motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    Motivated employees are crucial to organizations, but external interventions such as command systems and financial incentives may decrease motivation. If these external interventions are perceived to be controlling, they are expected to crowd out intrinsic motivation, and this may also apply...... to other types of autonomous motivation such as public service motivation. The perception of external interventions is thus expected to be vital. This article investigates how the perception of a specific command system (obligatory student plans) is associated with intrinsic motivation and public service...... motivation. Using a dataset with 3,230 school teachers in Denmark, a structural equation model shows that the perception of obligatory student plans as controlling is negatively associated with all of the investigated types of employee motivation, supporting that motivation crowding can occur....

  10. Universal adaptive torque control for PM motors for field-weakening region operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royak, Semyon [Beachwood, OH; Harbaugh, Mark M [Richfield, OH; Breitzmann, Robert J [South Russel, OH; Nondahl, Thomas A [Wauwatosa, WI; Schmidt, Peter B [Franklin, WI; Liu, Jingbo [Milwaukee, WI

    2011-03-29

    The invention includes a motor controller and method for controlling a permanent magnet motor. In accordance with one aspect of the present technique, a permanent magnet motor is controlled by, among other things, receiving a torque command, determining a normalized torque command by normalizing the torque command to a characteristic current of the motor, determining a normalized maximum available voltage, determining an inductance ratio of the motor, and determining a direct-axis current based upon the normalized torque command, the normalized maximum available voltage, and the inductance ratio of the motor.

  11. Methods, systems and apparatus for adjusting modulation index to improve linearity of phase voltage commands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Perisic, Milun; Kinoshita, Michael H.

    2017-03-14

    Embodiments of the present invention relate to methods, systems and apparatus for controlling operation of a multi-phase machine in a motor drive system. The disclosed embodiments provide a mechanism for adjusting modulation index of voltage commands to improve linearity of the voltage commands.

  12. Effect of a governmentally-led physical activity program on motor skills in young children attending child care centers: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of a governmentally-led center based child care physical activity program (Youp’là Bouge) on child motor skills. Patients and methods We conducted a single blinded cluster randomized controlled trial in 58 Swiss child care centers. Centers were randomly selected and 1:1 assigned to a control or intervention group. The intervention lasted from September 2009 to June 2010 and included training of the educators, adaptation of the child care built environment, parental involvement and daily physical activity. Motor skill was the primary outcome and body mass index (BMI), physical activity and quality of life secondary outcomes. The intervention implementation was also assessed. Results At baseline, 648 children present on the motor test day were included (age 3.3 ± 0.6, BMI 16.3 ± 1.3 kg/m2, 13.2% overweight, 49% girls) and 313 received the intervention. Relative to children in the control group (n = 201), children in the intervention group (n = 187) showed no significant increase in motor skills (delta of mean change (95% confidence interval: -0.2 (−0.8 to 0.3), p = 0.43) or in any of the secondary outcomes. Not all child care centers implemented all the intervention components. Within the intervention group, several predictors were positively associated with trial outcomes: 1) free-access to a movement space and parental information session for motor skills 2) highly motivated and trained educators for BMI 3) free-access to a movement space and purchase of mobile equipment for physical activity (all p life” physical activity program in child care centers confirms the complexity of implementing an intervention outside a study setting and identified potentially relevant predictors that could improve future programs. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov NCT00967460 PMID:23835207

  13. Effect of a governmentally-led physical activity program on motor skills in young children attending child care centers: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Antoine; Barral, Jérôme; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Kriemler, Susi; Longchamp, Anouk; Schindler, Christian; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J

    2013-07-08

    To assess the effect of a governmentally-led center based child care physical activity program (Youp'là Bouge) on child motor skills. We conducted a single blinded cluster randomized controlled trial in 58 Swiss child care centers. Centers were randomly selected and 1:1 assigned to a control or intervention group. The intervention lasted from September 2009 to June 2010 and included training of the educators, adaptation of the child care built environment, parental involvement and daily physical activity. Motor skill was the primary outcome and body mass index (BMI), physical activity and quality of life secondary outcomes. The intervention implementation was also assessed. At baseline, 648 children present on the motor test day were included (age 3.3 ± 0.6, BMI 16.3 ± 1.3 kg/m2, 13.2% overweight, 49% girls) and 313 received the intervention. Relative to children in the control group (n = 201), children in the intervention group (n = 187) showed no significant increase in motor skills (delta of mean change (95% confidence interval: -0.2 (-0.8 to 0.3), p = 0.43) or in any of the secondary outcomes. Not all child care centers implemented all the intervention components. Within the intervention group, several predictors were positively associated with trial outcomes: (1) free-access to a movement space and parental information session for motor skills (2) highly motivated and trained educators for BMI (3) free-access to a movement space and purchase of mobile equipment for physical activity (all p life" physical activity program in child care centers confirms the complexity of implementing an intervention outside a study setting and identified potentially relevant predictors that could improve future programs. Clinical trials.gov NCT00967460.

  14. Design of the Park-in-Shape study: a phase II double blind randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of exercise on motor and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kolk, Nicolien M; Overeem, Sebastiaan; de Vries, Nienke M; Kessels, Roy P C; Donders, Rogier; Brouwer, Marc; Berg, Daniela; Post, Bart; Bloem, Bas R

    2015-04-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with a wide range of motor and non-motor symptoms. Despite optimal medical management, PD still results in a high disability rate and secondary complications and many patients lead a sedentary lifestyle, which in turn is also associated with a higher co-morbidity and mortality. Exercise has been explored as a strategy to reduce secondary complications and results suggests that it not only provides general health benefits, but may also provide symptomatic relief. If this holds true exercise would be a very attractive addition to the therapeutic arsenal in PD. The supportive evidence remains incomplete. Here, we describe the design of the Park-in-Shape study, which primarily aims to evaluate whether aerobic exercise affords clinically relevant improvements in motor symptoms in sedentary PD patients. A specific new element is the introduction of gaming to optimize compliance to the exercise intervention. The Park-in-Shape study is a randomized controlled, assessor- and patient-blinded single center study. Two parallel groups will include a total of 130 patients, receiving either aerobic exercise on a home trainer equipped with gaming elements ("exergaming"), or a non-aerobic intervention (stretching, flexibility and relaxation exercises). Both groups are supported by a specifically designed motivational app that uses gaming elements to stimulate patients to exercise and rewards them after having completed the exercise. Both interventions are delivered at home at least 3 times a week for 30-45 minutes during 6 months. Eligible patients are community-dwelling, sedentary patients diagnosed with mild-moderate PD. The primary outcome is the MDS-UPDRS motor score (tested in the off state) after 6 months. Secondary outcomes include various motor and non-motor symptoms, quality of life, physical fitness, and adherence. This Park-in-Shape study is anticipated to answer the question whether high intensity aerobic

  15. Control algorithms for single inverter dual induction motor system applied to railway traction; Commande algorithmique d'un systeme mono-onduleur bimachine asynchrone destine a la traction ferroviaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena Eguiluz, R.

    2002-11-15

    The goal of this work concerns the modelling and the behaviour characterisation of a single inverter dual induction motor system applied to a railway traction bogie (BB36000) in order to concept its control. First part of this job is dedicated to the detailed description of overall system. The influence analysis of the internal perturbations (motor parameters variation) and, external perturbations (pantograph detachment, adherence loss, stick-slip) of the system have made considering the field oriented control applied to each motor of the bogie (classical traction structure). vi In a second part, a novel propulsion structure is proposed. It is composed by a single pulse-width modulated two level voltage source inverter. It supplies two parallel connected induction motors, which generate the transmitted traction force to the bogie wheels. The locomotive case represents the common load for the two motors. Several co-operative control strategies (CS) are studied. They are: the mean CS, the double mean CS, the master - slave switched CS and, the mean differential CS. In addition, an appropriated electric modes observer structure for these different controls has studied. These controls have validated applying the perturbations to the models using the solver SABER. This special approach is equivalent to quasi-experimentation, because the mechanical and the electrical system components have modelled using MAST language and, the sample control has created by a C code programme in the SABER environment. Third part is dedicated to the mechanical sensor suppression and, its adaptation in the cooperative control strategies. The partial speed reconstruction methods are: the fundamental frequency relation, the mechanical Kalman filter, the variable structure observer and the MRAS. Finally, the hardware system configuration of the experimental realisation is described. (author)

  16. A 9-Week Aerobic and Strength Training Program Improves Cognitive and Motor Function in Patients with Dementia: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossers, Willem J R; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Boersma, Froukje; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Scherder, Erik J A; van Heuvelen, Marieke J G

    2015-11-01

    To compare training and follow-up effects of combined aerobic and strength training versus aerobic-only training on cognitive and motor function in institutionalized patients with dementia and to explore whether improved motor function mediates improved cognitive function. Using a 9-week, parallel, three-group, single-blind, randomized, controlled trial with a follow-up assessment at week 18, we assessed 109 patients with dementia (age 85.5 ± 5.1 years) in a psycho-geriatric nursing home. Each 9-week intervention consisted of 36, 30-minute sessions. A combined group (N = 37) received and completed two strength and two walking sessions per week, an aerobic group (N = 36) completed four walking sessions, and a social group (N = 36) completed four social visits per week. Cognitive and motor functions were assessed at baseline, after the 9-week intervention, and after a consecutive 9 weeks of usual care. Baseline corrected post-test scores in the combined versus the social group were higher for global cognition, visual memory, verbal memory, executive function, walking endurance, leg muscle strength, and balance. Aerobic versus social group scores were higher for executive function. Follow-up effects reversed toward baseline values. Motor improvement did not significantly mediate cognitive improvement. Compared with a nonexercise control group, a combination of aerobic and strength training is more effective than aerobic-only training in slowing cognitive and motor decline in patients with dementia. No mediating effects between improvements in cognitive function via improved motor function were found. Future research into the underlying mechanistic associations is needed. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Observation and execution of upper-limb movements as a tool for rehabilitation of motor deficits in paretic stroke patients: protocol of a randomized clinical trial

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    Ertelt Denis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence exist that motor observation activates the same cortical motor areas that are involved in the performance of the observed actions. The so called “mirror neuron system” has been proposed to be responsible for this phenomenon. We employ this neural system and its capability to re-enact stored motor representations as a tool for rehabilitating motor control. In our new neurorehabilitative schema (videotherapy we combine observation of daily actions with concomitant physical training of the observed actions focusing on the upper limbs. Following a pilot study in chronic patients in an ambulatory setting, we currently designed a new multicenter clinical study dedicated to patients in the sub-acute state after stroke using a home-based self-induced training. Within our protocol we assess 1 the capability of action observation to elicit rehabilitational effects in the motor system, and 2 the capacity of this schema to be performed by patients without assistance from a physiotherapist. The results of this study would be of high health and economical relevance. Methods/design A controlled, randomized, multicenter, paralleled, 6 month follow-up study will be conducted on three groups of patients: one group will be given the experimental treatment whereas the other two will participate in control treatments. All patients will undergo their usual rehabilitative treatment beside participation in the study. The experimental condition consists in the observation and immediate imitation of common daily hand and arm actions. The two parallel control groups are a placebo group and a group receiving usual rehabilitation without any trial-related treatment. Trial randomization is provided via external data management. The primary efficacy endpoint is the improvement of the experimental group in a standardized motor function test (Wolf Motor Function Test relative to control groups. Further assessments refer to subjective and

  18. Myofascial structural integration therapy on gross motor function and gait of young children with spastic cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C Loi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Though the cause of motor abnormalities in cerebral palsy is injury to the brain, structural changes in muscle and fascia may add to stiffness and reduced function. This study examined whether Myofascial Structural Integration therapy (MSI, a complementary treatment that manipulates muscle and fascia, would improve gross motor function and gait in children < 4 years with cerebral palsy. Participants (N=29 were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT: NCT01815814, https://goo.gl/TGxvwd or Open Label Extension. The main outcome was the Gross Motor Function Measure-66 assessed at 3-month intervals. Gait (n=8 was assessed using the GAITRite® electronic walkway. Parents completed a survey at study conclusion.Comparing Treatment (n=15 and Waitlist-Control Groups (n=9, we found a significant main effect of time but no effect of group or timeXgroup interaction. The pooled sample (n=27 showed a main effect of time, but no significantly greater change after treatment than between other assessments. Foot length on the affected side increased significantly after treatment, likely indicating improvement in the children’s ability to approach a heel strike. Parent surveys indicated satisfaction and improvements in the children's quality of movement. MSI did not increase the rate of motor skill development, but was associated with improvement in gait quality.

  19. Five-week sensory motor training program improves functional performance and postural control in young male soccer players - A blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleno, Lucas Rafael; da Silva, Rubens A; Shigaki, Leonardo; Araújo, Cynthia Gobbi Alves; Coelho Candido, Cristiane Regina; Okazaki, Victor Hugo Alves; Frisseli, Ariobaldo; Macedo, Christiane de S Guerino

    2016-11-01

    Sensory motor training programs are used in the rehabilitation and prevention of injuries among soccer players. Inconsistencies are found in the literature regarding the duration of the protocols and the exercises and equipment used. To evaluate the benefits of a five-week sensory motor training program on the functional performance and postural control of young soccer players. The study sample comprised 22 young male soccer players who were evaluated using: the Figure-of-Eight Test (F8), Side Hop Test (SHT), Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), and a force platform. The players were randomly divided into a control group (N = 10), who continued their soccer practice sessions and an intervention group (N = 12), who continued their soccer practice sessions and were also enrolled in a supervised five-week sensory motor training program. After the five-week training program, the intervention group obtained significant results in the F8, SHT and SEBT, as well as in the following parameters: area of pressure of sway center (COP), mean velocity and mean frequency of COP. The five-week sensory motor training program, carried out with easily available and low cost equipment, was effective at improving functional performance and postural control in young soccer players. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. EFFECTS OF MODIFIED CONSTRAINT-INDUCED MOVEMENT THERAPY FOR LOWER LIMB ON MOTOR FUNCTION IN STROKE PATIENTS: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED STUDY

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    Sevim ACAROZ CANDAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have examined the effectiveness of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (mCIMT for the paretic lower limb following stroke. This study aimed to investigate the effects of mCIMT on motor function of the lower limb in stroke patients. Methods: A randomized, controlled study of 30 participants, who were randomized to 2 groups, was conducted. The study group received mCIMT, and the control group received neurodevelopmental therapy (NDT for two weeks. All were evaluated for motor function through the Functional Ambulation Classification (FAC, Berg Balance Scale (BBS,10-Meter Walk Test, gait parameters (cadence and step length ratio and postural symmetry ratio at pretreatment and post-treatment, like two times. Results: The improvements in BBS score, postural symmetry ratio, step length ratio, cadence and walking velocity had greater in the study group than the control group (P < 0.05. The improvement of FAC score was more pronounced in the study group (P = 0.005. Conclusion: mCIMT for paretic lower limb had superior effect against the NDT to enhance the motor function (gait parameters, balance, ambulation, and symmetry in patients with stroke. mCIMT may be used as a new alternative treatment for lower limb rehabilitation.

  1. Multimodal Therapy Involving High-Intensity Interval Training Improves the Physical Fitness, Motor Skills, Social Behavior, and Quality of Life of Boys With ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meßler, Carolin Friederike; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-03-24

    To compare the effects of multimodal therapy including supervised high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with those of standard multimodal therapy (TRAD) concerning key variables of physical fitness (peak power and oxygen uptake), motor skills, social behavior, and quality of life in boys with ADHD. A single-center, two-arm randomized, controlled design was used, with 28 boys (8-13 years of age, IQ = 83-136) being randomly assigned to multimodal HIIT (three sessions/week, 4 × 4-min intervals at 95% of peak heart rate) or TRAD. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children II evaluated motor skills and the German version of the hyperkinetic disorder questionnaire for external evaluation by the guardians (FBB-HKS) or German version of the hyperkinetic disorder questionnaire for self-assessment by the children (SBB-HKS) and the KINDL-R questionnaires mental health and health-related quality of life. Both interventions enhanced peak power, and HIIT also reduced submaximal oxygen uptake. HIIT was more effective than TRAD in improving the total score for motor skills (including manual dexterity and ball skills;pskills, certain aspects of quality of life, competence, and attention in boys with ADHD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Expanding the Lessons Learned Program to Include Corps Support Command Commanders and Theater Army Area Command Commanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-10

    INTRODUCTION The Oral History Program’s purpose is to supplement oFficial histories , to isolate successful command, leadership and managerial...of -the program is to capture the experience of senior leaders in the areas of command, leadership , and management . The individual is interviewed...used to gain insight into command and management techniques and to further research in military history . In June of 1984, the Chief of Staff, General

  3. Innovation for integrated command environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Amie A.; McKneely, Jennifer A.

    2000-11-01

    Command environments have rarely been able to easily accommodate rapid changes in technology and mission. Yet, command personnel, by their selection criteria, experience, and very nature, tend to be extremely adaptive and flexible, and able to learn new missions and address new challenges fairly easily. Instead, the hardware and software components of the systems do no provide the needed flexibility and scalability for command personnel. How do we solve this problem? In order to even dream of keeping pace with a rapidly changing world, we must begin to think differently about the command environment and its systems. What is the correct definition of the integrated command environment system? What types of tasks must be performed in this environment, and how might they change in the next five to twenty-five years? How should the command environment be developed, maintained, and evolved to provide needed flexibility and scalability? The issues and concepts to be considered as new Integrated Command/Control Environments (ICEs) are designed following a human-centered process. A futuristic model, the Dream Integrated Command Environment (DICE) will be described which demonstrates specific ICE innovations. The major paradigm shift required to be able to think differently about this problem is to center the DICE around the command personnel from its inception. Conference participants may not agree with every concept or idea presented, but will hopefully come away with a clear understanding that to radically improve future systems, designers must focus on the end users.

  4. The Impact of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance in Children with both Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Clinical Trial

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    Robabeh Soleimani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/developmental coordination disorder (ADHD/DCD suffer from problems associated with gross and fine motor skills. There is no effective pharmacological therapy for such patients. We aimed to assess the impact of methylphenidate (MPH on motor performance of children with ADHD/DCD. Methods: In this double-blind placebo-controlled, 17 children (12 boys with ADHD/DCD with a mean age of 7 years 6 months were recruited in Shafa Hospital, Rasht, Iran. The response was defined as ≥25% reduction in the total score of ADHD rating scale-IV from the baseline. Sixteen boys entered phase 2 of the study in which the impact of MPH on motor function was determined through a crossover randomized clinical trial. Eligible individuals were scheduled for baseline and two assessment visits after a one-week period of intervention. We used the short form of Bruininks-Oseretsky test (BOT-2 to identify the disability of motor function. Children were randomly assigned to receive MPH or inert ingredients (placebo. In the second period, medication (MPH/placebo was crossed over. The effects of MPH were analyzed using χ2 test for related samples to compare the performance during baseline, placebo, and MPH trials. The results were analyzed using the SPSS software version 16.0. Results: The mean minimal effective dose of MPH per day was 17.3 mg (0.85 mg/kg. Children with higher ADHD rating scale had a significantly lower standard score in BOT-2 (P=0.03. Following MPH intake, 26.6% of the children showed clinically significant improvement in motor function. However, the improvement was not statistically different between the MPH and placebo. Conclusion: Although MPH improved ADHD symptoms, problems with motor performance still remained. Further work is required to determine the probable effects of MPH in a higher dosage or in different subtypes of ADHD. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201107071483N2

  5. The motor cortex and its role in phantom limb phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Karen T; Sirigu, Angela

    2008-04-01

    Limb amputation results in plasticity of connections between the brain and muscles; the cortical motor representation of the missing limb seemingly disappears. The disappearance of the hand's motor representation is, however, difficult to reconcile with evidence that a perceptual representation of the missing limb persists in the form of a phantom limb endowed with sensory and motor qualities. Here, we argue that despite considerable reorganization within the motor cortex of upper-limb amputees, the representation of the amputated hand does not disappear. We hypothesize that two levels of hand-movement representation coexist within the primary motor cortex; at one level, limb movements are specified in terms of arm and hand motor commands, and at another level, limb movements are specified as muscles synergies. We propose that primary motor cortex reorganization after amputation concerns primarily the upper limb's muscular map but not its motor command map and that the integrity of the motor command map underlies the existence of the phantom limb.

  6. Classical command of quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, Ben W; Unger, Falk; Vazirani, Umesh

    2013-04-25

    Quantum computation and cryptography both involve scenarios in which a user interacts with an imperfectly modelled or 'untrusted' system. It is therefore of fundamental and practical interest to devise tests that reveal whether the system is behaving as instructed. In 1969, Clauser, Horne, Shimony and Holt proposed an experimental test that can be passed by a quantum-mechanical system but not by a system restricted to classical physics. Here we extend this test to enable the characterization of a large quantum system. We describe a scheme that can be used to determine the initial state and to classically command the system to evolve according to desired dynamics. The bipartite system is treated as two black boxes, with no assumptions about their inner workings except that they obey quantum physics. The scheme works even if the system is explicitly designed to undermine it; any misbehaviour is detected. Among its applications, our scheme makes it possible to test whether a claimed quantum computer is truly quantum. It also advances towards a goal of quantum cryptography: namely, the use of 'untrusted' devices to establish a shared random key, with security based on the validity of quantum physics.

  7. Identification of Brigade Command Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    that may exist. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Brigade Command, competency model , army leadership , leadership development, leadership training, command...that focused on leadership , commandership, competency modeling , and training was completed. To support this research base with experiential...climate, creating an ethical climate, modeling the Army Values and Warrior Ethos, decision making ability, managing risk, critical thinking skills

  8. The effect of a cognitive-motor intervention on voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions in older adults: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichierri G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Pichierri,1 Amos Coppe,1 Silvio Lorenzetti,2 Kurt Murer,1 Eling D de Bruin11Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland; 2Institute for Biomechanics, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, SwitzerlandBackground: This randomized controlled pilot study aimed to explore whether a cognitive-motor exercise program that combines traditional physical exercise with dance video gaming can improve the voluntary stepping responses of older adults under attention demanding dual task conditions.Methods: Elderly subjects received twice weekly cognitive-motor exercise that included progressive strength and balance training supplemented by dance video gaming for 12 weeks (intervention group. The control group received no specific intervention. Voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions was recorded at baseline and post intervention (Week 12.Results: After intervention between-group comparison revealed significant differences for initiation time of forward steps under dual task conditions (U = 9, P = 0.034, r = 0.55 and backward steps under dual task conditions (U = 10, P = 0.045, r = 0.52 in favor of the intervention group, showing altered stepping levels in the intervention group compared to the control group.Conclusion: A cognitive-motor intervention based on strength and balance exercises with additional dance video gaming is able to improve voluntary step execution under both single and dual task conditions in older adults.Keywords: fall prevention, exercise, dance, video game

  9. Canoe game-based virtual reality training to improve trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function in subacute stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung-Mo; Shin, Doo-Chul; Song, Chang-Ho

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study was aimed at investigating the preliminary therapeutic efficacy and usefulness of canoe game-based virtual reality training for stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Ten stroke patients were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; n=5) or a control group (CG; n=5). Patients in both groups participated in a conventional rehabilitation program, but those in the EG additionally participated in a 30-min canoe game-based virtual reality training program 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed based on trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function. In addition, the usefulness of canoe game-based virtual reality training was assessed in the EG and therapist group (TG; n=20), which consisted of physical and occupational therapists, by using the System Usability Scale (SUS). [Results] Improvements in trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function were observed in the EG and CG, but were greater in the EG. The mean SUS scores in the EG and TG were 71 ± 5.2 and 74.2 ± 4.8, respectively. [Conclusion] Canoe game-based virtual reality training is an acceptable and effective intervention for improving trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function in stroke patients.

  10. Comparative study on Virtual Reality Training (VRT over Sensory Motor Training (SMT in Unilateral Chronic Osteoarthritis – A Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathy Abdelazim Awwad Elshazly

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is a common rheumatologic disease. Several non operative interventions have been described for the treatment. But the available evidences of comparing the effectiveness of Virtual reality training over sensory motor training are very few. So, the purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of Virtual reality training over sensory motor training in the treatment of Osteoarthritis. 60 subjects who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were divided into three Groups (1, 2 & 3 with randomized sampling method. Group 1 treated with Virtual reality training (VRT, Group 2 treated with sensory motor training (SMT and Group 3 (control treated with conventional exercise training (CET. The duration of the treatment was three times per week for 8 weeks in all the three groups. Subjects were assessed at baseline, at 4th and 8th week. Pain Intensity by Visual Analog scale (VAS, Joint Proprioception by Perception Sense, Functional Disability by WOMAC Score, and Quality of Life by HRQOL score were measured. A statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05 difference between all the 3 groups were noted at the period of 8 week for pain intensity, joint proprioception, functional disability and quality of life. Group-1 treated with (VRT shows more significant improvement in all parameters compared with Group-2 (SMT and Group-3 (CET. In conclusion, the addition of virtual reality training to conventional training exercises could improve pain and proprioception which subsequently improve the functional level and quality of life of OA patients

  11. Effectiveness of mirror therapy on lower extremity motor recovery, balance and mobility in patients with acute stroke: A randomized sham-controlled pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uthra Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of mirror therapy on lower extremity motor recovery, balance and mobility in patients with acute stroke. Design: A randomized, sham-controlled, assessor blinded, pilot trial. Setting: Inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit. Subjects: First time onset of stroke with mean post-stroke duration of 6.41 days, able to respond to verbal instructions, and Brunnstrom recovery stage 2 and above were enrolled. Intervention: Mirror therapy group performed 30 minutes of functional synergy movements of non-paretic lower extremity, whereas control group underwent sham therapy with similar duration. In addition, both groups were administered with conventional stroke rehabilitation regime. Altogether 90 minutes therapy session per day, six days a week, for two weeks duration was administered to both groups. Outcome Measures: Lower extremity motor subscale of Fugl Meyer Assessment (FMA, Brunnel Balance Assessment (BBA and Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC. Results: Amongst the 22 patients included, equal number of patients participated in mirror group (N = 11 and control group (N = 11. Baseline variables were similar in both groups, except for Brunnstrom recovery stage. There was no statistical difference between groups, except for FAC. (FMA: P = 0.894; BBA: P = 0.358; FAC: P = 0.02. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Conclusion: Administration of mirror therapy early after stroke is not superior to conventional treatment in improving lower limb motor recovery and balance, except for improvement in mobility.

  12. Twelve Weeks of Plyometric Training Improves Motor Performance of 7- to 9-Year-Old Boys Who Were Overweight/Obese: A Randomized Controlled Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Gabriela G; de Almeida, Marcelus B; Nobre, Isabele G; Dos Santos, Fernanda K; Brinco, Raphael A; Arruda-Lima, Thalison R; de-Vasconcelos, Kenya L; de-Lima, Jociellen G; Borba-Neto, Manoel E; Damasceno-Rodrigues, Emmanuel M; Santos-Silva, Steve M; Leandro, Carol G; Moura-Dos-Santos, Marcos A

    2017-08-01

    Nobre, GG, de Almeida, MB, Nobre, IG, dos Santos, FK, Brinco, RA, Arruda-Lima, TR, de-Vasconcelos, KL, de-Lima, JG, Borba-Neto, ME, Damasceno-Rodrigues, EM, Santos-Silva, SM, Leandro, CG, and Moura-dos-Santos, MA. Twelve weeks of plyometric training improves motor performance of 7- to 9-year-old boys who were overweight/obese: a randomized controlled intervention. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2091-2099, 2017-The prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity has increased, and physical training at school may to be effective to combat this scenario. We analyzed the effects of a protocol of plyometric training on body composition and motor performance of boys who were overweight/obese aged 7-9 years. The sample was randomly assigned into 2 groups: plyometric training group (T, n = 40) and control group (C, n = 19). Training consisted of 20 min·d (twice a week, during 12 weeks) of lower extremity plyometric exercise. Health-related physical fitness was measured by handgrip strength, standing long jump (SLJ), curl-ups, sit and reach, square test, running speed, and mile run test. Gross motor coordination was evaluated by means of the Körperkoordinations-test für Kinder (KTK) tests. Baseline and postintervention differences were investigated, and effect size was estimated through Cohen's d coefficient. Both groups showed increased body weight, height, and sitting height after intervention with a negligible effect size. Only T group showed increased fat-free mass (p = 0.011) compared with baseline values with small effect size. Plyometric training improved handgrip strength (d = 0.23), sit and reach (d = 0.18), curl-ups (d = 0.39), SLJ (d = 0.80), agility (d = 0.48), and time in the mile run test (d = 0.38). For gross motor coordination results, T group showed better performance in all tests after plyometric training with moderate/large effect size. Thus, 12 weeks of PT improved health-related physical fitness components and motor coordination acquisition of 7- to 9-year

  13. Nutrition, hygiene, and stimulation education to improve growth, cognitive, language, and motor development among infants in Uganda: A cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhoozi, Grace K M; Atukunda, Prudence; Diep, Lien M; Mwadime, Robert; Kaaya, Archileo N; Skaare, Anne B; Willumsen, Tiril; Westerberg, Ane C; Iversen, Per O

    2017-09-19

    Stunting is associated with impaired cognitive and motor function. The effect of an education intervention including nutrition, stimulation, sanitation, and hygiene on child growth and cognitive/language/motor development, delivered to impoverished mothers in Uganda, was assessed. In a community-based, open cluster-randomized trial, 511 mother/children dyads aged 6-8 months were enrolled to an intervention (n = 263) or control (n = 248) group. The primary outcome was change in length-for-age z-score at age 20-24 months. Secondary outcomes included anthropometry and scores on the 2 developmental scales: Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. There was no evidence of a difference in mean length-for-age z-score at 20-24 months between the 2 study groups: 0.10, 95% CI [-0.17, 0.36], p = .49. The intervention group had higher mean composite development scores than the controls on Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III, the mean difference being 15.6, 95% CI [10.9, 20.2], p = .0001; 9.9, 95% CI [6.4, 13.2], p = .0001; and 14.6, 95% CI [10.9, 18.2], p = .0001, for cognitive, language, and motor composite scores, respectively. The mean difference in scores from the Ages and Stages Questionnaire were 7.0, 95% CI [2.9, 11.3], p = .001; 5.9, 95% CI [1.2, 10.3], p = .01; 4.2, 95% CI [1.7, 6.7], p = .001; 8.9, 95% CI [5.3, 12.3], p = .0001; and 4.4, 95% CI [0.0, 8.8], p = .05, for communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem solving, and personal-social development, respectively. The intervention education delivered to mothers promoted early development domains in cognitive, language, and motor development but not linear growth of small children in impoverished rural communities in Uganda. Our study showed that child development may be improved with a relatively low cost intervention strategy. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02098031. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Randomized Trial on the Effects of Attentional Focus on Motor Training of the Upper Extremity Using Robotics With Individuals After Chronic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Grace J; Hinojosa, Jim; Rao, Ashwini K; Batavia, Mitchell; O'Dell, Michael W

    2017-10-01

    To compare the long-term effects of external focus (EF) and internal focus (IF) of attention after 4 weeks of arm training. Randomized, repeated-measures, mixed analysis of variance. Outpatient clinic. Individuals with stroke and moderate-to-severe arm impairment living in the community (N=33; withdrawals: n=3). Four-week arm training protocol on a robotic device (12 sessions). Joint independence, Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and Wolf Motor Function Test measured at baseline, discharge, and 4-week follow-up. There were no between-group effects for attentional focus. Participants in both groups improved significantly on all outcome measures from baseline to discharge and maintained those changes at 4-week follow-up regardless of group assignment (joint independence EF condition: F 1.6,45.4 =17.74; P<.0005; partial η 2 =.39; joint independence IF condition: F 2,56 =18.66; P<.0005; partial η 2 =.40; Fugl-Meyer Assessment: F 2,56 =27.83; P<.0005; partial η 2 =.50; Wolf Motor Function Test: F 2,56 =14.05; P<.0005; partial η 2 =.35). There were no differences in retention of motor skills between EF and IF participants 4 weeks after arm training, suggesting that individuals with moderate-to-severe arm impairment may not experience the advantages of an EF found in healthy individuals. Attentional focus is most likely not an active ingredient for retention of trained motor skills for individuals with moderate-to-severe arm impairment, whereas dosage and intensity of practice appear to be pivotal. Future studies should investigate the long-term effects of attentional focus for individuals with mild arm impairment. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of whole-body vibration therapy on bone turnover, muscle strength, motor function, and spasticity in chronic stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, M Y C; Lau, R W K; Yip, S P

    2013-08-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been used in older adults to improve bone health and neuromuscular function, and may have potential applications for stroke patients. To investigate the effects of WBV on bone turnover, leg muscle strength, motor function, and spasticity among chronic stroke patients. Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Community. Eighty-two chronic stroke patients. The experimental group underwent exercise training with WBV stimulation for a maximum of 15 minutes, 3 days per week for 8 weeks. The controls received the same exercises without WBV. Participants were evaluated for isokinetic knee muscle strength, serum levels of bone formation and resorption markers, spasticity and motor function of the paretic leg at baseline, immediately after the 8-week training period, and 1-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no significant changes in levels of bone turnover markers and motor function of the paretic leg over time in both groups. Muscle strength outcomes showed no significant group×time interaction, with similar significant improvements found in both groups. Spasticity of the paretic knee was significantly reduced in the experimental group (P=0.005), but not in controls (P=0.465). No serious adverse events were reported. The WBV protocol used in this study did not induce additional effects on bone turnover, knee muscle strength and paretic leg motor function among chronic stroke patients. WBV may have potential to modulate spasticity, but this requires further investigation. More study on WBV is required before it can be recommended as an adjunct treatment in rehabilitation of chronic stroke patients.

  16. Randomized controlled trial of web-based multimodal therapy for children with acquired brain injury to improve gross motor capacity and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baque, Emmah; Barber, Lee; Sakzewski, Leanne; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2017-06-01

    To compare efficacy of a web-based multimodal training programme, 'Move it to improve it' (Mitii(TM)), to usual care on gross motor capacity and performance for children with an acquired brain injury. Randomized waitlist controlled trial. Home environment. A total of 60 independently ambulant children (30 in each group), minimum 12 months post-acquired brain injury were recruited and randomly allocated to receive either 20 weeks of Mitii(TM) training (30 minutes/day, six days/week, total 60 hours) immediately, or waitlisted (usual care control group) for 20 weeks. A total of 58 children completed baseline assessments (32 males; age 11 years 11 months ± 2 years 6 months; Gross Motor Function Classification System equivalent I = 29, II = 29). The Mitii(TM) program comprised of gross motor, upper limb and visual perception/cognitive activities. The primary outcome was 30-second, repetition maximum functional strength tests for the lower limb (sit-to-stand, step-ups, half-kneel to stand). Secondary outcomes were the 6-minute walk test, High-level Mobility Assessment Tool, Timed Up and Go Test and habitual physical activity as captured by four-day accelerometry. Groups were equivalent at baseline on demographic and clinical measures. The Mitii(TM) group demonstrated significantly greater improvements on combined score of functional strength tests (mean difference 10.19 repetitions; 95% confidence interval, 3.26-17.11; p = 0.006) compared with the control group. There were no other between-group differences on secondary outcomes. Although the Mitii(TM) programme demonstrated statistically significant improvements in the functional strength tests of the lower limb, results did not exceed the minimum detectable change and cannot be considered clinically relevant for children with an acquired brain injury. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registration Number, ANZCTR12613000403730.

  17. Does physiotherapeutic intervention affect motor outcome in high-risk infants? An approach combining a randomized controlled trial and process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielkema, Tjitske; Blauw-Hospers, Cornill H; Dirks, Tineke; Drijver-Messelink, Marieke; Bos, Arend F; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of intervention in infants at risk of developmental disorders on motor outcome, as measured by the Infant Motor Profile (IMP) and using the combined approach of a randomized controlled trial and process evaluation. At a corrected age of 3 months, 46 infants (20 males, 26 females) recruited from the neonatal intensive care unit at the University Medical Centre Groningen (median birthweight 1210 g, range 585-4750 g; median gestational age 30 wks, range 25-40 wks) were included on the basis of definitely abnormal general movements. Exclusion criteria were severe congenital disorders and insufficient understanding of the Dutch language. The infants were assigned to either the family-centred COPing with and CAring for Infants with Special Needs (COPCA) intervention group (n=21; 9 males, 12 females) or the traditional infant physiotherapy (TIP) intervention group (n=25; 11 males, 14 females) for a period of 3 months. Three infants assigned to the TIP group (one male, two females) did not receive physiotherapy. IMP scores were measured by blinded assessors at 3, 4, 5, 6, and 18 months. At each age, the infants were neurologically examined. Physiotherapeutic sessions at 4 and 6 months were videotaped. Quantified physiotherapeutic actions were correlated with IMP scores at 6 and 18 months. The IMP scores of both the COPCA and TIP groups before, during, and after the intervention did not differ. Some physiotherapeutic actions were associated with IMP outcomes; the associations differed for infants who developed cerebral palsy (n=10) and those who did not (n=33). At randomized controlled trial level, the scores of both the TIP and COPCA groups did not differ in effect on motor outcome, as measured with the IMP. The analysis of physiotherapeutic actions revealed associations between these actions and IMP outcomes. However, the small sample size of this study precludes pertinent conclusions. © The Authors. Journal compilation

  18. Control strategy minimizing the converter-alternating current motor losses: application to electric traction; Strategies de commande minimisant les pertes d'un ensemble convertisseur - machine alternative: application a la traction electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastiani, Ph.

    2001-02-01

    Improving the efficiency of the converter-alternating current motor system is a major task in electric traction. Global energy optimisation implies a specific approach at system scale. To reach this goal, we have chosen an algebraic method using sub-system models. To start with, a synchronous machine Park model is developed to take account magnetic saturation and iron losses. Then, an averaged model of the voltage inverter is used in order to obtain a simplified model of the losses to be implemented in our optimisation method. This is how the global model is built including losses in the synchronous machine along with the losses of the power converter. Experimental results are there to validate our approach. This study proposes a method based on algebraic formulation of the general laws to control torque. Algorithms take into account magnetic circuits saturation and power losses in both the machine and its converter. Here again, experimental results validate the algorithm on several test benches. Achieved efficiency improvement is important compared to existing usual control strategies. The proposed method can be generalised to other machine-converter systems. As a matter of fact we have extended our study to the induction machine. As a complement ti this study we have looked at the effects natural limitations of voltages and currents in the torque-speed plane. Therefore algebraic formulation of the torque-speed plane and optimisation strategies are proposed including those constraints. (author)

  19. Study protocol: an early intervention program to improve motor outcome in preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial and a qualitative study of physiotherapy performance and parental experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øberg Gunn

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about early physiotherapy to preterm infants is sparse, given the risk of delayed motor development and cerebral palsy. Methods/Design A pragmatic randomized controlled study has been designed to assess the effect of a preventative physiotherapy program carried out in the neonatal intensive care unit. Moreover, a qualitative study is carried out to assess the physiotherapy performance and parents' experiences with the intervention. The aim of the physiotherapy program is to improve motor development i.e. postural control and selective movements in these infants. 150 infants will be included and randomized to either intervention or standard follow-up. The infants in the intervention group will be given specific stimulation to facilitate movements based on the individual infant's development, behavior and needs. The physiotherapist teaches the parents how to do the intervention and the parents receive a booklet with photos and descriptions of the intervention. Intervention is carried out twice a day for three weeks (week 34, 35, 36 postmenstrual age. Standardized tests are carried out at baseline, term age and at three, six, 12 and 24 months corrected age. In addition eight triads (infant, parent and physiotherapist are observed and videotaped in four clinical encounters each to assess the process of physiotherapy performance. The parents are also interviewed on their experiences with the intervention and how it influences on the parent-child relationship. Eight parents from the follow up group are interviewed about their experience. The interviews are performed according to the same schedule as the standardized measurements. Primary outcome is at two years corrected age. Discussion The paper presents the protocol for a randomized controlled trial designed to study the effect of physiotherapy to preterm infants at neonatal intensive care units. It also studies physiotherapy performance and the parent's experiences

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing the McKenzie Method to Motor Control Exercises in People With Chronic Low Back Pain and a Directional Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Mark H; Pappas, Evangelos; Hancock, Mark J; Clare, Helen A; Pinto, Rafael Z; Robertson, Gavin; Ferreira, Paulo H

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Randomized clinical trial. Background Motor control exercises are believed to improve coordination of the trunk muscles. It is unclear whether increases in trunk muscle thickness can be facilitated by approaches such as the McKenzie method. Furthermore, it is unclear which approach may have superior clinical outcomes. Objectives The primary aim was to compare the effects of the McKenzie method and motor control exercises on trunk muscle recruitment in people with chronic low back pain classified with a directional preference. The secondary aim was to conduct a between-group comparison of outcomes for pain, function, and global perceived effect. Methods Seventy people with chronic low back pain who demonstrated a directional preference using the McKenzie assessment were randomized to receive 12 treatments over 8 weeks with the McKenzie method or with motor control approaches. All outcomes were collected at baseline and at 8-week follow-up by blinded assessors. Results No significant between-group difference was found for trunk muscle thickness of the transversus abdominis (-5.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -15.2%, 3.7%), obliquus internus (-0.7%; 95% CI: -6.6%, 5.2%), and obliquus externus (1.2%; 95% CI: -4.3%, 6.8%). Perceived recovery was slightly superior in the McKenzie group (-0.8; 95% CI: -1.5, -0.1) on a -5 to +5 scale. No significant between-group differences were found for pain or function (P = .99 and P = .26, respectively). Conclusion We found no significant effect of treatment group for trunk muscle thickness. Participants reported a slightly greater sense of perceived recovery with the McKenzie method than with the motor control approach. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1b-. Registered September 7, 2011 at www.anzctr.org.au (ACTRN12611000971932). J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):514-522. Epub 12 May 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6379.

  1. The Effect of Care Package on Motor Development among 12-Month-Old Infants in Saqqez-Iran: A Randomized Clinical Trial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile Ahmadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The initial years of life particularly the first two years are regarded as the most important brain development period. This study attempted to determine the effect of care package on motor development in 12-month-old infants in Saqqez-Iran. Materials and Methods:This study was a clinical trial conducted in 2016 on 70 infants of 12 months of age selected randomly in intervention and control groups in Saqqez-Iran. The care package was taught to mothers of infants in intervention group by the researchers based on the book "Ages and Stages Learning Activities 0-5 years". These teachings for gross motor, included walking, pulling and pushing the toys, swinging, playing with ball, crawling, etc. and for fine motor skills included building towers, painting, filling a box with household items and emptying it, giving children books, stringing, etc. Motor skills (gross and fine were measured by Age and Stage Questionnaire (ASQ-2 screening tool before intervention, 4 and 8 weeks after the intervention. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 software. Results: In the intervention group, 56.2% and in the control group 51.4% were female, respectively. Results showed that 4 and 8 weeks after the intervention in gross movement, average scores in the intervention group were more than the control group (P = 0.02, and mean score in three times (before intervention, 4 and 8 weeks after the intervention was significant difference (P = 0.002. Also, for fine movement, results showed that in this area average scores in the intervention group were more than the control group (P=0.02; and the average score was a significant difference in that three times (P=0.01. Conclusion: Results revealed that the impact of care package in intervention group compared with control group in level of significance led to an improvement in motor skills domain (gross and fine movement in 12-month-old infants in this study.

  2. Simulating the Commander's Decision Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kovalchik, Joseph G; Labin, Jonathan W; Rosenlof, Eric R

    2007-01-01

    ... * Commander Federate simulates the human decision process by employing -- A fuzzy expert system to set warfare priorities either by time or event and provides inter-warfare area conflict resolution...

  3. Garrison Command Skills for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Leadership” in Leadership: Theory and Practice, third edition, by Peter G. Northouse (Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage) 2006, pp. 206-210 11. From Garrison Commander briefing received via personal e-mail, Oct. 3, 2007.

  4. Identification of Company Command Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    45 Virtual role plays ( VRPs ) could be used to measure many of the company command competencies identified in this project. In a VRP , the user...could play the role of a Company Commander who must deal with myriad crises, challenges, and potential opportunities. In a web- enabled VRP , the user...to be concerned about. Future research should create VRPs or other engaging assessments to determine proficiency levels on the identified company

  5. Company Command: The Bottom Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-20

    34 Separation from the Militar. -Alcohol and Drug Abuse -Unsatisfactory Performance -Overweight Problem - Homosexuality -Civil Conviction -Acts or Patterns of...cases-such as drug abusers, homosexuals , and thieves. New company commanders often choose administra- tive elimination proceedings over court-martial...opportunity goal is to create a command cli- mate that nurtures fair treatment for all soldiers. 98 Personnel and Administration Shortly after you

  6. Command Process Modeling & Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila

    2011-01-01

    Commanding Errors may be caused by a variety of root causes. It's important to understand the relative significance of each of these causes for making institutional investment decisions. One of these causes is the lack of standardized processes and procedures for command and control. We mitigate this problem by building periodic tables and models corresponding to key functions within it. These models include simulation analysis and probabilistic risk assessment models.

  7. Torque limit of PM motors for field-weakening region operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royak, Semyon [Beachwood, OH; Harbaugh, Mark M [Richfield, OH

    2012-02-14

    The invention includes a motor controller and technique for controlling a permanent magnet motor. In accordance with one aspect of the present technique, a permanent magnet motor is controlled by receiving a torque command, determining a physical torque limit based on a stator frequency, determining a theoretical torque limit based on a maximum available voltage and motor inductance ratio, and limiting the torque command to the smaller of the physical torque limit and the theoretical torque limit. Receiving the torque command may include normalizing the torque command to obtain a normalized torque command, determining the physical torque limit may include determining a normalized physical torque limit, determining a theoretical torque limit may include determining a normalized theoretical torque limit, and limiting the torque command may include limiting the normalized torque command to the smaller of the normalized physical torque limit and the normalized theoretical torque limit.

  8. The Double Love Commandment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Viljoen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Gospel of Matthew was written during a period of dispute between the Matthean community and their fellow Jews, with the Pharisees playing a leading role. The Matthean community was heir to the same scriptures as its opponents. They continued to have a firm commitment to the Torah, but they developed a distinctive understanding of it based on Jesus’ teaching. The formation of this community is investigated in this article, considering the Mediterranean perspectives of group-oriented societies prevalent in the first century. Such a group provided a sense of self and an interactive support system, where love functioned to bind the group together. The subordinates showed their undivided loyalty towards their superiors because of the favours they received from them, whilst they supported and cared for other members within the group as they care for themselves. Reading the double love commandment of Matthew 22:34−40 from this perspective reveals significant aspects of the community’s identity with regard to their commitment to God and their view of their neighbours. Die Dubbele Liefdesgebod. Die Matteusevangelie is gedurende ’n periode van konfliktussen die Matteusgemeenskap en mede-Jode geskryf met die Fariseërs in ’n leidende rol. Die Matteusgemeenskap het van dieselfde geskrifte as hulle opponente gebruik gemaak. Hulle was steeds aan die Torah lojaal, maar het ’n unieke interpretasie daarvan gehuldig, gebaseer op die onderrig van Jesus. In hierdie artikel word die vorming van die Matteusgemeenskap ondersoek met inagneming van die Mediterreense beskouing van die groepgeoriënteerde gemeenskappe wat tipies van die eerste eeu was. So ’n groep het aan individue ’n bewustheid van eie waarde verskaf te midde van ’n interaktiewe ondersteuningsisteem waarin liefde as samebindende faktor gefunksioneer het. Ondergeskiktes het onverdeelde lojaliteit teenoor hulle meerderes betoon vanweë die gunste wat hulle van die meerderes geniet het

  9. The Double Love Commandment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Viljoen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Gospel of Matthew was written during a period of dispute between the Matthean community and their fellow Jews, with the Pharisees playing a leading role. The Matthean community was heir to the same scriptures as its opponents. They continued to have a firm commitment to the Torah, but they developed a distinctive understanding of it based on Jesus’ teaching. The formation of this community is investigated in this article, considering the Mediterranean perspectives of group-oriented societies prevalent in the first century. Such a group provided a sense of self and an interactive support system, where love functioned to bind the group together. The subordinates showed their undivided loyalty towards their superiors because of the favours they received from them, whilst they supported and cared for other members within the group as they care for themselves. Reading the double love commandment of Matthew 22:34−40 from this perspective reveals significant aspects of the community’s identity with regard to their commitment to God and their view of their neighbours.Die Dubbele Liefdesgebod. Die Matteusevangelie is gedurende ’n periode van konfliktussen die Matteusgemeenskap en mede-Jode geskryf met die Fariseërs in ’n leidende rol. Die Matteusgemeenskap het van dieselfde geskrifte as hulle opponente gebruik gemaak. Hulle was steeds aan die Torah lojaal, maar het ’n unieke interpretasie daarvan gehuldig, gebaseer op die onderrig van Jesus. In hierdie artikel word die vorming van die Matteusgemeenskap ondersoek met inagneming van die Mediterreense beskouing van die groepgeoriënteerde gemeenskappe wat tipies van die eerste eeu was. So ’n groep het aan individue ’n bewustheid van eie waarde verskaf te midde van ’n interaktiewe ondersteuningsisteem waarin liefde as samebindende faktor gefunksioneer het. Ondergeskiktes het onverdeelde lojaliteit teenoor hulle meerderes betoon vanweë die gunste wat hulle van die meerderes geniet het

  10. Strategic Global Climate Command?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, J. C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Researchers have been exploring geoengineering because Anthropogenic GHG emissions could drive the globe towards unihabitability for people, wildlife and vegetation. Potential global deployment of these technologies is inherently strategic. For example, solar radiation management to reflect more sunlight might be strategically useful during a period of time where the population completes an effort to cease emissions and carbon removal technologies might then be strategically deployed to move the atmospheric concentrations back to a safer level. Consequently, deployment of these global technologies requires the ability to think and act strategically on the part of the planet's governments. Such capacity most definitely does not exist today but it behooves scientists and engineers to be involved in thinking through how global command might develop because the way they do the research could support the development of a capacity to deploy intervention rationally -- or irrationally. Internationalizing research would get countries used to working together. Organizing the research in a step-wise manner where at each step scientists become skilled at explaining what they have learned, the quality of the information they have, what they don't know and what more they can do to reduce or handle uncertainty, etc. Such a process can increase societal confidence in being able to make wise decisions about deployment. Global capacity will also be enhanced if the sceintific establishment reinvents misssion driven research so that the programs will identify the systemic issues invovled in any proposed technology and systematically address them with research while still encouraging individual creativity. Geoengineering will diverge from climate science in that geoengineering research needs to design interventions for some publically desirable goal and investigates whether a proposed intervention will acheive desired outcomes. The effort must be a systems-engineering design problem

  11. Reconsidering Sequential Double Running Suture Removal After Penetrating Keratoplasty: A Prospective Randomized Study Comparing Excimer Laser and Motor Trephination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Berthold; Hager, Tobias; Langenbucher, Achim; Naumann, Gottfried O H

    2017-12-14

    We assessed the impact of sequential double running suture removal on corneal curvature after penetrating keratoplasty (PK), comparing mechanical and nonmechanical excimer laser trephination. PK was performed in 134 patients (mean age 51 ± 18 yrs) using either the excimer laser [excimer, n = 60 (37 keratoconus and 23 Fuchs dystrophy)] or motor trephination [control, n = 74 (44 keratoconus and 30 Fuchs dystrophy)] and a double running cross-stitch suture. Refractometry, Zeiss keratometry, and Tomey corneal topography were performed before removal of the first suture (15.2 ± 4.2 mo) and immediately before and at least 6 weeks after removal of the second suture (21.4 ± 5.6 mo). Keratometry before removal of the first (-1.7 ± 2.3 D vs. -3.1 ± 2.8 D) and second (-2.3 ± 2.6 D vs. -3.8 ± 2.8 D) sutures showed that the change in the corneal base curve was significantly smaller in the excimer group than the control group (P control groups, respectively, resulting in significantly lower astigmatism in the excimer (3.1 ± 2.1 D) group compared with the control group (6.2 ± 2.9 D) with "all-sutures-out" (P vector-corrected astigmatism (Jaffe) was significantly smaller in the excimer group (4.3 ± 3.5 D) than in the control group (6.9 ± 4.5 D; P motor trephination.

  12. Efficacy of Bobath versus orthopaedic approach on impairment and function at different motor recovery stages after stroke: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ray-Yau; Chen, Hsiu-I; Chen, Chen-Yin; Yang, Yea-Ru

    2005-03-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of Bobath on stroke patients at different motor stages by comparing their treatment with orthopaedic treatment. A single-blind study, with random assignment to Bobath or orthopaedic group. Physical therapy department of a medical centre. Twenty-one patients with stroke with spasticity and 23 patients with stroke at relative recovery stages participated. Twenty sessions of Bobath programme or orthopaedic treatment programme given in four weeks. Stroke Impairment Assessment Set (SIAS), Motor Assessment Scale (MAS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) for impairment and functional limitation level. Participants with spasticity showed greater improvement in tone control (change score: 1.20 +/- 1.03 versus 0.08 +/- 0.67, p = 0.006), MAS (change score: 7.64 +/- 4.03 versus 4.00 +/- 1.95, p = 0.011), and SIS (change score: 7.30 +/- 6.24 versus 1.25 +/- 5.33, p = 0.023) after 20 sessions of Bobath treatment than with orthopaedic treatment. Participants with relative recovery receiving Bobath treatment showed greater improvement in MAS (change score: 6.14 +/- 5.55 versus 2.77 +/- 9.89, p = 0.007), BBS (change score: 19.18 +/- 15.94 versus 6.85 +/- 5.23, p = 0.015), and SIS scores (change score: 8.50 +/- 3.41 versus 3.62 +/- 4.07, p = 0.006) than those with orthopaedic treatment. Bobath or orthopaedic treatment paired with spontaneous recovery resulted in improvements in impairment and functional levels for patient with stroke. Patients benefit more from the Bobath treatment in MAS and SIS scores than from the orthopaedic treatment programme regardless of their motor recovery stages.

  13. Multiple-modality exercise and mind-motor training to improve cardiovascular health and fitness in older adults at risk for cognitive impairment: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boa Sorte Silva, Narlon C; Gregory, Michael A; Gill, Dawn P; Petrella, Robert J

    The effects of multiple-modality exercise on arterial stiffening and cardiovascular fitness has not been fully explored. To explore the influence of a 24-week multiple-modality exercise program associated with a mind-motor training in cardiovascular health and fitness in community-dwelling older adults, compared to multiple-modality exercise (M2) alone. Participants (n=127, aged 67.5 [7.3] years, 71% females) were randomized to either M4 or M2 groups. Both groups received multiple-modality exercise intervention (60min/day, 3days/week for 24-weeks); however, the M4 group underwent additional 15min of mind-motor training, whereas the M2 group received 15min of balance training. Participants were assessed at 24-weeks and after a 28-week non-contact follow-up (52-weeks). at 52-weeks, the M4 group demonstrated a greater VO2max (ml/kg/min) compared to the M2 group (mean difference: 2.39, 95% CI: 0. 61 to 4.16, p=0.009). Within-group analysis indicated that the M4 group demonstrated a positive change in VO2max at 24-weeks (mean change: 1.93, 95% CI: 0.82 to 3.05, p=0.001) and 52-weeks (4.02, 95% CI: 2.71 to 5.32, p=0.001). Similarly, the M2 group increased VO2max at 24-weeks (2.28, 95% CI: 1.23 to 3.32, pMind-motor training associated with multiple-modality exercise can positively impact cardiovascular fitness to the same extent as multiple-modality exercise alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Combined transcranial direct current stimulation and home-based occupational therapy for upper limb motor impairment following intracerebral hemorrhage: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Jesper; Figlewski, Krystian; Andersen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the combined effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and home-based occupational therapy on activities of daily living (ADL) and grip strength, in patients with upper limb motor impairment following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). A double-blind randomized controlled trial with one-week follow-up. Patients received five consecutive days of occupational therapy at home, combined with either anodal (n = 8) or sham (n = 7) tDCS. The primary outcome was ADL performance, which was assessed with the Jebsen-Taylor test (JTT). Both groups improved JTT over time (p occupational therapy provided greater improvements in grip strength compared with occupational therapy alone. tDCS is a promising add-on intervention regarding training of upper limb motor impairment. It is well tolerated by patients and can easily be applied for home-based training. Larger studies with long-term follow-up are needed to further explore possible effects of tDCS in patients with ICH. Five consecutive days of tDCS combined with occupational therapy provided greater improvements in grip strength compared with occupational therapy alone. tDCS is well tolerated by patients and can easily be applied for home-based rehabilitation.

  15. Effects of treadmill training on cognitive and motor features of patients with mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease: a pilot, single-blind, randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picelli, Alessandro; Varalta, Valentina; Melotti, Camilla; Zatezalo, Vanja; Fonte, Cristina; Amato, Stefania; Saltuari, Leopold; Santamato, Andrea; Fiore, Pietro; Smania, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Summary The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of treadmill training on cognitive and motor performance in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Seventeen persons with mild to moderate PD were enrolled. Nine patients were allocated to the Intervention group and received twelve 45-minute sessions of treadmill training: one session a day, three days a week, for four consecutive weeks. Eight patients were allocated to the Control group; these patients did not undergo physical training but were required to have regular social interactions, following a specific lifestyle program. All the patients were evaluated at baseline and one month later. The primary outcome measures were the Frontal Assessment Battery-Italian version (FAB-it) and the 6-minute walking test (6MWT). At the one-month evaluation significant differences were found between the groups in their performance on the FAB-it (p=0.005) and the 6MWT (p=0.018). Our findings support the hypothesis that treadmill training might effectively improve cognitive and motor features in patients with PD. PMID:27027891

  16. Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Severely Affected Arm-Hand Motor Function in Patients After an Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Pilot Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabadi, Meheroz H; Aston, Christopher E

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this article was to determine whether cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (c-tDCS) to unaffected primary motor cortex (PMC) plus conventional occupational therapy (OT) improves functional motor recovery of the affected arm hand in patients after an acute ischemic stroke compared with sham transcranial direct current stimulation plus conventional OT. In this prospective, randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled trial of 16 severe, acute ischemic stroke patients with severe arm-hand weakness were randomly assigned to either experimental (c-tDCS plus OT; n = 8) or control (sham transcranial direct current stimulation plus OT; n = 8) groups. All patients received a standard 3-hr in-patient rehabilitation therapy, plus an additional ten 30-min sessions of tDCS. During each session, 1 mA of cathodal stimulation to the unaffected PMC is performed followed by the patient's scheduled OT. The primary outcome measure was change in Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) total and subscores on discharge. Application of c-tDCS to unaffected PMC resulted in a clinically relevant 10-point improvement in the affected arm-hand function based on ARAT total score compared with a 2-point improvement in the control group. Application of 30-min of c-tDCS to the unaffected PMC showed a 10-point improvement in the ARAT score. This corresponds to a large effect size in improvement of affected arm-hand function in patients with severe, acute ischemic stroke. Although not statistically significant, this suggests that larger studies, enrolling at least 25 patients in each group, and with a longer follow-up are warranted.

  17. Effect of early compensation of distal motor deficiency by the Chignon ankle-foot orthosis on gait in hemiplegic patients: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sèze, Mathieu-Panchoa; Bonhomme, Clément; Daviet, Jean-Christophe; Burguete, Emmanuel; Machat, Hugues; Rousseaux, Marc; Mazaux, Jean Michel

    2011-11-01

    To compare the effect of the Chignon ankle-foot orthosis on gait versus a standard ankle-foot orthosis. A multicentre randomized study was conducted in seven rehabilitation centres. Hemiplegic patients were recruited after unilateral stroke lasting less than six months. Exclusion criteria were: impossibility to stand for 10 seconds; ankle passive dorsiflexion spasticity ≥3/4 on the Ashworth modified scale; diseases that might impair active participation in the study. Thirteen patients were randomized to the Chignon group and 15 to the control group. Included patients were given a standard ankle-foot orthosis or Chignon ankle-foot orthosis. The Chignon ankle-foot orthosis is an articulated double-stopped custom-made orthosis with elements to assist dorsiflexion and plantar flexion. Gait speed improvement (ten-metre test), kinematic assessment, and functional scales were assessed. Gain ratio of walking speed with the orthosis increased significantly more in the Chignon group than in the control group at day 0 (27.2  ±  36% versus -0.8  ±  17%; P = 0.006), day 30 (39.9  ±  19% versus 7.5  ±  17%; P = 0.0004) and day 90 (44.6  ±  27% versus 17.1  ±  0.3%; P = 0.04). There was also a significant improvement in kinematic parameters and spasticity in the Chignon group. Early compensation of distal motor deficiency by the Chignon ankle-foot orthosis improves the immediate gait of hemiplegics more than the standard ankle-foot orthosis and seems to modify motor recovery processes in the legs after stroke.

  18. Comparison of respiratory muscle training methods in individuals with motor and sensory complete tetraplegia: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, G.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Perret, C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of inspiratory resistance training and isocapnic hyperpnoea vs incentive spirometry (placebo) on respiratory function, voice, thorax mobility and quality of life in individuals with tetraplegia. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. PATIENTS/METHODS: A total of 24

  19. Motor Recovery and Cortical Reorganization After Mirror Therapy in Chronic Stroke Patients : A Phase II Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, Marian E.; Selles, Ruud W.; van der Geest, Jos N.; Eckhardt, Martine; Yavuzer, Gunes; Stam, Henk J.; Smits, Marion; Ribbers, Gerard M.; Bussmann, Johannes B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate for any clinical effects of home-based mirror therapy and subsequent cortical reorganization in patients with chronic stroke with moderate upper extremity paresis. Methods. A total of 40 chronic stroke patients (mean time post. onset, 3.9 years) were randomly assigned to the

  20. Plastic Changes in Human Motor Cortical Output Induced by Random but not Closed-Loop Peripheral Stimulation: the Curse of Causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kenneth I; Williams, Elizabeth R; de Carvalho, Felipe; Baker, Stuart N

    2016-01-01

    Previous work showed that repetitive peripheral nerve stimulation can induce plastic changes in motor cortical output. Triggering electrical stimulation of central structures from natural activity can also generate plasticity. In this study, we tested whether triggering peripheral nerve stimulation from muscle activity would likewise induce changes in motor output. We developed a wearable electronic device capable of recording electromyogram (EMG) and delivering electrical stimulation under closed-loop control. This allowed paired stimuli to be delivered over longer periods than standard laboratory-based protocols. We tested this device in healthy human volunteers. Motor cortical output in relaxed thenar muscles was first assessed via the recruitment curve of responses to contralateral transcranial magnetic stimulation. The wearable device was then configured to record thenar EMG and stimulate the median nerve at the wrist (intensity around motor threshold, rate ~0.66 Hz). Subjects carried out normal daily activities for 4-7 h, before returning to the laboratory for repeated recruitment curve assessment. Four stimulation protocols were tested (9-14 subjects each): No Stim, no stimuli delivered; Activity, stimuli triggered by EMG activity above threshold; Saved, stimuli timed according to a previous Activity session in the same subject; Rest, stimuli given when EMG was silent. As expected, No Stim did not modify the recruitment curve. Activity and Rest conditions produced no significant effects across subjects, although there were changes in some individuals. Saved produced a significant and substantial increase, with average responses 2.14 times larger at 30% stimulator intensity above threshold. We argue that unavoidable delays in the closed loop feedback, due mainly to central and peripheral conduction times, mean that stimuli in the Activity paradigm arrived too late after cortical activation to generate consistent plastic changes. By contrast, stimuli delivered

  1. The ergonomics of command and control

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, NA; Baber, C

    2006-01-01

    Since its inception, just after the Second World War, ergonomics research has paid special attention to the issues surrounding human control of systems. Command and Control environments continue to represent a challenging domain for Ergonomics research. We take a broad view of Command and Control research, to include C2 (Command and Control), C3 (Command, Control and Communication), and C4 (Command, Control, Communication and Computers) as well as human supervisory control paradigms. This spe...

  2. Learning in the Rodent Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Andrew J; Liu, Haixin; Komiyama, Takaki

    2017-07-25

    The motor cortex is far from a stable conduit for motor commands and instead undergoes significant changes during learning. An understanding of motor cortex plasticity has been advanced greatly using rodents as experimental animals. Two major focuses of this research have been on the connectivity and activity of the motor cortex. The motor cortex exhibits structural changes in response to learning, and substantial evidence has implicated the local formation and maintenance of new synapses as crucial substrates of motor learning. This synaptic reorganization translates into changes in spiking activity, which appear to result in a modification and refinement of the relationship between motor cortical activity and movement. This review presents the progress that has been made using rodents to establish the motor cortex as an adaptive structure that supports motor learning.

  3. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of itopride (100 and 200 mg three times daily) on gastric motor and sensory function in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, R S; Talley, N J; Peterson, J; Camilleri, M; Burton, D; Harmsen, W S; Zinsmeister, A R

    2007-03-01

    Itopride, a dopamine D2 antagonist and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, significantly improved symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia in one phase II randomized trial. However, the mechanisms by which itopride may improve symptoms are unknown. We aimed to compare the effects of two doses of itopride and placebo on gastric volumes, gastric emptying, small bowel transit and satiation in female and male healthy volunteers. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated gastric function before and after 7 days of itopride 100 mg (n = 16) or 200 mg (n = 15) or placebo (n = 15) t.i.d. Validated methods were used to study gastric accommodation (single photon emission computed tomography), gastric emptying and orocecal transit and satiation postnutrient challenge. The three arms were comparable with regard to age, gender and body mass index. There were no statistically significant effects of itopride on gastric emptying, orocecal transit, fasting gastric volume, maximum tolerated volume or aggregate symptom score with nutrient drink challenge. Postprandial (PP) change in gastric volume differed in the three groups (P = 0.019): 625[+/-28 (SEM)], 555(+/-26) and 512(+/-33) in placebo, itopride 100 and 200 mg groups, respectively. In healthy subjects, itopride reduced total PP gastric volume without accelerating gastric emptying or significantly altering gastric motor and sensory function in healthy individuals.

  4. Prolonged exposure, paroxetine and the combination in the treatment of PTSD following a motor vehicle accident. A randomized clinical trial - The "TRAKT" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiel, Agnieszka; Zawadzki, Bogdan; Pragłowska, Ewa; Teichman, Yona

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about direct comparisons of the efficacy of trauma-focused psychotherapies and SSRIs. This is the first randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of prolonged exposure (PE), paroxetine (Ph) and their combination (Comb) in a sample of adults diagnosed with PTSD following motor vehicle accidents (MVA). A total of 228 people were randomly assigned to a twelve-week treatment of PE (N = 114), Ph (N = 57) or Comb (N = 57). The ITT analyses showed that the remission rate of PTSD was significantly greater after PE (65.5%) compared with Ph (43.3%), whereas Comb (51.2%) did not differ from either. The differences in dropout rates were not significant between treatments (18.4% - PE; 12.2% - Ph; 22.8% - Comb), while the differences in numbers of refusers were significant (3.5% PE paroxetine and combination treatment in PTSD PE was more effective than Ph in achieving remission of PTSD. The additive effect of Comb over any monotherapy was not shown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modularity for Motor Control and Motor Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    How the central nervous system (CNS) overcomes the complexity of multi-joint and multi-muscle control and how it acquires or adapts motor skills are fundamental and open questions in neuroscience. A modular architecture may simplify control by embedding features of both the dynamic behavior of the musculoskeletal system and of the task into a small number of modules and by directly mapping task goals into module combination parameters. Several studies of the electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from many muscles during the performance of different tasks have shown that motor commands are generated by the combination of a small number of muscle synergies, coordinated recruitment of groups of muscles with specific amplitude balances or activation waveforms, thus supporting a modular organization of motor control. Modularity may also help understanding motor learning. In a modular architecture, acquisition of a new motor skill or adaptation of an existing skill after a perturbation may occur at the level of modules or at the level of module combinations. As learning or adapting an existing skill through recombination of modules is likely faster than learning or adapting a skill by acquiring new modules, compatibility with the modules predicts learning difficulty. A recent study in which human subjects used myoelectric control to move a mass in a virtual environment has tested this prediction. By altering the mapping between recorded muscle activity and simulated force applied on the mass, as in a complex surgical rearrangement of the tendons, it has been possible to show that it is easier to adapt to a perturbation that is compatible with the muscle synergies used to generate hand force than to a similar but incompatible perturbation. This result provides direct support for a modular organization of motor control and motor learning.

  6. Issues in Afloat Command Control: The Computer-Commander Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-01

    Officer on watch, who all along had been more than a little worried, was becoming gravely uneasy. The lights of that distant steamer were looking " queer ...T.T.T., p. 3-4, 21-36, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1927. 10. Lawson, J.S., A Unified Theory of Command Control, paper presented at Military operations

  7. Ready...Set... Command! Rethinking Training for Squadron Commanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    current environment and develop future outcomes.53 Squadron commanders must learn how to harness critical thinking and promote its benefits through the...building a culture of innovation, critical thinking , and strategic alignment. 40 Gen Stephen R... critical . Critical Thinking 44 David Magellan Horth and Jonathan Vehar, “Innovation

  8. Improving Control of Two Motor Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toland, Ronald W.

    2004-01-01

    A computer program controls motors that drive translation stages in a metrology system that consists of a pair of two-axis cathetometers. This program is specific to Compumotor Gemini (or equivalent) motors and the Compumotor 6K-series (or equivalent) motor controller. Relative to the software supplied with the controller, this program affords more capabilities and is easier to use. Written as a Virtual Instrument in the LabVIEW software system, the program presents an imitation control panel that the user can manipulate by use of a keyboard and mouse. There are three modes of operation: command, movement, and joystick. In command mode, single commands are sent to the controller for troubleshooting. In movement mode, distance, speed, and/or acceleration commands are sent to the controller. Position readouts from the motors and from position encoders on the translation stages are displayed in marked fields. At any time, the position readouts can be recorded in a file named by the user. In joystick mode, the program yields control of the motors to a joystick. The program sends commands to, and receives data from, the controller via a serial cable connection, using the serial-communication portion of the software supplied with the controller.

  9. The Unspoken Consequence of Command, Control Communications Technology: Enhanced Micromanagement by Risk-Averse Commanders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carozza, John

    2004-01-01

    .... However, along with its benefits, this command, control and communications (C3) network includes the dangerous consequence of eroding the autonomy of tactical command through enhanced micromanagement by risk-averse operational commanders...

  10. Comparison of robotics, functional electrical stimulation, and motor learning methods for treatment of persistent upper extremity dysfunction after stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Jessica; Monkiewicz, Michelle; Holcomb, John; Pundik, Svetlana; Daly, Janis J

    2015-06-01

    To compare response to upper-limb treatment using robotics plus motor learning (ML) versus functional electrical stimulation (FES) plus ML versus ML alone, according to a measure of complex functional everyday tasks for chronic, severely impaired stroke survivors. Single-blind, randomized trial. Medical center. Enrolled subjects (N=39) were >1 year postsingle stroke (attrition rate=10%; 35 completed the study). All groups received treatment 5d/wk for 5h/d (60 sessions), with unique treatment as follows: ML alone (n=11) (5h/d partial- and whole-task practice of complex functional tasks), robotics plus ML (n=12) (3.5h/d of ML and 1.5h/d of shoulder/elbow robotics), and FES plus ML (n=12) (3.5h/d of ML and 1.5h/d of FES wrist/hand coordination training). Primary measure: Arm Motor Ability Test (AMAT), with 13 complex functional tasks; secondary measure: upper-limb Fugl-Meyer coordination scale (FM). There was no significant difference found in treatment response across groups (AMAT: P≥.584; FM coordination: P≥.590). All 3 treatment groups demonstrated clinically and statistically significant improvement in response to treatment (AMAT and FM coordination: P≤.009). A group treatment paradigm of 1:3 (therapist/patient) ratio proved feasible for provision of the intensive treatment. No adverse effects. Severely impaired stroke survivors with persistent (>1y) upper-extremity dysfunction can make clinically and statistically significant gains in coordination and functional task performance in response to robotics plus ML, FES plus ML, and ML alone in an intensive and long-duration intervention; no group differences were found. Additional studies are warranted to determine the effectiveness of these methods in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of DA-9701 on Gastric Motor Function Assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Won Min

    Full Text Available Improving gastric accommodation and gastric emptying is an attractive physiological treatment target in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD. We evaluated the effect of DA-9701, a new drug for FD, on gastric motor function after a meal in healthy volunteers using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.Forty healthy volunteers were randomly allocated to receive either DA-9701 or placebo. After 5 days of treatment, subjects underwent gastric MRI (60 min before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after a liquid test meal. Gastric volume was measured through 3-dimensional reconstruction from MRI data. We analyzed 4 outcome variables including changes in total gastric volume (TGV, proximal TGV, and proximal to distal TGV ratio after a meal and gastric emptying rates after adjusting values at the pre-test meal.Changes in TGV and proximal TGV after a meal did not differ between the DA-9701 and placebo groups (difference between groups -25.9 mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] -54.0 to 2.3 mL, P = 0.070 and -2.9 mL, 95% CI -30.3 to 24.5 mL, P = 0.832, respectively. However, pre-treatment with DA-9701 increased postprandial proximal to distal TGV ratio more than placebo (difference between groups 0.93, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.79, P = 0.034. In addition, pre-treatment with DA-9701 significantly increased gastric emptying as compared with placebo (mean difference between groups 3.41%, 95% CI 0.54% to 6.29%, P = 0.021, by mixed model for repeated measures.Our results suggested that DA-9701 enhances gastric emptying and does not significantly affect gastric accommodation in healthy volunteers. Further studies to confirm whether DA-9701 enhances these gastric motor functions in patients with FD are warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02091635.

  12. Effect of DA-9701 on Gastric Motor Function Assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yang Won; Min, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Seonwoo; Choi, Dongil; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2015-01-01

    Improving gastric accommodation and gastric emptying is an attractive physiological treatment target in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). We evaluated the effect of DA-9701, a new drug for FD, on gastric motor function after a meal in healthy volunteers using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Forty healthy volunteers were randomly allocated to receive either DA-9701 or placebo. After 5 days of treatment, subjects underwent gastric MRI (60 min before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after a liquid test meal). Gastric volume was measured through 3-dimensional reconstruction from MRI data. We analyzed 4 outcome variables including changes in total gastric volume (TGV), proximal TGV, and proximal to distal TGV ratio after a meal and gastric emptying rates after adjusting values at the pre-test meal. Changes in TGV and proximal TGV after a meal did not differ between the DA-9701 and placebo groups (difference between groups -25.9 mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] -54.0 to 2.3 mL, P = 0.070 and -2.9 mL, 95% CI -30.3 to 24.5 mL, P = 0.832, respectively). However, pre-treatment with DA-9701 increased postprandial proximal to distal TGV ratio more than placebo (difference between groups 0.93, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.79, P = 0.034). In addition, pre-treatment with DA-9701 significantly increased gastric emptying as compared with placebo (mean difference between groups 3.41%, 95% CI 0.54% to 6.29%, P = 0.021, by mixed model for repeated measures). Our results suggested that DA-9701 enhances gastric emptying and does not significantly affect gastric accommodation in healthy volunteers. Further studies to confirm whether DA-9701 enhances these gastric motor functions in patients with FD are warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02091635.

  13. Apollo 11 Command Service Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    A close-up view of the Apollo 11 command service module ready to be mated with the spacecraft LEM adapter of the third stage. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  14. Experiences as Deputy Commander Air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freek Meulman

    2009-01-01

    In the period January 2007-February 2008 I was sent out to Afghanistan as Deputy Commander Air/Director Air Coordination Element. I worked at the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) X Headquarters in Kabul. ISAF is a United Nations (UN) mandated mission led by the North Atlantic Treaty

  15. Influence of motor skills training on children’s development evaluated in the Motor skills in PreSchool (MiPS) study-DK: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial, nested in a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Andersen, Sara Thurøe; Skovgaard, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    to preventive strategies based on improved motor skills. This research program has four overall aims: (1) investigation of the effect of a structured program aimed at improving motor skills in 3-6-year-old children on current and future motor skills, health, cognition, and wellbeing; (2) establish reference......, a cohort will be established including all children attending preschools in the municipality with extensive baseline data collection: gross and fine motor skills; movement patterns; musculoskeletal complaints; physical activity; anthropometry; general wellbeing; cognitive abilities; language status......BACKGROUND: Good motor skills are considered important for children's physical, social, and psychological development, but the relationship is still poorly understood. Preschool age seems to be decisive for the development of motor skills and probably the most promising time-window in relation...

  16. Online and offline effects of cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation on motor learning in healthy older adults: a randomized double-blind sham-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaei, Afshin; Ehsani, Fatemeh; Zoghi, Maryam; Hafez Yosephi, Mohaddese; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this randomized double blinded sham-controlled study was to determine the effect of cerebellar anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) on online and offline motor learning in healthy older individuals. Thirty participants were randomly assigned in experimental (n = 15) or sham tDCS (n = 15) groups. Participants in experimental group received 2 mA cerebellar a-tDCS for 20 min. However, the tDCS was turned off after 30 seconds in sham group. Response time (RT) and error rate (ER) in serial RT test were assessed before, during 35 minutes and 48 h after the intervention. Reduction of RT and ER following the intervention session was considered as short-term (35 min post intervention) and long-term offline learning (48 h post intervention), respectively. Online RT and ER reduction were similar in both groups (P > 0.05). RT was significantly reduced 48 hours post intervention in cerebellar a-tDCS group (P = 0.03). Moreover, RT was significantly increased after 35 minutes and 48 hours in sham tDCS group (P = 0.03, P = 0.007), which indicates a lack of short-term and long-term offline learning in older adults. A-tDCS on cerebellar region produced more short-term and long-term offline improvement in RT (P = 0.014, P = 0.01) compared to sham tDCS. In addition, online, short-term and long-term (48 h) offline error reduced in cerebellar a-tDCS as compared to sham-control group, although this reduction was not significant (P > 0.05). A deficit suggests that a direct comparison to a younger group was made. The findings suggested that cerebellar a-tDCS might be useful for improvement of offline motor learning in older individuals. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. 32 CFR 724.405 - Commandant of the Marine Corps or the Commander, Naval Military Personnel Command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Naval Military Personnel Command. 724.405 Section 724.405 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Principal Elements of the Navy Department Discharge Review System § 724.405 Commandant of the Marine Corps or the Commander, Naval Military...

  18. Applying the Combatant Command Construct to the DHS Command Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-17

    Furthermore, this type of cooperation does nothing to cure the organizational myopathy or component protectionism that exists within DHS. The...organizations and their past and present challenges in the joint effort. These shared challenges include unity of command, service protectionism , mission...DRO). Even industry is not immune from this confusion. If a shipping company has questions regarding import, export , or tariffs, they would have

  19. Command Decision-Making: Experience Counts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolgast, Kelly A

    2005-01-01

    Decision-making is the mainstay of military leadership and command. Due to the changed nature of the current military environment, military commanders can no longer rely solely on the traditional Military Decision-making Process (MDMP...

  20. Effects of Low-Load Motor Control Exercises and a High-Load Lifting Exercise on Lumbar Multifidus Thickness: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Lars; Aasa, Björn; Michaelson, Peter; Aasa, Ulrika

    2017-08-01

    Randomized controlled trial. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of low-load motor control (LMC) exercises and a high-load lifting (HLL) exercise, on lumbar multifidus (LM) thickness on either side of the spine and whether the effects were affected by pain intensity or change in pain intensity. There is evidence that patients with low back pain (LBP) may have a decreased size of the LM muscles with an asymmetry between sides in the lower back. It has also been shown that LMC training can affect this asymmetry. It is, however, not known whether a high-load exercise has the same effect. Sixty-five participants diagnosed with nociceptive mechanical LBP were included and randomized into LMC exercises or a HLL exercise, the deadlift. The LM thickness was measured using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI), at baseline and after a 2-month training period. There were no differences between interventions regarding effect on LM muscle thickness. However, the analysis showed a significant effect for asymmetry. The thickness of the LM muscle on the small side increased significantly compared with the large side in both intervention groups, without influence of pain at baseline, or change in pain intensity. At baseline, there was a difference in thickness of the LM muscles between sides. It seems that exercises focusing on spinal alignment may increase the thickness of the LM muscles on the small side, irrespective of exercise load. The increase in LM thickness does not appear to be mediated by either current pain intensity or the magnitude of change in pain intensity. 2.

  1. Ziprasidone Augmentation of Escitalopram for Major Depressive Disorder: Cardiac, Endocrine, Metabolic, and Motoric Effects in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischoulon, David; Shelton, Richard C; Baer, Lee; Bobo, William V; Curren, Laura; Fava, Maurizio; Papakostas, George I

    2017-04-01

    To examine motoric, cardiovascular, endocrine, and metabolic effects of adjunctive ziprasidone in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) and prior nonresponse to 8 weeks of open-label escitalopram. A multicenter, parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at 3 US academic medical centers from July 2008 to October 2013. Recruited were 139 outpatients with persistent DSM-IV MDD following an 8-week open-label trial of escitalopram. Subjects were then randomized to adjunctive ziprasidone (escitalopram + ziprasidone, n = 71) or placebo (escitalopram + placebo, n = 68) for 8 additional weeks. Cardiac and metabolic measures were obtained at each treatment visit. Barnes Akathisia Scale and Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) scores were also obtained. Changes in outcome measures for each treatment group were compared by independent-samples t test. A trend toward significance (P = .06) in corrected QT interval (QTc) increase was observed for ziprasidone (mean [SD] = 8.8 [20.2] milliseconds) versus placebo (-0.02 [25.5] milliseconds). Ziprasidone-treated patients had a significantly greater increase in global akathisia scores (P = .01) and significant weight increase (mean [SD] = 3.5 [11.8] kg, or 7.7 [26.1] lb) compared to placebo (1.0 [6.4] kg, or 2.2 [14.1] lb) (P = .03). No significant changes in AIMS scores were observed for either treatment group. Adjunctive ziprasidone, added to escitalopram, led to a greater weight gain and greater but modest akathisia compared to placebo. The effect of ziprasidone on QTc showed a trend toward significance, and therefore caution should be used in the administration of ziprasidone. While ziprasidone augmentation in patients with MDD appears safe, precautions should be taken in practice, specifically regular monitoring of electrocardiogram, weight, extrapyramidal symptoms, and involuntary movements. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00633399​​.

  2. Design of the Park-in-Shape study: A phase II double blind randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of exercise on motor and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, N.M. van der; Overeem, S.; Vries, N.M. de; Kessels, R.P.C.; Donders, A.R.T.; Brouwer, M.A.; Berg, D; Post, B.; Bloem, B.R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with a wide range of motor and non-motor symptoms. Despite optimal medical management, PD still results in a high disability rate and secondary complications and many patients lead a sedentary lifestyle, which in turn is also

  3. Design of the Park-in-Shape study: a phase II double blind randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of exercise on motor and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, N.M. van der; Overeem, S.; Vries, N.M. de; Kessels, R.P.C.; Donders, R.; Brouwer, M.; Berg, D. van den; Post, B.; Bloem, B.R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with a wide range of motor and non-motor symptoms. Despite optimal medical management, PD still results in a high disability rate and secondary complications and many patients lead a sedentary lifestyle, which in turn is also

  4. Effect of High-Intensity Treadmill Exercise on Motor Symptoms in Patients With De Novo Parkinson Disease: A Phase 2 Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkman, Margaret; Moore, Charity G; Kohrt, Wendy M; Hall, Deborah A; Delitto, Anthony; Comella, Cynthia L; Josbeno, Deborah A; Christiansen, Cory L; Berman, Brian D; Kluger, Benzi M; Melanson, Edward L; Jain, Samay; Robichaud, Julie A; Poon, Cynthia; Corcos, Daniel M

    2018-02-01

    Parkinson disease is a progressive neurologic disorder. Limited evidence suggests endurance exercise modifies disease severity, particularly high-intensity exercise. To examine the feasibility and safety of high-intensity treadmill exercise in patients with de novo Parkinson disease who are not taking medication and whether the effect on motor symptoms warrants a phase 3 trial. The Study in Parkinson Disease of Exercise (SPARX) was a phase 2, multicenter randomized clinical trial with 3 groups and masked assessors. Individuals from outpatient and community-based clinics were enrolled from May 1, 2012, through November 30, 2015, with the primary end point at 6 months. Individuals with idiopathic Parkinson disease (Hoehn and Yahr stages 1 or 2) aged 40 to 80 years within 5 years of diagnosis who were not exercising at moderate intensity greater than 3 times per week and not expected to need dopaminergic medication within 6 months participated in this study. A total of 384 volunteers were screened by telephone; 128 were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups (high-intensity exercise, moderate-intensity exercise, or control). High-intensity treadmill exercise (4 days per week, 80%-85% maximum heart rate [n = 43]), moderate-intensity treadmill exercise (4 days per week, 60%-65% maximum heart rate [n = 45]), or wait-list control (n = 40) for 6 months. Feasibility measures were adherence to prescribed heart rate and exercise frequency of 3 days per week and safety. The clinical outcome was 6-month change in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score. A total of 128 patients were included in the study (mean [SD] age, 64 [9] years; age range, 40-80 years; 73 [57.0%] male; and 108 [84.4%] non-Hispanic white). Exercise rates were 2.8 (95% CI, 2.4-3.2) days per week at 80.2% (95% CI, 78.8%-81.7%) maximum heart rate in the high-intensity group and 3.2 (95% CI, 2.8-3.6; P = .13) days per week at 65.9% (95% CI, 64.2%-67.7%) maximum heart rate in the

  5. Command and Control in Littoral Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-13

    littoral environment, a co-equal command model is likely to fail as the interests of the CATF and CLF diverge. A capable commander leading an...headquarters with the JFMCC or JTF commander would also reduce turnaround time. Finally, the integrated staff model enhances cooperation and...successful accomplishment of his mission.” 25 Giving overall command of the Amphibious Force to an officer who is physically present and leading

  6. Randomized controlled comparative study on effect of training to improve lower limb motor paralysis in convalescent patients with post-stroke hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Kenji; Miyasaka, Hiroyuki; Nonoyama, Sayaka; Hayashi, Kazuya; Tonogai, Yusuke; Tanino, Genichi; Wada, Yosuke; Narukawa, Akihisa; Okuyama, Yuko; Tomita, Yutaka; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The motor paralysis-improving effect on the hemiplegic lower limb was compared among mirror therapy, integrated volitional-control electrical stimulation, therapeutic electrical stimulation, repetitive facilitative exercises, and the standard training method in post-stroke hemiplegia patients. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty one stroke patients admitted to a convalescent rehabilitation ward were randomly allocated to the above 5 treatment groups. Each patient performed functional training of the paralytic lower limb for 20 minutes a day for 4 weeks, and changes in the lower limb function were investigated using the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set. [Results] The hip and knee joint functions did not significantly improve in the standard training control group, but significant improvements were observed after 4 weeks in the other intervention groups. Significant improvement was noted in the ankle joint function in all groups. [Conclusion] Although the results were influenced by spontaneous recovery and the standard training in the control group, the hip and knee joints were more markedly improved by the interventions in the other 4 groups of patients with moderate paralysis, compared to the control group.

  7. Randomized controlled comparative study on effect of training to improve lower limb motor paralysis in convalescent patients with post-stroke hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Kenji; Miyasaka, Hiroyuki; Nonoyama, Sayaka; Hayashi, Kazuya; Tonogai, Yusuke; Tanino, Genichi; Wada, Yosuke; Narukawa, Akihisa; Okuyama, Yuko; Tomita, Yutaka; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The motor paralysis-improving effect on the hemiplegic lower limb was compared among mirror therapy, integrated volitional-control electrical stimulation, therapeutic electrical stimulation, repetitive facilitative exercises, and the standard training method in post-stroke hemiplegia patients. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty one stroke patients admitted to a convalescent rehabilitation ward were randomly allocated to the above 5 treatment groups. Each patient performed functional training of the paralytic lower limb for 20 minutes a day for 4 weeks, and changes in the lower limb function were investigated using the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set. [Results] The hip and knee joint functions did not significantly improve in the standard training control group, but significant improvements were observed after 4 weeks in the other intervention groups. Significant improvement was noted in the ankle joint function in all groups. [Conclusion] Although the results were influenced by spontaneous recovery and the standard training in the control group, the hip and knee joints were more markedly improved by the interventions in the other 4 groups of patients with moderate paralysis, compared to the control group. PMID:26504331

  8. Thoughts turned into high-level commands: Proof-of-concept study of a vision-guided robot arm driven by functional MRI (fMRI) signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Ludovico; Nigri, Anna; Rosazza, Cristina; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the possibility of using functional MRI to control a robot arm through a brain-machine interface by directly coupling haemodynamic activity in the sensory-motor cortex to the position of two axes. Here, we extend this work by implementing interaction at a more abstract level, whereby imagined actions deliver structured commands to a robot arm guided by a machine vision system. Rather than extracting signals from a small number of pre-selected regions, the proposed system adaptively determines at individual level how to map representative brain areas to the input nodes of a classifier network. In this initial study, a median action recognition accuracy of 90% was attained on five volunteers performing a game consisting of collecting randomly positioned coloured pawns and placing them into cups. The "pawn" and "cup" instructions were imparted through four mental imaginery tasks, linked to robot arm actions by a state machine. With the current implementation in MatLab language the median action recognition time was 24.3s and the robot execution time was 17.7s. We demonstrate the notion of combining haemodynamic brain-machine interfacing with computer vision to implement interaction at the level of high-level commands rather than individual movements, which may find application in future fMRI approaches relevant to brain-lesioned patients, and provide source code supporting further work on larger command sets and real-time processing. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Company Command: The Bottom Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    PHILOSOPHY-After you publish your command philosophy (your overall modus operandi ), publish your training philosophy. It will estab- lish your guidelines... killer for the soldier and damages unit mo- rale. A good first sergeant will handle PLDC preparation for Vou. 126 Trraii ig Develop, where necessary. an...by serial numbers. Sub-hand receipt all weapons to your unit armorer. En- sure no soldier in your unit can draw a weapon from the arms room unless he

  10. On Preparing for Squadron Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Management Control System (AINCS) Briefing 19, Records Management Briefing 20. PCS Funding e.nd PCS Policy Changes Briefing 21. Channels for Assignment...Parsonnel (Dr) S.1 A3signment Policy Changes 2. Civilian Performance Appraisals and Awards 3, Enllisted Retention and Recruitment Programs 4, Family...3. Officer Force Manangement 14. Quality Control (QC) for Enlisted Personnel on Assignment 10. Rated Officer Retention 11. Squadron Commander

  11. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the primary motor cortex and robot-assisted arm training in chronic incomplete cervical spinal cord injury: A proof of concept sham-randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yozbatiran, Nuray; Keser, Zafer; Davis, Matthew; Stampas, Argyrios; O'Malley, Marcia K; Cooper-Hay, Catherine; Frontera, Joel; Fregni, Felipe; Francisco, Gerard E

    2016-07-15

    After cervical spinal cord injury, current options for treatment of upper extremity motor functions have been limited to traditional approaches. However, there is a substantial need to explore more rigorous alternative treatments to facilitate motor recovery. To demonstrate whether anodal-primary motor cortex (M1) excitability enhancement (with cathodal-supra orbital area) (atDCS) combined with robot-assisted arm training (R-AAT) will provide greater improvement in contralateral arm and hand motor functions compared to sham stimulation (stDCS) and R-AAT in patients with chronic, incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (iCSCI). In this parallel-group, double-blinded, randomized and sham-controlled trial, nine participants with chronic iCSCI (AIS C and D level) were randomized to receive 10 sessions of atDCS or stDSC combined with R-AAT. Feasibility and tolerability was assessed with attrition rate and occurrence of adverse events, Changes in arm and hand function were assessed with Jebson Taylor Hand Function Test (JTHFT). Amount of Use Scale of Motor Activity Log (AOU-MAL), American Spinal Injury Association Upper Extremity Motor Score and Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) at baseline, after treatment, and at two-month follow-up. None of the participants missed a treatment session or dropped-out due to adverse events related to the treatment protocol. Participants tended to perform better in JTHFT and AOU-MAL after treatment. Active group at post-treatment and two-month follow-up demonstrated better arm and hand performance compared to sham group. These preliminary findings support that modulating excitatory input of the corticospinal tracts on spinal circuits may be a promising strategy in improving arm and hand functions in persons with incomplete tetraplegia. Further study is needed to explore the underlying mechanisms of recovery.

  12. Windows Command Line Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    The perfect companion to any book on Windows Server 2008 or Windows 7, and the quickest way to access critical information. Focusing just on the essentials of command-line interface (CLI), Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference easily shows how to quickly perform day-to-day tasks of Windows administration without ever touching the graphical user interface (GUI). Specifically designed for busy administrators, Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference replaces many tedious GUI steps with just one command at the command-line, while concise, easy to access answers provid

  13. Randomized controlled comparative study on effect of training to improve lower limb motor paralysis in convalescent patients with post-stroke hemiplegia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kawakami, Kenji; Miyasaka, Hiroyuki; Nonoyama, Sayaka; Hayashi, Kazuya; Tonogai, Yusuke; Tanino, Genichi; Wada, Yosuke; Narukawa, Akihisa; Okuyama, Yuko; Tomita, Yutaka; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The motor paralysis-improving effect on the hemiplegic lower limb was compared among mirror therapy, integrated volitional-control electrical stimulation, therapeutic electrical stimulation...

  14. Randomized controlled comparative study on effect of training to improve lower limb motor paralysis in convalescent patients with post-stroke hemiplegia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KENJI KAWAKAMI; HIROYUKI MIYASAKA; SAYAKA NONOYAMA; KAZUYA HAYASHI; YUSUKE TONOGAI; GENICHI TANINO; YOSUKE WADA; AKIHISA NARUKAWA; YUKO OKUYAMA; YUTAKA TOMITA; SHIGERU SONODA

    2015-01-01

    [Abstract.] [Purpose] The motor paralysis-improving effect on the hemiplegic lower limb was compared among mirror therapy, integrated volitional-control electrical stimulation, therapeutic electrical stimulation...

  15. The Effects of Rhythm and Robotic Interventions on the Imitation/Praxis, Interpersonal Synchrony, and Motor Performance of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sudha M; Kaur, Maninderjit; Park, Isabel K; Gifford, Timothy D; Marsh, Kerry L; Bhat, Anjana N

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the effects of three interventions, rhythm, robotic, and standard-of-care, on the imitation/praxis, interpersonal synchrony, and overall motor performance of 36 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) between 5 and 12 years of age. Children were matched on age, level of functioning, and services received, prior to random assignment to one of the three groups. Training was provided for 8 weeks with 4 sessions provided each week. We assessed generalized changes in motor skills from the pretest to the posttest using a standardized test of motor performance, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, 2nd edition (BOT-2). We also assessed training-specific changes in imitation/praxis and interpersonal synchrony during an early and a late session. Consistent with the training activities practiced, the rhythm and robot groups improved on the body coordination composite of the BOT-2, whereas the comparison group improved on the fine manual control composite of the BOT-2. All three groups demonstrated improvements in imitation/praxis. The rhythm and robot groups also showed improved interpersonal synchrony performance from the early to the late session. Overall, socially embedded movement-based contexts are valuable in promoting imitation/praxis, interpersonal synchrony, and motor performance and should be included within the standard-of-care treatment for children with ASD.

  16. The Effects of Rhythm and Robotic Interventions on the Imitation/Praxis, Interpersonal Synchrony, and Motor Performance of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha M. Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the effects of three interventions, rhythm, robotic, and standard-of-care, on the imitation/praxis, interpersonal synchrony, and overall motor performance of 36 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD between 5 and 12 years of age. Children were matched on age, level of functioning, and services received, prior to random assignment to one of the three groups. Training was provided for 8 weeks with 4 sessions provided each week. We assessed generalized changes in motor skills from the pretest to the posttest using a standardized test of motor performance, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, 2nd edition (BOT-2. We also assessed training-specific changes in imitation/praxis and interpersonal synchrony during an early and a late session. Consistent with the training activities practiced, the rhythm and robot groups improved on the body coordination composite of the BOT-2, whereas the comparison group improved on the fine manual control composite of the BOT-2. All three groups demonstrated improvements in imitation/praxis. The rhythm and robot groups also showed improved interpersonal synchrony performance from the early to the late session. Overall, socially embedded movement-based contexts are valuable in promoting imitation/praxis, interpersonal synchrony, and motor performance and should be included within the standard-of-care treatment for children with ASD.

  17. Motor learning curve and long-term effectiveness of modified constraint-induced movement therapy in children with unilateral cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerdink, Yvonne; Aarts, Pauline; Geurts, Alexander C

    2013-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the progression of manual dexterity during 6 weeks (54h) (modified) constraint-induced movement therapy ((m)CIMT) followed by 2 weeks (18h) bimanual training (BiT) in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP), to establish whether and when a maximal training effect was reached and which factors might influence the motor learning curve. In addition, long-term retention of effects was determined. In a randomized controlled trial of 52 children with CP, aged 2.5-8 years, comparing mCIMT-BiT to conventional therapy, 28 children were allocated to the mCIMT-BiT group. This group was assessed weekly with the Box and Block test. Long-term effectiveness was determined by collecting follow-up data of the primary (Assisting Hand Assessment, ABILHAND-Kids) and secondary (Melbourne, COPM) outcomes at six months and one year after intervention. Fifteen children (53.6%) reached a maximum training effect within the mCIMT period. This group differed from others with respect to age, but not gender, affected side or manual ability. Children younger than five years had a greater chance to reach a maximum score within 6 weeks mCIMT (OR=6.67, 95%CI=1.24-35.71) that stabilized already after four weeks; older children showed a longer progression and tended to decline afterwards. In both age groups, beneficial effects were retained in the long term. The findings suggest that children of 5 years and older might profit from a longer period of mCIMT than 54h to reach their maximum unimanual capacity and to retain this capacity during subsequent bimanual training. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of brief-CBT for patients with symptoms of posttraumatic stress following a motor vehicle crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kitty K; Li, Frendi W; Cho, Valda W

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are leading contributors to the global burden of disease. Patients attending accident and emergency (A&E) after an MVC may develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There is evidence that brief cognitive behavioural therapy (B-CBT) can be effective in treating PTSD; however, there are few studies of the use of B-CBT to treat PTSD in MVC survivors. This study examined the effects of B-CBT and a self-help program on the severity of psychological symptoms in MVC survivors at risk of developing PTSD. Sixty participants who attended A&E after a MVC were screened for PTSD symptoms and randomized to a 4-weekly session B-CBT or a 4-week self-help program (SHP) booklet treatment conditions. Psychological assessments were completed at baseline (1-month post-MVC) and posttreatment (3- and 6-month follow-ups) by utilizing Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). There were significant improvements in the measures of anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms over time. Participants treated with B-CBT showed greater reductions in anxiety at 3-month and 6-month follow-ups, and in depression at 6-month follow-up. A comparison of effect size favoured B-CBT for the reduction of anxiety and depression symptoms measured by HADS. A high level of pretreatment anxiety and depression were predictive of negative outcome at 6-month follow-up in the SHP condition. There was no differential effect on PTSD symptoms measured by IES-R. This trial supports the efficacy of providing B-CBT as a preventive strategy to improve psychological symptoms after an MVC.

  19. Family-Based Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Enhancing Physical Activity and Motor Competence in 4-7-Year-Old Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Laukkanen

    Full Text Available Little is known of how to involve families in physical activity (PA interventions for children. In this cluster randomized controlled trial, we recruited families with four- to seven-year-old children to participate in a year-long study where parents in the intervention group families (n = 46 received tailored counseling to increase children’s PA. Structured PA was not served. Control group families (n = 45 did not receive any counseling. PA in all children (n = 91; mean age 6.16 ± 1.13 years at the baseline was measured by accelerometers at the baseline and after three, six, nine and 12 months. Motor competence (MC (n = 89 was measured at the baseline and after six and 12 months by a KTK (KörperkoordinationsTest für Kinder and throwing and catching a ball (TCB protocols. The effect of parental counseling on study outcomes was analyzed by a linear mixed-effects model fit by REML and by a Mann-Whitney U test in the case of the TCB. As season was hypothesized to affect counseling effect, an interaction of season on the study outcomes was examined. The results show significant decrease of MVPA in the intervention group when compared to the control group (p < .05. The TCB showed a nearly significant improvement at six months in the intervention group compared to the controls (p = .051, but not at 12 months. The intervention group had a steadier development of the KTK when the interaction of season was taken into account. In conclusion, more knowledge of family constructs associating with the effectiveness of counseling is needed for understanding how to enhance PA in children by parents. However, a hypothesis may be put forward that family-based counseling during an inactive season rather than an active season may provide a more lasting effect on the development of KTK in children.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN28668090.

  20. Influence of feedback schedule in motor performance and learning of a lumbar multifidus muscle task using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Wendy J; Heiss, Deborah Givens; Basso, D Michele

    2008-02-01

    Low back pain (LBP) may be associated with inadequate multifidus muscle function. Varying the frequency and timing of feedback may enhance acquisition and retention of multifidus muscle recruitment during exercise. Subjects without LBP (n=30) were randomly assigned to a constant (CON) or variable (VAR) feedback group. Twenty-eight subjects (mean age=28 years, SD=8.0; mean body mass index=24 kg/m(2), SD=0.70) completed training, and 23 completed retention testing. Eight training sessions over 4 weeks included multifidus muscle exercise with rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) feedback. Retention was assessed at 1 week and >or=1 month. At the start, both groups had similar performances of multifidus muscle recruitment (Fisher exact test, P=.26). Early in training, the CON group had good success (mean=80%) that was maintained at session 8 (mean=84%), with no difference between sessions 1 and 8 (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P=.19, 95% confidence interval [CI]=-9%, 42%). The VAR group gradually increased success (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P=.002, 95% CI=17%, 59%) between sessions 1 and 8. Both groups sustained their session 8 success when tested for short-term retention at 1 week (CON group: Wilcoxon signed rank test, P=.79; VAR group: Wilcoxon signed rank test, P=.36). At the long-term retention test, the VAR group outperformed the CON group (Wilcoxon score test, P=.04), indicating superior motor learning. Variable feedback provided by RUSI resulted in greater success in lumbar multifidus muscle recruitment up to 3 to 4 months after training.

  1. 10 commandments of smile esthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Andre Wilson Machado

    2014-01-01

    The search for esthetic treatment has persisted in the routine of dental professionals. Following this trend, dental patients have sought treatment with the primary aim of improving smile esthetics. The aim of this article is to present a protocol to assess patient's smile: The 10 Commandments of smile esthetics. Pacientes em busca de tratamentos estéticos são uma constante na rotina de todos os profissionais que oferecem este tipo de serviço. Seguindo esta tendência, os pacientes odontoló...

  2. Effects of Maternal Handling Training at Home, on Development of Fine Motor Skills in the Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Sahar; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Dalvand, Hamid; Ahmadi Kahjoogh, Mina; Daemi, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability in children. These children require long-term therapy for achieving better motor function. It seems that treatment and training at home is necessary. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of handling training of mothers at home on fine motor skill development of children…

  3. A 9-Week Aerobic and Strength Training Program Improves Cognitive and Motor Function in Patients with Dementia : A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossers, Willem J. R.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Boersma, Froukje; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Scherder, Erik J. A.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare training and follow-up effects of combined aerobic and strength training versus aerobic-only training on cognitive and motor function in institutionalized patients with dementia and to explore whether improved motor function mediates improved cognitive function. Methods: Using

  4. Influence of motor skills training on children's development evaluated in the Motor skills in PreSchool (MiPS) study-DK: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial, nested in a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Andersen, Sarah Thurøe; Skovgaard, Thomas; Olesen, Line Groenholt; Elmose, Mette; Bleses, Dorthe; Andersen, Simon Calmar; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    2017-08-29

    Good motor skills are considered important for children's physical, social, and psychological development, but the relationship is still poorly understood. Preschool age seems to be decisive for the development of motor skills and probably the most promising time-window in relation to preventive strategies based on improved motor skills. This research program has four overall aims: (1) investigation of the effect of a structured program aimed at improving motor skills in 3-6-year-old children on current and future motor skills, health, cognition, and wellbeing; (2) establish reference data on motor skills in 3-6-year-olds; (3) description of early development of musculoskeletal problems; and (4) establishment of a population-based cohort of 3-6-year-olds. Over a four-year period, all preschools in a Danish municipality, Svendborg, will implement a new program aimed at optimizing children's motor skills. By introducing the program into a subset of the preschools at onset and comparing these children to another subset (control) that will not receive the intervention the first three years, it is possible to document a potential effect of the intervention. At the same time, a cohort will be established including all children attending preschools in the municipality with extensive baseline data collection: gross and fine motor skills; movement patterns; musculoskeletal complaints; physical activity; anthropometry; general wellbeing; cognitive abilities; language status; medical history; demographic background; and more. The children are aged 3-6 years at baseline. A total of 1461 children have been invited into the cohort, 368 to the intervention arm and 359 to the control arm. Follow-up time for the trial is 2.5 years. The cohort is planned to run at least until the children leave school at age 15-16 years. Longer follow-up will depend on future funding. If the results of the trial are positive, the intervention can be implemented in other similar settings with

  5. Motor Music

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, John

    2014-01-01

    Motor Music II (2014) for small group and motors What happens when an AC or DC motor is plugged raw into a mixing desk or connected directly to a speaker? Motor Music II explores ‘low level’ instrument design and a reductionist approach. The piece also sets up a proposition concerning electronic music: ‘How can it be done simpler?’ The motor as ‘instrument’ encourages an objection-orientated approach to sound and music making: the motor itself has inherent musical qualities and po...

  6. Method and apparatus for pulse width modulation control of an AC induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, Steven (Inventor); Slicker, James M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a micro-processor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .THETA., where .THETA. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands of electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a flyback DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  7. Blossom Point Satellite Tracking and Command Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The Blossom Point Satellite Command and Tracking Facility (BP) provides engineering and operational support to several complex space systems for the Navy...

  8. A cognitive-motor intervention using a dance video game to enhance foot placement accuracy and gait under dual task conditions in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pichierri, Giuseppe; Murer, Kurt; de Bruin, Eling D

    2012-01-01

    ...) or the control group (n = 16). The dance group absolved a twelve-week cognitive-motor exercise program twice weekly that comprised progressive strength and balance training supplemented with additional dance video gaming...

  9. A randomized controlled trial comparing McKenzie therapy and motor control exercises on the recruitment of trunk muscles in people with chronic low back pain: a trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Mark H; Ferreira, Paulo H; Hancock, Mark J; Clare, Helen A

    2015-06-01

    To investigate if McKenzie exercises when applied to a cohort of patients with chronic LBP who have a directional preference demonstrate improved recruitment of the transversus abdominis compared to motor control exercises when measurements were assessed from ultrasound images. A randomized blinded trial with a 12-month follow-up. The Physiotherapy department of Concord Hospital a primary health care environment. 70-adults with greater than three-month history of LBP who have a directional preference. McKenzie techniques or motor control exercises for 12-sessions over eight weeks. Transversus abdominus thickness measured from real time ultrasound images, pain, global perceived effect and capacity to self-manage. This study will be the first to investigate the possible mechanism of action that McKenzie therapy and motor control exercises have on the recruitment of the transversus abdominus in a cohort of low back pain patients sub-classified with a directional preference. Patients receiving matched exercises according to their directional preference are believed to have better outcomes than those receiving unmatched exercises. A better understanding of the mechanism of action that specific treatments such as motor control exercises or McKenzie exercises have on patients classified with a directional preference will allow therapist to make a more informed choice about treatment options. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Command and Control of Special Operations Forces Missions in the US Northern Command Area of Responsibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGregor, Ottis W., III

    2005-01-01

    The need for a well thought out, planned, and rehearsed command and control organization to conduct special operations in the US Northern Command Area of Responsibility is vital to success in defending the Homeland...

  11. Special-Purpose High-Torque Permanent-Magnet Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, George B., III

    1995-01-01

    Permanent-magnet brushless motors that must provide high commanded torques and satisfy unusual heat-removal requirement are developed. Intended for use as thrust-vector-control actuators in large rocket engines. Techniques and concepts used to design improved motors for special terrestrial applications. Conceptual motor design calls for use of rotor containing latest high-energy-product rare-earth permanent magnets so that motor produces required torque while drawing smallest possible currents from power supply. Torque generated by electromagnetic interaction between stator and permanent magnets in rotor when associated electronic circuits applied appropriately temporally and spatially phased currents to stator windings. Phase relationships needed to produce commanded torque computed in response to torque command and to electronically sensed angular position of rotor relative to stator.

  12. Design, dimensioning and control of a synchronous motor/generator with homopolar excitation and coils inside the air gap for electromechanical energy accumulator; Conception, dimensionnement et commande d'un moteur/generateur synchrone a excitation homopolaire et a bobinages dans l'entrefer pour accumulateur electromecanique d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, N.

    2001-12-15

    A new axial field machine with armature and field windings fixed in the air-gap is studied. A double face printed winding is presented and a new tool, using a surface permeance model is developed. A simplified current control is proposed. Finally, considering the association synchronous machine-inverter the loss minimization problem is investigated, including both geometry and command parameters. (author)

  13. Method and apparatus for improved efficiency in a pulse-width-modulated alternating current motor drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Charles E.; Boothe, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    A scheme for optimizing the efficiency of an AC motor drive operated in a pulse-width-modulated mode provides that the modulation frequency of the power furnished to the motor is a function of commanded motor torque and is higher at lower torque requirements than at higher torque requirements.

  14. Capturing a Commander's decision making style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eugene; Nguyen, Hien; Russell, Jacob; Kim, Keumjoo; Veenhuis, Luke; Boparai, Ramnjit; Stautland, Thomas Kristoffer

    2017-05-01

    A Commander's decision making style represents how he weighs his choices and evaluates possible solutions with regards to his goals. Specifically, in the naval warfare domain, it relates the way he processes a large amount of information in dynamic, uncertain environments, allocates resources, and chooses appropriate actions to pursue. In this paper, we describe an approach to capture a Commander's decision style by creating a cognitive model that captures his decisionmaking process and evaluate this model using a set of scenarios using an online naval warfare simulation game. In this model, we use the Commander's past behaviors and generalize Commander's actions across multiple problems and multiple decision making sequences in order to recommend actions to a Commander in a manner that he may have taken. Our approach builds upon the Double Transition Model to represent the Commander's focus and beliefs to estimate his cognitive state. Each cognitive state reflects a stage in a Commander's decision making process, each action reflects the tasks that he has taken to move himself closer to a final decision, and the reward reflects how close he is to achieving his goal. We then use inverse reinforcement learning to compute a reward for each of the Commander's actions. These rewards and cognitive states are used to compare between different styles of decision making. We construct a set of scenarios in the game where rational, intuitive and spontaneous decision making styles will be evaluated.

  15. XTCE. XML Telemetry and Command Exchange Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kevin; Kizzort, Brad; Simon, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    An XML Telemetry Command Exchange (XTCE) tutoral oriented towards packets or minor frames is shown. The contents include: 1) The Basics; 2) Describing Telemetry; 3) Describing the Telemetry Format; 4) Commanding; 5) Forgotten Elements; 6) Implementing XTCE; and 7) GovSat.

  16. Precede-and-command revisited revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    Basing his argumentation on an analysis of condition C effects, Bruening (2014) proposes to replace the familiar notion of c-command underlying dependency relations with a precede-and-command condition, which defines dependency relations as precedence relations within a local domain (phase). In this

  17. 32 CFR 700.702 - Responsibility and authority of commanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... responsibility throughout their commands. (c) Subject to orders of higher authority, and subject to the... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibility and authority of commanders. 700... Commanders In Chief and Other Commanders Titles and Duties of Commanders § 700.702 Responsibility and...

  18. Rationale and design of a randomized, double-blind, event-driven, multicentre study comparing the efficacy and safety of oral rivaroxaban with placebo for reducing the risk of death, myocardial infarction or stroke in subjects with heart failure and significant coronary artery disease following an exacerbation of heart failure: the COMMANDER HF trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannad, Faiez; Greenberg, Barry; Cleland, John G F; Gheorghiade, Mihai; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Mehra, Mandeep R; Anker, Stefan D; Byra, William M; Fu, Min; Mills, Roger M

    2015-07-01

    Thrombin is a critical element of crosstalk between pathways contributing to worsening of established heart failure (HF). The aim of this study is to explore the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg bid compared with placebo (with standard care) after an exacerbation of HF in patients with reduced ejection fraction (HF-rEF) and documented coronary artery disease. This is an international prospective, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, event-driven study of approximately 5000 patients for a targeted 984 events. Patients must have a recent symptomatic exacerbation of HF, increased plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides (B-type natriuretic peptide ≥200 pg/mL or N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide ≥800 pg/mL), with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% and coronary artery disease. Patients requiring anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation or other conditions will be excluded. After an index event (overnight hospitalization, emergency department or observation unit admission, or unscheduled outpatient parenteral treatment for worsening HF), patients will be randomized 1:1 to rivaroxaban or placebo (with standard of care). The primary efficacy outcome event is a composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction or stroke. The principal safety outcome events are the composite of fatal bleeding or bleeding into a critical space with potential permanent disability, bleeding events requiring hospitalization and major bleeding events according to International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis bleeding criteria. COMMANDER HF is the first prospective study of a target-specific oral antithrombotic agent in HF. It will provide important information regarding rivaroxaban use following an HF event in an HF-rEF patient population with coronary artery disease. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society of Cardiology.

  19. Development and Validation of Nigerian Army Commanding Officers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors depicted eight core functions of the commanding officer namely: general, command and training, administration, welfare, security, communication, liaison, and miscellaneous. The commanding officers' job description index constituted psychological constructs, which had implications for appointment, training and ...

  20. A randomized trial investigating an exercise program to prevent reduction of bone mineral density and impairment of motor performance during treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, A.; Winkel, M.L. te; Beek, van R.; Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Hop, W.C.; Heuvel-Eibrink, van den MM; Pieters, R.

    2009-01-01

    once a week. CONCLUSIONS: The exercise program was not more beneficial than standard care in preventing reduction in BMD, motor performance and passive ankle dorsiflexion than standard care, most likely due to unsatisfactory compliance. Increased BMI and body fat in the intervention group normalized

  1. Invited commentary on comparison of robotics, functional electrical stimulation, and motor learning methods for treatment of persistent upper extremity dysfunction after stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakkel, Gert; van Wegen, Erwin E; Meskers, Carel M

    2015-06-01

    In this issue of Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Jessica McCabe and colleagues report findings from their methodologically sound, dose-matched clinical trial in 39 patients beyond 6 months poststroke. In this phase II trial, the effects of 60 treatment sessions, each involving 3.5 hours of intensive practice plus either 1.5 hours of functional electrical stimulation (FES) or a shoulder-arm robotic therapy, were compared with 5 hours of intensive daily practice alone. Although no significant between-group differences were found on the primary outcome measure of Arm Motor Ability Test and the secondary outcome measure of Fugl-Meyer Arm motor score, 10% to 15% within-group therapeutic gains were on the Arm Motor Ability Test and Fugl-Meyer Arm. These gains are clinically meaningful for patients with stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms that drive these improvements remain poorly understood. The approximately $1000 cost reduction per patient calculated for the use of motor learning (ML) methods alone or combined with FES, compared with the combination of ML and shoulder-arm robotics, further emphasizes the need for cost considerations when making clinical decisions about selecting the most appropriate therapy for the upper paretic limb in patients with chronic stroke. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychological Adjustment and Levels of Self Esteem in Children with Visual-Motor Integration Difficulties Influences the Results of a Randomized Intervention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Orit; Apter, Alan; Ratzon, Navah Z.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates how much the effects of intervention programs are influenced by pre-existing psychological adjustment and self-esteem levels in kindergarten and first grade children with poor visual-motor integration skills, from low socioeconomic backgrounds. One hundred and sixteen mainstream kindergarten and first-grade children, from low…

  3. Post-stroke Rehabilitation Training with a Motor-Imagery-Based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)-Controlled Hand Exoskeleton: A Randomized Controlled Multicenter Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Alexander A; Mokienko, Olesya; Lyukmanov, Roman; Biryukova, Elena; Kotov, Sergey; Turbina, Lydia; Nadareyshvily, Georgy; Bushkova, Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Repeated use of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) providing contingent sensory feedback of brain activity was recently proposed as a rehabilitation approach to restore motor function after stroke or spinal cord lesions. However, there are only a few clinical studies that investigate feasibility and effectiveness of such an approach. Here we report on a placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial that investigated whether stroke survivors with severe upper limb (UL) paralysis benefit from 10 BCI training sessions each lasting up to 40 min. A total of 74 patients participated: median time since stroke is 8 months, 25 and 75% quartiles [3.0; 13.0]; median severity of UL paralysis is 4.5 points [0.0; 30.0] as measured by the Action Research Arm Test, ARAT, and 19.5 points [11.0; 40.0] as measured by the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment, FMMA. Patients in the BCI group ( n = 55) performed motor imagery of opening their affected hand. Motor imagery-related brain electroencephalographic activity was translated into contingent hand exoskeleton-driven opening movements of the affected hand. In a control group ( n = 19), hand exoskeleton-driven opening movements of the affected hand were independent of brain electroencephalographic activity. Evaluation of the UL clinical assessments indicated that both groups improved, but only the BCI group showed an improvement in the ARAT's grasp score from 0 [0.0; 14.0] to 3.0 [0.0; 15.0] points ( p exoskeleton-assisted physical therapy can improve post-stroke rehabilitation outcomes. Both maximum and mean values of the percentage of successfully decoded imagery-related EEG activity, were higher than chance level. A correlation between the classification accuracy and the improvement in the upper extremity function was found. An improvement of motor function was found for patients with different duration, severity and location of the stroke.

  4. Disruptive Effects of Net-Centricity on Command and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bay, John S

    2008-01-01

    .... The military command hierarchy must therefore get accustomed to issuing orders to "nobody in particular," and commanders will lack an individual subordinate with whom to attribute the responsibility...

  5. The electric motor handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Feltham, P. (eds.)

    2004-05-01

    This handbook outlines the important role that electric motors play in modern society. It covers the field of motor applications from various motor types to their use and repair. It also presents practical applications of electric motors and methods on motor efficiency. More than half of all electricity generated, and 75 per cent of all industrial electricity consumption is consumed by electric motors. Electrical personnel must be aware of all factors involved in electric motors in order to choose and apply the appropriate size of electric motor. These factors include efficiency, sizing and proper application. The efficient use and maximum life expectancy of electric motors depends on proper motor protection, control and maintenance. This handbook includes articles from leading experts on electric motors in modern electrical systems. The content includes: design considerations; proper electric motor sizing techniques; optimal electric motor application; electric motor protection technology; electric motor control principles; electric motor maintenance and troubleshooting; induction electric motors; electric motor bearing currents; electric motor bearing lubrication; electromagnetism; electric motor enclosures; electric motor testing; electric motor repair; DC electric motor; electric motor starters; electric motor brushes; industrial electric motors; electric motor diagrams; AC electric motors; electric motor wiring; electric motor service; electric motor rewinding; electric motor winding; diagram of electric motor wiring; electric motor kit; and, troubleshooting electric motors. A directory of motor manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. Motor vehicle drivers' injuries in train-motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Khattak, Aemal

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to: (1) identify a more suitable model for modeling injury severity of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at highway-rail grade crossings from among three commonly used injury severity models and (2) to investigate factors associated with injury severity levels of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at such crossings. The 2009-2013 highway-rail grade crossing crash data and the national highway-rail crossing inventory data were combined to produce the analysis dataset. Four-year (2009-2012) data were used for model estimation while 2013 data were used for model validation. The three injury severity levels-fatal, injury and no injury-were based on the reported intensity of motor-vehicle drivers' injuries at highway-rail grade crossings. The three injury severity models evaluated were: ordered probit, multinomial logit and random parameter logit. A comparison of the three models based on different criteria showed that the random parameter logit model and multinomial logit model were more suitable for injury severity analysis of motor vehicle drivers involved in crashes at highway-rail grade crossings. Some of the factors that increased the likelihood of more severe crashes included higher train and vehicle speeds, freight trains, older drivers, and female drivers. Where feasible, reducing train and motor vehicle speeds and nighttime lighting may help reduce injury severities of motor vehicle drivers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cognitive and motor function after administration of hydrocodone bitartrate plus ibuprofen, ibuprofen alone, or placebo in healthy subjects with exercise-induced muscle damage: a randomized, repeated-dose, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, George J; Hartl, Tamara L; Duffany, Shannon; Smith, Stefanie F; VanHeest, Jaci L; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Hoffman, Jay R; Kraemer, William J; Maresh, Carl M

    2003-03-01

    Medications combining hydrocodone bitartrate and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents appear more beneficial than anti-inflammatory medications alone in treating pain and inflammation from acute soft tissue trauma, but opiate side effects may include sedation and impaired cognitive and motor performance. Performance on complex cognitive and motor tasks was evaluated in healthy subjects with exercise-induced muscle damage who were treated with a hydrocodone-ibuprofen combination, ibuprofen alone, or placebo. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, repeated-dose clinical trial compared the effects of hydrocodone bitartrate (7.5 mg) plus ibuprofen (200 mg), ibuprofen alone, and placebo on cognitive and motor function in 72 healthy college men. Muscle damage in the quadriceps of each subject's dominant leg was induced by an eccentric exercise protocol. Subjects took the study medication four times daily (every 4-6 h) for 5 days. Forty minutes after medication ingestion at the same time each day, subjects underwent tests of attention/concentration, motor performance, and reaction time. Four trained assessors rotated among subjects so that none tested the same participant on more than three occasions. Repeated measures analyses of covariance revealed no between-group differences on a complex memory and cognition task or complex reaction time. Subjects using hydrocodone bitartrate plus ibuprofen performed significantly less well on a simple tracking task and made significantly more errors on a simple reaction-time task than the other two groups. These deficits were found to be highly transitory and not related to confusion or fatigue. Hydrocodone plus ibuprofen was not associated with deterioration in complex cognition but was related to very transitory decrements in tasks involving simple hand-eye coordination.

  8. Electronic Control System Of Home Appliances Using Speech Command Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Min Soe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main idea of this paper is to develop a speech recognition system. By using this system smart home appliances are controlled by spoken words. The spoken words chosen for recognition are Fan On Fan Off Light On Light Off TV On and TV Off. The input of the system takes speech signals to control home appliances. The proposed system has two main parts speech recognition and smart home appliances electronic control system. Speech recognition is implemented in MATLAB environment. In this process it contains two main modules feature extraction and feature matching. Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients MFCC is used for feature extraction. Vector Quantization VQ approach using clustering algorithm is applied for feature matching. In electrical home appliances control system RF module is used to carry command signal from PC to microcontroller wirelessly. Microcontroller is connected to driver circuit for relay and motor. The input commands are recognized very well. The system is a good performance to control home appliances by spoken words.

  9. Introduction to the Bash Command Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Milligan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This lesson uses a Unix shell, which is a command-line interpreter that provides a user interface for the Unix operating system and for Unix-like systems. This lesson will cover a small number of basic commands. By the end of this tutorial you will be able to navigate through your file system and find files, open them, perform basic data manipulation tasks such as combining and copying files, as well as both reading them and making relatively simple edits. These commands constitute the building blocks upon which more complex commands can be constructed to fit your research data or project. Readers wanting a reference guide that goes beyond this lesson are recommended to read Deborah S. Ray and Eric J. Ray, Unix and Linux: Visual Quickstart Guide, 4th edition (2009.

  10. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

  11. Motor teams :

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Switch. Welte et al, 1998, Gross et al, 2002. Motion of Lipid droplets in Drosophila embryos. Page 7. • Stochastic transitions between two species of motor yields Bidirectional motion. • Tuning of single-motor parameters. • No need to invoke a ...

  12. Schema for Spacecraft-Command Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Sharon; Garcia, Celina; Maxwell, Scott; Wright, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    An Extensible Markup Language (XML) schema was developed as a means of defining and describing a structure for capturing spacecraft command- definition and tracking information in a single location in a form readable by both engineers and software used to generate software for flight and ground systems. A structure defined within this schema is then used as the basis for creating an XML file that contains command definitions.

  13. Functions within the Naval Air Training Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-15

    number. For X = N: Chief of Naval Air Training (CNATRA) Staff W: Training Air Wing ( TRAWING ) A: Naval Air Station (NAS) 3; Training Squadron...Provide assistance as required to TRAWING commands in preparation and execution of budget within the framework of guidance provided by CNATRA and...higher authority, WOO-69 Establish monetary controls as required to effectively monitor budget execution for TRAWING commands. WOO-70 Maintain

  14. Molecular motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, Jean François Desbiolles, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    How do we move? More precisely, what are the molecular mechanisms that can explain that our muscles, made of very small components can move at a osopic scale? To answer these questions we must introduce molecular motors. Those motors are proteins, or small protein assemblies that, in our cells, transform chemical energy into mechanical work. Then, like we could do for a oscopic motor, used in a car or in a fan, we are going to study the basic behavior of these molecular machines, present what are their energy sources, calculate their power, their yield. If molecular motors are crucial for our oscopic movements, we are going to see that they are also essential to cellular transport and that considering the activity of some enzymes as molecular motors bring some interesting new insights on their activity.

  15. Post-stroke Rehabilitation Training with a Motor-Imagery-Based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI-Controlled Hand Exoskeleton: A Randomized Controlled Multicenter Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Frolov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Repeated use of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs providing contingent sensory feedback of brain activity was recently proposed as a rehabilitation approach to restore motor function after stroke or spinal cord lesions. However, there are only a few clinical studies that investigate feasibility and effectiveness of such an approach. Here we report on a placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial that investigated whether stroke survivors with severe upper limb (UL paralysis benefit from 10 BCI training sessions each lasting up to 40 min. A total of 74 patients participated: median time since stroke is 8 months, 25 and 75% quartiles [3.0; 13.0]; median severity of UL paralysis is 4.5 points [0.0; 30.0] as measured by the Action Research Arm Test, ARAT, and 19.5 points [11.0; 40.0] as measured by the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment, FMMA. Patients in the BCI group (n = 55 performed motor imagery of opening their affected hand. Motor imagery-related brain electroencephalographic activity was translated into contingent hand exoskeleton-driven opening movements of the affected hand. In a control group (n = 19, hand exoskeleton-driven opening movements of the affected hand were independent of brain electroencephalographic activity. Evaluation of the UL clinical assessments indicated that both groups improved, but only the BCI group showed an improvement in the ARAT's grasp score from 0 [0.0; 14.0] to 3.0 [0.0; 15.0] points (p < 0.01 and pinch scores from 0.0 [0.0; 7.0] to 1.0 [0.0; 12.0] points (p < 0.01. Upon training completion, 21.8% and 36.4% of the patients in the BCI group improved their ARAT and FMMA scores respectively. The corresponding numbers for the control group were 5.1% (ARAT and 15.8% (FMMA. These results suggests that adding BCI control to exoskeleton-assisted physical therapy can improve post-stroke rehabilitation outcomes. Both maximum and mean values of the percentage of successfully decoded imagery-related EEG activity, were higher

  16. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the motor cortex in waking resting state induces motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Jana; Speth, Clemens; Harley, Trevor A

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates if anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of areas above the motor cortex (C3) influences spontaneous motor imagery experienced in the waking resting state. A randomized triple-blinded design was used, combining neurophysiological techniques with tools of quantitative mentation report analysis from cognitive linguistics. The results indicate that while spontaneous motor imagery rarely occurs under sham stimulation, general and athletic motor imagery (classified as athletic disciplines), is induced by anodal tDCS. This insight may have implications beyond basic consciousness research. Motor imagery and corresponding motor cortical activation have been shown to benefit later motor performance. Electrophysiological manipulations of motor imagery could in the long run be used for rehabilitative tDCS protocols benefitting temporarily immobile clinical patients who cannot perform specific motor imagery tasks - such as dementia patients, infants with developmental and motor disorders, and coma patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring System Dynamic Regimes with Variable Reluctance Synchronous Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe-Eugen Subtirelu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper will present an overview of how can we use a data acquisition (DAQ device to quickly and easily acquire and present the data of dynamic regimes of variable reluctance synchronous motors. The described monitoring system is built from two principal parts: hardware component (LEMs transducer for measurement voltages and currents, supply voltage, elements for signals conditioning and start command, USB multifunction I/O module; software component based on the industry standard Lab VIEW graphical development environment. The command for synchronization of start acquisition and start motor is on the front panel of data acquisition virtual instrument. The values of data acquisition are displayed numerically and graphically.

  18. Stepper motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekramer, Cornelis

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the more commonly used permanent magnet stepper motors for spaceflight. It will discuss the mechanical and electrical aspects of the devices, their torque behavior, those parameters which need to be controlled and measured, and test methods to be employed. It will also discuss torque margins, compare these to the existing margin requirements, and determine the applicability of these requirements. Finally it will attempt to generate a set of requirements which will be used in any stepper motor procurement and will fully characterize the stepper motor behavior in a consistent and repeatable fashion.

  19. 32 CFR 536.3 - Command and organizational relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... potentially compensable events (PCEs) occurring within the command's geographic area of responsibility, in other areas for which the command is assigned claims responsibility, and during the course of the... supervision of the senior JA of each command in the area of responsibility of a command claims service so...

  20. Acute exercise improves motor memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Kasper Christen; Roig, Marc; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We have recently shown that a single bout of acute cardiovascular exercise improves motor skill learning through an optimization of long-term motor memory. Here we expand this previous finding, to explore potential exercise-related biomarkers and their association with measures of motor memory...... and skill acquisition. Thirty-two healthy young male subjects were randomly allocated into either an exercise or control group. Following either an intense bout of cycling or rest subjects practiced a visuomotor tracking task. Motor skill acquisition was assessed during practice and retention 1 hour, 24...... hours and 7 days after practice. Plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and lactate were analyzed at baseline, immediately after exercise or rest and during motor...

  1. SOA approach to battle command: simulation interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayott, Gregory; Self, Mid; Miller, Gordon J.; McDonnell, Joseph S.

    2010-04-01

    NVESD is developing a Sensor Data and Management Services (SDMS) Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) that provides an innovative approach to achieve seamless application functionality across simulation and battle command systems. In 2010, CERDEC will conduct a SDMS Battle Command demonstration that will highlight the SDMS SOA capability to couple simulation applications to existing Battle Command systems. The demonstration will leverage RDECOM MATREX simulation tools and TRADOC Maneuver Support Battle Laboratory Virtual Base Defense Operations Center facilities. The battle command systems are those specific to the operation of a base defense operations center in support of force protection missions. The SDMS SOA consists of four components that will be discussed. An Asset Management Service (AMS) will automatically discover the existence, state, and interface definition required to interact with a named asset (sensor or a sensor platform, a process such as level-1 fusion, or an interface to a sensor or other network endpoint). A Streaming Video Service (SVS) will automatically discover the existence, state, and interfaces required to interact with a named video stream, and abstract the consumers of the video stream from the originating device. A Task Manager Service (TMS) will be used to automatically discover the existence of a named mission task, and will interpret, translate and transmit a mission command for the blue force unit(s) described in a mission order. JC3IEDM data objects, and software development kit (SDK), will be utilized as the basic data object definition for implemented web services.

  2. Robot Task Commander with Extensible Programming Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephen W (Inventor); Yamokoski, John D. (Inventor); Wightman, Brian J (Inventor); Dinh, Duy Paul (Inventor); Gooding, Dustin R (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system for developing distributed robot application-level software includes a robot having an associated control module which controls motion of the robot in response to a commanded task, and a robot task commander (RTC) in networked communication with the control module over a network transport layer (NTL). The RTC includes a script engine(s) and a GUI, with a processor and a centralized library of library blocks constructed from an interpretive computer programming code and having input and output connections. The GUI provides access to a Visual Programming Language (VPL) environment and a text editor. In executing a method, the VPL is opened, a task for the robot is built from the code library blocks, and data is assigned to input and output connections identifying input and output data for each block. A task sequence(s) is sent to the control module(s) over the NTL to command execution of the task.

  3. Linux command line and shell scripting bible

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Talk directly to your system for a faster workflow with automation capability Linux Command Line and Shell Scripting Bible is your essential Linux guide. With detailed instruction and abundant examples, this book teaches you how to bypass the graphical interface and communicate directly with your computer, saving time and expanding capability. This third edition incorporates thirty pages of new functional examples that are fully updated to align with the latest Linux features. Beginning with command line fundamentals, the book moves into shell scripting and shows you the practical application

  4. Communication for command and control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, D J

    1983-01-01

    Communication for Command and Control Systems provides a thorough exposition of the basic theoretical and practical features involved in the design of communication networks for command and control systems. This book focuses primarily on the practical side of computer-controlled communication. This text concentrates on the communication sides of the subject by surveying the means of transferring data between the various processing points and by appraising their potential advantages and possible defects in implementation. In this respect, this book should prove useful for the practicing enginee

  5. Columbia SMA Project: A Randomized, Control Trial of the Effects of Exercise on Motor Function and Strength in Patients With Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Exercise, Ambulatory, Clinical Trial 21 Table of Contents...VO2max is substantially lower than predicted, and likely reflects the effects of deconditioning resulting from limited engagement in physical activity...randomized and controlled clinical trial of the effect of exercise on an established functional outcome measure will have immediate impact on

  6. Preventing Internalizing Problems in Young Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Feelings and Friends (Year 3) Program with a Motor Skills Component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Ruhamah G; Martin, Katie K; Rooney, Rosanna; Hassan, Sharinaz; Kane, Robert T

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are common mental health problems experienced by children in Australia. The impact of these internalizing disorders is pervasive, affecting many areas of life. By the time problems have been detected in children they can be severe in nature and harder to treat. Hence, early intervention is of utmost importance. Despite the existence of numerous prevention programs for children, there is limited empirical evidence for a program that has an impact on symptoms of both anxiety and depression. Physical activity and improved motor coordination have been indicated as having positive effects on children's mental health, although the impact of including these in a program targeting internalizing disorders has not been established. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the Feelings and Friends (Year 3) program (FFY3), revised to include activities to build motor-coordination and encourage physical activity. Participants were 24 children from the Perth metropolitan area alongside one of each of their parents. Results indicated significant short-term intervention effects on one of the primary outcome variables; intervention group parents reported significant pre-post improvement in child depressive symptoms, which were maintained at 3-month follow-up (η p2 = 0.10). There were also intervention effects observed for parent-reported separation anxiety (η p2 = 0.10), externalizing symptoms (η p2 = 0.19), and conduct problems (η p2 = 0.16). An additional finding indicated the intervention students reported significant improvement from session one to session two in global distress (η p2 = 0.22). No other significant intervention effects were evident. Findings from this study indicate that FFY3 is a promising intervention to address internalizing and externalizing symptoms in 8-9 year-old children.

  7. Joint Force Cyberspace Component Command: Establishing Cyberspace Operations Unity of Effort for the Joint Force Commander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    strengths, the United States and DoD knowledge of cyberspace combined with the United States technical prowess and spirit of entrepreneurship provide us...similar to “command of the sea,” translating it to “command of the air.”45 The first to utter this concept, according to David MacIsaac, was British...called for his commanders to “inflict maximum damage on [the] enemy by employing strong attrition tactics,” which, as Morison notes, translated to

  8. Smart command recognizer (SCR) - For development, test, and implementation of speech commands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Carol A.; Bunnell, John W.; Krones, Robert R.

    1988-01-01

    The SCR, a rapid prototyping system for the development, testing, and implementation of speech commands in a flight simulator or test aircraft, is described. A single unit performs all functions needed during these three phases of system development, while the use of common software and speech command data structure files greatly reduces the preparation time for successive development phases. As a smart peripheral to a simulation or flight host computer, the SCR interprets the pilot's spoken input and passes command codes to the simulation or flight computer.

  9. MOTORIZATION IN ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin SENBIL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Motorization in terms of passenger cars in 14 Asian countries and passenger cars and motorcycles in three metropolitan areas are analyzed in this study. Using country-based data which cover 20 years (1980–2000, a linear regression is conducted by panel estimation with random and fixed effects. As a result from the model, fixed income elasticity for the region was found to be 1.75. Fixed effect estimated separately for each country characterizes the motorization pace in the countries. Two groups of countries were detected with a significant difference in motorization paces—Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Philippines, Pakistan, Indonesia and Thailand have motorization paces higher than the rest of the countries. Additionally, using a cross-sectional data household car and motorcycle ownerships were analyzed for three metropolitan areas characterizing South-East Asia that are Jabotabek (Indonesia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia and Manila (Philippines metropolitan areas. Results indicate that ownership of cars and motorcycles are independent of each other in Jabotabek and Manila, but negatively correlated in Kuala Lumpur; and generally, income is more influential on car ownership than motorcycle ownership.

  10. iTOUGH2 Command Reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finsterle, Stefan

    2002-06-18

    iTOUGH2 is a program for parameter estimation, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty propagation analysis. It is based on the TOUGH2 simulator for non-isothermal multiphase flow in fractured and porous media. This report contains a detailed description of all iTOUGH2 commands.

  11. Commandants' Managerial Capacity and Workers Productivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the commandant's managerial capacity as if relates to workers productivity with a view to determining whether their calling to the education terrain has been justified and to correct certain areas in need of improvement in the Nigeria Police Education set up. In doing this, the study took ...

  12. Air Command and Control in Small Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    doctrinally established for all types of operations. The Air Force doctrine of centralized control and decentralized execution drives the makeup of C2...organizations were able to provide “continuous combined control of operations” within the operational command posts.77 The beauty of this organizational

  13. Interface Concepts for Command & Control Tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delft, J.H. van; Passenier, P.O.

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses new interface concepts for information visualisation and manipulation in Command and Control. These concepts focus on the use of multiple views on the tactical situation to enhance situational awareness and to improve situation assessment. Topics covered include the application

  14. Command, control and communications | Shaw | Scientia Militaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 3 (1980) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Command, control and communications.

  15. On Cyber Warfare Command and Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    network defense management system are sometimes used to describe systems that are used for the remote management of firewalls, intrusion detection...different. Certainly, the remote management of firewalls and intrusion detection systems, etc. should be part of a cyber warfare command and control

  16. Command-And-Control or Taxation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Christina; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2015-01-01

    an ineffective command-and-control (CAC) tool, whereas Denmark has chosen the effective tool of taxation. One main explanation for this variation in policy choice is the variation in institutional setups, namely the corporatist route in Denmark versus the pluralistic route in California....

  17. APOLLO 11 COMMANDER NEIL ARMSTRONG IN SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 commander Neil Armstrong is going through flight training in the lunar module simulator situated in the flight crew training building at KSC. Armstrong will pilot the lunar module to a moon landing on July 20, following launch from KSC on July 16.

  18. CSS Teams -- Effective Practice of Mission Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    their supporting Standard Army Information Management System and further enhance the practice of mission command. As one Soldier commented, “ VSAT is...communications up and running] and get combat ready faster. During lulls, they can order what they’ll need during the fight. 17 We’re using VSAT

  19. Intelligence: A Personal, Inherent, Function of Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    intelligence in general, and DSE !RT STORN in particular-" If one measure6 tbe. ’gap t .r ren comm~anders and intelligence ofticers by what is ~un ii p...intelligence process, or "cycle," is not a rigid procedural checklist , blindly adhered to under all circum- stances; it is simply a description of sequential

  20. Leadership in Command Under the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    America,” 133 70 Heifetz , Leadership without easy answers, 14 71 Navy Personnel Command, “Community Status Brief,” http://www.npc.navy.mil/Officer...Studies, 1973. Heifetz , R. A. Leadership without easy answers. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1994. Hinkle, David Randall, Harry Harrison Caldwell

  1. Motor fatigue and cognitive task performance in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorist, M.M.; Kernell, Daniel; Meijman, T.F.; Zijdewind, Inge

    2002-01-01

    During fatiguing submaximal contractions a constant force production can be obtained at the cost of an increasing central command intensity. Little is known about the interaction between the underlying central mechanisms driving motor behaviour and cognitive functions. To address this issue,

  2. THE MOTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    MOTOR is the first assignment that students at Unit 1a of the School of Architecture are introduced to. The purpose of the assignment is to shake up the students and their preconceptions of what architec- ture is. This is done by introducing them to a working method that al- lows them to develop...

  3. Rehabilitation plus OnabotulinumtoxinA Improves Motor Function over OnabotulinumtoxinA Alone in Post-Stroke Upper Limb Spasticity: A Single-Blind, Randomized Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Deidre Devier; JoAnn Harnar; Leandro Lopez; Allison Brashear; Glenn Graham

    2017-01-01

    Background: OnabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) can temporarily decrease spasticity following stroke, but whether there is an associated improvement in upper limb function is less clear. This study measured the benefit of adding weekly rehabilitation to a background of BoNT-A treatments for chronic upper limb spasticity following stroke. Methods: This was a multi-center clinical trial. Thirty-one patients with post-stroke upper limb spasticity were treated with BoNT-A. They were then randomly assigne...

  4. Behavioural and neural basis of anomalous motor learning in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Mollie K; Crocetti, Deana; Hulst, Thomas; Donchin, Opher; Shadmehr, Reza; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social and communication skills and repetitive and stereotyped interests and behaviours. Although not part of the diagnostic criteria, individuals with autism experience a host of motor impairments, potentially due to abnormalities in how they learn motor control throughout development. Here, we used behavioural techniques to quantify motor learning in autism spectrum disorder, and structural brain imaging to investigate the neural basis of that learning in the cerebellum. Twenty children with autism spectrum disorder and 20 typically developing control subjects, aged 8-12, made reaching movements while holding the handle of a robotic manipulandum. In random trials the reach was perturbed, resulting in errors that were sensed through vision and proprioception. The brain learned from these errors and altered the motor commands on the subsequent reach. We measured learning from error as a function of the sensory modality of that error, and found that children with autism spectrum disorder outperformed typically developing children when learning from errors that were sensed through proprioception, but underperformed typically developing children when learning from errors that were sensed through vision. Previous work had shown that this learning depends on the integrity of a region in the anterior cerebellum. Here we found that the anterior cerebellum, extending into lobule VI, and parts of lobule VIII were smaller than normal in children with autism spectrum disorder, with a volume that was predicted by the pattern of learning from visual and proprioceptive errors. We suggest that the abnormal patterns of motor learning in children with autism spectrum disorder, showing an increased sensitivity to proprioceptive error and a decreased sensitivity to visual error, may be associated with abnormalities in the cerebellum. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  5. Defense Headquarters: Geographic Combatant Commands Rely on Subordinate Commands for Mission Management and Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    its mission to manage the detention facility at Guantanamo Bay , Cuba to Joint Task Force Guantanamo (JTF-GTMO). However, the extent to which each...unified commands, and joint task forces. For example, U.S. Southern Command has delegated its mission to manage the detention facility at Guantanamo Bay ...facility located at Naval Station Guantanamo Bay , Cuba. • Joint Task Force Bravo, located at Soto Cano Air Base in Honduras, supports regional security

  6. "Central command" and insular activation during attempted foot lifting in paraplegic humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lonsdale, Markus Nowak; Holm, Søren; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between cardiovascular regulation and brain activation was investigated during attempted foot lifting in paraplegic subjects and during rhythmic handgrip exercise at one-third of maximum voluntary contraction force. Brain areas of interest were the primary sensory-motor area and ...... showing responses common to handgrip and attempted foot lifting revealed activation in the right central insula (P command feed-forward hypothesis....... and the insula, a hypothesized center for a central nervous feed-forward mechanism involved in cardiovascular control ("central command"). This mechanism is complementary to the usual known feedback pathways such as skeletal muscle afferent signals. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in eight...... activation tasks, heart rate and mean arterial pressure increased. PET activation responses (P

  7. Spinal inhibition of descending command to soleus motoneurons is removed prior to dorsiflexion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; van de Ruit, Mark; Grey, Michael James

    2011-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that soleus motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are facilitated prior to the onset of dorsiflexion. The purpose of this study was to examine if this could be explained by removal of spinal inhibition of the descending command to soleus motoneurons. To test this, we......, and they were facilitated for CT intervals of 50-55 ms. A similar inhibition of the soleus H-reflex was not observed. To investigate which descending pathways might be responsible for the afferent-evoked inhibition and facilitation, we examined the effect of CPN stimulation on short-latency facilitation (SLF...... are facilitated prior to onset of dorsiflexion contraction. A possible mechanism involves the removal of inhibition of the descending command to the motoneurons at a spinal interneuronal level because the inhibition was seen in LLF and not in SLF and the MEP-inhibition was not observed in the H-reflex. The data...

  8. Intelligent Tutoring System for Teaching Battlefield Command Reasoning Skills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Domeshek, Eric

    2002-01-01

    .... Achieving expert levels of proficiency in high-level command reasoning skills-whether for battlefield commanders or for executives in industry-requires extensive practice, coaching, and feedback...

  9. U.S. Africa Command: Shaping Africa for the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sholley, Hans

    2006-01-01

    .... It is argued the current Unified Command Plan is ill designed to address the complexities of the continent of Africa and that a proposed United States Africa Command would be better positioned...

  10. Academic Performance, Motor Function, and Behavior 11 Years After Neonatal Caffeine Citrate Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity: An 11-Year Follow-up of the CAP Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Barbara; Roberts, Robin S; Anderson, Peter J; Asztalos, Elizabeth V; Costantini, Lorrie; Davis, Peter G; Dewey, Deborah; D'Ilario, Judy; Doyle, Lex W; Grunau, Ruth E; Moddemann, Diane; Nelson, Harvey; Ohlsson, Arne; Solimano, Alfonso; Tin, Win

    2017-06-01

    Caffeine citrate therapy for apnea of prematurity reduces the rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe retinopathy, and neurodevelopmental disability at 18 months and may improve motor function at 5 years. To evaluate whether neonatal caffeine therapy is associated with improved functional outcomes 11 years later. A follow-up study was conducted at 14 academic hospitals in Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom from May 7, 2011, to May 27, 2016, of English- or French-speaking children who had been enrolled in the randomized, placebo-controlled Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity trial between October 11, 1999, and October 22, 2004. A total of 1202 children with birth weights of 500 to 1250 g were eligible for this study; 920 (76.5%) had adequate data for the main outcome. Caffeine citrate or placebo until drug therapy for apnea of prematurity was no longer needed. Functional impairment was a composite of poor academic performance (defined as at least 1 standard score greater than 2 SD below the mean on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4), motor impairment (defined as a percentile rank of ≤5 on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition), and behavior problems (defined as a Total Problem T score ≥2 SD above the mean on the Child Behavior Checklist). Among the 920 children (444 females and 476 males; median age, 11.4 years [interquartile range, 11.1-11.8 years]), the combined rates of functional impairment were not significantly different between the 457 children assigned to receive caffeine compared with the 463 children assigned to receive placebo (145 [31.7%] vs 174 [37.6%]; adjusted odds ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.59-1.02; P = .07). With all available data, including those from up to 24 Swedish trial participants, the rates of poor academic performance on 1 or more of 4 subtests (66 of 458 [14.4%] vs 61 of 462 [13.2%]; adjusted odds ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.77-1.61; P = .58) and behavior problems (52 of 476 [10.9%] vs 40 of 481 [8

  11. Development of a generic activities model of command and control

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, NA; Baber, C; Walker, GH; Houghton, RJ; McMaster, R; Stewart, R.; D.; Harris; Jenkins, DP; Young, MS; Salmon, PM

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on five different models of command and control. Four different models are reviewed: a process model, a contextual control model, a decision ladder model and a functional model. Further to this, command and control activities are analysed in three distinct domains: armed forces, emergency services and civilian services. From this analysis, taxonomies of command and control activities are developed that give rise to an activities model of command and control. This model w...

  12. Effectiveness of a fine motor skills rehabilitation program on upper limb disability, manual dexterity, pinch strength, range of fingers motion, performance in activities of daily living, functional independency, and general self-efficacy in hand osteoarthritis: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Mármol, Jose Manuel; García-Ríos, Ma Carmen; Ortega-Valdivieso, María Azucena; Cano-Deltell, Enrique Elías; Peralta-Ramírez, María Isabel; Ickmans, Kelly; Aguilar-Ferrándiz, María Encarnación

    A randomized clinical trial. Rehabilitation treatments for improving fine motor skills (FMS) in hand osteoarthritis (HOA) have not been well explored yet. To assess the effectiveness of a rehabilitation program on upper limb disability, independence of activities of daily living (ADLs), fine motor abilities, functional independency, and general self-efficacy in older adults with HOA. About 45 adults (74-86 years) with HOA were assigned to an experimental group for completing an FMS intervention or a control group receiving conventional occupational therapy. Both interventions were performed 3 times/wk, 45 minutes each session, during 8 weeks. Upper limb disability, performance in ADLs, pinch strength, manual dexterity, range of fingers motion, functional independency, and general self-efficacy were assessed at baseline, immediately after treatment, and after 2 months of follow-up. FMS group showed significant improvements with a small effect size on manual dexterity (P ≤ .034; d ≥ 0.48) and a moderate-high effect on range of index (P ≤ .018; d ≥ 0.58) and thumb (P ≤ .027; d ≥ 0.39) motion. The control group showed a significant worse range of motion over time in some joints at the index (P ≤ .037; d ≥ 0.36) finger and thumb (P ≤ .017; d ≥ 0.55). A rehabilitation intervention for FMS may improve manual dexterity and range of fingers motion in HOA, but its effects on upper limb disability, performance in ADLs, pinch strength, functionality, and self-efficacy remain uncertain. Specific interventions of the hand are needed to prevent a worsening in range of finger motion. 1b. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of cognitive-motor dual-task training on cognitive function and plasma amyloid β peptide 42/40 ratio in healthy elderly persons: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hisayo; Okazaki, Kazunobu; Imai, Daiki; Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Ryosuke; Naghavi, Nooshin; Ota, Akemi; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Miyagawa, Toshiaki

    2015-05-28

    Physical activity reduces the incidence and progression of cognitive impairment. Cognitive-motor dual-task training, which requires dividing attention between cognitive tasks and exercise, may improve various cognitive domains; therefore, we examined the effect of dual-task training on the executive functions and on plasma amyloid β peptide (Aβ) 42/40 ratio, a potent biomarker of Alzheimer's disease, in healthy elderly people. Twenty-seven sedentary elderly people participated in a 12-week randomized, controlled trial. The subjects assigned to the dual-task training (DT) group underwent a specific cognitive-motor dual-task training, and then the clinical outcomes, including cognitive functions by the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) examination and the Trail-Making Test (TMT), and the plasma Aβ 42/40 ratio following the intervention were compared with those of the control single-task training (ST) group by unpaired t-test. Among 27 participants, 25 completed the study. The total scores in the 3MS examination as well as the muscular strength of quadriceps were equally improved in both groups after the training. The specific cognitive domains, "registration & recall", "attention", "verbal fluency & understanding", and "visuospatial skills" were significantly improved only in the DT group. Higher scores in "attention", "verbal fluency & understanding", and "similarities" were found in the DT group than in the ST group at post-intervention. The absolute changes in the total (8.5 ± 1.6 vs 2.4 ± 0.9, p = 0.004, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.75-3.39) and in the scores of "attention" (1.9 ± 0.5 vs -0.2 ± 0.4, p = 0.004, 95 % CI 2.25-9.98) were greater in the DT group than in the ST group. We found no changes in the TMT results in either group. Plasma Aβ 42/40 ratio decreased in both groups following the training (ST group: 0.63 ± 0.13 to 0.16 ± 0.03, p = 0.001; DT group: 0.60 ± 0.12 to 0.25 ± 0.06, p = 0.044), although the pre- and post-intervention values

  14. Preconception Micronutrient Supplementation with Iron and Folic Acid Compared with Folic Acid Alone Affects Linear Growth and Fine Motor Development at 2 Years of Age: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Young, Melissa F; Truong, Truong Viet; Hoang, Hue; Nguyen, Huong; Nguyen, Son; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2017-08-01

    Background: Maternal health and nutrition play a crucial role in early child growth and development. However, little is known about the benefits of preconception micronutrient interventions beyond the role of folic acid (FA) and neural tube defects.Objective: We evaluated the impact of weekly preconception multiple micronutrient (MM) or iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child growth and development through the age of 2 y compared with FA alone.Methods: We followed 1599 offspring born to women who participated in a randomized controlled trial of preconception supplementation in Vietnam. Women received weekly supplements that contained either 2800 μg FA, 60 mg Fe and 2800 μg FA, or 15 MMs including IFA, from baseline until conception followed by daily prenatal IFA supplements until delivery. Child anthropometry was measured at birth and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo. Child development was measured with the use of the Bayley Scales for Infant Development III at 24 mo.Results: The groups were similar for baseline maternal and offspring birth characteristics. At 24 mo of age, the offspring in the IFA group had significantly higher length-for-age z scores (LAZs) (0.14; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.26), reduced risk of being stunted (0.87; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.99), and smaller yearly decline in LAZs (0.10; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.15) than the offspring in the FA group. Similar trends were found for the offspring in the MM group compared with the FA group for LAZs (0.10; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.22) and the risk of being stunted (0.88; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.01). Offspring in the IFA group had improved motor development (P = 0.03), especially fine motor development (0.41; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.77), at the age of 24 mo, but there were no differences for measures of cognition or language.Conclusions: Preconception supplementation with IFA improved linear growth and fine motor development at 2 y of age compared with FA. Future studies should examine whether these effects persist and improve child health and

  15. 76 FR 1975 - Disestablishment of United States Joint Forces Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Memorandum of January 6, 2011--Disestablishment of United States Joint Forces Command #0; #0; #0... of United States Joint Forces Command Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to my... States Joint Forces Command, effective on a date to be determined by the Secretary of Defense. I direct...

  16. Motor cortex synchronization influences the rhythm of motor performance in premanifest huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casula, Elias P; Mayer, Isabella M S; Desikan, Mahalekshmi; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Rothwell, John C; Orth, Michael

    2018-01-22

    In Huntington's disease there is evidence of structural damage in the motor system, but it is still unclear how to link this to the behavioral disorder of movement. One feature of choreic movement is variable timing and coordination between sequences of actions. We postulate this results from desynchronization of neural activity in cortical motor areas. The objective of this study was to explore the ability to synchronize activity in a motor network using transcranial magnetic stimulation and to relate this to timing of motor performance. We examined synchronization in oscillatory activity of cortical motor areas in response to an external input produced by a pulse of transcranial magnetic stimulation. We combined this with EEG to compare the response of 16 presymptomatic Huntington's disease participants with 16 age-matched healthy volunteers to test whether the strength of synchronization relates to the variability of motor performance at the following 2 tasks: a grip force task and a speeded-tapping task. Phase synchronization in response to M1 stimulation was lower in Huntington's disease than healthy volunteers (P motor performance also showed stronger oscillatory synchronization (r = -0.356; P motor command to respond to more subtle, physiological inputs from other brain areas. This novel insight indicates that impairments of the timing accuracy of synchronization and desynchronization could be a physiological basis for some key clinical features of Huntington's disease. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  17. Commande adaptive d'une machine asynchrone

    OpenAIRE

    Slama-Belkhodja, I.; De Fornel, B.

    1996-01-01

    Cat article décrit une stratégie de commande adaptive indirecte à Placement de Pôles (PP), appliquée à la commande en vitesse d'une machine asynchrone alimentée par un ensemble hacheur-filtre-onduleur de tension. L'algorithme des Moindres Carrés Récursifs (MCR) est utilisé pour l'identification des modèles de comportement type entrées/sorties. Un intérêt particulier est porté à la mise en oeuvre de cet algorithme et à la discussion de ses résultats, tenant compte des erreurs de modélisation e...

  18. Metadata Analysis at the Command-Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Phillips

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years the University of North Texas Libraries' Digital Projects Unit (DPU has developed a set of metadata analysis tools, processes, and methodologies aimed at helping to focus limited quality control resources on the areas of the collection where they might have the most benefit. The key to this work lies in its simplicity: records harvested from OAI-PMH-enabled digital repositories are transformed into a format that makes them easily parsable using traditional Unix/Linux-based command-line tools. This article describes the overall methodology, introduces two simple open-source tools developed to help with the aforementioned harvesting and breaking, and provides example commands to demonstrate some common metadata analysis requests. All software tools described in the article are available with an open-source license via the author's GitHub account.

  19. Tools virtualization for command and control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczek, Marek; Maciejewski, Marcin; Pomianek, Mateusz; Szustakowski, Mieczysław

    2017-10-01

    Information management is an inseparable part of the command process. The result is that the person making decisions at the command post interacts with data providing devices in various ways. Tools virtualization process can introduce a number of significant modifications in the design of solutions for management and command. The general idea involves replacing physical devices user interface with their digital representation (so-called Virtual instruments). A more advanced level of the systems "digitalization" is to use the mixed reality environments. In solutions using Augmented reality (AR) customized HMI is displayed to the operator when he approaches to each device. Identification of device is done by image recognition of photo codes. Visualization is achieved by (optical) see-through head mounted display (HMD). Control can be done for example by means of a handheld touch panel. Using the immersive virtual environment, the command center can be digitally reconstructed. Workstation requires only VR system (HMD) and access to information network. Operator can interact with devices in such a way as it would perform in real world (for example with the virtual hands). Because of their procedures (an analysis of central vision, eye tracking) MR systems offers another useful feature of reducing requirements for system data throughput. Due to the fact that at the moment we focus on the single device. Experiments carried out using Moverio BT-200 and SteamVR systems and the results of experimental application testing clearly indicate the ability to create a fully functional information system with the use of mixed reality technology.

  20. Coalitions: Organizational, Political, Command & Control Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    assessment of their evolution with regard to advances in technology. The Command & Control (C2) structure of coalitions is detailed, including decision...assessment of the effects of technology on their evolution . Coalitions with equal and unequal partners are distinguished and their functioning...Gaulle is said to have remarked, “Dans toute association de deux hommes , il y en a toujours un qui se fait porter par l’autre.2” Throughout history

  1. Command and Control for War and Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    losing some of their autonomy -the time when advances in communications technology 17 Li _I COMMAND AND CONTROL FOR WAR AND PF.ACE were strengthening the...balances; Information and action, another, One of the most important-and most sen- sitive-is the balance between control and the com- mander’s autonomy ...89, 9, Cajus Bekker , Angriffshohe 4000 (1964); republished as The Ltuf•wffe War Diaries, trans, Frank Ziegler (New York: Bal- lantine Books, 1966

  2. Command Philosophy: Is It Transportable and Universal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-20

    Burt Nanus book, Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge. Of particular note is what Bennis and Nanus have to say about vision, even though they...16. Colonel Michael T. Plummer, "Winning in Command," Military Review, March 1987, p. 80. 17. Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus , Leaders: Strategies for...Garden City Park, NY, 1988, pp. 18-19, 173-174. BIBLIOGRAPHY Bennis , Warren; and Nanus , Burt. Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge. New York: Harper

  3. The Impact of Command Likelihood on Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-03

    Cincinnati, OH: South-Western, 1979), Appendix Table N. 4 Richard A. Lippa , Introduction to Social PsvcholoQy, (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1990), 243. 5...Huston, New York: Academic Press, 1979. Lippa , Richard A. Introdugcion To Social Psycholocrv. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1990. McNally, Jeffery A. The...command opportunities. 41 Endnotes iLeonard Wong and Richard Bullis, "Downsizing the Army: Two Types of Commitment in the Survivors," Unpub- lished

  4. Command History, 1969. Volume 2. Sanitized

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    performed third and fourth echelon main- tenance. Evacuation of equipment requiring higher echelon maintenance was the reverse of supply distribution...strengths of both systems adopted (See Chapter IV). (C) The VNN Logistcal Support Command was established on 1 Oct. Although key person- rnel had been...was to be reversed . The authorization was passed down to province level againfor the drafting of titles and arranging of transfer ceremonies. (U) As

  5. Naval command and control for future UAVs

    OpenAIRE

    Majewski, Stephen E.

    1999-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The primary purpose of this thesis is to examine the requirements of naval command and control for future Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and to propose solutions for current limitations. Currently, UAVs co-exist as a collection of independent systems that have poor interoperability and limited functionality beyond strategic reconnaissance. As UAVs mature, they will increasingly be deployed at the unit level and employed tactically, inc...

  6. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  7. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  8. How Technology and Data Affect Mission Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-17

    simply transition stand- alone legacy systems to web-based platforms and integrate those pro - grams as applications on common How Technology and Data...initiative within the commander’s intent to empower ag- ile and adaptive leaders in the con - duct of unified land operations.” This first part is...synchronize actions across all war- fighting functions in time and space to support the decision cycle of the commander. Technology supports and

  9. Commanders’ Perception of Risk: Enabling Boldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Concerning temperament, even in the epic wars of our past, commanders who were well known to countenance high losses to accomplish the mission were...constantly recalls epic battles won at hard cost is less likely to balk at present hardships. However, this association with the past also 12 engenders...go home and write poetry . He learned the art of glass blowing because it seemed interesting and built a computer with only a magazine as his guide

  10. Sagittal lumbopelvic alignment in patients with low back pain and the effects of a high-load lifting exercise and individualized low-load motor control exercises-a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Lars; Aasa, Björn; Michaelson, Peter; Aasa, Ulrika

    2017-07-28

    Assessment of posture and lumbopelvic alignment is often the main focus in the classification and treatment of patients with low back pain (LBP). However, little is known regarding the effects of motor control interventions on objective measures of lumbopelvic alignment. The primary aim of this study was to describe the variation of sagittal lumbopelvic alignment in patients with nociceptive mechanical LBP. The secondary aim was to compare the effects of a high-load lifting exercise (HLL) and low-load motor control exercises (LMC) on the change in lumbopelvic alignment with a special emphasis on patients with high and low degrees of lumbar lordosis (lu) and sacral angle (sa). This study is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of HLL and LMC. Patients from the primary study, that is, patients categorized with nociceptive mechanical LBP, who agreed to participate in the radiographic examination were included (n=66). Lateral plain radiographic images were used to evaluate lumbopelvic alignment regarding the lumbar lordosis and the sacral angle as outcomes, with posterior bend as an explanatory variable. The participants were recruited to the study from two occupational health-care facilities. They were randomized to either the HLL or the LMC intervention group and offered 12 supervised exercise sessions. Outcome measures were collected at baseline and following the end of intervention period 2 months after baseline. Between- and within-group analyses of intervention groups and subgroups based on the distribution of the baseline values for the lumbar lordosis and the sacral angle, respectively (LOW, MID, and HIGH), were performed using both parametric and non-parametric statistics. The ranges of values for the present sample were 26.9-91.6° (M=59.0°, standard deviation [SD]=11.5°) for the lumbar lordosis and 18.2-72.1° (M=42.0°, SD=9.6°) for the sacral angle. There were no significant differences between the intervention

  11. A smooth multimode waveform command shaping control with selectable command length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Ziyad N.; Alhazza, Khaled A.

    2017-06-01

    Input and command shapers are great open-loop control strategies in reducing residual vibration in rest-to-rest maneuvers. The generation of such command usually contains multiple impulses and jerks. Multiple impulses usually degrade the performance due to actuation delay and mismatch timing while jerks reduce the life expectancy of actuator and increase maintenance. In this work, a smooth single multimode command shaping control is proposed and tested numerically and experimentally to eliminate residual vibration in rest-to-rest maneuvers. The advantages of the technique are summarized as, the proposed technique has an adjustable maneuvering time, can eliminate all vibration modes regardless of the number, the required parameters are found analytically which eliminate the need of complex or lengthy calculation needed for most multimode shaper, smooth command profile to eliminate jerks i.e. inrush current, and it is continuous with single actuation to eliminate inaccurate timing and delay. The technique performance is validated numerically and experimentally. Numerical simulations prove that the shaped commands are capable of completely eliminating residual vibrations of multimode systems. Furthermore, the proposed technique is utilized to reduce the sensitivity of the shaper to modeling errors. Unlike other shaper the proposed reduction in the sensitivity can be implemented for all modes with no added complexity.

  12. Chemistry in motion: tiny synthetic motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colberg, Peter H; Reigh, Shang Yik; Robertson, Bryan; Kapral, Raymond

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Diffusion is the principal transport mechanism that controls the motion of solute molecules and other species in solution; however, the random walk process that underlies diffusion is slow and often nonspecific. Although diffusion is an essential mechanism for transport in the biological realm, biological systems have devised more efficient transport mechanisms using molecular motors. Most biological motors utilize some form of chemical energy derived from their surroundings to induce conformational changes in order to carry out specific functions. These small molecular motors operate in the presence of strong thermal fluctuations and in the regime of low Reynolds numbers, where viscous forces dominate inertial forces. Thus, their dynamical behavior is fundamentally different from that of macroscopic motors, and different mechanisms are responsible for the production of useful mechanical motion. There is no reason why our interest should be confined to the small motors that occur naturally in biological systems. Recently, micron and nanoscale motors that use chemical energy to produce directed motion by a number of different mechanisms have been made in the laboratory. These small synthetic motors also experience strong thermal fluctuations and operate in regimes where viscous forces dominate. Potentially, these motors could be directed to perform different transport tasks, analogous to those of biological motors, for both in vivo and in vitro applications. Although some synthetic motors execute conformational changes to effect motion, the majority do not, and, instead, they use other mechanisms to convert chemical energy into directed motion. In this Account, we describe how synthetic motors that operate by self-diffusiophoresis make use of a self-generated concentration gradient to drive motor motion. A description of propulsion by self-diffusiophoresis is presented for Janus particle motors comprising catalytic and noncatalytic faces. The properties

  13. Torque linearizing hardware for the electric joint motors of a direct-drive robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, P. F.; Bryan, J. R.

    Many emerging high-performance robot control algorithms require the command of the joint torques, yet no known commercial robots provide such a capability. We describe the design, development, testing, and application of a VMEbus-based torque linearizing joint interface board (JIB). One JIB resides between the robot control processor and each joint motor amplifier. The JIB provides the control processor with the capability to read the motor position and apply accurate motor torques. The torque command capability derives from the application of a 128k x 8 EPROM lookup table for each motor phase. Because joint motor torque is dependent upon the torque command and the motor position, the hardware is designed to utilize the torque command and the current motor position as the address to retrieve the proper pulse-width for the PWM motor amplifier. The table look-up cycle operates independently of the robot controller at a 40KHz rate to provide constant joint torque as the motor rotates. We identify the proper table entries by an automated in situ data collection procedure. Static torque generation results show that the torque deviations are reduced from as much as 76 percent to below 5 percent for each of the three direct-drive motors (two are variable reluctance motors and one is brushless DC) on an AdeptTwo robot. These torque deviations are reduced below 2.5 percent if only the upper 90 percent of the torque range is considered. The torque deviations of the non-direct-drive joint are reduced by 50 percent. Dynamic robot edge following experiments show that the robot speed of operation can be more than doubled for a given applied force accuracy by utilizing the joint torque linearizing boards.

  14. Commande optimale à flux libre des machines asynchrones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedinger, J. M.; Poullain, S.; Yvon, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the optimal control with unconstrained flux of an induction motor being considered as a distributed parameter system described by a nonlinear diffusion equation. This approach allows to describe the electrodynamic state of the motor by taking into account, in a natural way, the influence of saturation and eddy-currents, as well as the nonlinearities due to the variable flux operation. Equations are approximated via a finite element formulation which leads to a finite dimensional dynamical system to which the techniques of optimal control may be applied. The generality of the methodology allows to treat various criteria. The objective aimed in this paper is to force the motor torque to follow a given input, especially under initially demagnetized conditions and with, naturally, constraints on the currents. For this purpose the criterion will be chosen as a norm of the difference between the electromagnetic torque and a given reference torque. Numerical simulations are presented for the case of a squirrel-cage rotor and for a solid iron rotor. Results are compared with those deduced from strategies based on lumped-parameter models. Torque responses obtained with field-oriented control method adapted to the case of flux-variable operation are also presented. Finally a modification of the criterion is proposed for identifying the command which allows to obtain the larger torque during transient states. Dans cet article on traite le problème du contrôle optimal à flux libre d'un moteur asynchrone considéré comme un système à paramètres répartis gouverné par une équation de diffusion non linéaire. Cette approche permet de décrire l'état électrodynamique de la machine en prenant naturellement en compte les effets de la saturation et des courants induits, ainsi que les non-linéarités liées au fonctionnement à flux variable. La formulation éléments finis est utilisée pour traduire le problème continu sous la forme d

  15. A Combination of Machine Learning and Cerebellar-like Neural Networks for the Motor Control and Motor Learning of the Fable Modular Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baira Ojeda, Ismael; Tolu, Silvia; Pacheco, Moises

    2017-01-01

    We scaled up a bio-inspired control architecture for the motor control and motor learning of a real modular robot. In our approach, the Locally Weighted Projection Regression algorithm (LWPR) and a cerebellar microcircuit coexist, in the form of a Unit Learning Machine. The LWPR algorithm optimizes...... the input space and learns the internal model of a single robot module to command the robot to follow a desired trajectory with its end-effector. The cerebellar-like microcircuit refines the LWPR output delivering corrective commands. We contrasted distinct cerebellar-like circuits including analytical...

  16. Leadership and Command on the Battlefield. Operation JUST CAUSE and DESERT STORM

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Ladership and Command on the Bautlkfield The command sergeant major was a key player in assisting the commander on the battlefield. Most commanders had... Ladership and Command on the Battlfield Battlefield leadership incorporates more than rehearsals, commander’s intent, briefbacks, position on the

  17. 24 Command Fire Improvement Action Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIFFIN, G.B.

    2000-12-01

    Fluor Hanford (FH) is responsible for providing support to the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (RL) in the implementation of the Hanford Emergency Preparedness (EP) program. During fiscal year 2000, a number of program improvements were identified from various sources including a major range fire (24 Command Fire). Evaluations of the emergency preparedness program have confirmed that it currently meets all requirements and that performance of personnel involved is good, however the desire to effect continuous improvement resulted in the development of this improvement program plan. This program plan defines the activities that will be performed in order to achieve the desired performance improvements.

  18. Spaceport Command and Control System Automated Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Meriel

    2017-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) launch control system for the Orion capsule and Space Launch System, the next generation manned rocket currently in development. This large system requires high quality testing that will properly measure the capabilities of the system. Automating the test procedures would save the project time and money. Therefore, the Electrical Engineering Division at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has recruited interns for the past two years to work alongside full-time engineers to develop these automated tests, as well as innovate upon the current automation process.

  19. Spaceport Command and Control System Automation Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plano, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The goal of automated testing is to create and maintain a cohesive infrastructure of robust tests that could be run independently on a software package in its entirety. To that end, the Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has brought in a large group of interns to work side-by-side with full time employees to do just this work. Thus, our job is to implement the tests that will put SCCS through its paces.

  20. Apollo command module land impact tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccullough, J. E.; Lands, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Full-scale-model and actual spacecraft were impact tested to define the emergency land-landing capability of the Apollo command module. Structural accelerations and strains were recorded on analog instrumentation, and a summary to these data is included. The landing kinematics were obtained from high-speed photography. Photographs of the structural damage caused during the tests are included. Even though extensive damage can be expected, the crew will receive nothing more than minor injuries during the majority of the probable landing conditions.

  1. Command and Control: The Literature and Commentaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    to apply them efficiently and eftcclivoly, or to prevent then) fronm firing on each other, At the strategic level, failure in command and control may...Collinwid (i/id Mir V21 VOper’ational decisions, about how to act. The three C Sess ions5 thatI flol lowv this one I will explot re each of HIC ies three...the career of a British Army officer, including duty as a general officer during tale First World War.] Marshall, Samuel Lyman Atweed. Men Against Fire

  2. In Search of Command and Staff Doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    something else. % R0 .6 42 In a short but ccnpelling ccmpanion dissenting opinion, Judge Lewis asked in the Socratic fashion what was A’s job after he...main theme of Nye’s superb book is that good commanders are good readers.) 15. Query whether Socrates ’ question applies: "How can a man understand the...name of anything, when he does not know the nature of it?" Plato , "Theaetetus," The Dialogues of Plato , in 7 Great Books of the Western World 515

  3. The Battalion Commander’s Handbook 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    I want my men to* *talk to their counterparts frequently even if only to chat about the weather. That way, when a problem needs to be ironed out, a...should I fail. I have seen the face of terror, felt the stinging • cold of fear; and enjoyed the sweet taste of a moment’s love. I have cried , pained...them and the company commanders. Quickly stamp out any "we-they" syndrome . * Make them pull their fair share of the load in headquarters company

  4. Command/response protocols and concurrent software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, W. L.

    1987-01-01

    A version of the program to control the parallel jaw gripper is documented. The parallel jaw end-effector hardware and the Intel 8031 processor that is used to control the end-effector are briefly described. A general overview of the controller program is given and a complete description of the program's structure and design are contained. There are three appendices: a memory map of the on-chip RAM, a cross-reference listing of the self-scheduling routines, and a summary of the top-level and monitor commands.

  5. Data compression for command and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litow, Bruce

    1993-08-01

    Software, both source and executable versions, designed using LR parser generator technology offers superior data compression characteristics both with respect to the compression ratio, which is essentially optimal, and computational resources efficiency. Ten-fold compression should make possible highly sophisticated command and control systems for use during a space mission, on route and at the target. Carrying source in compressed form on manned missions will mean that significant modifications and even redesign of large systems can be accomplished. Basic aspects of this compression scheme are described in the paper.

  6. Command Disaggregation Attack and Mitigation in Industrial Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A cyber-physical attack in the industrial Internet of Things can cause severe damage to physical system. In this paper, we focus on the command disaggregation attack, wherein attackers modify disaggregated commands by intruding command aggregators like programmable logic controllers, and then maliciously manipulate the physical process. It is necessary to investigate these attacks, analyze their impact on the physical process, and seek effective detection mechanisms. We depict two different types of command disaggregation attack modes: (1 the command sequence is disordered and (2 disaggregated sub-commands are allocated to wrong actuators. We describe three attack models to implement these modes with going undetected by existing detection methods. A novel and effective framework is provided to detect command disaggregation attacks. The framework utilizes the correlations among two-tier command sequences, including commands from the output of central controller and sub-commands from the input of actuators, to detect attacks before disruptions occur. We have designed components of the framework and explain how to mine and use these correlations to detect attacks. We present two case studies to validate different levels of impact from various attack models and the effectiveness of the detection framework. Finally, we discuss how to enhance the detection framework.

  7. Command Disaggregation Attack and Mitigation in Industrial Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Peng; Zhu, Pei-Dong; Hu, Yi-Fan; Cui, Peng-Shuai; Zhang, Yan

    2017-10-21

    A cyber-physical attack in the industrial Internet of Things can cause severe damage to physical system. In this paper, we focus on the command disaggregation attack, wherein attackers modify disaggregated commands by intruding command aggregators like programmable logic controllers, and then maliciously manipulate the physical process. It is necessary to investigate these attacks, analyze their impact on the physical process, and seek effective detection mechanisms. We depict two different types of command disaggregation attack modes: (1) the command sequence is disordered and (2) disaggregated sub-commands are allocated to wrong actuators. We describe three attack models to implement these modes with going undetected by existing detection methods. A novel and effective framework is provided to detect command disaggregation attacks. The framework utilizes the correlations among two-tier command sequences, including commands from the output of central controller and sub-commands from the input of actuators, to detect attacks before disruptions occur. We have designed components of the framework and explain how to mine and use these correlations to detect attacks. We present two case studies to validate different levels of impact from various attack models and the effectiveness of the detection framework. Finally, we discuss how to enhance the detection framework.

  8. Modular control of movement and posture by the corticospinal alpha-gamma motor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si Li; Xin He; Ning Lan

    2014-01-01

    It is widely assumed that neural control of movement is carried out by the a motor system sufficiently. The role of the γ motor system in movement and posture has not been adequately addressed in motor control studies. Here, we propose a modular control model for movement and posture based on propriospinal neuronal (PN) network and spinal α-γ motor system. In the modular control model, the a and γ motor commands are divided into static and dynamic functions. The static commands are specified by the higher center of brain for posture control, and the dynamic commands for movement generation, respectively. Centrally planned kinematics based on the minimal jerk criterion is conveyed to the periphery via the γ motor system, while centrally programmed bi-phasic burst pattern of muscle activation is relayed to a pair of antagonistic muscles through the a motor system via the PN. Results of simulation showed that elbow kinematics and biceps and triceps activations displayed the similar kinematic and EMG features of fast reaching movement in human. This suggests a hypothesis that the α-γ motor systems can achieve modular control of movement and posture in parallel.

  9. An Analysis of Special Operations Command - South’s Distributive Command and Control Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Special Ops aviation unit traverses Bermuda Triangle en route to new home”, News Service Release Number 03082525 (August 2003), http://news.soc.mil...7, 2007). U.S. Army Special Operations Command. “Special Ops Aviation Unit Traverses Bermuda Triangle En Route to New Home.” News Service Release

  10. On Command: An Illustrative Study of Command and Control in the Army of Northern Virginia, 1863.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-20

    flowing behind him, came jangling up and vaulted quickly off his horse to join Lee and Jackson. He brought electrifying news. "Fitz" Lee, one of his...in intellectual gymnastics . It is, rather, at the heart of the question of Lee’s poor command and control, for if he was, as it seems, unsure of what

  11. Mission Command in an Age of Persistent Conflict: Historical And Theoretical Approaches to Developing Mission Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Egyptians, Yigal Allon, was the archetypical IDF commander who embodied the approach to operations that the Haganah and Palmach trained so expertly...2011): 288. 31 Ibid., 288. 32 Littlejohn, Theories of Human Communication, 3. 33 Franklin Fearing, “Toward a Psychological Theory of Human

  12. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they ...

  13. Africa Command: U.S. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U.S. Military in Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ploch, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    .... military involvement on the continent has been divided among three commands: U.S. European Command (EUCOM), U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM), and U.S. Pacific Command (PACOM). The new command's area of responsibility...

  14. Hybrid Brain–Computer Interface Techniques for Improved Classification Accuracy and Increased Number of Commands: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Keum-Shik; Khan, Muhammad Jawad

    2017-01-01

    In this article, non-invasive hybrid brain–computer interface (hBCI) technologies for improving classification accuracy and increasing the number of commands are reviewed. Hybridization combining more than two modalities is a new trend in brain imaging and prosthesis control. Electroencephalography (EEG), due to its easy use and fast temporal resolution, is most widely utilized in combination with other brain/non-brain signal acquisition modalities, for instance, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), electromyography (EMG), electrooculography (EOG), and eye tracker. Three main purposes of hybridization are to increase the number of control commands, improve classification accuracy and reduce the signal detection time. Currently, such combinations of EEG + fNIRS and EEG + EOG are most commonly employed. Four principal components (i.e., hardware, paradigm, classifiers, and features) relevant to accuracy improvement are discussed. In the case of brain signals, motor imagination/movement tasks are combined with cognitive tasks to increase active brain–computer interface (BCI) accuracy. Active and reactive tasks sometimes are combined: motor imagination with steady-state evoked visual potentials (SSVEP) and motor imagination with P300. In the case of reactive tasks, SSVEP is most widely combined with P300 to increase the number of commands. Passive BCIs, however, are rare. After discussing the hardware and strategies involved in the development of hBCI, the second part examines the approaches used to increase the number of control commands and to enhance classification accuracy. The future prospects and the extension of hBCI in real-time applications for daily life scenarios are provided. PMID:28790910

  15. Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface Techniques for Improved Classification Accuracy and Increased Number of Commands: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Keum-Shik; Khan, Muhammad Jawad

    2017-01-01

    In this article, non-invasive hybrid brain-computer interface (hBCI) technologies for improving classification accuracy and increasing the number of commands are reviewed. Hybridization combining more than two modalities is a new trend in brain imaging and prosthesis control. Electroencephalography (EEG), due to its easy use and fast temporal resolution, is most widely utilized in combination with other brain/non-brain signal acquisition modalities, for instance, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), electromyography (EMG), electrooculography (EOG), and eye tracker. Three main purposes of hybridization are to increase the number of control commands, improve classification accuracy and reduce the signal detection time. Currently, such combinations of EEG + fNIRS and EEG + EOG are most commonly employed. Four principal components (i.e., hardware, paradigm, classifiers, and features) relevant to accuracy improvement are discussed. In the case of brain signals, motor imagination/movement tasks are combined with cognitive tasks to increase active brain-computer interface (BCI) accuracy. Active and reactive tasks sometimes are combined: motor imagination with steady-state evoked visual potentials (SSVEP) and motor imagination with P300. In the case of reactive tasks, SSVEP is most widely combined with P300 to increase the number of commands. Passive BCIs, however, are rare. After discussing the hardware and strategies involved in the development of hBCI, the second part examines the approaches used to increase the number of control commands and to enhance classification accuracy. The future prospects and the extension of hBCI in real-time applications for daily life scenarios are provided.

  16. Hybrid Brain–Computer Interface Techniques for Improved Classification Accuracy and Increased Number of Commands: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keum-Shik Hong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, non-invasive hybrid brain–computer interface (hBCI technologies for improving classification accuracy and increasing the number of commands are reviewed. Hybridization combining more than two modalities is a new trend in brain imaging and prosthesis control. Electroencephalography (EEG, due to its easy use and fast temporal resolution, is most widely utilized in combination with other brain/non-brain signal acquisition modalities, for instance, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS, electromyography (EMG, electrooculography (EOG, and eye tracker. Three main purposes of hybridization are to increase the number of control commands, improve classification accuracy and reduce the signal detection time. Currently, such combinations of EEG + fNIRS and EEG + EOG are most commonly employed. Four principal components (i.e., hardware, paradigm, classifiers, and features relevant to accuracy improvement are discussed. In the case of brain signals, motor imagination/movement tasks are combined with cognitive tasks to increase active brain–computer interface (BCI accuracy. Active and reactive tasks sometimes are combined: motor imagination with steady-state evoked visual potentials (SSVEP and motor imagination with P300. In the case of reactive tasks, SSVEP is most widely combined with P300 to increase the number of commands. Passive BCIs, however, are rare. After discussing the hardware and strategies involved in the development of hBCI, the second part examines the approaches used to increase the number of control commands and to enhance classification accuracy. The future prospects and the extension of hBCI in real-time applications for daily life scenarios are provided.

  17. The Anthrax Vaccine Debate: A Medical Review for Commanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    confidence at all levels of the chain of command. The anthrax vaccine debate should not be used as a test of leadership . 5 - DoD should continue...THE ANTHRAX VACCINE DEBATE : A MEDICAL REVIEW FOR COMMANDERS by Richard A. Hersack, Col, USAF, MC, CFS The Counterproliferation Papers Future...Report Date 01APR2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle The Anthrax Vaccine Debate : A Medical Review for Commanders

  18. Command and Control Across Space and Cyberspace Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) on the Expeditionary Strike Group SEVEN ( ESG 7) staff. Ashore, Parish served as...groups ( ESGs ) operate in all five domains. The strike group commander has command and control at the operational level and delegates command and...the plug” on space or cyberspace services. The ESG example is just one of many. Maj Gen Zabel used the ICBM example to highlight C2 challenges and

  19. XTCE: XML Telemetry and Command Exchange Tutorial, XTCE Version 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kevin; Kizzort, Brad

    2008-01-01

    These presentation slides are a tutorial on XML Telemetry and Command Exchange (XTCE). The goal of XTCE is to provide an industry standard mechanism for describing telemetry and command streams (particularly from satellites.) it wiill lower cost and increase validation over traditional formats, and support exchange or native format.XCTE is designed to describe bit streams, that are typical of telemetry and command in the historic space domain.

  20. A Command Language Processor for Flexible Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-01

    33 Service Description 34 Introduction to Multiple Langauge Forms Service Functional Module Specification Contexts 35 34 35 v...framework for expressing the syntactic and semantic structure of a computer language. The CLP’s dialogue grammar has as its domain an entire terminal...collection of commands. The domain of the command language designer includes only the design of individual commands. The language designer has no

  1. Defining Command, Leadership, and Management Success Factors Within Stability Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    OPERATIONS So far, pure definitions of command, leadership , and management have been presented, but we have not explored at what levels these ways of getting...PKSOI Papers DEFINING COMMAND, LEADERSHIP , AND MANAGEMENT SUCCESS FACTORS WITHIN STABILITY OPERATIONS Dave Fielder Visit our website for other...00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defining Command, Leadership , and Management Success Factors Within Stability Operations 5a

  2. Temporal predictive mechanisms modulate motor reaction time during initiation and inhibition of speech and hand movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Karim; Behroozmand, Roozbeh

    2017-08-01

    Skilled movement is mediated by motor commands executed with extremely fine temporal precision. The question of how the brain incorporates temporal information to perform motor actions has remained unanswered. This study investigated the effect of stimulus temporal predictability on response timing of speech and hand movement. Subjects performed a randomized vowel vocalization or button press task in two counterbalanced blocks in response to temporally-predictable and unpredictable visual cues. Results indicated that speech and hand reaction time was decreased for predictable compared with unpredictable stimuli. This finding suggests that a temporal predictive code is established to capture temporal dynamics of sensory cues in order to produce faster movements in responses to predictable stimuli. In addition, results revealed a main effect of modality, indicating faster hand movement compared with speech. We suggest that this effect is accounted for by the inherent complexity of speech production compared with hand movement. Lastly, we found that movement inhibition was faster than initiation for both hand and speech, suggesting that movement initiation requires a longer processing time to coordinate activities across multiple regions in the brain. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of temporal information processing during initiation and inhibition of speech and hand movement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Commander's Decision Aid for Predictive Battlespace Awareness (CDA4PBA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calhoun, Christopher S; Fitzhugh, Elisabeth W; Klinger, David W

    2006-01-01

    ...), was to develop and demonstrate human-centered decision-making technologies to improve processes, performance, tools, and training to support a commander's predictive battlespace awareness ability...

  4. Contractor Support on the Battlefield -- Increased Reliance Requires Commander's Attention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maloney, Kathy J

    2006-01-01

    .... Department of Defense initiatives to adopt a leaner business strategy, increase efficiency, and reduce expenditures have exposed the battlefield commander to additional operational risk centered...

  5. Distress, omnipotence, and responsibility beliefs in command hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellett, Lyn; Luzon, Olga; Birchwood, Max; Abbas, Zarina; Harris, Abi; Chadwick, Paul

    2017-09-01

    Command hallucinations are considered to be one of the most distressing and disturbing symptoms of schizophrenia. Building on earlier studies, we compare key attributes in the symptomatic, affective, and cognitive profiles of people diagnosed with schizophrenia and hearing voices that do (n = 77) or do not (n = 74) give commands. The study employed a cross-sectional design, in which we assessed voice severity, distress and control (PSYRATs), anxiety and depression (HADS), beliefs about voices (BAVQ-R), and responsibility beliefs (RIQ). Clinical and demographic variables were also collected. Command hallucinations were found to be more distressing and controlling, perceived as more omnipotent and malevolent, linked to higher anxiety and depression, and resisted more than hallucinations without commands. Commanding voices were also associated with higher conviction ratings for being personally responsible for preventing harm. The findings suggest key differences in the affective and cognitive profiles of people who hear commanding voices, which have important implications for theory and psychological interventions. Command hallucinations are associated with higher distress, malevolence, and omnipotence. Command hallucinations are associated with higher responsibility beliefs for preventing harm. Responsibility beliefs are associated with voice-related distress. Future psychological interventions for command hallucinations might benefit from focussing not only on omnipotence, but also on responsibility beliefs, as is done in psychological therapies for obsessive compulsive disorder. Limitations The cross-sectional design does not assess issues of causality. We did not measure the presence or severity of delusions. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  7. Collins named First Woman Shuttle Commander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Just a few hours after NASA revealed that there is water ice on the Moon, U.S. First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton introduced Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Eileen Collins to a packed auditorium at Dunbar Senior High School in Washington, D.C., as the first woman who will command a NASA space shuttle mission. With students at this school, which is noted for its pre-engineering program, cheering, Clinton said that Collins' selection “is one big step forward for women and one giant step for humanity.” Clinton added, “It doesn't matter if you are a boy or a girl, you can be an astronaut or a pilot, if you get a first-rate education in math and science.”

  8. The Arecibo Remote Command Center Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Fronefield; Jenet, Fredrick; Christy, Brian; Dolch, Timothy; Guerreo-Miller, Alma; Quetschke, Volker; Siemens, Xavier; Smith, Tristan L.; Stovall, Kevin; Wade, Leslie; Wade, Madeline

    2017-01-01

    The Arecibo Remote Command Center (ARCC) network is an education, research, and training program for undergraduates, graduate students, and postdocs spanning multiple institutions. ARCC members use the Arecibo 305-m radio telescope to remotely conduct pulsar survey and timing observations, and they search the data collected to find new radio pulsars using a custom pulsar candidate viewer. Timing data are used in the ongoing NANOGrav search for gravitational waves using pulsar timing arrays. The ARCC program also serves as an effective introduction for students to radio pulsar research. Currently ARCC has seven institutional members and dozens of participants. Our poster provides some general background about the ARCC program at Franklin and Marshall College and serves as a catalyst for in-person conversations and discussions about ARCC, including the benefits of joining the ARCC network and some specifics on how to join.

  9. The Arecibo Remote Command Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Fronefield; Jenet, Fredrick; Siemens, Xavier; Dolch, Timothy; Stovall, Kevin

    2016-07-01

    The Arecibo Remote Command Center (ARCC) is a multi-institution research and education program that introduces undergraduates to the field of pulsar research. Specifically, the program trains students to work in small teams to operate several of the world's largest radio telescopes (both Arecibo and the Green Bank Telescope). Students conduct survey observations for the PALFA Galactic plane pulsar survey and conduct timing observations of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) for the NANOGrav search for gravitational waves using these telescopes. In addition, ARCC students search pulsar candidates generated from processed survey data in order to find both new radio MSPs and non-recycled pulsars. The ARCC program currently operates at four U.S. institutions and involves more than 50 undergraduate students each year. To date, ARCC students have discovered 64 new pulsars in this program.

  10. Central command dysfunction in rats with heart failure is mediated by brain oxidative stress and normalized by exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koba, Satoshi; Hisatome, Ichiro; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2014-09-01

    Sympathoexcitation elicited by central command, a parallel activation of the motor and autonomic neural circuits in the brain, has been shown to become exaggerated in chronic heart failure (CHF). The present study tested the hypotheses that oxidative stress in the medulla in CHF plays a role in exaggerating central command-elicited sympathoexcitation, and that exercise training in CHF suppresses central command-elicited sympathoexcitation through its antioxidant effects in the medulla. In decerebrate rats, central command was activated by electrically stimulating the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) after neuromuscular blockade. The MLR stimulation at a current intensity greater than locomotion threshold in rats with CHF after myocardial infarction (MI) evoked larger (P rats (Sham) and rats with CHF that had completed longterm (8–12 weeks) exercise training (MI + TR). In the Sham and MI + TR rats, bilateral microinjection of a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic Tempol into the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) had no effects on MLR stimulation-elicited responses. By contrast, in MI rats, Tempol treatment significantly reduced MLR stimulation-elicited responses. In a subset of MI rats, treatment with Tiron, another SOD mimetic, within the RVLM also reduced responses. Superoxide generation in the RVLM, as evaluated by dihydroethidium staining, was enhanced in MI rats compared with that in Sham and MI + TR rats. Collectively, these results support the study hypotheses. We suggest that oxidative stress in the medulla in CHF mediates central command dysfunction, and that exercise training in CHF is capable of normalizing central command dysfunction through its antioxidant effects in the medulla.

  11. Motor resonance in left- and right-handers: evidence for effector-independent motor representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The idea of motor resonance was born at the time that it was demonstrated that cortical and spinal pathways of the motor system are specifically activated during both action-observation and execution. What is not known is if the human action observation-execution matching system simulates actions through motor representations specifically attuned to the laterality of the observed effectors (i.e., effector-dependent representations or through abstract motor representations unconnected to the observed effector (i.e., effector-independent representations.To answer that question we need to know how the information necessary for motor resonance is represented or integrated within the representation of an effector. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS-induced motor evoked potentials (MEPs were thus recorded from the dominant and non-dominant hands of left- and right-handed participants while they observed a left- or a right-handed model grasping an object. The anatomical correspondence between the effector being observed and the observer’s effector classically reported in the literature was confirmed by the MEP response in the dominant hand of participants observing models with their same hand preference. This effect was found in both left- as well as in right-handers. When a broader spectrum of options, such as actions performed by a model with a different hand preference, was instead considered, that correspondence disappeared. Motor resonance was noted in the observer’s dominant effector regardless of the laterality of the hand being observed. This would indicate that there is a more sophisticated mechanism which works to convert someone else’s pattern of movement into the observer’s optimal motor commands and that effector-independent representations specifically modulate motor resonance.

  12. Heat engine and electric motor torque distribution strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boberg, Evan S.; Gebby, Brian P.

    1999-09-28

    A method is provided for controlling a power train system for a hybrid electric vehicle. The method includes a torque distribution strategy for controlling the engine and the electric motor. The engine and motor commands are determined based upon the accelerator position, the battery state of charge and the amount of engine and motor torque available. The amount of torque requested for the engine is restricted by a limited rate of rise in order to reduce the emissions from the engine. The limited engine torque is supplemented by motor torque in order to meet a torque request determined based upon the accelerator position.

  13. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  14. Command Structure for Theater Warfare: The Quest for Unity of Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    managership ot airpowet under the an component commander isdcnm! liom pi.icl-c.il experience and history In North Attica m 1442 to I’M*. American airmen...easy decision. The Navy and Marine Corps viewed single managership of air assets difterently than the Army and the Air Force. We made some false starts...The Marine Corps contended that the ground war should determine the airstrikes and that single managership would force them to increase their staff

  15. Mission Command and Antiaccess/Area-Denial: Implications for Joint Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ballistic missile are contributing to this perception. 5 This deployment however, still does not answer basic questions of whether the technology in...intensity AA/AD problem a centralized national priority. Mission Command is not Enough Van Creveld argues that "from Plato to NATO, the history of...such as who has the best information, who has the most robust communication capability, and at what level risk decisions are made all contribute to

  16. The Unified Command Plan and Combatant Commands: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    along with the Indian Ocean islands of Comoros, Madagascar , Mauritius, and Seychelles. U.S. Central Command maintains its traditional relationship...Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, and the waters around Central and South America extending into the Pacific to the Galapagos Island . Marine Corps Forces U.S...responsible for U.S. military relations with 54 African countries including the islands of Cape Verde, Equatorial Guinea, and Sao Tome and Principe

  17. The impact of command signal power distribution, processing delays, and speed scaling on neurally-controlled devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, A. R.; Taylor, D. M.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Decoding algorithms for brain-machine interfacing (BMI) are typically only optimized to reduce the magnitude of decoding errors. Our goal was to systematically quantify how four characteristics of BMI command signals impact closed-loop performance: (1) error magnitude, (2) distribution of different frequency components in the decoding errors, (3) processing delays, and (4) command gain. Approach. To systematically evaluate these different command features and their interactions, we used a closed-loop BMI simulator where human subjects used their own wrist movements to command the motion of a cursor to targets on a computer screen. Random noise with three different power distributions and four different relative magnitudes was added to the ongoing cursor motion in real time to simulate imperfect decoding. These error characteristics were tested with four different visual feedback delays and two velocity gains. Main results. Participants had significantly more trouble correcting for errors with a larger proportion of low-frequency, slow-time-varying components than they did with jittery, higher-frequency errors, even when the error magnitudes were equivalent. When errors were present, a movement delay often increased the time needed to complete the movement by an order of magnitude more than the delay itself. Scaling down the overall speed of the velocity command can actually speed up target acquisition time when low-frequency errors and delays are present. Significance. This study is the first to systematically evaluate how the combination of these four key command signal features (including the relatively-unexplored error power distribution) and their interactions impact closed-loop performance independent of any specific decoding method. The equations we derive relating closed-loop movement performance to these command characteristics can provide guidance on how best to balance these different factors when designing BMI systems. The equations reported

  18. A user report on the trial use of gesture commands for image manipulation and X-ray acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ellis Chun Fai; Lai, Christopher Wai Keung

    2016-07-01

    Touchless environment for image manipulation and X-ray acquisition may enhance the current infection control measure during X-ray examination simply by avoiding any touch on the control panel. The present study is intended at designing and performing a trial experiment on using motion-sensing technology to perform image manipulation and X-ray acquisition function (the activities a radiographer frequently performs during an X-ray examination) under an experimental setup. Based on the author's clinical experience, several gesture commands were designed carefully to complete a single X-ray examination. Four radiographers were randomly recruited for the study. They were asked to perform gesture commands in front of a computer integrated with a gesture-based touchless controller. The translational movements of the tip of their thumb and index finger while performing different gesture commands were recorded for analysis. Although individual operators were free to decide the extent of movement and the speed at which their fingers and thumbs moved while performing these gesture commands, the result of our study demonstrated that all operators could perform our proposed gesture commands with good consistency, suggesting that motion-sensing technology could, in practice, be integrated into radiographic examinations. To summarize, although the implementation of motion-sensing technology as an input command in radiographic examination might inevitably slow down the examination throughput considering that extra procedural steps are required to trigger specific gesture commands in sequence, it is advantageous in minimizing the potential of the pathogen contamination during image operation and image processing that leads to cross infection.

  19. Effect of motor dynamics on nonlinear feedback robot arm control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Li, Zuofeng; Bejczy, Antal K.; Yun, Xiaoping

    1991-01-01

    A nonlinear feedback robot controller that incorporates the robot manipulator dynamics and the robot joint motor dynamics is proposed. The manipulator dynamics and the motor dynamics are coupled to obtain a third-order-dynamic model, and differential geometric control theory is applied to produce a linearized and decoupled robot controller. The derived robot controller operates in the robot task space, thus eliminating the need for decomposition of motion commands into robot joint space commands. Computer simulations are performed to verify the feasibility of the proposed robot controller. The controller is further experimentally evaluated on the PUMA 560 robot arm. The experiments show that the proposed controller produces good trajectory tracking performances and is robust in the presence of model inaccuracies. Compared with a nonlinear feedback robot controller based on the manipulator dynamics only, the proposed robot controller yields conspicuously improved performance.

  20. 14 CFR 91.531 - Second in command requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.531 Second in command...-powered multiengine airplane for which two pilots are required under the type certification requirements... the qualifications for second in command prescribed in § 61.55 of this chapter. (d) No person may...

  1. U.S. Northern Command Counterterrorism Response Force Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Response ......................................................................................................... 48 Dedicated Air and Sustainment ...bombers struck near the Stade de France in Saint-Denis, followed by suicide bombings and mass shootings at cafes, restaurants , and the Bataclan Concert...deploying within the United Sates with organic command and control, air, and sustainment for a catastrophic event. Serving as the combatant command

  2. Turn-based gaming for convoy commander training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, R.C.; Muller, T.J.; Vrijer, J.C. de

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing complexity of current-day military operations, effective education and training of military commanders is of vital importance. Commanders need to perform within a broader range of conflicts; unpredictable threats and civil-military interaction place a great demand on their

  3. The impact of new technologies on shipboard command and control

    OpenAIRE

    Oats, Trey D.; Erickson, Matthew C.

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited An investigation of how fuel cells, an integrated power system, and directed energy weapons will affect the shipboard command and control process. The focus is on the implementation of the new technologies onboard near-term and far-term destroyer variants and the resulting changes to the command and control process. Ensign, United States Naval Reserve

  4. Land impact test of the Apollo Command Module at MSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Technicians and engineers gather to monitor a land impact test of the Apollo Command Module (Airframe 009) in a test area at Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). In this view, the Command Module test vehicle is released from the tower to fall to the ground.

  5. Program Funding Guide for Air Force Systems Command Space Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    Robert O’Shaughnessy, USN. My special thanks are also due Major Lawrence J. Hildebrand, Headquarters, Air Force Systems Command/ SDSD , for providing in...and Engineering. Washington, D.C., May 1974. 14. Hildebrand, Lawrence J., MAJ USAF., Interview conducted at Air Force Systems Command, AFSC/ SDSD . 12 August 1975. C-2 I

  6. 32 CFR 761.9 - Entry Control Commanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Guantanamo Bay Naval Defensive Sea Area and the Guantanamo Naval Airspace Reservation. (This authority delegated to Commander U.S. Naval Base, Guantanamo Bay.) (e) Commander U.S. Naval Base, Guantanamo Bay. Authorization for all persons, ships, and aircraft to enter the Guantanamo Bay Naval Defensive Sea Area and the...

  7. Apollo 9 Command/Service Modules photographed from Lunar Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 9 Command/Service Modules photographed from the Lunar Module, 'Spider', on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. Docking mechanism is visible in nose of the Command Module, 'Gumdrop'. Object jutting out from the Service Module aft bulkhead is the high-gain S-Band antenna.

  8. Benefits Of Mission Command: Balance Of Philosophy And System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    entered the US Army vocabulary in Field Manual (FM) 6-0 in August 2003 under “the premise that commanders exercise C2 (command and control) over...of its kind since World War II. On September 11, 2001, terrorists used commercial airliners as bombs to attack the World Trade Center in New York

  9. 32 CFR 536.7 - Responsibilities of the Commander USARCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Responsibilities of the Commander USARCS. 536.7... ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.7 Responsibilities of the Commander...) geographic areas of claims responsibility. (g) Recommend action to be taken by the SA, TJAG or the U.S...

  10. What does motor efference copy represent? Evidence from speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niziolek, Caroline A; Nagarajan, Srikantan S; Houde, John F

    2013-10-09

    How precisely does the brain predict the sensory consequences of our actions? Efference copy is thought to reflect the predicted sensation of self-produced motor acts, such as the auditory feedback heard while speaking. Here, we use magnetoencephalographic imaging (MEG-I) in human speakers to demonstrate that efference copy prediction does not track movement variability across repetitions of the same motor task. Specifically, spoken vowels were less accurately predicted when they were less similar to a speaker's median production, even though the prediction is thought to be based on the very motor commands that generate each vowel. Auditory cortical responses to less prototypical speech productions were less suppressed, resembling responses to speech errors, and were correlated with later corrective movement, suggesting that the suppression may be functionally significant for error correction. The failure of the motor system to accurately predict less prototypical speech productions suggests that the efferent-driven suppression does not reflect a sensory prediction, but a sensory goal.

  11. A Recommended New Approach on Motorization Ratio Calculations of Stepper Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbandian, Ruben; Blais, Thierry; Horth, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Stepper motors are widely used on most spacecraft mechanisms requiring repeatable and reliable performance. The unique detent torque characteristics of these type of motors makes them behave differently when subjected to low duty cycle excitations where the applied driving pulses are only energized for a fraction of the pulse duration. This phenomenon is even more pronounced in discrete permanent magnet stepper motors used in the space industry. While the inherent high detent properties of discrete permanent magnets provide desirable unpowered holding performance characteristics, it results in unique behavior especially in low duty cycles. Notably, the running torque reduces quickly to the unpowered holding torque when the duty cycle is reduced. The space industry's accepted methodology of calculating the Motorization Ratio (or Torque Margin) is more applicable to systems where the power is continuously applied to the motor coils like brushless DC motors where the cogging torques are low enough not to affect the linear performance of the motors as a function of applied current. This paper summarizes the theoretical and experimental studies performed on a number of space qualified motors under different pulse rates and duty cycles. It is the intention of this paper to introduce a new approach to calculate the Motorization Ratios for discrete permanent magnet steppers under all full and partial duty cycle regimes. The recommended approach defines two distinct relationships to calculate the Motorization Ratio for 100 percent duty cycle and partial duty cycle, when the motor detent (unpowered holding torque) is the main contributor to holding position. These two computations reflect accurately the stepper motor physical behavior as a function of the command phase (ON versus OFF times of the pulses), pointing out how the torque contributors combine. Important points highlighted under this study are the torque margin computations, in particular for well characterized

  12. Brain mechanisms underlying automatic and unconscious control of motor action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eD'ostilio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Are we in command of our motor acts? The popular belief holds that our conscious decisions are the direct causes of our actions. However, overwhelming evidence from neurosciences demonstrates that our actions are instead largely driven by brain processes that unfold outside of our consciousness. To study these brain processes, scientists have used a range of different functional brain imaging techniques and experimental protocols, such as subliminal priming. Here, we review recent advances in the field and propose a theoretical model of motor control that may contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease.

  13. Traffic of cytoskeletal motors with disordered attachment rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeschik, H.; Harris, R. J.; Santen, L.

    2010-03-01

    Motivated by experimental results on the interplay between molecular motors and tau proteins, we extend lattice-based models of intracellular transport to include a second species of particle which locally influences the motor-filament attachment rate. We consider various exactly solvable limits of a stochastic multiparticle model before focusing on the low-motor-density regime. Here, an approximate treatment based on the random-walk behavior of single motors gives good quantitative agreement with simulation results for the tau dependence of the motor current. Finally, we discuss the possible physiological implications of our results.

  14. Four quadrant control circuit for a brushless three-phase dc motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, Frank J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A control circuit is provided for a brushless three-phase dc motor which affords four quadrant control from a single command. The control circuit probes acceleration of the motor in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions and braking and generation in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions. In addition to turning on individual transistors of the transistor pairs connected to the phase windings of the motor for 120 deg periods while the other transistor of that pair is off, the control circuit also provides, in a future mode of operation, turning the two transistors of each pair on and off alternately at a phase modulation frequency during such a 120 deg period. A feedback signal is derived which is proportional to the motor current and which has a polarity consistent with the command signal, such that negative feedback results.

  15. OPEN-LOOP CONTROL OF A BIPOLAR STEPPER MOTORS USING THE SPECIALIZED INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe BALUTA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the open-loop control of a stepper motors. Bipolar stepper motors can be driven with an L297, an L298N bridge driver and very few external components. With an L298N this configuration drives motors with winding currents up to 2.5A. If very high powers are required an equivalent circuit made with discrete transistors replaces the bridge driver. Together these two chips form a complete microprocessor-to-stepper motor interface. The command signals for the controller L297 are generated through an IBM-PC486 interface. It was developed an open-loop command program written in BorlandC programming language.

  16. Daily update of motor predictions by physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueugneau, Nicolas; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2015-12-03

    Motor prediction, i.e., the ability to predict the sensory consequences of motor commands, is critical for adapted motor behavior. Like speed or force, the accuracy of motor prediction varies in a 24-hour basis. Although the prevailing view is that basic biological markers regulate this circadian modulation, behavioral factors such as physical activity, itself modulated by the alternation of night and day, can also regulate motor prediction. Here, we propose that physical activity updates motor prediction on a daily basis. We tested our hypothesis by up- and down-regulating physical activity via arm-immobilization and high-intensity training, respectively. Motor prediction was assessed by measuring the timing differences between actual and mental arm movements. Results show that although mental movement time was modulated during the day when the arm was unconstrained, it remained constant when the arm was immobilized. Additionally, increase of physical activity, via release from immobilization or intense bout of training, significantly reduced mental movement time. Finally, mental and actual times were similar in the afternoon in the unconstrained condition, indicating that predicted and actual movements match after sufficient amount of physical activity. Our study supports the view that physical activity calibrates motor predictions on a daily basis.

  17. Controlling a Four-Quadrant Brushless Three-Phase dc Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    Control circuit commutates windings of brushless, three-phase, permanent-magnet motor operating from power supply. With single analog command voltage, controller makes motor accelerate, drive steadily, or brake regeneratively, in clockwise or counterclockwise direction. Controller well suited for use with energy-storage flywheels, actuators for aircraft-control surfaces, cranes, industrial robots, and other electromechanical systems requiring bidirectional control or sudden stopping and reversal.

  18. Improved motor sequence retention by motionless listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Amir; Katz, Tal; Chess, Roxanne; Saltzman, Elliot

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effect of listening to a newly learned musical piece on subsequent motor retention of the piece. Thirty-six non-musicians were trained to play an unfamiliar melody on a piano keyboard. Next, they were randomly assigned to participate in three follow-up listening sessions over 1 week. Subjects who, during their listening sessions, listened to the same initial piece showed significant improvements in motor memory and retention of the piece despite the absence of physical practice. These improvements included increased pitch accuracy, time accuracy, and dynamic intensity of key pressing. Similar improvements, though to a lesser degree, were observed in subjects who, during their listening sessions, were distracted by another task. Control subjects, who after learning the piece had listened to nonmusical sounds, showed impaired motoric retention of the piece at 1 week from the initial acquisition day. These results imply that motor sequences can be established in motor memory without direct access to motor-related information. In addition, the study revealed that the listening-induced improvements did not generalize to the learning of a new musical piece composed of the same notes as the initial piece learned, limiting the effects to musical motor sequences that are already part of the individual's motor repertoire.

  19. Observing motor learning produces somatosensory change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Nicolò F; Darainy, Mohammad; Bricolo, Emanuela; Ostry, David J

    2013-10-01

    Observing the actions of others has been shown to affect motor learning, but does it have effects on sensory systems as well? It has been recently shown that motor learning that involves actual physical practice is also associated with plasticity in the somatosensory system. Here, we assessed the idea that observational learning likewise changes somatosensory function. We evaluated changes in somatosensory function after human subjects watched videos depicting motor learning. Subjects first observed video recordings of reaching movements either in a clockwise or counterclockwise force field. They were then trained in an actual force-field task that involved a counterclockwise load. Measures of somatosensory function were obtained before and after visual observation and also following force-field learning. Consistent with previous reports, video observation promoted motor learning. We also found that somatosensory function was altered following observational learning, both in direction and in magnitude, in a manner similar to that which occurs when motor learning is achieved through actual physical practice. Observation of the same sequence of movements in a randomized order did not result in somatosensory perceptual change. Observational learning and real physical practice appear to tap into the same capacity for sensory change in that subjects that showed a greater change following observational learning showed a reliably smaller change following physical motor learning. We conclude that effects of observing motor learning extend beyond the boundaries of traditional motor circuits, to include somatosensory representations.

  20. Coalition command and control: a Canadian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Robert; Demers, David; Gouin, Denis; McCann, Carol; Nourry, Gerard; Pigeau, Ross; Smith, Donald L.; Vezina, Guy; Walker, Robert S.

    1998-08-01

    Canada has been, and remains, committed to participating in coalition operations to promote peace and stability in the post-Cold War world. However, coalition operations challenge traditional command and control concepts, from both the technological and the human perspectives. In the short term, Canada is working closely with traditional NATO and ABCA allies to ensure that the next generation of automated C2 information systems are able to exchange information effectively through structured messages, gateways and standardized data models. Canada is also conducting R&D, and participating in collaborative experiments, to evolve the next generation of systems to permit richer, more dynamic information sharing, along the lines of the Internet and World Wide Web. However, information technology alone will not solve the problems of coalition operations. Research needs to be undertaken to understand task assignment and information flow among coalition partners at the process or operational level. Research is also required at the human level, where differences between coalition partners in culture, personal values, military expectations, religions, and societal values are proving to be less tractable than differences in message formats and communication protocols.

  1. Mechanosensation and Adaptive Motor Control in Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, John C; Wilson, Rachel I

    2016-10-24

    The ability of animals to flexibly navigate through complex environments depends on the integration of sensory information with motor commands. The sensory modality most tightly linked to motor control is mechanosensation. Adaptive motor control depends critically on an animal's ability to respond to mechanical forces generated both within and outside the body. The compact neural circuits of insects provide appealing systems to investigate how mechanical cues guide locomotion in rugged environments. Here, we review our current understanding of mechanosensation in insects and its role in adaptive motor control. We first examine the detection and encoding of mechanical forces by primary mechanoreceptor neurons. We then discuss how central circuits integrate and transform mechanosensory information to guide locomotion. Because most studies in this field have been performed in locusts, cockroaches, crickets, and stick insects, the examples we cite here are drawn mainly from these 'big insects'. However, we also pay particular attention to the tiny fruit fly, Drosophila, where new tools are creating new opportunities, particularly for understanding central circuits. Our aim is to show how studies of big insects have yielded fundamental insights relevant to mechanosensation in all animals, and also to point out how the Drosophila toolkit can contribute to future progress in understanding mechanosensory processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Neural Feedback Response to Error As a Teaching Signal for the Motor Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadmehr, Reza

    2016-01-01

    When we experience an error during a movement, we update our motor commands to partially correct for this error on the next trial. How does experience of error produce the improvement in the subsequent motor commands? During the course of an erroneous reaching movement, proprioceptive and visual sensory pathways not only sense the error, but also engage feedback mechanisms, resulting in corrective motor responses that continue until the hand arrives at its goal. One possibility is that this feedback response is co-opted by the learning system and used as a template to improve performance on the next attempt. Here we used electromyography (EMG) to compare neural correlates of learning and feedback to test the hypothesis that the feedback response to error acts as a template for learning. We designed a task in which mixtures of error-clamp and force-field perturbation trials were used to deconstruct EMG time courses into error-feedback and learning components. We observed that the error-feedback response was composed of excitation of some muscles, and inhibition of others, producing a complex activation/deactivation pattern during the reach. Despite this complexity, across muscles the learning response was consistently a scaled version of the error-feedback response, but shifted 125 ms earlier in time. Across people, individuals who produced a greater feedback response to error, also learned more from error. This suggests that the feedback response to error serves as a teaching signal for the brain. Individuals who learn faster have a better teacher in their feedback control system. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our sensory organs transduce errors in behavior. To improve performance, we must generate better motor commands. How does the nervous system transform an error in sensory coordinates into better motor commands in muscle coordinates? Here we show that when an error occurs during a movement, the reflexes transform the sensory representation of error into motor

  3. Reviewing Command and Control for a Heavy Brigade: Tweaking the Design of the Forward Command Posts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-19

    Armored Division then became the spearhead for General George Patton’s Third Army. 1 2 4 At 0500 hours on August 1st, Colonel Clarke received orders from...116Ibid. 1 1 7 1bid. 1 1 8 ibid. 1 1 9 John L. Romjue, "From Active Defense to AirLand Battle: The Development of Army Doctrine 1973-1982," Tradoc...Key to Winning," Military Review, (July 1990), 65. 162Richard P. Geier , "Battalion Command and Control", Armor 94, no.2 (September-October 1985), 9

  4. Electric motor handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, B J

    2013-01-01

    Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit

  5. DNA Bipedal Motor Achieves a Large Number of Steps Due to Operation Using Microfluidics-Based Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, Toma E; Tsukanov, Roman; Glick, Yair; Berger, Yaron; Liber, Miran; Avrahami, Dorit; Gerber, Doron; Nir, Eyal

    2017-04-25

    Realization of bioinspired molecular machines that can perform many and diverse operations in response to external chemical commands is a major goal in nanotechnology, but current molecular machines respond to only a few sequential commands. Lack of effective methods for introduction and removal of command compounds and low efficiencies of the reactions involved are major reasons for the limited performance. We introduce here a user interface based on a microfluidics device and single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy that allows efficient introduction and removal of chemical commands and enables detailed study of the reaction mechanisms involved in the operation of synthetic molecular machines. The microfluidics provided 64 consecutive DNA strand commands to a DNA-based motor system immobilized inside the microfluidics, driving a bipedal walker to perform 32 steps on a DNA origami track. The microfluidics enabled removal of redundant strands, resulting in a 6-fold increase in processivity relative to an identical motor operated without strand removal and significantly more operations than previously reported for user-controlled DNA nanomachines. In the motor operated without strand removal, redundant strands interfere with motor operation and reduce its performance. The microfluidics also enabled computer control of motor direction and speed. Furthermore, analysis of the reaction kinetics and motor performance in the absence of redundant strands, made possible by the microfluidics, enabled accurate modeling of the walker processivity. This enabled identification of dynamic boundaries and provided an explanation, based on the "trap state" mechanism, for why the motor did not perform an even larger number of steps. This understanding is very important for the development of future motors with significantly improved performance. Our universal interface enables two-way communication between user and molecular machine and, relying on concepts similar to that of solid

  6. Quad-copter UAV BLDC Motor Control: Linear v/s non-linear control maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Parikh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some investigations and comparison of using linear versus non-linear static motor-control maps for the speed control of a BLDC (Brush Less Direct Current motors used in quad-copter UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. The motor-control map considered here is the inverse of the static map relating motor-speed output to motor-voltage input for a typical out-runner type Brushless DC Motors (BLDCM.  Traditionally, quad-copter BLDC motor speed control uses simple linear motor-control map defined by the motor-constant specification. However, practical BLDC motors show non-linear characteristic, particularly when operated across wide operating speed-range as is commonly required in quad-copter UAV flight operations. In this paper, our investigations to compare performance of linear versus non-linear motor-control maps are presented. The investigations cover simulation-based and experimental study of BLDC motor speed control systems for  quad-copter vehicle available. First the non-linear map relating rotor RPM to motor voltage for quad-copter BLDC motor is obtained experimentally using an optical speed encoder. The performance of the linear versus non-linear motor-control-maps for the speed control are studied. The investigations also cover study of time-responses for various standard test input-signals e.g. step, ramp and pulse inputs, applied as the reference speed-commands. Also, simple 2-degree of freedom test-bed is developed in our laboratory to help test the open-loop and closed-loop experimental investigations. The non-linear motor-control map is found to perform better in BLDC motor speed tracking control performance and thereby helping achieve better quad-copter roll-angle attitude control.

  7. Distributed Command/Control Impacts on NAS Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Command and Control (C2) activities abound in the NAS, and significantly influence daily operations and overall NAS efficiency. Since C2 effects are so prominent,...

  8. Command and Control Planning and Teamwork: Exploring the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sterling, Bruce S; Lickteig, Carl W

    2000-01-01

    .... This paper examines how participant ratings of command and control planning and observer assessments of teamwork were related in a series of futuristic missions conducted by the Mounted Maneuver...

  9. Detecting malware based on expired command-and-control traffic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zou, Futai; Zhang, Siyu; Li, Linsen; Pan, Li; Li, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the behavioral characteristics of domain name service queries produced by programs and then design an algorithm to detect malware with expired command-and-control domains...

  10. Implementing UPDM to develop command and control systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, R

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Systems engineering is an established approach to develop systems, including complex sociotechnical systems such as Command and Control (C2) Systems. These systems often occur through introduction of a new technology into an existing system...

  11. Architecting Joint Command and Control System of System Capability Certifications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Acosta, Jacob; Hoesly, Scot; Huseth, Scott; Krider, Steven; Lamb, Jeremy; Martin, Calvin; Medina, Vince; Medina, Jorge; Nguyen, Michael; Patel, Jaykant

    2007-01-01

    Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C4I) systems, each originally designed to address a single warfighting function, have been assembled into an interdependent C4I System of Systems (SoS...

  12. Africa Command: Building a Foundation of Operational Interagency Cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Piacenti, Chad E

    2007-01-01

    Interagency cooperation has been a recognized deficiency for many years. The National Security Act of 1947 and the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 helped to streamline military operations and chains of command...

  13. Gesture Commanding of a Robot with EVA Gloves Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gesture commanding can be applied and evaluated with NASA robot systems. Application of this input modality can improve the way crewmembers interact with robots...

  14. Position Command Shaping for Vibration Suppression Considering Target Position Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masafumi; Ito, Kazuaki; Iwasaki, Makoto; Matsui, Nobuyuki

    This paper presents a command shaping technique based on a minimum jerk control approach considering a target position correction during motion, for the fast and precise positioning in vibratory mechatronic systems. The positioning controller is designed by a 2-degrees-of-freedom control: a feedback compensator is synthesized by H∞ control design to ensure the robust stability, while a feedforward compensator suppresses the vibration in response based on a coprime factorization expression of the plant mechanism. The command shaping, on the other hand, eliminates the corresponding vibration components of the primary and secondary modes in the position command, where the continuity of jerk component in the command can be ensured against the target position correction. The effectiveness of the proposed shaping technique has been verified by experiments using a table drive system on machine stand.

  15. What It Takes. Air Force Command of Joint Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Operations Center DNA Defense Nuclear Agency DoD Department of Defense DRAT Disaster Response Assessment Team ENGR engineer EPOC (United States...USEUCOM Training Transformation in Support of C2 Transformation,” briefing, September 2003, p. 6. Command Concepts 35 Center ( EPOC ).35 Contrary to...most expectations of how the SJFHQ (CE) will work, the EPOC plans to deploy only around 20 of its staff to JTF headquarters. U.S. Pacific Command

  16. Assessment of Army Contracting Command’s Contract Management Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    D. M., Clouse, A., & Turner, R. (2001). CMMI , distilled. Boston: Addison- Wesley. Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM)(2009). AMCOM Fact Sheet...organizational culture at naval air systems command (Master’s Thesis ). Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School. Kraljic, P. (1983, September...J. (2008, January). Analysis of the contracting processes and ethical culture at Ogden Air Logistics Center, Hill AFB, UT (Master’s Thesis

  17. The Law of War and the Operational Commander

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-08

    Every member of the military is bound by oath to discharge his or her duties in accordance with the law of war. This paper examines the influence of... the law of war on the operational commander and includes legal planning considerations for campaigns. It does not list all laws of armed conflict or...history clearly indicate that operational commanders who have adhered to the law of war emerged victorious in their respective campaigns. Analysis of these

  18. The Exercise of Control by Joint Force Commanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-25

    consituted a decentralization of control – from one commander to several commanders and staffs – was the development of doctrine to enable them to...joint doctrine is fulfilling this purpose with regard to control. Prussian military reformers Scharnhorst and Moltke instituted common education...from a long-standing military alliance such as NATO, US- Japan or US-ROK, this will mean significant interoperability challenges which the CJTF and

  19. Overhead cost allocation at Military Sealift Command, Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, Katharine A.

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The purpose of this thesis is to examine overhead costs and allocation methods at the Military Sealift Command (MSC). The command's overhead expenses from Fiscal Year 1988 through 1994 are reviewed and followed by a description of MSC's current method of allocating overhead to specific shipping arrangements. Possible sources of information distortion involved in indirect overhead allocation are discussed, and an alternative method of allo...

  20. Introduction to Command, Control, and Communications: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    CSSE Combat Service Support Element CSSOC Combat Service Support Operations Center CTAPS Contingency TACS Air Planning System CTE Commander Task Element...maker. b. C2 Analogy To illustrate the C2 process, Coakley uses the analogy of a head coach of a football team and compares it to that of a commander...Program Activity (DMPA) Office of Economic Adjustment (OEA) Dept. of Defense Dependent Schools (DODDS) American Forces Information Service (AFIS) Defense

  1. Measuring Command Post Operations in a Decisive Action Training Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    ATTP 5-0.1, Commander and Staff Officer Guide, and FM 6-0, Commander and Staff Organization. The CP Operations Checklist was developed by the WLC...the CP Operations Checklist may have resulted from not having a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for such tasks. There were significant...appreciation to U.S. Amy Research Institute’s former Senior Military Research Liaison Officer , SMA(R) Julius W. Gates. SMA(R) Gates provided

  2. Air Mobility Command Financial Reporting of Property, Plant, and Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-19

    This is the first in a series of reports from our audit of the Property, Plant, and Equipment Accounts in the FY 1996 Financial Statements of the...Transportation Command’s $4 billion in expected revenue. In the beginning balance for FY 1996 Defense Business Operations Fund financial statements, the Air...Mobility Command reported $ 1.1 billion of Property, Plant, and Equipment. The objective of this part of the audit was to determine whether the Air

  3. Afloat surface line commanding officer leadership : a comprehensive study

    OpenAIRE

    Provencher, Jerome R.

    1992-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document This thesis explored the leadership styles of Navy commanding officers of afloat commands to determine if there were any differences in leadership styles and the effect, if any, of rank, age, commissioning source, education, ethnicity, location, and ship community type that influenced that leadership style. A review of the literature indicated that the Navy adopted the Situational Leadership Model in 1976. The Navy concurred with the philosoph...

  4. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  5. Learning with slight forgetting optimizes sensorimotor transformation in redundant motor systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Hirashima

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical studies have proposed that the redundant motor system in humans achieves well-organized stereotypical movements by minimizing motor effort cost and motor error. However, it is unclear how this optimization process is implemented in the brain, presumably because conventional schemes have assumed a priori that the brain somehow constructs the optimal motor command, and largely ignored the underlying trial-by-trial learning process. In contrast, recent studies focusing on the trial-by-trial modification of motor commands based on error information suggested that forgetting (i.e., memory decay, which is usually considered as an inconvenient factor in motor learning, plays an important role in minimizing the motor effort cost. Here, we examine whether trial-by-trial error-feedback learning with slight forgetting could minimize the motor effort and error in a highly redundant neural network for sensorimotor transformation and whether it could predict the stereotypical activation patterns observed in primary motor cortex (M1 neurons. First, using a simple linear neural network model, we theoretically demonstrated that: 1 this algorithm consistently leads the neural network to converge at a unique optimal state; 2 the biomechanical properties of the musculoskeletal system necessarily determine the distribution of the preferred directions (PD; the direction in which the neuron is maximally active of M1 neurons; and 3 the bias of the PDs is steadily formed during the minimization of the motor effort. Furthermore, using a non-linear network model with realistic musculoskeletal data, we demonstrated numerically that this algorithm could consistently reproduce the PD distribution observed in various motor tasks, including two-dimensional isometric torque production, two-dimensional reaching, and even three-dimensional reaching tasks. These results may suggest that slight forgetting in the sensorimotor transformation network is responsible

  6. A Combination of Machine Learning and Cerebellar Models for the Motor Control and Learning of a Modular Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baira Ojeda, Ismael; Tolu, Silvia; Pacheco, Moises

    2017-01-01

    We scaled up a bio-inspired control architecture for the motor control and motor learning of a real modular robot. In our approach, the Locally Weighted Projection Regression algorithm (LWPR) and a cerebellar microcircuit coexist, forming a Unit Learning Machine. The LWPR optimizes the input space...... and learns the internal model of a single robot module to command the robot to follow a desired trajectory with its end-effector. The cerebellar microcircuit refines the LWPR output delivering corrective commands. We contrasted distinct cerebellar circuits including analytical models and spiking models...

  7. Variability of Delirium Motor Subtype Scale-Defined Delirium Motor Subtypes in Elderly Adults with Hip Fracture : A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Rikie M.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Adamis, Dimitrios; de Jonghe, Annemarieke; Meagher, David J.; de Rooij, Sophia E. J. A.

    OBJECTIVES: To examine changes in motor subtype profile in individuals with delirium. DESIGN: Observational, longitudinal study; substudy of a multicenter, randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Departments of surgery and orthopedics, Academic Medical Center and Tergooi Hospital, the Netherlands.

  8. Command and Data Handling Branch Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Rachel Mae

    2016-01-01

    Modular Integrated Stackable Layers (MISL) is a computer system designed for simple, fast, and cost effective flexible reconfiguration in space environments such as the ISS and Orion projects for various uses. Existing applications include wireless and wired communications, data acquisition and instrumentation, and camera systems, and potential applications include bus protocol converters and subsystem control. MISL is based on Texas Instruments (TI)' MSP430 16-bit ultra-low-power microcontroller device. The purpose of my project was to integrate the MISL system with a liquid crystal display (LCD) touchscreen. The LCD, manufactured by Crystalfontz and part number CFAF320240F-035T-TS, is a 320 by 240 RGB resistive color screen including an optional carrier board. The vast majority of the project was done with Altium Designer, a tool for printed circuit board (PCB) schematic capture, 3D design, and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) development. The new PCB was to allow the LCD to directly stack to the rest of MISL. Research was done with datasheets for the TI microcontroller and touchscreen display in order to meet desired hardware specifications. Documentation on prior MISL projects was also utilized. The initial step was to create a schematic for the LCD, power bus, and data bus connections between components. A layout was then designed with the required physical dimensions, routed traces and vias, power and ground planes, layer stacks, and other specified design rules such as plane clearance and hole size. Multiple consultation sessions were held with Hester Yim, the technical discipline lead for the Command and Data Handling Branch, and Christy Herring, the lead PCB layout designer in the Electronic Design and Manufacturing Branch in order to ensure proper configuration. At the moment, the PCB is awaiting revision by the latter-mentioned branch. Afterwards, the board will begin to undergo the manufacturing and testing process. Throughout the internship at

  9. Motor/generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, Christopher Dale [Glasford, IL

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  10. Command and Control of Private Security Contractors: Are They a Viable Force Option for the Combatant Commander?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-31

    operating locations, such PSDs will comply with (MNC-I) recommendations to alter routes or abort missions.”19 Though the nature of the mission would...to serve as part of that Chain-of-Command ( CoC ) would require qualification. Using the current conflict in Iraq as an example, limiting C2...contractual CoC . These planning actions can identify which type of commanders require training as Contracting Officers and CORs and will also ensure that

  11. Motor control over the phantom limb in above-elbow amputees and its relationship with phantom limb pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, M; Reilly, K T; Hétu, S; Mercier, C

    2009-08-04

    Recent evidence shows that the primary motor cortex continues to send motor commands when amputees execute phantom movements. These commands are retargeted toward the remaining stump muscles as a result of motor system reorganization. As amputation-induced reorganization in the primary motor cortex has been associated with phantom limb pain we hypothesized that the motor control of the phantom limb would differ between amputees with and without phantom limb pain. Eight above-elbow amputees with or without pain were included in the study. They were asked to produce cyclic movements with their phantom limb (hand, wrist, and elbow movements) while simultaneously reproducing the same movement with the intact limb. The time needed to complete a movement cycle and its amplitude were derived from the kinematics of the intact limb. Electromyographic (EMG) activity from different stump muscles and from the homologous muscles on the intact side was recorded. Different EMG patterns were recorded in the stump muscles depending on the movement produced, showing that different phantom movements are associated with distinct motor commands. Phantom limb pain was associated with some aspects of phantom limb motor control. The time needed to complete a full cycle of a phantom movement was systematically shorter in subjects without phantom limb pain. Also, the amount of EMG modulation recorded in a stump muscle during a phantom hand movement was positively correlated with the intensity of phantom limb pain. Since phantom hand movement-related EMG patterns in above-elbow stump muscles can be considered as a marker of motor system reorganization, this result indirectly supports the hypothesis that amputation-induced plasticity is associated with phantom limb pain severity. The discordance between the (amputated) hand motor command and the feedback from above-elbow muscles might partially explain why subjects exhibiting large EMG modulation during phantom hand movement have more phantom

  12. Indonesian Automatic Speech Recognition For Command Speech Controller Multimedia Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien Arief Wardhany

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of multimedia devices development is controlling through voice. Nowdays voice that can be recognized only in English. To overcome the issue, then recognition using Indonesian language model and accousticc model and dictionary. Automatic Speech Recognizier is build using engine CMU Sphinx with modified english language to Indonesian Language database and XBMC used as the multimedia player. The experiment is using 10 volunteers testing items based on 7 commands. The volunteers is classifiedd by the genders, 5 Male & 5 female. 10 samples is taken in each command, continue with each volunteer perform 10 testing command. Each volunteer also have to try all 7 command that already provided. Based on percentage clarification table, the word “Kanan” had the most recognize with percentage 83% while “pilih” is the lowest one. The word which had the most wrong clarification is “kembali” with percentagee 67%, while the word “kanan” is the lowest one. From the result of Recognition Rate by male there are several command such as “Kembali”, “Utama”, “Atas “ and “Bawah” has the low Recognition Rate. Especially for “kembali” cannot be recognized as the command in the female voices but in male voice that command has 4% of RR this is because the command doesn’t have similar word in english near to “kembali” so the system unrecognize the command. Also for the command “Pilih” using the female voice has 80% of RR but for the male voice has only 4% of RR. This problem is mostly because of the different voice characteristic between adult male and female which male has lower voice frequencies (from 85 to 180 Hz than woman (165 to 255 Hz.The result of the experiment showed that each man had different number of recognition rate caused by the difference tone, pronunciation, and speed of speech. For further work needs to be done in order to improving the accouracy of the Indonesian Automatic Speech Recognition system

  13. New command centre of the Lech Power Works. Planning and execution of command and control technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marschall, J.

    1985-10-28

    On February 25, 1985 the Lech Electricity Works in Augsburg took into service their new control centre for the operational control of the entire maximum, high and low voltage networks. As the replacement for the now outpaced old control centre it was installed along the most modern lines under retention of the remote control substations. The total of eight combined operation process computer AEG 80-30 charaterise the scope of the network command technology, whereby in several subsectors completely new paths were trodden for the first time. So for example the design of light technology, the monitor display illumination and the graphical system Gradas which controls the medium voltage network, operation using digitizer and the operation telecommunications system. (orig.).

  14. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Spanner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ultrasonic motors, inertia-drive, and piezo-walk-drive. In this review, a comprehensive summary of piezoelectric motors, with their classification from initial idea to recent progress, is presented. This review also includes some of the industrial and commercial applications of piezoelectric motors that are presently available in the market as actuators.

  15. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  16. Neuroplasticity & Motor Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye

    Practice of a new motor task is usually associated with an improvement in performance. Indeed, if we stop practicing and return the next day to the same task, we find that our performance has been maintained and may even be better than it was at the start of the first day. This improvement...... is a measure of our ability to form and store a motor memory of the task. However, the initial memory of the task is labile and may be subject to interference. During and following motor learning plastic changes occur within the central nervous system. On one hand these changes are driven by motor practice......, on the other hand the changes underlie the formation of motor memory and the retention of improved motor performance. During motor learning changes may occur at many different levels within the central nervous system dependent on the type of task and training. Here, we demonstrate different studies from our...

  17. Compensatory Motor Network Connectivity is Associated with Motor Sequence Learning after Subcortical Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadden, Katie P.; Woodward, Todd S.; Metzak, Paul D.; Lavigne, Katie M.; Lakhani, Bimal; Auriat, Angela M.; Boyd, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    Following stroke, functional networks reorganize and the brain demonstrates widespread alterations in cortical activity. Implicit motor learning is preserved after stroke. However the manner in which brain reorganization occurs, and how it supports behaviour within the damaged brain remains unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we evaluated whole brain patterns of functional connectivity during the performance of an implicit tracking task at baseline and retention, following 5 days of practice. Following motor practice, a significant difference in connectivity within a motor network, consisting of bihemispheric activation of the sensory and motor cortices, parietal lobules, cerebellar and occipital lobules, was observed at retention. Healthy subjects demonstrated greater activity within this motor network during sequence learning compared to random practice. The stroke group did not show the same level of functional network integration, presumably due to the heterogeneity of functional reorganization following stroke. In a secondary analysis, a binary mask of the functional network activated from the aforementioned whole brain analyses was created to assess within-network connectivity, decreasing the spatial distribution and large variability of activation that exists within the lesioned brain. The stroke group demonstrated reduced clusters of connectivity within the masked brain regions as compared to the whole brain approach. Connectivity within this smaller motor network correlated with repeated sequence performance on the retention test. Increased functional integration within the motor network may be an important neurophysiological predictor of motor learning-related change in individuals with stroke. PMID:25757996

  18. A switching cost for motor planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Lefèvre, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    Movement planning consists of choosing the intended endpoint of the movement and selecting the motor program that will bring the effector on the endpoint. It is widely accepted that movement endpoint is updated on a trial-by-trial basis with respect to the observed errors and that the motor program for a given movement follows the rules of optimal feedback control. In this article, we show clear limitations of these theories. First, participants in the current study could not tune their motor program appropriately for each individual trial. This was true even when the participants selected the width of the target that they reached toward or when they had learned the appropriate motor program previously. These data are compatible with the existence of a switching cost for motor planning, which relates to the drop in performance due to an imposed switch of motor programs. This cost of switching shares many features of costs reported in cognitive task switching experiments and, when tested in the same participants, was correlated with it. Second, we found that randomly changing the width of a target over the course of a reaching experiment prevents the motor system from updating the endpoint of movements on the basis of the performance on the previous trial if the width of the target has changed. These results provide new insights into the process of motor planning and how it relates to optimal control theory and to an action selection based on the reward consequences of the motor program rather than that based on the observed error. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. 32 CFR 700.1026 - Authority of an officer who succeeds to command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... authority and responsibility as the officer whom he or she succeeds. (b) An officer who succeeds to command... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority of an officer who succeeds to command... Precedence, Authority and Command Authority § 700.1026 Authority of an officer who succeeds to command. (a...

  20. A single bout of exercise improves motor memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Roig

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity has a positive impact on cognition and brain function. Here we investigated if a single bout of exercise can improve motor memory and motor skill learning. We also explored if the timing of the exercise bout in relation to the timing of practice has any impact on the acquisition and retention of a motor skill. Forty-eight young subjects were randomly allocated into three groups, which practiced a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task either before or after a bout of intense cycling or after rest. Motor skill acquisition was assessed during practice and retention was measured 1 hour, 24 hours and 7 days after practice. Differences among groups in the rate of motor skill acquisition were not significant. In contrast, both exercise groups showed a significantly better retention of the motor skill 24 hours and 7 days after practice. Furthermore, compared to the subjects that exercised before practice, the subjects that exercised after practice showed a better retention of the motor skill 7 days after practice. These findings indicate that one bout of intense exercise performed immediately before or after practicing a motor task is sufficient to improve the long-term retention of a motor skill. The positive effects of acute exercise on motor memory are maximized when exercise is performed immediately after practice, during the early stages of memory consolidation. Thus, the timing of exercise in relation to practice is possibly an important factor regulating the effects of acute exercise on long-term motor memory.

  1. A Single Bout of Exercise Improves Motor Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Marc; Skriver, Kasper; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Kiens, Bente; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity has a positive impact on cognition and brain function. Here we investigated if a single bout of exercise can improve motor memory and motor skill learning. We also explored if the timing of the exercise bout in relation to the timing of practice has any impact on the acquisition and retention of a motor skill. Forty-eight young subjects were randomly allocated into three groups, which practiced a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task either before or after a bout of intense cycling or after rest. Motor skill acquisition was assessed during practice and retention was measured 1 hour, 24 hours and 7 days after practice. Differences among groups in the rate of motor skill acquisition were not significant. In contrast, both exercise groups showed a significantly better retention of the motor skill 24 hours and 7 days after practice. Furthermore, compared to the subjects that exercised before practice, the subjects that exercised after practice showed a better retention of the motor skill 7 days after practice. These findings indicate that one bout of intense exercise performed immediately before or after practicing a motor task is sufficient to improve the long-term retention of a motor skill. The positive effects of acute exercise on motor memory are maximized when exercise is performed immediately after practice, during the early stages of memory consolidation. Thus, the timing of exercise in relation to practice is possibly an important factor regulating the effects of acute exercise on long-term motor memory. PMID:22973462

  2. A Brain Machine Interface for command based control of a wheelchair using conditioning of oscillatory brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Eyad M; Al-Gharabli, Samer I; Saket, Munib M; Jubran, Omar

    2017-07-01

    In this research a new method of wheelchair control using a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) is proposed, in an attempt to bridge the gap between in-lab and real life applications, we believe it would provide a high level control over the BCI instead of the normal low level commands. It is anticipated to emphasis on mu rhythm to provide the control signals. The wheelchair is equipped with a mapping system, which scans the area and provides a map containing information about the user's current location and next possible destinations, then provides an optimized list of possible trajectories to reach the destination. The paradigm allows users to control the interface using motor imagery and issue commands to switch between possible trajectories and then confirm the choice. Commands trigger the motion of the wheelchair to the intended destination using a user selected path with speed up to 0.5 m/s. The interface also allows the user to interact with different robots through a common robotic system. Evaluation results indicate that this paradigm is indeed usable and could lead to promising outcomes.

  3. Automation of motor dexterity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Patrick; Castrejon, Luis R; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Sucar, Luis Enrique

    2017-07-01

    Motor dexterity assessment is regularly performed in rehabilitation wards to establish patient status and automatization for such routinary task is sought. A system for automatizing the assessment of motor dexterity based on the Fugl-Meyer scale and with loose restrictions on sensing technologies is presented. The system consists of two main elements: 1) A data representation that abstracts the low level information obtained from a variety of sensors, into a highly separable low dimensionality encoding employing t-distributed Stochastic Neighbourhood Embedding, and, 2) central to this communication, a multi-label classifier that boosts classification rates by exploiting the fact that the classes corresponding to the individual exercises are naturally organized as a network. Depending on the targeted therapeutic movement class labels i.e. exercises scores, are highly correlated-patients who perform well in one, tends to perform well in related exercises-; and critically no node can be used as proxy of others - an exercise does not encode the information of other exercises. Over data from a cohort of 20 patients, the novel classifier outperforms classical Naive Bayes, random forest and variants of support vector machines (ANOVA: p < 0.001). The novel multi-label classification strategy fulfills an automatic system for motor dexterity assessment, with implications for lessening therapist's workloads, reducing healthcare costs and providing support for home-based virtual rehabilitation and telerehabilitation alternatives.

  4. A multi-centre, randomised controlled trial of cognitive therapy to prevent harmful compliance with command hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wykes Til

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Command hallucinations are among the most distressing, high risk and treatment resistant symptoms for people with psychosis; however, currently, there are no evidence-based treatment options available for this group. A cognitive therapy grounded in the principles of the Social Rank Theory, is being evaluated in terms of its effectiveness in reducing harmful compliance with command hallucinations. Methods/Design This is a single blind, intention-to-treat, multi-centre, randomized controlled trial comparing Cognitive Therapy for Command Hallucinations + Treatment as Usual with Treatment as Usual alone. Eligible participants have to fulfil the following inclusion criteria: i ≥16 years; ii ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia or related disorder; iii command hallucinations for at least 6 months leading to risk of harm to self or others. Following the completion of baseline assessments, eligible participants will be randomly allocated to either the Cognitive Therapy for Command Hallucinations + Treatment as Usual group or the Treatment as Usual group. Outcome will be assessed at 9 and 18 months post randomization with assessors blind to treatment allocation. The primary outcome is compliance behaviour and secondary outcomes include beliefs about voices' power, distress, psychotic symptoms together with a health economic evaluation. Qualitative interviews with services users will explore the acceptability of Cognitive Therapy for Command Hallucinations. Discussion Cognitive behaviour therapy is recommended for people with psychosis; however, its focus and evaluation has primarily revolved around the reduction of psychotic symptoms. In this trial, however, the focus of the cognitive behavioural intervention is on individuals' appraisals, behaviour and affect and not necessarily symptoms; this is also reflected in the outcome measures used. If successful, the results will mark a significant breakthrough in the evidence base for

  5. Extension to distributed annotation system: Summary and summaryplot commands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Brookes, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the development of high-throughput sequencing technologies provided an effective way to generate data from entire genomes and test variants from thousands of individuals. The information acquired from analysing the data generated from high-throughput sequencing technologies provided useful insights into applications like whole-exome sequencing and targeted sequencing to discover the genetic cause of complex diseases and drug responses. The Distributed Annotation System (DAS) is one of the proposed solution developed to share and unify biological data from multiple local and remote DAS annotation servers. The researchers can use DAS to request data from federated or centralised databases and integrate them into a unified view. Furthermore, with the use of Reference DAS servers, structural and sequence data can be used to accompany annotation data, for the pursue of new knowledge for a particular feature or region. In this paper, two additional commands, summary and summary-plot commands, to the existing DAS protocol are proposed and implemented. The proposed commands were created in order to give the users the capabilities to request a summary of features for a particular region of interest. The summary command was created in order to extend the capabilities of the current DAS protocol, while the summaryplot command was created to provide a more user-friendly alternative to standard XML DAS responses. Finally, three examples are presented based on the GENCODE annotation data.

  6. Auditory-motor coupling affects phonetic encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Thöne, Katharina; Kaiser, Jochen

    2017-11-27

    Recent studies have shown that moving in synchrony with auditory stimuli boosts attention allocation and verbal learning. Furthermore rhythmic tones are processed more efficiently than temporally random tones ('timing effect'), and this effect is increased when participants actively synchronize their motor performance with the rhythm of the tones, resulting in auditory-motor synchronization. Here, we investigated whether this applies also to sequences of linguistic stimuli (syllables). We compared temporally irregular syllable sequences with two temporally regular conditions where either the interval between syllable onsets (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA) or the interval between the syllables' vowel onsets was kept constant. Entrainment to the stimulus presentation frequency (1 Hz) and event-related potentials were assessed in 24 adults who were instructed to detect pre-defined deviant syllables while they either pedaled or sat still on a stationary exercise bike. We found larger 1 Hz entrainment and P300 amplitudes for the SOA presentation during motor activity. Furthermore, the magnitude of the P300 component correlated with the motor variability in the SOA condition and 1 Hz entrainment, while in turn 1 Hz entrainment correlated with auditory-motor synchronization performance. These findings demonstrate that acute auditory-motor coupling facilitates phonetic encoding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reliability Analysis and Standardization of Spacecraft Command Generation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila; Grenander, Sven; Evensen, Ken

    2011-01-01

    center dot In order to reduce commanding errors that are caused by humans, we create an approach and corresponding artifacts for standardizing the command generation process and conducting risk management during the design and assurance of such processes. center dot The literature review conducted during the standardization process revealed that very few atomic level human activities are associated with even a broad set of missions. center dot Applicable human reliability metrics for performing these atomic level tasks are available. center dot The process for building a "Periodic Table" of Command and Control Functions as well as Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) models is demonstrated. center dot The PRA models are executed using data from human reliability data banks. center dot The Periodic Table is related to the PRA models via Fault Links.

  8. Mission operations and command assurance - Automating an operations TQM task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welz, Linda; Kazz, Sheri; Potts, Sherrill; Witkowski, Mona; Bruno, Kristin

    1993-01-01

    A long-term program is in progress at JPL to reduce cost and risk of mission operations through defect prevention and error management. A major element of this program, Mission Operations and Command Assurance (MO&CA), provides a system level function on flight projects to instill quality in mission operations. MO&CA embodies the total quality management TQM principle of continuous process improvement (CPI) and uses CPI in applying automation to mission operations to reduce risk and costs. MO&CA has led efforts to apply and has implemented automation in areas that impact the daily flight project work environment including Incident Surprise Anomaly tracking and reporting; command data verification, tracking and reporting; and command support data usage. MO&CA's future work in automation will take into account that future mission operations systems must be designed to avoid increasing error through the introduction of automation, while adapting to the demands of smaller flight teams.

  9. Swing-Free Cranes via Input Shaping of Operator Commands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groom, Kenneth N.; Parker, Gordon G.; Robinett, Rush D.; Leban, Frank

    1999-08-25

    This paper presents an open-loop control method for suppressing payload oscillation or swing caused by operator commanded maneuvers in rotary boom cranes and the method is experimentally verified on a one-sixteenth scale model of a Hagglunds shipboard crane. The crane configuration consists of a payload mass that swings like a spherical pendulum on the end of a lift-line which is attached to a boom capable of hub rotation (slewing) and elevation (luffing). Positioning of the payload is accomplished through the hub and boom angles and the load-line length. Since the configuration of the crane affects the excitation and response of the payload, the swing control scheme must account for the varying geometry of the system. Adaptive forward path command filters are employed to remove components of the command signal which induce payload swing.

  10. Motor noise is rich signal in autism research and pharmacological treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, E B; Denisova, K

    2016-11-21

    The human body is in constant motion, from every breath that we take, to every visibly purposeful action that we perform. Remaining completely still on command is a major achievement as involuntary fluctuations in our motions are difficult to keep under control. Here we examine the noise-to-signal ratio of micro-movements present in time-series of head motions extracted from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans in 1048 participants. These included individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and healthy-controls in shared data from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) and the Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-200) databases. We find excess noise and randomness in the ASD cases, suggesting an uncertain motor-feedback signal. A power-law emerged describing an orderly relation between the dispersion and shape of the probability distribution functions best describing the stochastic properties under consideration with respect to intelligence quotient (IQ-scores). In ASD, deleterious patterns of noise are consistently exacerbated with the presence of secondary (comorbid) neuropsychiatric diagnoses, lower verbal and performance intelligence, and autism severity. Importantly, such patterns in ASD are present whether or not the participant takes psychotropic medication. These data unambiguously establish specific noise-to-signal levels of head micro-movements as a biologically informed core feature of ASD.

  11. Comparison between a classical command law and a new advanced recovery command law in a MCB-ARS boost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Pierre; Saint-Eve, Frédéric; Sawicki, Jean-Paul; Aillerie, Michel

    2017-02-01

    This paper focuses on an original performed command on DC-DC boosts developed for applications in the LMOPS lab for the photovoltaic energy conversion and more specifically the Photovoltaic panels connected to HVDC smart grids. This boost, commonly named MCB-ARS (Magnetically Coupled Boost with Active Recovery Switch) presents great advantages concerning the simplicity of the command on the single constitutive switch, the global efficiency and the voltage conversion ratio. A fine analysis of the losses all over the entire converter shows that losses are not distributed uniformly in the constituting components. So a previous modification described in a previous paper consisting in the conducting assistance on the power flowing intermediate diode, performed advantageously the global efficiency. The present analysis takes into account the fact that the new configuration obtained after this important improvement looks like a classical half-bridge push-pull stage and may be controlled by a twice complementary command. In that way, a comparison has been done between a natural commutation recovery diode and an assisted switch commutation driven in a push-pull mode. As attempted, the switching command laws in charge to assume the energy transfer has been compared to the classical previous system described in anterior papers, and we demonstrate in this publication that a commutation based on a push-pull command mode within the two switches of the MCB-ARS converter is possible and increases the power transfer.

  12. Control motor brushless sensorless

    OpenAIRE

    Solchaga Pérez de Lazárraga, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    El proyecto consiste en la creación de un circuito capaz de controlar la velocidad de un motor brushless sensorless. Este tipo de motores eléctricos tienen como característica que no tienen escobillas para cambiar la polaridad del bobinado de su interior y tampoco precisan de un sensor que indique que ha realizado una vuelta. Los motores brushless que son controlados por este tipo de circuitos son específicos para aeronaves no tripuladas y requieren un diseño diferente a un motor brushless pe...

  13. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  14. A MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR MEDICAL SERVICES AT COMMAND HEADQUARTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, H L; Sandhu, H S

    1995-01-01

    Management information system (MIS) is increasingly being used for information storage, handling, processing and retrieval of data for improving the services provided by any organisation. It allows quick decision making for overall functional improvement. Headquarters Central Command (Medical) Lucknow has developed software for data capturing in respect of six important functional areas. These include employability and availability of specialist officers, assessment of hospital services through functional update and monitoring team (FUMTs), patient satisfaction survey, user commanders opinion, state of critical items of hospital clothing and modernisation of hospitals. This automation has resulted in quick and scientific decision making for improving the medicare services to the clientele.

  15. Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c command-line interface

    CERN Document Server

    Pot'Vin, Kellyn; Smith, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Command-Line Interface shows how to use Enterprise Manager's powerful scripting language to automate your database administration work and save time by scripting routine tasks, and then executing those scripts across collections of databases and instances in your environment. This book is chock full of ready-made scripting examples contributed by the authors and leading members of the community. For example, you'll find scripts and examples of commands to: Remove an Enterprise Manager agent and its related targetsQuickly create administrator accounts that are ful

  16. Three dimensional visualization to support command and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Slambrook, G.A.

    1997-04-01

    Virtual reality concepts are changing the way one thinks about and with computers. The concepts have already proven their potential usefulness in a broad range of applications. This research was concerned with exploring and demonstrating the utility of virtual reality in robotics and satellite command and control applications. The robotics work addressed the need to quickly build accurate graphical models of physical environments by allowing a user to interactively build a model of a remote environment by superimposing stereo graphics onto live stereo video. The satellite work addressed the fusion of multiple data sets or models into one synergistic display for more effective training, design, and command and control of satellite systems.

  17. Commander’s Critical Information Requirements (CCIR): Reality Versus Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    early in his life. The sport of football enabled him to practice decision making under the stress of victory or defeat 70 in games filled with...Executive Officer of Combat Command A, 4th Armored Division, during WWII, Mail Interview, 14 October 1992, and BG 49 Albin F. Irzyk (Retired), Commander of...79. Ibid, 149. 80. Weigley, 173. 81. Ibid, 177-178. 82. Ibid, 178. 83. BG Albin F. Irzyk (Retired), "The "Name Enough" Division," Armor Magazine, Vol

  18. "On-command" dissolvable tympanostomy tube in the chinchilla model: A proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Joshua P; Mai, Johnny P; Dumont, Matthieu; Jenkins, Audrey; Cleary, Kevin; Reilly, Brian K

    2017-10-01

    To prove the concept that a dissolvable "on-command" tympanostomy tube placed into the tympanic membrane of a chinchilla can dissolve when a benign solution is applied and result in a well healed tympanic membrane without histologic evidence of injury. Prospective Randomized Single-Subject Controlled Trial. Prototype tympanostomy tubes were fabricated from poly(butyl methacrylate-co-(2-dimethylaminoethyl) methacrylate-co- methyl methacrylate) (PBM). "In vitro" dissolution studies were performed with applications of the benign chemical, hydrogen peroxide (HP). PBM tubes were placed into ten chinchilla tympanic membranes matched with standard plastic tubes placed into the contralateral side. All 20 tubes were exposed to HP for 21 days with serial endoscopic examinations. In vitro PBM tubes were weighed before and after interventions and compared to control tubes. In vivo photo documentation was used to show progression of dissolution and histologic slides were obtained to show the effect of the PBM on surrounding tissues. Compared to control tubes, all those exposed to hydrogen peroxide had a statistically significant reduction in weight (p < 0.01). After placement into the tympanic membrane of chinchillas, all PBM tubes dissolved within 21 days of hydrogen peroxide treatment leaving behind histologically normal, intact tympanic membranes. Our PBM tubes dissolve "on-command" in a chinchilla model when exposed to treatment with a benign chemical. Dissolvable "on-command" tympanostomy tubes may reduce significant complications related to pediatric tympanostomy tube use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Central and peripheral motor drive to the palatal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahdab, Rechdi; Farhat, Wassim H; Chalah, Moussa A; Kerschen, Philippe; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Ayache, Samar S

    2016-02-01

    To characterize the motor command of the soft palate muscles using a magnetic stimulation technique. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded in 10 right-handed and 5 left-handed subjects at the midline of the palate or on the right or left hemipalate to peripheral and cortical magnetic stimulation. Mean palatal MEP amplitude ranged from 0.06 to 0.26mV to peripheral stimulation and from 0.36 to 1.09mV to cortical stimulation. In hemipalate recordings, MEPs to peripheral stimulation had greater amplitude when recorded ipsilaterally to the stimulation side, whereas MEPs to cortical stimulation were symmetrical. In midline recordings, right-handed subjects showed greater palatal MEP amplitude to right (rather than left) peripheral stimulation and to left (rather than right) cortical stimulation. Mean palatal MEP latency ranged from 4.0 to 4.1ms to peripheral stimulation and from 9.0 to 10.2ms to cortical stimulation; mean central conduction time ranged from 4.9 to 6.2ms. Palatal MEPs were easily and reliably obtained, including selective responses in each hemipalate. A bilateral cortical command of the palate is supported by our results, with a possible predominant motor drive from the left hemisphere in right-handed subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving novel motor learning through prior high contextual interference training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, T.; Chen, J.; Verwey, W. B.; Wright, David L.

    2018-01-01

    The primary objective of the present experiment was to examine the influence of recent practice in a random and blocked format for future motor learning. First, individuals practiced three unique discrete sequence production tasks in either a blocked or random schedule. One day later, all

  1. Effects of Risperidone on Cognitive-Motor Performance and Motor Movements in Chronically Medicated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Michael G.; Hollway, Jill A.; Leone, Sarah; Masty, Jessica; Lindsay, Ronald; Nash, Patricia; Arnold, L. Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the placebo-controlled effects of risperidone on cognitive-motor processes, dyskinetic movements, and behavior in children receiving maintenance risperidone therapy. Sixteen children aged 4-14 years with disruptive behavior were randomly assigned to drug order in a crossover study of risperidone and placebo for 2…

  2. "Pure" motor hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokroverty, S; Rubino, F A

    1975-01-01

    Attenuation of cerebral evoked responses after stimulation of the median nerve in the hemiplegic limbs suggested that an apparently pure motor hemiplegia in some patients may not have pure involvement of the corticospinal system. Frontoparietal metastasis, infarction in basis pontis and medullary pyramid, and occlusion of internal carotid artery in the neck resulted in pure motor hemiplegia in some individuals. Images PMID:1185228

  3. Artificial molecular motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassem, Salma; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Lubbe, Anouk S.; Wilson, Miriam R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Leigh, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Motor proteins are nature's solution for directing movement at the molecular level. The field of artificial molecular motors takes inspiration from these tiny but powerful machines. Although directional motion on the nanoscale performed by synthetic molecular machines is a relatively new

  4. The Emotional Motor System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, G.

    1992-01-01

    A large number of new descending motor pathways to caudal brainstem and spinal cord have been recognized recently. Nevertheless all the new pathways seem to belong to one of three motor systems in the central nervous system (CNS). This survey gives an overvieuw of the pathways belonging to the

  5. Modeling Induction Motor Imbalances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armah, Kabenla; Jouffroy, Jerome; Duggen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a study into the development of a generalized model for a three-phase induction motor that offers flexibility of simulating balanced and unbalanced parameter scenarios. By analyzing the interaction of forces within the motor, we achieve our main objective of deriving the system...

  6. Information on stepping motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongarland, G.

    1982-04-01

    The principles of the stepping motors which are often used in servomechanisms are reviewed. Variable reluctance as well as permanent magnet stepping motors are considered. Their operation is explained which includes permanent rotation, starting, stopping, and resonance effects. Several application examples, drawn from problems in automation, are outlined.

  7. Motor imagery in REM sleep is increased by transcranial direct current stimulation of the left motor cortex (C3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Jana; Speth, Clemens

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates if anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of areas above the motor cortex (C3) influences the quantity and quality of spontaneous motor imagery experienced in REM sleep. A randomized triple-blinded design was used, combining neurophysiological techniques with a tool of quantitative mentation report analysis developed from cognitive linguistics and generative grammar. The results indicate that more motor imagery, and more athletic motor imagery, is induced by anodal tDCS in comparison to cathodal and sham tDCS. This insight may have implications beyond basic consciousness research. Motor imagery in REM sleep has been hypothesized to serve the rehearsal of motor movements, which benefits later motor performance. Electrophysiological manipulations of motor imagery in REM sleep could in the long run be used for rehabilitative tDCS protocols benefitting temporarily immobile clinical patients, especially those who cannot perform specific motor imagery tasks - such as dementia patients, infants with developmental and motor disorders, and coma patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph

    2018-02-13

    The objective of this project was to design and build a cost competitive, more efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) motor than what is currently available on the market. Though different potential motor architectures among QMP’s primary technology platforms were investigated and evaluated, including through the building of numerous prototypes, the project ultimately focused on scaling up QM Power, Inc.’s (QMP) Q-Sync permanent magnet synchronous motors from available sub-fractional horsepower (HP) sizes for commercial refrigeration fan applications to larger fractional horsepower sizes appropriate for HVAC applications, and to add multi-speed functionality. The more specific goal became the research, design, development, and testing of a prototype 1/2 HP Q-Sync motor that has at least two operating speeds and 87% peak efficiency compared to incumbent electronically commutated motors (EC or ECM, also known as brushless direct current (DC) motors), the heretofore highest efficiency HVACR fan motor solution, at approximately 82% peak efficiency. The resulting motor prototype built achieved these goals, hitting 90% efficiency and .95 power factor at full load and speed, and 80% efficiency and .7 power factor at half speed. Q-Sync, developed in part through a DOE SBIR grant (Award # DE-SC0006311), is a novel, patented motor technology that improves on electronically commutated permanent magnet motors through an advanced electronic circuit technology. It allows a motor to “sync” with the alternating current (AC) power flow. It does so by eliminating the constant, wasteful power conversions from AC to DC and back to AC through the synthetic creation of a new AC wave on the primary circuit board (PCB) by a process called pulse width modulation (PWM; aka electronic commutation) that is incessantly required to sustain motor operation in an EC permanent magnet motor. The Q-Sync circuit improves the power factor of the motor by removing all

  9. Audio-Motor Units. Butterbrot Essen; Einkaufen Gehen; Kinokarte Kaufen; Auto Kaufen; Schnee-Eis Machen; Papierpuppe Ausschneiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepke, Helen, Ed.; And Others

    This manual presents instructional units designed to offer a break from daily classroom routines in German instruction. These audio-motor units provide variety and listening practice, introduce new vocabulary in context, and present cultural materials in a novel way. Suggestions for classroom use include acting out commands, using gestures,…

  10. To What Extent Can Motor Imagery Replace Motor Execution While Learning a Fine Motor Skill?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Szarkiewicz, Sylwia; Prekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaskowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery is generally thought to share common mechanisms with motor execution. In the present study, we examined to what extent learning a fine motor skill by motor imagery may substitute physical practice. Learning effects were assessed by manipulating the proportion of motor execution and

  11. Induction motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  12. Induction motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  13. Apostle Battery Table Bay Fire Command | Croock | Scientia Militaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 3 (1990) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Apostle Battery Table Bay Fire Command.

  14. United States Joint Forces Command Joint Frequency Management Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Ukraine 1 7 Latin American Nations at U.S. Fleet Forces Command - 7 Representatives Argentina 1 Brazil 1 Chile 1 Ecuador 1 Mexico 1 Peru 1 Colombia 1...Representative for the GEMSIS program. GEMSIS UNCLASSIFIED 14 USJFCOM J683 JFMO Major Issues/Concerns • Listen to the Operational Spectrum Managers  Too often

  15. 14 CFR 125.281 - Pilot-in-command qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot-in-command qualifications. 125.281... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Crewmember...

  16. 14 CFR 125.283 - Second-in-command qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Second-in-command qualifications. 125.283... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Crewmember...

  17. 14 CFR 135.243 - Pilot in command qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot in command qualifications. 135.243... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight...

  18. 14 CFR 135.245 - Second in command qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Second in command qualifications. 135.245... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight...

  19. Battlespace awareness and the Australian Army battlefield command support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Paul S.; Slade, Mark; Bowden, Fred; Stagg, Bradley; Huf, Samuel

    2000-08-01

    Effective battlespace awareness is essential for any defence operation; this is especially true in the increasingly complex and dynamic land component of the military environment. Because of its relatively small force size dispersed piece-wise across a large and largely vacant landmass, the Defence of Australia presents a somewhat unique challenge for the development of systems that support command decision-making. The intent of this paper is to first examine the digitisation effort under way in Australia and describe the Army Battlefield Command Support System (BCSS) being developed for use in the tactical arena. BCSS is essentially a suite of commercial-off-the-shelf and government-off-the-shelf software components provided via a standard operating environment to aid decision-making. Then, we present the development of a Tactical Land C4I Assessment Capability (TLCAC) synthetic environment which is being used to undertake controlled performance evaluations of the various elements of the BCSS suite and provide impact assessments of new technological advances. The TLCAC provides a capacity to assess in near real-time Brigade and below level command post exercise activities. That is, when deployed it provides a mechanism to automatically collect command and control and manoeuvre data, which can aid in the after action review process.

  20. RAPID: Collaborative Commanding and Monitoring of Lunar Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Powell, Mark W.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Abramyan, Lucy; Shams, Khawaja S.; Wallick, Michael; Allan, Mark; hide

    2011-01-01

    RAPID (Robot Application Programming Interface Delegate) software utilizes highly robust technology to facilitate commanding and monitoring of lunar assets. RAPID provides the ability for intercenter communication, since these assets are developed in multiple NASA centers. RAPID is targeted at the task of lunar operations; specifically, operations that deal with robotic assets, cranes, and astronaut spacesuits, often developed at different NASA centers. RAPID allows for a uniform way to command and monitor these assets. Commands can be issued to take images, and monitoring is done via telemetry data from the asset. There are two unique features to RAPID: First, it allows any operator from any NASA center to control any NASA lunar asset, regardless of location. Second, by abstracting the native language for specific assets to a common set of messages, an operator may control and monitor any NASA lunar asset by being trained only on the use of RAPID, rather than the specific asset. RAPID is easier to use and more powerful than its predecessor, the Astronaut Interface Device (AID). Utilizing the new robust middleware, DDS (Data Distribution System), developing in RAPID has increased significantly over the old middleware. The API is built upon the Java Eclipse Platform, which combined with DDS, provides platform-independent software architecture, simplifying development of RAPID components. As RAPID continues to evolve and new messages are being designed and implemented, operators for future lunar missions will have a rich environment for commanding and monitoring assets.

  1. A Cyberspace Command and Control Model (Maxwell Paper, Number 47)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Business and Management (New York: Routledge, 2003). 28. Mark Skinner Watson. Chief of Staff: Prewar Plans and Preparations (Washington. DC: Center...from the Practice ojCommand and Control ( Mon - terey, CA: National Defense Research Institute, RAND Corporation, 1999). 53. Ibid., xiv. 54. Ibid

  2. The Squadron Commander’s Responsibility for Officer Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-13

    competency Tactical Expertise Personal Embodies Airman Culture - Ethical Leadership -Followership -Warrior Ethos -Develops Self Communicating ...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE SQUADRON COMMANDER’S RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFICER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT by Patrick/Sutherland...wing. 4 Abstract Squadron commanders (Sq/CCs), as Air Force leaders, have a duty to help create future leaders. While officer professional

  3. Cognitive Systems Modeling and Analysis of Command and Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlander, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Military operations, counter-terrorism operations and emergency response often oblige operators and commanders to operate within distributed organizations and systems for safe and effective mission accomplishment. Tactical commanders and operators frequently encounter violent threats and critical demands on cognitive capacity and reaction time. In the future they will make decisions in situations where operational and system characteristics are highly dynamic and non-linear, i.e. minor events, decisions or actions may have serious and irreversible consequences for the entire mission. Commanders and other decision makers must manage true real time properties at all levels; individual operators, stand-alone technical systems, higher-order integrated human-machine systems and joint operations forces alike. Coping with these conditions in performance assessment, system development and operational testing is a challenge for both practitioners and researchers. This paper reports on research from which the results led to a breakthrough: An integrated approach to information-centered systems analysis to support future command and control systems research development. This approach integrates several areas of research into a coherent framework, Action Control Theory (ACT). It comprises measurement techniques and methodological advances that facilitate a more accurate and deeper understanding of the operational environment, its agents, actors and effectors, generating new and updated models. This in turn generates theoretical advances. Some good examples of successful approaches are found in the research areas of cognitive systems engineering, systems theory, and psychophysiology, and in the fields of dynamic, distributed decision making and naturalistic decision making.

  4. The Role of the NCO Inside the BCT Command Post

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-22

    execute complex tactical tasks, train junior enlisted Soldiers on military occupational skills and drills at the individual and team level. NCOs...formation. Doctrine 2015 introduced the importance of mission command doctrine into operations at all levels of leadership , and in the last five

  5. Warfighter Associate: Decision Aiding and Metrics for Mission Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    Distributions: highlights the Pareto Principle -- the top 20% of the mission-command staff is heavily involved in collaborations. • Our...1999999999 • status: unsalisfied • isActive: 1 FSO 12-03-2011 11:59:48 - ongoing Active Activity Based P ... • lnstanceld: lED Cross Border Transport

  6. US Africa Command (AFRICOM) and Nigeria's National Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The US decision to establish a unified combatant command (AFRICOM) in African has raised numerous questions, particularly in Africa, regarding its possible security implications for the continent. The article narrows itself to the concern for unraveling the national security implications of Nigeria's opposition to the location of

  7. EEG signal classification to detect left and right command using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the right and left commands explored are based on the actual movement of lifting either left or right hand and the imaginary movement of lifting either left or right hand. For this initial study, EEG signals recorded based on the actual physical movements will be collected as the raw data, as well as the EEG signals ...

  8. Measures of Similarity for Command and Control Situation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    CBR cycle (Figure 1), termed the four Rs in Aamodt and Plaza[2]: 1. Retrieve similar cases to the problem description, 2. Reuse a solution suggested by...Irandoust and A. Benaskeur. Political, Cultural and Command & Control Challenges in Coalitions. Canadian Defence Academy Press, In Press 2011. [2] A. Aamodt

  9. Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance: Mission Command and Centralized Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Ewell was the new commander of the Confederate Second Corps, having replaced the fallen Stonewall Jackson . Before the...mass of traffic moving south on the roads in the vicinity of Brehal, Gavray, and Percy . In places transport was moving bumper to bumper…the damage

  10. Satellite Telemetry and Command using Big LEO Mobile Telecommunications Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huegel, Fred

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with satellite telemetry and command using Big LEO mobile telecommunications systems are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Commercial Satellite system overviews: Globalstar, ICO, and Iridium; 2) System capabilities and cost reduction; 3) Satellite constellations and contact limitations; 4) Capabilities of Globalstar, ICO and Iridium with emphasis on Globalstar; and 5) Flight transceiver issues and security.

  11. 'The Danger of Divided Command': British civil and military disputes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Westminster, as well as to that of the Commander-in-Chiefat the Horse Guards. When Lt-Gen Lord Chelmsford ... that they should assist by making diversionary raids across the border into Zululand.2°. Bulwer refused ..... armed intervention has now got beyond the power of colonial or civil forces to cope with'. He therefore ...

  12. United States Special Operations Command History, 15th Anniversary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    entering the Canal from the Caribbean side and patrolled the shipping channel near Colon , preventing the PDF from commandeering boats and...boarded a German merchant ship, Asian Senator, in Cristobal . Once at the pier, the SEALs saw men in civilian clothes running down the Asian

  13. Technical Standards for Command and Control Information Systems (CCISs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Naval Data Auo i Command USsC ACOC S1 system kItegratio Standards WutCDC., a g Ceniter Requiremnts H(.C (C412)0 D v PSI Plaratiii and Intaroperabity...PDTR 10167, ISO/IEC JTC1 SC21 (SC21 N 3252), February 1989. [Perez 1991] Personal communication with Sandra Perez, Concept Technology, Inc., (703) 425

  14. Command and Control during Security Incidents/Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipper, W. [NSTec

    2013-10-16

    This presentation builds on our response to events that pose, or have the potential to pose, a serious security or law enforcement risk and must be responded to and controlled in a clear a decisive fashion. We will examine some common concepts in the command and control of security-centric events.

  15. A Psychodynamic Systems Perspective on Command Relationship during Combat Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    and Group Psychology and Wilfred Bion Experiences in Groups and Other Papers. The objective of this paragraph is to introduce the reader to tangible...not related. 52 Questionnaire from Leader 4, Copenhagen 2016, paragraph 12. 53 Jørgensen...54 Questionnaire from Leader 3, Copenhagen 2016, paragraph 8. 55 Commanders gathering, is a meeting

  16. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 192 - Checklist for Commanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Checklist for Commanders A Appendix A to Part 192 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EQUAL OPPORTUNITY IN OFF-BASE HOUSING Pt. 192, App. A Appendix A to Part 192—Checklist for...

  17. Commander in chief : FDR's battle with Churchill, 1943

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamilton, Charles Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Commander in Chief is een deelbiografie van president Franklin Delano Roosevelt waarin Roosevelts rol als opperbevelhebber van de gewapende strijdkrachten van de Verenigde Staten in de Tweede Wereldoorlog het hoofdthema is. Het boek concentreert zich op het jaar 1943: een jaar waaraan biografen van

  18. An easily extendable interpreter comprising MCA and CAMAC commands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, E. L.; Elsenaar, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    A BASIC interpreter is a useful tool for writing small programs in a quick and easy way. For the control of experiments, however, it lacks a number of essential features. A BASIC-like command interpreter BACO has therefore been developed. It runs on PDP-11 computers with the RSX-11M operating

  19. Forest Service patrol captain and patrol commanders report: nationwide study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Chavez; Joanne F. Tynon

    2007-01-01

    This is the third in a series of studies to evaluate perceptions of USDA Forest Service law enforcement personnel of the roles, responsibilities, and issues entailed in their jobs. An e-mail survey was administered to the 79 Forest Service patrol captains and patrol commanders (PCs) across the United States. Seventy completed and returned the questionnaire....

  20. STEPPING MOTOR - HYDRAULIC MOTOR SERVO DRIVES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    machine tool systems wherever the existing production batch sizes and frequency of manufacture justifies it in a developing country. This is so mainly because numerically controlled (NC) ... Because the NC machine is an expensive item of equipment it is ... electric stepping motor is a very precise unit with. 10k ohms.

  1. Eye movement sequence generation in humans: Motor or goal updating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaia, Christian; Joiner, Wilsaan M.; FitzGibbon, Edmond J.; Optican, Lance M.; Smith, Maurice A.

    2011-01-01

    Saccadic eye movements are often grouped in pre-programmed sequences. The mechanism underlying the generation of each saccade in a sequence is currently poorly understood. Broadly speaking, two alternative schemes are possible: first, after each saccade the retinotopic location of the next target could be estimated, and an appropriate saccade could be generated. We call this the goal updating hypothesis. Alternatively, multiple motor plans could be pre-computed, and they could then be updated after each movement. We call this the motor updating hypothesis. We used McLaughlin’s intra-saccadic step paradigm to artificially create a condition under which these two hypotheses make discriminable predictions. We found that in human subjects, when sequences of two saccades are planned, the motor updating hypothesis predicts the landing position of the second saccade in two-saccade sequences much better than the goal updating hypothesis. This finding suggests that the human saccadic system is capable of executing sequences of saccades to multiple targets by planning multiple motor commands, which are then updated by serial subtraction of ongoing motor output. PMID:21191134

  2. Improve Motor System Efficiency for a Broad Range of Motors with MotorMaster+ International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-05-01

    Available at no charge, MotorMaster+ International is designed to support motor systems improvement planning at industrial facilities by identifying the most cost-effective choice when deciding to repair or replace older motor models.

  3. ISRO's solid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagappa, R.; Kurup, M. R.; Muthunayagam, A. E.

    1989-08-01

    Solid rocket motors have been the mainstay of ISRO's sounding rockets and the first generation satellite launch vehicles. For the new launch vehicle under development also, the solid rocket motors contribute significantly to the vehicle's total propulsive power. The rocket motors in use and under development have been developed for a variety of applications and range in size from 30 mm dia employing 450 g of solid propellant—employed for providing a spin to the apogee motors—to the giant 2.8 m dia motor employing nearly 130 tonnes of solid propellant. The initial development, undertaken in 1967 was of small calibre motor of 75 mm dia using a double base charge. The development was essentially to understand the technological elements. Extruded aluminium tubes were used as a rocket motor casing. The fore and aft closures were machined from aluminium rods. The grain was a seven-pointed star with an enlargement of the port at the aft end and was charged into the chamber using a polyester resin system. The nozzle was a metallic heat sink type with graphite throat insert. The motor was ignited with a black powder charge and fired for 2.0 s. Subsequent to this, further developmental activities were undertaken using PVC plastisol based propellants. A class of sounding rockets ranging from 125 to 560 mm calibre were realized. These rocket motors employed improved designs and had delivered lsp ranging from 2060 to 2256 Ns/kg. Case bonding could not be adopted due to the higher cure temperatures of the plastisol propellants but improvements were made in the grain charging techniques and in the design of the igniters and the nozzle. Ablative nozzles based on asbestos phenolic and silica phenolic with graphite inserts were used. For the larger calibre rocket motors, the lsp could be improved by metallic additives. In the early 1970s designs were evolved for larger and more efficient motors. A series of 4 motors for the country's first satellite launch vehicle SLV-3 were

  4. Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Phase I/IIa Study (Safety and Efficacy) with Buspirone/Levodopa/Carbidopa (SpinalonTM) in Subjects with Complete AIS A or Motor-Complete AIS B Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishna, Mohan; Steuer, Inge; Prince, Francois; Roberts, Mary; Mongeon, David; Kia, Maryam; Dyck, Sasha; Matte, Gilbert; Vaillancourt, Mario; Guertin, Pierre A

    2017-01-01

    No drug treatment capable of restoring locomotor capabilities in patients suffering a motor-complete spinal cord injury (SCI) has ever been developed. We assessed the safety and efficacy of an activator of spinal locomotor neurons in humans, which were shown in paraplegic animals to elicit temporary episodes of involuntary walking. Single administration of buspirone/levodopa/carbidopa (SpinalonTM), levodopa/carbidopa (ratio 4: 1), and buspirone or placebo was performed using a dose-escalation design in 45 subjects placed in supine position who had had an SCI classified as complete (AIS A) or motor-complete/sensory incomplete (AIS B) for at least 3 months. Blood samples before and at regular intervals (15, 30, 60, 120, 240 min) after treatment were collected for hematological and pharmacokinetic (PK) analyses. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of eight muscles (four per leg) was monitored prior to and at several time points after drug administration. SpinalonTM (10-35 mg buspirone/100-350 mg levodopa/25-85 mg carbidopa) displayed no sign of safety concerns - only mild nausea was found in 3 cases. At higher doses, 50 mg/500 mg/125 mg SpinalonTM was considered to have reached maximum tolerated dose (MTD) since 3 out of 4 subjects experienced related adverse events including vomiting. PK analyses showed comparable data between groups suggesting no significant drugdrug interaction with SpinalonTM. Only the SpinalonTM-treated groups displayed significant EMG activity accompanied by locomotor-like characteristics - that is with rhythmic and bilaterally alternating bursts. Therefore, this study provides evidence of safety and preliminary efficacy following a single administration of SpinalonTM in subjects with SCI. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Serial practice impairs motor skill consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Kristin-Marie; Trempe, Maxime

    2017-09-01

    Recent reports have revealed that motor skill learning is impaired if two skills are practiced one after the other, that is before the first skill has had the time to become consolidated. This suggests that motor skills should be practiced in isolation from one another to minimize interference. At the moment, little is known about the effect of practice schedules high in contextual interference on motor skill consolidation. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether a serial practice schedule impairs motor skill consolidation. Participants had to learn two distinct sequences of finger movements (A and B) under either a blocked practice schedule or a serial practice schedule before being retested the following day. A control group also practiced Sequence A only. Our results revealed that a blocked practice schedule led to no interference between the sequences, whereas a serial practice schedule impaired the consolidation of Sequence B. In Experiment 2, we investigated the origin of the interference caused by a serial practice schedule by replacing the physical practice of Sequence A with either the observation of a model performing Sequence A or by asking participants to produce random finger movements. Our results revealed that both tasks interfered with the consolidation of Sequence B. Thus, we suggest that a serial practice schedule impairs motor skill consolidation through a conflict in the brain networks involved in the acquisition of the cognitive representation of the sequence and its execution.

  6. Cooperative molecular motors moving back and forth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillo, David; Gur, Barak; Bernheim-Groswasser, Anne; Farago, Oded

    2009-08-01

    We use a two-state ratchet model to study the cooperative bidirectional motion of molecular motors on cytoskeletal tracks with randomly alternating polarities. Our model is based on a previously proposed model [Badoual, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 6696 (2002)] for collective motor dynamics and, in addition, takes into account the cooperativity effect arising from the elastic tension that develops in the cytoskeletal track due to the joint action of the walking motors. We show, both computationally and analytically, that this additional cooperativity effect leads to a dramatic reduction in the characteristic reversal time of the bidirectional motion, especially in systems with a large number of motors. We also find that bidirectional motion takes place only on (almost) apolar tracks, while on even slightly polar tracks the cooperative motion is unidirectional. We argue that the origin of these observations is the sensitive dependence of the cooperative dynamics on the difference between the number of motors typically working in and against the instantaneous direction of motion.

  7. Effects of endurance exercise training on the motor and non-motor features of Parkinson's disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamotte, Guillaume; Rafferty, Miriam R; Prodoehl, Janey; Kohrt, Wendy M; Comella, Cynthia L; Simuni, Tanya; Corcos, Daniel M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the benefits of medications and surgical interventions for Parkinson's disease (PD), these treatments are not without complications and neuroprotective strategies are still lacking. Therefore, there is a need for effective alternative approaches to treat motor and non-motor symptoms in PD. During the last decade, several studies have investigated endurance exercise training as a potential treatment for individuals with PD. This paper reviews the therapeutically beneficial effects of endurance exercise training on motor and non-motor symptoms in PD. First, we performed a systematic review of the literature on the effects of endurance exercise training on motor and non-motor signs of parkinsonism, functional outcomes including gait, balance and mobility, depression and fatigue, quality of life and perceived patient improvement, cardiorespiratory function, neurophysiological measures, and motor control measures in PD. Second we performed a meta-analysis on the motor section of the UPDRS. Then, we focused on several important factors to consider when prescribing endurance exercise training in PD such as intensity, duration, frequency, specificity and type of exercise. In addition, we identified current knowledge gaps regarding endurance exercise training in PD and made suggestions for future research. A total of eight randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. This systematic review synthesizes evidence that endurance exercise training at a sufficiently high level enhances cardiorespiratory capacity and endurance by improving VO2 max and gait in moderately to mildly affected individuals with PD. However, there is not yet a proven effect of endurance exercise training on specific features of PD such as motor signs of parkinsonism. Endurance exercise training improves physical conditioning in PD patients; however, to date, there is insufficient evidence to include endurance exercise training as a specific treatment for PD. There is

  8. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  9. Rotor Resistance Identification and Stability Control Method in Bearingless Induction Motor Drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Daigo; Orita, Shuichi; Chiba, Akira; Fukao, Tadashi

    Generally, vector controllers in induction motors tend to suffer from the influence of rotor resistance variation caused by temperature and load torque conditions. Several rotor resistance identification methods have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, a novel rotor resistance identification technique is proposed based on variables in the magnetic suspension control loops. When static force, for example, a shaft weight is applied, force commands are automatically generated in the opposite direction to satisfy the force equilibrium. However, the amplitude and direction of the force command vary in accordance with the rotor resistance variation. Thus, the rotor resistance can be identified from the suspension force command. In addition, influence of temperature drift in gap sensors is investigated. The effectiveness is confirmed experimentally.

  10. Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, L W; Hunt, S T; Savage, S F [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); McLaughlin, P D; Shepard, A P; Worl, J C [Battelle Seattle Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The following appendices contain the detailed analysis data for the questionnaires and various FDS-1 after action reports submitted to the Marine Corps Systems Command (MARCORSYSCOM) Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Systems' Engineer.

  11. Confronting the Mortal Enemy of Military Justice: New Developments in Unlawful Command Influence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark L Johnson

    2007-01-01

    ...) to the area of unlawful command influence.1 They serve as a reminder that unlawful command influence is still the mortal enemy of military justice,2 and that all military justice practitioners must be vigilant to prevent even the appearance...

  12. Should the Department of Defense Establish a Unified U.S. Logistics Command?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wenzel, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This monograph asserts that DoD should establish a Unified Combatant Command (COCOM)-level U.S. Logistics Command (USLOGCOM). DoD should begin a deliberate 10-20 year process to establish a USLOGCOM...

  13. The Knowledge Structure of the Commander in Asymmetric Battlefield: The Six Sights and Sensemaking Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ntuen, Celestine A

    2006-01-01

    .... While there are availability of information technology to help the commander in data processing and analysis, it is not surprising that in real time operations, the commander falls back on what has...

  14. PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT. AN ANALYSIS OF CHALLENGES, CHANGES IN COMMAND ACTION AND TRAINING NEEDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ünsal SIĞRI; Ufuk BAŞAR

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to uncover emerging challenges of peacekeeping operations, determine the changes in command actions and its effects on the professional preparation of commanders by analyzing...

  15. Analysis of Recruit Attrition from the Navy's Delayed Entry Program and Recruit Training Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neuhalfen, Jon K

    2007-01-01

    .... The analysis uses the PRIDE database, provided by Commander, Navy Recruiting Command. Trend analyses are used to identify significant changes in enlistment and attrition behavior for recruits who joined from fiscal years 1998 through 2005...

  16. Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Badescu, Mircea; Braun, David F.; Culhane, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A custom rotary SQUIGGLE(Registered TradeMark) motor has been developed that sets new benchmarks for small motor size, high position resolution, and high torque without gear reduction. Its capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional electromagnetic motors. It consists of piezoelectric plates mounted on a square flexible tube. The plates are actuated via voltage waveforms 90 out of phase at the resonant frequency of the device to create rotary motion. The motors were incorporated into a two-axis postioner that was designed for fiber-fed spectroscopy for ground-based and space-based projects. The positioner enables large-scale celestial object surveys to take place in a practical amount of time.

  17. Motor Carrier Crash Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contains data on large trucks and buses involved in Federally reportable crashes as per Title 49 U.S.C. Part 390.5 (crashes involving a commercial motor vehicle, and...

  18. Molecular motors: Dynein's gearbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, R A

    2004-05-04

    A new optical trapping study shows that the stepsize of cytoplasmic dynein varies according to the applied force, suggesting that this motor can change gear. Complementary biochemical kinetic work on yeast dynein mutants hints at the allosteric mechanisms involved.

  19. Digital Gunnery: How Combat Vehicle Gunnery Training Creates a Model for Training the Mission Command System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    xi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................1 Introduction ...33 Mission Command Doctrine: Philosophy and Warfighting Function .......................... 36 Literature Review Conclusion...39 Introduction

  20. SPECIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF SUPERIORS (COMMANDERS)IN THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Ferenc SÁNTHA

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the responsibility for a crime committed by command. In international criminal law exists two types of responsibilities. The first is the so called direct or active command responsibility, when the commander displays an active behavior in regards of the crime committed by subordinates, for example, by ordering them to commit a crime. These cases should be judged based on the traditional individual responsibility and the commander should be considered as a perpetrator ba...

  1. Financial Audit: Financial Reporting and Internal Controls at the Air Force Systems Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    United States General Accounting Office GAO Report 1,o, the Commander, Air Force -A0 Systems Command Janar 191FINANCI-AL AUDTFI Financial Reporting ...20332 Dear General Yates: This report presents the results of our review of the Air Force Systems Command’s financial management operations. It addresses...internal control and financial reporting improvements needed within the Air Force Systems Command. The report resulted from our examination of the

  2. Selective effect of physical fatigue on motor imagery accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Di Rienzo

    Full Text Available While the use of motor imagery (the mental representation of an action without overt execution during actual training sessions is usually recommended, experimental studies examining the effect of physical fatigue on subsequent motor imagery performance are sparse and yielded divergent findings. Here, we investigated whether physical fatigue occurring during an intense sport training session affected motor imagery ability. Twelve swimmers (nine males, mean age 15.5 years conducted a 45 min physically-fatiguing protocol where they swam from 70% to 100% of their maximal aerobic speed. We tested motor imagery ability immediately before and after fatigue state. Participants randomly imagined performing a swim turn using internal and external visual imagery. Self-reports ratings, imagery times and electrodermal responses, an index of alertness from the autonomic nervous system, were the dependent variables. Self-reports ratings indicated that participants did not encounter difficulty when performing motor imagery after fatigue. However, motor imagery times were significantly shortened during posttest compared to both pretest and actual turn times, thus indicating reduced timing accuracy. Looking at the selective effect of physical fatigue on external visual imagery did not reveal any difference before and after fatigue, whereas significantly shorter imagined times and electrodermal responses (respectively 15% and 48% decrease, p<0.001 were observed during the posttest for internal visual imagery. A significant correlation (r=0.64; p<0.05 was observed between motor imagery vividness (estimated through imagery questionnaire and autonomic responses during motor imagery after fatigue. These data support that unlike local muscle fatigue, physical fatigue occurring during intense sport training sessions is likely to affect motor imagery accuracy. These results might be explained by the updating of the internal representation of the motor sequence, due to

  3. Diagnostic method for induction motor using simplified motor simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Doumae, Yukihiro; Konishi, Masami; Imai, Jun; Asada, Hideki; Kitamura, Akira

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, an identification method of motor parameters for the diagnosis of rotor bar defects in the squirrel cage induction motor is proposed. It is difficult to distinguish the degree of deterioration by a conventional diagnostic method such as Fourier analysis. To overcome the difficulty, a motor simulator is used to identify the degree of deterioration of rotors in the squirrel cage induction motor. Using this method, the deterioration of rotor bars in the motor can be estimated quan...

  4. 14 CFR 61.57 - Recent flight experience: Pilot in command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... command must hold at least a commercial pilot certificate with the appropriate category, class, and type... to the month of the flight. (ii) The pilot in command must hold at least a commercial pilot... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recent flight experience: Pilot in command...

  5. Air Force Commanders and Barriers to Entry into a Doctoral Business Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tony; LeMire, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined professionally qualified Air Force commanders' barriers to entry into a business doctoral degree program related to the factors of time, financial means, academics, and motivation. Of the 116 present commanders, 63% were interested in pursuing a doctorate in business. For the commanders interested in obtaining a doctorate…

  6. Enhancement of the Logistics Battle Command Model: Architecture Upgrades and Attrition Module Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-05

    Battle Command Model Architecture Upgrades and Attrition Module Development U.S. Army TRADOC Analysis Center-Monterey 700 Dyer...17-010 January 2017 Enhancement of the Logistics Battle Command Model Architecture Upgrades and Attrition Module Development Nathan Parker...Logistics Battle Command Model Architecture Upgrades and Attrition Module Development 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  7. The Naval Plant Representative Office Organization Transition into the Defense Contract Management Command; Impacts on Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Representative Office organization transition into the Defense Contract Management Command: impacts on customers Tiffany, Murray L., III Monterey, California...1 TITLE (Include Security Classification) The Naval Plant Representative Office Organization Transition into the Defense Contract Management Command...public release; distribution is unlimited. The Naval Plant Representative Office Organization Transition into the Defense Contract Managagement Command

  8. 32 CFR 536.8 - Responsibilities and operations of command claims services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Responsibilities and operations of command claims... responsibility. (12) Appoint FCCs. (b) Operations of command claims services. The SJA of the command shall... CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.8 Responsibilities and...

  9. 14 CFR 91.3 - Responsibility and authority of the pilot in command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 91.3 Responsibility and authority of the pilot in command. (a) The pilot in command of an aircraft is... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility and authority of the pilot in command. 91.3 Section 91.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. The Impact of Technology on the Command, Control, and Organizational Structure of Insurgent Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-17

    THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON THE COMMAND, CONTROL, AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF INSURGENT GROUPS A thesis presented to the...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON THE COMMAND, CONTROL, AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF...Kevin C. Leahy Thesis Title: The Impact of Technology on the Command, Control, and Organizational Structure of Insurgent Groups Approved by

  11. AFRL Commander's Challenge 2015: stopping the active shooter

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, John P.; Boston, Jonathan; Smith, Brandon; Swartz, Pete; Whitney-Rawls, Amy; Martinez Calderon, Julian; Magin, Jonathan

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we describe a rapid-innovation challenge to combat and deal with the problem of internal, insider physical threats (e.g., active shooters) and associated first-responder situation awareness on military installations. Our team's research and development effort described within focused on several key tech development areas: (1) indoor acoustical gunshot detection, (2) indoor spatial tracking of first responders, (3) bystander safety and protection, (4) two-way mass alerting capability, and (5) spatial information displays for command and control. The technological solutions were specifically designed to be innovative, low-cost, and (relatively) easy-to-implement, and to provide support across the spectrum of possible users including potential victims/bystanders, first responders, dispatch, and incident command.

  12. Advances in Discrete-Event Simulation for MSL Command Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikalakis, Alexander; O'Reilly, Taifun

    2013-01-01

    In the last five years, the discrete event simulator, SEQuence GENerator (SEQGEN), developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to plan deep-space missions, has greatly increased uplink operations capacity to deal with increasingly complicated missions. In this paper, we describe how the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) project makes full use of an interpreted environment to simulate change in more than fifty thousand flight software parameters and conditional command sequences to predict the result of executing a conditional branch in a command sequence, and enable the ability to warn users whenever one or more simulated spacecraft states change in an unexpected manner. Using these new SEQGEN features, operators plan more activities in one sol than ever before.

  13. Circuit de commande pour Anti Collision Lamps ACL

    OpenAIRE

    Gerber, Jérôme; Biner, Hans-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Objectif Les ACL sont des ampoules 28V/200W utilisés dans le domaine de l’éclairage professionnel. Habituellement, 8 ampoules sont branchées en série sur le réseau. Suite à ce montage, une commande individuelle de la luminosité n’est pas possible. L’appareil conçu dans ce projet met toutes les ampoules en parallèle sur un bus de tension continue à 28Vdc. La commande individuelle est maintenant possible. Une protection anti-courtcircuit est aussi conçue afin de sécuriser l’installation. Pour a...

  14. Joint Command, Control and Communications: An Army Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This functional representation is presented in Figure 7. (Operational and Organizational Plan for Mobile Subscriber Equipment (MSE) System, 1986, p. 3...Typically a few gateway switches at -he DSN (located in CONUS, Europe and Pacific) are connected to a few major command gateways (AN/TTC-39s) in the AOR...SMechanized Infantry MECH INF SArmored Recon (CAV) ARC ; Armored ArWlAery (Self AARTY (SP) ___Propelled)m SlgnaVCommo SIG ; Transportation TRANS Psycologi c

  15. Transforming Airborne Command and Control and Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Staff level. Lt Col Roger “Charlie” Brown offered key perspective at the Major Command level. Lt Col Herb “Weed” Maraman, Sqn Ldr Mike Lyttle...Other analysts say that the aircraft avionics and sensor equipment also rely on satellite connectivity for critical data and any loss of satellite...the battlefield could provide more redundant communications through various BLOS and LOS voice and data links. The requirements are broad in nature

  16. USN/USMC Commander’s Quick Reference Legal Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    stigma often associated with seeking mental health care. MENTAL HEALTH REFERALS: Commanders and appropriate supervisors who in good faith believe...COMMANDER’S RESPONSIBILITIES PRIOR TO MAKING A MHE REFERAL:  NON-EMERGENCY SITUATIONS: Advise the Servicemember that there is no stigma associated with...facilitate customs and immigration inspections and ensure proper immigration clearances for military and civilian passengers.  The CO must ensure that

  17. The Ten Commandments tra Vecchio e Nuovo Testamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Berti Raffaele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cecil B. DeMille adapted for the screen the biblical text of Exodus twice, and in both cases he devised sophisticated strategies for intersemiotic translation with the aim to create a great show for a popular Christian audience. This is the reason why The Ten Commandments cannot be considered a mere illustration of the biblical story but instead a complex fiction film, which uses the Bible only as a starting point.

  18. The Ten Commandments tra Vecchio e Nuovo Testamento

    OpenAIRE

    De Berti Raffaele; Tomaso Subini

    2011-01-01

    Cecil B. DeMille adapted for the screen the biblical text of Exodus twice, and in both cases he devised sophisticated strategies for intersemiotic translation with the aim to create a great show for a popular Christian audience. This is the reason why The Ten Commandments cannot be considered a mere illustration of the biblical story but instead a complex fiction film, which uses the Bible only as a starting point.

  19. Kesselring: An Analysis of the German Commander at Anzio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-03

    When the British attack began on the night of 17-18 January, von Senger knew immediately that he was in trouble . As the extent of the British...the next section. In general, however, Kesselring as a com- mander deserves close attention, not only to plumb the depths of his command personalit ...of time and snace. I would like to take the opportunity to commend a few of these discussions for further research. One of the more troubling aspects

  20. Nuclear Command and Control: Current Programs and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-03

    Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse ( HEMP ) and High Power Microwave (HPM) Devices: Threat Assessments, by Clay Wilson. 54 Dee Ann Divis, “Protection Not in...Some analysts argue that detonating a high altitude nuclear burst to generate EMP against the U.S. critical infrastructure might be one way that China...infrastructure, including command and control systems, through an electromagnetic pulse (EMP).53 A high altitude nuclear explosion generates an electrical

  1. The cuckoo clock syndrome : addicted to command, allergic to leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Grint, Keith

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the extent to which we are addicted to particular ways of configuring the world and responding in a culturally appropriate way. It suggests that the original Tame and Wicked problems typology of Rittell and Webber (1973) can be usefully expanded to provide a heuristic for explaining this addiction and then focuses upon the most common approach an addiction to Crisis and Command. Some likely explanations for this addiction are discussed and some illustrative examples pro...

  2. Senior Level Leadership and Commands: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    and Executives. MA Thesis, US Naval Postgraduate School, 1981. Alexandria: Defense Technical Information Center, 1982. (V425 U5 TH A33) 2. Bennis ...Warren, and Nanus , Burt. Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge. New York: Harper & Row, 1985. (HD57.7 B46 1985) 3. Blanchard, Kenneth; Zigarmi...Davis, Bennie L. "Officership: A Profound Commitment." Air Force Policy Letter for Commanders Supplement, January 1981, pp. 24-29. 35. Denno, Bryce F

  3. Deja vu: The Unified Command Plan of the Future Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited Déjà vu : The Unified Command Plan of the Future Revisited A Monograph by Lieutenant...DD-MM-YYYY) 19-05-2011 2. REPORT TYPE Monograph 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUL 2010 – MAY 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Déjà vu : The Unified...i SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MILITARY STUDIES MONOGRAPH APPROVAL Lieutenant Colonel Edward Francis Martignetti Title of Monograph: Déjà vu : The Unified

  4. Command and Functional Analysis of the Intelligence Systems Architecture Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    requirements of the GCE. Currently, a de facto ACE CIC is formed on an ad hoc basis and is virtually imbedded in the Tactical Air Command Center (TACC). It...34w). Mo NSMoffe Cbp**c Sqqxtfaci~iy (MCSF orSdTCOM ltay ,j. for aeaw pia intlgkmmc Yoke ad/or dat oumu~ * AV Lm .R Sgweal Rq~ouwin ad Aula Chaik

  5. Evolution of the Air Component Commander Post Goldwater-Nichols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    command of the air forces for the Normandy invasion never actually existed. Instead, Eisenhower was forced to deal with three separated entities...Saudi Ministry of Defense and Aviation ( MODA ) building, located in Riyadh, for CENTCOM Headquarters. He also chose the Royal Saudi Air Forces...fight. The fourth and final job of the CFACC was the actual combat role, including planning and tasking. The challenge for Moseley was to prepare

  6. Headquarters Air Force Material Command Customer Relationship Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    uses information about each customer to make each customer more valuable to the organization, and the organization more valuable to the customer , while...decreasing the cost of servicing the customer . However, an organization cannot conform to customer specifications if the needs of the customers as...well as what the customer values is not known. As a result, Headquarters (HQ) Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) is taking the initiative to gain an

  7. Commanders Guidance and Campaign Planning - The Falkland Islands War 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Exacerbating this was an unanticipated shift in the timeline, which moved up the invasion date by six months. The fact that they were executed with...information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM...YYYY) 29-03-2017 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN2016 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Commanders Guidance and

  8. Commanding in Chief, Strategic Leader Relationships in the Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    the principle of a civilian leader rather than a uniformed officer at the head of the military. The framers of the Constitution most likely...such as video teleconferencing, is not a panacea for overcoming ineffective communication skills. It is imperative for a Commander in Chief to...C. Waugh, “Lincoln and McClellan,” Banner Lecture Series, Virginia Historical Society, Richmond, VA, May 12, 2011, video file. http://www.c

  9. Disagreement, Cognitive Command, and the Indexicality of Moral Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichardt Bastian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Moral Relativism can be considered an attractive alternative to realism because relativists can make good sense of cultural and societal disagreements by seeing them as faultless. However, we can show that this advantage is made possible by systematically disagreeing with moral phenomenology. Relativists make a substantial distinction between intercultural and intracultural discourses which turns out to be incoherent. This can be shown by making use of Crispin Wright’s notion of Cognitive Command.

  10. A Work Domain Analysis of Shipboard Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    lors d’événements imprévus ou de situations anormales. Évaluer une situation en cours et prendre des décisions exigent des efforts cognitifs importants... decision support. Tactical decisions require that the ship’s Command Team gain timely access to and comprehend the significance of large amounts of...active situation assessment and decision making, where benefits for performance improvements may be expected from incorporating advanced support tools like

  11. Internal Realignment of TAC (Tactical Air Command) Services Squadrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    in the Tactical Air Command (TAC) are no exception. They are organized for their mission in a traditional fashion at first glance. However, there is...organizations as very traditional . However, there is little information available that evaluates how well this structure actually works, if it really complies...inflight and ground support carry out style meals are prepared, and pastry baking operations (10:12-13). 6 D. BILLETING: Manages transient quarters for

  12. Improving the Air Force Squadron Command Selection Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-19

    is assigned to the Air War College, Air University, Maxwell AFB, AL. Lt Col Taylor is an Air Force Special Operations pilot whose experience spans a...within the military, there are almost infinite levels of application. This study will focus attention at the Air Force squadron level for several reasons...through the stages of professional military education that span an Air Force officer’s career, we are taught that the Air Force squadron commander

  13. Fit for Command: Military Leadership Attributes for Small Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    Leadership Communications Skills Center for their excellent editing and support. Their valuable suggestions helped to improve the paper and eliminated...their subordinates. This requires sociability skills that enable military leaders to connect, relate, and communicate effectively with their troops. 16...very limited social skills. He was an introvert , not very approachable, and withdrawn. He was more a general staff officer than a battalion commander

  14. Spaceport Command and Control System User Interface Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesman, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System will be the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's newest system for launching commercial and government owned spacecraft. It's a large system with many parts all in need of testing. To improve upon testing already done by NASA engineers, the Engineering Directorate, Electrical Division (NE-E) of Kennedy Space Center has hired a group of interns each of the last few semesters to develop novel ways of improving the testing process.

  15. The Battle Command Sustainment Support System: Initial Analysis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Sustainment Sustainment System Mission Command (S2MC) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER...Data (214A) 6 Global Air Transportation Execution System (GATES) 6 Radio-Frequency Identification ( RFID ) Detections, Level 6, and Interrogator...information. Logistics Support Activity (LOGSA)  Frequency: 2 or 6 hr  Format: direct database link or flat file via secure file transfer

  16. Intelligent Command and Control Demonstration Setup and Presentation Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    ARL-TR-8244 ● DEC 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Intelligent Command and Control Demonstration Setup and Presentation...and Control Demonstration Setup and Presentation Instructions by Laurel C Sadler and Somiya Metu Computational and Information Sciences...for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM

  17. Network Centric Warfare, Command, and the Nature of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-21

    80 Consequently, Frederick‘s army was the first into Silesia in 1740 and first into Saxony 1756.81 Preemption provided Frederick a great advantage in...refinement, of what is developing into a clearer picture of the essence of command. Eisenhower‘s circumstances are again unique; therefore, the analysis...differences, and construct a common picture ,‖ the advantages are unlikely to be that pronounced because understanding is not the same as developing a

  18. Role Allocation and Team Structure in Command and Control Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    tankers (FT), search units (S) and rescue units (R). Each unit is represented on the map by a numbered icon. Each type of unit is colour -coded and...experiences from command and control research with the C3Fire microworld. Cognition , Technology & Work, 5(3), 183-190. Hollenbeck, J. R. (2000). A...Alexandria, VA, June 2013. Jobidon, M.-E., Tremblay, S., Lafond, D., & Breton, R. (2006). The role of cognition in team functioning: A matter of

  19. Wargaming in support of command, control and communications experiments.

    OpenAIRE

    Sherfey, Linda M.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this thesis is to provide information about wargaming to prospective users. An in depth discussion focussing on two primary components ofwargaming is presented. The first component is wargaming in general. A description is provided of wargaming features and a discussion concerning the limitations and hazards inherent to wargames. The second component is how to design a wargame experiment to support command, cont...

  20. General Curtis E. Lemay on Leadership and Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    2 Gary Yukl , Leadership in Organizations , 2nd Ed (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1989), 267. As...130. 35 Yukl , Leadership , 130. 46 perspective, LeMay was constantly looking to make the organization more effective – constant improvement...Command to a resolute and capable organization , capable of providing the nation’s nuclear deterrence. LeMay on Leadership focuses on his development of