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Sample records for random location cross

  1. Facility Location Using Cross Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Leroy A.

    1995-01-01

    The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. Determining the best base stationing for military units can be modeled as a capacitated facility location problem with sole sourcing and multiple resource categories. Computational experience suggests that cross decomposition, a unification of Benders Decomposition and Lagrangean relaxation, is superior to other contempo...

  2. Competitive Facility Location with Fuzzy Random Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Takeshi; Katagiri, Hideki; Kato, Kosuke

    2010-10-01

    This paper proposes a new location problem of competitive facilities, e.g. shops, with uncertainty and vagueness including demands for the facilities in a plane. By representing the demands for facilities as fuzzy random variables, the location problem can be formulated as a fuzzy random programming problem. For solving the fuzzy random programming problem, first the α-level sets for fuzzy numbers are used for transforming it to a stochastic programming problem, and secondly, by using their expectations and variances, it can be reformulated to a deterministic programming problem. After showing that one of their optimal solutions can be found by solving 0-1 programming problems, their solution method is proposed by improving the tabu search algorithm with strategic oscillation. The efficiency of the proposed method is shown by applying it to numerical examples of the facility location problems.

  3. Competitive Facility Location with Random Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Takeshi; Katagiri, Hideki; Kato, Kosuke

    2009-10-01

    This paper proposes a new location problem of competitive facilities, e.g. shops and stores, with uncertain demands in the plane. By representing the demands for facilities as random variables, the location problem is formulated to a stochastic programming problem, and for finding its solution, three deterministic programming problems: expectation maximizing problem, probability maximizing problem, and satisfying level maximizing problem are considered. After showing that one of their optimal solutions can be found by solving 0-1 programming problems, their solution method is proposed by improving the tabu search algorithm with strategic vibration. Efficiency of the solution method is shown by applying to numerical examples of the facility location problems.

  4. Large level crossings of a random polynomial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Farahmand

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available We know the expected number of times that a polynomial of degree n with independent random real coefficients asymptotically crosses the level K, when K is any real value such that (K2/n→0 as n→∞. The present paper shows that, when K is allowed to be large, this expected number of crossings reduces to only one. The coefficients of the polynomial are assumed to be normally distributed. It is shown that it is sufficient to let K≥exp(nf where f is any function of n such that f→∞ as n→∞.

  5. School-Located Influenza Vaccinations: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Peter G; Schaffer, Stanley; Rand, Cynthia M; Vincelli, Phyllis; Eagan, Ashley; Goldstein, Nicolas P N; Hightower, A Dirk; Younge, Mary; Blumkin, Aaron; Albertin, Christina S; Yoo, Byung-Kwang; Humiston, Sharon G

    2016-11-01

    Assess impact of offering school-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) clinics using both Web-based and paper consent upon overall influenza vaccination rates among elementary school children. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial (stratified by suburban/urban districts) in upstate New York in 2014-2015. We randomized 44 elementary schools, selected similar pairs of schools within districts, and allocated schools to SLIV versus usual care (control). Parents of children at SLIV schools were sent information and vaccination consent forms via e-mail, backpack fliers, or both (depending on school preferences) regarding school vaccine clinics. Health department nurses conducted vaccine clinics and billed insurers. For all children registered at SLIV/control schools, we compared receipt of influenza vaccination anywhere (primary outcome). The 44 schools served 19 776 eligible children in 2014-2015. Children in SLIV schools had higher influenza vaccination rates than children in control schools county-wide (54.1% vs 47.4%, P vaccination in previous season) confirmed bivariate findings. Among parents who consented for SLIV, nearly half of those notified by backpack fliers and four-fifths of those notified by e-mail consented online. In suburban districts, SLIV did not substitute for primary care influenza vaccination. In urban schools, some substitution occurred. SLIV raised seasonal influenza vaccination rates county-wide and in both suburban and urban settings. SLIV did not substitute for primary care vaccinations in suburban settings where pediatricians often preorder influenza vaccine but did substitute somewhat in urban settings. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Probabilistic Analysis of Facility Location on Random Shortest Path Metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klootwijk, Stefan; Manthey, Bodo

    The facility location problem is an NP-hard optimization problem. Therefore, approximation algorithms are often used to solve large instances. Probabilistic analysis is a widely used tool to analyze such algorithms. Most research on probabilistic analysis of NP-hard optimization problems involving

  7. Spatial location identification of structural nonlinearities from random data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsson, A.; Magnevall, M.; Ahlin, K.; Broman, G.

    2012-02-01

    With growing demands on product performance and growing complexity of engineering structures, efficient tools for analyzing their dynamic behavior are essential. Linear techniques are well developed and often utilized. However, sometimes the errors due to linearization are too large to be acceptable, making it necessary to take nonlinear effects into account. In many practical applications it is common and reasonable to assume that the nonlinearities are highly local and thus only affect a limited set of spatial coordinates. The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to finding the spatial location of nonlinearities from measurement data, as this may not always be known beforehand. This information can be used to separate the underlying linear system from the nonlinear parts and create mathematical models for efficient parameter estimation and simulation. The presented approach builds on the reverse-path methodology and utilizes the coherence functions to determine the location of nonlinear elements. A systematic search with Multiple Input/Single Output models is conducted in order to find the nonlinear functions that best describe the nonlinear restoring forces. The obtained results indicate that the presented approach works well for identifying the location of local nonlinearities in structures. It is verified by simulation data from a cantilever beam model with two local nonlinearities and experimental data from a T-beam experimental set-up with a single local nonlinearity. A possible drawback is that a relatively large amount of data is needed. Advantages of the approach are that it only needs a single excitation point that response data at varying force amplitudes is not needed and that no prior information about the underlying linear system is needed.

  8. Cross over of recurrence networks to random graphs and random ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-27

    Jan 27, 2017 ... analysis based on net theoretic measures has developed into a major field, .... with the value of the scaling index γ falling between 2 and 3. To compute the network measures, we first construct an ensemble of synthetic networks, both random and ... higher k values are present to maintain the same γ. In both.

  9. Selection of river crossing location and sleeping site by proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ikki; Tuuga, Augustine; Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Higashi, Seigo

    2008-11-01

    From May 2005-2006, selections of river crossing locations and sleeping sites used by a one-male group (BE-Group) of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) were investigated along the Menanggul River, tributary of the Kinabatangan River, Sabah, Malaysia. The frequency of river crossings for focal monkeys in the BE-Group was significantly higher at locations with narrow branch-to-bank distances. Branch-to-bank distances were defined as the distances between the longest tree branches extending over the river and the bank of river on each side. This was measured in areas crossed by the monkeys. The focal monkeys used locations with a higher probability of successful river crossings that did not require jumping into the water and swimming across than those that did. The frequency of sleeping site usage by the BE-Group was positively correlated with the frequency of using river crossing locations by the focal monkeys. Previous reports on predation of proboscis monkeys indicate that clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi) and crocodilians (Tomistoma schlegeli and Crocodylus porosus) may be the major terrestrial and aquatic predators of these monkeys. The selection of river crossing locations by proboscis monkeys may be influenced both by the threat of these predators and the location of suitable and protected sleeping sites. Finally, sleeping sites locations that offer arboreal escape routes may protect proboscis monkeys from leopard attack. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Computer simulation of randomly cross-linked polymer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, T P

    2002-01-01

    In this work, Monte Carlo and Stochastic Dynamics computer simulations of mesoscale model randomly cross-linked networks were undertaken. Task parallel implementations of the lattice Monte Carlo Bond Fluctuation model and Kremer-Grest Stochastic Dynamics bead-spring continuum model were designed and used for this purpose. Lattice and continuum precursor melt systems were prepared and then cross-linked to varying degrees. The resultant networks were used to study structural changes during deformation and relaxation dynamics. The effects of a random network topology featuring a polydisperse distribution of strand lengths and an abundance of pendant chain ends, were qualitatively compared to recent published work. A preliminary investigation into the effects of temperature on the structural and dynamical properties was also undertaken. Structural changes during isotropic swelling and uniaxial deformation, revealed a pronounced non-affine deformation dependant on the degree of cross-linking. Fractal heterogeneiti...

  11. Within-person associations of young adolescents’ physical activity across five primary locations: is there evidence of cross-location compensation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Jordan A.; Mitchell, Tarrah B.; Saelens, Brian E.

    2017-01-01

    Youth are active in multiple locations, but it is unknown whether more physical activity in one location is associated with less in other locations. This cross-sectional study examines whether on days with more physical activity in a given location, relative to their typical activity in that loca......Youth are active in multiple locations, but it is unknown whether more physical activity in one location is associated with less in other locations. This cross-sectional study examines whether on days with more physical activity in a given location, relative to their typical activity...... in that location, youth had less activity in other locations (i.e., within-person associations/compensation)....

  12. Fault-Tolerant Facility Location: A Randomized Dependent LP-Rounding Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrka, Jaroslaw; Srinivasan, Aravind; Swamy, Chaitanya

    We give a new randomized LP-rounding 1.725-approximation algorithm for the metric Fault-Tolerant Uncapacitated Facility Location problem. This improves on the previously best known 2.076-approximation algorithm of Swamy & Shmoys. To the best of our knowledge, our work provides the first application of a dependent-rounding technique in the domain of facility location. The analysis of our algorithm benefits from, and extends, methods developed for Uncapacitated Facility Location; it also helps uncover new properties of the dependent-rounding approach.

  13. Location and multi-depot vehicle routing for emergency vehicles using tour coverage and random sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Goli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and optimum allocation of emergency resources are the most important tasks, which need to be accomplished during crisis. When a natural disaster such as earthquake, flood, etc. takes place, it is necessary to deliver rescue efforts as quickly as possible. Therefore, it is important to find optimum location and distribution of emergency relief resources. When a natural disaster occurs, it is not possible to reach some damaged areas. In this paper, location and multi-depot vehicle routing for emergency vehicles using tour coverage and random sampling is investigated. In this study, there is no need to visit all the places and some demand points receive their needs from the nearest possible location. The proposed study is implemented for some randomly generated numbers in different sizes. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed method was capable of reaching desirable solutions in reasonable amount of time.

  14. Level crossings and turning points of random hyperbolic polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Farahmand

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we show that the asymptotic estimate for the expected number of K-level crossings of a random hyperbolic polynomial a1sinhx+a2sinh2x+⋯+ansinhnx, where aj(j=1,2,…,n are independent normally distributed random variables with mean zero and variance one, is (1/πlogn. This result is true for all K independent of x, provided K≡Kn=O(n. It is also shown that the asymptotic estimate of the expected number of turning points for the random polynomial a1coshx+a2cosh2x+⋯+ancoshnx, with aj(j=1,2,…,n as before, is also (1/πlogn.

  15. Influence of forebody cross-sectional shape on wing vortex burst location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    A water tunnel study examining the influence of forebody cross section on the position of the wing vortex burst was carried out in the NASA Ames-Dryden water tunnel for a 55-deg cropped delta-wing model. Two of three cross sections investigated were chine-shaped, where the included angle of the chine was either 7.5-deg, representing a rather small side-edge angle, or 90 deg, representing a more moderate design. The third cross section was circular and served as a baseline for comparison. It is found that the 7.5 deg chine cross section generated the strongest forebody vortices of the three configurations and that these strong forebody vortices interacted with the main wing vortices in such a manner as to dramatically delay wing vortex burst position at zero sideslip. If the configuration is sideslipped, large asymmetries in wing vortex burst location may result.

  16. APPROXIMATION TO OPTIMAL STOPPING RULES FOR GUMBEL RANDOM VARIABLES WITH UNKNOWN LOCATION AND SCALE PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Tzu-Sheng; Lee, Shen-Ming

    2006-01-01

    An optimal stopping rule is a rule that stops the sampling process at a sample size n that maximizes the expected reward. In this paper we will study the approximation to optimal stopping rule for Gumbel random variables, because the Gumbel-type distribution is the most commonly referred to in discussions of extreme values. Let $X_1, X_2,\\cdots X_n,\\cdots$ be independent, identically distributed Gumbel random variables with unknown location and scale parameters,$\\alpha$ and $\\beta$. If we def...

  17. Distributed Detection of Randomly Located Targets in Mobility-Assisted Sensor Networks with Node Mobility Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaweera SudharmanK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance gain achieved by adding mobile nodes to a stationary sensor network for target detection depends on factors such as the number of mobile nodes deployed, mobility patterns, speed and energy constraints of mobile nodes, and the nature of the target locations (deterministic or random. In this paper, we address the problem of distributed detection of a randomly located target by a hybrid sensor network. Specifically, we develop two decision-fusion architectures for detection where in the first one, impact of node mobility is taken into account for decisions updating at the fusion center, while in the second model the impact of node mobility is taken at the node level decision updating. The cost of deploying mobile nodes is analyzed in terms of the minimum fraction of mobile nodes required to achieve the desired performance level within a desired delay constraint. Moreover, we consider managing node mobility under given constraints.

  18. Study of cross-shaped ultrasonic array sensor applied to partial discharge location in transformer oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jisheng; Xin, Xiaohu; Luo, Yongfen; Ji, Haiying; Li, Yanming; Deng, Junbo

    2013-11-01

    A conformal combined sensor is designed and it is used in Partial Discharge (PD) location experiments in transformer oil. The sensor includes a cross-shaped ultrasonic phased array of 13 elements and an ultra-high-frequency (UHF) electromagnetic rectangle array of 2 × 2 elements. Virtual expansion with high order cumulants, the ultrasonic array can achieve the effect of array with 61 elements. This greatly improves the aperture and direction sharpness of original array and reduces the cost of follow-up hardware. With the cross-shaped ultrasonic array, the results of PD location experiments are precise and the maximum error of the direction of arrival (DOA) is less than 5°.

  19. The separable Lagrangean relaxation in the cross decomposition method for the facility location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves-Garcia, R.

    1994-12-31

    We present the {open_quotes}separable Lagrangean relaxation{close_quotes} in the Cross Decomposition Method to solve the Capacitated Facility Location problem with some additional constraints. It is possible to strengthen the dual subproblem adding inequalities, such that the subproblem separates into a Transportation problem and Knapsack problem. We compute the lower bound via ascent steps using {open_quotes}Technique Lagrangean dual ascent{close_quotes}.

  20. Effect of Location of Delamination on Free Vibration of Cross-Ply Conical Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Dey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Location of delamination is a triggering parameter for structural instability of laminated composites. In this paper, a finite element method is employed to determine the effects of location of delamination on free vibration characteristics of graphite-epoxy cross-ply composite pre-twisted shallow conical shells. The generalized dynamic equilibrium equation is derived from Lagrange's equation of motion neglecting Coriolis effect for moderate rotational speeds. The formulation is exercised by using an eight noded isoparametric plate bending element based on Mindlin's theory. Multi-point constraint algorithm is utilized to ensure the compatibility of deformation and equilibrium of resultant forces and moments at the delamination crack front. The standard eigen value problem is solved by applying the QR iteration algorithm. Finite element codes are developed to obtain the numerical results concerning the effects of location of delamination, twist angle and rotational speed on the natural frequencies of cross-ply composite shallow conical shells. The mode shapes are also depicted for a typical laminate configuration. Numerical results obtained from parametric studies of both symmetric and anti-symmetric cross-ply laminates are the first known non-dimensional natural frequencies for the type of analyses carried out here.

  1. The relationship between quality of work life and location of cross-training among obstetric nurses in urban northeastern Ontario, Canada: A population-based cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behdin Nowrouzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the quality of work life of registered nurses working in obstetrics at 4 hospitals in northeastern Ontario and explore demographic and occupational factors related to nurses’ quality of work life (QWL. Material and Methods: A stratified random sample of registered nurses (N = 111 selected from the 138 eligible registered nurses (80.4% of staff in the labor, delivery, recovery, and postpartum areas at the 4 hospitals participated. Logistic regression analyses were used to consider QWL in relation to the following: 1 demographic factors, and 2 stress, employment status and educational attainment. Results: In the logistic regression model, the odds of a higher quality of work life for nurses who were cross trained (nurses who can work across all areas of obstetrical care were estimated to be 3.82 (odds ratio = 3.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.01–14.5 times the odds of a higher quality of work life for nurses who were not cross trained. Conclusions: This study highlights a relationship between quality of work life and associated factors including location of cross-training among obstetrical nurses in northeastern Ontario. These findings are supported by the qualitative interviews that examine in depth their relationship to QWL. Given the limited number of employment opportunities in the rural and remote regions, it is paramount that employers and employees work closely together in creating positive environments that promote nurses’ QWL.

  2. Teaching Children to Cross Streets Safely: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C.; McClure, Leslie A.; Severson, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Child pedestrian injury is a global public health challenge. This randomized controlled trial considered comparative efficacy of individualized streetside training, training in a virtual pedestrian environment, training using videos and websites, plus no-training control, to improve children’s street-crossing ability. Methods Pedestrian safety was evaluated among 231 seven- and eight-year-olds using both streetside (field) and laboratory-based (virtual environment) trials prior to intervention group assignment, immediately post-training, and six months post-training. All training groups received six 30-minute sessions. Four outcomes assessed pedestrian safety: start delay (temporal lag before initiating crossing), hits/close calls (collisions/near-misses with vehicles in simulated crossings), attention to traffic (looks left and right, controlled for time), and missed opportunities (safe crossing opportunities that were missed). Results Results showed training in the virtual pedestrian environment and especially individualized streetside training resulted in safer pedestrian behavior post-intervention and at follow-up. As examples, children trained streetside entered safe traffic gaps more quickly post-training than control group children and children trained streetside or in the virtual environment had somewhat fewer hits/close calls in post-intervention VR trials. Children showed minimal change in attention to traffic post-training. Children trained with videos/websites showed minimal learning. Conclusion Both individualized streetside training and training within virtual pedestrian environments may improve 7- and 8-year-olds’ street-crossing safety. Individualized training has limitations of adult time and labor. Virtual environment training has limitations of accessibility and cost. Given the public health burden of child pedestrian injuries, future research should explore innovative strategies for effective training that can be broadly

  3. Selection of locations of knots for linear splines in random regression test-day models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, J; Bohmanova, J; Schaeffer, L R

    2010-04-01

    Using spline functions (segmented polynomials) in regression models requires the knowledge of the location of the knots. Knots are the points at which independent linear segments are connected. Optimal positions of knots for linear splines of different orders were determined in this study for different scenarios, using existing estimates of covariance functions and an optimization algorithm. The traits considered were test-day milk, fat and protein yields, and somatic cell score (SCS) in the first three lactations of Canadian Holsteins. Two ranges of days in milk (from 5 to 305 and from 5 to 365) were taken into account. In addition, four different populations of Holstein cows, from Australia, Canada, Italy and New Zealand, were examined with respect to first lactation (305 days) milk only. The estimates of genetic and permanent environmental covariance functions were based on single- and multiple-trait test-day models, with Legendre polynomials of order 4 as random regressions. A differential evolution algorithm was applied to find the best location of knots for splines of orders 4 to 7 and the criterion for optimization was the goodness-of-fit of the spline covariance function. Results indicated that the optimal position of knots for linear splines differed between genetic and permanent environmental effects, as well as between traits and lactations. Different populations also exhibited different patterns of optimal knot locations. With linear splines, different positions of knots should therefore be used for different effects and traits in random regression test-day models when analysing milk production traits.

  4. Self-propulsion and crossing statistics under random initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, M.; Labousse, M.; Perrard, S.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the crossing of an energy barrier by a self-propelled particle described by a Rayleigh friction term. We reveal the existence of a sharp transition in the external force field whereby the amplitude dramatically increases. This corresponds to a saddle point transition in the velocity flow phase space, as would be expected for any type of repulsive force field. We use this approach to rationalize the results obtained by Eddi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 240401 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.240401] who studied the interaction between a drop propelled by its accompanying wave field and a submarine obstacle. This wave particle entity can overcome potential barrier, suggesting the existence of a "macroscopic tunneling effect." We show that the effect of self-propulsion is sufficiently strong to generate crossing of the high-energy barrier. By assuming a random distribution of initial angles, we define a probability distribution to cross the potential barrier that matches with the data of Eddi et al. This probability is similar to the one encountered in statistical physics for Hamiltonian systems, i.e., a Boltzmann exponential law.

  5. Covert Communication in MIMO-OFDM System Using Pseudo Random Location of Fake Subcarriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizky Pratama Hudhajanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM is the most used wireless transmission scheme in the world. However, its security is the interesting problem to discuss if we want to use this scheme to transmit a sensitive data, such as in the military and commercial communication systems. In this paper, we propose a new method to increase the security of MIMO-OFDM system using the change of location of fake subcarrier. The fake subcarriers’ location is generated per packet of data using Pseudo Random sequence generator. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme does not decrease the performance of conventional MIMO-OFDM. The attacker or eavesdropper gets worse Bit Error Rate (BER than the legal receiver compared to the conventional MIMO-OFDM system.

  6. All-Direction Random Routing for Source-Location Privacy Protecting against Parasitic Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Zeng, Jiwen

    2017-03-17

    Wireless sensor networks are deployed to monitor the surrounding physical environments and they also act as the physical environments of parasitic sensor networks, whose purpose is analyzing the contextual privacy and obtaining valuable information from the original wireless sensor networks. Recently, contextual privacy issues associated with wireless communication in open spaces have not been thoroughly addressed and one of the most important challenges is protecting the source locations of the valuable packages. In this paper, we design an all-direction random routing algorithm (ARR) for source-location protecting against parasitic sensor networks. For each package, the routing process of ARR is divided into three stages, i.e., selecting a proper agent node, delivering the package to the agent node from the source node, and sending it to the final destination from the agent node. In ARR, the agent nodes are randomly chosen in all directions by the source nodes using only local decisions, rather than knowing the whole topology of the networks. ARR can control the distributions of the routing paths in a very flexible way and it can guarantee that the routing paths with the same source and destination are totally different from each other. Therefore, it is extremely difficult for the parasitic sensor nodes to trace the packages back to the source nodes. Simulation results illustrate that ARR perfectly confuses the parasitic nodes and obviously outperforms traditional routing-based schemes in protecting source-location privacy, with a marginal increase in the communication overhead and energy consumption. In addition, ARR also requires much less energy than the cloud-based source-location privacy protection schemes.

  7. A Capacitated Location-Allocation Model for Flood Disaster Service Operations with Border Crossing Passages and Probabilistic Demand Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Mirzapour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential consequences of flood disasters, including severe loss of life and property, induce emergency managers to find the appropriate locations of relief rooms to evacuate people from the origin points to a safe place in order to lessen the possible impact of flood disasters. In this research, a p-center location problem is considered in order to determine the locations of some relief rooms in a city and their corresponding allocation clusters. This study presents a mixed integer nonlinear programming model of a capacitated facility location-allocation problem which simultaneously considers the probabilistic distribution of demand locations and a fixed line barrier in a region. The proposed model aims at minimizing the maximum expected weighted distance from the relief rooms to all the demand regions in order to decrease the evacuation time of people from the affected areas before flood occurrence. A real-world case study has been carried out to examine the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed model.

  8. Relative location using waveform cross correlation: comparison of the Aitik and Kiruna mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhkov, Mikhail; Bobrov, Dmitry; Kitov, Ivan; Yedlin, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    Waveform cross correlation (WCC) is a powerful tool of signal detection from repeated events like mining blasts. In this study, we use seismic data measured at four array stations (ARCES, FINES, NOA, and HFS) of the International Monitoring System (IMS) from two quarries in Sweden - the Aitik copper and Kiruna iron mines. Both mines are characterized by intensive blasting practice, with hundreds of blasts found by the International Data Centre and available in its Reviewed Events Bulletin. In our previous study, we applied the WCC method to these repeated signals and estimated the overall similarity of signals at one mine and between mines. In order to provide the best use of the whole multitude of historical events and to reduce the number of waveform templates needed for comprehensive signal detection and association, we applied several high-order factorization techniques to the tensor based representation of seismic array data, so the lower order tensor construction was used as synthetic waveform template set. As a result, we found that signals from two mines might correlate and the only reliable method to actually distinguish between blasts conducted at the Aitik and Kiruna mines is to locate them using arrival times obtained by cross correlation. Here, we present select results of detection, relative location and mine identification as obtained since the end of 2016. This is an out-of-sample test of the procedures related to the WCC method.

  9. A Capacitated Location-Allocation Model for Flood Disaster Service Operations with Border Crossing Passages and Probabilistic Demand Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzapour, S. A.; Wong, K. Y.; Govindan, K.

    2013-01-01

    Potential consequences of flood disasters, including severe loss of life and property, induce emergency managers to find the appropriate locations of relief rooms to evacuate people from the origin points to a safe place in order to lessen the possible impact of flood disasters. In this research...

  10. Network Location-Aware Service Recommendation with Random Walk in Cyber-Physical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuyu; Yu, Fangzheng; Xu, Yueshen; Yu, Lifeng; Mu, Jinglong

    2017-09-08

    Cyber-physical systems (CPS) have received much attention from both academia and industry. An increasing number of functions in CPS are provided in the way of services, which gives rise to an urgent task, that is, how to recommend the suitable services in a huge number of available services in CPS. In traditional service recommendation, collaborative filtering (CF) has been studied in academia, and used in industry. However, there exist several defects that limit the application of CF-based methods in CPS. One is that under the case of high data sparsity, CF-based methods are likely to generate inaccurate prediction results. In this paper, we discover that mining the potential similarity relations among users or services in CPS is really helpful to improve the prediction accuracy. Besides, most of traditional CF-based methods are only capable of using the service invocation records, but ignore the context information, such as network location, which is a typical context in CPS. In this paper, we propose a novel service recommendation method for CPS, which utilizes network location as context information and contains three prediction models using random walking. We conduct sufficient experiments on two real-world datasets, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed methods and verify that the network location is indeed useful in QoS prediction.

  11. A hybrid flower pollination algorithm based modified randomized location for multi-threshold medical image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Zhou, Yongquan; Zhao, Chengyan; Wu, Haizhou

    2015-01-01

    Multi-threshold image segmentation is a powerful image processing technique that is used for the preprocessing of pattern recognition and computer vision. However, traditional multilevel thresholding methods are computationally expensive because they involve exhaustively searching the optimal thresholds to optimize the objective functions. To overcome this drawback, this paper proposes a flower pollination algorithm with a randomized location modification. The proposed algorithm is used to find optimal threshold values for maximizing Otsu's objective functions with regard to eight medical grayscale images. When benchmarked against other state-of-the-art evolutionary algorithms, the new algorithm proves itself to be robust and effective through numerical experimental results including Otsu's objective values and standard deviations.

  12. Geo-Located Tweets. Enhancing Mobility Maps and Capturing Cross-Border Movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine I Blanford

    Full Text Available Capturing human movement patterns across political borders is difficult and this difficulty highlights the need to investigate alternative data streams. With the advent of smart phones and the ability to attach accurate coordinates to Twitter messages, users leave a geographic digital footprint of their movement when posting tweets. In this study we analyzed 10 months of geo-located tweets for Kenya and were able to capture movement of people at different temporal (daily to periodic and spatial (local, national to international scales. We were also able to capture both long and short distances travelled, highlighting regional connections and cross-border movement between Kenya and the surrounding countries. The findings from this study has broad implications for studying movement patterns and mapping inter/intra-region movement dynamics.

  13. Co-location as a Driver for Cross-Sectoral Collaboration with General Practitioners as Coordinators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Christian Elling; Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    The issue of integrated care and inter-sectoral collaboration is on the health policy agenda in many countries. Yet, there is limited knowledge about the effects of the different policy instruments used to achieve this. This paper studies co-location as a driver for cross-sectoral collaboration w...... by the general practitioners’ work routines and professional identity, by organisational factors and by a lack of clarity concerning the content of collaboration with regard to economic and professional incentives....... with general practitioners (GPs) acting as coordinators in a municipal health centre. The purpose of the health centre, which is staffed by health professionals from municipal, regional and private sectors, is to provide primary health services to the citizens of the municipality. Co......-locating these professionals is supposed to benefit e.g., elder citizens and patients with chronic diseases who frequently require services from health professionals across administrative sectors. Methodologically, the analysis is based on qualitative data in the form of semi-structured interviews with the health...

  14. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wampler Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS; Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. Methods The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. Results A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. Conclusions The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only

  15. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Peter J; Rediske, Richard R; Molla, Azizur R

    2013-01-18

    A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS); Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only rarely was local knowledge required to identify and locate households. This

  16. Random Forest Based Coarse Locating and KPCA Feature Extraction for Indoor Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Mo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the fast developing of mobile terminals, positioning techniques based on fingerprinting method draw attention from many researchers even world famous companies. To conquer some shortcomings of the existing fingerprinting systems and further improve the system performance, on the one hand, in the paper, we propose a coarse positioning method based on random forest, which is able to customize several subregions, and classify test point to the region with an outstanding accuracy compared with some typical clustering algorithms. On the other hand, through the mathematical analysis in engineering, the proposed kernel principal component analysis algorithm is applied for radio map processing, which may provide better robustness and adaptability compared with linear feature extraction methods and manifold learning technique. We build both theoretical model and real environment for verifying the feasibility and reliability. The experimental results show that the proposed indoor positioning system could achieve 99% coarse locating accuracy and enhance 15% fine positioning accuracy on average in a strong noisy environment compared with some typical fingerprinting based methods.

  17. Cross Infection in Hospital Wards with Downward Ventilation - Different Locations of Return Openings without and with Partitions between Beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Li, Yuguo; Buus, Morten

    2009-01-01

    postures of the patients. A textile partition between the beds, which is typical in a hospital ward, is used for protection of the patients in some of the experiments. Three different layouts of return openings are tested. One layout with one opening at the ceiling, another with four openings at the wall...... opposite to the inlet diffuser, and one with a high location of these four openings. The downward recirculating flow is on average parallel with the partition, and the partition does not decrease cross infection. A high location of the four return openings decreases the risk of cross infection....

  18. Location, Location, Location!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsdell, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Of prime importance in real estate, location is also a key element in the appeal of romances. Popular geographic settings and historical periods sell, unpopular ones do not--not always with a logical explanation, as the author discovered when she conducted a survey on this topic last year. (Why, for example, are the French Revolution and the…

  19. Determinants of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts: parallel cross-sectional analyses examining geographical location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inder, Kerry J; Handley, Tonelle E; Johnston, Amy; Weaver, Natasha; Coleman, Clare; Lewin, Terry J; Slade, Tim; Kelly, Brian J

    2014-07-23

    Suicide death rates in Australia are higher in rural than urban communities however the contributors to this difference remain unclear. Geographical differences in suicidal ideation and attempts were explored using two datasets encompassing urban and rural community residents to examine associations between socioeconomic, demographic and mental health factors. Differing patterns of association between psychiatric disorder and suicidal ideation and attempts as geographical remoteness increased were investigated. Parallel cross-sectional analyses were undertaken using data from the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (2007-NSMHWB, n = 8,463), under-representative of remote and very remote residents, and selected participants from the Australian Rural Mental Health Study (ARMHS, n = 634), over-representative of remote and very remote residents. Uniform measures of suicidal ideation and attempts and mental disorder using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI-3.0) were used in both datasets. Geographic region was classified into major cities, inner regional and other. A series of logistic regressions were undertaken for the outcomes of 12-month and lifetime suicidal ideation and lifetime suicide attempts, adjusting for age, gender and psychological distress. A sub-analysis of the ARMHS sample was undertaken with additional variables not available in the 2007-NSMHWB dataset. Rates and determinants of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts across geographical region were similar. Psychiatric disorder was the main determinant of 12-month and lifetime suicidal ideation and lifetime suicide attempts across all geographical regions. For lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts, marital status, employment status, perceived financial adversity and mental health service use were also important determinants. In the ARMHS sub-analysis, higher optimism and better perceived infrastructure and service accessibility tended to be

  20. Kalman/Map Filtering-Aided Fast Normalized Cross Correlation-Based Wi-Fi Fingerprinting Location Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Sun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A Kalman/map filtering (KMF-aided fast normalized cross correlation (FNCC-based Wi-Fi fingerprinting location sensing system is proposed in this paper. Compared with conventional neighbor selection algorithms that calculate localization results with received signal strength (RSS mean samples, the proposed FNCC algorithm makes use of all the on-line RSS samples and reference point RSS variations to achieve higher fingerprinting accuracy. The FNCC computes efficiently while maintaining the same accuracy as the basic normalized cross correlation. Additionally, a KMF is also proposed to process fingerprinting localization results. It employs a new map matching algorithm to nonlinearize the linear location prediction process of Kalman filtering (KF that takes advantage of spatial proximities of consecutive localization results. With a calibration model integrated into an indoor map, the map matching algorithm corrects unreasonable prediction locations of the KF according to the building interior structure. Thus, more accurate prediction locations are obtained. Using these locations, the KMF considerably improves fingerprinting algorithm performance. Experimental results demonstrate that the FNCC algorithm with reduced computational complexity outperforms other neighbor selection algorithms and the KMF effectively improves location sensing accuracy by using indoor map information and spatial proximities of consecutive localization results.

  1. Exact simulation of Brown-Resnick random fields at a finite number of locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieker, Ton; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin

    2015-01-01

    We propose an exact simulation method for Brown-Resnick random fields, building on new representations for these stationary max-stable fields. The main idea is to apply suitable changes of measure....

  2. Microstructural descriptors and cellular automata simulation of the effects of non-random nuclei location on recrystallization in two dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rangel Rios

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of non-random nuclei location and the efficiency of microstructural descriptors in assessing such a situation are studied. Cellular automata simulation of recrystallization in two dimensions is carried out to simulate microstrutural evolution for nuclei distribution ranging from a periodic arrangement to clusters of nuclei. The simulation results are compared in detail with microstrutural descriptors normally used to follow transformation evolution. It is shown that the contiguity is particularly relevant to detect microstructural deviations from randomness. This work focuses on recrystallization but its results are applicable to any nucleation and growth transformation.

  3. Behavior of ultrasounds crossing perfluorocarbon liquids and random propagation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze, Bernard

    2015-12-01

    Random propagation times are able to model waves attenuation and velocity. It is true for electromagnetic waves (light, radar, guided propagation) and also for acoustics and ultrasounds (acoustics for high frequencies). About the latter, it can be shown that stable probability laws are well-fitted for frequencies up to dozens of megahertz in numerous cases. Nowadays, medical applications are performed using propagation through perfluorocarbon (PFC). Experiments were done to measure attenuations and phase changes. Using these results, this paper addresses the question to know if stable probability laws can be used to characterize the propagation of ultrasounds through PFC liquids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Beamforming in sparse, random, 3D array antennas with fluctuating element locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Lager, Ioan E.; Bosma, Sjoerd; Bruinsma, Wessel P.; Hes, Robin P.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the fluctuations in the locations of elementary radiators on the radiation properties of three dimensional(3D) array antennas is studied. The principal radiation features (sidelobes level, beam squint) are examined based on illustrative examples. Some atypical behaviours, that are

  5. Randomized Comparison of a CrossBoss First Versus Standard Wire Escalation Strategy for Crossing Coronary Chronic Total Occlusions: The CrossBoss First Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacsonyi, Judit; Tajti, Peter; Rangan, Bavana V; Halligan, Sean C; Allen, Raymond H; Nicholson, William J; Harvey, James E; Spaedy, Anthony J; Jaffer, Farouc A; Grantham, J Aaron; Salisbury, Adam; Hart, Anthony J; Safley, David M; Lombardi, William L; Hira, Ravi; Don, Creighton; McCabe, James M; Burke, M Nicholas; Alaswad, Khaldoon; Koenig, Gerald C; Sanghvi, Kintur A; Ice, Daniel; Kovach, Richard C; Varghese, Vincent; Murad, Bilal; Baran, Kenneth W; Resendes, Erica; Martinez-Parachini, Jose R; Karatasakis, Aris; Danek, Barbara A; Iwnetu, Rahel; Roesle, Michele; Khalili, Houman; Banerjee, Subhash; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2018-02-12

    The authors performed a multicenter, randomized-controlled, clinical trial comparing upfront use of the CrossBoss catheter versus antegrade wire escalation for antegrade crossing of coronary chronic total occlusions. There is equipoise about the optimal initial strategy for crossing coronary chronic total occlusions. The primary endpoints were the time required to cross the chronic total occlusion or abort the procedure and the frequency of procedural major adverse cardiovascular events. The secondary endpoints were technical and procedural success, total procedure time, fluoroscopy time required to cross and total fluoroscopy time, total air kerma radiation dose, total contrast volume, and equipment use. Between 2015 and 2017, 246 patients were randomized to the CrossBoss catheter (n = 122) or wire escalation (n = 124) at 11 U.S. centers. The baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics of the study groups were similar. Technical and procedural success were 87.8% and 84.1%, respectively, and were similar in the 2 groups. Crossing time was similar: 56 min (interquartile range: 33 to 93 min) in the CrossBoss group and 66 min (interquartile range: 36 to 105 min) in the wire escalation group (p = 0.323), as was as the incidence of procedural major adverse cardiovascular events (3.28% vs. 4.03%; p = 1.000). There were no significant differences in the secondary study endpoints. As compared with wire escalation, upfront use of the CrossBoss catheter for antegrade crossing of coronary chronic total occlusions was associated with similar crossing time, similar success and complication rates, and similar equipment use and cost. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. All rights reserved.

  6. Subsidies to target specialist outreach services into more remote locations: a national cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Belinda G; McGrail, Matthew R; Stoelwinder, Johannes U

    2017-07-01

    Objective Targeting rural outreach services to areas of highest relative need is challenging because of the higher costs it imposes on health workers to travel longer distances. This paper studied whether subsidies have the potential to support the provision of specialist outreach services into more remote locations. Methods National data about subsidies for medical specialist outreach providers as part of the Wave 7 Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) Survey in 2014. Results Nearly half received subsidies: 19% (n=110) from a formal policy, namely the Australian Government Rural Health Outreach Fund (RHOF), and 27% (n=154) from other sources. Subsidised specialists travelled for longer and visited more remote locations relative to the non-subsidised group. In addition, compared with non-subsidised specialists, RHOF-subsidised specialists worked in priority areas and provided equally regular services they intended to continue, despite visiting more remote locations. Conclusion This suggests the RHOF, although limited to one in five specialist outreach providers, is important to increase targeted and stable outreach services in areas of highest relative need. Other subsidies also play a role in facilitating remote service distribution, but may need to be more structured to promote regular, sustained outreach practice. What is known about this topic? There are no studies describing subsidies for specialist doctors to undertake rural outreach work and whether subsidies, including formal and structured subsidies via the Australian Government RHOF, support targeted outreach services compared with no financial support. What does this paper add? Using national data from Australia, we describe subsidisation among specialist outreach providers and show that specialists subsidised via the RHOF or another source are more likely to provide remote outreach services. What are the implications for practitioners? Subsidised specialist outreach providers are

  7. Drinking locations and alcohol-related harm: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations in a sample of young Swiss men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Deline, Stéphane; N'Goran, Alexandra A; Henchoz, Yves; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol consumption--in particular drinking volume (DV) and risky single occasion drinking (RSOD)--has been related to a wide range of negative consequences and health problems. Previous studies also suggested that drinking in certain locations may be more strongly associated with the occurrence of alcohol-related harm than drinking in others. However, they were conducted in countries culturally and legally different from European countries and were limited to cross-sectional designs. This study investigates the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of alcohol-related harm with DVs in different locations in a sample of young Swiss men. A representative sample of 4536 young Swiss male drinkers completed baseline and 15-month follow-up questionnaires. These assessed DVs in 11 locations, alcohol-related harm (i.e. number of alcohol-related consequences and alcohol use disorder criteria) and frequency of RSOD. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of alcohol-related harm with DVs in each location were tested using regression models, with and without adjustment for frequency of RSOD. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses showed significant positive associations between alcohol-related harm and DVs at friends' homes, in discos/nightclubs and in outdoor public places, when controlling for frequency of RSOD. In contrast, the contribution of DVs at one's own home and in restaurants was consistently not significant when adjusted for frequency of RSOD. When controlling for RSOD, associations between alcohol-related harm and DVs in bars/pubs, when playing sports, during other leisure activities, at cinemas/theatres, during sporting events, and during special events were not consistent between cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Results suggest that prevention interventions should not only target reducing the overall volume of alcohol consumed and the frequency of RSOD in general, but they should additionally focus on limiting alcohol consumption

  8. Image reconstruction of the location of macro-inhomogeneity in random turbid medium by using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veksler, Boris A.; Maksimova, Irina L.; Meglinski, Igor V.

    2007-07-01

    Nowadays the artificial neural network (ANN), an effective powerful technique that is able denoting complex input and output relationships, is widely used in different biomedical applications. In present study the applying of ANN for the determination of characteristics of random highly scattering medium (like bio-tissue) is considered. Spatial distribution of the backscattered light calculated by Monte Carlo method is used to train ANN for multiply scattering regimes. The potential opportunities of use of ANN for image reconstruction of an absorbing macro inhomogeneity located in topical layers of random scattering medium are presented. This is especially of high priority because of new diagnostics/treatment developing that is based on the applying gold nano-particles for labeling cancer cells.

  9. A permutation test to analyse systematic bias and random measurement errors of medical devices via boosting location and scale models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Andreas; Schmid, Matthias; Pfahlberg, Annette; Uter, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf

    2017-06-01

    Measurement errors of medico-technical devices can be separated into systematic bias and random error. We propose a new method to address both simultaneously via generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) in combination with permutation tests. More precisely, we extend a recently proposed boosting algorithm for GAMLSS to provide a test procedure to analyse potential device effects on the measurements. We carried out a large-scale simulation study to provide empirical evidence that our method is able to identify possible sources of systematic bias as well as random error under different conditions. Finally, we apply our approach to compare measurements of skin pigmentation from two different devices in an epidemiological study.

  10. 3D Buried Utility Location Using A Marching-Cross-Section Algorithm for Multi-Sensor Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxu Dou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of accurately locating buried utility segments by fusing data from multiple sensors using a novel Marching-Cross-Section (MCS algorithm. Five types of sensors are used in this work: Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR, Passive Magnetic Fields (PMF, Magnetic Gradiometer (MG, Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (LFEM and Vibro-Acoustics (VA. As part of the MCS algorithm, a novel formulation of the extended Kalman Filter (EKF is proposed for marching existing utility tracks from a scan cross-section (scs to the next one; novel rules for initializing utilities based on hypothesized detections on the first scs and for associating predicted utility tracks with hypothesized detections in the following scss are introduced. Algorithms are proposed for generating virtual scan lines based on given hypothesized detections when different sensors do not share common scan lines, or when only the coordinates of the hypothesized detections are provided without any information of the actual survey scan lines. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated with both synthetic data and real data. The experimental results in this work demonstrate that the proposed MCS algorithm can locate multiple buried utility segments simultaneously, including both straight and curved utilities, and can separate intersecting segments. By using the probabilities of a hypothesized detection being a pipe or a cable together with its 3D coordinates, the MCS algorithm is able to discriminate a pipe and a cable close to each other. The MCS algorithm can be used for both post- and on-site processing. When it is used on site, the detected tracks on the current scs can help to determine the location and direction of the next scan line. The proposed “multi-utility multi-sensor” system has no limit to the number of buried utilities or the number of sensors, and the more sensor data used, the more buried utility segments can be detected with more accurate location

  11. Photodissociation in quantum chaotic systems: Random-matrix theory of cross-section fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyodorov, Y.V. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet-GH Essen, D-45117 Essen (Germany); Alhassid, Y. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Using the random matrix description of open quantum chaotic systems we calculate in closed form the universal autocorrelation function and the probability distribution of the total photodissociation cross section in the regime of quantum chaos. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Hematological clozapine monitoring with a point-of-care device: A randomized cross-over trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Thode, Dorrit; Stenager, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    for several reasons, perhaps most importantly because of the mandatory hematological monitoring. The Chempaq Express Blood Counter (Chempaq XBC) is a point-of-care device providing counts of white blood cells (WBC) and granulocytes based on a capillary blood sampling. A randomized cross-over trial design...

  13. Hematological clozapine monitoring with a point-of-care device: A randomized cross-over trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Thode, Dorrit; Stenager, Elsebeth

    for several reasons, perhaps most importantly because of the mandatory hematological monitoring. The Chempaq Express Blood Counter (Chempaq XBC) is a point-of-care device providing counts of white blood cells (WBC) and granulocytes based on a capillary blood sampling. A randomized cross-over trial design...

  14. What factors influence the choice of urban or rural location for future practice of Nepalese medical students? A cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Bhim Prasad; Amatya, Archana

    2015-11-10

    Nepal is experiencing a public health issue similar to the rest of the world, i.e., the geographical maldistribution of physicians. Although there is some documentation about the reasons physicians elect to leave Nepal to work abroad, very little is known about the salient factors that influence the choice of an urban versus rural practice setting for those physicians who do not migrate. In recent years, around 1000 medical students became doctors within Nepal, but their distribution in rural locations is not adequate. The purpose of this study was to explore what factors influence the choice of urban or rural location for the future clinical practice of Nepalese medical students in the final year of their program A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used for this study involving Nepalese medical students in their final year of study and currently doing an internship in a medical college. The sample consisted of 393 medical students from four medical colleges in Nepal that were selected randomly. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. To determine the association with rural location choice for their future practice setting, a comparison was done that involved demographic, socio-economic, and educational factors. Data were entered in EpiData and analyzed by using SPSS version 16. Among the 393 respondents, two thirds were male (66.9%) and more than half were below 25 years of age. Almost all (93%) respondents were single and about two thirds (63.4%) were of Brahmin and Chhetri ethnic origin. About two thirds (64.1%) of the respondents were born in a rural setting, and 58.8% and 53.3% had a place of rearing and permanent address in a rural location, respectively. The predictors of future rural location choice for their clinical practice (based on the bivariate analysis) included: (a) Rural (versus urban) place of birth, place of rearing, and permanent address (b) Source of family income (service, business, and agriculture

  15. Cross-covariance functions for multivariate random fields based on latent dimensions

    KAUST Repository

    Apanasovich, T. V.

    2010-02-16

    The problem of constructing valid parametric cross-covariance functions is challenging. We propose a simple methodology, based on latent dimensions and existing covariance models for univariate random fields, to develop flexible, interpretable and computationally feasible classes of cross-covariance functions in closed form. We focus on spatio-temporal cross-covariance functions that can be nonseparable, asymmetric and can have different covariance structures, for instance different smoothness parameters, in each component. We discuss estimation of these models and perform a small simulation study to demonstrate our approach. We illustrate our methodology on a trivariate spatio-temporal pollution dataset from California and demonstrate that our cross-covariance performs better than other competing models. © 2010 Biometrika Trust.

  16. Cross-section data and pressure transducer location of the South Platte River near Fort Morgan, Colorado, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    The USGS Colorado Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, collected hydraulic data for the South Platte River for areas adjacent to Fort Morgan, Colo., based on the USGS streamgage 06759500 South Platte River at Fort Morgan, CO. The hydraulic data include survey point data for 54 cross sections and 10 pressure transducers, which are used to record the river stage beginning at Morgan County Road 16 and extending downstream to Morgan County Road 20.5 near Fort Morgan, Colo. The cross-section and pressure transducer location data were collected using real-time kinematic Global Navigation Satellite Systems by USGS personnel from February 15, 2017, through April 18, 2017. These data can be used to develop inundation maps, which could be available to emergency personnel, public officials, and the general public using an online public mapping application at the USGS Flood Inundation Mapper, which contains flood inundation map libraries from throughout the country created by the USGS.

  17. Segments and segmental properties in cross-language perception: Korean perception of English obstruents in various prosodic locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Kenneth; Silbert, Noah; Park, Hanyong

    2004-05-01

    Experimental models of cross-language perception and second-language acquisition (such as PAM and SLM) typically treat language differences in terms of whether the two languages share phonological segmental categories. Linguistic models, by contrast, generally examine properties which cross classify segments, such as features, rules, or prosodic constraints. Such models predict that perceptual patterns found for one segment will generalize to other segments of the same class. This paper presents perceptual identifications of Korean listeners to a set of voiced and voiceless English stops and fricatives in various prosodic locations to determine the extent to which such generality occurs. Results show some class-general effects; for example, voicing identification patterns generalize from stops, which occur in Korean, to nonsibilant fricatives, which are new to Korean listeners. However, when identification is poor, there are clear differences between segments within the same class. For example, in identifying stops and fricatives, both point of articulation and prosodic position bias perceptions; coronals are more often labeled fricatives, and syllable initial obstruents are more often labeled stops. These results suggest that class-general perceptual patterns are not a simple consequence of the structure of the perceptual system, but need to be acquired by factoring out within-class differences.

  18. Random Matrix Theory Analysis of Cross Correlations in Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Macro-Biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Masanori

    2013-08-01

    We apply the random matrix theory to analyze the molecular dynamics simulation of macromolecules, such as proteins. The eigensystem of the cross-correlation matrix for the time series of the atomic coordinates is analyzed. We study a data set with seven different sampling intervals to observe the characteristic motion at each time scale. In all cases, the unfolded eigenvalue spacings are in agreement with the predictions of random matrix theory. In the short-time scale, the cross-correlation matrix has the universal properties of the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble. The eigenvalue distribution and inverse participation ratio have a crossover behavior between the universal and nonuniversal classes, which is distinct from the known results such as the financial time series. Analyzing the inverse participation ratio, we extract the correlated cluster of atoms and decompose it to subclusters.

  19. On the ratio of expectation crossings of random-excited dielectric elastomer balloon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Jin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The ratio of expectation crossings of dielectric elastomer balloon excited by random pressure is analytically evaluated in this letter. The Mooney–Rivlin model is adopted to describe the constitutive relation while the random pressure is described by Gaussian white noise. Through a specific transformation, the stochastic differential equations for the total energy and phase are derived. With the application of the stochastic averaging, the system total energy is then approximated by a one-dimensional diffusion process. Solving the associated Fokker–Planck–Kolmogorov (FPK equation yields the stationary probability density of the system total energy. The ratio of expectation crossings is then derived based on the joint stationary probability density of stretch ratio and its ratio of change. The efficacy and accuracy of the proposed procedure are verified by comparing with the results from Monte Carlo simulation (MCS.

  20. Random walk study of electron motion in helium in crossed electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    Random walk theory, previously adapted to electron motion in the presence of an electric field, is extended to include a transverse magnetic field. In principle, the random walk approach avoids mathematical complexity and concomitant simplifying assumptions and permits determination of energy distributions and transport coefficients within the accuracy of available collisional cross section data. Application is made to a weakly ionized helium gas. Time of relaxation of electron energy distribution, determined by the random walk, is described by simple expressions based on energy exchange between the electron and an effective electric field. The restrictive effect of the magnetic field on electron motion, which increases the required number of collisions per walk to reach a terminal steady state condition, as well as the effect of the magnetic field on electron transport coefficients and mean energy can be quite adequately described by expressions involving only the Hall parameter.

  1. An integrated classifier for computer-aided diagnosis of colorectal polyps based on random forest and location index strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yifan; Han, Hao; Zhu, Wei; Li, Lihong; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Liang, Zhengrong

    2016-03-01

    Feature classification plays an important role in differentiation or computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) of suspicious lesions. As a widely used ensemble learning algorithm for classification, random forest (RF) has a distinguished performance for CADx. Our recent study has shown that the location index (LI), which is derived from the well-known kNN (k nearest neighbor) and wkNN (weighted k nearest neighbor) classifier [1], has also a distinguished role in the classification for CADx. Therefore, in this paper, based on the property that the LI will achieve a very high accuracy, we design an algorithm to integrate the LI into RF for improved or higher value of AUC (area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics -- ROC). Experiments were performed by the use of a database of 153 lesions (polyps), including 116 neoplastic lesions and 37 hyperplastic lesions, with comparison to the existing classifiers of RF and wkNN, respectively. A noticeable gain by the proposed integrated classifier was quantified by the AUC measure.

  2. Acceptance and usability of different sunscreen formulations among outdoor workers: a randomized, single-blind, cross-over study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bauer, Andrea; Hault, Kathrin; Püschel, Andrea; Rönsch, Henriette; Knuschke, Peter; Beissert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Adequate sun protection is often neglected during occupational outdoor work. To investigate the acceptance and usability of sunscreens during outdoor work a single-blind, randomized-controlled, cross-over trial was performed in 40 subjects...

  3. Crossing probability for directed polymers in random media. II. Exact tail of the distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Andrea; Le Doussal, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    We study the probability p ≡ p(η)(t) that two directed polymers in a given random potential η and with fixed and nearby endpoints do not cross until time t. This probability is itself a random variable (over samples η), which, as we show, acquires a very broad probability distribution at large time. In particular, the moments of p are found to be dominated by atypical samples where p is of order unity. Building on a formula established by us in a previous work using nested Bethe ansatz and Macdonald process methods, we obtain analytically the leading large time behavior of all moments p(m) ≃ γ(m)/t. From this, we extract the exact tail ∼ρ(p)/t of the probability distribution of the noncrossing probability at large time. The exact formula is compared to numerical simulations, with excellent agreement.

  4. Immediate Effects of Ankle Balance Taping with Kinesiology Tape for Amateur Soccer Players with Lateral Ankle Sprain: A Randomized Cross-Over Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung Kwon; Shin, Young Jun

    2017-11-21

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to investigate the immediate effect on gait function when ankle balance taping is applied to amateur soccer players with lateral ankle sprain. MATERIAL AND METHODS A cross-over randomized design was used. Twenty-two soccer players with an ankle sprain underwent 3 interventions in a random order. Subjects were randomly assigned to ankle balance taping, placebo taping, and no taping groups. The assessment was performed using the GAITRite portable walkway system, which records the location and timing of each footfall during ambulation. RESULTS Significant differences were found in the velocity, step length, stride length, and H-H base support among the 3 different taping methods (pkinesiology tape instantly increased the walking ability of amateur soccer players with lateral ankle sprain. Therefore, ankle balance taping is a useful alternative to prevent and treat ankle sprain of soccer players.

  5. Random matrix theory and cross-correlations in global financial indices and local stock market indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobi, Ashadun; Maeng, Seong Eun; Ha, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Jae Woo

    2013-02-01

    We analyzed cross-correlations between price fluctuations of global financial indices (20 daily stock indices over the world) and local indices (daily indices of 200 companies in the Korean stock market) by using random matrix theory (RMT). We compared eigenvalues and components of the largest and the second largest eigenvectors of the cross-correlation matrix before, during, and after the global financial the crisis in the year 2008. We find that the majority of its eigenvalues fall within the RMT bounds [ λ -, λ +], where λ - and λ + are the lower and the upper bounds of the eigenvalues of random correlation matrices. The components of the eigenvectors for the largest positive eigenvalues indicate the identical financial market mode dominating the global and local indices. On the other hand, the components of the eigenvector corresponding to the second largest eigenvalue are positive and negative values alternatively. The components before the crisis change sign during the crisis, and those during the crisis change sign after the crisis. The largest inverse participation ratio (IPR) corresponding to the smallest eigenvector is higher after the crisis than during any other periods in the global and local indices. During the global financial the crisis, the correlations among the global indices and among the local stock indices are perturbed significantly. However, the correlations between indices quickly recover the trends before the crisis.

  6. Randomized comparison of health-related quality of life in women with ectopic pregnancy or pregnancy of unknown location treated with systemic methotrexate or expectant management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mello, Norah M.; Mol, Femke; Hajenius, Petra J.; Ankum, Willem M.; Mol, Ben Willem; van der Veen, Fulco; van Wely, Madelon

    2015-01-01

    To study the impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of treatment with systemic methotrexate (MTX) or expectant management in women with ectopic pregnancy or pregnancy of unknown location (PUL) with low and plateauing serum hCG concentrations. HRQoL was assessed alongside a randomized

  7. Axial shear modulus of a fiber-reinforced composite with random fiber cross-sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Bose

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available A study is made of the effective axial shear modulus of a fiber reinforced material with random fiber cross-sections so that the micromechanics is governed by stochastic differential equations. A coarse-graining procedure is adopted to investigate the macroscopic behavior of the material. This analysis leads to the formula for the effective axial shear modulus μ∗=μ1/{1−2c(μ2−μ1/(μ2+μ1},where μ1 and μ2 are the shear modulus of the matrix and fibers respectively and c is the concentration of the fibers less that 0.5. For c>0.5, the fiber and matrix moduli are to be interchanged and c is to be replaced by 1−c. The results of this study are compared with those of the theory of fibre reinforced materials. Finally, a numerical example is presented with graphical representation.

  8. Random matrix theory analysis of cross-correlations in the US stock market: Evidence from Pearson’s correlation coefficient and detrended cross-correlation coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang-Jin; Xie, Chi; Chen, Shou; Yang, Jiao-Jiao; Yang, Ming-Yan

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we first build two empirical cross-correlation matrices in the US stock market by two different methods, namely the Pearson’s correlation coefficient and the detrended cross-correlation coefficient (DCCA coefficient). Then, combining the two matrices with the method of random matrix theory (RMT), we mainly investigate the statistical properties of cross-correlations in the US stock market. We choose the daily closing prices of 462 constituent stocks of S&P 500 index as the research objects and select the sample data from January 3, 2005 to August 31, 2012. In the empirical analysis, we examine the statistical properties of cross-correlation coefficients, the distribution of eigenvalues, the distribution of eigenvector components, and the inverse participation ratio. From the two methods, we find some new results of the cross-correlations in the US stock market in our study, which are different from the conclusions reached by previous studies. The empirical cross-correlation matrices constructed by the DCCA coefficient show several interesting properties at different time scales in the US stock market, which are useful to the risk management and optimal portfolio selection, especially to the diversity of the asset portfolio. It will be an interesting and meaningful work to find the theoretical eigenvalue distribution of a completely random matrix R for the DCCA coefficient because it does not obey the Marčenko-Pastur distribution.

  9. Shape dependency of the extinction and absorption cross sections of dust aerosols modeled as randomly oriented spheroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present computational results on the shape dependency of the extinction and absorption cross sections of dustlike aerosol particles that were modeled as randomly oriented spheroids. Shape dependent variations in the extinction cross sections are largest in the size regime that is governed by the interference structure. Elongated spheroids best fitted measured extinction spectra of re-dispersed Saharan dust samples. For dust particles smaller than 1.5 μm in diameter and low absorption potential, shape effects on the absorption cross sections are very small.

  10. PBL and critical thinking disposition in Chinese medical students – A randomized cross-sectional stu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiangYun Du

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of problem-based learning (PBL and the development of critical thinking disposition (CT and academic achievement in Chinese medical students using a cross-sectional randomized design. Medical students from China Medical University (CMU were randomized to PBL or non-PBL teaching at the commencement of the study. After five years of study, CT was scored by a Chinese version of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI-CV. The score achieved on a Computer Case Simulation (CCS test evaluated academic performance. Total CT score was higher in PBL students (n=170 than non-PBL students (n=83 (304.7±36.8 vs. 279.2±39.4, p < 0.01. Subscale CT-scores were significant in favor of PBL in six of the seven subscales (truth seeking, open-mindedness, analyticity, systematicity, inquisitiveness, maturity. There was no significant difference in terms of gender on the total CT score, though minor differences were seen in subscales favoring female PBL students. PBL students had higher CCS scores than non-PBL students, but not significantly (112.8±20.6 vs. 107.3±16.5; p=0.11. There was no significant correlation between CCS scores and CCTDI-CV results. Male students scored slightly higher on the CCS test compared to female students (male 113.4±18.9 vs. female 109.7±19.7, but the difference was not significant. This study concludes that in Chinese medical students, PBL teaching was related to a higher disposition of critical thinking, but not to improved academic skills.

  11. Power and pacing calculations based on real-time locating data from a cross-country skiing sprint race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarén, Mikael; Eriksson, Anders

    2017-11-15

    Pacing strategies in cross-country skiing have been investigated in several studies. However, none of the previous studies have been verified by collected skiing data giving the skiing velocities along a measured track. These can be used to calculate the propulsive power output. Collected real-time positioning data from a cross-country sprint skiing race were used to estimate the propulsive power by applying a power balance model. Analyses were made for the time-trial and the final for one female and one male skier. The average propulsive power over the whole race times were 311 and 296 W during the time trial and 400 and 386 W during the final, for the female and male skier, respectively. Compared to the average propulsive power over the whole race, the average active propulsive phases were calculated as 33 and 44% higher in the time trials and 36 and 37% higher in the finals for the female and male, respectively. The current study presents a novel approach to use real-time positioning data to estimate continuous propulsive power during cross-country sprint skiing, enabling in-depth analyses of power output and pacing strategies.

  12. Effect of almond consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease: a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Almonds reduce cardiovascular disease risk via cholesterol reduction, anti-inflammation, glucoregulation, and antioxidation. The objective of this randomized, controlled, cross-over trial was to determine whether the addition of 85 g almonds daily to a National Cholesterol Education Progr...

  13. Extra virgin olive oil phenols and markers of oxidation in Greek smokers: a randomized cross-over study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschandreas, J.; Vissers, M.N.; Wiseman, S.; Putte, van K.P.; Kafatos, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of a low phenol olive oil and high phenol olive oil on markers of oxidation and plasma susceptibility to oxidation in normolipaemic smokers. Design: Randomized single-blind cross-over trial with two intervention periods. Setting: The Medical School and University

  14. Can inhibitory and facilitatory kinesiotaping techniques affect motor neuron excitability? A randomized cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoosefinejad, Amin Kordi; Motealleh, Alireza; Abbasalipur, Shekoofeh; Shahroei, Mahan; Sobhani, Sobhan

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of facilitatory and inhibitory kinesiotaping on motor neuron excitability. Randomized cross-over trial. Twenty healthy people received inhibitory and facilitatory kinesiotaping on two testing days. The H- and M-waves of the lateral gasterocnemius were recorded before and immediately after applying the two modes of taping. The Hmax/Mmax ratio (a measure of motor neuron excitability) was determined and analyzed. The mean Hmax/Mmax ratios were -0.013 (95% CI: -0.033 to 0.007) for inhibitory taping and 0.007 (95% CI: -0.013 to 0.027) for facilitatory taping. The mean difference between groups was -0.020 (95% CI: -0.048 to 0.008). The statistical model revealed no significant differences between the two interventions (P = 0.160). Furthermore, there were no within-group differences in Hmax/Mmax ratio for either group. Our findings did not disclose signs of immediate change in motor neuron excitability in the lateral gasterocnemius. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The effects of alprazolam on tinnitus: a cross-over randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Mir Mohammad; Kousha, Abdorrahim; Naghavi, Sayed Ebrahim; Soleimani, Robabeh; Banan, Rozbeh

    2009-11-01

    Tinnitus remains a phenomenon with an unknown pathophysiology and for which few therapeutic measures are available. To date there has been insufficient evidence to support the use of alprazolam in the treatment of tinnitus. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of alprazolam for relief of tinnitus. Thirty-six tinnitus sufferers participated in this cross-over, randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Inclusion criteria included patients between ages 21 and 65, with a complaint of non-pulsatile tinnitus of more than 1 year duration. Patients with depressive or anxiety disorders were excluded, as were those using hearing aids. Participants received alprazolam 1.5 mg daily versus placebo in each period. Primary outcome variables included the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and tinnitus loudness. Thirty patients completed the study. The average age of patients was 47.58+/-7.65 years. Alprazolam in comparison with placebo did not result in statistically significantly greater relief in THI score and tinnitus loudness. There was a significant improvement in VAS score in the alprazolam group compared with the placebo group (palprazolam did not improve the THI score or sensation level of loudness significantly, it has a desirable effect on VAS. Further work is needed to determine the beneficial effects of alprazolam in distressed or depressed patients.

  16. Random Tagging Genotyping by Sequencing (rtGBS, an Unbiased Approach to Locate Restriction Enzyme Sites across the Target Genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Hilario

    Full Text Available Genotyping by sequencing (GBS is a restriction enzyme based targeted approach developed to reduce the genome complexity and discover genetic markers when a priori sequence information is unavailable. Sufficient coverage at each locus is essential to distinguish heterozygous from homozygous sites accurately. The number of GBS samples able to be pooled in one sequencing lane is limited by the number of restriction sites present in the genome and the read depth required at each site per sample for accurate calling of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Loci bias was observed using a slight modification of the Elshire et al.some restriction enzyme sites were represented in higher proportions while others were poorly represented or absent. This bias could be due to the quality of genomic DNA, the endonuclease and ligase reaction efficiency, the distance between restriction sites, the preferential amplification of small library restriction fragments, or bias towards cluster formation of small amplicons during the sequencing process. To overcome these issues, we have developed a GBS method based on randomly tagging genomic DNA (rtGBS. By randomly landing on the genome, we can, with less bias, find restriction sites that are far apart, and undetected by the standard GBS (stdGBS method. The study comprises two types of biological replicates: six different kiwifruit plants and two independent DNA extractions per plant; and three types of technical replicates: four samples of each DNA extraction, stdGBS vs. rtGBS methods, and two independent library amplifications, each sequenced in separate lanes. A statistically significant unbiased distribution of restriction fragment size by rtGBS showed that this method targeted 49% (39,145 of BamH I sites shared with the reference genome, compared to only 14% (11,513 by stdGBS.

  17. Arthroscopy or ultrasound in undergraduate anatomy education: a randomized cross-over controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knobe Matthias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exponential growth of image-based diagnostic and minimally invasive interventions requires a detailed three-dimensional anatomical knowledge and increases the demand towards the undergraduate anatomical curriculum. This randomized controlled trial investigates whether musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS or arthroscopic methods can increase the anatomical knowledge uptake. Methods Second-year medical students were randomly allocated to three groups. In addition to the compulsory dissection course, the ultrasound group (MSUS was taught by eight, didactically and professionally trained, experienced student-teachers and the arthroscopy group (ASK was taught by eight experienced physicians. The control group (CON acquired the anatomical knowledge only via the dissection course. Exposure (MSUS and ASK took place in two separate lessons (75 minutes each, shoulder and knee joint and introduced standard scan planes using a 10-MHz ultrasound system as well as arthroscopy tutorials at a simulator combined with video tutorials. The theoretical anatomic learning outcomes were tested using a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ, and after cross-over an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE. Differences in student’s perceptions were evaluated using Likert scale-based items. Results The ASK-group (n = 70, age 23.4 (20–36 yrs. performed moderately better in the anatomical MC exam in comparison to the MSUS-group (n = 84, age 24.2 (20–53 yrs. and the CON-group (n = 88, 22.8 (20–33 yrs.; p = 0.019. After an additional arthroscopy teaching 1% of students failed the MC exam, in contrast to 10% in the MSUS- or CON-group, respectively. The benefit of the ASK module was limited to the shoulder area (p Conclusions The additional implementation of arthroscopy tutorials to the dissection course during the undergraduate anatomy training is profitable and attractive to students with respect to complex joint anatomy. Simultaneous

  18. Financial ties of principal investigators and randomized controlled trial outcomes: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Rosa; Woodbridge, Alexandra; Abraham, Ann; Saba, Susan; Korenstein, Deborah; Madden, Erin; Boscardin, W John; Keyhani, Salomeh

    2017-01-17

     To examine the association between the presence of individual principal investigators' financial ties to the manufacturer of the study drug and the trial's outcomes after accounting for source of research funding.  Cross sectional study of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).  Studies published in "core clinical" journals, as identified by Medline, between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2013.  Random sample of RCTs focused on drug efficacy.  Association between financial ties of principal investigators and study outcome.  A total of 190 papers describing 195 studies met inclusion criteria. Financial ties between principal investigators and the pharmaceutical industry were present in 132 (67.7%) studies. Of 397 principal investigators, 231 (58%) had financial ties and 166 (42%) did not. Of all principal investigators, 156 (39%) reported advisor/consultancy payments, 81 (20%) reported speakers' fees, 81 (20%) reported unspecified financial ties, 52 (13%) reported honorariums, 52 (13%) reported employee relationships, 52 (13%) reported travel fees, 41 (10%) reported stock ownership, and 20 (5%) reported having a patent related to the study drug. The prevalence of financial ties of principal investigators was 76% (103/136) among positive studies and 49% (29/59) among negative studies. In unadjusted analyses, the presence of a financial tie was associated with a positive study outcome (odds ratio 3.23, 95% confidence interval 1.7 to 6.1). In the primary multivariate analysis, a financial tie was significantly associated with positive RCT outcome after adjustment for the study funding source (odds ratio 3.57 (1.7 to 7.7). The secondary analysis controlled for additional RCT characteristics such as study phase, sample size, country of first authors, specialty, trial registration, study design, type of analysis, comparator, and outcome measure. These characteristics did not appreciably affect the relation between financial ties and study outcomes (odds ratio 3.37, 1

  19. Arthroscopy or ultrasound in undergraduate anatomy education: a randomized cross-over controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobe, Matthias; Carow, John Bennet; Ruesseler, Miriam; Leu, Benjamin Moritz; Simon, Melanie; Beckers, Stefan K; Ghassemi, Alireza; Sönmez, Tolga T; Pape, Hans-Christoph

    2012-09-09

    The exponential growth of image-based diagnostic and minimally invasive interventions requires a detailed three-dimensional anatomical knowledge and increases the demand towards the undergraduate anatomical curriculum. This randomized controlled trial investigates whether musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) or arthroscopic methods can increase the anatomical knowledge uptake. Second-year medical students were randomly allocated to three groups. In addition to the compulsory dissection course, the ultrasound group (MSUS) was taught by eight, didactically and professionally trained, experienced student-teachers and the arthroscopy group (ASK) was taught by eight experienced physicians. The control group (CON) acquired the anatomical knowledge only via the dissection course. Exposure (MSUS and ASK) took place in two separate lessons (75 minutes each, shoulder and knee joint) and introduced standard scan planes using a 10-MHz ultrasound system as well as arthroscopy tutorials at a simulator combined with video tutorials. The theoretical anatomic learning outcomes were tested using a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ), and after cross-over an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Differences in student's perceptions were evaluated using Likert scale-based items. The ASK-group (n = 70, age 23.4 (20-36) yrs.) performed moderately better in the anatomical MC exam in comparison to the MSUS-group (n = 84, age 24.2 (20-53) yrs.) and the CON-group (n = 88, 22.8 (20-33) yrs.; p = 0.019). After an additional arthroscopy teaching 1% of students failed the MC exam, in contrast to 10% in the MSUS- or CON-group, respectively. The benefit of the ASK module was limited to the shoulder area (p advantage concerning anatomical skills with higher spatial imagination in comparison to the ultrasound tutorial (p = 0.002; p < 0.001). The additional implementation of arthroscopy tutorials to the dissection course during the undergraduate anatomy training is profitable and

  20. Arthroscopy or ultrasound in undergraduate anatomy education: a randomized cross-over controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The exponential growth of image-based diagnostic and minimally invasive interventions requires a detailed three-dimensional anatomical knowledge and increases the demand towards the undergraduate anatomical curriculum. This randomized controlled trial investigates whether musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) or arthroscopic methods can increase the anatomical knowledge uptake. Methods Second-year medical students were randomly allocated to three groups. In addition to the compulsory dissection course, the ultrasound group (MSUS) was taught by eight, didactically and professionally trained, experienced student-teachers and the arthroscopy group (ASK) was taught by eight experienced physicians. The control group (CON) acquired the anatomical knowledge only via the dissection course. Exposure (MSUS and ASK) took place in two separate lessons (75 minutes each, shoulder and knee joint) and introduced standard scan planes using a 10-MHz ultrasound system as well as arthroscopy tutorials at a simulator combined with video tutorials. The theoretical anatomic learning outcomes were tested using a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ), and after cross-over an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Differences in student’s perceptions were evaluated using Likert scale-based items. Results The ASK-group (n = 70, age 23.4 (20–36) yrs.) performed moderately better in the anatomical MC exam in comparison to the MSUS-group (n = 84, age 24.2 (20–53) yrs.) and the CON-group (n = 88, 22.8 (20–33) yrs.; p = 0.019). After an additional arthroscopy teaching 1% of students failed the MC exam, in contrast to 10% in the MSUS- or CON-group, respectively. The benefit of the ASK module was limited to the shoulder area (p training is profitable and attractive to students with respect to complex joint anatomy. Simultaneous teaching of basic-skills in musculoskeletal ultrasound should be performed by medical experts, but seems to be inferior to the arthroscopic 2D-3D

  1. Cardiovascular Effects of Energy Drinks in Familial Long QT Syndrome: A Randomized Cross-Over Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Belinda; Ingles, Jodie; Medi, Caroline; Driscoll, Timothy; Semsarian, Christopher

    2017-03-15

    Caffeinated energy drinks may trigger serious cardiac effects. The aim of this study was to determine the cardiovascular effects of caffeinated energy drink consumption in patients with familial long QT syndrome (LQTS). From 2014-2016, 24 LQTS patients aged 16-50 years were recruited to a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study of energy drink (ED) versus control (CD) with participants acting as their own controls (one week washout). The primary study outcome was an increase in corrected QT interval (QTc) by >20ms. Secondary outcomes were changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In 24 patients with LQTS (no dropout), mean age was 29±9 years, 13/24 (54%) were female, and 8/24 (33%) were probands. Intention to treat analysis revealed no significant change in QTc with ED compared with CD (12±28ms vs 16±27ms, 3% vs 4%, p=0.71). The systolic and diastolic blood pressure significantly increased with ED compared to CD (peak change 7±16mmHg vs 1±16mmHg, 6% vs 0.8%, p=0.046 and 8±10 vs 2±9mmHg, 11% vs 3% p=0.01 respectively). These changes correlated with significant increases in serum caffeine (14.6±11.3 vs 0.5±0.1μmol/L, penergy drink consumption. Caffeinated energy drinks have significant haemodynamic effects in patients with LQTS, especifically an acute increase in blood pressure. Since dangerous QTc prolongation was seen in some LQTS patients, we recommend caution in young patients with LQTS consuming energy drinks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cross-education for improving strength and mobility after distal radius fractures: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Charlene R A; Arnold, Cathy M; Johnston, Geoffrey; Dal-Bello Haas, Vanina; Basran, Jenny; Krentz, Joel R; Farthing, Jonathan P

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of cross-education (contralateral effect of unilateral strength training) during recovery from unilateral distal radius fractures on muscle strength, range of motion (ROM), and function. Randomized controlled trial (26-wk follow-up). Hospital, orthopedic fracture clinic. Women older than 50 years with a unilateral distal radius fracture. Fifty-one participants were randomized and 39 participants were included in the final data analysis. Participants were randomized to standard rehabilitation (Control) or standard rehabilitation plus strength training (Train). Standard rehabilitation included forearm casting for 40.4±6.2 days and hand exercises for the fractured extremity. Nonfractured hand strength training for the training group began immediately postfracture and was conducted at home 3 times/week for 26 weeks. The primary outcome measure was peak force (handgrip dynamometer). Secondary outcomes were ROM (flexion/extension; supination/pronation) via goniometer and the Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation questionnaire score for the fractured arm. For the fractured hand, the training group (17.3±7.4kg) was significantly stronger than the control group (11.8±5.8kg) at 12 weeks postfracture (P<.017). There were no significant strength differences between the training and control groups at 9 (12.5±8.2kg; 11.3±6.9kg) or 26 weeks (23.0±7.6kg; 19.6±5.5kg) postfracture, respectively. Fractured hand ROM showed that the training group had significantly improved wrist flexion/extension (100.5°±19.2°) than the control group (80.2°±18.7°) at 12 weeks postfracture (P<.017). There were no significant differences between the training and control groups for flexion/extension ROM at 9 (78.0°±20.7°; 81.7°±25.7°) or 26 weeks (104.4°±15.5°; 106.0°±26.5°) or supination/pronation ROM at 9 (153.9°±23.9°; 151.8°±33.0°), 12 (170.9°±9.3°; 156.7°±20.8°) or 26 weeks (169.4°±11.9°; 162.8°±18.1°), respectively. There were no

  3. Immediate Loading of Two Dental Implants, in Edentulous Mandibles, with Locator® Attachments or Dolder® Bars: First Results from a Prospective Randomized Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Stefanie; Eberhard, Lydia; Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos Nikitas; Rammelsberg, Peter; Eiffler, Constantin

    2015-08-01

    The study aims to evaluate survival and the incidence of complications for pairs of implants placed in the frontal area of edentulous mandibles and immediately loaded with either bar or Locator® (Zest Anchors LLC, Escondido, CA, USA) attachments. Forty-six patients (mean age 69.4 years; 73.9% male) with edentulous mandibles each received two immediately loaded implants in the interforaminal area of the symphysis. Immediately after implant placement, Dolder® bar (Sub-Tec Wirobond; BEGO Implant Systems GmbH & Co. KG, Bremen, Germany) or Locator® attachments, allocated randomly, were attached, and both clips and a framework were incorporated into the denture by the dental technician. The implants were loaded within 72 hours. During a mean observation period of 6 months (maximum 24 months, SD 0.43) eight implants in five patients were lost. Survival was 93.5% for the Locator® group and 89.1% for the bar group. Estimated cumulative survival after 1 year of function was 93.4% for the Locator® group and 87.1% for the bar group. During the observation period, 12 prosthetic complications required aftercare. No superstructure was lost or had to be remade for prosthetic reasons, but five dentures had to be removed or reworked after implant failure. Survival of the original dentures was, therefore, 95.7% for the Locator® group and 93.5% for the bar group. Within the limitations of this study, immediate loading of two implants in the edentulous mandible with either Locator® or bar attachments did hardly differ. Ease of repair and cleaning, in particular, might be arguments for choosing the single attachment system. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Measuring the volume of brain tumour and determining its location in T2-weighted MRI images using hidden Markov random field: expectation maximization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Jafri, Mohd. Zubir; Abdulbaqi, Hayder Saad; Mutter, Kussay N.; Mustapha, Iskandar Shahrim; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz

    2017-06-01

    A brain tumour is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain. Most tumour volume measurement processes are carried out manually by the radiographer and radiologist without relying on any auto program. This manual method is a timeconsuming task and may give inaccurate results. Treatment, diagnosis, signs and symptoms of the brain tumours mainly depend on the tumour volume and its location. In this paper, an approach is proposed to improve volume measurement of brain tumors as well as using a new method to determine the brain tumour location. The current study presents a hybrid method that includes two methods. One method is hidden Markov random field - expectation maximization (HMRFEM), which employs a positive initial classification of the image. The other method employs the threshold, which enables the final segmentation. In this method, the tumour volume is calculated using voxel dimension measurements. The brain tumour location was determined accurately in T2- weighted MRI image using a new algorithm. According to the results, this process was proven to be more useful compared to the manual method. Thus, it provides the possibility of calculating the volume and determining location of a brain tumour.

  5. Topical minocycline and tetracycline rinses in treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, Meir; Epstein, Joel; Rabenstein, Shira; Elishoov, Hanita; Yarom, Noam

    2007-05-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common ulcerative condition of the oral mucosa. We assessed minocycline and tetracycline oral rinses in patients with frequent episodes of RAS in a clinical randomized crossover trial. Seventeen patients with high frequency recurrent minor RAS were randomly allocated to a cross-over topical therapy with 0.2 percent minocycline or 0.25 percent tetracycline aqueous solution mouthwash. The minimum interval between the cross-over was 30 days. The intensity of pain was recorded daily using a visual analogue scale. Minocycline mouthwashes as compared to topical tetracycline rinses resulted in significantly improved pain control, by reducing the severity and duration of pain. Topical minocycline rinse may be a potential treatment for other mucosal diseases that result in mucosal ulceration and pain.

  6. A linkage map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. based on population from ILC3279×ILC588 crosses: Location of genes for time to flowering, seed size and plant height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karami Ezzat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative traits of seed size, plant height and days to flowering were studied in a chickpea intraspecific F3:4 lines population derived from a ILC3279×ILC588 cross. The lines were genotyped with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, universal rice primer (URP and sequence tagged microsatellite site (STMS markers, and a genetic map composed of 7 linkage groups (LGs covering 285.3 cM was constructed. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs for the three characters were detected in LG2, LG3 and LG4. Two QTLs for days to flowering were detected on LG2 and LG3. These two QTLs accounted for 58% of the total phenotypic variation for days to flowering. A QTL for plant height was located in LG3 explaining around 42% of the variation. This trait was shown to be under a major gene control. For 100-seed weight, a QTL located in LG4 explained around 37% of the phenotypic variations. This information can be used to formulate the an efficient breeding strategy for improvement of time to flowering in short-season temperate environments, plant height with more reproductive biomass and improved yield with bigger seed size in chickpea.

  7. Triatoma dimidiata infestation in Chagas disease endemic regions of Guatemala: comparison of random and targeted cross-sectional surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Guatemala is presently engaged in the Central America Initiative to interrupt Chagas disease transmission by reducing intradomiciliary prevalence of Triatoma dimidiata, using targeted cross-sectional surveys to direct control measures to villages exceeding the 5% control threshold. The use of targeted surveys to guide disease control programs has not been evaluated. Here, we compare the findings from the targeted surveys to concurrent random cross-sectional surveys in two primary foci of Chagas disease transmission in central and southeastern Guatemala. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Survey prevalences of T. dimidiata intradomiciliary infestation by village and region were compared. Univariate logistic regression was used to assess the use of risk factors to target surveys and to evaluate indicators associated with village level intradomiciliary prevalences >5% by survey and region. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to assess the ability of random and targeted surveys to target villages with intradomiciliary prevalence exceeding the control threshold within each region. Regional prevalences did not vary by survey; however, village prevalences were significantly greater in random surveys in central (13.0% versus 8.7% and southeastern (22.7% versus 6.9% Guatemala. The number of significant risk factors detected did not vary by survey in central Guatemala but differed considerably in the southeast with a greater number of significant risk factors in the random survey (e.g. land surface temperature, relative humidity, cropland, grassland, tile flooring, and stick and mud and palm and straw walls. Differences in the direction of risk factor associations were observed between regions in both survey types. The overall discriminative capacity was significantly greater in the random surveys in central and southeastern Guatemala, with an area under the receiver-operator curve (AUC of 0.84 in the random surveys and

  8. Compartmentalization Technologies via Self-Assembly and Cross-Linking of Amphiphilic Random Block Copolymers in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mayuko; Terashima, Takaya; Matsumoto, Kazuma; Takenaka, Mikihito; Sawamoto, Mitsuo

    2017-05-31

    Orthogonal self-assembly and intramolecular cross-linking of amphiphilic random block copolymers in water afforded an approach to tailor-make well-defined compartments and domains in single polymer chains and nanoaggregates. For a double compartment single-chain polymer, an amphiphilic random block copolymer bearing hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and hydrophobic dodecyl, benzyl, and olefin pendants was synthesized by living radical polymerization (LRP) and postfunctionalization; the dodecyl and benzyl units were incorporated into the different block segments, whereas PEG pendants were statistically attached along a chain. The copolymer self-folded via the orthogonal self-assembly of hydrophobic dodecyl and benzyl pendants in water, followed by intramolecular cross-linking, to form a single-chain polymer carrying double yet distinct hydrophobic nanocompartments. A single-chain cross-linked polymer with a chlorine terminal served as a globular macroinitiator for LRP to provide an amphiphilic tadpole macromolecule comprising a hydrophilic nanoparticle and a hydrophobic polymer tail; the tadpole thus self-assembled into multicompartment aggregates in water.

  9. Randomized comparison of health-related quality of life in women with ectopic pregnancy or pregnancy of unknown location treated with systemic methotrexate or expectant management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mello, Norah M; Mol, Femke; Hajenius, Petra J; Ankum, Willem M; Mol, Ben Willem; van der Veen, Fulco; van Wely, Madelon

    2015-09-01

    To study the impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of treatment with systemic methotrexate (MTX) or expectant management in women with ectopic pregnancy or pregnancy of unknown location (PUL) with low and plateauing serum hCG concentrations. HRQoL was assessed alongside a randomized clinical trial (RCT) with the use of standard self-administered psychometric measure questionnaires. All women who participated in the multicenter RCT comparing treatment with systemic MTX to expectant management in women with ectopic pregnancy or persisting PUL were eligible for the HRQoL measurements. HRQoL measures of three standardized questionnaires (SF-36, RSCL, HADS). Data were available for 64 of 73 women (78%) randomized in the RCT. We found no difference in HRQoL between the two treatment groups. The need for additional treatment, i.e. additional MTX injections or surgical intervention, had no impact on HRQoL. Women treated with MTX or expectant management for an ectopic pregnancy or persisting PUL have comparable quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Why Did the Snake Cross the Road? Effects of Roads on Movement and Location of Mates by Garter Snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Shine

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available If animals avoid road surfaces or are unable to follow conspecific trails across such surfaces, previously continuous populations may be fragmented. We gathered data on the effects of a small (4-m wide gravel road on the behavior and trail-following abilities of garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis in Manitoba, central Canada. As expected, the road surface had less vegetation cover, a more open canopy and, thus, higher incident radiation than did the surrounding grassland. Contrary to expectations, however, substrate temperatures were lower on the road than in its surrounds, because of the higher reflectivity of the road's surface. On a nearby asphalt road, substrate temperatures were relatively high on the road surface only in the evening, as surrounding areas cooled. Focal sampling showed that snakes avoided the gravel road, typically changing direction when they encountered it. If they crossed the road, they did so by the shortest possible route (straight across. Mate-searching male snakes were less able to follow substrate-deposited pheromonal trails left by females if those trails crossed a road than if the trails were entirely within the surrounding grassland. Thus, roads may significantly modify snake movement patterns, as well as the ability of males to locate reproductive females. Our study provides the first detailed information on the effects of roads on snake behavior.

  11. Marginal Bone Response Around Immediate- and Delayed-Loading Implants Supporting a Locator-Retained Mandibular Overdenture: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schincaglia, Gian Pietro; Rubin, Satoko; Thacker, Sejal; Dhingra, Ajay; Trombelli, Leonardo; Ioannidou, Effie

    2016-01-01

    Implant-supported mandibular overdentures (OVDs) have been proposed as the gold standard for the treatment of edentulous mandibles. There is limited evidence on the clinical outcomes of immediate loading of two unsplinted implants supporting a mandibular OVD. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the performance of two unsplinted implants supporting a Locator-retained mandibular OVD over 12 months loaded immediately or after a delay. Each patient received two implants 4.0 mm in diameter and 8 to 15 mm long. Locator-retained mandibular OVDs were connected to the implants either immediately (IL) or 3 months postsurgery (DL). The primary response variable was radiographic bone loss (RBL) at 6 and 12 months postsurgery. Implant length, insertion torque, implant failure, prevalence of maintenance visits, and prosthetic complications were also recorded. Thirty participants (15 in the IL and 15 in the DL groups) were evaluated at 12 months. The implant cumulative survival rates were 100% and 93% for DL and IL, respectively. The mean RBL from baseline to 1 year was 0.54 (± 0.5) mm and 0.25 (± 0.5) mm for DL and IL, respectively. A statistically significant difference was observed at 12 months, with less RBL in the IL group. Insertion torque and implant length were not correlated with RBL. Also, no difference in frequency of maintenance visits and prosthetic complications was reported between the groups. Immediate loading of two unsplinted implants supporting a Locator-retained mandibular OVD seems to be a suitable treatment option. Significantly less RBL was observed after 1 year of loading around IL implants than around DL implants. Furthermore, neither implant length nor insertion torque seemed to affect RBL 1 year after surgical placement.

  12. One bipolar transistor selector - One resistive random access memory device for cross bar memory array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aluguri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A bipolar transistor selector was connected in series with a resistive switching memory device to study its memory characteristics for its application in cross bar array memory. The metal oxide based p-n-p bipolar transistor selector indicated good selectivity of about 104 with high retention and long endurance showing its usefulness in cross bar RRAM devices. Zener tunneling is found to be the main conduction phenomena for obtaining high selectivity. 1BT-1R device demonstrated good memory characteristics with non-linearity of 2 orders, selectivity of about 2 orders and long retention characteristics of more than 105 sec. One bit-line pull-up scheme shows that a 650 kb cross bar array made with this 1BT1R devices works well with more than 10 % read margin proving its ability in future memory technology application.

  13. One bipolar transistor selector - One resistive random access memory device for cross bar memory array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluguri, R.; Kumar, D.; Simanjuntak, F. M.; Tseng, T.-Y.

    2017-09-01

    A bipolar transistor selector was connected in series with a resistive switching memory device to study its memory characteristics for its application in cross bar array memory. The metal oxide based p-n-p bipolar transistor selector indicated good selectivity of about 104 with high retention and long endurance showing its usefulness in cross bar RRAM devices. Zener tunneling is found to be the main conduction phenomena for obtaining high selectivity. 1BT-1R device demonstrated good memory characteristics with non-linearity of 2 orders, selectivity of about 2 orders and long retention characteristics of more than 105 sec. One bit-line pull-up scheme shows that a 650 kb cross bar array made with this 1BT1R devices works well with more than 10 % read margin proving its ability in future memory technology application.

  14. Random number generation in bilingual Balinese and German students: preliminary findings from an exploratory cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenge, Hans; Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus Jaya; Suryani, Luh Ketut

    2009-08-01

    Verbal random number generation is a procedurally simple task to assess executive function and appears ideally suited for the use under diverse settings in cross-cultural research. The objective of this study was to examine ethnic group differences between young adults in Bali (Indonesia) and Kiel (Germany): 50 bilingual healthy students, 30 Balinese and 20 Germans, attempted to generate a random sequence of the digits 1 to 9. In Balinese participants, randomization was done in Balinese (native language L1) and Indonesian (first foreign language L2), in German subjects in the German (L1) and English (L2) languages. 10 of 30 Balinese (33%), but no Germans, were unable to inhibit habitual counting in more than half of the responses. The Balinese produced significantly more nonrandom responses than the Germans with higher rates of counting and significantly less occurrence of the digits 2 and 3 in L1 compared with L2. Repetition and cycling behavior did not differ between the four languages. The findings highlight the importance of taking into account culture-bound psychosocial factors for Balinese individuals when administering and interpreting a random number generation test.

  15. Study protocol for improving asthma outcomes through cross-cultural communication training for physicians: a randomized trial of physician training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal R; Thomas, Lara J; Hafeez, Kausar; Shankin, Matthew; Wilkin, Margaret; Brown, Randall W

    2014-06-16

    Massive resources are expended every year on cross-cultural communication training for physicians. Such training is a focus of continuing medical education nationwide and is part of the curriculum of virtually every medical school in America. There is a pressing need for evidence regarding the effects on patients of cross-cultural communication training for physicians. There is a need to understand the added benefit of such training compared to more general communication. We know of no rigorous study that has assessed whether cross-cultural communication training for physicians results in better health outcomes for their patients. The current study aims to answer this question by enhancing the Physician Asthma Care Education (PACE) program to cross cultural communication (PACE Plus), and comparing the effect of the enhanced program to PACE on the health outcomes of African American and Latino/Hispanic children with asthma. A three-arm randomized control trial is used to compare PACE Plus, PACE, and usual care. Both PACE and PACE Plus are delivered in two, two-hour sessions over a period of two weeks to 5-10 primary care physicians who treat African American and Latino/Hispanic children with asthma. One hundred twelve physicians and 1060 of their pediatric patients were recruited who self-identify as African American or Latino/Hispanic and experience persistent asthma. Physicians were randomized into receiving either the PACE Plus or PACE intervention or into the control group. The comparative effectiveness of PACE and PACE Plus on clinician's therapeutic and communication practices with the family/patient, children's urgent care use for asthma, asthma control, and quality of life, and parent/caretaker satisfaction with physician performance will be assessed. Data are collected via telephone survey and medical record review at baseline, 9 months following the intervention, and 21 months following the intervention. This study aims to reduce disparities in asthma

  16. Immediate loading of four interforaminal implants supporting a locator-retained mandibular overdenture in the elderly. Results of a 3-year randomized, controlled, prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acham, Stephan; Rugani, Petra; Truschnegg, Astrid; Wildburger, Angelika; Wegscheider, Walther A; Jakse, Norbert

    2017-10-01

    Implant-retained overdentures have become a standard option for the prosthetic treatment of the edentulous mandible in the elderly. This prospective study aimed to compare immediate and conventional loading of four interforaminal implants supporting a Locator-retained mandibular overdenture in elderly patients regarding implant survival, implant stability, and implant-related complications. The study population comprised 20 completely edentulous patients (11 males) aged 60 years and older with severe mandible resorption. Each patient received four interforaminal implants (Neoss Ltd., Harrogate, UK). Following randomization, implants were loaded either immediately after dental implant surgery or 3 months after implant placement with the Locator-abutment system. At follow-up visits 3, 6 12, 24, and 36 months after loading, implant stability was evaluated with Periotest and Ostell. Twenty patients received 80 implants. In eight patients, 32 implants were loaded immediately. Two patients had to be switched from the immediate to the conventional loading group due to insufficient primary stability (≤30 Ncm). Implant survival was similar in both groups after 36 months. No implant was lost. Decreasing Periotest, and accordingly, increasing Ostell measurements indicated adequate osseointegration in both groups. The course of treatment was not significantly different in the two groups. There were comparable incidences of postoperative complaints like swelling, hematoma, or wound dehiscence, as well as need for prosthetic treatment due to abutment loosening or occlusal discrepancies. Incidence of pressure marks and number of patient visits were significantly higher in the conventional loading group. With sufficient primary stability, immediate loading of four interforaminal implants in the edentulous mandible might be the preferential choice in the elderly, reducing total treatment time, and number of patient visits. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Hierarchical Bayesian random intercept model-based cross-level interaction decomposition for truck driver injury severity investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Zhang, Guohui; Tian, Zong; Bogus, Susan M; Yang, Yin

    2015-12-01

    Traffic crashes occurring on rural roadways induce more severe injuries and fatalities than those in urban areas, especially when there are trucks involved. Truck drivers are found to suffer higher potential of crash injuries compared with other occupational labors. Besides, unobserved heterogeneity in crash data analysis is a critical issue that needs to be carefully addressed. In this study, a hierarchical Bayesian random intercept model decomposing cross-level interaction effects as unobserved heterogeneity is developed to examine the posterior probabilities of truck driver injuries in rural truck-involved crashes. The interaction effects contributing to truck driver injury outcomes are investigated based on two-year rural truck-involved crashes in New Mexico from 2010 to 2011. The analysis results indicate that the cross-level interaction effects play an important role in predicting truck driver injury severities, and the proposed model produces comparable performance with the traditional random intercept model and the mixed logit model even after penalization by high model complexity. It is revealed that factors including road grade, number of vehicles involved in a crash, maximum vehicle damage in a crash, vehicle actions, driver age, seatbelt use, and driver under alcohol or drug influence, as well as a portion of their cross-level interaction effects with other variables are significantly associated with truck driver incapacitating injuries and fatalities. These findings are helpful to understand the respective or joint impacts of these attributes on truck driver injury patterns in rural truck-involved crashes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Escitalopram in painful polyneuropathy: A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Marit; Bach, Flemming W; Jensen, Troels S

    2008-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is involved in pain modulation via descending pathways in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to test if escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), would relieve pain in polyneuropathy. The study design was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled......- or pressure-evoked pain, lancinating pain, constant burning or deep aching pain) by the use of 0-10-point numeric rating scales. Changes in health-related quality of life and severity of depression were measured with the SF-36 and the Major Depression Inventory (MDI). Forty-one patients were included...

  19. Vrednovanje lokacija za uspostavljanje mosnog mesta prelaska preko vodenih prepreka primenom fuzzy logike / Evaluating locations for river crossing using fuzzy logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko I. Božanić

    2010-01-01

    crossing water obstacles are: water obstacle width, water obstacle flow rate, quality and number of access roads and volume of works around the bridge and on terrain all the way to the access roads. In the fuzzy system for evaluating offered locations, the input criteria values are presented in numbers or linguistic expressions. The fuzzy system is composed of four input linguistic variables and one output linguistic variable - decision preference for the selection of a particular location. For defining rules in a fuzzy logic model, the data obtained from the interviewed infantry officers who took part in the selection of a pontoon bridge location were used. Fuzzy system testing The valley of the Juzna Morava River between the towns of Bujanovac and Vladicin Han, with the towns of Vranjska Banja, Kobrevac and Gramada, was chosen for testing the described model. Vranjska Banja was chosen as the most appropriate pontoon bridge location in crossing the Juzna Morava River between Bujanovac and Vladicin Han, because the highest degree of preference was obtained as an output linguistic variable from the fuzzy system.

  20. Specific and cross over effects of massage for muscle soreness: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Kenneth; Sundstrup, Emil; Søndergaard, Stine D; Behm, David; Brandt, Mikkel; Særvoll, Charlotte A; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-02-01

    Muscle soreness can negatively interfere with the activities of daily living as well as sports performance. In the working environment, a common problem is muscle tenderness, soreness and pain, especially for workers frequently exposed to unilateral high repetitive movements tasks. The aim of the study is therefore to investigate the acute effect of massage applied using a simple device Thera-band roller Massager on laboratory induced hamstring muscle soreness, and the potential cross over effect to the non-massaged limb. 22 healthy untrained men (Mean age 34 +/- 7 years; mean height 181.7 +/- 6.9 cm; mean weight 80.6 +/- 6.4 kg; BMI: 24.5 +/- 1.3) with no prior history of knee, low back or neck injury or other adverse health issues were recruited. Participants visited the researchers on two separate occasions, separated by 48 hours, each time providing a soreness rating (modified visual analog scale 0-10), and being tested for pressure pain threshold (PPT) and active range of motion (ROM) of the hamstring muscles. During the first visit, delayed onset muscular soreness of the hamstring muscles was induced by 10 x 10 repetitions of the stiff-legged dead-lift. On the second visit participants received either 1) 10 minutes of roller massage on one leg, while the contralateral leg served as a cross over control, or 2) Resting for 10 minutes with no massage at all. Measurement of soreness, PPT and ROM were taken immediately before and at 0, 10, 30 and 60 min. after treatment. There was a significant group by time interaction for soreness (p massage group experiencing reduced soreness and increasing PPT compared with the control group. There was no group by time interaction for ROM (p = 0.18). At 10 min. post massage there was a significant reduction in soreness of the non-massaged limb in the cross over control group compared to controls but this effect was lost 30 minutes post massage. Massage with a roller device reduces muscle soreness and is accompanied by a higher

  1. Pulmonary rehabilitation after total laryngectomy: a randomized cross-over clinical trial comparing two different heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Jesús; Espiño, María Alvarez; Morado, Carolina Ogen

    2013-09-01

    Post-laryngectomy heat and moisture exchanger (HME) use is known to have a beneficial effect on tracheal climate, pulmonary symptoms and related aspects. This study aims to investigate differences in clinical effects between the first and second generation Provox HMEs. The second generation (Provox XtraHME) has better humidification properties than the first generation (Provox HME), and has been shown to further improve tracheal climate. Forty-five laryngectomized patients, who were already using an HME, participated in a prospective, randomized cross-over clinical study in which each HME was used for 6 weeks. Results showed that for most parameters studied, the second generation HME performed equally well or better than the first generation HME. The improvement in tracheal climate translated into patients reporting significantly less tracheal dryness with the second generation than with the first generation (p = 0.039). Using an HME with better humidification properties is related to a reduction in tracheal dryness in our study population.

  2. Oral ketamine and dexmedetomidine in adults' burns wound dressing--A randomized double blind cross over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundra, Pankaj; Velayudhan, Savitri; Krishnamachari, Srinivasan; Gupta, Suman Lata

    2013-09-01

    Study was designed to compare analgesic efficacy and side effects of oral dexmedetomidine and ketamine in adults for burn wound dressing. Sixty healthy adults with thermal burns with burn area (20-50%) were randomly assigned into 2 groups. In Group K 5mg/kg ketamine and in Group D 4 mcg/kg dexmedetomidine was given orally. Patients crossed over to the other group the following day. Visual analogue score, sedation score, haemodynamic parameters were recorded from 30min after drug administration to 2h after procedure. Patients' preference was also recorded. Mean VAS score was significantly reduced from baseline in both the groups at all time points (Pburns wound dressing. Oral ketamine produced significantly better pain relief than dexmedetomidine but was associated with delirium and excessive salivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute neurocognitive response to methylphenidate among survivors of childhood cancer: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Heather M; Khan, Raja B; Reddick, Wilburn E; Helton, Susan; Brown, Ronald; Howard, Scott C; Bonner, Melanie; Christensen, Robbin; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Mulhern, Raymond K

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the acute efficacy and adverse side effects of methylphenidate (MPH) among survivors of childhood cancer [acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or brain tumor (BT)] with learning impairments. Participants (N = 122) completed a two-day, in-clinic, double-blind, cross-over trial during which they received MPH (0.60 mg/kg of body weight) and placebo that were randomized in administration order across participants. Performance was evaluated using measures of attention, memory, and academic achievement. A significant MPH versus placebo effect was revealed on a measure of attention, cognitive flexibility, and processing speed (Stroop Word-Color Association Test). Male gender, older age at treatment, and higher intelligence were predictive of better medication response. No significant differences were found for number or severity of adverse side effects as a function of active medication. MPH shows some neurocognitive benefit and is well tolerated by the majority of children surviving ALL and BT.

  4. Acute effects of reducing sitting time in adolescents: a randomized cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisse Penning

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of sitting among adolescents are high, especially during the school day. The acute cognitive and health consequences associated with prolonged sitting are poorly understood in adolescents. This randomized crossover design study examined the acute effects of a simulated school day with reduced sitting or usual sitting on adolescents’ cognitive function and cardiometabolic biomarkers. Methods Eighteen healthy school aged adolescents were recruited from the community to the study (11 males; 7 females; mean age [SD] = 13.5 ± 0.9 years. Two protocols were developed to simulate an adolescent school day, the amount of time spent sitting was manipulated reflecting: a ‘typical’ day (65% of the time spent sitting with two sitting bouts sitting >20 min and a ‘reduced sitting’ day (adolescents sat for 50% less time with no bouts of sitting >20 mins. The order that participants were exposed to each condition was randomized (via random number generator. Participants were not fully blinded as they could observe the difference between conditions. Energy intake and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA were standardized for both conditions and monitored for 48 h post-condition for compensatory effects. Cognitive (working memory and cardiometabolic outcomes (lipids, glucose, insulin, IL-6, apo-A1, apo-B, blood pressure, were assessed pre and post for both conditions, BMI and body fat were assessed on the morning of the intervention. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models. Standardised effect sizes were calculated. Results Compared with the typical school day, the reduced sitting day demonstrated significant positive effects for apoB/apoA-1 ratio (adjusted difference ± SD -0.02 ± 0.03; P = 0.03; effect size [Cohen’s d] = −0.67. Findings for total cholesterol −0.19 ± 0.27; P = 0.28; d = −0.71; HDL cholesterol −0.23 ± 0.50; P = 0.12 d = −0.66; and total cholesterol

  5. Mobile Application vs Paper Pictorial Blood Assessment Chart to Track Menses in Young Women: A Randomized Cross-over Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Amanda E; Vesely, Sara K; Haamid, Fareeda; Christian-Rancy, Myra; O'Brien, Sarah H

    2017-10-10

    Heavy menstrual bleeding is a common symptom reported by approximately 30% of women. The Pictorial Blood Assessment Chart (PBAC) score is often used to quantify severity of menstrual bleeding. However, the traditional PBAC paper diary might be subject to recall bias and compliance issues, especially in adolescents. We developed a mobile application (app) version of the PBAC score and evaluated patient satisfaction and compliance with app reporting vs paper reporting. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: This study was a randomized cross-over study of 25 postmenarchal female adolescents and young women ages 13-21 years. Participants agreed to track bleeding in 2 consecutive menstrual cycles and were randomized to use the PBAC paper diary or mobile app format first. At the end of each cycle, a satisfaction survey and system usability scale (app only) was used to assess the acceptability of the format used. Twenty-five participants had a median age of 15 years. Cross-over analysis showed that satisfaction level was significantly higher for the app (P paper diary. For the app, 20 of 25 participants (80%) had high compliance for reporting bleeding, with a mean of 2 app entries per day. Participants' PBAC scores did not vary significantly between the paper diary (median, 95) and mobile app (median, 114). All paper diaries met definition for high compliance. There was no significant period or carryover effect. This study showed that a PBAC app compared with the paper diary was the preferred method of recording menstrual bleeding in adolescents and showed feasibility as a research data collection tool. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mnemonic strategy training improves memory for object location associations in both healthy elderly and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a randomized, single-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampstead, Benjamin M; Sathian, Krish; Phillips, Pamela A; Amaraneni, Akshay; Delaune, William R; Stringer, Anthony Y

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of mnemonic strategy training versus a matched-exposure control condition and to examine the relationship between training-related gains, neuropsychological abilities, and medial temporal lobe volumetrics in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and age-matched healthy controls. Twenty-three of 45 screened healthy controls and 29 of 42 screened patients with aMCI were randomized to mnemonic strategy or matched-exposure groups. Groups were run in parallel, with participants blind to the other intervention. All participants completed five sessions within 2 weeks. Memory testing for object-location associations (OLAs) was performed during sessions one and five and at a 1-month follow-up. During Sessions 2-4, participants received either mnemonic strategy training or a matched number of exposures with corrective feedback for a total of 45 OLAs. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was performed in most participants, and medial temporal lobe volumetrics were acquired. Twenty-one healthy controls and 28 patients with aMCI were included in data analysis. Mnemonic strategy training was significantly more beneficial than matched exposure immediately after training, p = .006, partial η2 = .16, and at 1 month, p Mnemonic strategy-related improvement was correlated positively with baseline memory and executive functioning and negatively with inferior lateral ventricle volume in patients with aMCI; no significant relationships were evident in matched-exposure patients. Mnemonic strategies effectively improve memory for specific content for at least 1 month in patients with aMCI.

  7. Hospice assist at home: does the integration of hospice care in primary healthcare support patients to die in their preferred location - A retrospective cross-sectional evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Everlien; Zweers, Daniëlle; Valkenburg, Anna Ch; Uyttewaal, Allegonda; Teunissen, Saskia Ccm

    2016-06-01

    A majority of patients prefer to die at home. Specialist palliative care aims to improve quality of life. Hospice assist at home is a Dutch model of general/specialised palliative care within primary care, collaboratively built by general practitioners and a hospice. The aims of this study are to explore whether hospice assist at home service enables patients at hometo express end-of-life preferences and die in their preferred location. In addition, this study provides insight into symptomburden, stability and early referral. A retrospective cross-sectional evaluation study was performed (December 2014-March 2015), using hospice assist at home patient records and documentation. Primary outcome includes congruence between preferred and actual place of death. Secondary outcomes include symptom burden, (in)stability and early identification. Between June 2012 and December 2014, 130 hospice assist at home patients, living at home with a life expectancy home, a collaboration between general practitioners, district nurses, trained volunteers and a hospice team, facilitates (1) general practitioner-initiated consultation by Nurse Consultant Hospice, (2) fortnightly interdisciplinary consultations and (3) 24/7 hospice backup for patients, caregivers and professionals. A total of 130 patients (62 (48%) men; mean age, 72 years) were enrolled, of whom 107/130 (82%) died and 5 dropped out. Preferred place of death was known for 101/107 (94%) patients of whom 91% patients died at their preferred place of death. Hospice assist at home service supports patients to die in their preferred place of death. Shared responsibility of proactive care in primary care collaboration enabled patients to express preferences. Hospice care should focus on local teamwork, to contribute to shared responsibilities in providing optimal palliative care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Early Functional Postoperative Therapy of Distal Radius Fracture with a Dynamic Orthosis: Results of a Prospective Randomized Cross-Over Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stuby, Fabian M.; Stefan Döbele; Susanne-Dorothea Schäffer; Simon Mueller; Atesch Ateschrang; Matthias Baumann; Derek Zieker

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study was conducted according to GCP criteria as a prospective randomized cross-over study. The primary goal of the study was to determine clinical findings and patient satisfaction with postoperative treatment. 29 patients with a distal radius fracture that was surgically stabilized from volar and who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled over a 12-month period. Each patient randomly received either a dorsal plaster splint or a vacuum-fit flexible but blocked orthosis ap...

  9. Many randomized clinical trials may not be justified: a cross-sectional analysis of the ethics and science of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meulemeester, Julie; Fedyk, Mark; Jurkovic, Lucas; Reaume, Michael; Dowlatshahi, Dar; Stotts, Grant; Shamy, Michel

    2018-01-03

    We have proposed that three scientific criteria are important for the ethical justification of randomized clinical trials (RCTs): (1) they should be designed around a clear hypothesis; (2) uncertainty should exist around that hypothesis; (3) that uncertainty should be as established through a systematic review. We hypothesized that the majority of a sample of recently published RCTs would not explicitly incorporate these criteria, therefore rendering them potentially unjustified on scientific grounds. Cross-sectional analysis of all RCTs published in the New England Journal of Medicine and the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2015. Each article and protocol was reviewed for: (1) a clearly stated central hypothesis; (2) references to "equipoise," or "consensus;" (3) some indication of evidentiary uncertainty; (4) a meta-analysis or systematic review surrounding the hypothesis or study question. We included 208 RCT articles and 199 protocols. Among combined articles and protocols, 76% had a clearly stated hypothesis, 99% referenced some form of uncertainty, and 54% cited a relevant systematic review or meta-analysis. Only 44% of combined texts contained all three scientific criteria. There were few references to "equipoise" (10%) or "consensus" (11%), and those references to equipoise were most often inconsistent with accepted definitions. The majority of RCTs (56%) did not meet the three scientific criteria described previously and therefore may be scientifically and therefore ethically unjustified. We recommend that "equipoise," "clinical equipoise," and "lack of consensus" be abandoned as scientific criteria for RCTs and be replaced by an expectation that RCTs have a clearly stated, meaningful hypothesis around which uncertainty has been established through a systematic review of the literature. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ventilatory function during exercise in multiple sclerosis and impact of training intervention: cross-sectional and randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, D; Wens, I; Keytsman, C; Verboven, K; Dendale, P; Eijnde, B O

    2015-10-01

    Patients with MS (pwMS) often experience resting ventilatory anomalies. Ventilatory function during exercise and impact of long-term training intervention remains however uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the ventilatory function during exercise and impact of a 6-month training intervention in pwMS. Combination of a cross-sectional (part 1) and randomized controlled trial (part 2). University rehabilitation facility. Caucasian patients with MS and healthy controls. In part 1, the ventilatory function during submaximal endurance exercise was compared between pwMS (N.=37) and healthy participants (N.=15). In part 2, pwMS were then randomly assigned to a 6-month training intervention (N.=16) or usual care (N.=11). Following training intervention, ventilatory function during exercise was re-evaluated. Despite comparable relative exercise testing intensities between groups in part 1, significantly elevated steady-state exercise dead space/tidal volume ratio, O2 uptake and CO2 output equivalent, end-tidal O2 pressure, ratings of perceived exertion and lowered end-tidal CO2 pressure and O2 pulse was observed in pwMS (Ptraining intervention, ventilatory dysfunction remained present during endurance exercise (P>0.05). Patients with MS experience a ventilatory dysfunction during endurance exercise, which is related to worse exercise tolerance. This ventilatory anomaly remains present after long-term training intervention. Patients with MS experience ventilatory dysfunction during exercise. This dysfunction is related to exercise tolerance and ratings of perceived exertion. Long-term exercise training did not remediate this ventilatory dysfunction. The systematic examination of the pulmonary/cardiovascular system at rest and during exercise is recommended in MS.

  11. Acute electromyographic responses of deep thoracic paraspinal muscles to spinal manual therapy interventions. An experimental, randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Gary; Bird, Michael; Robbins, Barry; Johnson, Jane C

    2017-07-01

    This single group, randomized, cross-over study explored whether manual therapy alters motor tone of deep thoracic back muscles by examining resting electromyographic activity (EMG) after 2 types of manual therapy and a sham control intervention. Twenty-two participants with thoracic spinal pain (15 females, 7 males, mean age 28.1 ± 6.4 years) had dual fine-wire, intramuscular electrodes inserted into deep transversospinalis muscles at a thoracic level where tissues appeared abnormal to palpation (AbP) and at 2 sites above and below normal and non-tender to palpation (NT). A surface electrode was on the contralateral paraspinal mass at the level of AbP. EMG signals were recorded for resting prone, two 3-s free neck extension efforts, two 3-s resisted maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC), and resting prone before the intervention. Randomized spinal manipulation, counterstrain, or sham manipulation was delivered and EMG re-measured. Participants returned 1 and 2 weeks later for the remaining 2 treatments. Reductions in resting EMG followed counterstrain in AbP (median decrease 3.3%, P = 0.01) and NT sites (median decrease 1.0%, P = 0.05) and for the surface electrode site (median decrease 2.0%, P = 0.009). Reduction in EMG following counterstrain during free neck extension was found for the surface electrode site (median decrease 2.7%, P muscle activity during prone resting and free neck extension conditions. The clinical relevance of these changes is unclear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dialysis-associated hypertension treated with Telmisartan--DiaTel: a pilot, placebo-controlled, cross-over, randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Huber

    Full Text Available Treatment of hypertension in hemodialysis (HD patients is characterised by lack of evidence for both the blood pressure (BP target goal and the recommended drug class to use. Telmisartan, an Angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB that is metabolised in the liver and not excreted via HD extracorporeal circuit might be particularly suitable for HD patients. We designed and conducted a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind and cross-over trial for treatment of dialysis-associated hypertension with telmisartan 80 mg once daily or placebo on top of standard antihypertensive treatment excluding other Renin-Angiotensin-System (RAS blockers. In 29 patients after randomization we analysed BP after a treatment period of 8 weeks, while 13 started with telmisartan and 16 with placebo; after 8 weeks 11 continued with telmisartan and 12 with placebo after cross-over, respectively. Patients exhibited a significant reduction of systolic pre-HD BP from 141.9±21.8 before to 131.3±17.3 mmHg after the first treatment period with telmisartan or placebo. However, no average significant influence of telmisartan was observed compared to placebo. The latter may be due to a large inter-individual variability of BP responses reaching from a 40 mmHg decrease under placebo to 40 mmHg increase under telmisartan. Antihypertensive co-medication was changed for clinical reasons in 7 out of 21 patients with no significant difference between telmisartan and placebo groups. Our starting hypothesis, that telmisartan on top of standard therapy lowers systolic office BP in HD patients could not be confirmed. In conclusion, this small trial indicates that testing antihypertensive drug efficacy in HD patients is challenging due to complicated standardization of concomitant medication and other confounding factors, e.g. volume status, salt load and neurohormonal activation, that influence BP control in HD patients.Clinicaltrialsregister.eu 2005-005021-60.

  13. Homeopathy for mental fatigue: lessons from a randomized, triple blind, placebo-controlled cross-over clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Michael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Difficulty in controlling attention can lead to mental fatigue in the healthy population. We identified one trial reporting a benefit in patients’ attention using a homeopathic formula preparation. One component of the preparation was potassium phosphate, widely available off the shelf as Kali phos 6x for cognitive problems. The aim of this exploratory trial was to assess the effectiveness of Kali phos 6x for attention problems associated with mental fatigue. Methods We recruited student and staff volunteers (University of York with self-reported mental fatigue, excluding any using homeopathy or prescribed stimulants, or with a diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome. In a triple blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 86 volunteers were randomized to receive Kali phos 6x or identical placebo 10 minutes before taking a psychological test of attention (Stroop Colour-Word Test. One week later they were crossed over and took the other preparation before repeating the test. Results We found no evidence of a treatment effect in a comparison of Kali phos 6x with placebo (Kali phos minus placebo = −1.1 (95% CI −3.0 to 0.9, P = 0.3 Stroop score units, Cohen effect size = −0.17 even when allowing for a weak period effect with accuracy scores in the second period being higher than those in the first (P = 0.05. We observed a ceiling effect in the Stroop test which undermined our ability to interpret this result. Conclusions Kali phos 6x was not found to be effective in reducing mental fatigue. A ceiling effect in our primary outcome measure meant that we could not rule out a type II error. Thorough piloting of an adequate outcome measure could have led to an unequivocal result. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16521161

  14. Cost-effectiveness of antibiotic treatment strategies for community-acquired pneumonia : results from a cluster randomized cross-over trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Werkhoven, Cornelis H; Postma, Douwe F; Mangen, Marie-Josee J; Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik; Bonten, Marc J M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To determine the cost-effectiveness of strategies of preferred antibiotic treatment with beta-lactam/macrolide combination or fluoroquinolone monotherapy compared to beta-lactam monotherapy. METHODS: Costs and effects were estimated using data from a cluster-randomized cross-over trial

  15. Randomized cross-over study of patient preference for oral or intravenous vinorelbine in combination with carboplatin in the treatment of advanced NSCLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisa Helene Toft; Østerlind, Kell Erik; Rytter, C.

    2008-01-01

    treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Secondary aims were to evaluate toxicity, efficacy, and subjective reasons the preference. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-one patients were randomized in a cross-over trial to two cycles of carboplatin day 1 and vinorelbine day 1 and day 8 iv followed by two...

  16. Dark chocolate and vascular function in patients with peripheral artery disease: a randomized, controlled cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Alexandra; Koppensteiner, Renate; Steiner, Sabine; Niessner, Alexander; Goliasch, Georg; Gschwandtner, Michael; Hoke, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate has positive effects on vascular function in healthy subjects and in patients at risk of atherosclerosis. The impact of dark chocolate on endothelial and microvascular function in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) has not been investigated so far. In an investigator blinded, randomized, controlled, cross-over trial we assessed the effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate and cocoa-free control chocolate on flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery and on microvascular function (assessed by Laser Doppler fluxmetry) in 21 patients with symptomatic (Fontaine stage II) PAD. Measurements were done in each patient on 2 single days, with an interval of 7 days, at baseline and at 2 hours after ingestion of 50 g dark chocolate or 50 g white chocolate, respectively. FMD remained unchanged after intake of dark chocolate (baseline and 2 hours after ingestion, %: 5.1 [IQR 4.4 to 7.3] and 5.5 [IQR 3.9 to 10.4]; p = 0.57, and after intake of white chocolate (baseline and 2 hours after ingestion, %: 6.4 [IQR 4.5 to 11.4] and 4.4 [IQR 2.6 to 8.7]; p = 0.14. Similarly, microcirculatory parameters were not significantly altered after intake of any chocolate compared with the respective baseline values. In conclusion, a single consumption of 50 g dark chocolate has no effect on endothelial and microvascular function in patients with symptomatic PAD.

  17. Combining walking and relaxation for stress reduction-A randomized cross-over trial in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzer, Franziska; Nagele, Eva; Lerch, Nikolaus; Vajda, Christian; Fazekas, Christian

    2017-08-25

    Both physical activity and relaxation have stress-relieving potential. This study investigates their combined impact on the relaxation response while considering participants' initial stress level. In a randomized cross-over trial, 81 healthy adults completed 4 types of short-term interventions for stress reduction, each lasting for 1 hr: (1) physical activity (walking) combined with resting, (2) walking combined with balneotherapy, (3) combined resting and balneotherapy, and (4) resting only. Saliva cortisol, blood pressure, state of mood, and relaxation were measured preintervention and postintervention. Stress levels were determined by validated questionnaires. All interventions were associated with relaxation responses in the variables saliva cortisol, blood pressure, state of mood, and subjective relaxation. No significant differences were found regarding the reduction of salivary cortisol (F = 1.30; p = .281). The systolic blood pressure was reduced best when walking was combined with balneotherapy or resting (F = 7.34; p < .001). Participants with high stress levels (n = 25) felt more alert after interventions including balneotherapy, whereas they reported an increase of tiredness when walking was combined with resting (F = 3.20; p = .044). Results suggest that combining physical activity and relaxation (resting or balneotherapy) is an advantageous short-term strategy for stress reduction as systolic blood pressure is reduced best while similar levels of relaxation can be obtained. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. THERAPEUTIC EQUIVALENCE OF ORIGINAL CLOPIDOGREL (PLAVIX AND ITS GENERIC (EGITROMB. RESULTS OF COMPARATIVE RANDOMIZED CROSS-OVER BLIND STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Yakusevich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study therapeutic equivalence (efficacy, safety and tolerability of original clopidogrel (Plavix and its generic (Egitromb in patients of high cardiovascular risk. Material and methods. Thirty one patients with coronary heart disease and indications for clopidogrel therapy were involved into the randomized cross-over blind study. Half of the patients received original clopidogrel (75 mg daily during the first 2 weeks and then they received generic clopidogrel in the same dose during next 2 weeks. Another half of the patients received the drugs in reverse order. Antiplatelet activity of Plavix and Egitromb was estimated by effects on ADP-induced platelet aggregation initially and after 2 weeks of treatment with each drug. Study blinding was provided by the following approach: doctors of cardiology clinic performed clinical monitoring and drug distribution; coded blood samples for platelet aggregation assessment were studied in independent laboratory of thrombosis; statistical data analysis was performed by biostatistics expert in other research center. Results. 2-week therapy with each drug led to a significant decrease of ADP-induced platelet aggregation which remained low after switching from original drug to generic and vice versa. Aggregation dynamics did not depend on the first administered drug. There were no significant differences between aggregation changes as a result of treatment with original or generic drug. No one adverse event was observed in association with both drugs therapy. Conclusion. Generic drug Egitromb (Egis, Hungary and original clopidogrel Plavix (Sanofi-Aventis, France have equivalent antiplatelet effect.

  19. Effects of Oral L-Carnitine Administration in Narcolepsy Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Cross-Over and Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Taku; Kawamura, Hiromi; Obuchi, Mariko; Ikesaki, Asuka; Ozaki, Akiko; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Inoue, Yuichi; Honda, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep abnormalities. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified a novel narcolepsy-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), which is located adjacent to the carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B) gene encoding an enzyme involved in β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. The mRNA expression levels of CPT1B were associated with this SNP. In addition, we recently reported that acylcarnitine levels were abnormally low in narcolepsy patients. To assess the efficacy of oral l-carnitine for the treatment of narcolepsy, we performed a clinical trial administering l-carnitine (510 mg/day) to patients with the disease. The study design was a randomized, double-blind, cross-over and placebo-controlled trial. Thirty narcolepsy patients were enrolled in our study. Two patients were withdrawn and 28 patients were included in the statistical analysis (15 males and 13 females, all with HLA-DQB1*06:02). l-carnitine treatment significantly improved the total time for dozing off during the daytime, calculated from the sleep logs, compared with that of placebo-treated periods. l-carnitine efficiently increased serum acylcarnitine levels, and reduced serum triglycerides concentration. Differences in the Japanese version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) vitality and mental health subscales did not reach statistical significance between l-carnitine and placebo. This study suggests that oral l-carnitine can be effective in reducing excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy patients. Trial Registration University hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) UMIN000003760 PMID:23349733

  20. Effects of oral L-carnitine administration in narcolepsy patients: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over and placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Taku; Kawamura, Hiromi; Obuchi, Mariko; Ikesaki, Asuka; Ozaki, Akiko; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Inoue, Yuichi; Honda, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep abnormalities. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified a novel narcolepsy-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), which is located adjacent to the carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B) gene encoding an enzyme involved in β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. The mRNA expression levels of CPT1B were associated with this SNP. In addition, we recently reported that acylcarnitine levels were abnormally low in narcolepsy patients. To assess the efficacy of oral L-carnitine for the treatment of narcolepsy, we performed a clinical trial administering L-carnitine (510 mg/day) to patients with the disease. The study design was a randomized, double-blind, cross-over and placebo-controlled trial. Thirty narcolepsy patients were enrolled in our study. Two patients were withdrawn and 28 patients were included in the statistical analysis (15 males and 13 females, all with HLA-DQB1*06:02). L-carnitine treatment significantly improved the total time for dozing off during the daytime, calculated from the sleep logs, compared with that of placebo-treated periods. L-carnitine efficiently increased serum acylcarnitine levels, and reduced serum triglycerides concentration. Differences in the Japanese version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) vitality and mental health subscales did not reach statistical significance between L-carnitine and placebo. This study suggests that oral L-carnitine can be effective in reducing excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy patients. University hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) UMIN000003760.

  1. Effects of oral L-carnitine administration in narcolepsy patients: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over and placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Miyagawa

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, and rapid eye movement (REM sleep abnormalities. A genome-wide association study (GWAS identified a novel narcolepsy-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, which is located adjacent to the carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B gene encoding an enzyme involved in β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. The mRNA expression levels of CPT1B were associated with this SNP. In addition, we recently reported that acylcarnitine levels were abnormally low in narcolepsy patients. To assess the efficacy of oral L-carnitine for the treatment of narcolepsy, we performed a clinical trial administering L-carnitine (510 mg/day to patients with the disease. The study design was a randomized, double-blind, cross-over and placebo-controlled trial. Thirty narcolepsy patients were enrolled in our study. Two patients were withdrawn and 28 patients were included in the statistical analysis (15 males and 13 females, all with HLA-DQB1*06:02. L-carnitine treatment significantly improved the total time for dozing off during the daytime, calculated from the sleep logs, compared with that of placebo-treated periods. L-carnitine efficiently increased serum acylcarnitine levels, and reduced serum triglycerides concentration. Differences in the Japanese version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 vitality and mental health subscales did not reach statistical significance between L-carnitine and placebo. This study suggests that oral L-carnitine can be effective in reducing excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: University hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN UMIN000003760.

  2. Gene Locater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anwar, Muhammad Zohaib; Sehar, Anoosha; Rehman, Inayat-Ur

    2012-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Locating genes on a chromosome is important for understanding the gene function and its linkage and recombination. Knowledge of gene positions on chromosomes is necessary for annotation. The study is essential for disease genetics and genomics, among other aspects. Currently available...... software's for calculating recombination frequency is mostly limited to the range and flexibility of this type of analysis. GENE LOCATER is a fully customizable program for calculating recombination frequency, written in JAVA. Through an easy-to-use interface, GENE LOCATOR allows users a high degree...

  3. General practitioners' choices and their determinants when starting treatment for major depression: a cross sectional, randomized case-vignette survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Dumesnil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In developed countries, primary care physicians manage most patients with depression. Relatively few studies allow a comprehensive assessment of the decisions these doctors make in these cases and the factors associated with these decisions. We studied how general practitioners (GPs manage the acute phase of a new episode of non-comorbid major depression (MD and the factors associated with their decisions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this cross-sectional telephone survey, professional investigators interviewed an existing panel of randomly selected GPs (1249/1431, response rate: 87.3%. We used case-vignettes about new MD episodes in 8 versions differing by patient gender and socioeconomic status (blue/white collar and disease intensity (mild/severe. GPs were randomized to receive one of these 8 versions. Overall, 82.6% chose pharmacotherapy; among them GPs chose either an antidepressant (79.8% or an anxiolytic/hypnotic alone (18.5%. They rarely recommended referral for psychotherapy alone, regardless of severity, but 38.2% chose it in combination with pharmacotherapy. Antidepressant prescription was associated with severity of depression (OR = 1.74; 95%CI = 1.33-2.27, patient gender (female, OR = 0.75; 95%CI = 0.58-0.98, GP personal characteristics (e.g. history of antidepressant treatment: OR = 2.31; 95%CI = 1.41-3.81 and GP belief that antidepressants are overprescribed in France (OR = 0.63; 95%CI = 0.48-0.82. The combination of antidepressants and psychotherapy was associated with severity of depression (OR = 1.82; 95%CI = 1.31-2.52, patient's white-collar status (OR = 1.58; 95%CI = 1.14-2.18, and GPs' dissatisfaction with cooperation with mental health specialists (OR = 0.63; 95%CI = 0.45-0.89. These choices were not associated with either GPs' professional characteristics or psychiatrist density in the GP's practice areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: GPs' choices for

  4. General practitioners' choices and their determinants when starting treatment for major depression: a cross sectional, randomized case-vignette survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumesnil, Hélène; Cortaredona, Sébastien; Verdoux, Hélène; Sebbah, Rémy; Paraponaris, Alain; Verger, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    In developed countries, primary care physicians manage most patients with depression. Relatively few studies allow a comprehensive assessment of the decisions these doctors make in these cases and the factors associated with these decisions. We studied how general practitioners (GPs) manage the acute phase of a new episode of non-comorbid major depression (MD) and the factors associated with their decisions. In this cross-sectional telephone survey, professional investigators interviewed an existing panel of randomly selected GPs (1249/1431, response rate: 87.3%). We used case-vignettes about new MD episodes in 8 versions differing by patient gender and socioeconomic status (blue/white collar) and disease intensity (mild/severe). GPs were randomized to receive one of these 8 versions. Overall, 82.6% chose pharmacotherapy; among them GPs chose either an antidepressant (79.8%) or an anxiolytic/hypnotic alone (18.5%). They rarely recommended referral for psychotherapy alone, regardless of severity, but 38.2% chose it in combination with pharmacotherapy. Antidepressant prescription was associated with severity of depression (OR = 1.74; 95%CI = 1.33-2.27), patient gender (female, OR = 0.75; 95%CI = 0.58-0.98), GP personal characteristics (e.g. history of antidepressant treatment: OR = 2.31; 95%CI = 1.41-3.81) and GP belief that antidepressants are overprescribed in France (OR = 0.63; 95%CI = 0.48-0.82). The combination of antidepressants and psychotherapy was associated with severity of depression (OR = 1.82; 95%CI = 1.31-2.52), patient's white-collar status (OR = 1.58; 95%CI = 1.14-2.18), and GPs' dissatisfaction with cooperation with mental health specialists (OR = 0.63; 95%CI = 0.45-0.89). These choices were not associated with either GPs' professional characteristics or psychiatrist density in the GP's practice areas. GPs' choices for treating severe MD complied with clinical guidelines better than those for

  5. Randomized cross-over trial of short-term water-only fasting: metabolic and cardiovascular consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, B D; Muhlestein, J B; Lappé, D L; May, H T; Carlquist, J F; Galenko, O; Brunisholz, K D; Anderson, J L

    2013-11-01

    Routine, periodic fasting is associated with a lower prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD). Animal studies show that fasting may increase longevity and alter biological parameters related to longevity. We evaluated whether fasting initiates acute changes in biomarker expression in humans that may impact short- and long-term health. Apparently-healthy volunteers (N = 30) without a recent history of fasting were enrolled in a randomized cross-over trial. A one-day water-only fast was the intervention and changes in biomarkers were the study endpoints. Bonferroni correction required p ≤ 0.00167 for significance (p fasting intervention acutely increased human growth hormone (p = 1.1 × 10⁻⁴), hemoglobin (p = 4.8 × 10⁻⁷), red blood cell count (p = 2.5 × 10⁻⁶), hematocrit (p = 3.0 × 10⁻⁶), total cholesterol (p = 5.8 × 10⁻⁵), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.0015), and decreased triglycerides (p = 1.3 × 10⁻⁴), bicarbonate (p = 3.9 × 10⁻⁴), and weight (p = 1.0 × 10⁻⁷), compared to a day of usual eating. For those randomized to fast the first day (n = 16), most factors including human growth hormone and cholesterol returned to baseline after the full 48 h, with the exception of weight (p = 2.5 × 10⁻⁴) and (suggestively significant) triglycerides (p = 0.028). Fasting induced acute changes in biomarkers of metabolic, cardiovascular, and general health. The long-term consequences of these short-term changes are unknown but repeated episodes of periodic short-term fasting should be evaluated as a preventive treatment with the potential to reduce metabolic disease risk. Clinical trial registration (ClinicalTrials.gov): NCT01059760 (Expression of Longevity Genes in Response to Extended Fasting [The Fasting and Expression of Longevity Genes during Food abstinence {FEELGOOD} Trial]). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Experienced versus Inexperienced Interexaminer Reliability on Location and Classification of Myofascial Trigger Point Palpation to Diagnose Lateral Epicondylalgia: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Relucio, Raquel; Núñez-Nagy, Susana; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomás; Rus, Alma; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Romero-Franco, Natalia; Ferragut-Garcías, Alejandro; Pecos-Martín, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the interexaminer reliability of experienced and inexperienced examiners on location and classification of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in two epicondylar muscles and the association between the MTrP found and the diagnosis of lateral epicondylalgia (LE). Fifty-two pianists (some suffered LE) voluntarily participated in the study. Three physiotherapists (one inexperienced in myofascial pain) examined, located, and marked MTrPs in the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscles. Forearms were photographed and analyzed to establish the degree of agreement on MTrPs diagnosis. Data showed 81.73% and 77.88% of agreement on MTrP classification and 85.58% and 72.12% on MTrP location between the expert evaluators for ECRB and EDC, respectively. The agreement on MTrP classification between experienced and inexperienced examiners was 54.81% and 51.92% for ECRB and 50.00% and 55.77% for EDC. Also, agreement on MTrP location was 54.81% and 60.58% for ECRB and 48.08% and 48.08% for EDC. A strong association was found between presence of relevant MTrPs, LE diagnosis, and forearm pain when the examiners were experts. The analysis of location and classification of MTrPs in the epicondylar muscles through physical examination by experienced evaluators is reliable, reproducible, and suitable for diagnosing LE.

  7. Library Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh locations including address, coordinates, phone number, square footage, and standard operating hours. The map below does not display...

  8. Do objective neighbourhood characteristics relate to residents' preferences for certain sports locations? A cross-sectional study using a discrete choice modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelen, Ineke; Jansen, Marijke; Dogterom, Nico J; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; Ettema, Dick

    2017-12-11

    The number of sports facilities, sports clubs, or city parks in a residential neighbourhood may affect the likelihood that people participate in sports and their preferences for a certain sports location. This study aimed to assess whether objective physical and socio-spatial neighbourhood characteristics relate to sports participation and preferences for sports locations. Data from Dutch adults (N = 1201) on sports participation, their most-used sports location, and socio-demographic characteristics were collected using an online survey. Objective land-use data and the number of sports facilities were gathered for each participant using a 2000-m buffer around their home locations, whereas socio-spatial neighbourhood characteristics (i.e., density, socio-economic status, and safety) were determined at the neighbourhood level. A discrete choice-modelling framework (multinomial probit model) was used to model the associations between neighbourhood characteristics and sports participation and location. Higher proportions of green space, blue space, and the number of sports facilities were positively associated with sports participation in public space, at sports clubs, and at other sports facilities. Higher degrees of urbanization were negatively associated with sports participation at public spaces, sports clubs, and other sports facilities. Those with more green space, blue space or sports facilities in their residential neighbourhood were more likely to participate in sports, but these factors did not affect their preference for a certain sports location. Longitudinal study designs are necessary to assess causality: do active people choose to live in sports-facilitating neighbourhoods, or do neighbourhood characteristics affect sports participation?

  9. The Effect of Plastic Cover on Regulation of Vital Signs in Preterm Infants: A Randomized Cross-over Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Valizadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the susceptibility of preterm infants to disturbances of vital signs, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of using plastic covers on regulation of vital signs in preterm neonates.Methods: This randomized, cross-over, clinical trial was carried out on 80 preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of Taleghani Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. The study was conducted in two days (on the second and third days of the infants’ life. In group 1, plastic cover was used during the first day followed by the use of blanket on the second day, while the order was reversed in group 2. Digital thermometer was used to measure the infants’ axillary temperature. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were measured through monitoring. To analyze the data, descriptive (Mean and SE, 95%CI and inferential statistics (repeated measurement and ANCOVA tests were used in SPSS version 13 and MiniTab software.Results: Fourteen infants who were covered with blanket were found to suffer from hypothermia, while no infant with a plastic cover encountered this problem. The percentage of arterial blood oxygen saturation in the group with plastic covers was higher, and as a result, the infants received less oxygen supplements. However, no statistically significant differences were observed in heart rate between the groups.Conclusion: Use of plastic cover during NICU stay prevented hypothermia in premature infants, with the arterial blood oxygen saturation being within the normal limits. Yet, it did not seem to have a significant effect on other vital signs.

  10. Large Intra-subject Variability in Caffeine Pharmacokinetics: Randomized Cross-over Study of Single Caffeine Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Muhammad M; Alvi, Syed N

    2017-09-01

    Background Average bioequivalence has been criticized for not adequately addressing individual variations. Importance of subjects' blinding in bioequivalence studies has not been well studied. We explored the extent of intra-subject pharmacokinetic variability and effect of drug-ingestion unawareness in subjects taking single caffeine product. Methods A single-dose randomized cross-over design was used to compare pharmacokinetics of 200 mg caffeine, described as caffeine (overt) or as placebo (covert). Maximum concentration (Cmax), Cmax first time (Tmax), area-under-the-concentration-time-curve, to last measured concentration (AUCT), extrapolated to infinity (AUCI), or to Tmax of overt caffeine (AUCOverttmax), and Cmax/AUCI were calculated blindly using standard non-compartmental method. Percentages of individual covert/overt ratios that are outside the ±25% range were determined. Covert-vs-overt effect on caffeine pharmacokinetics was evaluated by 90% confidence interval (CI) and 80.00-125.00% bioequivalence range. Results 32 healthy subjects (6% females, mean (SD) age 33.3 (7.2) year) participated in the study (28 analysed). Out of the 28 individual covert/overt ratios, 23% were outside the ±25% range for AUCT, 30% for AUCI, 20% for AUCOverttmax, 30% for Cmax, and 43% for Tmax. There was no significant covert-vs-overt difference in any of the pharmacokinetic parameters studied. Further, the 90% CIs for AUCT, AUCI, Cmax, AUCOverttmax, and Cmax/AUCI were all within the 80.00-125.00% bioequivalence range with mean absolute deviation of covert/overt ratios of 3.31%, 6.29%, 1.43%, 1.87%, and 5.19%, respectively. Conclusions Large intra-subject variability in main caffeine pharmacokinetic parameters was noted when comparing an oral caffeine product to itself. Subjects' blinding may not be important in average bioequivalence studies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Effect of education and health locus of control on safe use of pesticides: a cross sectional random study

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    Gaber Sherine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Egypt, many pesticides are used to control pests in agricultural farms. Our study aimed to investigate knowledge and behaviors of farmers related to pesticide use and their relation to educational level and health locus of control. Health locus of control is the degree to which individuals believe that their health is controlled by internal or external factors. Methods A cross-sectional randomized approach was used to collect data from 335 farmers in Mahmoudiya region, Egypt using an interview questionnaire. Results were analyzed using Pearson Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Student t-test and ANOVA. Results The average age of farmers was 34 years and 61% of them didn't receive school education. School education was related to higher levels of knowledge and behaviors. Farmers who received school education had more knowledge about the negative effects of pesticides on health and routes of contamination with pesticides. They also had higher scores on reading labels of pesticides containers and taking precautions after coming in contact with pesticides. Regarding health locus of control, higher internal beliefs were significantly related to higher knowledge and behaviors scores, while there was no significant relation between chance and powerful others beliefs with knowledge or behaviors. Conclusion In the present study, higher level of education and lower level of internal beliefs were related to better knowledge and safer use of pesticides among Egyptian farmers. We recommend that strategies for raising internal beliefs must be included in health education programs that aim to ameliorate pesticides use among farmers.

  12. Immediate Loading of Dental Implants in Edentulous Mandibles by Use of Locator® Attachments or Dolder® Bars: Two-Year Results from a Prospective Randomized Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Stefanie; Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos Nikitas; Eberhard, Lydia; Rammelsberg, Peter; Eiffler, Constantin

    2016-08-01

    The study aims to evaluate survival and incidence of complications for pairs of implants placed in the front region of edentulous mandibles and immediately loaded with either bar or Locator attachments. Forty-six patients with edentulous mandibles (mean age 69.4 years at inclusion in the study; 73.9% male) received two implants in the interforaminal area of the symphysis. Dolder bar or Locator attachments, allocated randomly, were then attached immediately, and both clips and a framework were fastened to the denture by the dental technician within 72 hours. During the first 3 months of the 2-year period of observation, eight implants in five patients were lost, and were removed. Survival was 89.1% and 93.5% for the bar and Locator groups, respectively. During the entire period of observation, 38 prosthetic complications required aftercare. Five dentures had to be removed or reworked after implant failure, but no superstructure was lost or had to be remade for prosthetic reasons. Survival of the original dentures was 93.5% and 95.7% for the bar and Locator groups, respectively. Within the limitations of this study, results from immediate loading of two implants in the edentulous mandible with either Locator or bar attachments hardly differed. Prosthetic complications and aftercare measures in the Locator group were frequent but easy to handle. Ease of repair and cleaning, in particular, might be reasons for choosing the single-attachment system. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Crime Location Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Most behavior of interest to social scientists is choice behavior: actions people commit while they could also have done something else. In geographical and environmental criminology, a new framework has emerged for analyzing individual crime location choice. It is based on the principle of random

  14. Overweight and obesity in Slovak high school students and body composition indicators: a non-randomized cross-sectional study

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    Bibiana Vadasova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical development can be considered as an indicator of the overall health status of the youth population. Currently, it appears that the increasing trend of the prevalence of obesity among children and youths has stopped in a number of countries worldwide. Studies point to the fact that adolescence is a critical period for the development of obesity. Body mass index (BMI seems to be an orientation parameter in the assessment of prevalence of obesity which is not sufficient for more accurate identification of at risk individuals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate association between BMI percentile zones as health-risk for being overweight and obese and body composition indicators in high-school students from the Prešov (Slovakia region. Methods A non-randomized cross-sectional study in high school students from the Prešov (Slovakia region was conducted. The research sample consisted of 1014 participants (boys n = 466, girls n = 549. Body composition was measured using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (DSM-BIA. To examine the association between obesity and selected body composition indicators, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Eta2 were used. The relationship between selected body composition indicators and percentile BMI zones was determined using the Kendall tau correlation. Results In groups with different BMI percentile zones (normal weight, overweight, obese, ANOVA showed significant differences for girls and boys (p ˂.05 with high effect size (η2 ˂.26 in body weight, body fat mass index, body fat percentage, fat free mass index, fat-free mass percentage, visceral fat area, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference, protein mass and mineral mass. The highest degree of correlation among boys was between BMI values indicating overweight and obesity and fat free mass index and waist circumference, respectively (τ = .71, τ = .70, respectively. In girls, the highest

  15. A Randomized Cross-Over Trial of the Postprandial Effects of Three Different Diets in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunjaku, Bekim; Rosenqvist, Ulf; Nystrom, Fredrik H.; Guldbrand, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Background In the clinic setting both fasting levels of glucose and the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose, by determination of HbA1c levels, are used for risk assessments, in type 2 diabetes (NIDDM). However little is known about postprandial levels, and hence AUC, regarding other traditional risk factors such as insulin and blood-lipids and how this is affected by different diets. Objective To study postprandial effects of three diets, during a single day, in NIDDM. Methods A low-fat diet (45–56 energy-% from carbohydrates), and a low-carbohydrate diet (16–24 energy-% from carbohydrates) was compared with a Mediterranean-style diet (black coffee for breakfast and the same total-caloric intake as the other two diets for lunch with red wine, 32–35 energy−% from carbohydrates) in a randomized cross-over design. Total-caloric intake/test-day at the clinic from food was 1025–1080 kCal in men and 905–984 kCal in women. The test meals were consumed at a diabetes ward under supervision. Results Twenty-one participants were recruited and 19 completed the studies. The low-carbohydrate diet induced lower insulin and glucose excursions compared with the low-fat diet (pinsulin-response following the single Mediterranean-style lunch-meal was more pronounced than during the low-fat diet lunch (insulin increase-ratio of the low-fat diet: 4.35±2.2, of Mediterranean-style diet: 8.12±5.2, p = 0.001) while postprandial glucose levels were similar. The increase-ratio of insulin correlated with the elevation of the incretin glucose-dependent insulinotropic-polypeptide following the Mediterranean-style diet lunch (Spearman, r = 0.64, p = 0.003). Conclusions The large Mediterranean-style lunch-meal induced similar postprandial glucose-elevations as the low-fat meal despite almost double amount of calories due to a pronounced insulin-increase. This suggests that accumulation of caloric intake from breakfast and lunch to a single large Mediterranean style

  16. A randomized cross-over trial of the postprandial effects of three different diets in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernemark, Hanna; Jaredsson, Christine; Bunjaku, Bekim; Rosenqvist, Ulf; Nystrom, Fredrik H; Guldbrand, Hans

    2013-01-01

    In the clinic setting both fasting levels of glucose and the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose, by determination of HbA1c levels, are used for risk assessments, in type 2 diabetes (NIDDM). However little is known about postprandial levels, and hence AUC, regarding other traditional risk factors such as insulin and blood-lipids and how this is affected by different diets. To study postprandial effects of three diets, during a single day, in NIDDM. A low-fat diet (45-56 energy-% from carbohydrates), and a low-carbohydrate diet (16-24 energy-% from carbohydrates) was compared with a Mediterranean-style diet (black coffee for breakfast and the same total-caloric intake as the other two diets for lunch with red wine, 32-35 energy-% from carbohydrates) in a randomized cross-over design. Total-caloric intake/test-day at the clinic from food was 1025-1080 kCal in men and 905-984 kCal in women. The test meals were consumed at a diabetes ward under supervision. Twenty-one participants were recruited and 19 completed the studies. The low-carbohydrate diet induced lower insulin and glucose excursions compared with the low-fat diet (p<0.0005 for both AUC). The insulin-response following the single Mediterranean-style lunch-meal was more pronounced than during the low-fat diet lunch (insulin increase-ratio of the low-fat diet: 4.35 ± 2.2, of Mediterranean-style diet: 8.12 ± 5.2, p = 0.001) while postprandial glucose levels were similar. The increase-ratio of insulin correlated with the elevation of the incretin glucose-dependent insulinotropic-polypeptide following the Mediterranean-style diet lunch (Spearman, r = 0.64, p = 0.003). The large Mediterranean-style lunch-meal induced similar postprandial glucose-elevations as the low-fat meal despite almost double amount of calories due to a pronounced insulin-increase. This suggests that accumulation of caloric intake from breakfast and lunch to a single large Mediterranean style lunch-meal in NIDDM might be

  17. Effect of meal composition on postprandial lipid concentrations and lipoprotein particle numbers: A randomized cross-over study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Shah

    Full Text Available It is unclear how high-protein (HP and high-monounsaturated fat (HMF meals affect postprandial blood lipids and lipoprotein particle numbers (LPN.To compare a HP versus a HMF meal on postprandial lipid and LPN responses.Twenty-four participants (age: 36.3±15.0 years; body mass index: 23.6±2.0 kg/m2; 45.8% female were fed a HP (31.9% energy from protein and a HMF (35.2% fat and 20.7% monounsaturated fat meal in a randomized cross-over trial design. Energy and carbohydrate content were the same across meals. Blood samples were drawn in the fasting state and 3 hour postprandial state, and assessed for lipids and LPN.Repeated measures analysis showed a significant (p<0.05 treatment by time interaction effect for triglycerides (TG, the primary variable, total high-density lipoprotein particles (T-HDLP and T-HDLP minus large-buoyant high-density lipoprotein 2b (T-HDLP-LB-HDL2b. HP versus HMF condition led to significantly lower TG at 120 (geometric mean: 90.1 (95% confidence interval (CI: 76.4-106.3 vs. 146.5 (124.2-172.9 mg/dL and 180 (101.4 (83.1-123.8 vs. 148.7 (121.9-181.4 mg/dL min and higher T-HDLP at 120 (mean difference: 297.3 (95% CI: 48.6-545.9 nmol/L and 180 (291.6 (15.8-567.5 nmol/L min. The difference in T-HDLP by condition was due to the significantly higher small-dense HDLP (T-HDLP-LB-HDL2b during HP versus HMF condition at 120 (mean difference: 452.6 (95% CI: 177.4-727.9 nmol/L and 180 (496.8 (263.1-730.6 nmol/L min. Area under the curve analysis showed that HP versus HMF condition led to significantly lower TG, non-HDLP, and very-low-density lipoprotein particles (VLDLP responses but significantly less favorable responses in LB-HDL2b particles, T-HDLP-LB-HDL2b, and LB-HDL2b/T-HDLP ratio.The HP meal led to lower TG, non-HDLP, and VLDLP but less favorable LB-HDL2b, small-dense HDLP, and LB-HDL2b/T-HDLP ratio responses versus a HMF meal. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings over multiple meals.

  18. A randomized cross-over trial of the postprandial effects of three different diets in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Fernemark

    Full Text Available In the clinic setting both fasting levels of glucose and the area under the curve (AUC of glucose, by determination of HbA1c levels, are used for risk assessments, in type 2 diabetes (NIDDM. However little is known about postprandial levels, and hence AUC, regarding other traditional risk factors such as insulin and blood-lipids and how this is affected by different diets.To study postprandial effects of three diets, during a single day, in NIDDM.A low-fat diet (45-56 energy-% from carbohydrates, and a low-carbohydrate diet (16-24 energy-% from carbohydrates was compared with a Mediterranean-style diet (black coffee for breakfast and the same total-caloric intake as the other two diets for lunch with red wine, 32-35 energy-% from carbohydrates in a randomized cross-over design. Total-caloric intake/test-day at the clinic from food was 1025-1080 kCal in men and 905-984 kCal in women. The test meals were consumed at a diabetes ward under supervision.Twenty-one participants were recruited and 19 completed the studies. The low-carbohydrate diet induced lower insulin and glucose excursions compared with the low-fat diet (p<0.0005 for both AUC. The insulin-response following the single Mediterranean-style lunch-meal was more pronounced than during the low-fat diet lunch (insulin increase-ratio of the low-fat diet: 4.35 ± 2.2, of Mediterranean-style diet: 8.12 ± 5.2, p = 0.001 while postprandial glucose levels were similar. The increase-ratio of insulin correlated with the elevation of the incretin glucose-dependent insulinotropic-polypeptide following the Mediterranean-style diet lunch (Spearman, r = 0.64, p = 0.003.The large Mediterranean-style lunch-meal induced similar postprandial glucose-elevations as the low-fat meal despite almost double amount of calories due to a pronounced insulin-increase. This suggests that accumulation of caloric intake from breakfast and lunch to a single large Mediterranean style lunch-meal in NIDDM might

  19. The Effect of Elevated CO2 and Increased Temperature on in Vitro Fertilization Success and Initial Embryonic Development of Single Male:Female Crosses of Broad-Cast Spawning Corals at Mid- and High-Latitude Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Schutter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global climate change on coral reefs is expected to be most profound at the sea surface, where fertilization and embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals takes place. We examined the effect of increased temperature and elevated CO2 levels on the in vitro fertilization success and initial embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals using a single male:female cross of three different species from mid- and high-latitude locations: Lyudao, Taiwan (22° N and Kochi, Japan (32° N. Eggs were fertilized under ambient conditions (27 °C and 500 μatm CO2 and under conditions predicted for 2100 (IPCC worst case scenario, 31 °C and 1000 μatm CO2. Fertilization success, abnormal development and early developmental success were determined for each sample. Increased temperature had a more profound influence than elevated CO2. In most cases, near-future warming caused a significant drop in early developmental success as a result of decreased fertilization success and/or increased abnormal development. The embryonic development of the male:female cross of A. hyacinthus from the high-latitude location was more sensitive to the increased temperature (+4 °C than the male:female cross of A. hyacinthus from the mid-latitude location. The response to the elevated CO2 level was small and highly variable, ranging from positive to negative responses. These results suggest that global warming is a more significant and universal stressor than ocean acidification on the early embryonic development of corals from mid- and high-latitude locations.

  20. The contribution of snacks to dietary intake and their association with eating location among Norwegian adults - results from a cross-sectional dietary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Jannicke B; Løken, Elin B; Wandel, Margareta; Andersen, Lene F

    2015-04-12

    Snack consumption has been reported to increase over recent decades. Little is known about possible associations between snack composition and snack eating location. In the present study, we aimed to describe the contribution of snacks to dietary intake in Norwegian adults and to investigate whether the composition of snacks differed according to where they were eaten. Dietary data were collected in 2010 and 2011 using two telephone administered 24 h recalls about four weeks apart. In total, 1787 participants aged 18-70 years completed two recalls. The recorded eating locations were at home, other private household, work/school, restaurant/cafe/fast-food outlet and travel/meeting. Snacks contributed to 17% and 21% of the energy intake in men and women, respectively. Compared with main meals, snacks had a higher fiber density (g/MJ) and contained a higher percentage of energy from carbohydrates, added sugars and alcohol, while the percentages of energy from fat and protein were lower. The top five energy-contributing food groups from snacks were cakes, fruits, sugar/sweets, bread and alcoholic beverages. Snacks were mostly eaten at home (58% of all snacks) or at work/school (23% of all snacks). Snacks consumed at work/school contained less energy, had a higher percentage of energy from carbohydrates and had lower percentages of energy from added sugars, alcohol and fat than snacks consumed at home. Snacks consumed during visits to private households and at restaurants/cafe/fast-food outlets contained more energy, had a higher percentage of energy from fat and had a lower fiber density than snacks consumed at home. We conclude that snacks are an important part of the diet and involve the consumption of both favorable and less favorable foods. Snacks eaten at home or at work/school were generally healthier than snacks consumed during visits to other private households or at restaurants/cafe/fast-food outlets. Nutritional educators should recommend healthy snack

  1. The design and protocol of heat-sensitive moxibustion for knee osteoarthritis: a multicenter randomized controlled trial on the rules of selecting moxibustion location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhenhai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee osteoarthritis is a major cause of pain and functional limitation. Complementary and alternative medical approaches have been employed to relieve symptoms and to avoid the side effects of conventional medication. Moxibustion has been widely used to treat patients with knee osteoarthritis. Our past researches suggested heat-sensitive moxibustion might be superior to the conventional moxibustion. Our objective is to investigate the effectiveness of heat-sensitive moxibustion compared with conventional moxibustion or conventional drug treatment. Methods This study consists of a multi-centre (four centers in China, randomised, controlled trial with three parallel arms (A: heat-sensitive moxibustion; B: conventional moxibustion; C: conventional drug group. The moxibustion locations are different from A and B. Group A selects heat-sensitization acupoint from the region consisting of Yin Lingquan(SP9, Yang Lingquan(GB34, Liang Qiu(ST34, and Xue Hai (SP10. Meanwhile, fixed acupoints are used in group B, that is Xi Yan (EX-LE5 and He Ding (EX-LE2. The conventional drug group treats with intra-articular Sodium Hyaluronate injection. The outcome measures above will be assessed before the treatment, the 30 days of the last moxibustion session and 6 months after the last moxibustion session. Discussion This trial will utilize high quality trial methodologies in accordance with CONSORT guidelines. It will provide evidence for the effectiveness of moxibustion as a treatment for moderate and severe knee osteoarthritis. Moreover, the result will clarify the rules of heat-sensitive moxibustion location to improve the therapeutic effect with suspended moxibustion, and propose a new concept and a new theory of moxibustion to guide clinical practices. Trial Registration The trial is registered at Controlled Clinical Trials: ChiCTR-TRC-00000600.

  2. Randomized clinical trial of CO₂ LASER pinpoint irradiation technique versus chemical reconstruction of skin scars (CROSS) in treating ice pick acne scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Radwa; Mohammed, Ghada; Ismail, Nader; Elakhras, Atef

    2014-01-01

    Pinpoint irradiation technique CO₂ LASER and Chemical Reconstruction Of Skin Scars (CROSS) are effective treatments for atrophic acne scars as fractional photothermolysis. This study was designed to prospectively compare the use of a pinpoint irradiation technique versus TCA CROSS in treating ice pick acne scars. Thirty-two patients with ice pick acne scars were included in this open, label pilot study. Pinpoint irradiation technique by CO₂ LASER and TCA CROSS were applied for the study and control group, respectively. Twenty-eight patients with ice pick acne scars were included in this open, label pilot study. They were randomly assigned to two groups: the first group (14 patients) received pinpoint irradiation by CO₂ LASER as a study group, and the second group (14 patients) received TCA CROSS as a control group. In both treatments, there were four sessions at 3-week interval, and 3 months of follow up. There were statistically significant difference in acne scar severity index and qualitative scarring grading system in the improvement results between the study and control groups (p < 0.05). Pinpoint irradiation technique by CO₂ LASER is safe and more effective than TCA CROSS technique. Clinical improvement was achieved in all 14 patients without dramatic adverse effects.

  3. Simulation of the K-function in the analysis of spatial clustering for non-randomly distributed locations-Exemplified by bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2009-01-01

    The K-function is often used to detect spatial clustering in spatial point processes, e.g. clustering of infected herds. Clustering is identified by testing the observed K-function for complete spatial randomness modelled, e.g. by a homogeneous Poisson process. The approach provides information a...... of the herd locations in general. The approach also overcomes edge effects and problems with complex shapes of the study region. An application to bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection in Denmark is described....

  4. The acceptability of suicide among rural residents, urban residents, and college students from three locations in China: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianyun; Phillips, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    Community attitudes about suicide and their relationship to suicidal behavior have not been adequately investigated in low- and middle-income countries. To compare the acceptability of suicide in different population cohorts in China, identify factors that affect the degree of acceptability, and assess the relationship of cohort-specific acceptability of suicide and suicide rates. A multistage stratified random sample of 608 rural residents, 582 urban residents, and 629 college students were administered a 25-item scale studying the likelihood they would consider suicide (on a 5-point Likert scale) if they experienced a variety of stressors ranging from "being disciplined at work" to "developing a chronic mental illness." The internal consistency and test-retest reliability for the scale are excellent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92, ICC = 0.75). College students had the most permissive attitudes about suicide, and urban residents were significantly more accepting of suicide as a response to serious life stressors than were rural residents. Multivariate analysis found that the overall acceptability score was higher in women, decreased with age, and increased with years of education. There was no clear relationship between cohort-specific acceptance of suicide and reported rates of suicide, highlighting the complexity of the relationship between attitudes about suicide (of which acceptability is only one component) and suicidal behavior.

  5. Cross-sectional survey on the acceptability of suicide among rural residents, urban residents and college students from three locations in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianyun; Phillips, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Community attitudes about suicide and their relationship to suicidal behavior have not been adequately investigated in low- and middle-income countries. Aims Compare acceptability of suicide in different population cohorts in China, identify factors that affect the degree of acceptability, and assess the relationship of cohort-specific acceptability of suicide and suicide rates. Methods A multi-stage stratified random sample of 608 rural residents, 582 urban residents and 629 college students were administered a 25-item scale in which respondents stated the likelihood they would consider suicide (on a 5-point Likert scale) if they experienced a variety of stressors ranging from ‘being disciplined at work’ to ‘developing a chronic mental illness’. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability for the scale are excellent (Cronbach’s α =0.92, ICC=0.75). Results College students had the most permissive attitudes about suicide and urban residents were significantly more accepting of suicide as a response to serious life stressors than rural residents. Multivariate analysis found that the overall acceptability score was higher in women, decreased with age, and increased with years of education. Conclusions There was no clear relationship between cohort-specific acceptance of suicide and reported rates of suicide, highlighting the complexity of the relationship between attitudes about suicide (of which acceptability is only one component) and suicidal behavior. PMID:20801748

  6. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on prolonged running performance: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freis, Tanja; Hecksteden, Anne; Such, Ulf; Meyer, Tim

    2017-01-01

    The ability to sustain intense exercise seems to be partially limited by the body's capability to counteract decreases in both intra- and extracellular pH. While the influence of an enhanced buffering capacity via sodium bicarbonate (BICA) on short-term, high-intensity exercise performance has been repeatedly investigated, studies on prolonged endurance performances are comparatively rare, especially for running. The aim of the following study was to assess the ergogenic effects of an oral BICA substitution upon exhaustive intensive endurance running performance. In a double-blind randomized cross-over study, 18 trained runners (VO2peak: 61.2 ± 6.4 ml•min-1•kg-1) performed two exhaustive graded exercise tests and two constant load tests (30 main at 95% individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) followed by 110% IAT until exhaustion) after ingestion of either sodium bicarbonate (BICA) (0.3 g/kg) or placebo (4 g NaCl) diluted in 700 ml of water. Time to exhaustion (TTE) in the constant load test was defined as the main outcome measure. Throughout each test respiratory gas exchange measurements were conducted as well as determinations of heart rate, blood gases and blood lactate concentration. TTE in the constant load test did not differ significantly between BICA and placebo conditions (BICA: 39.6 ± 5.6 min, placebo: 39.3 ± 5.6 min; p = 0.78). While pH in the placebo test dropped to a slightly acidotic value two minutes after cessation of exercise (7.34 ± 0.05) the value in the BICA trial remained within the normal range (7.41 ± 0.06) (p running speed (Vmax) in the exhaustive graded exercise test was significantly higher with BICA (17.4 ± 1.0 km/h) compared to placebo (17.1 ± 1.0 km/h) (p = 0.009). The numerical difference in maximum oxygen consumption (VO2peak) failed to reach statistical significance (BICA: 61.2 ± 6.4 ml•min-1•kg-1, placebo: 59.8 ± 6.4 ml•min-1•kg-1; p = 0.31). Maximum blood lactate was significantly higher with BICA compared to the

  7. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on prolonged running performance: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Freis

    Full Text Available The ability to sustain intense exercise seems to be partially limited by the body's capability to counteract decreases in both intra- and extracellular pH. While the influence of an enhanced buffering capacity via sodium bicarbonate (BICA on short-term, high-intensity exercise performance has been repeatedly investigated, studies on prolonged endurance performances are comparatively rare, especially for running. The aim of the following study was to assess the ergogenic effects of an oral BICA substitution upon exhaustive intensive endurance running performance.In a double-blind randomized cross-over study, 18 trained runners (VO2peak: 61.2 ± 6.4 ml•min-1•kg-1 performed two exhaustive graded exercise tests and two constant load tests (30 main at 95% individual anaerobic threshold (IAT followed by 110% IAT until exhaustion after ingestion of either sodium bicarbonate (BICA (0.3 g/kg or placebo (4 g NaCl diluted in 700 ml of water. Time to exhaustion (TTE in the constant load test was defined as the main outcome measure. Throughout each test respiratory gas exchange measurements were conducted as well as determinations of heart rate, blood gases and blood lactate concentration.TTE in the constant load test did not differ significantly between BICA and placebo conditions (BICA: 39.6 ± 5.6 min, placebo: 39.3 ± 5.6 min; p = 0.78. While pH in the placebo test dropped to a slightly acidotic value two minutes after cessation of exercise (7.34 ± 0.05 the value in the BICA trial remained within the normal range (7.41 ± 0.06 (p < 0.001. In contrast, maximum running speed (Vmax in the exhaustive graded exercise test was significantly higher with BICA (17.4 ± 1.0 km/h compared to placebo (17.1 ± 1.0 km/h (p = 0.009. The numerical difference in maximum oxygen consumption (VO2peak failed to reach statistical significance (BICA: 61.2 ± 6.4 ml•min-1•kg-1, placebo: 59.8 ± 6.4 ml•min-1•kg-1; p = 0.31. Maximum blood lactate was significantly

  8. Low back pain beliefs are associated to age, location of work, education and pain-related disability in Chinese healthcare professionals working in China: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, B-K; Smith, Anne J; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Chen, Gang; Burnett, Angus F; Briggs, Andrew M

    2014-07-28

    Low back pain (LBP) is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Evidence pointing towards a more efficacious model of care using a biopsychosocial approach for LBP management highlights the need to understand the pain-related beliefs of patients and those who treat them. The beliefs held by healthcare professionals (HCPs) are known to influence the treatment advice given to patients and consequently management outcomes. Back pain beliefs are known to be influenced by factors such as culture, education, health literacy, place of work, personal experience of LBP and the sequelae of LBP such as disability. There is currently a knowledge gap among these relationships in non-western countries. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between LBP-related beliefs among Chinese HCPs and characteristics of these HCPs. A convenience sample of 432 HCPs working in various health settings in Shanghai, China, completed a series of questionnaires assessing their demographic characteristics, LBP status, pain-related disability and their beliefs about their own LBP experience, using the Back beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) and the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ). Younger Chinese HCPs (20-29 years) held more negative beliefs and attitudes related to LBP compared to older HCPs (>40years; BBQ mean difference [95% CI]: 2.4 [0.9 - 3.9], p = 0.001). HCPs working outside tertiary hospitals had poorer beliefs concerning the inevitable consequences of LBP (BBQ mean difference [95% CI]: -2.4 [-3.8 - -1.0], p = 0.001). HCPs who experienced LBP had higher level of fear avoidance beliefs when experiencing high LBP-related disability (FABQ-physical mean difference [95% CI]: 2.8 [1.5 - 4.1], p beliefs if they had completed postgraduate study (FABQ-physical mean difference [95% CI]: 2.9 [-5.8 - 0.0], p = 0.049). This study suggests that LBP-related beliefs and attitudes among Chinese HCPs are influenced by age, location of work, level of LBP-related disability and education

  9. Gabapentin in traumatic nerve injury pain: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, multi-center study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordh, Torsten E; Stubhaug, Audun; Jensen, Troels S

    2008-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over multi-center study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of gabapentin in the treatment of neuropathic pain caused by traumatic or postsurgical peripheral nerve injury, using doses up to 2400mg/day. The study comprised a run......-in period of two weeks, two treatment periods of five weeks separated by a three weeks' washout period. The primary efficacy variable was the change in the mean pain intensity score from baseline to the last week of treatment. Other variables included pain relief, health related quality of life (SF-36......), interference of sleep by pain, Clinician and Patient Global Impression of Change, and adverse effects. Nine centers randomized a total of 120 patients, 22 of whom withdrew. There was no statistically significant difference between the treatments for the primary outcome efficacy variable. However, gabapentin...

  10. Effect of knee joint icing on knee extension strength and knee pain early after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Husted, Henrik; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the acute effect of knee joint icing on knee extension strength and knee pain in patients shortly after total knee arthroplasty.Design: A prospective, single-blinded, randomized, cross-over study.Setting: A fast-track orthopaedic arthroplasty unit at a university hospital.......Participants: Twenty patients (mean age 66 years; 10 women) scheduled for primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty.Interventions: The patients were treated on two days (day 7 and day 10) postoperatively. On one day they received 30 minutes of knee icing (active treatment) and on the other day they received 30...... minutes of elbow icing (control treatment). The order of treatments was randomized.Main outcome measures: Maximal knee extension strength (primary outcome), knee pain at rest and knee pain during the maximal knee extensions were measured 2-5 minutes before and 2-5 minutes after both treatments...

  11. Frequency, Predictors and Consequences of Crossing Over to Revascularization within 12 months of Randomization to Optimal Medical Therapy in the COURAGE Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spertus, John A; Maron, David J; Cohen, David J; Kolm, Paul; Hartigan, Pam; Weintraub, William S.; Berman, Daniel S.; O'Rourke, Robert A.; Teo, Koon K; Shaw, Leslee J.; Sedlis, Steven; Knudtson, Merril; Aslan, Mihaela; Dada, Marcin; Boden, William E.; John Mancini, G.B.

    2013-01-01

    Background In COURAGE, some stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) patients randomized to optimal medical therapy (OMT) crossed over to early revascularization. The predictors and outcomes of patients who crossed over from OMT to revascularization are unknown. Methods and Results We compared characteristics of OMT patients who did and did not undergo revascularization within 12 months and created a Cox regression model to identify predictors of early revascularization. Patients' health status was measured with the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ). To quantify the potential consequences of initiating OMT without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), we compared the outcomes of crossover patients with a matched cohort randomized to immediate PCI. Among 1148 patients randomized to OMT, 185 (16.1%) underwent early revascularization. Patient characteristics independently associated with early revascularization were worse baseline SAQ scores and healthcare system. Among 156 OMT patients undergoing early revascularization matched to 156 patients randomized to PCI, rates of mortality (HR= 0.51 (0.13, 2.1) and nonfatal MI (HR=1.9 (0.75-4.6) were similar, as were 1-year SAQ scores. OMT patients, however, experienced worse health status over the initial year of treatment and more unstable angina admissions (HR=2.8 (1.1, 7.5)). Conclusion Among COURAGE patients assigned to OMT alone, patients' angina, dissatisfaction with their current treatment and, to a lesser extent, their health system were associated with early revascularization. Since early crossover was not associated with an increase in irreversible ischemic events, or impaired 12-month health status, these findings support an initial trial of OMT in SIHD with close follow-up of the most symptomatic patients. PMID:23838107

  12. Wear and migration of highly cross-linked and conventional cemented polyethylene cups with cobalt chrome or Oxinium femoral heads: a randomized radiostereometric study of 150 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadar, Thomas; Hallan, Geir; Aamodt, Arild; Indrekvam, Kari; Badawy, Mona; Skredderstuen, Arne; Havelin, Leif Ivar; Stokke, Terje; Haugan, Kristin; Espehaug, Birgitte; Furnes, Ove

    2011-08-01

    This randomized study was performed to compare wear and migration of five different cemented total hip joint articulations in 150 patients. The patients received either a Charnley femoral stem with a 22.2 mm head or a Spectron EF femoral stem with a 28 mm head. The Charnley articulated with a γ-sterilized Charnley Ogee acetabular cup. The Spectron EF was used with either EtO-sterilized non-cross-linked polyethylene (Reflection All-Poly) or highly cross-linked (Reflection All-Poly XLPE) cups, combined with either cobalt chrome (CoCr) or Oxinium femoral heads. The patients were followed with repeated RSA measurements for 2 years. After 2 years, the EtO-sterilized non-cross-linked Reflection All-Poly cups had more than four times higher proximal penetration than its highly cross-linked counterpart. Use of Oxinium femoral heads did not affect penetration at 2 years compared to heads made of CoCr. Further follow-up is needed to evaluate the benefits, if any, of Oxinium femoral heads in the clinical setting. The Charnley Ogee was not outperformed by the more recently introduced implants in our study. We conclude that this prostheses still represents a standard against which new implants can be measured. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  13. Tobacco smoking surveillance: is quota sampling an efficient tool for monitoring national trends? A comparison with a random cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Guignard

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is crucial for policy makers to monitor the evolution of tobacco smoking prevalence. In France, this monitoring is based on a series of cross-sectional general population surveys, the Health Barometers, conducted every five years and based on random samples. A methodological study has been carried out to assess the reliability of a monitoring system based on regular quota sampling surveys for smoking prevalence. DESIGN / OUTCOME MEASURES: In 2010, current and daily tobacco smoking prevalences obtained in a quota survey on 8,018 people were compared with those of the 2010 Health Barometer carried out on 27,653 people. Prevalences were assessed separately according to the telephone equipment of the interviewee (landline phone owner vs "mobile-only", and logistic regressions were conducted in the pooled database to assess the impact of the telephone equipment and of the survey mode on the prevalences found. Finally, logistic regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were conducted in the random sample in order to determine the impact of the needed number of calls to interwiew "hard-to-reach" people on the prevalence found. RESULTS: Current and daily prevalences were higher in the random sample (respectively 33.9% and 27.5% in 15-75 years-old than in the quota sample (respectively 30.2% and 25.3%. In both surveys, current and daily prevalences were lower among landline phone owners (respectively 31.8% and 25.5% in the random sample and 28.9% and 24.0% in the quota survey. The required number of calls was slightly related to the smoking status after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics. CONCLUSION: Random sampling appears to be more effective than quota sampling, mainly by making it possible to interview hard-to-reach populations.

  14. Caffeine improves endurance in 75-year old citizens. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchard Nørager, Charlotte; Jensen, Martin Bach; Madsen, Mogens Rørbæk

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of caffeine on physical performance in healthy citizens aged ≥70 yr. The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted in 15 men and 15 women recruited by their general practitioner. Participants abstained from caffeine for 48 h...... and were randomized to receive one capsule of placebo and then caffeine (6 mg/kg) or caffeine and then placebo with 1 wk in between. One hour after intervention, we measured reaction and movement times, postural stability, walking speed, cycling at 65% of expected maximal heart rate, perceived effort...... during cycling, maximal isometric arm flexion strength, and endurance. Analysis was by intention to treat, and P Caffeine increased cycling endurance by 25% [95% confidence interval (CI): 13–38; P = 0.0001] and isometric arm flexion endurance by 54% (95% CI: 29–83; P...

  15. Enriched Air Nitrox Breathing Reduces Venous Gas Bubbles after Simulated SCUBA Diving: A Double-Blind Cross-Over Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Souday

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis whether enriched air nitrox (EAN breathing during simulated diving reduces decompression stress when compared to compressed air breathing as assessed by intravascular bubble formation after decompression.Human volunteers underwent a first simulated dive breathing compressed air to include subjects prone to post-decompression venous gas bubbling. Twelve subjects prone to bubbling underwent a double-blind, randomized, cross-over trial including one simulated dive breathing compressed air, and one dive breathing EAN (36% O2 in a hyperbaric chamber, with identical diving profiles (28 msw for 55 minutes. Intravascular bubble formation was assessed after decompression using pulmonary artery pulsed Doppler.Twelve subjects showing high bubble production were included for the cross-over trial, and all completed the experimental protocol. In the randomized protocol, EAN significantly reduced the bubble score at all time points (cumulative bubble scores: 1 [0-3.5] vs. 8 [4.5-10]; P < 0.001. Three decompression incidents, all presenting as cutaneous itching, occurred in the air versus zero in the EAN group (P = 0.217. Weak correlations were observed between bubble scores and age or body mass index, respectively.EAN breathing markedly reduces venous gas bubble emboli after decompression in volunteers selected for susceptibility for intravascular bubble formation. When using similar diving profiles and avoiding oxygen toxicity limits, EAN increases safety of diving as compared to compressed air breathing.ISRCTN 31681480.

  16. Immediate and delayed loading of two-piece reduced-diameter implants with locator-analog attachments in edentulous mandibles: One-year results from a randomized clinical trial examining clinical outcome and patient expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos Nikitas; Ariaans, Kirsten; Eberhard, Lydia; Klotz, Anna-Luisa; Oh, Keunyoung; Kappel, Stefanie

    2017-08-01

    Prosthetic management of thin alveolar ridges in the edentulous mandibles of elderly patients, especially the time of loading, the number of implants needed, and patient expectations and perception, is a challenge in implant dentistry. Survival of conventionally and immediately loaded 2-piece reduced-diameter implants in the interforaminal region of the edentulous mandible supporting locator-analog attachments was evaluated. Prosthetic complications and peri-implant hygiene were also studied, and patient expectation and subjective evaluation of the treatment were documented. Twenty-five patients with adapted complete dentures received 4 reduced-diameter implants. All anterior implants were immediately loaded. Three months later, patients were allocated by randomization to 1 of 2 treatment groups: 2 locator-analog attachments on the anterior implants (Group A); or 4 locator-analog attachments (Group B). After another 3 months patient allocation was changed (crossover design) for the next 3 months. Questionnaires with Likert scales and numeric rating scales were used to assess patients' expectations and subjective overdenture-related variables, respectively. One implant was lost in the immediate-loading group. Survival was 98% and 100% for immediate and delayed loading, respectively. During 12-month observation, 8 complications required aftercare. At the beginning of treatment, patients' expectations were highly positive. Subjective assessment of overdenture-related variables 3 months after immediate loading of 2 implants revealed a statistically significant improvement for most of the variables studied; this was maintained 1 year later. In the subjective assessments, there were no statistically significant differences between Groups A and B. Immediate loading of reduced-diameter implants supporting locator-analog attachments resulted in high implant survival, few prosthetic complications, good oral hygiene, and improvement of subjective denture perception in the

  17. Global Postural Reeducation in patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain: cross-over analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillastrini, Paolo; Banchelli, Federico; Guccione, Andrew; Di Ciaccio, Emanuele; Violante, Francesco Saverio; Brugnettini, Monia; Vanti, Carla

    2018-02-01

    To compare the effects of Global Postural Reeducation (GPR) with Manual Therapy (MT) in participants with chronic nonspecific neck pain (NP). Pre- and post-treatment analysis of cross-over data from an RCT was done. Seventy-eight subjects with chronic nonspecific NP aged 18 to 80 years completed the trial. The group who had received GPR crossed-over to MT and the previous MT group received GPR for 9 sessions once or twice a week. Measures were assessed at pre-treatment and post-treatment. Outcome measures included pain intensity [Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)], disability (Neck Disability Index), cervical Range of Motion (ROM), and kinesiophobia [Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK)]. GPR targeted to crossed-over participants produced greater improvements in pain [Diff=-8.6; 95%CI=(-13.3; -3.8)], disability [Diff=-1.5; 95%CI=-2.8; -0.1], kinesiophobia [Diff=-1.8; 95%CI=(-3.2; -0.3)], and flexion/extension neck ROM [Diff=5.6; 95%CI=(1.8; 9.3)] at post-treatment compared to the MT group. When evaluating clinical improvement, by means of Minimal Clinically Important Differences, we found that GPR relevantly reduced neck disability with respect to MT [OR=2.13; 95% CI=(1.05; 4.35)], whereas the improvement of pain did not differ between groups [OR=1.84; 95%CI=0.85; 3.99)]. These results within the crossed-over group confirm previous findings from an RCT with the same sample. Sequence of treatment (GPR-to-MT vs MT-to-GPR) does not seem to weaken the greater effects of GPR compared to MT approach for chronic NP. Our findings suggest that GPR can induce hypoalgesic effects, reduce disability and kinesiophobia, and improve flexion/extension in neck ROM.

  18. Small Amounts of Gluten in Subjects With Suspected Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sabatino, Antonio; Volta, Umberto; Salvatore, Chiara; Biancheri, Paolo; Caio, Giacomo; De Giorgio, Roberto; Di Stefano, Michele; Corazza, Gino R

    2015-09-01

    There is debate over the existence of nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms in response to ingestion of gluten-containing foods by people without celiac disease or wheat allergy. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial to determine the effects of administration of low doses of gluten to subjects with suspected NCGS. We enrolled 61 adults without celiac disease or a wheat allergy who believed ingestion of gluten-containing food to be the cause of their intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms. Participants were assigned randomly to groups given either 4.375 g/day gluten or rice starch (placebo) for 1 week, each via gastrosoluble capsules. After a 1-week gluten-free diet, participants crossed over to the other group. The primary outcome was the change in overall (intestinal and extraintestinal) symptoms, determined by established scoring systems, between gluten and placebo intake. A secondary outcome was the change in individual symptom scores between gluten vs placebo. According to the per-protocol analysis of data from the 59 patients who completed the trial, intake of gluten significantly increased overall symptoms compared with placebo (P = .034). Abdominal bloating (P = .040) and pain (P = .047), among the intestinal symptoms, and foggy mind (P = .019), depression (P = .020), and aphthous stomatitis (P = .025), among the extraintestinal symptoms, were significantly more severe when subjects received gluten than placebo. In a cross-over trial of subjects with suspected NCGS, the severity of overall symptoms increased significantly during 1 week of intake of small amounts of gluten, compared with placebo. Clinical trial no: ISRCTN72857280. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Primary hip spica with crossed retrograde intramedullary rush pins for the management of diaphyseal femur fractures in children: A prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhullah, Mohammad; Singh, H R; Shah, Sanjay; Shrestha, Dipak

    2014-03-01

    Femoral fractures are common in children aged between 2 and 12 yearsand 75% of the lesions affect the femoral shaft. Traction followed by a plaster cast is universally accepted as a conservative treatment. We compared primary hip spica or traction followed by hip spica with closed reduction and fixation with retrogradely passed crossed Rush pins for diaphyseal femur fracture in 25 children of the age group 3-12 years, randomly distributed in each group. FIFTY CHILDREN (AGE: 3-13 years, mean; 9 years) with femoral fractures were evaluated; 25 of them underwent the conservative treatment using immediate hip spica (group A) and 25 underwent treatment with crossed retrograde Rush pins (group B). Mean duration of fracture union was within 15 weeks in group A and 12 weeks in group B. Mean duration of weight bearing was 14weeks in group A and 7 weeks in group A. Mean hospital stay were 4 days in group A and 8days in group B. The man follow-up period was 16 months in group A and 17 months in group B. Complications like angulation, shortening and infection were compared. Bursitis and penetration of pins at the site of Rush pin insertion is a complication associated with this method of treatment. Closed reduction and internal fixation with crossed Rush pins was a superior treatment method in terms of early weight bearing and restoration of normal anatomy.

  20. MIDAS (Modafinil in Debilitating Fatigue After Stroke): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivard, Andrew; Lillicrap, Thomas; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; Holliday, Elizabeth; Attia, John; Pagram, Heather; Nilsson, Michael; Parsons, Mark; Levi, Christopher R

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of modafinil, a wakefulness-promoting agent in alleviating post-stroke fatigue ≥3 months after stroke. We hypothesized that 200 mg of modafinil daily for 6 weeks would result in reduced symptoms of fatigue compared with placebo. This single-center phase 2 trial used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. The key inclusion criterion was a multidimensional fatigue inventory score of ≥60. Patients were randomized to either modafinil or placebo for 6 weeks of therapy, then after a 1 week washout period swapped treatment arms for a second 6 weeks of therapy. The primary outcome was the multidimensional fatigue inventory; secondary outcomes included the Montreal cognitive assessment, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS), and the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (SSQoL) scale. The multidimensional fatigue inventory is a self-administered questionnaire with a range of 0 to 100. Treatment efficacy was assessed using linear regression by estimating within-person, baseline-adjusted differences in mean outcomes after therapy. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12615000350527). A total of 232 stroke survivors were screened and 36 were randomized. Participants receiving modafinil reported a significant decrease in fatigue (multidimensional fatigue inventory, -7.38; 95% CI, -21.76 to -2.99; Pmodafinil therapy during the study period (P>0.05). Stroke survivors with nonresolving fatigue reported reduced fatigue and improved quality of life after taking 200 mg daily treatment with modafinil. URL: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=368268. Unique identifier: ACTRN12615000350527. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. Prospective, randomized cross-over trial to assess the ability of a dry-powder inhaler to reverse the local side effects of pressurized metered-dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, R K; Watson, G; Taylor, W; Jones, A S; Roland, N J

    2008-11-01

    To determine whether a corticosteroid dry-powder inhaler could reverse the pharyngeal and laryngeal side effects produced by a corticosteroid pressurised metered-dose inhaler. Prospective, randomized, controlled, cross-over, evaluator-blinded study. University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, United Kingdom. Thirty-seven adults recruited over a 12-month period from Ear, Nose and Throat clinics at our University hospital. Patients were randomized into three groups using a computer-generated random number list and sealed opaque envelopes. Scores were achieved on respiratory symptom and vocal performance questionnaires. Acoustic analysis was performed followed by a standardized biopsy of the posterior pharyngeal wall. Histological markers of inflammation were correlated with pharyngitis. The data were tested for normality using the Kalmogorov-Smirnov test. The Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance was used to investigate differences between medians and ranges. The data were further investigated for correlations using the Spearman test. Discriminant analysis was used to examine the effect of the three groups on each variable. Discomfort scores (median and range) were significantly lower after dry-powder inhaler use than with either a spacer or water gargle (p inhaler therapy. The reduction in pharyngitis in each of the three groups was not significant. Vocal performance scores improved with dry-powder inhaler use. Jitter, shimmer, and closed-phase quotient scores improved with dry-powder inhaler use (p inhaler was restored (p 0.01). A dry-powder inhaler may alleviate the local side effects produced by a pressurized metered-dose inhaler. Laryngeal dysfunction appears to be particularly responsive to the absence of propellant. More observational and randomized controlled trials are necessary to examine existing inhalers and specifically, how and why they cause local side effects.

  2. A Calculus of Located Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Compagnoni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We define BioScapeL, a stochastic pi-calculus in 3D-space. A novel aspect of BioScapeL is that entities have programmable locations. The programmer can specify a particular location where to place an entity, or a location relative to the current location of the entity. The motivation for the extension comes from the need to describe the evolution of populations of biochemical species in space, while keeping a sufficiently high level description, so that phenomena like diffusion, collision, and confinement can remain part of the semantics of the calculus. Combined with the random diffusion movement inherited from BioScape, programmable locations allow us to capture the assemblies of configurations of polymers, oligomers, and complexes such as microtubules or actin filaments. Further new aspects of BioScapeL include random translation and scaling. Random translation is instrumental in describing the location of new entities relative to the old ones. For example, when a cell secretes a hydronium ion, the ion should be placed at a given distance from the originating cell, but in a random direction. Additionally, scaling allows us to capture at a high level events such as division and growth; for example, daughter cells after mitosis have half the size of the mother cell.

  3. A single dose, randomized, open-label, cross-over bioequivalence study of sildenafil citrate tablets in healthy Chinese volunteers
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dai; Wang, Yu-Lu; Xu, Su-Mei; Li, Dan; Li, Xiao-Min; Pan, Jing; Xu, Ping-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the bioequivalence of a newly developed sildenafil citrate tablet 50 mg (Jinge®, Test) and a marketed counterpart (Viagra®, 100 mg, Reference) in healthy adult male Chinese volunteers. This single-dose, randomized, open-label, four-period, and two-treatment self-crossover study included two parts: fasting and postprandial studies. In each part of the study, the subjects were randomly assigned to receive test or reference products (100 mg sildenafil) in a 1 : 1 ratio, and then received the alternative products, following a 1-week washout period. Plasma sildenafil concentrations were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Tolerability was assessed during the entire study period. 32 healthy volunteers (aged 19 - 30) were enrolled in the study; 31 volunteers completed the fasting study, while 32 volunteers completed the postprandial study. The test formulation was bioequivalent to the marketed formulation as the 90% CIs for the ratio of geometric means of Cmax (fasting: 98.79 - 119.61%; fed: 94.47 - 119.65%), AUClast (fasting: 98.70 - 109.71%; fed: 96.39 - 112.89%), and AUC∞ (fasting: 98.45 - 108.87%; fed: 96.36 - 112.74%) were within equivalence limits (80 - 125%) under both fasting and postprandial conditions. When sildenafil was given with high-fat meals, mean Cmax was reduced by 23%, and median tmax ranged from 0.75 to 1.50 hours (p ≤ 0.05). However, both AUClast and AUC∞ were comparable between fasting and postprandial conditions. No serious adverse events were found among the subjects. This study confirmed that test and reference sildenafil citrate tablets were bioequivalent under fasting and postprandial conditions.
.

  4. Randomized cross-over study of patient preference for oral or intravenous vinorelbine in combination with carboplatin in the treatment of advanced NSCLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Henrik; Osterlind, Kell; Rytter, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most chemotherapeutics are administrated intravenously (iv), but some are also available in an oral (po) formulation. This study was designed with the primary objective to estimate the patients' preference for po or iv vinorelbine in combination with carboplatin for the palliative...... treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Secondary aims were to evaluate toxicity, efficacy, and subjective reasons the preference. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-one patients were randomized in a cross-over trial to two cycles of carboplatin day 1 and vinorelbine day 1 and day 8 iv followed by two...... cycles of carboplatin and vinorelbine po, or the opposite. Patients, who did not show progressive disease after four cycles, had a free choice of iv or po vinorelbine for the next two cycles. RESULTS: Forty-three patients were evaluable for preference and 32 (74%, 95% CI 61-88%) chose po (p

  5. Two randomized cross-over trials assessing the impact of dietary gluten or wholegrain on the gut microbiome and host metabolic health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrügger, Sabine; Gøbel, Rikke Juul; Vestergaard, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gut microbiota composition and activity may be changed by dietary factors and possibly affect metabolic health. Dietary gluten and wholegrain are suggested to influence metabolism in a negative and positive direction, respectively. Objective: Describe the design and rational as well...... as baseline characteristics of two human intervention studies, within the Gut, Grain and Greens (3G) Center, investigating the effects of a gluten-poor and wholegrain-rich diet on microbiota composition and metabolic health. Design: The gluten and wholegrain studies had a randomized, controlled, cross......-over design each comprising two eight-week dietary intervention periods, separated by a six-week wash-out period. Each trial included 60 men and women exhibiting an increased metabolic risk. In the gluten study a gluten-poor diet was compared with a gluten-rich dietary fiber-controlled diet...

  6. Early functional postoperative therapy of distal radius fracture with a dynamic orthosis: results of a prospective randomized cross-over comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian M Stuby

    Full Text Available This study was conducted according to GCP criteria as a prospective randomized cross-over study. The primary goal of the study was to determine clinical findings and patient satisfaction with postoperative treatment. 29 patients with a distal radius fracture that was surgically stabilized from volar and who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled over a 12-month period. Each patient randomly received either a dorsal plaster splint or a vacuum-fit flexible but blocked orthosis applied postoperatively in the operating theatre to achieve postoperative immobilization. After one week all patients were crossed over to the complementary device maintaining the immobilization until end of week 2. After week 2 both groups were allowed to exercise wrist mobility with a physiotherapist, in the orthosis group the device was deblocked, thus allowing limited wrist mobility. After week 4 the devices were removed in both groups. Follow-up exams were performed after postoperative weeks 1, 2, 4 and 12.Results were determined after week 1 and 2 using SF 36 and a personally compiled questionnaire; after weeks 4 and 12 with a clinical check-up, calculation of ROM and the DASH Score. Comparison of the two groups showed a significant difference in ROM for volar flexion after 4 weeks, but no significant differences in DASH Score, duration of disability or x-ray findings. With regard to satisfaction with comfort and hygiene, patients were significantly more satisfied with the dynamic orthosis, and 23 of the 29 patients would prefer the flexible vacuum orthosis in future.German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS DRKS00006097.

  7. Comparative effects of artemisia vulgaris and charcoal moxa stimulating Zhongwan (CV 12) on body temperature in healthy participants: a cross-over single-blind randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Ho-Yeon; Lee, Ju Ah; Park, Sunyoung; Park, Sunju; Park, Jeong-Su; Cheon, Chunhoo; Ko, Seong-Gyu; Kong, Kyung-Hwan; Jun, Chan-yong; Park, Jong-hyeong; Shin, Mi-Ran; Lee, Se-Hoon

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, safety, satisfaction, discomfort and patient preference of moxa cones of artemisia vulgaris and charcoal moxa. This comparative study of moxibustion treatment with Artemisia vulgaris and charcoal moxa cone stimulating Zhongwan (CV 12) is a cross-over single-blinded, randomized clinical trial. A total of 40 healthy subjects (24 males and 16 females) participated in this study. Two subjects dropped out of the trial. Thirty-eight subjects were treated with Artemisia vulgaris and charcoal moxa cones for 30 min in a cross-over design. After treatment, the patients underwent a 30 minute waiting period, and then the temperatures at Tanzhong (CV 17), Zhongwan (CV 12) and Guanyuan (CV 4) were measured using digital infrared thermal imaging. After the use of Artemisia vulgaris moxa, the patients' body temperatures were slightly lowered at Tanzhong (CV 17), Zhongwan (CV 12) and Guanyuan (CV 4), but the changes were not statistically significant. After the use of charcoal moxa, the patients' body temperatures were somewhat increased at Zhongwan (CV 12) and Guanyuan (CV 4), but the changes were not statistically significant. After Artemisia vulgaris moxa use, the body temperature difference between Zhongwan (CV 12) and Guanyuan (CV 4) was significantly increased. After charcoal moxa use, the body temperature difference between Tanzhong (CV 17) and Zhongwan (CV 12) was significantly decreased in males and in the whole group. This change was caused by the difference in the moxibustion type and by gender differences. This pilot study found that moxibustion did not raise the body temperature, but temperature differences between acupoints were affected. Further large-scale randomized controlled trials are needed for the effect of moxibustion on body temperature.

  8. The effects of soybean-flour-enriched bread intake on inflammatory markers among type 2 diabetic women: a cross-over randomized controlled clinical trial

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    Asma Salari Moghadam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although soy-based foods have been reported to affect serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers, there was no study examining the effects of soybean flour-enriched bread in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of consumption of soybean flour-enriched bread on inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetic women. Methods: This randomized, cross-over, controlled clinical trial recruited 30 type 2 diabetic women. After a 2-week run-in period, participants were randomly assigned to either intervention (soy bread or control groups (habitual diet. Participants in the intervention group were asked to consume 120 g of soybean flour-enriched bread instead of the same amount of usual bread intake or other cereals. Participants in the control group were asked to remain on the habitual diet. After a four-week washout period, the participants were crossed over for another six weeks. Results: Mean (±SD age, weight and BMI of the subjects was 45.7±3.8 years, 73.8±10.7 and 29.5±3.9 kg/m2, respectively. We found no significant effect of soybean flour-enriched bread on high sensitive C-reactive protein (change difference: -0.04, P=0.6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (change difference: -14.2, P=0.27, interleukin 6 (change difference: -0.06, P=0.15 and Soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 among women in the intervention group compared with the control group. No significant effects were observed in serum levels of sVCAM1 after consumption of soybean flour-enriched bread. Conclusion: Soybean flour-enriched bread consumption had no significant effects on inflammatory markers.

  9. Early functional postoperative therapy of distal radius fracture with a dynamic orthosis: results of a prospective randomized cross-over comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuby, Fabian M; Döbele, Stefan; Schäffer, Susanne-Dorothea; Mueller, Simon; Ateschrang, Atesch; Baumann, Matthias; Zieker, Derek

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted according to GCP criteria as a prospective randomized cross-over study. The primary goal of the study was to determine clinical findings and patient satisfaction with postoperative treatment. 29 patients with a distal radius fracture that was surgically stabilized from volar and who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled over a 12-month period. Each patient randomly received either a dorsal plaster splint or a vacuum-fit flexible but blocked orthosis applied postoperatively in the operating theatre to achieve postoperative immobilization. After one week all patients were crossed over to the complementary device maintaining the immobilization until end of week 2. After week 2 both groups were allowed to exercise wrist mobility with a physiotherapist, in the orthosis group the device was deblocked, thus allowing limited wrist mobility. After week 4 the devices were removed in both groups. Follow-up exams were performed after postoperative weeks 1, 2, 4 and 12. Results were determined after week 1 and 2 using SF 36 and a personally compiled questionnaire; after weeks 4 and 12 with a clinical check-up, calculation of ROM and the DASH Score. Comparison of the two groups showed a significant difference in ROM for volar flexion after 4 weeks, but no significant differences in DASH Score, duration of disability or x-ray findings. With regard to satisfaction with comfort and hygiene, patients were significantly more satisfied with the dynamic orthosis, and 23 of the 29 patients would prefer the flexible vacuum orthosis in future. German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) DRKS00006097.

  10. Cardio- and cerebrovascular responses to the energy drink Red Bull in young adults: a randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Erik K; Yepuri, Gayathri; Dulloo, Abdul G; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are beverages containing vasoactive metabolites, usually a combination of caffeine, taurine, glucuronolactone and sugars. There are concerns about the safety of energy drinks with some countries banning their sales. We determined the acute effects of a popular energy drink, Red Bull, on cardiovascular and hemodynamic variables, cerebrovascular parameters and microvascular endothelial function. Twenty-five young non-obese and healthy subjects attended two experimental sessions on separate days according to a randomized crossover study design. During each session, primary measurements included beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements, impedance cardiography and transcranial Doppler measurements for at least 20 min baseline and for 2 h following the ingestion of either 355 mL of the energy drink or 355 mL of tap water; the endothelial function test was performed before and two hours after either drink. Unlike the water control load, Red Bull consumption led to increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p energy drink Red Bull, in particular an elevated blood pressure and double product and a lower cerebral blood flow velocity.

  11. A randomized controlled trial comparing Oxinium and cobalt-chrome on standard and cross-linked polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, Zachary A; Patil, Sunit; Khan, Habeeb A; Bogoch, Earl R; Schemitsch, Emil H; Waddell, James P

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to assess the clinical and radiographic outcomes in four bearing surfaces. Eighty patients (91 hips) undergoing total hip arthroplasty between 2004 and 2007 were randomized to one of four bearing surfaces: (1) cobalt-chrome (CoCr) and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE); (2) CoCr and XLPE; (3) Oxinium and UHMWPE; and (4) Oxinium and XLPE. The mean follow-up for this study was 6.8 years. There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes. The linear wear rates for the four groups were 0.241 mm/year, 0.076 mm/year, 0.238 mm/year and 0.061 mm/year respectively. HXLPE results in significantly less wear than UHMWPE. However, we found no significant reduction in wear rate by using Oxinium in place of CoCr femoral heads at early follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Aromatherapy Abdominal Massage on Alleviating Menstrual Pain in Nursing Students: A Prospective Randomized Cross-Over Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Tyseer M. F.; El-Nemer, Amina M. R.; Baraka, Hany N.

    2013-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a common cause of sickness absenteeism from both classes and work. This study investigated the effect of aromatherapy massage on a group of nursing students who are suffering of primary dysmenorrhea. A randomized blind clinical trial of crossover design was used. In the first treatment phase, group 1 (n = 48) received aromatherapy abdominal massage once daily for seven days prior to menstruation using the essential oils (cinnamon, clove, rose, and lavender in a base of almond oil). Group 2 (n = 47) received the same intervention but with placebo oil (almond oil). In the second treatment phase, the two groups switched to alternate regimen. Level and duration of pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were evaluated at the baseline and after each treatment phase. During both treatment phases, the level and duration of menstrual pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were significantly lower in the aromatherapy group than in the placebo group. These results suggests that aromatherapy is effective in alleviating menstrual pain, its duration and excessive menstrual bleeding. Aromatherapy can be provided as a nonpharmacological pain relief measure and as a part of nursing care given to girls suffering of dysmenorrhea, or excessive menstrual bleeding. PMID:23662151

  13. The Effect of Aromatherapy Abdominal Massage on Alleviating Menstrual Pain in Nursing Students: A Prospective Randomized Cross-Over Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyseer M. F. Marzouk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysmenorrhea is a common cause of sickness absenteeism from both classes and work. This study investigated the effect of aromatherapy massage on a group of nursing students who are suffering of primary dysmenorrhea. A randomized blind clinical trial of crossover design was used. In the first treatment phase, group 1 ( received aromatherapy abdominal massage once daily for seven days prior to menstruation using the essential oils (cinnamon, clove, rose, and lavender in a base of almond oil. Group 2 ( received the same intervention but with placebo oil (almond oil. In the second treatment phase, the two groups switched to alternate regimen. Level and duration of pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were evaluated at the baseline and after each treatment phase. During both treatment phases, the level and duration of menstrual pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were significantly lower in the aromatherapy group than in the placebo group. These results suggests that aromatherapy is effective in alleviating menstrual pain, its duration and excessive menstrual bleeding. Aromatherapy can be provided as a nonpharmacological pain relief measure and as a part of nursing care given to girls suffering of dysmenorrhea, or excessive menstrual bleeding.

  14. An open-label, randomized, cross-over bioequivalence study of montelukast 10 mg tablets in healthy Thai volunteers

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    Chaveewan Ratanajamit

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine bioequivalence of a generic 10 mg montelukast tablet formulation. A 2-period, 2- sequence crossover study was designed. It included 28 healthy subjects, each subject received a single dose of the randomly assigned formulation with 240 ml water after 10-hr fasting, and 14 blood samples (6 mL each were drawn at predose, and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 7, 10, 12 and 24 hr post-dose. The procedure was repeated after a 7-day washout period. Plasma samples were stored at -20°C until analysed using LC-MS/MS, LLOQ 5 ng/mL. The mean ± SD for the test and the reference were: Cmax 568±185 and 570±205 ng/mL; and AUC0-” 3864±1228 and 4022±1331 ng.hr/mL, respectively. The log-transformed ratios (90% CI were: Cmax : 99.64% (92.80% - 109.66%; and AUC0- : 99.79 (92.25% - 102.37%. The two formulations were bioequivalent as the 90% CI for the log-transformed ratios for the mean Cmax , and AUC0- were within the 80-125%.

  15. Effects of chocolate milk consumption on markers of muscle recovery following soccer training: a randomized cross-over study

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    Womack Christopher J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of chocolate milk (CM as a recovery beverage following a period of increased training duration (ITD was studied in intercollegiate soccer players. Methods 13 subjects completed one week of normal 'baseline' training followed by four days of ITD. After each day of ITD, subjects received either a high-carbohydrate (504 kcal; CHO: 122 g; 2 g Fat or isocaloric CM (504 kcal; 84 g CHO; 28 g Pro; 7 g Fat recovery beverage. Serum creatine kinase (CK, myoglobin (Mb, muscle soreness, fatigue ratings and isometric quadriceps force (MVC were obtained prior to ITD, and following 2- and 4-days of ITD. Performance tests (T-drill, vertical jump were performed within training sessions. Treatments were administered in a randomly counterbalanced protocol, and subjects repeated the procedures with the alternate beverage following a two-week washout period. Results Mean daily training time and HR increased (p -1 compared to CHO (431.6 ± 310.8 U·L-1. No treatment differences were observed for the performance tests. Conclusions Post-exercise CM provided similar muscle recovery responses to an isocaloric CHO beverage during four-days of ITD. Future studies should investigate if the attenuated CK levels observed with CM have functional significance during more demanding periods of training.

  16. Ticagrelor Does Not Inhibit Adenosine Transport at Relevant Concentrations: A Randomized Cross-Over Study in Healthy Subjects In Vivo.

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    T N A van den Berg

    Full Text Available In patients with myocardial infarction, ticagrelor reduces cardiovascular and sepsis-related mortality, and can cause dyspnea. It is suggested that this is caused by adenosine receptor stimulation, because in preclinical studies, ticagrelor blocks the nucleoside transporter and increases cellular ATP release. We now investigated the effects of ticagrelor on the adenosine system in humans in vivo.In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in 14 healthy subjects, we have tested whether ticagrelor (180 mg affects adenosine- and dipyridamole-induced forearm vasodilation, as surrogates of nucleoside uptake inhibition and adenosine formation, respectively. Also, ex vivo uptake of adenosine and uridine in isolated red blood cells was measured. Primary endpoint was adenosine-induced vasodilation.Ticagrelor did not affect adenosine- or dipyridamole-induced forearm vasodilation. Also, ex vivo uptake of adenosine and uridine in isolated red blood cells was not affected by ticagrelor. In vitro, ticagrelor dose-dependently inhibited nucleoside uptake, but only at supra-physiological concentrations.In conclusion, at relevant plasma concentration, ticagrelor does not affect adenosine transport, nor adenosine formation in healthy subjects. Therefore, it is unlikely that this mechanism is a relevant pleiotropic effect of ticagrelor.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01996735.

  17. Ticagrelor Does Not Inhibit Adenosine Transport at Relevant Concentrations: A Randomized Cross-Over Study in Healthy Subjects In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongen, G. A.; van den Broek, P. H. H.; Bilos, A.; Donders, A. R. T.; Gomes, M. E.; Riksen, N. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose In patients with myocardial infarction, ticagrelor reduces cardiovascular and sepsis-related mortality, and can cause dyspnea. It is suggested that this is caused by adenosine receptor stimulation, because in preclinical studies, ticagrelor blocks the nucleoside transporter and increases cellular ATP release. We now investigated the effects of ticagrelor on the adenosine system in humans in vivo. Experimental Approach In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in 14 healthy subjects, we have tested whether ticagrelor (180 mg) affects adenosine- and dipyridamole-induced forearm vasodilation, as surrogates of nucleoside uptake inhibition and adenosine formation, respectively. Also, ex vivo uptake of adenosine and uridine in isolated red blood cells was measured. Primary endpoint was adenosine-induced vasodilation. Key Results Ticagrelor did not affect adenosine- or dipyridamole-induced forearm vasodilation. Also, ex vivo uptake of adenosine and uridine in isolated red blood cells was not affected by ticagrelor. In vitro, ticagrelor dose-dependently inhibited nucleoside uptake, but only at supra-physiological concentrations. Conclusion and Implications In conclusion, at relevant plasma concentration, ticagrelor does not affect adenosine transport, nor adenosine formation in healthy subjects. Therefore, it is unlikely that this mechanism is a relevant pleiotropic effect of ticagrelor. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01996735 PMID:26509673

  18. Influence of neural mobilization of lower limbs on the functional performance and dynamic balance in asymptomatic individuals: a cross-over randomized controlled trial

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    Nunes Guilherme S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To verify the influence of neural mobilization (NM applied to the lower limbs on functional performance and dynamic balance in asymptomatic individuals. Methods. The total of 30 asymptomatic participants (15 women and 15 men; age, 30.1 ± 6.7 years; height, 1.70 ± 0.1 m; body mass, 73.1 ± 13.4 kg were enrolled in this cross-over randomized controlled trial. The participants received NM of the femoral, sciatic, and tibial nerves, as well as static stretching (SS of the following muscles: hamstring, lumbar, piriformis, hip adductors, hip flexors, quadriceps, and triceps surae. The order of applying NM and SS was randomly decided and the interventions were performed at least 48 hours apart. Functional performance was measured by performance in vertical jump (VJ and dynamic balance was measured with the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT. Results. There were no differences between NM and SS for height (cm in VJ (p = 0.16 or in the distance reached (% in the SEBT, normalized by lower limb length (dominant limb: anterior, p = 0.35; posterolateral, p = 0.69; posteromedial, p = 0.50 / non-dominant limb: anterior, p = 0.68; posterolateral, p = 1.00; posteromedial, p = 0.77. Conclusions. NM did not exert any influence on functional performance or dynamic balance. Thereby, having no positive or negative impact on performance, NM can be used at any time of treatment.

  19. Is the timing of caloric intake associated with variation in diet-induced thermogenesis and in the metabolic pattern? A randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, S; Fadda, M; Castiglione, A; Ciccone, G; De Francesco, A; Fedele, D; Guggino, A; Parasiliti Caprino, M; Ferrara, S; Vezio Boggio, M; Mengozzi, G; Ghigo, E; Maccario, M; Broglio, F

    2015-12-01

    Food-induced thermogenesis is generally reported to be higher in the morning, although contrasting results exist because of differences in experimental settings related to the preceding fasting, exercise, sleeping and dieting. To definitively answer to this issue, we compared the calorimetric and metabolic responses to identical meals consumed at 0800 hours and at 2000 hours by healthy volunteers, after standardized diet, physical activity, duration of fast and resting. Twenty subjects (age range 20-35 years, body mass index=19-26 kg m(-)(2)) were enrolled to a randomized cross-over trial. They randomly received the same standard meal in the morning and, 7 days after, in the evening, or vice versa. A 30-min basal calorimetry was performed; a further 60-min calorimetry was done 120-min after the beginning of the meal. Blood samples were drawn every 30-min for 180-min. General linear models, adjusted for period and carry-over, were used to evaluate the 'morning effect', that is, the difference of morning delta (after-meal minus fasting values) minus evening delta (after-meal minus fasting values) of the variables. Fasting resting metabolic rate (RMR) did not change from morning to evening; after-meal RMR values were significantly higher after the morning meal (1916; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1792, 2041 vs 1756; 1648, 1863 kcal; Pmetabolic pattern of healthy individuals. The timing of meals should probably be considered when nutritional recommendations are given.

  20. Effectiveness of low-dose doxycycline (LDD on clinical symptoms of Sjögren's Syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled cross-over study

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    Vuotila Tuija

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are proteolytic enzymes that may contribute to tissue destruction in Sjögren's syndrome (SS. Low-dose doxycycline (LDD inhibits MMPs. We evaluated the efficacy of LDD for the subjective symptoms in primary SS patients. This was a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled cross-over study. 22 patients were randomly assigned to receive either 20 mg LDD or matching placebo twice a day for 10 weeks. The first medication period was followed by 10-week washout period, after which the patient received either LDD or placebo, depending on the first drug received, followed by the second washout period. Stimulated saliva flow rates and pH were measured before and after one and ten weeks of each medication and after washout periods. VAS scale was used to assess the effect of LDD and placebo on following six subjective symptoms: xerostomia; xerophtalmia; difficulty of swallowing; myalgia; arthralgia; and fatigue. The effect was evaluated for each medication and washout period separately. Results Overall, the effects of medications on subjective symptoms were minor. Wilcoxon test demonstrated increased fatigue with LDD during medication (p Conclusion LDD may not be useful in reducing the primary SS symptoms.

  1. Circadian rhythms of hemostatic factors in tetraplegia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostovski, E; Dahm, A E A; Mowinckel, M C; Stranda, A; Skretting, G; Østerud, B; Sandset, P M; Iversen, P O

    2015-04-01

    This is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study of melatonin in complete tetraplegia. Tetraplegic patients have an increased risk of venous thrombosis despite prophylaxis, blunted variations in melatonin and altered circadian variation of several hemostatic markers. To examine whether melatonin could modify the regulation of hemostasis, we measured plasma melatonin and several markers of hemostasis in tetraplegic subjects with or without melatonin supplement. The study was conducted in the Section for Spinal Cord Injury, Sunnaas Hospital, Nesoddtangen, Norway. Six subjects with long-standing complete tetraplegia were included in this cross-over study with 2 mg of melatonin or placebo given 4 days before sampling. We also included six able-bodied men without any intervention. Plasma samples were then collected frequently during a 24-h awake/sleep cycle. The plasma concentrations of melatonin and the various markers were analyzed using linear mixed models. The 24-h profiles of prothrombin fragment 1+2 and von Willebrand factor, but not D-dimer, activated FVII, tissue factor pathway inhibitor and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, differed (Ptetraplegia. Financial support was provided from the Throne Holst Foundation.

  2. Impact of olive oil-rich diet on serum omentin and adiponectin levels: a randomized cross-over clinical trial among overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Akram; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of olive oil-rich diet on omentin and adiponectin concentrations. This cross-over randomized trial included 17 overweight women. Participants were assigned to consume either a usual (16% saturated fatty acids [SFA] and 8% monounsaturated fatty acid [MUFA]) or an olive oil-rich diet (16% MUFA and 8% SFA) for 6 weeks crossing over after a 2-week washout period. There was no significant difference in the changes of omentin between two dietary interventions. However, in the adjusted model for polyunsaturated fatty acids and fat mass, usual diet tended to decrease omentin levels whilst olive oil-rich diet tended to increase (-56.1 ± 32.0 versus 40.6 ± 32.0 ng/mL; p = .056). Adiponectin levels increased during two periods, but changes were greater during olive oil-rich diet with a trend toward significance (4.8 ± 3.0 versus 13.4 ± 3.0 μg/mL; p = .06). Consumption of olive oil-rich diet tended to increase omentin and adiponectin in comparison with the usual diet.

  3. Bridging the gap in 1(st) year dental material curriculum: A 3 year randomized cross over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gali, Sivaranjani; Shetty, Vibha; Murthy, N S; Marimuthu, P

    2015-01-01

    Case-oriented small group discussions (COSGDs) can help students to correlate and integrate the basic science of dental materials into clinical application. We used COSGDs along with didactic lectures in dental material curriculum and hypothesized that case-oriented group discussions would be more effective than traditional lecture alone in terms of performance of students, student perception on the above two teaching methodologies and the feasibility in classes of 2010, 2011 and 2012. A total of 170 students were taught using both COSGD and didactic lecture in a randomized controlled crossover trial design. Their performance was assessed through multiple-choice questions (MCQs) as part of the formative assessment, and their perception was assessed through Likert scale questionnaire. The mean difference in the scores between case-oriented group discussions with lecture and didactic lecture showed significant difference only in few topics. Around 94-96% of students perceived COSGD with didactic lecture help them understand theory better; 76-92% of students feel more comfortable asking questions in a group discussion; 89-98% of students feel such discussions motivate them and 91-100% of students agree that discussions make the subject interesting in the respective years of 2010, 2011 and 2012. Effectiveness of COSGD in terms of scores through MCQs is comparable to traditional lecture. However, most of the students perceive COSGD help them understand the theory better; co-relate clinically; more motivating and interesting than a traditional lecture. Feasibility in institution needs more time and resources to conduct COSGD within the dental material curriculum.

  4. Immediate effects of somatosensory stimulation on hand function in patients with poststroke hemiparesis: a randomized cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sun-Mi; Oh, Duck-Won; Chon, Seung-chul

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the immediate effects of somatosensory stimulation on hand function in patients with poststroke hemiparesis. Eleven patients with poststroke hemiparesis participated in this study. Four types (no stimulation, vibration, and light and rough touches) of somatosensory stimulation were performed randomly for 4 days applying only one type of somatosensory stimulation each day. The box and block test (BBT), the Jebsen-Taylor hand function test (JTHFT), hand grip strength (HGS), and movement distance and peak velocity of the wrist joint during a forward-reaching task were measured. The BBT and JTHFT scores for no stimulation [BBT: median (interquartile range), 0.00 (-1.00 to 1.00) and JTHFT: 2.57 (-0.47 to 4.92)] were significantly different from those for vibration [BBT: 3.00 (2.00-5.00) and JTHFT: -16.02 (-23.06 to -4.31)], light touch [BBT: 3.00 (1.00-4.00) and JTHFT: -5.00 (-21.20 to -0.94)], and rough touch [BBT: 2.00 (1.00-4.00) and JTHFT: -6.19 (-18.22 to -3.70)]. The JTHFT score was significantly higher for vibration than that for rough touch (P<0.05). The increase in HGS was significantly greater for light touch than that for no stimulation (P<0.05) and for vibration than that for light touch (P<0.05). There were significant differences for the sagittal and coronal planes in movement distance and for the sagittal and horizontal planes in peak velocity during the forward-reaching task (P<0.05). The findings suggest that somatosensory stimulation may be advantageous to improve the hand function of patients with poststroke hemiparesis, with more favorable effects observed in vibration stimulation.

  5. Modulation of protein fermentation does not affect fecal water toxicity: a randomized cross-over study in healthy subjects.

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    Karen Windey

    Full Text Available Protein fermentation results in production of metabolites such as ammonia, amines and indolic, phenolic and sulfur-containing compounds. In vitro studies suggest that these metabolites might be toxic. However, human and animal studies do not consistently support these findings. We modified protein fermentation in healthy subjects to assess the effects on colonic metabolism and parameters of gut health, and to identify metabolites associated with toxicity.After a 2-week run-in period with normal protein intake (NP, 20 healthy subjects followed an isocaloric high protein (HP and low protein (LP diet for 2 weeks in a cross-over design. Protein fermentation was estimated from urinary p-cresol excretion. Fecal metabolite profiles were analyzed using GC-MS and compared using cluster analysis. DGGE was used to analyze microbiota composition. Fecal water genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were determined using the Comet assay and the WST-1-assay, respectively, and were related to the metabolite profiles.Dietary protein intake was significantly higher during the HP diet compared to the NP and LP diet. Urinary p-cresol excretion correlated positively with protein intake. Fecal water cytotoxicity correlated negatively with protein fermentation, while fecal water genotoxicity was not correlated with protein fermentation. Heptanal, 3-methyl-2-butanone, dimethyl disulfide and 2-propenyl ester of acetic acid are associated with genotoxicity and indole, 1-octanol, heptanal, 2,4-dithiapentane, allyl-isothiocyanate, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl-benzene, propionic acid, octanoic acid, nonanoic acid and decanoic acid with cytotoxicity.This study does not support a role of protein fermentation in gut toxicity. The identified metabolites can provide new insight into colonic health.ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01280513.

  6. The Ibibio Locative Copular Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonna Anyanwu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ibibio language, a member of the Lower Cross group of languages is predominantly spoken in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Ibibio has two types of copular construction. One is locative while the other is predicative. Using a purely descriptive approach/method, this paper provides a descriptive account of the copular locative constructions in Ibibio. This study is based on a database collected from adult speakers of Ibibio by the author using an elicitation list. The database includes both actual and potential words/sentences, which standard Ibibio speakers found to be in consistent with their language rules.The paper has observed that Ibibio copular locatives make use of locative copular verbs which have semantic content, but are however, with indeterminate locative precision except when they co- occur with an appropriate locative complement. It has further observed that in Ibibio, the location of a subject entity can be marked with locative elements in two ways. In the first instance, a locative copular verb which can be dórò, ‘be on’ síne ‘be in’ bà ‘be at’ obligatorily co-occurs with a deitic locative complement or a locative prepositional phrase (PP complement headed by a multipurpose preposition (P, ké. The P is semantically, interpreted as either on, in, at or under depending on the particular locative copular verb that it co-occurs with. In the second instance, in addition to the locative copular verb and the locative PP complement headed by the P ké, there is also within the PP complement (headed by the P ké , a locative relational noun modifier which, modifies the head noun, a complement to the locative P ké. Based on Ameka andOgbonna Anyanwu71Levinson’s (2007 cross-linguistic classification of positional and locative verbs, the paper concludes that Ibibio belongs to the multi-verb type of languages with inherently locative copular verbs which are used to express the spatial locative orientation of subject

  7. Stationary-phase integrals in the cross correlation of ambient noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschi, L.; Weemstra, C.

    2015-01-01

    The cross correlation of ambient signal allows seismologists to collect data even in the absence of seismic events. “Seismic interferometry” shows that the cross correlation of simultaneous recordings of a random wavefield made at two locations is formally related to the impulse response between

  8. Tai Chi training may reduce dual task gait variability, a potential mediator of fall risk, in healthy older adults: cross-sectional and randomized trial studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Wayne

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tai Chi (TC exercise improves balance and reduces falls in older, health-impaired adults. TC’s impact on dual task (DT gait parameters predictive of falls, especially in healthy active older adults, however, is unknown.PURPOSE: To compare differences in usual and DT gait between long-term TC-expert practitioners and age-/gender-matched TC-naïve adults, and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on gait in healthy, non-sedentary older adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study compared gait in healthy TC-naïve and TC-expert (24.5±12 yrs experience older adults. TC-naïve adults then completed a 6-month, two-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Gait speed and stride time variability (% was assessed during 90 sec trials of undisturbed and cognitive DT (serial-subtractions conditions. RESULTS: During DT, gait speed decreased (p<0.003 and stride time variability increased (p<0.004 in all groups. Cross-sectional comparisons indicated that stride time variability was lower in the TC-expert vs. TC-naïve group, significantly so during DT (2.11% vs. 2.55%; p=0.027; in contrast, gait speed during both undisturbed and DT conditions did not differ between groups. Longitudinal analyses of TC-naïve adults randomized to 6 months of TC training or usual care identified improvement in DT gait speed in both groups. A small improvement in DT stride time variability (effect size = 0.2 was estimated with TC training, but no significant differences between groups were observed. Potentially important improvements after TC training could not be excluded in this small study. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy active older adults, positive effects of short- and long-term TC were observed only under cognitively challenging DT conditions and only for stride time variability. DT stride variability offers a potentially sensitive metric for monitoring TC’s impact on fall risk with healthy older adults.

  9. Effects of a flaxseed-derived lignan supplement in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Flaxseed consumption has been shown to improve blood lipids in humans and flaxseed-derived lignan has been shown to enhance glycemic control in animals. The study aimed to investigate the effect of a flaxseed-derived lignan supplement on glycemic control, lipid profiles and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial and it was conducted between April and December 2006 in Shanghai, China. Seventy-three type 2 diabetic patients with mild hypercholesterolemia were enrolled into the study. Patients were randomized to supplementation with flaxseed-derived lignan capsules (360 mg lignan per day or placebo for 12 weeks, separated by an 8-week wash-out period. HbA1c, lipid profiles, insulin resistance index and inflammatory factors were measured. Sixty-eight completed the study and were included in the analyses. The lignan supplement significantly improved glycemic control as measured by HbA(1c (-0.10+/-0.65 % vs. 0.09+/-0.52 %, P = 0.001 compared to placebo; however, no significant changes were observed in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, insulin resistance and blood lipid profiles. Urinary excretion of lignan metabolites (enterodiol and enterolactone was significantly higher after the lignan supplement intervention compared to baseline (14.2+/-18.1 vs. 1.2+/-2.4 microg/mL, P<0.001. Data also suggested minimal competition between lignan and isoflavones for bioavailability when measured by the excretion concentrations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Daily lignan supplementation resulted in modest, yet statistically significant improvements in glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients without apparently affecting fasting glucose, lipid profiles and insulin sensitivity. Further studies are needed to validate these findings and explore the efficacy of lignans on type 2 diabetes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  10. Effect of knee joint icing on knee extension strength and knee pain early after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Bente; Husted, Henrik; Kehlet, Henrik; Bandholm, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the acute effect of knee joint icing on knee extension strength and knee pain in patients shortly after total knee arthroplasty. A prospective, single-blinded, randomized, cross-over study. A fast-track orthopaedic arthroplasty unit at a university hospital. Twenty patients (mean age 66 years; 10 women) scheduled for primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty. The patients were treated on two days (day 7 and day 10) postoperatively. On one day they received 30 minutes of knee icing (active treatment) and on the other day they received 30 minutes of elbow icing (control treatment). The order of treatments was randomized. Maximal knee extension strength (primary outcome), knee pain at rest and knee pain during the maximal knee extensions were measured 2-5 minutes before and 2-5 minutes after both treatments by an assessor blinded for active or control treatment. The change in knee extension strength associated with knee icing was not significantly different from that of elbow icing (knee icing change (mean (1 SD)) -0.01 (0.07) Nm/kg, elbow icing change -0.02 (0.07) Nm/kg, P = 0.493). Likewise, the changes in knee pain at rest (P = 0.475), or knee pain during the knee extension strength measurements (P = 0.422) were not different between treatments. In contrast to observations in experimental knee effusion models and inflamed knee joints, knee joint icing for 30 minutes shortly after total knee arthroplasty had no acute effect on knee extension strength or knee pain.

  11. Efficacy of low-frequency low-intensity electrotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer-related lymphoedema: a cross-over randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Roser; Tejero, Marta; Ferrer, Montse; Muniesa, Josep Maria; Duarte, Esther; Cunillera, Oriol; Escalada, Ferran

    2012-07-01

    To compare the efficacy of low-frequency low-intensity electrotherapy and manual lymphatic drainage in the treatment of chronic upper limb breast cancer-related lymphoedema. Cross-over single-blind random clinical trial. Rehabilitation service. Thirty-six women with chronic upper limb breast cancer-related lymphoedema. Patients were randomized to undergo 10 sessions of manual lymphatic drainage followed by 10 sessions of low-frequency low-intensity electrotherapy or to undergo first low-frequency low-intensity electrotherapy followed by manual lymphatic drainage. There was a month of washout time between treatments. Each patient was examined just before and after each treatment. Researchers and outcome assessors were blinded for assigned treatment. Outcomes were lymphoedema volume, pain, heaviness and tightness, and health-related quality of life measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Questionnaire for Breast Cancer version 4 (FACT-B+4). Carry-over, period and treatment effects were analysed. Treatment effect was assessed using paired t-test. Thirty patients finalized treatment. Comparing the changes in low-frequency low-intensity electrotherapy with manual lymphatic drainage changes, there were no significant differences. Low-frequency low-intensity electrotherapy did not reduce lymphoedema volume (mean of change = 19.77 mL, P = 0.36), but significant reductions were observed in pain, heaviness and tightness (mean of change = 13.1, 16.2 and 6.4 mm, respectively), and FACT-B+4 summaries improved significantly (Trial Outcome Index mean of change = 5.4, P = 0.015). Manual lymphatic drainage showed no significant changes in any of the outcomes Although there are no significant differences between treatment changes, the observed trend towards a better health-related quality of life is remarkable in low-frequency low-intensity electrotherapy.

  12. Suitability of random forest analysis for epidemiological research: Exploring sociodemographic and lifestyle-related risk factors of overweight in a cross-sectional design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, Noora; Kontto, Jukka; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Männistö, Satu

    2017-10-01

    Factors that contribute to the development of overweight are numerous and form a complex structure with many unknown interactions and associations. We aimed to explore this structure (i.e. the mutual importance or hierarchy of sociodemographic and lifestyle-related risk factors of being overweight) using a machine-learning technique called random forest (RF). The results were compared with traditional logistic regression (LR) analysis. The cross-sectional FINRISK 2007 Study included 4757 Finns (aged 25-74 years). Information on participants' lifestyle and sociodemographic characteristics were collected with questionnaires. Diet was assessed, using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured. Participants with a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 were classified as overweight. R-statistical software was used to run RF analysis ('randomForest') to derive estimates for variable importance and out-of-bag error, which were compared to a LR model. In total, 704 (32%) men and 1119 (44%) women had normal BMI, whereas 1502 (69%) men and 1432 (57%) women had BMI ≥25. Estimated error rates for the models were similar (RF vs. LR: 42% vs. 40% for men, 38% vs. 35% for women). Both models ranked age, education and physical activity as the most important risk factors for being overweight, but RF ranked macronutrients (carbohydrates and protein) as more important compared to LR. RF did not demonstrate higher power in variable selection compared to LR in our study. The features of RF are more likely to appear beneficial in settings with a larger number of predictors.

  13. Oral and Vaginal Tenofovir for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Shedding in Immunocompetent Women: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Cross-over Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender Ignacio, Rachel A; Perti, Tara; Magaret, Amalia S; Rajagopal, Sharanya; Stevens, Claire E; Huang, Meei-Li; Selke, Stacy; Johnston, Christine; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Wald, Anna

    2015-12-15

    Tenofovir is a potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agent that decreased risk of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) acquisition in HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis trials. Whether tenofovir has utility in established HSV-2 disease is unclear. We randomized immunocompetent women with symptomatic HSV-2 infection to oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/placebo vaginal gel, oral placebo/tenofovir (TFV) vaginal gel, or double placebo (ratio 2:2:1) in a one-way cross-over trial. Women collected genital swabs twice daily for HSV PCR during 4-week lead-in and 5-week treatment phases. The primary intent-to-treat end point was within-person comparison of genital HSV shedding and lesion rates. 64 women completed the lead-in phase and were randomized. Neither TDF nor TFV gel decreased overall shedding or lesion rate in the primary analysis; TFV gel decreased quantity of HSV DNA by -0.50 (-0.86-0.13) log10 copies/mL. In the per-protocol analysis, TDF reduced shedding (relative risk [RR] = 0.74, P = .006) and lesion rates (RR = 0.75, P = .032); quantity of virus shed decreased by 0.41 log10 copies/mL. Oral TDF modestly decreased HSV shedding and lesion rate, and quantity of virus shed when used consistently. Vaginal TFV gel decreased quantity of virus shed by 60%. In contrast to effects on HSV-2 acquisition, tenofovir is unlikely to provide clinically meaningful reductions in the frequency of HSV shedding or genital lesions. NCT01448616. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Efficacy of topical Rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) oil for migraine headache: A randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Maria; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Heydari, Mojtaba; Shariat, Abdolhamid

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of topical formulation of Rosa damascena Mill. (R. damascena) oil on migraine headache, applying syndrome diffrentiation model. Forty patients with migraine headache were randomly assigned to 2 groups of this double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial. The patients were treated for the first 2 consecutive migraine headache attacks by topical R. damascena oil or placebo. Then, after one week of washout period, cross-over was done. Pain intensity of the patients' migraine headache was recorded at the beginnig and ten-sequence time schadule of attacks up to 24h. In addition, photophobia, phonophobia, and nausea and/or vomitting (N/V) of the patients were recorded as secondary outcomes. Finally, gathered data were analysed in a syndrome differentiation manner to assess the effect of R. damascena oil on Hot- and Cold-type migraine headache. Mean pain intensity of the patients' migraine headache in the different time-points after R. damascena oil or placebo use, was not significantly different. Additionally, regarding mean scores of N/V, photophobia, and phonophobia severity of the patients, no significant differences between the two groups were observed. Finally, applying syndrome differentiation model, the mean score of migraine headache pain intensity turned out to be significantly lower in patients with "hot" type migraine syndrome at in 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120min after R. damascena oil application compared to "cold" types (P values: 0.001, 0.001, <0.001, <0.001, and 0.02; respectively). It seems that syndrome differentiation can help in selection of patients who may benefit from the topical R. damascena oil in short-term relief of pain intensity in migraine headache. Further studies of longer follow-up and larger study population, however, are necessitated for more scientifically rigorous judgment on efficacy of R. damascena oil for patients with migraine headache. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rationale, design, and baseline data of a cross-national randomized trial on the effect of built shade in public parks for sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Dobbinson, Suzanne; English, Dallas R; Wakefield, Melanie; Buller, Mary Klein

    2017-04-01

    Environments can be structured to reduce solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure to prevent skin cancer. A prospective randomized trial is being conducted to test whether introducing shade sails in passive recreation areas (PRAs) in public parks will increase use and decrease UV exposure in the shaded compared to unshaded PRAs. Shade effects will be compared between Melbourne, Australia and Denver, USA. The trial enrolled 145 public parks with PRAs suitable for shade construction and randomized parks to intervention or control in a 1:3 ratio. Use of PRAs and UV levels were recorded at each park by trained observers during 30-minute periods on four weekend days in each of two summers (pretest and posttest). Shade sails were constructed between the summers. Given low numbers of users at pretest, the outcome measure was modified to use of the PRA (use vs. no use) and unit of analysis to the individual observation. Observations (n=580) occurred on average 29days from the summer solstice and 55min from solar noon in warm weather (mean=26.2°C) with some cloud cover but only slight or no wind. Typically, PRAs had benches and picnic tables and were located near playgrounds. PRAs were in use during 13.3% of observations (mean=0.41 users). UV over 30-minutes at the PRA boundary (mean=3.2 standard erythemal dose [SED]) and center (mean=3.3 SED) was high. Shade for skin cancer prevention has been understudied. This study will address this gap by determining whether purpose-built shade structures promote greater use of shaded areas within public parks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A randomized three-way cross-over study in healthy pituitary-suppressed women to compare the bioavailability of human chorionic gonadotrophin (Pregnyl®) after intramuscular and subcutaneous administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannaerts, B.M.J.L.; Geurts, T.B.P.; Odink, J.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the bioavailability of s.c. and i.m. administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG; Pregnyl®). In a randomized, single centre, three-way cross-over study, 18 healthy pituitary-suppressed volunteers were assigned to single HCG injections of 5000 and

  17. Preliminary report: prescription of prism-glasses by the Measurement and Correction Method of H.-J. Haase or by conventional orthoptic examination: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, cross-over study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonsz, H. J.; van Els, J.; Ruijter, J. M.; Bakker, D.; Spekreijse, H.

    2001-01-01

    In a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, cross-over study in the Netherlands, the effectiveness of (prism-)glasses prescribed by the Measurement and Correction Method of H.-J. Haase (MKH) was compared to that of glasses prescribed by conventional orthoptic examination. Nine pairs of

  18. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial (Vestparoxy) of the treatment of vestibular paroxysmia with oxcarbazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Otmar; Brémová, Tatiana; Strupp, Michael; Hüfner, Katharina

    2017-11-27

    Vestibular paroxysmia (VP) is characterized by short, often oligosymptomatic attacks of vertigo which occur spontaneously or are sometimes provoked by turning the head. Despite the description of the disease almost 40 years ago (first termed "disabling positional vertigo"), no controlled treatment trial has been published to date. The Vestparoxy trial was designed as a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over trial to examine the therapeutic effect of oxcarbazepine (OXA) in patients with definite or probable VP. Patients were recruited from August 2005 to December 2011 in the outpatient Dizziness Unit of the Department of Neurology of the Munich University Hospital, and randomized to receive OXA (first week: 300 mg once per day, second week: 300 mg b.i.d., third week: 300 mg t.i.d. until the end of the third month), followed by placebo or vice versa with a 1-month wash-out period in between. The primary endpoint was the number of days with one or more attacks. Secondary endpoints were the number of attacks during the observed days, and the median (for each day) duration of attacks. All these endpoints were assessed using standardized diaries collected at the end of each treatment phase. Forty-three patients were randomized, 18 patients provided usable data (2525 patient days) for at least one treatment phase and were included in the main (intention-to-treat) analysis. The most common reasons for discontinuation documented were adverse events. The risk of experiencing a day with at least one attack was 0.41 under OXA, and 0.62 under placebo treatment, yielding a relative risk of 0.67 (95% CI 0.47-0.95, p = 0.025). The number of attacks during the observed days ratio was 0.53 (95% CI 0.42-0.68, p < 0.001) under OXA compared to placebo. Median attack duration was 4 s (Q25: 2 s, Q75: 120 s) under OXA, and 3 s (Q25: 2 s, Q75: 60 s) under placebo treatment. When days with no attacks, i.e., duration = 0, were included in the analysis, these

  19. Creep and Wear in Vitamin E-Infused Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene Cups for Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochcongar, G; Buia, G; Bourroux, E; Dunet, J; Chapus, V; Hulet, C

    2018-01-17

    Aseptic loosening, the most common indication for revision surgery in total hip arthroplasty, can result from osteolysis caused by polyethylene (PE) wear particles. PE wear is increased by age-related oxidation of PE and free radicals emerging during irradiation cross-linking. Diffusion of vitamin E into PE stabilizes free radicals to maintain the biomechanical properties of PE. The purpose of this study was to determine whether vitamin E-infused highly cross-linked PE cups could reduce wear rates. We performed a prospective randomized controlled trial, in which 62 patients were allocated to 2 groups: a study group that received a vitamin E-infused highly cross-linked PE (HXLPE/VitE) cup and a control group that received an ultra-high molecular weight PE (UHMWPE) cup. Using radiostereometric analysis, we measured the penetration of the femoral head into the cup 7 days after surgery (baseline) and then again at 6 months and at 1, 2, and 3 years later. Baseline variables did not differ significantly between the groups. At 1, 2, and 3 years after surgery, the HXLPE/VitE cup showed significantly less cumulative penetration (creep and wear) than the UHMWPE cup (p = 0.004, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.0001, respectively). The cumulative penetration after 3 years was 0.200 mm for the HXLPE/VitE cup versus 0.317 mm for the UHMWPE cup (p < 0.0001). From 1 to 3 years after surgery, after creep had stabilized and further penetration was mainly due to wear, the mean penetration increased only 0.04 mm in the HXLPE/VitE cup and 0.116 mm in the UHMWPE cup. Our results confirm that wear rates over the first 3 years following surgery were lower in HXLPE/VitE cups than in UHMWPE cups. This suggests that HXLPE/VitE cups may prevent osteolysis, implant loosening, and eventually revision surgery. Long-term follow-up data continue to be collected to confirm these findings. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  20. Pressure Transducer Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Files are located here, defining the locations of the pressure transducers on the HIRENASD model. These locations also correspond to the locations that analysts...

  1. Enhanced bioavailability of lycopene when consumed as cis-isomers from tangerine compared to red tomato juice, a randomized, cross-over clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperstone, Jessica L; Ralston, Robin A; Riedl, Ken M; Haufe, Thomas C; Schweiggert, Ralf M; King, Samantha A; Timmers, Cynthia D; Francis, David M; Lesinski, Gregory B; Clinton, Steven K; Schwartz, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    Tangerine tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) are rich in tetra-cis-lycopene resulting from natural variation in carotenoid isomerase. Our objective was to compare the bioavailability of lycopene from tangerine to red tomato juice, and elucidate physical deposition forms of these isomers in tomatoes by light and electron microscopy. Following a randomized cross-over design, subjects (n = 11, 6 M/5 F) consumed two meals delivering 10 mg lycopene from tangerine (94% cis) or red tomato juice (10% cis). Blood was sampled over 12 h and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions of plasma were isolated and analyzed using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. Lycopene was crystalline in red tomato chromoplasts and globular in tangerine tomatoes. With tangerine tomato juice we observed a marked 8.5-fold increase in lycopene bioavailability compared to red tomato juice (p Lycopene is markedly more bioavailable from tangerine than from red tomato juice, consistent with a predominance of cis-lycopene isomers and presence in chromoplasts in a lipid dissolved globular state. These results justify using tangerine tomatoes as a lycopene source in studies examining the potential health benefits of lycopene-rich foods. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on strength, proprioception, balance and mobility in people with stroke: a randomized controlled cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Sarah F; Sadeghi-Demneh, Ebrahim; Nester, Christopher J

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the feasibility and potential efficacy of 'activeTENS' (that is transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) during everyday activities) by assessing the immediate effects on strength, proprioception, balance/falls risk and mobility after stroke. A paired-sample randomized cross-over trial. Twenty-nine mobile chronic stroke survivors with no pre-existing conditions limiting balance or mobility or contra-indications to TENS. University clinical research facility. A single session of 'activeTENS' delivered via a 'sock electrode' (70-130 Hz, five second cycle) plus a session of control treatment (wearing the sock electrode with no stimulation), lasting approximately two hours in total. Dorsiflexor and plantarflexor strength and proprioception using an isokinetic dyanometer, balance and falls risk (Standing Forward Reach Test) and gait speed (10-m walk test). All participants tolerated 'active TENS'. Most parameters improved during stimulation with activeTENS; balance (p = 0.009), gait speed (p = 0.002), plantarflexor strength (p = 0.008) and proprioception of plantarflexion (p = 0.029), except dorsiflexor strength (p = 0.194) and dorsiflexion proprioception (p = 0.078). The results provide initial evidence of the potential of 'active TENS' to benefit physical function after stroke which warrants further phase II trials to develop the intervention. Concerns that stimulation could have a detrimental impact on balance and increase risk of falls were not supported.

  3. Effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on resting and exercise-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers: a randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galpin Andrew J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of EPA/DHA supplementation on resting and exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in exercise-trained men. Fourteen men supplemented with 2224 mg EPA+2208 mg DHA and a placebo for 6 weeks in a random order, double blind cross-over design (with an 8 week washout prior to performing a 60 minute treadmill climb using a weighted pack. Blood was collected pre and post exercise and analyzed for a variety of oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers. Blood lactate, muscle soreness, and creatine kinase activity were also measured. Results Treatment with EPA/DHA resulted in a significant increase in blood levels of both EPA (18 ± 2 μmol·L-1 vs. 143 ± 23 μmol·L-1; p -1 vs. 157 ± 13 μmol·L-1; p 0.05. There was a mild increase in oxidative stress in response to exercise (XO and H2O2 (p Conclusion EPA/DHA supplementation increases blood levels of these fatty acids and results in decreased resting levels of inflammatory biomarkers in exercise-trained men, but does not appear necessary for exercise-induced attenuation in either inflammation or oxidative stress. This may be due to the finding that trained men exhibit a minimal increase in both inflammation and oxidative stress in response to moderate duration (60 minute aerobic exercise.

  4. A comparison of regular consumption of fresh lean pork, beef and chicken on body composition: a randomized cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Karen J; Parker, Barbara; Dyer, Kathryn A; Davis, Courtney R; Coates, Alison M; Buckley, Jonathan D; Howe, Peter R C

    2014-02-14

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world and recent evidence shows that diets high in pork protein, with and without energy restriction, may have favourable effects on body composition. However, it is unclear whether these effects on body composition are specific to pork or whether consumption of other high protein meat diets may have the same benefit. Therefore we aimed to compare regular consumption of pork, beef and chicken on indices of adiposity. In a nine month randomised open-labelled cross-over intervention trial, 49 overweight or obese adults were randomly assigned to consume up to 1 kg/week of pork, chicken or beef, in an otherwise unrestricted diet for three months, followed by two further three month periods consuming each of the alternative meat options. BMI and waist/hip circumference were measured and body composition was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was assessed using three day weighed food diaries. Energy expenditure was estimated from activity diaries. There was no difference in BMI or any other marker of adiposity between consumption of pork, beef and chicken diets. Similarly there were no differences in energy or nutrient intakes between diets. After three months, regular consumption of lean pork meat as compared to that of beef and chicken results in similar changes in markers of adiposity of overweight and obese Australian middle-aged men and women.

  5. Influence of erythropoietin on cognitive performance during experimental hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a randomized cross-over trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lommer Kristensen

    Full Text Available The incidence of severe hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes has not decreased over the past decades. New treatment modalities minimizing the risk of hypoglycemic episodes and attenuating hypoglycemic cognitive dysfunction are needed. We studied if treatment with the neuroprotective hormone erythropoietin (EPO enhances cognitive function during hypoglycemia.Eleven patients with type 1 diabetes, hypoglycemia unawareness and recurrent severe hypoglycemia completed the study. In a double-blind, randomized, balanced, cross-over study using clamped hypoglycemia they were treated with 40,000 IU of EPO or placebo administered intravenously six days before the two experiments. Cognitive function (primary endpoint, hypoglycemic symptoms, and counter-regulatory hormonal response were recorded.Compared with placebo, EPO treatment was associated with a significant reduction in errors in the most complex reaction time task (-4.7 (-8.1 to -1.3, p = 0.01 and a less reaction time prolongation (-66 (-117 to -16 msec, p = 0.02. EPO treatment did not change performance in other measures of cognition. Hypoglycemic symptoms, EEG-changes, and counter-regulatory hormone concentrations did not differ between EPO and placebo treatment.In patients with type 1 diabetes and hypoglycemia unawareness, treatment with EPO is associated with a beneficial effect on cognitive function in a complex reaction time task assessing sustained attention/working memory. Hypoglycemic symptoms and hormonal responses were not changed by EPO treatment.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00615368.

  6. Prevalences of scabies and pediculosis corporis among homeless people in the Paris region: results from two randomized cross-sectional surveys (HYTPEAC study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, A; Chosidow, O; Détrez, M-A; Bitar, D; Huber, F; Foulet, F; Le Strat, Y; Vandentorren, S

    2016-01-01

    Dermatological infections constitute the most common health problem in the homeless population. To estimate the prevalences of scabies and pediculosis corporis and to identify associated factors in the homeless population. Two randomized cross-sectional surveys were performed, one on the homeless population sleeping in public places in Paris, and the other on the homeless population in various shelters in the Ile-de-France administrative region. Overall 341 and 667 people, respectively, were interviewed about sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle and hygiene practices, and were examined by a nurse. In individuals sleeping in public places the prevalence of scabies was estimated at 6·5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·5-12·5] and for pediculosis corporis at 5·4% (95% CI 1·7-9·1). For those sleeping in shelters these values were 0·4% (95% CI 0·1-1·8) and 0·15% (95% CI 0·0-9·7), respectively (P pediculosis corporis in public places. Firstly, this study highlights the real existence of two distinct subpopulations having different sociodemographic characteristics, with specific lifestyles and practices, and with different prevalences of ectoparasitism. Secondly, the results of the multivariate analyses will help the implementation of specific actions targeting the group of people who sleep in public places. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. Tai Chi Training may Reduce Dual Task Gait Variability, a Potential Mediator of Fall Risk, in Healthy Older Adults: Cross-Sectional and Randomized Trial Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Peter M; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Lough, Matthew; Gow, Brian J; Lipsitz, Lewis; Novak, Vera; Macklin, Eric A; Peng, Chung-Kang; Manor, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Tai Chi (TC) exercise improves balance and reduces falls in older, health-impaired adults. TC's impact on dual task (DT) gait parameters predictive of falls, especially in healthy active older adults, however, is unknown. To compare differences in usual and DT gait between long-term TC-expert practitioners and age-/gender-matched TC-naïve adults, and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on gait in healthy, non-sedentary older adults. A cross-sectional study compared gait in healthy TC-naïve and TC-expert (24.5 ± 12 years experience) older adults. TC-naïve adults then completed a 6-month, two-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Gait speed and stride time variability (Coefficient of Variation %) were assessed during 90 s trials of undisturbed and cognitive DT (serial subtractions) conditions. During DT, gait speed decreased (p sensitive metric for monitoring TC's impact on fall risk with healthy older adults.

  8. In vivo biomechanical changes after corneal collagen cross-linking for keratoconus and corneal ectasia: 1-year analysis of a randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Steven A; Fry, Kristen L; Hersh, Peter S

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the in vivo, corneal, biomechanical changes after corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) using the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) in patients with keratoconus and post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia. Single-center, prospective, randomized, controlled, clinical trial. After CXL (69 eyes, 46 keratoconus and 23 post-LASIK), corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were measured using the ORA and analyzed in a treatment, sham control, and fellow eye control group at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. There were no significant changes in CH (change = 0.05 ± 1.5; P = 0.78) or CRF (change = 0.29 ± 1.4; P = 0.1) at 1 year compared with preoperative values. Changes in CH and CRF were not correlated with changes in clinical outcomes of uncorrected visual acuity, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, and maximum keratometry. There were no significant changes in CH in the sham or fellow eye control groups (P(sham) = 0.7; P(FE) = 0.3) or CRF (P(sham) = 0.6; P(FE) = 0.72). Despite an increase in CRF at one month, there were no statistically significant changes in CH and CRF measurements 1 year after CXL. Development of other in vivo biomechanical metrics would aid in evaluating the corneal response to CXL.

  9. Reduction of nasal volume after allergen-induced rhinitis in patients treated with rupatadine: a randomized, cross-over, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, A; Serrano, C; Bartrá, J; Izquierdo, I; Muñoz-Cano, R; Mullol, J; Picado, C

    2009-01-01

    To measure the reduction in nasal obstruction using acoustic rhinometry in patients with allergic rhinitis treated with rupatadine. We performed a randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled clinical trial in asymptomatic patients with allergic rhinitis. Patients received rupatadine 10 mg or placebo once daily for 3 days, in 2 subsequent periods separated by a washout interval of 14 days. We performed a nasal allergen challenge during each period, and measured nasal volume using acoustic rhinometry and nasal nitric oxide (nNO) at baseline, and at 2 hours and 24 hours after the challenge. We also evaluated nasal symptoms (rhinorrhea, itching, obstruction, and sneezing), as well as total symptom score (T4SS) at the same time points as for the primary objective. The study population comprised 30 outpatients with a mean (SD) age of 28 (10) years. Nasal airway blockage was significantly lower in the rupatadine group than in the placebo group (47%, P rupatadine-treated patients remained unaltered, unlike in the placebo-treated group, where levels decreased at 2 hours. After treatment with rupatadine, patients showed a lower decrease in the mean total symptoms score at 2 hours (3.6 [2.6]) compared with placebo (3.9 [2.9]), although these differences did not achieve statistical significance. Overall, rupatadine was well tolerated and no serious or unexpected adverse events were observed. Rupatadine 10 mg can reduce nasal obstruction assessed by objective measures and is well tolerated in patients with allergic rhinitis.

  10. A Valid Matérn Class of Cross-Covariance Functions for Multivariate Random Fields With Any Number of Components

    KAUST Repository

    Apanasovich, Tatiyana V.

    2012-03-01

    We introduce a valid parametric family of cross-covariance functions for multivariate spatial random fields where each component has a covariance function from a well-celebrated Matérn class. Unlike previous attempts, our model indeed allows for various smoothnesses and rates of correlation decay for any number of vector components.We present the conditions on the parameter space that result in valid models with varying degrees of complexity. We discuss practical implementations, including reparameterizations to reflect the conditions on the parameter space and an iterative algorithm to increase the computational efficiency. We perform various Monte Carlo simulation experiments to explore the performances of our approach in terms of estimation and cokriging. The application of the proposed multivariate Matérnmodel is illustrated on two meteorological datasets: temperature/pressure over the Pacific Northwest (bivariate) and wind/temperature/pressure in Oklahoma (trivariate). In the latter case, our flexible trivariate Matérn model is valid and yields better predictive scores compared with a parsimonious model with common scale parameters. © 2012 American Statistical Association.

  11. Efficacy of a Nasal Spray from Citrus limon and Cydonia oblonga for the Treatment of Hay Fever Symptoms-A Randomized, Placebo Controlled Cross-Over Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, A; Klein, S D; Gründemann, C; Garcia-Käufer, M; Wolf, U; Huber, R

    2016-09-01

    Nasal spray from lemon and quince (LQNS) is used to treat hay fever symptoms and has been shown to inhibit histamine release from mast cells in vitro. Forty-three patients with grass pollen allergy (GPA) were randomized to be treated either with placebo or LQNS for one week, respectively, in a cross-over study. At baseline and after the respective treatments patients were provoked with grass pollen allergen. Outcome parameters were nasal flow measured with rhinomanometry (primary), a nasal symptom score, histamine in the nasal mucus and tolerability. In the per protocol population absolute inspiratory nasal flow 10 and 20 min after provocation was higher with LQNS compared to placebo (-37 ± 87 mL/s; p = 0.027 and -44 ± 85 mL/s; p = 0.022). The nasal symptom score showed a trend (3.3 ± 1.8 in the placebo and 2.8 ± 1.5 in the LQNS group; p = 0.070) in favor of LQNS; the histamine concentration was not significantly different between the groups. Tolerability of both, LQNS and placebo, was rated as very good. LQNS seems to have an anti-allergic effect in patients with GPA. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Influence of erythropoietin on cognitive performance during experimental hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a randomized cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Kjær, Troels Wesenberg; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Dela, Flemming; Holst, Jens Juul; Faber, Jens; Tarnow, Lise; Thorsteinsson, Birger

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of severe hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes has not decreased over the past decades. New treatment modalities minimizing the risk of hypoglycemic episodes and attenuating hypoglycemic cognitive dysfunction are needed. We studied if treatment with the neuroprotective hormone erythropoietin (EPO) enhances cognitive function during hypoglycemia. Eleven patients with type 1 diabetes, hypoglycemia unawareness and recurrent severe hypoglycemia completed the study. In a double-blind, randomized, balanced, cross-over study using clamped hypoglycemia they were treated with 40,000 IU of EPO or placebo administered intravenously six days before the two experiments. Cognitive function (primary endpoint), hypoglycemic symptoms, and counter-regulatory hormonal response were recorded. Compared with placebo, EPO treatment was associated with a significant reduction in errors in the most complex reaction time task (-4.7 (-8.1 to -1.3), p = 0.01) and a less reaction time prolongation (-66 (-117 to -16) msec, p = 0.02). EPO treatment did not change performance in other measures of cognition. Hypoglycemic symptoms, EEG-changes, and counter-regulatory hormone concentrations did not differ between EPO and placebo treatment. In patients with type 1 diabetes and hypoglycemia unawareness, treatment with EPO is associated with a beneficial effect on cognitive function in a complex reaction time task assessing sustained attention/working memory. Hypoglycemic symptoms and hormonal responses were not changed by EPO treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00615368.

  13. A Comparison of Regular Consumption of Fresh Lean Pork, Beef and Chicken on Body Composition: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Murphy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world and recent evidence shows that diets high in pork protein, with and without energy restriction, may have favourable effects on body composition. However, it is unclear whether these effects on body composition are specific to pork or whether consumption of other high protein meat diets may have the same benefit. Therefore we aimed to compare regular consumption of pork, beef and chicken on indices of adiposity. In a nine month randomised open-labelled cross-over intervention trial, 49 overweight or obese adults were randomly assigned to consume up to 1 kg/week of pork, chicken or beef, in an otherwise unrestricted diet for three months, followed by two further three month periods consuming each of the alternative meat options. BMI and waist/hip circumference were measured and body composition was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was assessed using three day weighed food diaries. Energy expenditure was estimated from activity diaries. There was no difference in BMI or any other marker of adiposity between consumption of pork, beef and chicken diets. Similarly there were no differences in energy or nutrient intakes between diets. After three months, regular consumption of lean pork meat as compared to that of beef and chicken results in similar changes in markers of adiposity of overweight and obese Australian middle-aged men and women.

  14. Phase III, randomized, double-blind, cross-over comparison of gadoteridol and gadopentetate dimeglumine in magnetic resonance imaging of patients with intracranial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, A; Parker, J R; Ratcliffe, C G; Kirchin, M A; McNamara, M T

    2001-11-01

    This study compares the efficacy and safety of gadoteridol with that of gadopentetate dimeglumine for enhanced MRI in subjects with intracranial lesions. A total of 92 subjects at three European centres underwent one MRI study enhanced with 0.1 mmol/kg gadoteridol and another with 0.1 mmol/kg gadopentetate dimeglumine. Contrast agents were assigned in random order, separated by 3-7 days. Eighty subjects were evaluated for efficacy. The presence of pathology, degree of enhancement, location and number of lesions, as well as additional information gained, were compared for each subject's unenhanced and enhanced scans for both the gadoteridol and gadopentetate dimeglumine examination. Safety was evaluated in all treated subjects by means of pre- and post-dose vital signs, laboratory tests and by monitoring for adverse events. There was no significant difference in the number of lesions visualized pre- and post-contrast for the two contrast agents. A high degree of correlation was noted between the two blinded readers. When post-contrast image sets were compared between contrast agents, there was no significant difference in superiority of one agent over the other for any of the evaluators (P > 0.05). No significant differences for any safety parameter were noted between the two agents. Gadoteridol and gadopentetate dimeglumine are effective and well tolerated for use in contrast-enhanced MRI of the CNS at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg.

  15. Effect of a Matrix Therapy Agent on Corneal Epithelial Healing After Standard Collagen Cross-linking in Patients With Keratoconus: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bata, Ahmed M; Witkowska, Katarzyna J; Wozniak, Piotr A; Fondi, Klemens; Schmidinger, Gerald; Pircher, Niklas; Szegedi, Stephan; Aranha Dos Santos, Valentin; Pantalon, Anca; Werkmeister, René M; Garhofer, Gerhard; Schmetterer, Leopold; Schmidl, Doreen

    2016-10-01

    Corneal abrasions are frequent after standard (epithelium-off [epi-off]) corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) in patients with progressive keratoconus. A new matrix therapy agent (ReGeneraTing Agent [RGTA]) has been developed to promote corneal wound healing. To assess the effect of the new type of matrix therapy agent on corneal wound healing after epi-off CXL in patients with keratoconus. This double-masked randomized clinical trial enrolled 40 patients with keratoconus undergoing epi-off CXL from July 18, 2014, to October 21, 2015, when the last follow-up was completed. The analysis of the intention-to-treat population was performed at the Department of Clinical Pharmacology in cooperation with the Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering and the Department of Ophthalmology and Optometry of the Medical University of Vienna. Patients were randomized to receive the matrix therapy agent or hyaluronic acid-containing eyedrops, 0.1%, every other day starting immediately after surgery. The size of the corneal defect was measured using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) and slitlamp photography (SLP) with fluorescein staining. Corneal wound healing rate, defined as the size of the defect over time. Among the 40 patients undergoing epi-off CXL (31 men; 9 women; mean [SD] age, 31 [10] years), wound healing was significantly faster in the matrix therapy agent group compared with the hyaluronic acid group (4.4 vs 6.1 days; mean difference, 1.7 days; 95% CI, 0.25-3.15 days; P = .008). The defect size was smaller in the matrix therapy agent group than in the hyaluronic acid group as measured with OCT (12.4 vs 23.9 mm2; mean difference, 11.6 mm2; 95% CI, 0.8-23.5 mm2; P = .045) and SLP (11.9 vs 23.5 mm2; mean difference, 11. 6 mm2; 95% CI, 1.3-22.9 mm2; P = .03). A correlation between the defect size measured with OCT and SLP was found (r = 0.89; P matrix therapy agent appears to improve corneal wound healing after CXL in

  16. The effect of purslane seeds on glycemic status and lipid profiles of persons with type 2 diabetes: A randomized controlled cross-over clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Esmaillzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We are aware of limited data about the effects of purslane on diabetes. Earlier studies have mostly indicated the beneficial effects in animal models. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of purslane seeds on glycemic status and lipid profiles of persons with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: This cross-over randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 48 persons with type 2 diabetes. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either 10 g/day purslane seeds with 240 cc low-fat yogurt (intervention group or only 240 cc low-fat yogurt (as a control group for 5 weeks. After a 2-week washout period, subjects were moved to the alternate arm for an additional 5 weeks. At baseline and end of each phase of the study, fasting blood samples were collected to quantify plasma glucose levels, as well as serum insulin and lipid profiles. Within-group and between-group changes in anthropometric measures, as well as biochemical indicators, were compared using a paired-samples t-test. Results: Mean age of study participants was 51.4 ± 6.0 year. We found a significant reduction in weight (−0.57 vs. 0.09 kg, P = 0.003 and body mass index (−0.23 vs. 0.02 kg/m 2 , P = 0.004 following purslane seeds consumption. Despite a slight reduction in fasting plasma glucose levels (−2.10 vs. −2.77 mg/dL, P = 0.90, we failed to find any significant effect on serum insulin levels and homeostatic model of assessment of insulin resistance score. Furthermore, purslane consumption decreased serum triglyceride levels (−25.5 vs. −1.8 mg/dL, P = 0.04 but could not affect serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol levels. We observed a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (−3.33 vs. 0.5 mmHg, P = 0.01 and a borderline significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure (−3.12 vs. −0.93 mmHg, P = 0.09 after purslane seeds intake. Conclusion: In summary, consumption of

  17. Combined short- and long-axis ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization is superior to conventional techniques: A cross-over randomized controlled manikin trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Takeshita

    Full Text Available Visualizing the needle tip using the short-axis (SA ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization approach can be challenging. It has been suggested to start the process with the SA approach and then switch to the long-axis (LA; however, to our knowledge, this combination has not been evaluated. We compared the combined short- and long-axis (SLA approach with the SA approach in a manikin study.We performed a prospective randomized controlled cross-over study in an urban emergency department and intensive care unit. Resident physicians in post-graduate years 1-2 performed a simulated ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein puncture using the SA and SLA approaches on manikins. Twenty resident physicians were randomly assigned to two equal groups: (1 one group performed punctures using the SA approach followed by SLA; and (2 the other performed the same procedures in the opposite order. We compared the success rate and procedure duration for the two approaches. Procedural success was defined as insertion of the guide-wire into the vein while visualizing the needle tip at the time of anterior wall puncture, without penetrating the posterior wall.Six resident physicians (30% performed both approaches successfully, while 12 (60% performed the SLA approach, but not the SA, successfully. Those who performed the SA approach successfully also succeeded with the SLA approach. Two resident physicians (10% failed to perform both approaches. The SLA approach had a significantly higher success rate than the SA approach (P < 0.001. The median (interquartile range procedure duration was 59.5 [46.0-88.5] seconds and 45.0 [37.5-84.0] seconds for the SLA and SA approaches, respectively. The difference of the duration between the two procedures was 15.5 [0-28.5] seconds. There was no significant difference in duration between the two approaches (P = 0.12.Using the SLA approach significantly improved the success rate of internal jugular vein puncture performed by

  18. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  19. Effects of synbiotic food consumption on metabolic status of diabetic patients: a double-blind randomized cross-over controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemi, Zatollah; Khorrami-Rad, Ashraf; Alizadeh, Sabihe-Alsadat; Shakeri, Hossein; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2014-04-01

    We are aware of no study indicating the effects of synbiotic food consumption on metabolic profiles, inflammation and oxidative stress among diabetic patients. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of synbiotic food consumption on metabolic profiles, hs-CRP and biomarkers of oxidative stress in diabetic patients. This randomized double-blinded cross-over controlled clinical trial was performed among 62 diabetic patients aged 35-70 y. After a 2-wk run-in period, subjects were randomly assigned to consume either a synbiotic (n = 62) or control food (n = 62) for 6 weeks. A 3-week washout period was applied following which subjects were crossed over to the alternate treatment arm for an additional 6 weeks. The synbiotic food consisted of a probiotic viable and heat-resistant Lactobacillus sporogenes (1 × 10(7) CFU), 0.04 g inulin (HPX) as prebiotic with 0.38 g isomalt, 0.36 g sorbitol and 0.05 g stevia as sweetener per 1 g. Control food (the same substance without probiotic bacteria and prebiotic inulin) was packed in identical 9-gram packages. Patients were asked to consume the synbiotic and control foods three times a day. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after a 6-wk intervention to measure metabolic profiles, hs-CRP and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Consumption of a synbiotic food, compared to the control, resulted in a significant decrease in serum insulin levels (changes from baseline: -1.75 ± 0.60 vs. +0.95 ± 1.09 μIU/mL, P = 0.03). Although we failed to find a significant effect of synbiotic food consumption on total- and LDL-cholesterol levels and HOMA-IR, the effects on FPG (22.3 vs. 4.2 mg/dL, P = 0.09), serum triglycerides (45.9 vs. 20.6 mg/dL, P = 0.08) and HDL-cholesterol levels (3.1 vs. -2 mg/dL, P = 0.06) tended to be significant. A significant reduction in serum hs-CRP levels (-1057.86 ± 283.74 vs. 95.40 ± 385.38 ng/mL, P = 0.01) was found following the consumption of synbiotic food compared with the

  20. Effect of hawthorn standardized extract on flow mediated dilation in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults: a randomized, controlled cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Gary N; Viera, Anthony J; Weaver, Mark A; Dominik, Rosalie; Caughey, Melissa; Hinderliter, Alan L

    2012-03-29

    Hawthorn extract has been used for cardiovascular diseases for centuries. Recent trials have demonstrated its efficacy for the treatment of heart failure, and the results of several small trials suggest it may lower blood pressure. However, there is little published evidence to guide its dosing. The blood pressure lowering effect of hawthorn has been linked to nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between hawthorn extract dose and brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD), an indirect measure of nitric oxide release. We used a four-period cross-over design to evaluate brachial artery FMD in response to placebo or hawthorn extract (standardized to 50 mg oligomeric procyanidin per 250 mg extract). Randomly sequenced doses of hawthorn extract (1000 mg, 1500 mg, and 2500 mg) and placebo were assigned to each participant. Doses were taken twice daily for 3 1/2 days followed by FMD and a 4-day washout before proceeding to the next dosing period. Twenty-one prehypertensive or mildly hypertensive adults completed the study. There was no evidence of a dose-response effect for our main outcome (FMD percent) or any of our secondary outcomes (absolute change in brachial artery diameter and blood pressure). Most participants indicated that if given evidence that hawthorn could lower their blood pressure, they would be likely to use it either in conjunction with or instead of lifestyle modification or anti-hypertensive medications. We found no evidence of a dose-response effect of hawthorn extract on FMD. If hawthorn has a blood pressure lowering effect, it is likely to be mediated via an NO-independent mechanism. This trial has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, a service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health: NCT01331486.

  1. Co-localized or randomly distributed? Pair cross correlation of in vivo grown subgingival biofilm bacteria quantified by digital image analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Schillinger

    Full Text Available The polymicrobial nature of periodontal diseases is reflected by the diversity of phylotypes detected in subgingival plaque and the finding that consortia of suspected pathogens rather than single species are associated with disease development. A number of these microorganisms have been demonstrated in vitro to interact and enhance biofilm integration, survival or even pathogenic features. To examine the in vivo relevance of these proposed interactions, we extended the spatial arrangement analysis tool of the software daime (digital image analysis in microbial ecology. This modification enabled the quantitative analysis of microbial co-localization in images of subgingival biofilm species, where the biomass was confined to fractions of the whole-image area, a situation common for medical samples. Selected representatives of the disease-associated red and orange complexes that were previously suggested to interact with each other in vitro (Tannerella forsythia with Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis with Prevotella intermedia were chosen for analysis and labeled with specific fluorescent probes via fluorescence in situ hybridization. Pair cross-correlation analysis of in vivo grown biofilms revealed tight clustering of F. nucleatum/periodonticum and T. forsythia at short distances (up to 6 µm with a pronounced peak at 1.5 µm. While these results confirmed previous in vitro observations for F. nucleatum and T. forsythia, random spatial distribution was detected between P. gingivalis and P. intermedia in the in vivo samples. In conclusion, we successfully employed spatial arrangement analysis on the single cell level in clinically relevant medical samples and demonstrated the utility of this approach for the in vivo validation of in vitro observations by analyzing statistically relevant numbers of different patients. More importantly, the culture-independent nature of this approach enables similar quantitative analyses for "as

  2. Co-localized or randomly distributed? Pair cross correlation of in vivo grown subgingival biofilm bacteria quantified by digital image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillinger, Claudia; Petrich, Annett; Lux, Renate; Riep, Birgit; Kikhney, Judith; Friedmann, Anton; Wolinsky, Lawrence E; Göbel, Ulf B; Daims, Holger; Moter, Annette

    2012-01-01

    The polymicrobial nature of periodontal diseases is reflected by the diversity of phylotypes detected in subgingival plaque and the finding that consortia of suspected pathogens rather than single species are associated with disease development. A number of these microorganisms have been demonstrated in vitro to interact and enhance biofilm integration, survival or even pathogenic features. To examine the in vivo relevance of these proposed interactions, we extended the spatial arrangement analysis tool of the software daime (digital image analysis in microbial ecology). This modification enabled the quantitative analysis of microbial co-localization in images of subgingival biofilm species, where the biomass was confined to fractions of the whole-image area, a situation common for medical samples. Selected representatives of the disease-associated red and orange complexes that were previously suggested to interact with each other in vitro (Tannerella forsythia with Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis with Prevotella intermedia) were chosen for analysis and labeled with specific fluorescent probes via fluorescence in situ hybridization. Pair cross-correlation analysis of in vivo grown biofilms revealed tight clustering of F. nucleatum/periodonticum and T. forsythia at short distances (up to 6 µm) with a pronounced peak at 1.5 µm. While these results confirmed previous in vitro observations for F. nucleatum and T. forsythia, random spatial distribution was detected between P. gingivalis and P. intermedia in the in vivo samples. In conclusion, we successfully employed spatial arrangement analysis on the single cell level in clinically relevant medical samples and demonstrated the utility of this approach for the in vivo validation of in vitro observations by analyzing statistically relevant numbers of different patients. More importantly, the culture-independent nature of this approach enables similar quantitative analyses for "as

  3. Influence of Erythropoietin on Cognitive Performance during Experimental Hypoglycemia in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Kjær, Troels Wesenberg; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Dela, Flemming; Holst, Jens Juul; Faber, Jens; Tarnow, Lise; Thorsteinsson, Birger

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of severe hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes has not decreased over the past decades. New treatment modalities minimizing the risk of hypoglycemic episodes and attenuating hypoglycemic cognitive dysfunction are needed. We studied if treatment with the neuroprotective hormone erythropoietin (EPO) enhances cognitive function during hypoglycemia. Materials and Methods Eleven patients with type 1 diabetes, hypoglycemia unawareness and recurrent severe hypoglycemia completed the study. In a double-blind, randomized, balanced, cross-over study using clamped hypoglycemia they were treated with 40,000 IU of EPO or placebo administered intravenously six days before the two experiments. Cognitive function (primary endpoint), hypoglycemic symptoms, and counter-regulatory hormonal response were recorded. Results Compared with placebo, EPO treatment was associated with a significant reduction in errors in the most complex reaction time task (−4.7 (−8.1 to −1.3), p = 0.01) and a less reaction time prolongation (−66 (−117 to −16) msec, p = 0.02). EPO treatment did not change performance in other measures of cognition. Hypoglycemic symptoms, EEG-changes, and counter-regulatory hormone concentrations did not differ between EPO and placebo treatment. Conclusion In patients with type 1 diabetes and hypoglycemia unawareness, treatment with EPO is associated with a beneficial effect on cognitive function in a complex reaction time task assessing sustained attention/working memory. Hypoglycemic symptoms and hormonal responses were not changed by EPO treatment. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00615368 PMID:23577069

  4. Effect of hawthorn standardized extract on flow mediated dilation in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults: a randomized, controlled cross-over trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Gary N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hawthorn extract has been used for cardiovascular diseases for centuries. Recent trials have demonstrated its efficacy for the treatment of heart failure, and the results of several small trials suggest it may lower blood pressure. However, there is little published evidence to guide its dosing. The blood pressure lowering effect of hawthorn has been linked to nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between hawthorn extract dose and brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD, an indirect measure of nitric oxide release. Methods We used a four-period cross-over design to evaluate brachial artery FMD in response to placebo or hawthorn extract (standardized to 50 mg oligomeric procyanidin per 250 mg extract. Randomly sequenced doses of hawthorn extract (1000 mg, 1500 mg, and 2500 mg and placebo were assigned to each participant. Doses were taken twice daily for 3 1/2 days followed by FMD and a 4-day washout before proceeding to the next dosing period. Results Twenty-one prehypertensive or mildly hypertensive adults completed the study. There was no evidence of a dose-response effect for our main outcome (FMD percent or any of our secondary outcomes (absolute change in brachial artery diameter and blood pressure. Most participants indicated that if given evidence that hawthorn could lower their blood pressure, they would be likely to use it either in conjunction with or instead of lifestyle modification or anti-hypertensive medications. Conclusion We found no evidence of a dose-response effect of hawthorn extract on FMD. If hawthorn has a blood pressure lowering effect, it is likely to be mediated via an NO-independent mechanism. Trial Registration This trial has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, a service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health: NCT01331486.

  5. Doxycycline-mediated effects on persistent symptoms and systemic cytokine responses post-neuroborreliosis: a randomized, prospective, cross-over study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Persistent symptoms after treatment of neuroborreliosis (NB) are well-documented, although the causative mechanisms are mainly unknown. The effect of repeated antibiotic treatment has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to determine whether: (1) persistent symptoms improve with doxycycline treatment; (2) doxycycline has an influence on systemic cytokine responses, and; (3) improvement of symptoms could be due to doxycycline-mediated immunomodulation. Methods/Design 15 NB patients with persistent symptoms ≥6 months post-treatment were double-blindly randomized to receive 200 mg of doxycycline or a placebo for three weeks. After a six-week wash-out period, a cross-over with a three-week course of a placebo or doxycycline was conducted. The primary outcome measures were improvement of persistent symptoms assessed by neurological examinations, a symptom severity score and estimation of the quality of life. The secondary outcome measure was changes in systemic cytokine responses. Results All 15 patients finished the study. No doxycycline-mediated improvement of post-treatment symptoms or quality of life was observed. Nor could any doxycycline-mediated changes in systemic cytokine responses be detected. The study was completed without any serious adverse events. Discussion No doxycycline-mediated improvement of post-treatment symptoms or quality of life was observed. Nor could any doxycycline-mediated changes in systemic cytokine responses be detected. The study was completed without any serious adverse events. To conclude, in this pilot study, doxycycline-treatment did not lead to any improvement of either the persistent symptoms or quality of life in post-NB patients. Accordingly, doxycycline does not seem to be the optimal treatment of diverse persistent symptoms post-NB. However, the results need to be confirmed in larger studies. Trial registration NCT01205464 (clinicaltrials.gov) PMID:22876748

  6. Intravenous amantadine for freezing of gait resistant to dopaminergic therapy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Eun; Yun, Ji Young; Yang, Hui June; Kim, Han-Joon; Gu, Namyi; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Cho, Joo-Youn; Jeon, Beom S

    2012-01-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) is one of the most disabling symptoms in Parkinsonism. Open-label studies have suggested that intravenous (IV) amantadine is effective against FOG resistant to dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). We evaluated the efficacy of IV amantadine on FOG resistant to dopaminergic therapy. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study on IV amantadine. The placebo (normal saline) and amantadine (400 mg/day) were injected for 2 days with a 52-hour washout period. The instruments for the outcome measures were the Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOGQ), Unified Parkinson's disease rating Scale (UPDRS), and the duration of the 4×10 m walking test. The placebo arm was compared to the amantadine arm. Ten patients were enrolled but two patients withdrew, one from each arm. The FOGQ and UPDRS scores and the duration of the 4×10 m walking test improved in both arms compared to the baseline (Pamantadine arm and placebo arm (P = 0.368, P = 0.583, P = 0.206, respectively). Follow-up measures 2 weeks after discharge in an open-label study showed the beneficial effects of an amantadine tablet on FOG (FOGQ, P = 0.018; UPDRS, P = 0.012 respectively). This double blind, placebo-controlled study did not show the efficacy of IV amantadine on FOG when compared with the placebo. This study provides Class II evidence due to small sample size for the lack of benefit of IV amantadine on FOG resistant to dopaminergic therapy Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01313819.

  7. Doxycycline-mediated effects on persistent symptoms and systemic cytokine responses post-neuroborreliosis: a randomized, prospective, cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjöwall Johanna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent symptoms after treatment of neuroborreliosis (NB are well-documented, although the causative mechanisms are mainly unknown. The effect of repeated antibiotic treatment has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to determine whether: (1 persistent symptoms improve with doxycycline treatment; (2 doxycycline has an influence on systemic cytokine responses, and; (3 improvement of symptoms could be due to doxycycline-mediated immunomodulation. Methods/Design 15 NB patients with persistent symptoms ≥6 months post-treatment were double-blindly randomized to receive 200 mg of doxycycline or a placebo for three weeks. After a six-week wash-out period, a cross-over with a three-week course of a placebo or doxycycline was conducted. The primary outcome measures were improvement of persistent symptoms assessed by neurological examinations, a symptom severity score and estimation of the quality of life. The secondary outcome measure was changes in systemic cytokine responses. Results All 15 patients finished the study. No doxycycline-mediated improvement of post-treatment symptoms or quality of life was observed. Nor could any doxycycline-mediated changes in systemic cytokine responses be detected. The study was completed without any serious adverse events. Discussion No doxycycline-mediated improvement of post-treatment symptoms or quality of life was observed. Nor could any doxycycline-mediated changes in systemic cytokine responses be detected. The study was completed without any serious adverse events. To conclude, in this pilot study, doxycycline-treatment did not lead to any improvement of either the persistent symptoms or quality of life in post-NB patients. Accordingly, doxycycline does not seem to be the optimal treatment of diverse persistent symptoms post-NB. However, the results need to be confirmed in larger studies. Trial registration NCT01205464 (clinicaltrials.gov

  8. Bioavailability of fatty acids from krill oil, krill meal and fish oil in healthy subjects--a randomized, single-dose, cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Anton; Sarkkinen, Essi; Tapola, Niina; Niskanen, Tarja; Bruheim, Inge

    2015-03-15

    Krill contains two marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), mainly bound in phospholipids. Typical products from krill are krill oil and krill meal. Fish oils contain EPA and DHA predominantly bound in triglycerides. The difference in the chemical binding of EPA and DHA has been suggested to affect their bioavailability, but little is known on bioavailability of EPA and DHA in krill meal. This study was undertaken to compare the acute bioavailability of two krill products, krill oil and krill meal, with fish oil in healthy subjects. A randomized, single-dose, single-blind, cross-over, active-reference trial was conducted in 15 subjects, who ingested krill oil, krill meal and fish oil, each containing approx. 1 700 mg EPA and DHA. Fatty acid compositions of plasma triglycerides and phospholipids were measured repeatedly for 72 hours. The primary efficacy analysis was based on the 72 hour incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of EPA and DHA in plasma phospholipid fatty acids. A larger iAUC for EPA and DHA in plasma phospholipid fatty acids was detected after krill oil (mean 89.08±33.36%×h) than after krill meal (mean 44.97±18.07%xh, poil (mean 59.15±22.22%×h, p=0.003). Mean iAUC's after krill meal and after fish oil were not different. A large inter-individual variability in response was observed. EPA and DHA in krill oil had a higher 72-hour bioavailability than in krill meal or fish oil. Our finding that bioavailabilities of EPA and DHA in krill meal and fish oil were not different argues against the interpretation that phospholipids are better absorbed than triglycerides. Longer-term studies using a parameter reflecting tissue fatty acid composition, like erythrocyte EPA plus DHA are needed. NCT02089165.

  9. Effects of Pycnogenol on endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enseleit, Frank; Sudano, Isabella; Périat, Daniel; Winnik, Stephan; Wolfrum, Mathias; Flammer, Andreas J; Fröhlich, Georg M; Kaiser, Priska; Hirt, Astrid; Haile, Sarah R; Krasniqi, Nazmi; Matter, Christian M; Uhlenhut, Klaus; Högger, Petra; Neidhart, Michel; Lüscher, Thomas F; Ruschitzka, Frank; Noll, Georg

    2012-07-01

    Extracts from pine tree bark containing a variety of flavonoids have been used in traditional medicine. Pycnogenol is a proprietary bark extract of the French maritime pine tree (Pinus pinaster ssp. atlantica) that exerts antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-platelet effects. However, the effects of Pycnogenol on endothelial dysfunction, a precursor of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events, remain still elusive. Twenty-three patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) completed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Patients received Pycnogenol (200 mg/day) for 8 weeks followed by placebo or vice versa on top of standard cardiovascular therapy. Between the two treatment periods, a 2-week washout period was scheduled. At baseline and after each treatment period, endothelial function, non-invasively assessed by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery using high-resolution ultrasound, biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation, platelet adhesion, and 24 h blood pressure monitoring were evaluated. In CAD patients, Pycnogenol treatment was associated with an improvement of FMD from 5.3 ± 2.6 to 7.0 ± 3.1 (P Pycnogenol treatment, while no change was observed in the placebo group (mean difference 0.06 pg/mL with an associated 95% CI (0.01, 0.11), P = 0.012]. Inflammation markers, platelet adhesion, and blood pressure did not change after treatment with Pycnogenol or placebo. This study provides the first evidence that the antioxidant Pycnogenol improves endothelial function in patients with CAD by reducing oxidative stress.

  10. Effect of breathing oxygen-enriched air on exercise performance in patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension: randomized, sham-controlled cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Silvia; Hasler, Elisabeth D; Saxer, Stéphanie; Furian, Michael; Müller-Mottet, Séverine; Keusch, Stephan; Bloch, Konrad E

    2017-04-14

    The purpose of the current trial was to test the hypothesis that breathing oxygen-enriched air increases exercise performance of patients with pulmonary arterial or chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension (PAH/CTEPH) and to investigate involved mechanisms. Twenty-two patients with PAH/CTEPH, eight women, means ± SD 61 ± 14 years, resting mPAP 35 ± 9mmHg, PaO2 ambient air >7.3 kPa, underwent four bicycle ergospirometries to exhaustion on different days, while breathing oxygen-enriched (FiO2 0.50, hyperoxia) or ambient air (FiO2 0.21, normoxia) using progressively increased or constant load protocols (with 75% maximal work rate under FiO2 0.21), according to a randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind, cross-over design. ECG, pulmonary gas-exchange, arterial blood gases, cerebral and quadriceps muscle tissue oxygenation (CTO and QMTO) by near-infrared spectroscopy were measured. In ramp exercise, maximal work rate increased from 113 ± 38 W with normoxia to 132 ± 48 W with hyperoxia, mean difference 19.7 (95% CI 10.5-28.9) W, P oxygen-enriched air provides major increases in exercise performance. This is related to an improved arterial oxygenation that promotes oxygen availability in muscles and brain and to a reduction of the excessive ventilatory response to exercise thereby enhancing ventilatory efficiency. Patients with PAH/CTEPH may therefore benefit from oxygen therapy during daily physical activities and training. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01748474.

  11. Area-specific modulation of neural activation comparing escitalopram and citalopram revealed by pharmaco-fMRI: a randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windischberger, Christian; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Holik, Alexander; Spindelegger, Christoph; Stein, Patrycja; Moser, Ulrike; Gerstl, Florian; Fink, Martin; Moser, Ewald; Kasper, Siegfried

    2010-01-15

    Area-specific and stimulation-dependent changes of human brain activation by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are an important issue for improved understanding of treatment mechanisms, given the frequent prescription of these drugs in depression and anxiety disorders. The aim of this neuroimaging study was to investigate differences in BOLD-signal caused by administration of the SSRIs escitalopram and citalopram using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging (pharmaco-fMRI). Eighteen healthy subjects participated in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study in cross-over repeated measures design. Each volunteer performed facial emotional discrimination and a sensorimotor control paradigm during three scanning sessions. Citalopram (20 mg/d), escitalopram (10 mg/d) and placebo were administered for 10 days each with a drug-free period of at least 21 days. Significant pharmacological effects on BOLD-signal were found in the amygdala, medial frontal gyrus, parahippocampal, fusiform and middle temporal gyri. Post-hoc t-tests revealed decreased BOLD-signal in the right amygdala and left parahippocampal gyrus in both pharmacological conditions, compared to placebo. Escitalopram, compared to citalopram, induced a decrease of BOLD-signal in the medial frontal gyrus and an increase in the right fusiform and left parahippocampal gyri. Drug effects were concentrated in brain regions with dense serotonergic projections. Both escitalopram and citalopram attenuated BOLD-signal in the amygdala and parahippocampal cortex to emotionally significant stimuli compared to control stimuli. We believe that reduced reactivity in the medial frontal gyrus found for escitalopram compared to citalopram administration might explain the response differences between study drugs as demonstrated in previous clinical trials.

  12. A single-dose, randomized, cross-over, two-way, open-label study for comparing the absorption of boswellic acids and its lecithin formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Artaria, Christian; Allegrini, Pietro; Meins, Jürgen; Savio, Daniele; Appendino, Giovanni; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2016-11-15

    The oral administration of the gum resin extracts of Indian frankincense (Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr) results in very low plasma concentrations of boswellic acids (BAs), being far below the pharmacologically active concentrations required in vitro for anti-inflammatory activity. For that reason the use of Indian frankincense in clinical practice and pharmaceutical development has substantially lagged behind. Recently the application of new formulation technologies resulted in a formulation of frankincense extract with lecithin, which revealed improved absorption and tissue penetration of BAs in a rodent study, leading for the first time to plasma concentrations of BAs in the range of their anti-inflammatory activity. In order to verify these encouraging results in humans, the absorption of a standardized Boswellia serrata extract (BE) and its lecithin formulation (CSP) was comparatively investigated in healthy volunteers. According to a randomized cross-over design with two treatments, two sequences and two periods, 12 volunteers alternatively received the lecithin-formulated Boswellia extract (CSP) or the non-formulated Boswellia extract (BE) at a dosage of 2×250mg capsules. The plasma concentrations of the six major BAs (KBA, AKBA, βBA, αBA, AβBA, AαBA) were determined using LC/MS. With the exception of KBA, a significantly higher (both in terms of weight-to-weight and molar comparison) and quicker absorption of BAs from the lecithin formulation was observed, leading to C max in the range required for the interaction with their molecular targets. These findings pave the way to further studies evaluating the clinical potential of BAs, and verify the beneficial effect of lecithin formulation to improve the absorption of poorly soluble phytochemicals. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  13. A Location Privacy Aware Friend Locator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas

    2009-01-01

    to trade their location privacy for quality of service, limiting the attractiveness of the services. The challenge is to develop a communication-efficient solution such that (i) it detects proximity between a user and the user’s friends, (ii) any other party is not allowed to infer the location of the user...

  14. Early Functional Postoperative Therapy of Distal Radius Fracture with a Dynamic Orthosis: Results of a Prospective Randomized Cross-Over Comparative Study: e0117720

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fabian M Stuby; Stefan Döbele; Susanne-Dorothea Schäffer; Simon Mueller; Atesch Ateschrang; Matthias Baumann; Derek Zieker

    2015-01-01

    .... Each patient randomly received either a dorsal plaster splint or a vacuum-fit flexible but blocked orthosis applied postoperatively in the operating theatre to achieve postoperative immobilization...

  15. Early functional postoperative therapy of distal radius fracture with a dynamic orthosis: results of a prospective randomized cross-over comparative study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stuby, Fabian M; Döbele, Stefan; Schäffer, Susanne-Dorothea; Mueller, Simon; Ateschrang, Atesch; Baumann, Matthias; Zieker, Derek

    2015-01-01

    .... Each patient randomly received either a dorsal plaster splint or a vacuum-fit flexible but blocked orthosis applied postoperatively in the operating theatre to achieve postoperative immobilization...

  16. Neuroregenerative potential of intravenous G-CSF and autologous peripheral blood stem cells in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Wee-Jin; Lee, Young-Ho; Moon, Jin-Hwa; Jun, Hyun-Ju; Kang, Hye-Ryeong; Koh, Hani; Eom, Hye Jung; Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Young Jun; Kim, Ji Young; Choi, Yun-Young; Park, Kyeongil; Kim, Mi Jung; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2017-01-21

    We performed a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study to assess the neuroregenerative potential of intravenous granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) followed by infusion of mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (mPBMCs) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Children with non-severe CP were enrolled in this study. G-CSF was administered for 5 days, then mPBMCs were collected by apheresis and cryopreserved. One month later (M1), recipients were randomized to receive either mPBMCs or a placebo infusion, and these treatment groups were switched at 7 months (M7) and observed for another 6 months (M13). We assessed the efficacy of treatment by evaluating neurodevelopmental tests, as well as by brain magnetic resonance imaging-diffusion tensor imaging (MRI-DTI) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) brain positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scanning to evaluate the anatomical and functional changes in the brain. Fifty-seven patients aged 4.3 ± 1.9 (range 2-10) years and weighing 16.6 ± 4.9 (range 11.6-56.0) kg were enrolled in this study. The administration of G-CSF as well as the collection and reinfusion of mPBMCs were safe and tolerable. The yield of mPBMCs was comparable to that reported in studies of pediatric donors without CP and patients with nonhematologic diseases. 42.6% of the patients responded to the treatment with higher neurodevelopmental scores than would normally be expected. In addition, larger changes in neurodevelopment test scores were observed in the 1 month after G-CSF administration (M0-M1) than during the 6 months after reinfusion with mPBMCs or placebo (M1-M7 or M7-M13). Patients who received G-CSF followed by mPBMC infusion at 7 months (T7 group) demonstrated significantly more neurodevelopmental improvement than patients who received G-CSF followed by mPBMC infusion at 1 month (T1 group). In contrast to the results of neurodevelopment tests, the results of MRI-DTI at the end of this study showed

  17. Effects of a 6-month multimodal training intervention on retention of functional fitness in older adults: A randomized-controlled cross-over design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudlaugsson Janus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older adults have the highest rates of disability, functional dependence and use of healthcare resources. Training interventions for older individuals are of special interest where regular physical activity (PA has many health benefits. The main purpose of this study was to assess the immediate and long-term effects of a 6-month multimodal training intervention (MTI on functional fitness in old adults. Methods For this study, 117 participants, 71 to 90 years old, were randomized in immediate intervention group and a control group (delayed intervention group. The intervention consisted of daily endurance and twice-a-week strength training. The method was based on a randomized-controlled cross-over design. Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB, 8 foot up-and-go test, strength performance, six min walking test (6 MW, physical activity, BMI and quality of life were obtained at baseline, after a 6-month intervention- and control phase, again after 6-month crossover- and delayed intervention phase, and after anadditional 6-month follow-up. Results After 6 months of MTI, the intervention group improved in physical performance compared with the control group via Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB score (mean diff = 0.6, 95 % CI: 0.1, 1.0 and 8-foot up-and-go test (mean diff = −1.0 s, 95 % CI: -1.5, -0.6, and in endurance performance via 6-minute walking test (6 MW (mean diff = 44.2 meters, 95 % CI: 17.1, 71.2. In strength performance via knee extension the intervention group improved while control group declined (mean diff = 55.0 Newton, 95 % CI: 28.4, 81.7, and also in PA (mean diff = 125.9 cpm, 95 % CI: 96.0, 155.8. Long-term effects of MTI on the particpants was assesed by estimating the mean difference in the variables measured between time-point 1 and 4: SPPB (1.1 points, 95 % CI: 0.8, 1.4; 8-foot up-and-go (−0.9 s, 95 % CI: -1.2, -0.6; 6 MW (18.7 m, 95 % CI: 6.5, 31.0; knee extension (4.2 Newton

  18. Comparison of Effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Primary Motor Cortex and Supplementary Motor Area in Motor Skill Learning (Randomized, Cross over Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YONG KYUN eKIM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Motor skills require quick visuomotor reaction time, fast movement time, and accurate performance. Primary motor cortex (M1 and supplementary motor area (SMA are closely related in learning motor skills. Also, it is well known that high frequency repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS on these sites has a facilitating effect. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high frequency rTMS activation of these two brain sites on learning of motor skills. Twenty three normal volunteers participated. Subjects were randomly stimulated on either brain area, SMA or M1. The motor task required the learning of sequential finger movements, explicitly or implicitly. It consisted of pressing the keyboard sequentially with their right hand on seeing 7 digits on the monitor explicitly, and then tapping the 7 digits by memorization, implicitly. Subjects were instructed to hit the keyboard as fast and accurately as possible. Using MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface, the keyboard pressing task was measured before and after high frequency rTMS for motor performance, which was measured by response time, movement time, and accuracy., A week later, the same task was repeated by cross-over study design. At this time, rTMS was applied on the other brain area. Two-way ANOVA was used to assess the carry over time effect and stimulation sites (M1 and SMA, as factors. Results indicated that no carry-over effect was observed. The AC and RT were not different between the two stimulating sites (M1 and SMA. But movement time was significantly decreased after rTMS on both SMA and M1. The amount of shortened movement time after rTMS on SMA was significantly increased as compared to the movement time after rTMS on M1 (p < 0.05, especially for implicit learning of motor tasks. The coefficient of variation was lower in implicit trial than in explicit trial. In conclusion, this finding indicated an important role of SMA compared to M1, in implicit motor

  19. A water-based training program that include perturbation exercises to improve stepping responses in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled cross-over trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsedek Irit

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gait and balance impairments may increase the risk of falls, the leading cause of accidental death in the elderly population. Fall-related injuries constitute a serious public health problem associated with high costs for society as well as human suffering. A rapid step is the most important protective postural strategy, acting to recover equilibrium and prevent a fall from initiating. It can arise from large perturbations, but also frequently as a consequence of volitional movements. We propose to use a novel water-based training program which includes specific perturbation exercises that will target the stepping responses that could potentially have a profound effect in reducing risk of falling. We describe the water-based balance training program and a study protocol to evaluate its efficacy (Trial registration number #NCT00708136. Methods/Design The proposed water-based training program involves use of unpredictable, multi-directional perturbations in a group setting to evoke compensatory and volitional stepping responses. Perturbations are made by pushing slightly the subjects and by water turbulence, in 24 training sessions conducted over 12 weeks. Concurrent cognitive tasks during movement tasks are included. Principles of physical training and exercise including awareness, continuity, motivation, overload, periodicity, progression and specificity were used in the development of this novel program. Specific goals are to increase the speed of stepping responses and improve the postural control mechanism and physical functioning. A prospective, randomized, cross-over trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis will be performed to evaluate the efficacy of the water-based training program. A total of 36 community-dwelling adults (age 65–88 with no recent history of instability or falling will be assigned to either the perturbation-based training or a control group (no training

  20. Effects of smartphone use with and without blue light at night in healthy adults: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Papakostas, George I; Kim, Min-Ji; Kim, Dong Jun; Chang, Kyung-Ah Judy; Oh, Yunhye; Yu, Bum-Hee; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2017-04-01

    Smartphones deliver light to users through Light Emitting Diode (LED) displays. Blue light is the most potent wavelength for sleep and mood. This study investigated the immediate effects of smartphone blue light LED on humans at night. We investigated changes in serum melatonin levels, cortisol levels, body temperature, and psychiatric measures with a randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled design of two 3-day admissions. Each subject played smartphone games with either conventional LED or suppressed blue light from 7:30 to 10:00PM (150 min). Then, they were readmitted and conducted the same procedure with the other type of smartphone. Serum melatonin levels were measured in 60-min intervals before, during and after use of the smartphones. Serum cortisol levels and body temperature were monitored every 120 min. The Profile of Mood States (POMS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), and auditory and visual Continuous Performance Tests (CPTs) were administered. Among the 22 participants who were each admitted twice, use of blue light smartphones was associated with significantly decreased sleepiness (Cohen's d = 0.49, Z = 43.50, p = 0.04) and confusion-bewilderment (Cohen's d = 0.53, Z = 39.00, p = 0.02), and increased commission error (Cohen's d = -0.59, t = -2.64, p = 0.02). Also, users of blue light smartphones experienced a longer time to reach dim light melatonin onset 50% (2.94 vs. 2.70 h) and had increases in body temperature, serum melatonin levels, and cortisol levels, although these changes were not statistically significant. Use of blue light LED smartphones at night may negatively influence sleep and commission errors, while it may not be enough to lead to significant changes in serum melatonin and cortisol levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness of robot-assisted gait training in children with cerebral palsy: a bicenter, pragmatic, randomized, cross-over trial (PeLoGAIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann-Reiffer, C; Bastiaenen, C H G; Meyer-Heim, A D; van Hedel, H J A

    2017-03-02

    Walking ability is a priority for many children with cerebral palsy (CP) and their parents when considering domains of importance regarding treatment interventions. Partial body-weight supported treadmill training has become an established therapeutic treatment approach to address this demand. Further, new robotic rehabilitation technologies have increasingly been implemented in the clinical setting to allow for longer training sessions with increased step repetitions while maintaining a consistent movement pattern. But the current evidence about its clinical effectiveness in pediatric rehabilitation is weak. The aim of this research project is therefore to investigate the effectiveness of robot-assisted gait training on improvements of functional gait parameters in children with cerebral palsy. Children aged 6 to 18 years with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy who are able to walk at least 14 m with or without walking aids will be recruited in two pediatric therapy centers in Switzerland. Within a pragmatic cross-over design with randomized treatment sequences, they perform 5 weeks of robot-assisted gait training (three times per week with a maximum of 45 min walking time each) or a 5-week period of standard treatment, which is individually customized to the needs of the child and usually consists of 1-2 sessions of physiotherapy per week and additional hippotherapy, circuit training as well as occupational therapy as necessary. Both interventions take place in an outpatient setting. The percentage score of the dimension E of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) as primary outcome as well as the dimension D of the GMFM-88, 6-minute and 10-meter walking tests as secondary outcomes are assessed before and at the end of each intervention period. Additionally, a 5-week follow-up assessment is scheduled for the children who are assigned to the standard treatment first. Treatment effects, period effects as well as follow-up effects are analyzed with paired

  2. Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Anita

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to compare the effects of a Paleolithic ('Old Stone Age' diet and a diabetes diet as generally recommended on risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes not treated with insulin. Methods In a randomized cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes, 3 women and 10 men, were instructed to eat a Paleolithic diet based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts; and a Diabetes diet designed in accordance with dietary guidelines during two consecutive 3-month periods. Outcome variables included changes in weight, waist circumference, serum lipids, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, and areas under the curve for plasma glucose and plasma insulin in the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Dietary intake was evaluated by use of 4-day weighed food records. Results Study participants had on average a diabetes duration of 9 years, a mean HbA1c of 6,6% units by Mono-S standard and were usually treated with metformin alone (3 subjects or metformin in combination with a sulfonylurea (3 subjects or a thiazolidinedione (3 subjects. Mean average dose of metformin was 1031 mg per day. Compared to the diabetes diet, the Paleolithic diet resulted in lower mean values of HbA1c (-0.4% units, p = 0.01, triacylglycerol (-0.4 mmol/L, p = 0.003, diastolic blood pressure (-4 mmHg, p = 0.03, weight (-3 kg, p = 0.01, BMI (-1 kg/m2, p = 0.04 and waist circumference (-4 cm, p = 0.02, and higher mean values of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+0.08 mmol/L, p = 0.03. The Paleolithic diet was mainly lower in cereals and dairy products, and higher in fruits, vegetables, meat and eggs, as compared with the Diabetes diet. Further, the Paleolithic diet was lower in total energy, energy density, carbohydrate, dietary glycemic load, saturated fatty acids and calcium, and higher in unsaturated fatty acids, dietary cholesterol and several vitamins. Dietary GI

  3. Rinsing with alcohol-free or alcohol-based chlorhexidine solutions after periodontal surgery. A double-blind, randomized, cross-over, pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Helena; Asklöw, Barbro; Johansson, Eva; Slotte, Christer

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this randomized, double-blind, cross-over pilot study was to evaluate the effect on plaque formation and patient experience of rinsing after periodontal surgery using chlorhexidine solution with or without alcohol. Twenty patients refrained from tooth brushing after surgery and used two mouth rinses.Ten patients used alcohol-based (AB) 0.1% and another ten used alcohol-free (AF) 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX). Sutures were removed after 2 weeks and teeth were cleaned; thereafter, the two groups shifted solution. Plaque at operated teeth was recorded at 2 and 4 weeks (Quigley-Hein Index). Patient experience was assessed with a visual analogue scale (0-10). Mean (SD) plaque indices at 2 and 4 weeks were 1.0 (0.8) and 1.1 (1.0) for AB CHX and 1.1 (0.7) and 0.8 (0.7) for AF CHX, respectively (no significant differences between solutions). At 2 weeks, between-group differences in taste experience of the solutions differed non-significantly: 6.1 (2.8) for AB and 6.0 (2.3) for AF. At 4 weeks, values were 4.6 (2.5) for AB and 6.9 (3.3) for AF-patients tended to prefer AF (p = 0.050). Taste change over the study period was equal for both groups: -37 (3.3) for AB and 3.4 (2.3) for AF at 2 weeks and slightly higher at 4 weeks 4.9 (2.8) and 4.5 (2.5) for AB and AF, respectively. Smarting was low in both groups: 2.2 (3.2) and 1.3 (2.2) for AB and 1.0 (1.5) and 1.9 (2.0) for AF at 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. To conclude, alcohol-free and alcohol-based chlorhexidine showed the same plaque inhibitory effect in periodontal patients after periodontal surgery. Both rinses were well tolerated by the patients.

  4. Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP supplements are not orally bioavailable: a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in healthy humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arts Ilja CW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutritional supplements designed to increase adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP concentrations are commonly used by athletes as ergogenic aids. ATP is the primary source of energy for the cells, and supplementation may enhance the ability to maintain high ATP turnover during high-intensity exercise. Oral ATP supplements have beneficial effects in some but not all studies examining physical performance. One of the remaining questions is whether orally administered ATP is bioavailable. We investigated whether acute supplementation with oral ATP administered as enteric-coated pellets led to increased concentrations of ATP or its metabolites in the circulation. Methods Eight healthy volunteers participated in a cross-over study. Participants were given in random order single doses of 5000 mg ATP or placebo. To prevent degradation of ATP in the acidic environment of the stomach, the supplement was administered via two types of pH-sensitive, enteric-coated pellets (targeted at release in the proximal or distal small intestine, or via a naso-duodenal tube. Blood ATP and metabolite concentrations were monitored by HPLC for 4.5 h (naso-duodenal tube or 7 h (pellets post-administration. Areas under the concentration vs. time curve were calculated and compared by paired-samples t-tests. Results ATP concentrations in blood did not increase after ATP supplementation via enteric-coated pellets or naso-duodenal tube. In contrast, concentrations of the final catabolic product of ATP, uric acid, were significantly increased compared to placebo by ~50% after administration via proximal-release pellets (P = 0.003 and naso-duodenal tube (P = 0.001, but not after administration via distal-release pellets. Conclusions A single dose of orally administered ATP is not bioavailable, and this may explain why several studies did not find ergogenic effects of oral ATP supplementation. On the other hand, increases in uric acid after release of

  5. Short-Term Effects of Lupin vs. Whey Supplementation on Glucose and Insulin Responses to a Standardized Meal in a Randomized Cross-Over Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopen, Kathrin; Ewald, Ann C; Johannes, Bernd W; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn; Frings-Meuthen, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Whey protein is known to reduce postprandial glycaemia in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lupin as a vegetable source of protein could be considered as an alternative, as the percentage of vegetarian and vegan consumers is raising. The present study compares the acute glycemic effects of whey and lupin in healthy volunteers following a carbohydrate-rich reference meal. Methods In cross-over design, three standardized meals (reference meal; reference meal + whey; reference meal + lupin) were provided to 12 healthy male and female volunteers, aged between 23 and 33, in a balanced, randomized order. Volunteers' blood glucose and insulin concentrations were analyzed at baseline and at seven time points following the ingestion of the meals. Results: The supplementation of whey or lupin significantly blunted the postprandial increase in blood glucose concentrations compared to the reference meal (p < 0.001). In the overall statistical analysis, this effect was comparable for whey and lupin [Δ AUC whey-lupin = 8%, 0-60 min area under the curve (0-60 min AUC), p = 0.937], with a blunting effect of -46% by whey (p = 0.005, 0-60 min AUC) and of -54% by lupin (p < 0.001, 0-60 min AUC). When comparing whey and lupin data only, the insulin increase was found to be more pronounced for whey protein than for lupin supplementation (Δ AUC whey-lupin = 39%, 0-60 min AUC, p = 0.022). However, when comparing the insulin response of each supplementation to the one of the reference meal, no differences could be detected (whey p = 0.259, 0-60 min AUC; lupin p = 0.275, 0-60 min AUC). Conclusions: Results suggest that lupin and whey can both lower the increase of postprandial blood glucose concentrations to a comparable extent, implying the usability of lupin to reduce postprandial glycaemia. However, the insulin response following the supplementations to a carbohydrate-rich meal seems to differ for these two protein sources.

  6. Effect of serving size and addition of sugar on the glycemic response elicited by oatmeal: A randomized, cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Thomas M S; van Klinken, B Jan-Willem; Spruill, Susan E; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Chu, YiFang; Harkness, Laura

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to determine the impact of serving size and addition of sucrose on the glycemic response elicited by oatmeal. We studied 38 healthy subjects (mean ± SD age 40 ± 12 yr, BMI 26.4 ± 3.6 kg/m(2)) on 8 separate days using a randomized, cross-over design. Capillary blood-glucose responses over 2hr after consuming 30, 40 and 60 g Classic Quaker Quick Oats (18, 24 and 36 g available-carbohydrate [avCHO], respectively) and 30 g Oats plus 9 g sucrose (27 g avCHO) were compared with those after avCHO-matched servings of Cream of Rice cereal (Control) (22, 29, 44 and 33 g cereal, respectively). Blood-glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC), peak-rise, rate-of-decline, time-to-peak and time-to-baseline were calculated. As serving size increased, iAUC, peak-rise, rate-of-decline and time-to-baseline increased significantly for both cereals, but the rate of increase was significantly greater for Control than for Oats. Time-to-peak increased significantly with serving size only for Oats. Compared to avCHO-matched servings of Control, mean (95%CI) iAUC, peak-rise and rate-of-decline, respectively were 22 (16, 27)%, 22 (19, 26)% and 23 (18, 27)% lower after consuming Oats without sucrose and 26 (18, 34)%, 14 (9, 20)% and 16 (9, 24)% lower after consuming Oats plus sucrose. Oatmeal elicited a significantly lower glycemic response than avCHO-matched servings of Cream of Rice, even when sucrose was added to the oatmeal. Measures of glycemic response tended to increase with increased serving size; although the pattern of change varied between cereal types. These results suggest that oatmeal may be a good choice for minimizing postprandial glycemia. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02506972). Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  8. Shapley Facility Location Games

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Porat, Omer; Tennenholtz, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    Facility location games have been a topic of major interest in economics, operations research and computer science, starting from the seminal work by Hotelling. Spatial facility location models have successfully predicted the outcome of competition in a variety of scenarios. In a typical facility location game, users/customers/voters are mapped to a metric space representing their preferences, and each player picks a point (facility) in that space. In most facility location games considered i...

  9. Location, Location, Location: Where Do Location-Based Services Fit into Your Institution's Social Media Mix?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekritz, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Foursquare is a location-based social networking service that allows users to share their location with friends. Some college administrators have been thinking about whether and how to take the leap into location-based services, which are also known as geosocial networking services. These platforms, which often incorporate gaming elements like…

  10. Location, location, location: the BRMS1 protein and melanoma progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riker Adam I

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The metastasis suppressor, BRMS1, has been demonstrated to cause dramatic regression of metastatic lesions without blocking orthotopic tumor growth. The role of BRMS1 is well-documented for several non-melanoma malignancies, such as breast cancer, ovarian cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer. However, its role in melanoma is just beginning to be understood, with a recent article by Slipicevic et al. highlighting the levels of expression of BRMS1 in benign nevi, primary and metastatic melanoma samples. Their findings emphasize that the intracellular location of BRMS1 protein (cytoplasmic or nuclear, appears to have a significant impact upon the metastatic capacity of melanoma cells. Interestingly, this selective localization translates into a statistically significant decrease in the relapse-free period in melanoma patients, further associated with a thicker Breslow's depth of primary melanomas. However, and more importantly, this study begins to define a clearer role for BRMS1 in melanoma that is strictly dependent upon its cellular location, with nuclear expression associated with invasive and metastatic capacity and cytoplasmic expression resulting in repressive effects upon progression and metastasis. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/12/73

  11. Smartphones as locative media

    CERN Document Server

    Frith, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone adoption has surpassed 50% of the population in more than 15 countries, and there are now more than one million mobile applications people can download to their phones. Many of these applications take advantage of smartphones as locative media, which is what allows smartphones to be located in physical space. Applications that take advantage of people's location are called location-based services, and they are the focus of this book. Smartphones as locative media raise important questions about how we understand the complicated relationship between the Internet and physical space

  12. Noise Source Location Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed O’Keefe

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a method to determine locations of noise sources that minimize modal coupling in complex acoustic volumes. Using the acoustic source scattering capabilities of the boundary element method, predictions are made of mode shape and pressure levels due to various source locations. Combining knowledge of the pressure field with a multivariable function minimization technique, the source location generating minimum pressure levels can be determined. The analysis also allows for an objective comparison of “best/worst” locations. The technique was implemented on a personal computer for the U.S. Space Station, predicting 5–10 dB noise reduction using optimum source locations.

  13. Effect of the dietary supplement Meltdown on catecholamine secretion, markers of lipolysis, and metabolic rate in men and women: a randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher-Wellman Kelsey H

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently reported that the dietary supplement Meltdown® increases plasma norepinephrine (NE, epinephrine (EPI, glycerol, free fatty acids (FFA, and metabolic rate in men. However, in that investigation measurements ceased at 90 minutes post ingestion, with values for blood borne variables peaking at this time. It was the purpose of the present investigation to extend the time course of measurement to 6 hours, and to include women within the design to determine if sex differences to treatment exist. Methods Ten men (24 ± 4 yrs and 10 women (22 ± 2 yrs ingested Meltdown® or a placebo, using a randomized, cross-over design with one week separating conditions. Blood samples were collected immediately before supplementation and at one hour intervals through 6 hours post ingestion. A standard meal was provided after the hour 3 collection. Samples were assayed for EPI, NE, glycerol, and FFA. Five minute breath samples were collected at each time for measurement of metabolic rate and substrate utilization. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all times. Data were also analyzed using a 2 (sex × 2 (condition × 7 (time repeated measures analysis of variance, with Tukey post hoc testing. Results No sex × condition interactions were noted for AUC for any variable (p > 0.05. Hence, AUC data are collapsed across men and women. AUC was greater for Meltdown® compared to placebo for EPI (367 ± 58 pg·mL-1·6 hr-1 vs. 183 ± 27 pg·mL-1·6 hr-1; p = 0.01, NE (2345 ± 205 pg·mL-1·6 hr-1 vs. 1659 ± 184 pg·mL-1·6 hr-1; p = 0.02, glycerol (79 ± 8 μg·mL-1·6 hr-1 vs. 59 ± 6 μg·mL-1·6 hr-1; p = 0.03, FFA (2.46 ± 0.64 mmol·L-1·6 hr-1 vs. 1.57 ± 0.42 mmol·L-1·6 hr-1; p = 0.05, and kilocalorie expenditure (439 ± 26 kcal·6 hrs-1 vs. 380 ± 14 kcal·6 hrs-1; p = 0.02. No effect was noted for substrate utilization (p = 0.39. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure

  14. Comparison of Primary Hip Spica with Crossed Retrograde Intramedullary Rush Pins for the Management of Diaphyseal Femur Fractures in Children: A Prospective, Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ruhullah

    2013-12-01

    Conclusions: Intra-medullary crossed Rush pinning is an effective method of paediatric diaphyseal femur fracture fixation as compared to primary hip spica in terms of early weight bearing and restoration of normal anatomy.

  15. Transport theory of deeply inelastic heavy-ion collisions based on a random-matrix model. III. Calculation of cross sections. Comparison with the reaction Ar+Th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agassi, D.; Ko, C.M.; Weidenmueller, H.A.

    1979-02-01

    The transport equation deduced previously is cast into a form which allows for numerical computation of cross sections. The approximations, especially the moments approach, are exhibited, as are the essential points of the numerical procedure. The validity of the Einstein relation is discussed. Doubly differential cross sections for various fragments produced in the reaction /sup 40/Ar+/sup 232/Th are calculated and compared with experimental data.

  16. Robustness in facility location

    OpenAIRE

    Van Lokven, Sander W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Facility location concerns the placement of facilities, for various objectives, by use of mathematical models and solution procedures. Almost all facility location models that can be found in literature are based on minimizing costs or maximizing cover, to cover as much demand as possible. These models are quite efficient for finding an optimal location for a new facility for a particular data set, which is considered to be constant and known in advance. In a real world situation, input da...

  17. Lost in Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2009-01-01

    performance, the article examines how the growing locative media industry can learn from the location-aware performative strategies employed by artists who create situated and urban performances for the curious participant. The academic frames employed in the analysis draw on psychogeography, site......-specific performance, social and cultural geography, and aspects of phenomenology....... traversed. While becoming destination aware, the individual loses her location awareness. The article proposes that the reason people get lost when using sat-nav is due to a wrong location-performative paradigm. As an alternative, the article introduces and analyzes two performance-related examples...

  18. Smart Location Database - Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  19. Smart Location Database - Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  20. Generic Network Location Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban Mwansa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the Generic Network Location Service based on the Chord implementation utilizing data structures called distributed hash tables (DHT or structured overlay networks, which are used to build scalable self-managing distributed systems. The provided algorithms guarantee resilience in the presence of dynamism: they guarantee consistent lookup results in the presence of nodes failing and leaving. Generic Network Location Service provides a Location Service system based on DHT technology, which is storing device location records in nodes within a Chord DHT. Location records are consisting of network device identification keys as attributes, which are used to create replicas of additional location records through established Chord hashing mechanisms. Storing device location records, in places address-able (using the DHT lookup by individual location record keys provides a simple way of implementing transla¬tion functions similar to well¬ known network services (e.g. ARP, DNS, ENUM. The generic network location ser¬vice presented in the paper is not supposed to be a substitu¬tion of the existing translation techniques (e.g. ARP, DNS, ENUM, but it is considered as an overlay service that uses data available in existing systems and provides some translations currently unavailable.

  1. A randomized cross-over trial to detect differences in arm volume after low- and heavy-load resistance exercise among patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer at risk for arm lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Hayes, Sandi; Adamsen, Lis

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In an effort to reduce the risk of breast cancer-related arm lymphedema, patients are commonly advised to avoid heavy lifting, impacting activities of daily living and resistance exercise prescription. This advice lacks evidence, with no prospective studies investigating arm volume...... changes after resistance exercise with heavy loads in this population. The purpose of this study is to determine acute changes in arm volume after a session of low- and heavy-load resistance exercise among women undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer at risk for arm lymphedema. METHODS....../DESIGN: This is a randomized cross-over trial. PARTICIPANTS: Women receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer who have undergone axillary lymph node dissection will be recruited from rehabilitation centers in the Copenhagen area. INTERVENTION: Participants will be randomly assigned to engage in a low- (two sets of 15...

  2. Synbiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and cellobiose does not affect human gut bacterial diversity but increases abundance of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and branched-chain fatty acids: a randomized, double-blinded cross-over trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zanten, Gabriella Christina; Krych, Lukasz; Roytio, Henna

    2014-01-01

    in a double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled cross-over study and received synbiotic [Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (10(9)CFU) and cellobiose (5g)] or placebo daily for 3weeks. Fecal samples were collected and lactobacilli numbers were quantified by qPCR. Furthermore, 454 tag-encoded amplicon...... pyrosequencing was used to monitor the effect of synbiotic on the composition of the microbiota. The synbiotic increased levels of Lactobacillus spp. and relative abundances of the genera Bifidobacterium, Collinsella, and Eubacterium while the genus Dialister was decreased (P...

  3. Industrial location and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe interaction between the extent of location advantages and the intensity of firm competition relative to the size of the market jointly determines the location of industrial activity. Technology, factor endowments, geography, and scale economies are influential for determining

  4. Venlafaxine versus clonidine for the treatment of hot flashes in breast cancer patients : a double-blind, randomized cross-over study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Ciska; Mom, Constantijne H.; Willemse, Pax H. B.; Boezen, H. Marike; Maurer, J. Marina; Wymenga, A. N. Machteld; de Jong, Robert S.; Nieboer, Peter; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Mourits, Marian J. E.

    Purpose Breast cancer patients with treatment-induced menopause experience frequent and severe hot flashes (HF). We compared venlafaxine and clonidine for the treatment of HF with regard to side effects, efficacy, quality of life and sexual functioning. Methods In a double-blind, cross-over study,

  5. Beach Profile Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Beaches are commonly characterized by cross-shore surveys. The resulting profiles represent the elevation of the beach surface and nearshore seabed from the back of...

  6. Random errors revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    2000-01-01

    the random errors of estimates of the sound intensity in, say, one-third octave bands from the power and cross power spectra of the signals from an intensity probe determined with a dual channel FFT analyser. This is not very practical, though. In this paper it is demonstrated that one can predict the random...

  7. Effects of synbiotic food consumption on serum minerals, liver enzymes, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes: A double-blind randomized cross-over controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatollah Asemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research was to examine the effects of synbiotic intake on minerals, liver enzymes, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D. Methods: This randomized, cross-over clinical trial was performed among 62 diabetic patients. Persons were randomly assigned to intake either a synbiotic (n = 62 or a control food (n = 62 for 6 weeks. A 3-week washout period was applied following which persons were crossed over to the alternate intervention arm for an additional 6 weeks. The synbiotic was consisted of Lactobacillus sporogenes (1 × 107 CFU, 0.04 g inulin (HPX as prebiotic. Persons were asked to consume the synbiotic and control foods 27 g a day. Blood pressure was measured, and blood samples were taken at baseline and after 6-week intervention to assess calcium, magnesium, iron, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and total bilirubin. Results: The consumption of a synbiotic food, compared to the control food, resulted in a significant rise of calcium (0.66 vs. −0.14 mg/dL,P= 0.03 and iron (5.06 vs. −9.98 mg/dL,P= 0.03. The decrease of total bilirubin (0.08 vs. −0.04 mg/dL;P = 0.009 was also seen in the synbiotic group compared with the control group. Conclusions: Overall, synbiotic in T2D patients had beneficial effects on calcium, iron, and total bilirubin concentrations.

  8. Adherence of French GPs to Chronic Neuropathic Pain Clinical Guidelines: Results of a Cross-Sectional, Randomized, “e” Case-Vignette Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria Martinez; Nadine Attal; Bertrand Vanzo; Eric Vicaut; Jean Michel Gautier; Didier Bouhassira; Michel Lantéri-Minet

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The French Pain Society published guidelines for neuropathic pain management in 2010. Our aim was to evaluate the compliance of GPs with these guidelines three years later. METHODS: We used "e" case vignette methodology for this non interventional study. A national panel of randomly selected GPs was included. We used eight "e" case-vignettes relating to chronic pain, differing in terms of the type of pain (neuropathic/non neuropathic), etiology (cancer, postoperative pain...

  9. Randomized Cross-Sectional Study to Compare HIV-1 Specific Antibody and Cytokine Concentrations in Female Genital Secretions Obtained by Menstrual Cup and Cervicovaginal Lavage

    OpenAIRE

    Archary, Derseree; Liebenberg, Lenine J.; Werner, Lise; Tulsi, Sahil; Majola, Nelisile; Naicker, Nivashnee; Dlamini, Sarah; Hope, Thomas J.; Samsunder, Natasha; Abdool Karim, Salim S.; Morris, Lynn; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Garrett, Nigel J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Optimizing methods for genital specimen collection to accurately characterize mucosal immune responses is a priority for the HIV prevention field. The menstrual cup (MC) has been proposed as an alternative to other methods including cervicovaginal lavage (CVL), but no study has yet formally compared these two methods. Methods Forty HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy-na?ve women from the CAPRISA 002 acute HIV infection cohort study were randomized to have genital fluid collected...

  10. Global Volcano Locations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication. The...

  11. Uranium Location Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A GIS compiled locational database in Microsoft Access of ~15,000 mines with uranium occurrence or production, primarily in the western United States. The metadata...

  12. SGA Project Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The stream geomorphic assessment is a physical assessment competed by geomorphologists to determine the condition and sensitivity of a stream. The SGA locations...

  13. Waste Recovery Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Locations where City residents are encouraged to drop off and dispose or recycle of unwanted materials. Information provided is subject to change. Please call ahead...

  14. USAID Activity Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Activities dataset is a snapshot of activities supported by USAID including their geographical locations within countries at the time of the snapshot. The...

  15. Smart Location Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Smart Location Database, Access to Jobs and Workers via Transit, and National Walkability Index tools can help assess indicators related to the built environment, transit accessibility, and walkability.

  16. Allegheny County Dam Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the point locations of dams in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  17. VT Hospital Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This data layer contains point locations of all major community, regional, comprehensive health, and healthcare provider hospitals in the state of...

  18. The satiating properties of pork are not affected by cooking methods, sousvide holding time or mincing in healthy men - a randomized cross-over meal test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Ursula; Mitra, Bhaskar; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    ) on appetite regulation and in vitro protein digestibility. In a cross-over study, 37 healthy men consumed four meals containing pork: LTLT-cooked roast, 58 °C, 72 min; LTLT-cooked roast, 58 °C, 17 h; and, oven-cooked roast, 160 °C to a core temperature of 58 °C and LTLT-cooked minced patties, 58 °C, 17 h. Ad...

  19. Location and logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Alumura, Sibel A.; Karab, Bahar Y.; Melo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Facility location decisions play a critical role in designing logistics networks. This article provides some guidelines on how location decisions and logistics functions can be integrated into a single mathematical model to optimize the configuration of a logistics network. This will be illustrated by two generic models, one supporting the design of a forward logistics network and the other addressing the specific requirements of a reverse logistics network. Several special cases and extensio...

  20. The leak location package for assessment of the time-frequency correlation method for leak location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faerman, V. A.; Cheremnov, A. G.; Avramchuk, V. S.; Shepetovsky, D. V.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes the simplest implementation of a software and hardware package for acoustic correlation leak location and results of its performance assessment for location of water leaks from a metallic pipe in laboratory conditions. A distinctive feature of this leak locator is the use of the software based on the time-frequency correlation analysis of signals, which was proposed in our previous papers. Comparative analysis results are given for the information content of classical and time-frequency cross-correlation functions as obtained during processing of experimental data. The results obtained justify comparatively higher efficiency of a time-frequency cross correlation method to solve the leak location task. Improved efficiency is determined by bandpass filtration embedded into the time-frequency cross-correlation function calculation.

  1. Location privacy online: China, the Netherlands and South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Broeder, Peter; Lee, Yujin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore cross-cultural differences in users’ location privacy behaviour on LBSNs (location-based social networks) in China, the Netherlands and Korea. The study suggests evidence that Chinese, Dutch and Korean users exhibit different location privacy concerns, attitudes to social influence, perceived privacy control and willingness to share location-related information on LBSNs. The results show that in general, the more concerned users are about location privacy, t...

  2. Chromatic polynomials of random graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Bussel, Frank; Fliegner, Denny; Timme, Marc [Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), Goettingen (Germany); Ehrlich, Christoph [Department of Physics, Technical University of Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Stolzenberg, Sebastian, E-mail: fvb@nld.ds.mpg.d, E-mail: timme@nld.ds.mpg.d [Department of Physics, Ithaca and Weill Cornell Medical College, New York City, Cornell University, NY (United States)

    2010-04-30

    Chromatic polynomials and related graph invariants are central objects in both graph theory and statistical physics. Computational difficulties, however, have so far restricted studies of such polynomials to graphs that were either very small, very sparse or highly structured. Recent algorithmic advances (Timme et al 2009 New J. Phys. 11 023001) now make it possible to compute chromatic polynomials for moderately sized graphs of arbitrary structure and number of edges. Here we present chromatic polynomials of ensembles of random graphs with up to 30 vertices, over the entire range of edge density. We specifically focus on the locations of the zeros of the polynomial in the complex plane. The results indicate that the chromatic zeros of random graphs have a very consistent layout. In particular, the crossing point, the point at which the chromatic zeros with non-zero imaginary part approach the real axis, scales linearly with the average degree over most of the density range. While the scaling laws obtained are purely empirical, if they continue to hold in general there are significant implications: the crossing points of chromatic zeros in the thermodynamic limit separate systems with zero ground state entropy from systems with positive ground state entropy, the latter an exception to the third law of thermodynamics.

  3. Chromatic polynomials of random graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bussel, Frank; Ehrlich, Christoph; Fliegner, Denny; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Timme, Marc

    2010-04-01

    Chromatic polynomials and related graph invariants are central objects in both graph theory and statistical physics. Computational difficulties, however, have so far restricted studies of such polynomials to graphs that were either very small, very sparse or highly structured. Recent algorithmic advances (Timme et al 2009 New J. Phys. 11 023001) now make it possible to compute chromatic polynomials for moderately sized graphs of arbitrary structure and number of edges. Here we present chromatic polynomials of ensembles of random graphs with up to 30 vertices, over the entire range of edge density. We specifically focus on the locations of the zeros of the polynomial in the complex plane. The results indicate that the chromatic zeros of random graphs have a very consistent layout. In particular, the crossing point, the point at which the chromatic zeros with non-zero imaginary part approach the real axis, scales linearly with the average degree over most of the density range. While the scaling laws obtained are purely empirical, if they continue to hold in general there are significant implications: the crossing points of chromatic zeros in the thermodynamic limit separate systems with zero ground state entropy from systems with positive ground state entropy, the latter an exception to the third law of thermodynamics.

  4. Randomized Cross-Sectional Study to Compare HIV-1 Specific Antibody and Cytokine Concentrations in Female Genital Secretions Obtained by Menstrual Cup and Cervicovaginal Lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archary, Derseree; Liebenberg, Lenine J; Werner, Lise; Tulsi, Sahil; Majola, Nelisile; Naicker, Nivashnee; Dlamini, Sarah; Hope, Thomas J; Samsunder, Natasha; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Morris, Lynn; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Garrett, Nigel J

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing methods for genital specimen collection to accurately characterize mucosal immune responses is a priority for the HIV prevention field. The menstrual cup (MC) has been proposed as an alternative to other methods including cervicovaginal lavage (CVL), but no study has yet formally compared these two methods. Forty HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naïve women from the CAPRISA 002 acute HIV infection cohort study were randomized to have genital fluid collected using the MC with subsequent CVL, or by CVL alone. Qualitative data, which assessed levels of comfort and acceptability of MC using a 5-point Likert scale, was collected. Luminex multiplex assays were used to measure HIV-specific IgG against multiple gene products and 48 cytokines. The majority (94%) of participants indicated that insertion, wearing and removal of the MC was comfortable. Nineteen MCs with 18 matching, subsequent CVLs and 20 randomized CVLs were available for analysis. Mucosal IgG responses against four HIV-antigens were detected in 99% of MCs compared to only 80% of randomized CVLs (p = 0.029). Higher specific antibody activity and total antibodies were observed in MCs compared to CVL (all p<0.001). In MCs, 42/48 (88%) cytokines were in the detectable range in all participants compared to 27/48 (54%) in CVL (p<0.001). Concentrations of 22/41 cytokines (53.7%) were significantly higher in fluid collected by MC. Both total IgG (r = 0.63; p = 0.005) and cytokine concentrations (r = 0.90; p<0.001) correlated strongly between MC and corresponding post-MC CVL. MC sampling improves the detection of mucosal cytokines and antibodies, particularly those present at low concentrations. MC may therefore represent an ideal tool to assess immunological parameters in genital secretions, without interfering with concurrent collection of conventional CVL samples.

  5. Randomized Cross-Sectional Study to Compare HIV-1 Specific Antibody and Cytokine Concentrations in Female Genital Secretions Obtained by Menstrual Cup and Cervicovaginal Lavage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derseree Archary

    Full Text Available Optimizing methods for genital specimen collection to accurately characterize mucosal immune responses is a priority for the HIV prevention field. The menstrual cup (MC has been proposed as an alternative to other methods including cervicovaginal lavage (CVL, but no study has yet formally compared these two methods.Forty HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naïve women from the CAPRISA 002 acute HIV infection cohort study were randomized to have genital fluid collected using the MC with subsequent CVL, or by CVL alone. Qualitative data, which assessed levels of comfort and acceptability of MC using a 5-point Likert scale, was collected. Luminex multiplex assays were used to measure HIV-specific IgG against multiple gene products and 48 cytokines.The majority (94% of participants indicated that insertion, wearing and removal of the MC was comfortable. Nineteen MCs with 18 matching, subsequent CVLs and 20 randomized CVLs were available for analysis. Mucosal IgG responses against four HIV-antigens were detected in 99% of MCs compared to only 80% of randomized CVLs (p = 0.029. Higher specific antibody activity and total antibodies were observed in MCs compared to CVL (all p<0.001. In MCs, 42/48 (88% cytokines were in the detectable range in all participants compared to 27/48 (54% in CVL (p<0.001. Concentrations of 22/41 cytokines (53.7% were significantly higher in fluid collected by MC. Both total IgG (r = 0.63; p = 0.005 and cytokine concentrations (r = 0.90; p<0.001 correlated strongly between MC and corresponding post-MC CVL.MC sampling improves the detection of mucosal cytokines and antibodies, particularly those present at low concentrations. MC may therefore represent an ideal tool to assess immunological parameters in genital secretions, without interfering with concurrent collection of conventional CVL samples.

  6. Randomized Cross-Sectional Study to Compare HIV-1 Specific Antibody and Cytokine Concentrations in Female Genital Secretions Obtained by Menstrual Cup and Cervicovaginal Lavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archary, Derseree; Liebenberg, Lenine J.; Werner, Lise; Tulsi, Sahil; Majola, Nelisile; Naicker, Nivashnee; Dlamini, Sarah; Hope, Thomas J.; Samsunder, Natasha; Abdool Karim, Salim S.; Morris, Lynn; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Garrett, Nigel J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Optimizing methods for genital specimen collection to accurately characterize mucosal immune responses is a priority for the HIV prevention field. The menstrual cup (MC) has been proposed as an alternative to other methods including cervicovaginal lavage (CVL), but no study has yet formally compared these two methods. Methods Forty HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naïve women from the CAPRISA 002 acute HIV infection cohort study were randomized to have genital fluid collected using the MC with subsequent CVL, or by CVL alone. Qualitative data, which assessed levels of comfort and acceptability of MC using a 5-point Likert scale, was collected. Luminex multiplex assays were used to measure HIV-specific IgG against multiple gene products and 48 cytokines. Results The majority (94%) of participants indicated that insertion, wearing and removal of the MC was comfortable. Nineteen MCs with 18 matching, subsequent CVLs and 20 randomized CVLs were available for analysis. Mucosal IgG responses against four HIV-antigens were detected in 99% of MCs compared to only 80% of randomized CVLs (p = 0.029). Higher specific antibody activity and total antibodies were observed in MCs compared to CVL (all p<0.001). In MCs, 42/48 (88%) cytokines were in the detectable range in all participants compared to 27/48 (54%) in CVL (p<0.001). Concentrations of 22/41 cytokines (53.7%) were significantly higher in fluid collected by MC. Both total IgG (r = 0.63; p = 0.005) and cytokine concentrations (r = 0.90; p<0.001) correlated strongly between MC and corresponding post-MC CVL. Conclusions MC sampling improves the detection of mucosal cytokines and antibodies, particularly those present at low concentrations. MC may therefore represent an ideal tool to assess immunological parameters in genital secretions, without interfering with concurrent collection of conventional CVL samples. PMID:26147923

  7. Tai Chi training may reduce dual task gait variability, a potential mediator of fall risk, in healthy older adults: cross-sectional and randomized trial studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne, Peter M.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Matthew eLough; Gow, Brian J.; Lewis eLipsitz; Vera eNovak; Macklin, Eric A.; Chung-Kang ePeng; Brad eManor

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tai Chi (TC) exercise improves balance and reduces falls in older, health-impaired adults. TC’s impact on dual task (DT) gait parameters predictive of falls, especially in healthy active older adults, however, is unknown.PURPOSE: To compare differences in usual and DT gait between long-term TC-expert practitioners and age-/gender-matched TC-naïve adults, and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on gait in healthy, non-sedentary older adults. METHODS: A cross-sectiona...

  8. Geostar - Navigation location system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Donald A.

    The author describes the Radiodetermination Satellite Service (RDSS). The initial phase of the RDSS provides for a unique service enabling central offices and headquarters to obtain position-location information and receive short digital messages from mobile user terminals throughout the contiguous United States, southern Canada, and northern Mexico. The system employs a spread-spectrum, CDMA modulation technique allowing multiple customers to use the system simultaneously, without preassigned coordination with fellow users. Position location is currently determined by employing an existing radio determination receiver, such as Loran-C, GPS, or Transit, in the mobile user terminal. In the early 1990s position location will be determined at a central earth station by time-differential ranging of the user terminals via two or more geostationary satellites. A brief overview of the RDSS system architecture is presented with emphasis on the user terminal and its diverse applications.

  9. A randomized cross over study comparing the efficacy of two mandibular advancement appliances in the treatment of mild-moderate obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dharrab, Ayman

    2017-11-01

    To compare efficacy, side effects, patient compliance, and preference between two types of custom-made mandibular advancement appliances (MAAs) in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This prospective, randomized, crossover study of 12 patients with mild to moderate OSA compared a titratable and a non-titratable MAA. Each patient was fitted with both appliances in a random order with a washout period of two weeks. Efficacy, side effects, compliance, and preference were evaluated by a questionnaire. All patients underwent overnight home sleep recordings prior to and after the use of each appliance in order to objectively assess sleep quality in terms of the apnea and hypopnea index (AHI), snoring frequency and oxygen desaturation index. Treatment successes (relief of symptoms and/or reduction of AHI to appliances. No compliance failure was reported, and in most patients, the side effects were mild, and improved with time. Both types of oral appliances were effective treatments for patients with mild to moderate OSA, with fewer side effects and higher patient satisfaction.

  10. Robust facility location

    OpenAIRE

    Carrizosa Priego, Emilio José; Nickel, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Let A be a nonempty finite subset of the plane representing the geographical coordinates of a set of demand points (towns, …), to be served by a facility, whose location within a given region S is sought. Assuming that the unit cost for a∈A if the facility is located at x∈S is proportional to dist(x,a) — the distance from x to a — and that demand of point a is given by ωa, minimizing the total transportation cost TC(ω,x) amounts to solving the Weber problem. In practice, it may be the case, h...

  11. Location-based games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    to create meaningful experiences; and of the prerequisites of a meaningful meeting between players and locations. The dissertation contributes to the field of LBG research by offering an enhanced understanding of LBGs, and LBG player experiences, as well as providing an expanded vocabulary describing LBG...... elements. In addition, the dissertation provides design knowledge concerning creating LBGs that uses certain emergent opportunities when combining location-aware technologies with game mechanics to make use of the six dimensions of LBGs and to involve the player’s body – i.e. make a meaningful meeting...

  12. An Internet-supported Physical Activity Intervention Delivered in Secondary Schools Located in Low Socio-economic Status Communities: Study Protocol for the Activity and Motivation in Physical Education (AMPED) Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Chris; Lester, Aidan; Owen, Katherine B; White, Rhiannon L; Moyes, Ian; Peralta, Louisa; Kirwan, Morwenna; Maeder, Anthony; Bennie, Andrew; MacMillan, Freya; Kolt, Gregory S; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Gore, Jennifer M; Cerin, Ester; Diallo, Thierno M O; Cliff, Dylan P; Lubans, David R

    2016-01-06

    School-based physical education is an important public health initiative as it has the potential to provide students with regular opportunities to participate in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Unfortunately, in many physical education lessons students do not engage in sufficient MVPA to achieve health benefits. In this trial we will test the efficacy of a teacher professional development intervention, delivered partially via the Internet, on secondary school students' MVPA during physical education lessons. Teaching strategies covered in this training are designed to (i) maximize opportunities for students to be physically active during lessons and (ii) enhance students' autonomous motivation towards physical activity. A two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial with allocation at the school level (intervention vs. usual care control). Teachers and Year 8 students in government-funded secondary schools in low socio-economic areas of the Western Sydney region of Australia will be eligible to participate. During the main portion of the intervention (6 months), teachers will participate in two workshops and complete two implementation tasks at their school. Implementation tasks will involve video-based self-reflection via the project's Web 2.0 platform and an individualized feedback meeting with a project mentor. Each intervention school will also complete two group peer-mentoring sessions at their school (one per term) in which they will discuss implementation with members of their school physical education staff. In the booster period (3 months), teachers will complete a half-day workshop at their school, plus one online implementation task, and a group mentoring session at their school. Throughout the entire intervention period (main intervention plus booster period), teachers will have access to online resources. Data collection will include baseline, post-intervention (7-8 months after baseline) and maintenance phase (14-15 months after baseline

  13. Location privacy online : China, the Netherlands and South Korea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, Peter; Lee, Yujin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore cross-cultural differences in users’ location privacy behaviour on LBSNs (location-based social networks) in China, the Netherlands and Korea. The study suggests evidence that Chinese, Dutch and Korean users exhibit different location privacy concerns, attitudes to

  14. The Czech Locative Chameleon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarald Taraldsen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We show that under certain circumstances, the Czech locative prepositions (LOC show up as directional prepositions (DIR and vice versa, (under different circumstances the Czech DIR PPs show up as LOC. We argue that such a chameleon life of the PPs is structurally dependent.

  15. Tracking, say, SKYPE Locations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Tracking, say, SKYPE Locations. Real Time Communication: Peer-to-Peer (P2P). Datagram flows between the two conversing partners; Exposes the IP addresses of all the participants to one another. If A knows B's VoIP ID, she can establish a call with Bob & obtain his current ...

  16. General minisum circle location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Körner, Mark; Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    In our paper we approximate a set of given points by a general circle. More precisely, we consider the problem of locating and scaling the unit ball of some given norm k1 with respect to xed points on the plane such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the xed points...

  17. ATL: ASA Tutor Locator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Maurice; Brouns, Francis; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    ASA Tutor Locator creates ad hoc transient communities consisting of peer tutors, seeded with document fragments found in the learning network, to answer content questions of students. The sources are available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/asa-atl. Available under the three clause BSD

  18. ATL: A Tutor Locator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, André; Brouwers, Maurice; Brouns, Francis; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Kester, Liesbeth; Sloep, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A Tutor Locator creates ad hoc transient communities consisting of peer tutors, seeded with document fragments found in the learning network, to answer content questions of students. The sources are available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/asa-atl.Available under the three clause BSD licence,

  19. Immigrants' location preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment...

  20. RFID Location Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zi Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of social services, people’s living standards improve further requirements, there is an urgent need for a way to adapt to the complex situation of the new positioning technology. In recent years, RFID technology have a wide range of applications in all aspects of life and production, such as logistics tracking, car alarm, security and other items. The use of RFID technology to locate, it is a new direction in the eyes of the various research institutions and scholars. RFID positioning technology system stability, the error is small and low-cost advantages of its location algorithm is the focus of this study.This article analyzes the layers of RFID technology targeting methods and algorithms. First, RFID common several basic methods are introduced; Secondly, higher accuracy to political network location method; Finally, LANDMARC algorithm will be described. Through this it can be seen that advanced and efficient algorithms play an important role in increasing RFID positioning accuracy aspects.Finally, the algorithm of RFID location technology are summarized, pointing out the deficiencies in the algorithm, and put forward a follow-up study of the requirements, the vision of a better future RFID positioning technology.

  1. Optimal Facility-Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, A J

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Christoph Witzgall, the honoree of this Symposium, can count among his many contributions to applied mathematics and mathematical operations research a body of widely-recognized work on the optimal location of facilities. The present paper offers to non-specialists a sketch of that field and its evolution, with emphasis on areas most closely related to Witzgall's research at NBS/NIST.

  2. Spatiotemporal AED Location Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Timothy C.Y.; Sun, Christopher L.F.; Demirtas, Derya; Morrison, Laurie J.; Brooks, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mathematical optimization can be used to plan future AED placement to maximize out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) coverage. Many public access AEDs are placed in locations without 24/7 access. AED coverage can be overestimated unless temporal availability is considered. Objective: To

  3. Effects of toothbrushes with tapered and cross angled soft bristle design on dental plaque and gingival inflammation: a randomized and controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yan-Fang; Cacciato, Rita; Whelehan, Mary Therese; Ning, Li; Malmstrom, Hans Sigurd

    2007-07-01

    To investigate the effect of three manual toothbrushes on dental plaque and gingival inflammation. The elmex Sensitive Extra Soft (ESES), elmex Sensitive Soft (ESS) and an ADA standard toothbrush (ADAS) were evaluated in a randomized clinical trial. Subjects brushed twice daily in their usual manner. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI) and plaque and gingival scores of interproximal spaces (IntPI and IntGI) were evaluated at day 15 and day 30. ANOVA and t-test were used to compare plaque and gingival scores. A total of 84 subjects with mild to moderate gingivitis completed the study. Plaque and gingival scores in ESES and ESS groups decreased from baseline to day 15 and day 30. At day 30, subjects in both ESES and ESS groups had lower plaque and gingival scores than those in the ADAS group (ptoothbrushes are more effective in removing dental plaque and reducing gingival inflammation than the ADA standard toothbrush.

  4. A Randomized Cross-over Air Filtration Intervention Trial for Reducing Cardiovascular Health Risks in Residents of Public Housing near a Highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padró-Martínez, Luz T; Owusu, Emmanuel; Reisner, Ellen; Zamore, Wig; Simon, Matthew C; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Brown, Carrie A; Chung, Mei; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L

    2015-07-10

    Exposure to traffic-generated ultrafine particles (UFP; particles filtration in public housing near a highway. Twenty residents in 19 apartments living filtration (0.668 pg/mL; CI = 0.465-0.959) compared to sham filtration. Likewise, PNC adjusted for time activity were associated with increasing IL-6 in 14- and 21-day moving averages, and PNC was associated with decreasing blood pressure in Lags 0, 1 and 2, and in a 3-day moving average. These negative associations were unexpected and could be due to a combination of factors including exposure misclassification, unsuccessful randomization (i.e., IL-6 and use of anti-inflammatory medicines), or uncontrolled confounding. Studies with greater reduction in UFP levels and larger sample sizes are needed. There also needs to be more complete assessment of resident time activity and of outdoor vs. indoor source contributions to UFP exposure. HEPA filtration remains a promising, but not fully realized intervention.

  5. Adherence of French GPs to chronic neuropathic pain clinical guidelines: results of a cross-sectional, randomized, "e" case-vignette survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Valéria; Attal, Nadine; Vanzo, Bertrand; Vicaut, Eric; Gautier, Jean Michel; Bouhassira, Didier; Lantéri-Minet, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The French Pain Society published guidelines for neuropathic pain management in 2010. Our aim was to evaluate the compliance of GPs with these guidelines three years later. We used "e" case vignette methodology for this non interventional study. A national panel of randomly selected GPs was included. We used eight "e" case-vignettes relating to chronic pain, differing in terms of the type of pain (neuropathic/non neuropathic), etiology (cancer, postoperative pain, low back pain with or without radicular pain, diabetes) and symptoms. GPs received two randomly selected consecutive "e" case vignettes (with/without neuropathic pain). We analyzed their ability to recognize neuropathic pain and to prescribe appropriate first-line treatment. From the 1265 GPs in the database, we recruited 443 (35.0%), 334 of whom logged onto the web site (26.4%) and 319 (25.2%) of whom completed the survey. Among these GPs, 170 (53.3%) were aware of the guidelines, 136 (42.6%) were able to follow them, and 110 (34.5%) used the DN4 diagnostic tool. Sensitivity for neuropathic pain recognition was 87.8% (CI: 84.2%; 91.4%). However, postoperative neuropathic pain was less well diagnosed (77.9%; CI: 69.6%; 86.2%) than diabetic pain (95.2%; CI: 90.0%; 100.0%), cancer pain (90.6%; CI: 83.5%; 97.8%) and typical radicular pain (90.7%; CI: 84.9%; 96.5%). When neuropathic pain was correctly recognized, the likelihood of appropriate first-line treatment prescription was 90.6% (CI: 87.4%; 93.8%). The treatments proposed were pregabaline (71.8%), gabapentine (43.9%), amiptriptylline (23.2%) and duloxetine (18.2%). However, ibuprofen (11%), acetaminophen-codeine (29.5%) and clonazepam (10%) were still prescribed. The compliance of GPs with clinical practice guidelines appeared to be satisfactory, but differed between etiologies.

  6. Effects of a Combined Nutraceutical on Lipid Pattern, Glucose Metabolism and Inflammatory Parameters in Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Subjects: A Double-blind, Cross-over, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Colletti, Alessandro; Fogacci, Federica; Bove, Marilisa; Rosticci, Martina; Borghi, Claudio

    2017-03-01

    There is an increasing interest for combined nutraceuticals that can act on several points of lipid and glucose metabolism with preventive purposes. However, the simple assemblage of nutraceuticals with potentially additive mechanism of action need to be clinically tested. To assess the effects of a combination of nutraceuticals based on artichoke, red yeast rice, banaba, and coenzyme Q10, we performed a double bind, cross-over designed trial versus placebo in 30 adults with LDL cholesterol suboptimal in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. After a period of 3 weeks of dietary habits correction, patients began a period of 6 weeks of treatment with nutraceutical or placebo, followed by 2 weeks of washout and finally 6 weeks in cross-over. Data related to lipid pattern, insulin resistance, renal function, liver and CPK have been obtained at each visit. In particular, the after the nutraceutical treatment the enrolled patients experienced a significant improvement in total cholesterol (-13.6 %), LDL-C (-18.2 %), non-HDL-C (-15 %), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (-10 %), glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (-30.9 %), and hs-CRP (-18.2 %) versus placebo. No changes have been observed in the other investigated parameters in both groups. The tested combination of nutraceuticals has shown clinical efficacy in the reduction of total cholesterol, non-HDL, LDL and triglycerides, while improving the level of liver transaminases and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Further confirmation are needed to verify these observations on the middle and long term with a larger number of subjects.

  7. Locating and Tracking Everything Digital

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Telcos need actual locations for highly localized and targeted ads, location based services. Telcos need actual locations for highly localized and targeted ads, location based services. Governments need to know the location of the buyers for tax – state tax etc. Locating friends ...

  8. Adherence of French GPs to Chronic Neuropathic Pain Clinical Guidelines: Results of a Cross-Sectional, Randomized, “e” Case-Vignette Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Valéria; Attal, Nadine; Vanzo, Bertrand; Vicaut, Eric; Gautier, Jean Michel; Bouhassira, Didier; Lantéri-Minet, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims The French Pain Society published guidelines for neuropathic pain management in 2010. Our aim was to evaluate the compliance of GPs with these guidelines three years later. Methods We used “e” case vignette methodology for this non interventional study. A national panel of randomly selected GPs was included. We used eight “e” case-vignettes relating to chronic pain, differing in terms of the type of pain (neuropathic/non neuropathic), etiology (cancer, postoperative pain, low back pain with or without radicular pain, diabetes) and symptoms. GPs received two randomly selected consecutive “e” case vignettes (with/without neuropathic pain). We analyzed their ability to recognize neuropathic pain and to prescribe appropriate first-line treatment. Results From the 1265 GPs in the database, we recruited 443 (35.0%), 334 of whom logged onto the web site (26.4%) and 319 (25.2%) of whom completed the survey. Among these GPs, 170 (53.3%) were aware of the guidelines, 136 (42.6%) were able to follow them, and 110 (34.5%) used the DN4 diagnostic tool. Sensitivity for neuropathic pain recognition was 87.8% (CI: 84.2%; 91.4%). However, postoperative neuropathic pain was less well diagnosed (77.9%; CI: 69.6%; 86.2%) than diabetic pain (95.2%; CI: 90.0%; 100.0%), cancer pain (90.6%; CI: 83.5%; 97.8%) and typical radicular pain (90.7%; CI: 84.9%; 96.5%). When neuropathic pain was correctly recognized, the likelihood of appropriate first-line treatment prescription was 90.6% (CI: 87.4%; 93.8%). The treatments proposed were pregabaline (71.8%), gabapentine (43.9%), amiptriptylline (23.2%) and duloxetine (18.2%). However, ibuprofen (11%), acetaminophen-codeine (29.5%) and clonazepam (10%) were still prescribed. Conclusions The compliance of GPs with clinical practice guidelines appeared to be satisfactory, but differed between etiologies. PMID:24747826

  9. Adherence of French GPs to chronic neuropathic pain clinical guidelines: results of a cross-sectional, randomized, "e" case-vignette survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Martinez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The French Pain Society published guidelines for neuropathic pain management in 2010. Our aim was to evaluate the compliance of GPs with these guidelines three years later. METHODS: We used "e" case vignette methodology for this non interventional study. A national panel of randomly selected GPs was included. We used eight "e" case-vignettes relating to chronic pain, differing in terms of the type of pain (neuropathic/non neuropathic, etiology (cancer, postoperative pain, low back pain with or without radicular pain, diabetes and symptoms. GPs received two randomly selected consecutive "e" case vignettes (with/without neuropathic pain. We analyzed their ability to recognize neuropathic pain and to prescribe appropriate first-line treatment. RESULTS: From the 1265 GPs in the database, we recruited 443 (35.0%, 334 of whom logged onto the web site (26.4% and 319 (25.2% of whom completed the survey. Among these GPs, 170 (53.3% were aware of the guidelines, 136 (42.6% were able to follow them, and 110 (34.5% used the DN4 diagnostic tool. Sensitivity for neuropathic pain recognition was 87.8% (CI: 84.2%; 91.4%. However, postoperative neuropathic pain was less well diagnosed (77.9%; CI: 69.6%; 86.2% than diabetic pain (95.2%; CI: 90.0%; 100.0%, cancer pain (90.6%; CI: 83.5%; 97.8% and typical radicular pain (90.7%; CI: 84.9%; 96.5%. When neuropathic pain was correctly recognized, the likelihood of appropriate first-line treatment prescription was 90.6% (CI: 87.4%; 93.8%. The treatments proposed were pregabaline (71.8%, gabapentine (43.9%, amiptriptylline (23.2% and duloxetine (18.2%. However, ibuprofen (11%, acetaminophen-codeine (29.5% and clonazepam (10% were still prescribed. CONCLUSIONS: The compliance of GPs with clinical practice guidelines appeared to be satisfactory, but differed between etiologies.

  10. A Randomized Cross-over Air Filtration Intervention Trial for Reducing Cardiovascular Health Risks in Residents of Public Housing near a Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz T. Padró-Martínez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to traffic-generated ultrafine particles (UFP; particles <100 nm is likely a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We conducted a trial of high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA filtration in public housing near a highway. Twenty residents in 19 apartments living <200 m from the highway participated in a randomized, double-blind crossover trial. A HEPA filter unit and a particle counter (measuring particle number concentration (PNC, a proxy for UFP were installed in living rooms. Participants were exposed to filtered air for 21 days and unfiltered air for 21 days. Blood samples were collected and blood pressure measured at days 0, 21 and 42 after a 12-hour fasting period. Plasma was analyzed for high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha-receptor II (TNF-RII and fibrinogen. PNC reductions ranging from 21% to 68% were recorded in 15 of the apartments. We observed no significant differences in blood pressure or three of the four biomarkers (hsCRP, fibrinogen, and TNF-RII measured in participants after 21-day exposure to HEPA-filtered air compared to measurements after 21-day exposure to sham-filtered air. In contrast, IL-6 concentrations were significantly higher following HEPA filtration (0.668 pg/mL; CI = 0.465–0.959 compared to sham filtration. Likewise, PNC adjusted for time activity were associated with increasing IL-6 in 14- and 21-day moving averages, and PNC was associated with decreasing blood pressure in Lags 0, 1 and 2, and in a 3-day moving average. These negative associations were unexpected and could be due to a combination of factors including exposure misclassification, unsuccessful randomization (i.e., IL-6 and use of anti-inflammatory medicines, or uncontrolled confounding. Studies with greater reduction in UFP levels and larger sample sizes are needed. There also needs to be more complete assessment of resident time activity and of outdoor vs. indoor source

  11. Prevalence of at-risk genotypes for genotoxic effects decreases with age in a randomly selected population in Flanders: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Delft Joost HM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We hypothesized that in Flanders (Belgium, the prevalence of at-risk genotypes for genotoxic effects decreases with age due to morbidity and mortality resulting from chronic diseases. Rather than polymorphisms in single genes, the interaction of multiple genetic polymorphisms in low penetrance genes involved in genotoxic effects might be of relevance. Methods Genotyping was performed on 399 randomly selected adults (aged 50-65 and on 442 randomly selected adolescents. Based on their involvement in processes relevant to genotoxicity, 28 low penetrance polymorphisms affecting the phenotype in 19 genes were selected (xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress defense and DNA repair, respectively 13, 6 and 9 polymorphisms. Polymorphisms which, based on available literature, could not clearly be categorized a priori as leading to an 'increased risk' or a 'protective effect' were excluded. Results The mean number of risk alleles for all investigated polymorphisms was found to be lower in the 'elderly' (17.0 ± 2.9 than the 'adolescent' (17.6 ± 3.1 subpopulation (P = 0.002. These results were not affected by gender nor smoking. The prevalence of a high (> 17 = median number of risk alleles was less frequent in the 'elderly' (40.6% than the 'adolescent' (51.4% subpopulation (P = 0.002. In particular for phase II enzymes, the mean number of risk alleles was lower in the 'elderly' (4.3 ± 1.6 than the 'adolescent' age group (4.8 ± 1.9 P 4 = median number of risk alleles was less frequent in the 'elderly' (41.3% than the adolescent subpopulation (56.3%, P 8 = median number of risk alleles for DNA repair enzyme-coding genes was lower in the 'elderly' (37,3% than the 'adolescent' subpopulation (45.6%, P = 0.017. Conclusions These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that, in Flanders, the prevalence of at-risk alleles in genes involved in genotoxic effects decreases with age, suggesting that persons carrying a higher number of

  12. Electric current locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paul E [Corvallis, OR; Woodside, Charles Rigel [Corvallis, OR

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  13. Aquatic Nuisance Species Locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data in this map has been collected by the United States Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species program located in Gainesville, Florida (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/default.aspx). This dataset may have some inaccuracies and is only current to June 15, 2012. The species identified in this dataset are not inclusive of all aquatic nuisance species, but rather a subset identified to be at risk for transport by recreational activities such as boating and angling. Additionally, the locations where organisims have been identified are also not inclusive and should be treated as a guide. Organisms are limited to the following: American bullfrog, Asian clam, Asian shore crab, Asian tunicate, Australian spotted jellyfish, Chinese mitten crab, New Zealand mudsnail, Colonial sea squirt, Alewife, Bighead carp, Black carp, Flathead catfish, Grass carp, Green crab, Lionfish, Northern snakehead, Quagga mussel, Round Goby, Ruffe, Rusty crayfish, Sea lamprey, Silver carp, Spiny water flea, Veined rapa whelk, Zebra mussel

  14. Production Subcontracting and Location

    OpenAIRE

    Holl, Adelheid

    2007-01-01

    Using data from a panel of Spanish manufacturing firms, I examine factors that explain firms’ production subcontracting decisions and test whether there is any evidence that production subcontracting is facilitated in areas typically associated with higher agglomeration economies. The results show that location matters. Firms in industry agglomerations are more likely to subcontract production activities. While in general, larger and older firms as well as high wage firms show a greater proba...

  15. Choosing locations of landfills

    OpenAIRE

    Špacapan, Matjaž

    2008-01-01

    In my Graduation thesis we deal with the problem of choosing the most appropriate location of landfills and the criteria used in this process. The problem of waste management is one of the most critical areas of environmental protection in Slovenia. In these matters, the existing legislation and law directives in the Republic of Slovenia are followed. After this we have to pay attention to the composition of the waste and the technologies of waste management. Before we place a new facility fo...

  16. Optimal Facility-Location

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Christoph Witzgall, the honoree of this Symposium, can count among his many contributions to applied mathematics and mathematical operations research a body of widely-recognized work on the optimal location of facilities. The present paper offers to non-specialists a sketch of that field and its evolution, with emphasis on areas most closely related to Witzgall?s research at NBS/NIST.

  17. An Intervention to Optimize Coach Motivational Climates and Reduce Athlete Willingness to Dope (CoachMADE: Protocol for a Cross-Cultural Cluster Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Ntoumanis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Field-based anti-doping interventions in sport are scarce and focus on athletes. However, coaches are recognized as one of the most significant source of influence in terms of athletes’ cognitions, affect, and behavior. In this paper, we present the protocol for a cluster randomized control trial which aims to contrast the relative effects of a ‘motivation and anti-doping’ intervention program for coaches against an information-based anti-doping control program. In developing the motivation content of our intervention, we drew from Self-Determination Theory. The project is currently ongoing in Australia and has recently started in the United Kingdom and Greece. We aim to recruit 120 coaches and approximately 1200 of their athletes across the three countries. Various assessments will be taken from both coaches and athletes prior to the intervention, immediately after the 12-week intervention and at a 2-month follow up. The intervention comprises face-to-face workshops and weekly activities which are supported by printed and online material. The project aims to identify communication strategies that coaches can use to support athletes’ motivation in sport and also to promote self-determined reasons for athletes to comply with doping regulations.Trial Registration: The trial is registered with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR: ACTRN12616001688471.

  18. An Intervention to Optimize Coach Motivational Climates and Reduce Athlete Willingness to Dope (CoachMADE): Protocol for a Cross-Cultural Cluster Randomized Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoumanis, Nikos; Gucciardi, Daniel F.; Backhouse, Susan H.; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Quested, Eleanor; Patterson, Laurie; Smith, Brendan J.; Whitaker, Lisa; Pavlidis, George; Kaffe, Stela

    2018-01-01

    Field-based anti-doping interventions in sport are scarce and focus on athletes. However, coaches are recognized as one of the most significant source of influence in terms of athletes’ cognitions, affect, and behavior. In this paper, we present the protocol for a cluster randomized control trial which aims to contrast the relative effects of a ‘motivation and anti-doping’ intervention program for coaches against an information-based anti-doping control program. In developing the motivation content of our intervention, we drew from Self-Determination Theory. The project is currently ongoing in Australia and has recently started in the United Kingdom and Greece. We aim to recruit 120 coaches and approximately 1200 of their athletes across the three countries. Various assessments will be taken from both coaches and athletes prior to the intervention, immediately after the 12-week intervention and at a 2-month follow up. The intervention comprises face-to-face workshops and weekly activities which are supported by printed and online material. The project aims to identify communication strategies that coaches can use to support athletes’ motivation in sport and also to promote self-determined reasons for athletes to comply with doping regulations. Trial Registration: The trial is registered with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12616001688471. PMID:29375428

  19. Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin a secretion increases after 4-weeks ingestion of chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement in humans: a randomized cross over study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Chlorella, a unicellular green alga that grows in fresh water, contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers. Some studies have reported favorable immune function-related effects on biological secretions such as blood and breast milk in humans who have ingested a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement. However, the effects of chlorella-derived supplement on mucosal immune functions remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chlorella ingestion increases the salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) secretion in humans using a blind, randomized, crossover study design. Methods Fifteen men took 30 placebo and 30 chlorella tablets per day for 4 weeks separated by a 12-week washout period. Before and after each trial, saliva samples were collected from a sterile cotton ball that was chewed after overnight fasting. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured using ELISA. Results Compliance rates for placebo and chlorella ingestions were 97.0 ± 1.0% and 95.3 ± 1.6%, respectively. No difference was observed in salivary SIgA concentrations before and after placebo ingestion (P = 0.38). However, salivary SIgA concentrations were significantly elevated after chlorella ingestion compared to baseline (P chlorella ingestion than before intake (P chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increases salivary SIgA secretion and possibly improves mucosal immune function in humans. PMID:21906314

  20. Lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of omega 3 ethyl esters and krill oil: a randomized, cross-over, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Rosticci, Martina; Morbini, Martino; Cagnati, Marcella; Grandi, Elisa; Parini, Angelo; Borghi, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) derived from different sources could have different lipid-lowering effects in humans. The main aim of our study was to compare the short-term triglyceride-lowering efficacy of krill oil and purified omega 3 ethyl ester PUFAs in mildly overweight hypertriglyceridemic subjects. This double-blind, randomized clinical trial was carried out in 25 moderately hypertriglyceridemic subjects (TG = 150-500 mg/dl). After a 4-week run-in, participants were allocated to treatment with similar pills containing omega 3 ethyl ester PUFAs 1000 mg twice a day vs. krill oil 500 mg twice a day. After 4 weeks of treatment, participants were asked to observe a 4-week wash-out period, and they were then assigned to the alternative treatment for a further period of 4 weeks. Although both PUFA sources were able to improve TG plasma levels, esterified omega 3 PUFAs were more efficacious than krill oil (p krill oil treatment was able to significantly improve high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI levels, compared to both baseline (p krill oil improved it more efficaciously than esterified omega 3 PUFAs (p Krill oil has lipid-lowering effects comparable with those obtained through a 4-fold higher dose of purified omega 3 ethyl ester PUFAs in mildly overweight hypertriglyceridemic subjects, while more efficaciously reducing hs-CRP.

  1. Self-declared stock ownership and association with positive trial outcome in randomized controlled trials with binary outcomes published in general medical journals: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk Delgado, Alberto; Falk Delgado, Anna

    2017-07-26

    Describe the prevalence and types of conflicts of interest (COI) in published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in general medical journals with a binary primary outcome and assess the association between conflicts of interest and favorable outcome. Parallel-group RCTs with a binary primary outcome published in three general medical journals during 2013-2015 were identified. COI type, funding source, and outcome were extracted. Binomial logistic regression model was performed to assess association between COI and funding source with outcome. A total of 509 consecutive parallel-group RCTs were included in the study. COI was reported in 74% in mixed funded RCTs and in 99% in for-profit funded RCTs. Stock ownership was reported in none of the non-profit RCTs, in 7% of mixed funded RCTs, and in 50% of for-profit funded RCTs. Mixed-funded RCTs had employees from the funding company in 11% and for-profit RCTs in 76%. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that stock ownership in the funding company among any of the authors was associated with a favorable outcome (odds ratio = 3.53; 95% confidence interval = 1.59-7.86; p company among authors is associated with a favorable outcome.

  2. Cardiovascular Safety of Oral p-Synephrine (Bitter Orange) in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Cross-over Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shara, Mohd; Stohs, Sidney J; Mukattash, Tareq L

    2016-05-01

    Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine are widely consumed in combination with multiple herbal ingredients for weight management and sports performance. p-Synephrine is also present in juices and foods derived from a variety of Citrus species. Questions exist regarding the safety of p-synephrine because of structural similarities with other biogenic amines. This study assessed the cardiovascular (stimulatory) effects of bitter orange extract (49-mg p-synephrine) given to 18 healthy subjects (nine men and nine women) in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Heart rates, blood pressures, and electrocardiograms were determined at baseline, 30, 60, 90 min, 2, 4 , 6, and 8 h. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, 2 h and 8 h for serum chemistries, blood cell counts, and p-synephrine and caffeine levels. No significant changes occurred in electrocardiograms, heart rates, systolic blood pressure, blood chemistries, or blood cell counts at any time point in either control or p-synephrine treated group. A small (4.5 mmHg) decrease in diastolic blood pressure occurred in the p-synephrine treated group at 60 min. No adverse effects were reported. Caffeine ingestion varied markedly among the participants. p-Synephrine does not act as a stimulant at the dose used. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Comparison between self-formulation and compounded-formulation dexamethasone mouth rinse for oral lichen planus: a pilot, randomized, cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambly, Jessica L; Haywood, Alison; Hattingh, Laetitia; Nair, Raj G

    2017-08-01

    There is a lack of appropriate, commercially-available topical corticosteroid formulations for use in oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid reaction. Current therapy includes crushing a dexamethasone tablet and mixing it with water for use as a mouth rinse. This formulation is unpleasant esthetically and to use in the mouth, as it is a bitter and gritty suspension, resulting in poor compliance. Thus, the present study was designed to formulate and pilot an effective, esthetically-pleasing formulation. A single-blinded, cross-over trial was designed with two treatment arms. Patients were monitored for 7 weeks. Quantitative and qualitative data was assessed using VAS, numeric pain scales, the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication-9, and thematic analysis to determine primary patient-reported outcomes, including satisfaction, compliance, quality of life, and symptom relief. Nine patients completed the pilot trial. Data analysis revealed the new compounded formulation to be superior to existing therapy due to its convenience, positive contribution to compliance, patient-perceived faster onset of action, and improved symptom relief. Topical dexamethasone is useful in the treatment of OLP. When carefully formulated into a compounded mouth rinse, it improves patient outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Effect of grape seed extract on postprandial oxidative status and metabolic responses in men and women with the metabolic syndrome - randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indika Edirisinghe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This investigation was undertaken to determine whether a grape seed extract (GSE that is rich in mono-, oligo- and poly- meric polyphenols would modify postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation in individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MetS.Background: MetS is known to be associated with impaired glucose tolerance and poor glycemic control. Consumption of a meal high in readily available carbohydrates and fat causes postprandial increases in glycemia and lipidemia and markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance. Materials/methods: After an overnight fast, twelve subjects with MetS (5 men and 7 women consumed a breakfast meal high in fat and carbohydrate in a cross-over design. A GSE (300 mg or placebo capsule was administrated 1 hr before the meal (-1 hr. Changes in plasma insulin, glucose, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers were measured hourly for 6 hr. Results: Plasma hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC measured as the positive incremental area under the curve (-1 to 5 hr was significantly increased when the meal was preceded by GSE compared with placebo (P0.05. No changes in inflammatory markers were evident. Conclusion: These data suggest that GSE enhances postprandial plasma antioxidant status and reduces the glycemic response to a meal, high in fat and carbohydrate in subjects with the MetS.

  5. Effect of time of administration on cholesterol-lowering by psyllium: a randomized cross-over study in normocholesterolemic or slightly hypercholesterolemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Alun L

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports of the use of psyllium, largely in hypercholesterolemic men, have suggested that it lowers serum cholesterol as a result of the binding of bile acids in the intestinal lumen. Widespread advertisements have claimed an association between the use of soluble fibre from psyllium seed husk and a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Given the purported mechanism of cholesterol-lowering by psyllium, we hypothesized that there would be a greater effect when psyllium is taken with breakfast than when taken at bedtime. Secondarily, we expected to confirm a cholesterol-lowering effect of psyllium in subjects with "average" cholesterol levels. Methods Sixteen men and 47 women ranging in age from 18 to 77 years [mean 53 +/- 13] with LDL cholesterol levels that were normal or slightly elevated but acceptable for subjects at low risk of coronary artery disease were recruited from general gastroenterology and low risk lipid clinics. Following a one month dietary stabilization period, they received an average daily dose of 12.7 g of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid, in randomized order, for 8 weeks in the morning and 8 weeks in the evening. Change from baseline was determined for serum total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides. Results Total cholesterol for the "AM first" group at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks was 5.76, 5.77 and 5.80 mmol/L and for the "PM first" group the corresponding values were 5.47, 5.61 and 5.57 mmol/L. No effect on any lipid parameter was demonstrated for the group as a whole or in any sub-group analysis. Conclusion The timing of psyllium administration had no effect on cholesterol-lowering and, in fact, no cholesterol-lowering was observed. Conclusions regarding the effectiveness of psyllium for the prevention of heart disease in the population at large may be premature.

  6. Comparison of the urinary excretion of quercetin glycosides from red onion and aglycone from dietary supplements in healthy subjects: a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuanlu; Williamson, Gary

    2015-05-01

    Some intervention studies have shown that quercetin supplementation can regulate certain biomarkers, but it is not clear how the doses given relate to dietary quercetin (e.g. from onion). We conducted a two-period, two-sequence crossover study to compare the bioavailability of quercetin when administered in the form of a fresh red onion meal (naturally glycosylated quercetin) or dietary supplement (aglycone quercetin) under fasting conditions. Six healthy, non-smoking, adult males with BMI 22.7 ± 4.0 kg m(-2) and age 35.3 ± 12.3 y were grouped to take the two study meals in random order. In each of the 2 study periods, one serving of onion soup (made from 100 g fresh red onion, providing 156.3 ± 3.4 μmol (47 mg) quercetin) or a single dose of a quercetin dihydrate tablet (1800 ± 150 μmol (544 mg) of quercetin) were administered following 3 d washout. Urine samples were collected up to 24 h, and after enzyme deconjugation, quercetin was quantified by LC-MS. The 24 h urinary excretion of quercetin (1.69 ± 0.79 μmol) from red onion in soup was not significantly different to that (1.17 ± 0.44 μmol) for the quercetin supplement tablet (P = 0.065, paired t-test). This means that, in practice, 166 mg of quercetin supplement would be comparable to about 10 mg of quercetin aglycone equivalents from onion. These data allow intervention studies on quercetin giving either food or supplements to be more effectively compared.

  7. Perioperative Bromelain Therapy after Wisdom Teeth Extraction - A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blinded, Three-Armed, Cross-Over Dose-Finding Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Kai-Hendrik; Weber, Kristina; Kloppenburg, Heike; Staude, Pia; Koch, Armin; Meiser, Peter; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius

    2016-12-01

    Reduction in postoperative edema and inflammatory reactions is the key to the posttraumatic regeneration process. Use of bromelain is well established in this indication, but there is some controversy with regard to the optimal dosing of this drug. The aim of our study was therefore to investigate the efficacy of dosage-dependent therapy with bromelain in patients after wisdom teeth extraction by comparing the registered dosage 1000 FIP (Fédération Internationale Pharmaceutique) against higher dosages of 3000 FIP and 4500 FIP. A total of 75 patients were randomized to one of the three dosage arms, and 68 of these patients were finally analyzed in the modified intention-to-treat population. Patients involved underwent two surgery sessions: one study period being conducted under treatment with bromelain and the other with placebo. Postoperative swelling determined by a 3D face scanning system was defined as the primary endpoint; further efficacy parameters were maximum swelling, pain, difficulty in swallowing, and use of analgesics. A superiority of treatment with 3000 FIP and 4500 FIP versus 1000 FIP could not be demonstrated. The analysis of pooled bromelain treatments versus placebo did, however, show a clear trend in favor of bromelain for all assessments. Adverse events did not occur more frequently under bromelain therapy compared with placebo. This study thus clearly supports the clinical relevance of treatment of postoperative conditions with bromelain, and the recommended daily dose was sufficiently effective in this trial and indication. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Use of wireless phones and serum β-trace protein in randomly recruited persons aged 18-65 years: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderqvist, Fredrik; Carlberg, Michael; Zetterberg, Henrik; Hardell, Lennart

    2012-12-01

    There are studies suggesting effects on sleep from pulse-modulated radiofrequency fields used in mobile and cordless phones. So far, reports of adverse effects in observational studies are of limited value for risk assessment while effects from experimental studies seem to be more consistent but unclear as to their importance for health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether use of wireless phones is associated with lower concentrations of β-trace protein (lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase), a key enzyme in the synthesis of prostaglandin D(2), an endogenous sleep-promoting neurohormone. Three hundred and fourteen people, aged 18-65 years and living in the municipality of Örebro, Sweden, were recruited randomly using the population registry. Total and age-specific linear regression analyses adjusted for known covariates were used to calculate associations between levels of β-trace protein and short- and long-term use of wireless phones. Overall, no statistically significant association between use of wireless phones and the serum concentration of β-trace protein was found, neither with respect to short-term nor long-term use. Age-specific analyses, however, yielded negative associations for long-term use (cumulative hours of use) and β-trace protein in the youngest age group (18-30 years). This study provided no overall evidence of an association between wireless phone use and serum concentrations of β-trace protein. While the findings in the 18-30 year age group indicating lower concentrations with more cumulative hours of use should be further investigated, no causal inferences can be made from the results of the present study.

  9. Randomized two-way cross-over bioequivalence study of two amoxicillin formulations and inter-ethnicity pharmacokinetic variation in healthy Malay volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Kai Bin; Loh, Gabriel Onn Kit; Tan, Yvonne Tze Fung; Peh, Kok Khiang

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a new deproteinization method to extract amoxicillin from human plasma and evaluate the inter-ethnic variation of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics in healthy Malay volunteers. A single-dose, randomized, fasting, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence crossover, open-label bioequivalence study was conducted in 18 healthy Malay adult male volunteers, with one week washout period. The drug concentration in the sample was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (UV-vis HPLC). The mean (standard deviation) pharmacokinetic parameter results of Moxilen® were: peak concentration (Cmax ), 6.72 (1.56) µg/mL; area under the concentration-time graph (AUC0-8 ), 17.79 (4.29) µg/mL h; AUC0-∞ , 18.84 (4.62) µg/mL h. Those of YSP Amoxicillin® capsule were: Cmax , 6.69 (1.44) µg/mL; AUC0-8 , 18.69 (3.78) µg/mL h; AUC00-∞ , 19.95 (3.81) µg/mL h. The 90% confidence intervals for the logarithmic transformed Cmax , AUC0-8 and AUC0-∞ of Moxilen® vs YSP Amoxicillin® capsule was between 0.80 and 1.25. Both Cmax and AUC met the predetermined criteria for assuming bioequivalence. Both formulations were well tolerated. The results showed significant inter-ethnicity variation in pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin. The Cmax and AUC of amoxicillin in Malay population were slightly lower compared with other populations. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Hesperidin displays relevant role in the nutrigenomic effect of orange juice on blood leukocytes in human volunteers: a randomized controlled cross-over study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Milenkovic

    Full Text Available We previously showed, in healthy, middle-aged, moderately overweight men, that orange juice decreases diastolic blood pressure and significantly improves postprandial microvascular endothelial reactivity and that hesperidin could be causally linked to the observed beneficial effect of orange juice. The objective was to determine the effect of chronic consumption of orange juice on the gene expression profile of leukocytes in healthy volunteers and to assess to what extent hesperidin is involved in the effect of orange juice.Volunteers were included in a randomized, controlled, crossover study. Throughout three 4-week periods, volunteers consumed daily: 500 ml orange juice, 500 ml control drink plus hesperidin or 500 ml control drink and placebo. Blood samplings were performed on 10 overnight-fasted subjects after the 4-week treatment period. Global gene expression profiles were determined using human whole genome cDNA microarrays. Both orange juice and hesperidin consumption significantly affected leukocyte gene expression. Orange juice consumption induced changes in expression of, 3,422 genes, while hesperidin intake modulated the expression of 1,819 genes. Between the orange juice and hesperidin consumption groups, 1,582 regulated genes were in common. Many of these genes are implicated in chemotaxis, adhesion, infiltration and lipid transport, which is suggestive of lower recruitment and infiltration of circulating cells to vascular wall and lower lipid accumulation.This study shows that regular consumption of orange juice for 4 weeks alters leukocyte gene expression to an anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic profile, and hesperidin displays a relevant role in the genomic effect of this beverage.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00983086.

  11. The Effect of Donepezil on Arousal Threshold and Apnea-Hypopnea Index. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Cross-Over Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanru; Owens, Robert L; Sands, Scott; Orr, Jeremy; Moraes, Walter; DeYoung, Pamela; Smales, Erik; Jen, Rachel; Malhotra, Atul

    2016-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has multiple pathophysiological causes. A low respiratory arousal threshold (ArTh) and a high loop gain (unstable ventilatory control) can contribute to recurrent respiratory events in patients with OSA. Prior studies have shown that donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, might improve OSA, but the mechanism is unknown. To determine whether a single dose of donepezil lowers the apnea-hypopnea index by modulating the ArTh or loop gain. In this randomized, double-blind, crossover trial, 41 subjects with OSA underwent two polysomnograms with ArTh and loop gain evaluated, during which 10 mg of donepezil or placebo was administered. Compared with placebo, sleep efficiency (77.2 vs. 71.9%; P = 0.015) and total sleep time decreased with donepezil (372 vs. 351 min; P = 0.004). No differences were found in apnea-hypopnea index (51.8 vs. 50.0 events/h; P = 0.576) or nadir oxygen saturation as determined by pulse oximetry (80.3 vs. 81.1%; P = 0.241) between placebo and donepezil, respectively. ArTh was not significantly changed (-18.9 vs. -18.0 cm H2O; P = 0.394) with donepezil. As a whole group, loop gain (ventilatory response to a 1-cycle/min disturbance) did not change significantly (P = 0.089). A single dose of donepezil did not appear to affect the overall severity of OSA in this patient group, and no consistent effects on ArTh or loop gain were observed. Donepezil may have minor effects on sleep architecture. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02264353).

  12. Hesperidin Displays Relevant Role in the Nutrigenomic Effect of Orange Juice on Blood Leukocytes in Human Volunteers: A Randomized Controlled Cross-Over Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkovic, Dragan; Deval, Christiane; Dubray, Claude; Mazur, Andrzej; Morand, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background We previously showed, in healthy, middle-aged, moderately overweight men, that orange juice decreases diastolic blood pressure and significantly improves postprandial microvascular endothelial reactivity and that hesperidin could be causally linked to the observed beneficial effect of orange juice. The objective was to determine the effect of chronic consumption of orange juice on the gene expression profile of leukocytes in healthy volunteers and to assess to what extent hesperidin is involved in the effect of orange juice. Methodology/Principal Findings Volunteers were included in a randomized, controlled, crossover study. Throughout three 4-week periods, volunteers consumed daily: 500 ml orange juice, 500 ml control drink plus hesperidin or 500 ml control drink and placebo. Blood samplings were performed on 10 overnight-fasted subjects after the 4-week treatment period. Global gene expression profiles were determined using human whole genome cDNA microarrays. Both orange juice and hesperidin consumption significantly affected leukocyte gene expression. Orange juice consumption induced changes in expression of, 3,422 genes, while hesperidin intake modulated the expression of 1,819 genes. Between the orange juice and hesperidin consumption groups, 1,582 regulated genes were in common. Many of these genes are implicated in chemotaxis, adhesion, infiltration and lipid transport, which is suggestive of lower recruitment and infiltration of circulating cells to vascular wall and lower lipid accumulation. Conclusions This study shows that regular consumption of orange juice for 4 weeks alters leukocyte gene expression to an anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic profile, and hesperidin displays a relevant role in the genomic effect of this beverage. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00983086 PMID:22110589

  13. Hormonal and metabolic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome: results from a cross-sectional analysis and a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, Niamh

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by an adverse metabolic profile. Although dietary changes are advocated, optimal nutritional management remains uncertain. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly long-chain (LC) n-3 (omega-3) PUFAs, improve metabolic health, but their therapeutic potential in PCOS is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the associations between plasma PUFAs and metabolic and hormonal aspects of PCOS to investigate the efficacy of LC n-3 PUFA supplementation and to support the findings with mechanistic cellular studies. DESIGN: We selected a cross-sectional PCOS cohort (n = 104) and conducted a principal component analysis on plasma fatty acid profiles. Effects of LC n-3 PUFA supplementation on fasting and postprandial metabolic and hormonal markers were determined in PCOS subjects (n = 22) by a randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled intervention. Direct effects of n-6 (omega-6) compared with n-3 PUFAs on steroidogenesis were investigated in primary bovine theca cells. RESULTS: Cross-sectional data showed that a greater plasma n-6 PUFA concentration and n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio were associated with higher circulating androgens and that plasma LC n-3 PUFA status was associated with a less atherogenic lipid profile. LC n-3 PUFA supplementation reduced plasma bioavailable testosterone concentrations (P < 0.05), with the greatest reductions in subjects who exhibited greater reductions in plasma n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios. The treatment of bovine theca cells with n-6 rather than with n-3 PUFAs up-regulated androstenedione secretion (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Cross-sectional data suggest that PUFAs modulated hormonal and lipid profiles and that supplementation with LC n-3 PUFAs improves androgenic profiles in PCOS. In bovine theca cells, arachidonic acid modulated androstenedione secretion, which suggests an indirect effect of n-3 PUFAs through the displacement of or increased competition with n-6 PUFAs. This trial was

  14. Orodispersible sublingual piribedil to abort OFF episodes: a single dose placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascol, Olivier; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Blin, Olivier; Bonnet, Anne-Marie; Brefel-Courbon, Christine; Césaro, Pierre; Damier, Philippe; Debilly, Bérengère; Durif, Frank; Galitzky, Monique; Grouin, Jean-Marie; Pennaforte, Sylvie; Villafane, Gabriel; Yaici, Sadek; Agid, Yves

    2010-02-15

    S90049, a novel sublingual formulation of the non-ergoline D(2)-D(3) agonist piribedil, has a pharmacokinetic profile promising to provide rapid relief on motor signs in Parkinson's disease (PD). We assessed the efficacy and safety of S90049 in aborting OFF episodes responding to subcutaneous apomorphine in PD patients with motor fluctuations. This was a single-dose double-blind double-placebo 3 x 3 cross-over study. Optimal tested doses were determined during a previous open-label titration phase (S90049 median dose: 60 mg, apomorphine: 5 mg). Primary endpoint was the maximal change versus baseline in UPDRS motor score (Delta UPDRS III) assessed after drug administration following an overnight withdrawal of antiparkinsonian medications. Thirty patients (age: 60 +/- 8 years, PD duration: 12 +/- 6 years, UPDRS III OFF: 37 +/- 15) participated. S90049 was superior to placebo on Delta UPDRS III (-13 +/- 12 versus -7 +/- 9 respectively; estimated difference -5.2, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)[-10.4;0.05], P = 0.05). This was also true for secondary outcomes: number of patients switching from OFF to ON (17 on S90049 vs. 8 on placebo, P = 0.03), time to turn ON (P = 0.013) and duration of the ON phase (P = 0.03). In the 17 patients who switched ON on S90049, Delta UPDRS III was similar on S90049 (-21.2 +/- 10.1) and apomorphine (-23.6 +/- 14.1) (estimated difference: 4.0 95% CI [-2.9;10.9]). S90049 was well tolerated: no serious or unexpected adverse event occurred. A single dose of up to 60 mg of S90049 given sublingually was superior to placebo in improving UPDRS III and aborting a practical OFF in patients with advanced PD. Testing greater doses might improve response rate. (c) 2009 Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Location of Planet X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, R.S.

    1988-10-01

    Observed positions of Uranus and Neptune along with residuals in right ascension and declination are used to constrain the location of a postulated tenth planet. The residuals are converted into residuals in ecliptic longitude and latitude. The results are then combined into seasonal normal points, producing average geocentric residuals spaced slightly more than a year apart that are assumed to represent the equivalent heliocentric average residuals for the observed oppositions. Such a planet is found to most likely reside in the region of Scorpius, with considerably less likelihood that it is in Taurus. 8 references.

  16. Locating Nordic Noir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Waade, Anne Marit

    such as Beck, The Killing, Trapped and The Bridge as well as a range of other important Nordic Noir cases. The book positions the development of Nordic Noir on the global market for popular television drama and places the international attention towards Nordic crime dramas within regional development of drama......This book is a comprehensive study of Nordic Noir television drama from the 1990’s until today. The authors introduce the history of contemporary Nordic Noir from the perspective of place, production and location studies. The chapters include readings of well-known television crime dramas...

  17. The LHCb Vertex Locator

    CERN Document Server

    Eklund, L

    2004-01-01

    LHCb is an experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), dedicated to the study of b-hadron physics. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is a sub-detector which reconstructs primary and secondary vertices, which is of importance for the processes under study. It is a silicon micro-strip detector operated in a harsh radiation environment with demands of high read-out speed and the use of minimal material. In this paper, the LHCb VELO is introduced and the technology choices of the detector are motivated. We report on the present status of the project and one possible upgrade technology is presented.

  18. Locating Nordic Noir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Waade, Anne Marit

    This book is a comprehensive study of Nordic Noir television drama from the 1990’s until today. The authors introduce the history of contemporary Nordic Noir from the perspective of place, production and location studies. The chapters include readings of well-known television crime dramas...... production in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Iceland. Consequently, Nordic Noir is read as both a transnational financial and creative phenomenon and as a local possibility for community building. The book is aimed at readers with an interest in crime drama as well as television scholars and students...

  19. Competitive facility location models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononov, A. V.; Kochetov, Yu. A.; Plyasunov, A. V.

    2009-06-01

    Two classes of competitive facility location models are considered, in which several persons (players) sequentially or simultaneously open facilities for serving clients. The first class consists of discrete two-level programming models. The second class consists of game models with several independent players pursuing selfish goals. For the first class, its relationship with pseudo-Boolean functions is established and a novel method for constructing a family of upper and lower bounds on the optimum is proposed. For the second class, the tight PLS-completeness of the problem of finding Nash equilibriums is proved.

  20. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  1. Effects of a mixed berry beverage on cognitive functions and cardiometabolic risk markers; A randomized cross-over study in healthy older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Nilsson

    Full Text Available Berries and associated bioactive compounds, e.g. polyphenols and dietary fibre (DF, may have beneficial implications with respect to the metabolic syndrome, including also cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects on cognitive functions and cardiometabolic risk markers of 5 wk intervention with a mixture of berries, in healthy humans.Forty healthy subjects between 50-70 years old were provided a berry beverage based on a mixture of berries (150g blueberries, 50g blackcurrant, 50g elderberry, 50g lingonberries, 50g strawberry, and 100g tomatoes or a control beverage, daily during 5 weeks in a randomized crossover design. The control beverage (water based was matched with respect to monosaccharides, pH, and volume. Cognitive tests included tests of working memory capacity, selective attention, and psychomotor reaction time. Cardiometabolic test variables investigated were blood pressure, fasting blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, blood lipids, inflammatory markers, and markers of oxidative stress.The daily amounts of total polyphenols and DF from the berry beverage were 795 mg and 11g, respectively. There were no polyphenols or DF in the control beverage. The berry intervention reduced total- and LDL cholesterol compared to baseline (both P<0.05, and in comparison to the control beverage (P<0.005 and P<0.01, respectively. The control beverage increased glucose concentrations (P<0.01 and tended to increase insulin concentrations (P = 0.064 from base line, and increased insulin concentrations in comparison to the berry beverage (P<0.05. Subjects performed better in the working memory test after the berry beverage compared to after the control beverage (P<0.05. No significant effects on the other test variables were observed.The improvements in cardiometabolic risk markers and cognitive performance after the berry beverage suggest preventive potential of berries with respect to type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease

  2. Effects of thirty and sixty minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on postprandial lipemia and inflammation in overweight men: a randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Sam R; Kurti, Stephanie P; Snyder, Brian S; Sitaraman, Karthikeyan; Haub, Mark D; Rosenkranz, Sara K

    2016-01-01

    The transient rise in blood lipids following a high-fat meal (HFM), known as postprandial lipemia, is linked to systemic inflammation and cardiovascular disease, but can be blunted by exercise. However, minimal research has investigated the effects of realistic exercise bouts on postprandial lipemia and inflammation in at-risk individuals. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise lasting 30 or 60 min performed the evening before a HFM, on postprandial lipemia and inflammation in overweight, insufficiently active men. In this randomized-crossover study, twelve participants remained sedentary (CON), or performed a brisk walk on a treadmill at 60 % VO2peak for either 30 min (EX-30) or 60 min (EX-60), after which they consumed a small snack (270 kcal) to partially replace exercise energy expenditure. Following a 12-h overnight fast, participants consumed a standard HFM (1 g fat/kg; 1 g CHO/kg; 1117.8 ± 117.0 kcal). Blood draws were performed at baseline (pre-HFM) and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h post-HFM to assess glucose, insulin, lipids, and systemic inflammation. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in fasting triglycerides between EX-60 (118.7 ± 68.3 mg/dL), CON (134.8 ± 66.2 mg/dL) or EX-30 (135.5 ± 85.4 mg/dL). There were no differences in peak, time-to-peak, total or incremental area-under-the-curve between trials for triglyceride response (p > 0.05). There was no significant main effect of time (p > 0.05) in IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 or TNF-α from baseline to 8 h post-HFM in any trial. In summary, we found that in overweight, insufficiently active men, neither 30 nor 60 min of moderate-intensity exercise performed 12 h prior to a HFM attenuated postprandial lipemia or inflammation, which could potentially be explained by the partial caloric replacement of exercise energy expenditure.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of single oral dose trazodone : a randomized, two-period, cross-over trial in healthy, adult, human volunteers under fed condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRASHANT eKALE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the bioequivalence of single dose trazodone hydrochloride USP 100 mg tablets administered as an oral dose under fed condition. Methods This study was an open-label, balanced, randomized, two-sequence, two-treatment, two-period, single oral dose, crossover bioequivalence study in healthy, adult, human subjects under fed conditions. After an overnight fast of at least 10 hours, the subjects were served a high fat and high calorie vegetarian breakfast, which they were required to consume within 30 minutes. A single oral dose (100 mg of either the test or the reference product was administered to the subjects. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC from time zero to last measurable concentration (AUC0-t and extrapolated to infinity (AUC0- were compared by an analysis of variance using log-transformed data. Bioequivalence was concluded if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs of the adjusted geometric mean (gMean ratios for Cmax and AUC were within the predetermined range of 80%-125%, in accordance with regulatory requirements. Results For the test formulation, the trazodone gMean Cmax was 1480.9 ng/mL (vs. 1520.2 ng/mL for reference, AUC0-t was 18193.0 ng·h/mL (vs. 18209.8 ng·h/mL and AUC0- was 19346.3 ng·h/mL (vs. 19393.4 ng·h/mL. The 90% CIs for the ratio (test/reference were 93.0-102.0% for Cmax, 96.7-103.2% for AUC0-t and 96.1-103.5% for AUC0-. There were no deaths or serious adverse events during the conduct of the study. Conclusion Test product when compared with the Reference product meets the bioequivalence criteria with respect to the rate and extent of absorption of Trazodone under fed condition.

  4. A randomized cross-over study of the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among females performing 30:2 and hands-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrickson W Clive

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hands-Only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is recommended for use on adult victims of witnessed out-of-hospital (OOH sudden cardiac arrest or in instances where rescuers cannot perform ventilations while maintaining minimally interrupted quality compressions. Promotion of Hands-Only CPR should improve the incidence of bystander CPR and, subsequently, survival from OOH cardiac arrest; but, little is known about a rescuer's ability to deliver continuous chest compressions of adequate rate and depth for periods typical of emergency services response time. This study evaluated chest compression rate and depth as subjects performed Hands-Only CPR for 10 minutes. For comparison purposes, each also performed chest compressions with ventilations (30:2 CPR. It also evaluated fatigue and changes in body biomechanics associated with each type of CPR. Methods Twenty healthy female volunteers certified in basic life support performed Hands-Only CPR and 30:2 CPR on a manikin. A mixed model repeated measures cross-over design evaluated chest compression rate and depth, changes in fatigue (chest compression force, perceived exertion, and blood lactate level, and changes in electromyography and joint kinetics and kinematics. Results All subjects completed 10 minutes of 30:2 CPR; but, only 17 completed 10 minutes of Hands-Only CPR. Rate, average depth, percentage at least 38 millimeters deep, and force of compressions were significantly lower in Hands-Only CPR than in 30:2 CPR. Rates were maintained; but, compression depth and force declined significantly from beginning to end CPR with most decrement occurring in the first two minutes. Perceived effort and joint torque changes were significantly greater in Hands-Only CPR. Performance was not influenced by age. Conclusion Hands-Only CPR required greater effort and was harder to sustain than 30:2 CPR. It is not known whether the observed greater decrement in chest compression depth associated

  5. A randomized cross-over study of the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among females performing 30:2 and hands-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Cynthia; Parekh, Jesal N; Ricard, Mark D; Potts, Jerald; Patrickson, W Clive; Cason, Carolyn L

    2009-07-07

    Hands-Only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is recommended for use on adult victims of witnessed out-of-hospital (OOH) sudden cardiac arrest or in instances where rescuers cannot perform ventilations while maintaining minimally interrupted quality compressions. Promotion of Hands-Only CPR should improve the incidence of bystander CPR and, subsequently, survival from OOH cardiac arrest; but, little is known about a rescuer's ability to deliver continuous chest compressions of adequate rate and depth for periods typical of emergency services response time. This study evaluated chest compression rate and depth as subjects performed Hands-Only CPR for 10 minutes. For comparison purposes, each also performed chest compressions with ventilations (30:2) CPR. It also evaluated fatigue and changes in body biomechanics associated with each type of CPR. Twenty healthy female volunteers certified in basic life support performed Hands-Only CPR and 30:2 CPR on a manikin. A mixed model repeated measures cross-over design evaluated chest compression rate and depth, changes in fatigue (chest compression force, perceived exertion, and blood lactate level), and changes in electromyography and joint kinetics and kinematics. All subjects completed 10 minutes of 30:2 CPR; but, only 17 completed 10 minutes of Hands-Only CPR. Rate, average depth, percentage at least 38 millimeters deep, and force of compressions were significantly lower in Hands-Only CPR than in 30:2 CPR. Rates were maintained; but, compression depth and force declined significantly from beginning to end CPR with most decrement occurring in the first two minutes. Perceived effort and joint torque changes were significantly greater in Hands-Only CPR. Performance was not influenced by age. Hands-Only CPR required greater effort and was harder to sustain than 30:2 CPR. It is not known whether the observed greater decrement in chest compression depth associated with Hands-Only CPR would offset the potential physiological

  6. Anti Bacterial Efficacy of Terminalia Chebula, Terminalia Bellirica, Embilica Officinalis and Triphala on Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count - A Linear Randomized Cross Over Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Smariti; Lakshminarayan, Nagesh; Gudli, Shanmukha; Kumar, Manish

    2017-02-01

    From the oral health perspective, it is well established that microorganisms have an important role in caries aetiology. From the dawn of civilization, herbal plants have served an array of roles. Triphala a tradtional herbal Ayurvedic formula consists of three native fruits of india including Terminalia Chebula (T. chebula), Terminalia Bellirica (T. bellirica) and Embilica Officinalis (E. officinalis). As per Ayurvedic Formulary of India (AFI) Triphala is prepared by combining a 1:1:1 mixture of ground dry fruits called myrobalans. Till date, an inadequate number of clinical researches on herb based mouth rinses have been reported in Asia, especially in India and other Southeast Asian countries (where these products are most accepted and widely used). The present study was planned to assess the effectiveness of Triphala with its three constituents. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Triphala, T. chebula, T. bellirica and E. officinalis aqueous extract rinses separately on Streptococcusmutans count at various time intervals. This is a double-blind, linear cross over, within group experimental trial conducted among subjects visiting the Department of Public Health Dentistry aged 15 to 40 years. In this design, subjects received all of the treatments sequentially in time. The independent variables to be assessed in this study were all the four interventions of herbal preparations used and the dependent variable assessed is anti bacterial efficacy. Each subject receives two or more different treatments. All the subjects were exposed to all four interventions: 1) T. chebula; 2) T. bellirica; 3) E. officinalis; and 4) Triphala and were provided 15 ml of the freshly prepared 10% rinse. The subjects were instructed not to eat or drink between salivary samples collection. Post rinse unstimulated salivary samples were collected at five minutes and 60 minutes intervals. All the salivary samples were transferred immediately to microbiological

  7. Indoor Location Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on the special challenges posed by accurately pinpointing a location indoors, this volume reflects the distance we have come in the handful of decades since the germination of GPS technology. Not only can we locate a signal to within a meter’s accuracy, but we now have this technology in the most basic mobile phone. Tracing recent practical developments in positioning technology and in the market it supplies, the author examines the contributions of the varied research—in silicon, signal and image processing, radio communications and software—to a fast-evolving field. The book looks forward to a time when, in addition to directing your road journey, positioning systems can peer indoors and guide you to an available photocopier in your office building. Featuring standalone chapters each dealing with a specific aspect of the subject, including treatments of systems such as Zebra, Awarepoint, Aeroscout, IEEE 802.11, etc. This study has all the detail needed to get up to speed on a key modern techn...

  8. Locating a modifier gene of Ovum mutant through crosses between ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Volume 95 Issue 2 June 2016 pp 297-302 ... mouse; DDK syndrome; ovum mutant; modifier gene; quantitative trait loci ... Previously, some research groups reported that the embryonic mortality deviated from the semilethal rate in backcrosses between heterozygous (Om/+) females and males of other ...

  9. Locating a modifier gene of Ovum mutant through crosses between ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mating, and six N2 heterozygous females died in the mating experiment; only 289 N2 ... of Om. The black lines indicate the genomewide scan result of LF; the red lines indicate the genomewide scan result of LM. Genomewide .... onic death at the same stage as the DDK syndrome (Zhao et al. 2000). The reduction in fertility ...

  10. GRACEnet: addressing policy needs through coordinated cross-location research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawson, Michael D.; Walthall, Charles W.; Shafer, Steven R.; Liebig, Mark; Franzluebbers, Alan J.; Follett, Ronald F.

    2012-01-01

    GRACEnet (Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network) was conceived to build upon ongoing USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) research to improve soil productivity, while addressing the challenges and opportunities of interest in C sequestration from a climate change perspective. The vision for GRACEnet was and remains: Knowledge and information used to implement scientifically based agricultural management practices from the field to national policy scales on C sequestration, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and environmental benefits. The national focus of GRACEnet uses a standardized approach by ARS laboratories and university and land manager (e.g. farmer and rancher) cooperators to assess C sequestration and GHG emission from different crop and grassland systems. Since 2002, GRACEnet has significantly expanded GHG mitigation science and delivered usable information to agricultural research and policy organizations. Recent developments suggest GRACEnet will have international impact by contributing leadership and technical guidance for the Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases.

  11. Locating Nordic Noir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Waade, Anne Marit

    This book is a comprehensive study of Nordic Noir television drama from the 1990’s until today. The authors introduce the history of contemporary Nordic Noir from the perspective of place, production and location studies. The chapters include readings of well-known television crime dramas...... such as Beck, The Killing, Trapped and The Bridge as well as a range of other important Nordic Noir cases. The book positions the development of Nordic Noir on the global market for popular television drama and places the international attention towards Nordic crime dramas within regional development of drama...... production in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Iceland. Consequently, Nordic Noir is read as both a transnational financial and creative phenomenon and as a local possibility for community building. The book is aimed at readers with an interest in crime drama as well as television scholars and students...

  12. Locating Nordic Noir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Waade, Anne Marit

    This book is a comprehensive study of Nordic Noir television drama from the 1990’s until today. The authors introduce the history of contemporary Nordic Noir from the perspective of place, production and location studies. The chapters include readings of well-known television crime dramas...... production in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Iceland. Consequently, Nordic Noir is read as both a transnational financial and creative phenomenon and as a local possibility for community building. The book is aimed at readers with an interest in crime drama as well as television scholars and students...... of television drama, and it offers a comprehensible, scholarly and methodologically original approach to the popularity of Nordic television crime dramas....

  13. Demographics and remote locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppus, G. [Dynawise Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Within the next decade, the number of people leaving the workforce will exceed the number of new entrants. The demand for workers is expected to increase in Alberta due to oil sands industry growth. Sixty-four per cent of all responding federal, provincial, and municipal government organizations have reported shortages in their work environments, and almost 8 in 10 organizations predict they will continue to be understaffed in the next 3 to 5 years. Tightness in the general labour market will have an impact on employers in remote locations, and planning is essential to avoid the creation of a mercenary culture and a reliance on compensation. Challenges found in remote locations include high turnover rates among recent hires; critical gaps in service length; aggressive retirement; and the fact that the local population is often seen as unqualified for many industrial jobs. This Power Point presentation suggested that although decisions to join or quit a company are often based on considerations such as the organizational environment and amount of compensation, the relationship between employees and management is the most important attribute in many career decisions. Rigorous quantitative analysis of current demographics combined with forecasting analysis may help to forestall recruitment difficulties for many companies. Productivity analyses, and the effects of work overload on absenteeism, attrition and quality of workmanship must also be examined. Many companies are now focusing on retention and development strategies on mid-career staff to address depletion, as well as redesigning procedures to operate with less skilled staff. It was concluded that extra efforts are now being made to attract non-traditional employees, and non-traditional employment models are being considered by some companies. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Coverage of space by random sets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Consider the non-negative integer line. For each integer point we toss a coin. If the toss at location i is a. Heads we place an interval (of random length) there and move to location i + 1,. Tails we move to location i + 1. Coverage of space by random sets – p. 2/29 ...

  15. Wave-equation Based Earthquake Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, P.; Yang, D.; Yang, X.; Chen, J.; Harris, J.

    2014-12-01

    Precisely locating earthquakes is fundamentally important for studying earthquake physics, fault orientations and Earth's deformation. In industry, accurately determining hypocenters of microseismic events triggered in the course of a hydraulic fracturing treatment can help improve the production of oil and gas from unconventional reservoirs. We develop a novel earthquake location method based on solving full wave equations to accurately locate earthquakes (including microseismic earthquakes) in complex and heterogeneous structures. Traveltime residuals or differential traveltime measurements with the waveform cross-correlation technique are iteratively inverted to obtain the locations of earthquakes. The inversion process involves the computation of the Fréchet derivative with respect to the source (earthquake) location via the interaction between a forward wavefield emitting from the source to the receiver and an adjoint wavefield reversely propagating from the receiver to the source. When there is a source perturbation, the Fréchet derivative not only measures the influence of source location but also the effects of heterogeneity, anisotropy and attenuation of the subsurface structure on the arrival of seismic wave at the receiver. This is essential for the accuracy of earthquake location in complex media. In addition, to reduce the computational cost, we can first assume that seismic wave only propagates in a vertical plane passing through the source and the receiver. The forward wavefield, adjoint wavefield and Fréchet derivative with respect to the source location are all computed in a 2D vertical plane. By transferring the Fréchet derivative along the horizontal direction of the 2D plane into the ones along Latitude and Longitude coordinates or local 3D Cartesian coordinates, the source location can be updated in a 3D geometry. The earthquake location obtained with this combined 2D-3D approach can then be used as the initial location for a true 3D wave

  16. Effects of a multifactorial intervention comprising resistance exercise, nutritional and psychosocial programs on frailty and functional health in community-dwelling older adults: A randomized, controlled, cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Satoshi; Nishi, Mariko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Narita, Miki; Yokoyama, Yuri; Nofuji, Yu; Taniguchi, Yu; Amano, Hidenori; Kitamura, Akihiko; Shinkai, Shoji

    2017-11-01

    To examine the effects of a multifactorial intervention on frailty and functional health among community-dwelling older adults, a 6-month randomized, controlled, cross-over trial was carried out within the Hatoyama Cohort Study. A total of 77 pre-frail or frail older adults (mean age 74.6 years) were randomly allocated to an immediate intervention group (IIG; n = 38) or delayed intervention group (DIG; n = 39). The IIG participated in a twice-weekly multifactorial intervention comprising resistance exercise, nutritional education and psychosocial programs. No intervention was given to the DIG during the initial 3-month period, and both groups were crossed over for the latter 3-month period. Pre-frailty and frailty were determined by using the Check-List 15, which was validated against Fried's frailty criteria. Effects of the intervention on primary (Check-List 15 score and frailty status) and secondary outcomes (physical and psychosocial functions, and nutritional intake) were examined for both 3-month periods. As compared with the DIG, the IIG had significant reductions in Check-List 15 score (-0.36 points; 95% CI -0.74 to -0.03), frailty prevalence (-23.5%, 95% CI -40.4 to -6.7), Timed Up and Go test (-0.25 s, 95% CI -0.47 to -0.08), and Geriatric Depression Score (-0.92 points, 95% CI -1.44 to -0.39), and improvements in the Dietary Variety Score (0.65 points, 95% CI 0.05-1.25), and protein (1.9% E, 95% CI 1.1-2.7) and micronutrient intakes at 3 months, all of which, excluding protein and micronutrient intakes, persisted at 6 months. The DIG showed similar intervention effects in the latter 3-month period. This 3-month multifactorial intervention reduced frailty and improved functional health. These intervention effects persisted for at least 3 months post-intervention. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2034-2045. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. On location at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    CERN continues to be a very popular candidate for film locations at the moment. Not only has it inspired a German author and a film-maker interested in the more exotic interpretations of the science being worked on at the Organization, but even the recent puppet animation film by the legendary Muppets featured some CERN scenes.   Dr Bunsen Honeydew (far left) and his friends at ATLAS. Beaker, Bunsen's assistant, has just been sucked up the vacuum tube top left... Image courtesy Walt Disney Studios. In “The Muppet Movie”, released in November 2011 in North America and world-wide in January and February this year, Kermit is reuniting his friends who have ended up in some far-flung places since they last worked together 10 years ago. CERN caught the imagination of the film-makers as the perfect place for the Muppet scientists, Dr. Honeydew Bunsen and his hapless assistant Beaker. After a brief scene filmed in front of a backdrop of the ATLAS detector, the rest of the ...

  18. Impact of Virgin Olive Oil and Phenol-Enriched Virgin Olive Oils on the HDL Proteome in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects: A Double Blind, Randomized, Controlled, Cross-Over Clinical Trial (VOHF Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pedret

    Full Text Available The effects of olive oil phenolic compounds (PCs on HDL proteome, with respect to new aspects of cardioprotective properties, are still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the impact on the HDL protein cargo of the intake of virgin olive oil (VOO and two functional VOOs, enriched with their own PCs (FVOO or complemented with thyme PCs (FVOOT, in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Eligible volunteers were recruited from the IMIM-Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (Spain from April 2012 to September 2012. Thirty-three hypercholesterolemic participants (total cholesterol >200 mg/dL; 19 men and 14 women; aged 35 to 80 years were randomized in the double-blind, controlled, cross-over VOHF clinical trial. The subjects received for 3 weeks 25 mL/day of: VOO, FVOO, or FVOOT. Using a quantitative proteomics approach, 127 HDL-associated proteins were identified. Among these, 15 were commonly differently expressed after the three VOO interventions compared to baseline, with specific changes observed for each intervention. The 15 common proteins were mainly involved in the following pathways: LXR/RXR activation, acute phase response, and atherosclerosis. The three VOOs were well tolerated by all participants. Consumption of VOO, or phenol-enriched VOOs, has an impact on the HDL proteome in a cardioprotective mode by up-regulating proteins related to cholesterol homeostasis, protection against oxidation and blood coagulation while down-regulating proteins implicated in acute-phase response, lipid transport, and immune response. The common observed protein expression modifications after the three VOOs indicate a major matrix effect.International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials ISRCTN77500181.

  19. Efficacy and safety of single injection of cross-linked sodium hyaluronate vs. three injections of high molecular weight sodium hyaluronate for osteoarthritis of the knee: a double-blind, randomized, multi-center, non-inferiority study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Chul-Won; Park, Yong-Beom; Choi, Chong-Hyuk; Kyung, Hee-Soo; Lee, Ju-Hong; Yoo, Jae Doo; Yoo, Ju-Hyung; Choi, Choong-Hyeok; Kim, Chang-Wan; Kim, Hee-Chun; Oh, Kwang-Jun; Bin, Seong-Il; Lee, Myung Chul

    2017-05-26

    This randomized, double-blind, multi-center, non-inferiority trial was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of a cross-linked hyaluronate (XLHA, single injection form) compared with a linear high molecular hyaluronate (HMWHA, thrice injection form) in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Two hundred eighty seven patients with osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grade I to III) were randomized to each group. Three weekly injections were given in both groups but two times of saline injections preceded XLHA injection to maintain double-blindness. Primary endpoint was the change of weight-bearing pain (WBP) at 12 weeks after the last injection. Secondary endpoints included Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index; patient's and investigator's global assessment; pain at rest, at night, or in motion; OMERACT-OARSI responder rate; proportion of patients achieving at least 20 mm or 40% decrease in WBP; and rate of rescue medicine use and its total consumption. Mean changes of WBP at 12 weeks after the last injection were -33.3 mm with XLHA and -29.2 mm with HMWHA, proving non-inferiority of XLHA to HMWHA as the lower bound of 95% CI (-1.9 mm, 10.1 mm) was well above the predefined margin (-10 mm). There were no significant between-group differences in all secondary endpoints. Injection site pain was the most common adverse event and no remarkable safety issue was identified. This study demonstrated that a single injection of XLHA was non-inferior to three weekly injections of HMWHA in terms of WBP reduction, and supports XLHA as an effective and safe treatment for knee osteoarthritis. ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT01510535 ). This trial was registered on January 6, 2012.

  20. Effect of a fermented dietary supplement containing chromium and zinc on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mi Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the increasing development of type 2 diabetes dietary habits play an important role. In this regard, dietary supplements are of growing interest to influence the progression of this disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a cascade-fermented dietary supplement based on fruits, nuts, and vegetables fortified with chromium and zinc on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, intervention study under free-living conditions using a cross-over design. Thirty-six patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled and randomized either to receive a cascade-fermented dietary supplement enriched with chromium (100 µg/d and zinc (15 mg/d or a placebo similar in taste but without supplements, over a period of 12 weeks. After a wash-out period of 12 weeks, the patients received the other test product. The main outcome variable was the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c. Other outcome variables were fasting blood glucose, fructosamine, and lipid parameters. Results: Thirty-one patients completed the study. HbA1c showed no relevant changes during both treatment periods, nor was there a relevant difference between the two treatments (HbA1c: p=0.48. The same results were found for fructosamine and fasting glucose (fructosamine: p=0.9; fasting glucose: p=0.31. In addition, there was no effect on lipid metabolism. Conclusion: This intervention study does not provide evidence that a cascade-fermented plant-based dietary supplement enriched with a combination of chromium and zinc improves glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus under free-living conditions.

  1. The neurophysiological effects of single-dose theophylline in patients with chronic stroke: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schambra, Heidi M; Martinez-Hernandez, Isis E; Slane, Kevin J; Boehme, Amelia K; Marshall, Randolph S; Lazar, Ronald M

    2016-09-21

    Reducing inhibitory neurotransmission with pharmacological agents is a potential approach for augmenting plasticity after stroke. Previous work in healthy subjects showed diminished intracortical inhibition after administration of theophylline. We assessed the effect of single-dose theophylline on intracortical and interhemispheric inhibition in patients with chronic stroke, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Eighteen subjects were randomly administered 300 mg of extended-release theophylline or placebo. Immediately and 5 hours following administration, transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess bihemispheric resting motor threshold, short-interval intracortical inhibition, long-interval intracortical inhibition, and interhemispheric inhibition. Adverse effects on cardiovascular, neurological, and motor performance outcomes were also surveilled. Change between morning and afternoon sessions were compared across conditions. One week later, patients underwent the same assessments after crossing over to the opposite experimental condition. Subjects and investigators were blinded to the experimental condition during data acquisition and analysis. For both hemispheres, changes in intracortical or interhemispheric neurophysiology were comparable under theophylline and placebo conditions. Theophylline induced no adverse neurological, cardiovascular, or motor performance effects. For both conditions and hemipsheres, the baseline level of inhibition inversely correlated with its change between sessions: less baseline inhibition (i.e. disinhibition) was associated with a strengthening in inhibition over the day, and vice versa. A single dose of theophylline is well-tolerated by patients with chronic stroke, but does not alter cortical excitability. The inverse relationship between baseline inhibition and its change suggests the existence of a homeostatic process. The lack of effect on cortical inhibition may be related to an insufficiently

  2. The Assessment of short-term effect of L-Citrulline on endothelial function via FMD to NMD ratio in known CAD patients: A randomized, cross-over clinical trial (Clinical trial number: NCT02638727).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Morteza; Mahjoob, Mohammad Parsa; Nateghi, Saeed; Khaheshi, Isa; Akbarzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Naderian, Mohammadreza

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have confirmed the essential and paramount role of the L-Citrulline on the nitric oxide regulation and the endothelial function improvement. In this cross-over clinical trial, thirty patients, diagnosed with coronary artery disease (CAD) and flow mediated dilation to nitroglycerin dependent vasodilation (FMD/NMD) ratio less than 1, were included. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of 15 patients and underwent treatment by L-Citrulline or placebo for 15 days, in 2 step protocol. The indicators of assessment in the current study were the ratio of the FMD/NMD and FMD value. In the current cross-over clinical trial, the mean of FMD to NMD ratio and mean FMD value of all patients before starting the protocol were 0.91 ± 0.08 and 4.04 ± 0.51 mm, respectively. The final results of study showed that following L-Citrulline administration, mean FMD to NMD ratio and mean FMD value were enhanced to: 1.03 ± 0.09 and 4.96 ± 0.72 mm, respectively, which were statistically significant (PFMD to NMD ratio and mean FMD value were receded to: 0.92 ± 0.09 and 4.06 ± 0.22 mm, respectively, which were not statistically significant (P = 0.75 and P = 0.89, respectively). Moreover, the improvement of mean FMD to NMD ratio (0.12 ± 0.02) and mean FMD value (0.92 ± 0.16 mm), following L-Citrulline administration, were statistically significant in comparison with the change of mean FMD to NMD ratio (0.01 ± 0.002) and mean FMD value (0.02 ± 0.003), following placebo administration (PFMD to NMD ratio FMD value enhancements.

  3. Two ways of encoding location in Greek: Locative applicatives and prepositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Daskalaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linguistically, oblique theta roles such as location can be encoded by both adpositions and applicative morphemes. In this paper we argue that Standard Modern Greek (SMG, a language that encodes location primarily with prepositions, has a set of morphologically complex predicates that consist of an intransitive verbal root and a locative prefix, and behave like locative applicative constructions. We argue that this prefix is a low applicative head, licensing the addition of a locative DP argument to the intransitive verbal root. Specifically, this applicative head: (i case-and theta-licenses the added argument, but being void of phi-features, it blocks its cliticization; (ii is distinct from a homophonous free standing P semantically and syntactically; (iii is undergoing grammaticalization, as evidenced by the emergence of a novel configuration, in which the locative predicates combine with locative PPs that retrieve semantic and syntactic information of the locative prefix. Our findings show that applicatives may come in various flavors, that a language may use both analytic and synthetic devices to encode location which are not derivationally related, and that lexical/inherent case does not necessarily reduce to a PP structure.

  4. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Skifter Andersen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a survey carried out in Denmark that asked a random sample of the population about their preferences for home surroundings and locations. It shows that the characteristics of social surroundings are very important and can be divided into three independent dimensions: avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific preferences for surroundings.

  5. Cross over of recurrence networks to random graphs and random ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recurrence networks are complex networks constructed from the time series of chaotic dynamical systems where the connection between two nodes is limited by the recurrence threshold. This condition makes the topology of every recurrence network unique with the degree distribution determined by the probability ...

  6. Quality of life in hemifacial spasm patient after treatment with botulinum toxin A; a 24-week, double-blind, randomized, cross-over comparison of Dysport and Neuronox study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsengdao, Subsai; Kritalukkul, Saksit

    2012-03-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a common movement disorder presented with unilateral, intermittent, irregular tonic or clonic contraction of facial expression muscles without any identifiable etiology. Comparison of quality of life (QoL) between Dysport and Neuronox has not been studied in HFS patients. To evaluate the QoL after treatment with botulinum toxin A (Dysport and Neuronox) injection in HFS patient. A 24-week, double-blind, randomized, cross-over comparison of QoL in HFS patients after being treated with botulinum toxin A (Dysport) and botulinum toxin A (Neuronox) was performed. Assessment of QoL composed of hemifacial spasm-30 (HFS-30), medical outcome study short form 36 items (SF-36), abnormal involuntary movement scale (AIMS) and center for epidemiologic studies-depression (CES-D) questionnaire, were performed at week 0, week 12, and week 24. The 24-hour HFS diary, recorded for 4 weeks after treatment was also evaluated. Total of 26 HFS patients were enrolled between May 2010 and January 2011. The mean HFS-30, AIMS and CES-D were reduced after treatment without any difference between the two groups. The mean SF-36 was not changed in both groups. However mean HFS-30 (p = 0.09), AIMS (p = 0.02) and CES-D (p spasm per day and duration of functional impairment per day in Dysport group were significantly lower than the Neuronox group (p botulinum toxin A injection.

  7. Peripheral pulsed electromagnetic fields may reduce the placebo effect in migraine patients that do not respond to the sham intervention in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Juan, Daniel; Pon, Ana Aurora L; Pohls, Fernando Z; Del Castillo-Calcáneo, Juan de Dios; Pérez-Neri, Iván; Ríos, Camilo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of the pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) and its possible modulation of the placebo effect in migraine. Placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial. Government third level hospital. Patients with migraine were included. PEMF were applied to the wrist with a bracelet. Frequency and intensity of the migraine attacks at baseline and during treatment were recorded. Also, we valuated the possible influence of gender and the presence of aura in the PEMF and placebo responses. Eighteen patients (fifteen women, 30±2 years old) were included. Migraine frequency and intensity was reduced with both PEMF and placebo to a similar extent in the whole population. However, in responders to placebo, migraine intensity was reduced to a median of 100% with the placebo and to 60% with the PEMF, while in non-responders there was only a slight effect of both treatments. Our results do not suggest an influence of gender or presence of aura in the outcomes. Treatment with PEMF may not alter either migraine intensity or frequency compared to baseline, but may reduce the response to placebo in migraine patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of unfermented and fermented whole grain rye crisp breads served as part of a standardized breakfast, on appetite and postprandial glucose and insulin responses: a randomized cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Daniel P; Lee, Isabella; Risérus, Ulf; Langton, Maud; Landberg, Rikard

    2015-01-01

    Whole grain rye products have been shown to increase satiety and elicit lower postprandial insulin response without a corresponding change in glucose response compared with soft refined wheat bread. The underlying mechanisms for these effects have not been fully determined The primary aim of the study was to investigate if whole grain rye crisp bread compared to refined wheat crisp bread, elected beneficial effects on appetite and postprandial insulin response, similarly as for other rye products. In a randomized cross-over trial, 23 healthy volunteers, aged 27-70 years, BMI 18-31.4 kg/m2, were served a standardized breakfast with unfermented whole grain rye crisp bread (uRCB), fermented whole grain rye crisp bread (RCB) or refined wheat crisp bread (WCB), Appetite was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) until 4 h after breakfast. Postprandial glucose and insulin were measured at 0-230 min. Breads were chemically characterized including macronutrients, energy, dietary fiber components, and amino acid composition, and microstructure was characterized with light microscopy. Reported fullness was 16% higher (Pcrisp bread induces higher satiety and lower insulin response compared with refined wheat crisp bread. Microstructural characteristics, dietary fiber content and composition are probable contributors to the increased satiety after ingestion of rye crisp breads. Higher insulin secretion after ingestion of RCB and WCB compared with uRCB may be due to differences in fiber content and composition, and higher availability of insulinogenic branched chain amino acids. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02011217.

  9. Wave Propagation inside Random Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaojun

    =-x/l where l is the transport mean free path. The result does not depend on the sample length, which is counterintuitive yet remarkably simple. More supprisingly, the linear fall-off of energy profile holds for totally disordered random 1D layered samples in simulations where the LDOS is uniform as well as for single mode random waveguide experiments and 1D nearly periodic samples where the LDOS is suppressed in the middle of the sample. The generalization of the transmission matrix to the interior of quasi-1D random samples, which is defined as the field matrix, and its eigenvalues statistics are also discussed. The maximum energy deposition at a location is not the intensity of the first transmission eigenchannel but the eigenvalue of the first energy density eigenchannels at that cross section, which can be much greater than the average value. The contrast, which is the ratio of the intensity at the focused point to the background intensity, in optimal focusing is determined by the participation number of the energy density eigenvalues and its inverse gives the variance of the energy density at that cross section in a single configuration. We have also studied topological states in photonic structures. We have demonstrated robust propagation of electromagnetic waves along reconfigurable pathways within a topological photonic metacrystal. Since the wave is confined within the domain wall, which is the boundary between two distinct topological insulating systems, we can freely steer the wave by reconstructing the photonic structure. Other topics, such as speckle pattern evolutions and the effects of boundary conditions on the statistics of transmission eigenvalues and energy profiles are also discussed.

  10. Indoor Space Location Model Based on Location Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Zeng, G.; Huang, Y.; Yang, X.

    2017-10-01

    Location is the basis for the realization of location services, the integrity of the location information and its way of representation in indoor space model directly restricts the quality of location services. The construction of the existing indoor space model is mostly for specific applications and lack of uniform representation of location information. Several geospatial standards have been developed to meet the requirement of the indoor spatial information system, among which CityGML LOD4 and IndoorGML are the most relevant ones for indoor spatial information. However, from the perspective of Location Based Service (LBS), the CityGML LOD4 is more inclined to visualize the indoor space. Although IndoorGML is mainly used for indoor space navigation and has description (such as geometry, topology, and semantics) benefiting for indoor LBS, this standard model lack explicit representation of indoor location information. In this paper, from the perspective of Location Based Service (LBS), based on the IndoorGML standard, an indoor space location model (ISLM) conforming to human cognition is proposed through integration of the geometric and topological and semantic features of the indoor spatial entity. This model has the explicit description of location information which the standard indoor space model of IndoorGML and CityGML LOD4 does not have, which can lay the theoretical foundation for indoor location service such as indoor navigation, indoor routing and location query.

  11. Canada and Mexico Border Crossings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Border Crossing Ports are points of entry for land modes along the U.S. - Canadian and U.S.- Mexcian borders. The ports of entry are located in 15 states along the...

  12. ICE Online Detainee Locator System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Online Detainee Locator datasets provide the location of a detainee who is currently in ICE custody, or who was release from ICE custody for any reason with the...

  13. VT Transportation Project Point Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Project information for project that are located off system or on system at a discrete location. The projects in this data set represent the active projects in the...

  14. Duality in constrained location problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The dual of a facility location problem with general norms, distance constraints, and linear constraints is formulated.......The dual of a facility location problem with general norms, distance constraints, and linear constraints is formulated....

  15. Locating tremor using stacked products of correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ka Lok; Sadeghisorkhani, Hamzeh; Sgattoni, Giulia; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Roberts, Roland

    2017-04-01

    We introduce a back-projection method to locate tremor sources using products of cross-correlation envelopes of time series between seismic stations. For a given subset of n stations, we calculate the (n - 1)th-order product of cross-correlation envelopes and we stack the back-projected products over combinations of station subsets. We show that compared to existing correlation methods and for realistic signal and noise characteristics, this way of combining information can significantly reduce the effects of correlated (spurious or irrelevant signals) and uncorrelated noise. Each back-projected product constitutes an individual localized estimate of the source locations, as opposed to a hyperbola for the existing correlation techniques, assuming a uniform velocity in two dimensions. We demonstrate the method with synthetic examples and a real-data example from tremor at Katla Volcano, Iceland, in July 2011. Despite very complex near-surface structure, including strong topography and thick ice cover, the method appears to produce robust estimates of tremor location.

  16. Long-acting Insulin Analogs Effect on gh/igf Axis of Children with Type 1 Diabetes: a Randomized, Open-label, Two-period, Cross-over Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, V; Pintaudi, B; Iannilli, A; Pambianchi, M; Ferrito, L; Nicolucci, A

    2016-05-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretion is increased in pre-pubertal children with type 1 diabetes and GH excess produces insulin resistance. Early-morning insulinopenia contributes to lower insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) levels and to GH hypersecretion. To evaluate differences in GH/IGF-I axis of pre-pubertal children with type 1 diabetes treated with glargine or detemir as long-acting insulin analogues, which was the main outcome measure, and to compare insulin effects in obtaining good metabolic control. Children with type 1 diabetes. This was a 32-week, randomized, open-label, two-period, cross-over comparison between bedtime glargine and twice-daily detemir insulin, involving pre-pubertal children in care at a diabetes pediatric centre. After a 8-week-run-in period subjects were randomized to bedtime glargine or twice-daily detemir insulin administration. After a 12-week period treatments were inverted and continued for additional 12 weeks. Overall, 15 pre-pubertal children (53.3% males, mean age 8.6±1.5 years, duration of diabetes 4.2±1.5 years) completed the study. Groups did not differ for GH/IGF axis and HbA1c levels. Treatment with glargine was associated with lower fasting glucose values than treatment with detemir (8.1±1.5 vs. 8.2±1.7 mmol/L, p=0.01). Incidence rate of hypoglycemia was not different between insulin treatments (IRR=1.18, 95%CI 1.00-1.38; p=0.07). Detemir treatment was associated with a higher increase in body weight (p=0.008) and height (p=0.02) when compared with glargine. Detemir and glargine not show significant differential effects on the GH/IGFI axis. The greater weight gain and height associated with detemir treatment, apparently not related to the level of pubertal growth, deserve further investigation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Dual Bronchodilation with Indacaterol Maleate/Glycopyrronium Bromide Compared with Umeclidinium Bromide/Vilanterol in Patients with Moderate-to-Severe COPD: Results from Two Randomized, Controlled, Cross-over Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, Edward; Ferguson, Gary T; Sanjar, Shahin; Goodin, Thomas; Yadao, Anthony; Fogel, Robert; Maitra, Samopriyo; Sen, Biswajit; Ayers, Tim; Banerji, Donald

    2017-12-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of two long-acting dual bronchodilator combinations: indacaterol/glycopyrrolate (IND/GLY) versus umeclidinium/vilanterol (UMEC/VI). Studies A2349 and A2350 were replicate, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled, cross-over studies in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Patients were randomized to sequential 12-week treatments of twice-daily IND/GLY 27.5/15.6 μg and once-daily UMEC/VI 62.5/25 μg, each separated by a 3-week washout. The primary objective was to demonstrate non-inferiority of IND/GLY compared with UMEC/VI in terms of the 24-h forced expiratory volume in 1 s profile at week 12 (FEV 1 AUC 0-24 ). Rescue medication use, symptom control, and safety were assessed throughout. Both treatments delivered substantial bronchodilation over 12 weeks, with improvements in FEV 1 AUC 0-24h at week 12 of 232 and 185 mL for IND/GLY, and 244 and 203 mL with UMEC/VI in Studies A2349 and A2350, respectively. The primary efficacy objective of non-inferiority of IND/GLY relative to UMEC/VI was not met as the lower bound of the confidence interval for the LS treatment comparison was below the pre-specified non-inferiority margin of -20 mL in both studies: -26.9 and -34.2 mL, respectively (LS mean between-treatment differences: -11.5 and -18.2 mL). Both drugs were well tolerated, with AE profiles consistent with their respective prescribing information. IND/GLY and UMEC/VI provided clinically meaningful and comparable bronchodilation. Non-inferiority of IND/GLY to UMEC/VI could not be declared although between-treatment differences were not clinically relevant. The data support the use of IND/GLY as an efficacious and well tolerated treatment option in patients with COPD. (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02487446 and NCT02487498).

  18. From cars to bikes - the feasibility and effect of using e-bikes, longtail bikes and traditional bikes for transportation among parents of children attending kindergarten: design of a randomized cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit; Berntsen, Sveinung; Te Velde, Saskia J; Fegran, Liv; Fyhri, Aslak; Deforche, Benedicte; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bere, Elling

    2017-12-28

    The present study aims to increase bicycling and level of physical activity (PA), and thereby promote health in parents of toddlers, by giving access to different bicycle types. There is a need for greater understanding of e-bikes and their role in the transportation network, and further effects on PA levels and health. Moreover, longtail bikes could meet certain practical needs not fulfilled by e-bikes or traditional bikes, hence increased knowledge regarding their feasibility should be obtained. No previous studies have investigated whether providing an e-bike or a longtail bike over an extended period in a sample of parents of toddlers influence objectively assessed amount of bicycling and total PA level, transportation habits, cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition and blood pressure. A randomized cross-over trial will be performed, entailing that participants in the intervention group (n = 18) complete the following intervention arms in random order: (i) three months access to an e-bicycle with trailer for child transportation (n = 6), (ii) three months access to a longtail bicycle (n = 6), and (iii) three months access to a regular bicycle with trailer (n = 6), in total nine months. Also, a control group (n = 18) maintaining usual transportation and PA habits will be included. A convenience sample consisting of 36 parents of toddlers residing in Kristiansand municipality, Southern Norway, will be recruited. Total amount of bicycling (distance and time), total level of PA, and transportation habits will be measured at baseline and in connection to each intervention arm. Cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition and blood pressure will be measured at baseline and post-intervention. Main outcome will be bicycling distance and time spent cycling. New knowledge relevant for the timely issues of public health and environmental sustainability will be provided among parents of toddlers, representing a target group of greatest importance

  19. Location theory a unified approach

    CERN Document Server

    Nickel, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Although modern location theory is now more than 90 years old, the focus of researchers in this area has been mainly problem oriented. However, a common theory, which keeps the essential characteristics of classical location models, is still missing.This monograph addresses this issue. A flexible location problem called the Ordered Median Problem (OMP) is introduced. For all three main subareas of location theory (continuous, network and discrete location) structural properties of the OMP are presented and solution approaches provided. Numerous illustrations and examples help the reader to bec

  20. Reliable Facility Location Problem with Facility Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Luohao; Zhu, Cheng; Lin, Zaili; Shi, Jianmai; Zhang, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies a reliable facility location problem with facility protection that aims to hedge against random facility disruptions by both strategically protecting some facilities and using backup facilities for the demands. An Integer Programming model is proposed for this problem, in which the failure probabilities of facilities are site-specific. A solution approach combining Lagrangian Relaxation and local search is proposed and is demonstrated to be both effective and efficient based on computational experiments on random numerical examples with 49, 88, 150 and 263 nodes in the network. A real case study for a 100-city network in Hunan province, China, is presented, based on which the properties of the model are discussed and some managerial insights are analyzed.

  1. Reliable Facility Location Problem with Facility Protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luohao Tang

    Full Text Available This paper studies a reliable facility location problem with facility protection that aims to hedge against random facility disruptions by both strategically protecting some facilities and using backup facilities for the demands. An Integer Programming model is proposed for this problem, in which the failure probabilities of facilities are site-specific. A solution approach combining Lagrangian Relaxation and local search is proposed and is demonstrated to be both effective and efficient based on computational experiments on random numerical examples with 49, 88, 150 and 263 nodes in the network. A real case study for a 100-city network in Hunan province, China, is presented, based on which the properties of the model are discussed and some managerial insights are analyzed.

  2. Location of Urban Logistic Terminals as Hub Location Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Pašagić Škrinjar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problems of locating urban logistic terminals are studied as hub location problems that due to a large number of potential nodes in big cities belong to hard non-polynomial problems, the so-called NP-problems. The hub location problems have found wide application in physical planning of transport and telecommunication systems, especially systems of fast delivery, networks of logistic and distribution centres and cargo traffic terminals of the big cities, etc. The paper defines single and multiple allocations and studies the numerical examples. The capacitated single allocation hub location problems have been studied, with the provision of a mathematical model of selecting the location for the hubs on the network. The paper also presents the differences in the possibilities of implementing the exact and heuristic methods to solve the actual location problems of big dimensions i.e. hub problems of the big cities.

  3. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial of the impact on quality of life of continuing dexamethasone beyond 24 h following adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, J; Pond, G; Dodd, A; Warr, D; Seruga, B; Clemons, M; Bordeleau, L; Goodwin, P; Tannock, I F

    2012-11-01

    Uncertainty remains about the optimal anti-emetic regimen for control of delayed nausea and vomiting after adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Many patients receive dexamethasone but complain of insomnia, anxiety/agitation, and indigestion. The aim was to determine if patients receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer prefer treatment with dexamethasone or placebo for prophylaxis against delayed nausea and vomiting, and to compare quality of life (QOL) between the two treatments. In this randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial, we compared oral dexamethasone (4 mg twice daily for 2 days) versus placebo for chemotherapy-naïve patients with breast cancer. All patients received intravenous granisetron and dexamethasone pre-chemotherapy and oral granisetron on day 2. Primary endpoints were: (i) patient preference; (ii) difference between cycles in change of QOL from days 1 to 8. Median age of the 94 women was 51 years (range 27-76): 79 received fluorouracil/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide and 15 received doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide. Thirteen withdrew pre-cycle 2 with no differences between arms. Of 80 patients stating a preference, 31 preferred placebo (39 %, 95 % CI: 28-50 %) and 37 (46 %, 95 % CI: 35-58 %) preferred dexamethasone; 12 had no preference. There were no differences in intensity of vomiting, nausea, or time to onset of vomiting. There was greater decrease in global QOL (p = 0.06) when patients received dexamethasone. No other symptom/QOL domains differed significantly. In conclusion, no significant difference was found in patient preference, QOL, or symptoms regardless of whether dexamethasone or placebo was used after adjuvant chemotherapy.

  4. Evaluation of the antihistamine effects of olopatadine and levocetirizine during a 24-h period: a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled comparison in skin responses induced by histamine iontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, Tomohiro; Kasugai, Chikatoshi; Tanaka, Rui; Ando, Takashi; Ogawa, Akina; Akita, Yoichi; Watanabe, Daisuke

    2013-12-01

    The antihistamine effects of olopatadine and levocetirizine, in standard-dose application described in their information (5 mg twice a day for olopatadine; 5 mg once daily for levocetirizine), were examined from 11.5 to 24 h after application. The test was designed in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled study of 12 healthy volunteers on histamine-induced flare and wheal response using an iontophoresis technique. The suppressive effect of olopatadine on the wheals induced by a 0.1-mA histamine iontophoresis lasted for 24 h after dosing. Both drugs inhibited flare induced by histamine iontophoresis almost completely until 24 h after the first administration. Suppression of the 0.2-mA-induced wheal response by levocetirizine, taken once daily, decreased with time, although 0.1-mA-induced flare was almost completely suppressed by the drug. Olopatadine completely suppressed even the wheal response induced by a 0.2-mA histamine iontophoresis. Compared with the placebo, the two drugs significantly suppressed the subjective itching assessed by visual analog scale at all intervals. There were no significant differences in subjective drowsiness and objective cognitive function between drug- and placebo-treated subjects. These results demonstrate that olopatadine seems to be more potent than levocetirizine when administrated in a standard dose. In conclusion, mild to moderate urticaria could be controlled by standard application as described in their information. On the other hand, severe urticaria could be managed by a standard application of olopatadine, but levocetirizine may need an additional dose to control severe urticaria. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  5. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot study to assess the effects of long-term opioid drug consumption and subsequent abstinence in chronic noncancer pain patients receiving controlled-release morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, David T; Wilson-Barnett, Jenifer; Griffiths, Peter; Vaughan, David J A; Gondhia, Anjalee; Allan, Laurie G

    2005-01-01

    The long-term use of strong opioid analgesics among chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) patients remains controversial because of concerns over problematic drug use. However, previous surveys suggest that this is not necessarily the case. Therefore, we designed a controlled study to generate evidence in support of these findings. Ten CNCP patients attending the pain clinic in a district general hospital had been taking an average daily dose of 40 mg controlled-release morphine sulphate (mean 40, range 10-90, SD 21 mg), for an average of 2 years (mean 2.175, range 2-2.25, SD 0.2 years). Randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled cross-over study. The study was based on the premise that abrupt cessation of opioid drugs is most likely to highlight problematic use and the consequent inability to stop using opioids. Morphine was substituted with placebo for 60-hour periods to compare the effects of abstinence with those of continued use. Assessment of morphine cessation and abstinence effects was through direct observation, physiological measurements, questionnaire responses, and Brief Pain Inventory scores. Following cessation and abstinence, there were no indications of psychological dependence or drug craving, but there was evidence of the detrimental effects of pain intensity on activity, mood, relationships, sleep, and enjoyment of life. Three patients (30%) reported opioid drug withdrawal symptoms. Pharmacokinetic data demonstrated compliance with abstinence by all patients. The results suggest the existence of a group of CNCP patients whose long-term opioid consumption can be beneficial and remain moderate without them suffering from the consequences of problematic opioid drug use.

  6. A cross-sectional population-based study on the association of personality traits with anxiety and psychological stress: Joint modeling of mixed outcomes using shared random effects approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awat Feizi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have showed some evidences about the relationship between personality traits particularly neuroticism and extroversion, separately, with psychological stress and anxiety. In the current study, we clarified the magnitude of joint interdependence (co-morbidity of anxiety (continuous and Psychological stress (dichotomous as dependent variables of mixed type with five-factor personality traits as independent variables. Materials and Methods: Data from 3180 participants who attended in the cross-sectional population-based "study on the epidemiology of psychological, alimentary health and nutrition" and completed self-administered questionnaires about demographic and life style, gastrointestinal disorders, personality traits, perceived intensity of stress, social support, and psychological outcome was analyzed using shared random effect approach in R Free software. Results: The results indicated high scores of neuroticism increase the chance of high psychological stress (odds ratio [OR] = 5.1; P < 0.001 and anxiety score (B = 1.73; P < 0.001 after adjustment for the probable confounders. In contrast, those who had higher scores of extraversion and conscientiousness experienced lower levels of anxiety score (B = −0.54 and −0.23, respectively, P < 0.001 and psychological stress (OR = 0.36 and 0.65, respectively, P < 0.001. Furthermore, higher score of agreeableness had significant negative relationship with anxiety (B = −0.32, P < 0.001. Conclusion: The present study indicated that the scores of neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness strongly predict both anxiety and psychological stress in Iranian adult population. Due to likely mechanism of genetic and environmental factors on the relationships between personality traits and psychological disorders, it is suggested to perform longitudinal studies focusing on both genetic and environmental factors in Iranian population.

  7. Differential effects of fenofibrate versus atorvastatin on the concentrations of E-selectin and vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and mixed hyperlipoproteinemia: a randomized cross-over trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Carsten

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic dyslipoproteinemia is characterized by hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol and often elevated LDL-cholesterol and is a strong risk factor for atherosclerosis. Adhesion molecule levels are elevated both in hyperlipoproteinemia and diabetes mellitus. It is unclear whether fibrate or statin therapy has more beneficial effects on adhesion molecule concentrations. Methods Atorvastatin (10 mg/d was compared to fenofibrate (200 mg/d each for 6 weeks separated by a 6 week washout period in 11 patients (6 male, 5 female; 61.8 ± 8.2 years; body mass index 29.8 ± 3.1 kg/m2 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (HbA1c 7.3 ± 1.1 % and mixed hyperlipoproteinemia using a randomized, cross-over design. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, lipid parameters, E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and fibrinogen concentrations were determined before and after each drug. Results Glucose and HbA1c concentrations remained unchanged during the whole study period. LDL cholesterol was reduced during atorvastatin therapy, triglycerides were lowered more effectively with fenofibrate. Comparison of pre- and postreatment concentrations of E-selectin showed a reduction during atorvastatin (-7 %, p = 0.11 and fenofibrate (-10 %, p Conclusions In addition to the different beneficial effects on lipid metabolism, both drugs appear to lower adhesion molecule plasma concentrations in a different manner in patients with type 2 diabetes and mixed hyperlipoproteinemia. Our observations should be confirmed in a larger cohort of such patients.

  8. Effects of carbohydrates-BCAAs-caffeine ingestion on performance and neuromuscular function during a 2-h treadmill run: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltier Sébastien L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbohydrates (CHOs, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs and caffeine are known to improve running performance. However, no information is available on the effects of a combination of these ingredients on performance and neuromuscular function during running. Methods The present study was designed as a randomized double-blind cross-over placebo-controlled trial. Thirteen trained adult males completed two protocols, each including two conditions: placebo (PLA and Sports Drink (SPD: CHOs 68.6 g.L-1, BCAAs 4 g.L-1, caffeine 75 mg.L-1. Protocol 1 consisted of an all-out 2 h treadmill run. Total distance run and glycemia were measured. In protocol 2, subjects exercised for 2 h at 95% of their lowest average speeds recorded during protocol 1 (whatever the condition. Glycemia, blood lactate concentration and neuromuscular function were determined immediately before and after exercise. Oxygen consumption (V˙O2, heart rate (HR and rate of perceived exertion (RPE were recorded during the exercise. Total fluids ingested were 2 L whatever the protocols and conditions. Results Compared to PLA, ingestion of SPD increased running performance (p = 0.01, maintained glycemia and attenuated central fatigue (p = 0.04, an index of peripheral fatigue (p = 0.04 and RPE (p = 0.006. Maximal voluntary contraction, V˙O2, and HR did not differ between the two conditions. Conclusions This study showed that ingestion of a combination of CHOs, BCAAs and caffeine increased performance by about 2% during a 2-h treadmill run. The results of neuromuscular function were contrasted: no clear cut effects of SPD were observed. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00799630

  9. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas) are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork) - a randomized cross-over meal test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Marlene D; Bendsen, Nathalie T; Christensen, Sheena M; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef) because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas) should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources on appetite regulation. To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas) are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork) regarding meal-induced appetite sensations. In total, 43 healthy, normal-weight, young men completed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way, cross-over meal test. The meals (all 3.5 MJ, 28 energy-% (E%) fat) were either high protein based on veal and pork meat, HP-Meat (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 6 g fiber/100 g); high protein based on legumes (beans and peas), HP-Legume (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 25 g fiber/100 g); or low-protein based on legumes, LP-Legume (9 E% protein, 62 E% carbohydrate, 10 g fiber/100 g). Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour using visual analog scales until the ad libitum meal 3 h after the test meal. Repeated measurements analyses and summary analyses were performed using ANCOVA (SAS). HP-Legume induced lower composite appetite score, hunger, prospective food consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat and LP-Legume (pconsumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat (penergy intake, respectively, was seen after HP-Legume compared to HP-Meat or LP-Legume (ppork/veal) with similar energy and protein content, but lower fiber content. Interestingly, a vegetable-based meal with low protein content was as satiating and palatable as an animal-based meal with high protein content.

  10. Location Systems An Introduction to the Technology Behind Location Awareness

    CERN Document Server

    LaMarca, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Advances in electronic location technology and the coming of age of mobile computing have opened the door for location-aware applications to permeate all aspects of everyday life. Location is at the core of a large number of high-value applications ranging from the life-and-death context of emergency response to serendipitous social meet-ups. For example, the market for GPS products and services alone is expected to grow to US200 billion by 2015. Unfortunately, there is no single location technology that is good for every situation and exhibits high accuracy, low cost, and universal coverage.

  11. Algorithm for Detecting Significant Locations from Raw GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Nobuharu; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Baba, Teruyuki; Yoshikawa, Takashi

    We present a fast algorithm for probabilistically extracting significant locations from raw GPS data based on data point density. Extracting significant locations from raw GPS data is the first essential step of algorithms designed for location-aware applications. Assuming that a location is significant if users spend a certain time around that area, most current algorithms compare spatial/temporal variables, such as stay duration and a roaming diameter, with given fixed thresholds to extract significant locations. However, the appropriate threshold values are not clearly known in priori and algorithms with fixed thresholds are inherently error-prone, especially under high noise levels. Moreover, for N data points, they are generally O(N 2) algorithms since distance computation is required. We developed a fast algorithm for selective data point sampling around significant locations based on density information by constructing random histograms using locality sensitive hashing. Evaluations show competitive performance in detecting significant locations even under high noise levels.

  12. LHCb vertex locator, overview and recent progress

    CERN Document Server

    Eklund, Lars

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to the study of b-hadron physics. The vertex locator (VELO) is the sub-detector that reconstructs primary and secondary vertices, which are of importance for the processes under study. The VELO detector is described and results from a beam test with close to final components are presented. The paper also reports on the reconstruction of interaction vertices in the silicon detectors and a method to correct for cross talk in the serial analogue link is described.

  13. Quarter Dates Location(s) Purpose Transportation and Travel ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Location(s). Purpose. Transportation and Travel. Accommodation,. Meals and Other. Hospitality. Total. Expenses. Quarter 1. April 15 to 17. Ottawa, ON. Functions. April 24 to 28. London, England. Meeting. April 30 to May 1. Montreal, QC. Event. 7,540.72. 4,132.54. 408.14. 12,081.40. May 12 to 23. Ghana, Botswana, South ...

  14. Location and the multinational enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    John Cantwell

    2009-01-01

    In the early development of the international business field, the focus of attention moved from the country level to the firm level, and interest in location issues declined. More recently, firm-based research has itself become increasingly concerned with the study of firm–location interactions. When examining two-way knowledge flows or spillovers between multinational enterprises (MNEs) and other actors in specific locations, the diversity or heterogeneity of firms matters, as does the diver...

  15. Family ties and residential locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Cooke, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, and in the Special Issue it introduces, the focus is on the role of family ties in residential location choice and, conversely, the role of residential locations in maintaining family ties. Not only do events in the nuclear family trigger residential relocations, but nearby family

  16. Locations in Television Drama Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    2017-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to the analysis of the increasingly significant role of location as a key element in television drama. In recent years, the popularity of serial television has progressively been tied to the expanded use of location as a central element in productions, both...

  17. Improved Dynamic Planar Point Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Arge, Lars; Georgiadis, Loukas

    2006-01-01

    We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time.......We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time....

  18. Cold War Geopolitics: Embassy Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeler, Ingolf

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that the geopolitics of the Cold War can be illustrated by the diplomatic ties among countries, particularly the superpowers and their respective allies. Describes a classroom project in which global patterns of embassy locations are examined and compared. Includes five maps and a chart indicating types of embassy locations. (CFR)

  19. The Cross-Cultural Knowledge Sharing Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby

    2013-01-01

    Cross-cultural offshoring in software development challenges effective knowledge sharing. While research has suggested temporarily co-locating participants to address this challenge, few studies are available on what knowledge sharing practices emerge over time when co-locating cross-cultural sof...

  20. Uncapacitated facility location problems: contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvão Roberto Diéguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to review my personal contributions in the field of uncapacitated facility location problems. These contributions took place throughout my academic career, from the time I was a Ph.D. student at Imperial College to the present day. They cover approximately 30 years, from 1973 to 2003; they address: algorithms developed for the p-median problem and for a general formulation of uncapacitated location problems; the study of dynamic location models; covering and hierarchical location problems; queuing-based probabilistic location models. The contributions encompass theoretical developments, computational algorithms and practical applications. All work took place in an academic environment, with the invaluable collaboration of colleagues (both in Brazil and abroad and research students at COPPE. Each section in the paper is dedicated to a topic that involves a personal contribution. Every one of them is placed within the context of the existing literature.

  1. Modeling discrete competitive facility location

    CERN Document Server

    Karakitsiou, Athanasia

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date review of modeling and optimization approaches for location problems along with a new bi-level programming methodology which captures the effect of competition of both producers and customers on facility location decisions. While many optimization approaches simplify location problems by assuming decision making in isolation, this monograph focuses on models which take into account the competitive environment in which such decisions are made. New insights in modeling, algorithmic and theoretical possibilities are opened by this approach and new applications are possible. Competition on equal term plus competition between market leader and followers are considered in this study, consequently bi-level optimization methodology is emphasized and further developed. This book provides insights regarding modeling complexity and algorithmic approaches to discrete competitive location problems. In traditional location modeling, assignment of customer demands to supply sources are made ...

  2. Early bronchodilator action of glycopyrronium versus tiotropium in moderate-to-severe COPD patients: a cross-over blinded randomized study (Symptoms and Pulmonary function in the moRnING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin JM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jose M Marin,1 Kai M Beeh,2 Andreas Clemens,3 Walter Castellani,4 Lennart Schaper,5 Dinesh Saralaya,6 Anthony Gunstone,7 Ricard Casamor,8 Konstantinos Kostikas,3 Maryam Aalamian-Mattheis3 1University Hospital Miguel Servet, IISAragón, CIBERES, Zaragoza, Spain; 2Insaf Respiratory Research Institute, Wiesbaden, Germany; 3Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 4Hospital Piero Palagi, Fiorenze, Italy; 5Research Institute and Practice, Berlin-Brandenburg, Germany; 6Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Bradford, UK; 7Staploe Medical Center, Soham, Cambridge, UK; 8Novartis Farmaceutica SA, Barcelona, Spain Background: Morning symptoms associated with COPD have a negative impact on patients’ quality of life. Long-acting bronchodilators with rapid onset may relieve patients’ symptoms. In the Symptoms and Pulmonary function in the moRnING study, we prospectively compared the rapid onset bronchodilator profile of glycopyrronium (GLY and tiotropium (TIO during the first few hours after dosing in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD.Methods: Patients were randomized (1:1 to receive either once-daily GLY (50 µg or TIO (18 µg and corresponding placebos in a cross-over design for 28 days. The primary objective was to demonstrate the superiority of GLY versus TIO in area under the curve from 0 to 4 hours (AUC0-4h forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 after the first dose. The secondary objective was to compare GLY versus TIO using the patient reported outcomes Morning COPD Symptoms Questionnaire 3 hours post-inhalation.Results: One-hundred and twenty-six patients were randomized (male 70.2%; mean age 65.7 years and 108 patients completed the study. On Day 1, GLY resulted in significantly higher FEV1 AUC0-4h after the first dose versus TIO (treatment difference [Δ], 0.030 L, 95% confidence interval 0.004–0.056, P=0.025. Improvements in morning COPD symptoms from baseline at Days 1 and 28 were similar between GLY and TIO. Post hoc

  3. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork – a randomized cross-over meal test study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene D. Kristensen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources on appetite regulation. Objective: To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork regarding meal-induced appetite sensations. Design: In total, 43 healthy, normal-weight, young men completed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way, cross-over meal test. The meals (all 3.5 MJ, 28 energy-% (E% fat were either high protein based on veal and pork meat, HP-Meat (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 6 g fiber/100 g; high protein based on legumes (beans and peas, HP-Legume (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 25 g fiber/100 g; or low-protein based on legumes, LP-Legume (9 E% protein, 62 E% carbohydrate, 10 g fiber/100 g. Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour using visual analog scales until the ad libitum meal 3 h after the test meal. Repeated measurements analyses and summary analyses were performed using ANCOVA (SAS. Results: HP-Legume induced lower composite appetite score, hunger, prospective food consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat and LP-Legume (p<0.05. Furthermore, satiety was higher after HP-Legume than HP-Meat (p<0.05. When adjusting for palatability, HP-Legume still resulted in lower composite appetite scores, hunger, prospective consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat (p<0.05. Furthermore, HP-Legume induced higher fullness than LP-Legume (p<0.05. A 12% and 13% lower energy intake, respectively, was seen after HP-Legume compared to HP-Meat or LP-Legume (p<0.01. Conclusion: Vegetable-based meals (beans/peas influenced appetite sensations favorably compared to animal-based meals

  4. A randomized, double blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the effects of Candesartan on the insulin sensitivity on non diabetic, non hypertense subjects with dysglyce mia and abdominal obesity. "ARAMIA"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rueda-Clausen Christian F

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The raising prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus and obesity has been recognized as a major problem for public health, affecting both developed and developing countries. Impaired fasting plasma glucose has been previously associated with endothelial dysfunction, higher levels of inflammatory markers and increased risk of developing insulin resistance and cardiovascular events. Besides life-style changes, the blockade of the renin-angiotensin system has been proposed as a useful alternative intervention to improve insulin resistance and decrease the number of new type-2 diabetes cases. The aim of this clinical trial is to study the effect of the treatment with Candesartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, on the insulin resistance, the plasma levels of adipoquines, oxidative stress and prothrombotic markers, in a group of non diabetic, non hypertensive, dysglycemic and obese subjects. Methods and design A randomized, double blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was designed to assess the effects of Candesartan (up to 32 mg/day during 6 months on the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA index, lipid profile, protrombotic state, oxidative stress and plasma levels of inflammatory markers. The participants will be recruited in the "Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia". Subjects who fullfil selection criteria will receive permanent educational, nutritional and exercise support during their participation in the study. After a 15 days-run-in period with placebo and life-style recommendations, the patients who have a treatment compliance equal or greater than 80% will be randomlly assigned to one of the treatment groups. Group A will receive Candesartan during 6 months and placebo during 6 months. Group B will receive placebo during the first 6 months, and then, Candesartan during the last 6 months. Control visits will be programed monthly and all parameters of interest will be evaluated every 6 months

  5. Effects of Upper and Lower Cervical Spinal Manipulative Therapy on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability in Volunteers and Patients With Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled, Cross-Over, Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Ni Ni; Jorgensen, Anna Maria S; Chen, Yu Sui; Haneline, Michael T

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this study were to examine autonomic nervous system responses by using heart rate variability analysis (HRV), hemodynamic parameters and numeric pain scale (NPS) when either upper (C1 and C2) or lower (C6 and C7) cervical segments were manipulated in volunteers, and whether such response would be altered in acute mechanical neck pain patients after spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). A randomized controlled, cross-over, preliminary study was conducted on 10 asymptomatic normotensive volunteers and 10 normotensive patients complaining of acute neck pain. HRV, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), and NPS were recorded after upper cervical and lower cervical segments SMT in volunteer and patient groups. The standard deviation of average normal to normal R-R intervals (SDNN) increased (83.54 ± 22 vs. 105.41 ± 20; P = .02) after upper cervical SMT. The normalized unit of high frequency (nuHF), which shows parasympathetic activity, was predominant (40.18 ± 9 vs. 46.08 ± 14) after upper cervical SMT (P = .03) with a significant decrease (109 ± 10 vs. 98 ± 5) in systolic BP (P = .002). Low frequency to high frequency (LF/HF) ratio, which shows predominance of sympathetic activity increased (1.05 ± 0.7 vs. 1.51 ± 0.5; P = .02) after lower cervical SMT in the healthy volunteers group. However, there was an increase in SDNN (70.48 ± 18 vs. 90.23 ± 20; P = .02 and 75.19 ± 16 vs 97.52 ± 22; P = .01), a decrease in LF/HF ratio (1.33 ± 0.3 vs. 0.81 ± 0.2; P = .001 and 1.22 ± 0.4 vs. 0.86 ± 0.3; P = .02), which was associated with decreased systolic BP (105 ± 10 vs. 95 ± 9; P = .01 and 102 ± 9 vs. 91 ± 10; P = .02) and NPS scores (3 ± 1 vs. 0; P = .01 and 3 ± 1 vs. 1 ± 1; P = .03) following both upper and lower cervical SMT in the patient's group. The baseline HR was 67 ± 9 vs 64 ± 5 (upper cervical) and 65 ± 7 vs 69 ± 11 (lower cervical) in both the healthy volunteer' and patient' groups. Upper cervical SMT enhances dominance of

  6. Effects of unfermented and fermented whole grain rye crisp breads served as part of a standardized breakfast, on appetite and postprandial glucose and insulin responses: a randomized cross-over trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Johansson

    Full Text Available Whole grain rye products have been shown to increase satiety and elicit lower postprandial insulin response without a corresponding change in glucose response compared with soft refined wheat bread. The underlying mechanisms for these effects have not been fully determined The primary aim of the study was to investigate if whole grain rye crisp bread compared to refined wheat crisp bread, elected beneficial effects on appetite and postprandial insulin response, similarly as for other rye products.In a randomized cross-over trial, 23 healthy volunteers, aged 27-70 years, BMI 18-31.4 kg/m2, were served a standardized breakfast with unfermented whole grain rye crisp bread (uRCB, fermented whole grain rye crisp bread (RCB or refined wheat crisp bread (WCB, Appetite was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS until 4 h after breakfast. Postprandial glucose and insulin were measured at 0-230 min. Breads were chemically characterized including macronutrients, energy, dietary fiber components, and amino acid composition, and microstructure was characterized with light microscopy.Reported fullness was 16% higher (P<0.001, and hunger 11% and 12% lower (P<0.05 after ingestion of uRCB and RCB, respectively, compared with WCB. Postprandial glucose response did not differ significantly between treatments. Postprandial insulin was 10% lower (P<0.007 between 0-120 min but not significantly lower between 0-230 min for RCB compared with WCB. uRCB induced 13% (P<0.002 and 17% (P<0.001 lower postprandial insulin response between 0-230 min compared with RCB and WCB respectively.Whole grain rye crisp bread induces higher satiety and lower insulin response compared with refined wheat crisp bread. Microstructural characteristics, dietary fiber content and composition are probable contributors to the increased satiety after ingestion of rye crisp breads. Higher insulin secretion after ingestion of RCB and WCB compared with uRCB may be due to differences in fiber

  7. Dynamic Roles and Locations of Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Johansen, John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The principal objective of this paper is to relate functional nodes of production and innovation in global operations networks. The authors aim to capture the implications of changing strategic roles and locations of manufacturing for innovation capabilities. Design/methodology/approach......Purpose – The principal objective of this paper is to relate functional nodes of production and innovation in global operations networks. The authors aim to capture the implications of changing strategic roles and locations of manufacturing for innovation capabilities. Design...... companies presented in this paper, the authors find that although the potential benefits of global dispersion of manufacturing are vast, the realisation of these potentials depends on how successful companies are with linking the new strategic roles and locations of manufacturing with innovation...... at their home base. The paper identifies and discusses groups of capabilities important to this link. Practical implications – Three propositions are developed to advance the understanding of the role of cross-functional coordination and alignment, as well as their significance in the strategic initiatives...

  8. CBP List of Preclearance Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — CBP Preclearance provides for the U.S. border inspection and clearance of commercial air passengers and their goods at (15) locations in (6) foreign countries. CBP...

  9. Allegheny County Blazed Trails Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shows the location of blazed trails in all Allegheny County parks. This is the same data used in the Allegheny County Parks Trails Mobile App, available for Apple...

  10. Allegheny County Public Building Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of municipal facilities in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  11. Allegheny County WIC Vendor Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program vendors. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data...

  12. Locative inferences in medical texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, P S; Bailey, G H; Mayer, R J; Hillis, A; Dvoracek, J E

    1987-06-01

    Medical research relies on epidemiological studies conducted on a large set of clinical records that have been collected from physicians recording individual patient observations. These clinical records are recorded for the purpose of individual care of the patient with little consideration for their use by a biostatistician interested in studying a disease over a large population. Natural language processing of clinical records for epidemiological studies must deal with temporal, locative, and conceptual issues. This makes text understanding and data extraction of clinical records an excellent area for applied research. While much has been done in making temporal or conceptual inferences in medical texts, parallel work in locative inferences has not been done. This paper examines the locative inferences as well as the integration of temporal, locative, and conceptual issues in the clinical record understanding domain by presenting an application that utilizes two key concepts in its parsing strategy--a knowledge-based parsing strategy and a minimal lexicon.

  13. VT School Locations - K-12

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) FacilitiesSchools_PTSCHOOL is designed to provide point locations of every Vermont School along with the established school ID (PSID) for...

  14. WHERE2 Location Aided Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Armin; Agapiou, George; Brunel, Loïc

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of preliminary results of investigations within the WHERE2 Project on identifying promising avenues for location aided enhancements to wireless communication systems. The wide ranging contributions are organized according to the following targeted systems: cellular...... networks, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and cognitive radio. Location based approaches are found to allevi- ate significant signaling overhead in various forms of modern communication paradigms that are very information hungry in terms of channel state information at the transmitter...

  15. Two-sided Facility Location

    OpenAIRE

    Alijani, Reza; Banerjee, Siddhartha; Gollapudi, Sreenivas; Kollias, Kostas; Munagala, Kamesh

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the rise of many successful e-commerce marketplace platforms like the Amazon marketplace, AirBnB, Uber/Lyft, and Upwork, where a central platform mediates economic transactions between buyers and sellers. Motivated by these platforms, we formulate a set of facility location problems that we term Two-sided Facility location. In our model, agents arrive at nodes in an underlying metric space, where the metric distance between any buyer and seller captures the quality...

  16. Residential Location, Job Location, and Wages: Theory and Empirics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    I develop a stylized partial on-the-job equilibrium search model which incorporate a spatial dimension. Workers reside on a circle and can move at a cost. Each point on the circle has a wage distribution. Implications about wages and job mobility are drawn from the model and tested on Danish...... matched employer-employee data. The model predictions hold true. I find that workers working farther away from their residence earn higher wages. When a worker is making a job-to-job transition where he changes workplace location he experiences a higher wage change than a worker making a job-to-job...... transition without changing workplace location. However, workers making a job-to-job transition which makes the workplace location closer to the residence experiences a wage drop. Furthermore, low wage workers and workers with high transportation costs are more likely to make job-to-job transitions, but also...

  17. Asymmetrical access to color and location in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajsic, Jason; Wilson, Daryl E

    2014-10-01

    Models of visual working memory (VWM) have benefitted greatly from the use of the delayed-matching paradigm. However, in this task, the ability to recall a probed feature is confounded with the ability to maintain the proper binding between the feature that is to be reported and the feature (typically location) that is used to cue a particular item for report. Given that location is typically used as a cue-feature, we used the delayed-estimation paradigm to compare memory for location to memory for color, rotating which feature was used as a cue and which was reported. Our results revealed several novel findings: 1) the likelihood of reporting a probed object's feature was superior when reporting location with a color cue than when reporting color with a location cue; 2) location report errors were composed entirely of swap errors, with little to no random location reports; and 3) both colour and location reports greatly benefitted from the presence of nonprobed items at test. This last finding suggests that it is uncertainty over the bindings between locations and colors at memory retrieval that drive swap errors, not at encoding. We interpret our findings as consistent with a representational architecture that nests remembered object features within remembered locations.

  18. The role of drinking locations in university student drinking: findings from a national web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Paschall, Mallie J; Langley, John D; Baxter, Joanne; Bourdeau, Beth

    2010-09-01

    The study examined associations between type of drinking location and alcohol use in a national sample of New Zealand university students. We conducted a cross-sectional web-based survey with random sampling of 17- to 24-year-old undergraduates from six university campuses in 2005. There were 2548 respondents (response fraction: 63%). Measures included the number of standard drinks (10 g ethanol) consumed on each day of the preceding week in pubs/bars/nightclubs, student flats/houses, residential halls, and 'other' locations (e.g., restaurants). We used multilevel regression to test for associations between type of drinking location and consumption per episode, adjusting for student- and episode-level covariates. Respondents consumed an average of 7.1 drinks (SD 5.2) per drinking day, including 5.4 drinks (SD 4.5) in pubs/bars/nightclubs, flats/houses, and residential halls, and 3.7 drinks (SD 3.4) in other locations. Overall, men drank more per location (mean 8.4, SD 6.3) than did women (mean 6.2, SD 4.0). Multilevel analyses revealed positive associations between the first three location types and drinks per episode relative to other locations when adjusting for student- and episode-level covariates including duration of episode. Certain drinking locations (i.e., pubs, residential halls, off-campus houses) appear to promote or facilitate heavy alcohol consumption among students. Better enforcement of laws prohibiting service to intoxication should be prioritized to reduce alcohol-related harm among university students. Consideration should be given to strengthening alcohol policies in residential halls and methods for managing heavy drinking in private residences. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of tower locations for the secure border initiative network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendley, Keith W.

    2008-04-01

    The Secure Border Initiative Network (SBInet) is a series of sensor platforms along the U.S. border areas for the purpose of better monitoring cross-border excursions. From a technical standpoint, the challenge of SBInet is to provide the necessary area coverage needed while controlling costs. This paper presents one set of methods for analyzing different tower locations and technologies. Since the purpose of the paper is to consider analytical techniques, the terrain and tower locations used do not relate to the P28 area nor any other specific approaches or tower locations currently being studied for the SBInet program.

  20. Triangulation in Random Refractive Distortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterman, Marina; Schechner, Yoav Y; Swirski, Yohay

    2017-03-01

    Random refraction occurs in turbulence and through a wavy water-air interface. It creates distortion that changes in space, time and with viewpoint. Localizing objects in three dimensions (3D) despite this random distortion is important to some predators and also to submariners avoiding the salient use of periscopes. We take a multiview approach to this task. Refracted distortion statistics induce a probabilistic relation between any pixel location and a line of sight in space. Measurements of an object's random projection from multiple views and times lead to a likelihood function of the object's 3D location. The likelihood leads to estimates of the 3D location and its uncertainty. Furthermore, multiview images acquired simultaneously in a wide stereo baseline have uncorrelated distortions. This helps reduce the acquisition time needed for localization. The method is demonstrated in stereoscopic video sequences, both in a lab and a swimming pool.

  1. Comparing methods for Earthquake Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkaya, Semih; Bodin, Thomas; Sylvander, Matthieu; Parroucau, Pierre; Manchuel, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    There are plenty of methods available for locating small magnitude point source earthquakes. However, it is known that these different approaches produce different results. For each approach, results also depend on a number of parameters which can be separated into two main branches: (1) parameters related to observations (number and distribution of for example) and (2) parameters related to the inversion process (velocity model, weighting parameters, initial location etc.). Currently, the results obtained from most of the location methods do not systematically include quantitative uncertainties. The effect of the selected parameters on location uncertainties is also poorly known. Understanding the importance of these different parameters and their effect on uncertainties is clearly required to better constrained knowledge on fault geometry, seismotectonic processes and at the end to improve seismic hazard assessment. In this work, realized in the frame of the SINAPS@ research program (http://www.institut-seism.fr/projets/sinaps/), we analyse the effect of different parameters on earthquakes location (e.g. type of phase, max. hypocentral separation etc.). We compare several codes available (Hypo71, HypoDD, NonLinLoc etc.) and determine their strengths and weaknesses in different cases by means of synthetic tests. The work, performed for the moment on synthetic data, is planned to be applied, in a second step, on data collected by the Midi-Pyrénées Observatory (OMP).

  2. peripheral location of the human late x and"? homologous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    have now performed this type of analysis on H3-thyn1idine radioautographs, a ... quantitative study of the location of the inactive X has not to our knowledge yet ... With the use of simple random sampling methods a group of 25 metaphases.

  3. Location and activity specific site-management for military locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maring, L.; Hulst, M. van; Meuken, D.

    2009-01-01

    pace is limited in the Netherlands and military activities, that may cause nuisance or environmental hazards, should therefore be considered and evaluated during the use of military locations. The last few years TNO and Deltares have worked on a research program on environmental effects due to

  4. The effects of a fat loss supplement on resting metabolic rate and hemodynamic variables in resistance trained males: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bill I; Colquhoun, Ryan J; Zito, Gina; Martinez, Nic; Kendall, Kristina; Buchanan, Laura; Lehn, Matt; Johnson, Mallory; St Louis, Courtney; Smith, Yasmin; Cloer, Brad

    2016-01-01

    While it is known that dietary supplements containing a combination of thermogenic ingredients can increase resting metabolic rate (RMR), the magnitude can vary based on the active ingredient and/or combination of active ingredients. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a commercially available thermogenic fat loss supplement on RMR and hemodynamic variables in healthy, resistance trained males. Ten resistance-trained male participants (29 ± 9 years; 178 ± 4 cm; 85.7 ± 11 kg, and BMI = 26.8 ± 3.7) volunteered to participate in this randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled cross-over study. Participants underwent two testing sessions separated by at least 24 h. On their first visit, participants arrived to the laboratory after an overnight fast and a 24-h avoidance of exercise, and underwent a baseline RMR, HR, and BP assessment. Next, each participant ingested a thermogenic fat loss supplement (TFLS) or a placebo (PLA) and repeated the RMR, HR, and BP assessments at 60, 120, and 180 min post-ingestion. During the second visit the alternative supplement was ingested and the assessments were repeated in the exact same manner. Data were analyzed via a 2-factor [2x4] within-subjects repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Post-hoc tests were analyzed via paired samples t-tests. The criterion for significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. A significant main effect for time relative to raw RMR data (p = 0.014) was observed. Post-hoc analysis revealed that the TFLS significantly increased RMR at 60-min, 120-min, and 180-min post ingestion (p  0.05). Specifically, RMR was increased by 7.8 % (from 1,906 to 2,057 kcal), 6.9 % (from 1,906 to 2,037 kcal), and 9.1 % (from 1,906 to 2,081 kcal) in the TFLS, while the PLA treatment increased RMR by 3.3 % (from 1,919 to 1,981 kcal), 3.1 % (from 1,919 to 1,978 kcal), and 2.1 % (from 1,919 to 1,959 kcal) above baseline at 60, 120, and 180-min post ingestion

  5. Random thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ajansen; kwhitefoot; panteltje1; edprochak; sudhakar, the

    2014-07-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “How to make a quantum random-number generator from a mobile phone” (16 May, http://ow.ly/xFiYc, see also p5), which describes a way of delivering random numbers by counting the number of photons that impinge on each of the individual pixels in the camera of a Nokia N9 smartphone.

  6. Stream Crossings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Physical measurements and attributes of stream crossing structures and adjacent stream reaches which are used to provide a relative rating of aquatic organism...

  7. Arbitrary mandibular hinge axis locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J W; Hesby, R A; Pfeifer, D L; Pelleu, G B

    1984-06-01

    This study compared selected arbitrary hinge axis locations with the kinematic axis location. Fifty subjects were studied, and the data were statistically analyzed. Results showed significant differences between the location of experimental arbitrary axis point and those of Beyron, Gysi, and Bergstrom in relation to the kinematic axis. The arbitrary points of Beyron, Gysi, and Bergstrom showed directional tendencies, whereas the experimental arbitrary points were evenly distributed around the kinematic axis. This study indicates that the experimental arbitrary axis point more closely and consistently approximated the kinematic axis than the arbitrary points of Beyron, Gysi, and Bergstrom. The finding suggests that the clinical use of a point on Camper's line, 10 mm from the superior border of the tragus, results in a more accurate transfer of the maxillary cast to the articulator.

  8. Locating the LCROSS Impact Craters

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, William; Moratto, Zachary; Colaprete, Anthony; Neumann, Gregory; Smith, David; Hensley, Scott; Wilson, Barbara; Slade, Martin; Kennedy, Brian; Gurrola, Eric; Harcke, Leif; 10.1007/s11214-011-9765-0

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar CRater Observations and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission impacted a spent Centaur rocket stage into a permanently shadowed region near the lunar south pole. The Sheperding Spacecraft (SSC) separated \\sim9 hours before impact and performed a small braking maneuver in order to observe the Centaur impact plume, looking for evidence of water and other volatiles, before impacting itself. This paper describes the registration of imagery of the LCROSS impact region from the mid- and near-infrared cameras onboard the SSC, as well as from the Goldstone radar. We compare the Centaur impact features, positively identified in the first two, and with a consistent feature in the third, which are interpreted as a 20 m diameter crater surrounded by a 160 m diameter ejecta region. The images are registered to Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter (LRO) topographical data which allows determination of the impact location. This location is compared with the impact location derived from ground-based tracking and propagation of...

  9. Nonparametric estimation of location and scale parameters

    KAUST Repository

    Potgieter, C.J.

    2012-12-01

    Two random variables X and Y belong to the same location-scale family if there are constants μ and σ such that Y and μ+σX have the same distribution. In this paper we consider non-parametric estimation of the parameters μ and σ under minimal assumptions regarding the form of the distribution functions of X and Y. We discuss an approach to the estimation problem that is based on asymptotic likelihood considerations. Our results enable us to provide a methodology that can be implemented easily and which yields estimators that are often near optimal when compared to fully parametric methods. We evaluate the performance of the estimators in a series of Monte Carlo simulations. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Wage Inequality and the Location of Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhi, Farid; Jinkins, David

    In cross-sectional American census data, we document that isolated cities tend to have less wage inequality. To explain this correlation and other correlations between population and wages, we build an equilibrium empirical model that incorporates high and low-skill labor, costly trade, and both...... agglomeration and congestion forces. The model bridges the gap between the spatial inequality literature which abstracts from geography, and the economic geography literature which abstracts from inequality. We find that geographical location explains 9.2% of observed variation in wage inequality across...... American cities. In counterfactual experiments, we find that reductions in domestic trade costs benefit all American workers and decrease welfare inequality. We also examine the effects on inequality and welfare of both regional and national skill-biased technology shocks. We find that in larger cities...

  11. Exploring the Effects of Sampling Locations for Calibrating the Huff Model Using Mobile Phone Location Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the Huff model is of critical significance in many fields, including urban transport, optimal location planning, economics and business analysis. Moreover, parameters calibration is a crucial procedure before using the model. Previous studies have paid much attention to calibrating the spatial interaction model for human mobility research. However, are whole sampling locations always the better solution for model calibration? We use active tracking data of over 16 million cell phones in Shenzhen, a metropolitan city in China, to evaluate the calibration accuracy of Huff model. Specifically, we choose five business areas in this city as destinations and then randomly select a fixed number of cell phone towers to calibrate the parameters in this spatial interaction model. We vary the selected number of cell phone towers by multipliers of 30 until we reach the total number of towers with flows to the five destinations. We apply the least square methods for model calibration. The distribution of the final sum of squared error between the observed flows and the estimated flows indicates that whole sampling locations are not always better for the outcomes of this spatial interaction model. Instead, fewer sampling locations with higher volume of trips could improve the calibration results. Finally, we discuss implications of this finding and suggest an approach to address the high-accuracy model calibration solution.

  12. Fluid flow dynamics under location uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mémin, Etienne

    2014-03-01

    We present a derivation of a stochastic model of Navier Stokes equations that relies on a decomposition of the velocity fields into a differentiable drift component and a time uncorrelated uncertainty random term. This type of decomposition is reminiscent in spirit to the classical Reynolds decomposition. However, the random velocity fluctuations considered here are not differentiable with respect to time, and they must be handled through stochastic calculus. The dynamics associated with the differentiable drift component is derived from a stochastic version of the Reynolds transport theorem. It includes in its general form an uncertainty dependent "subgrid" bulk formula that cannot be immediately related to the usual Boussinesq eddy viscosity assumption constructed from thermal molecular agitation analogy. This formulation, emerging from uncertainties on the fluid parcels location, explains with another viewpoint some subgrid eddy diffusion models currently used in computational fluid dynamics or in geophysical sciences and paves the way for new large-scales flow modelling. We finally describe an applications of our formalism to the derivation of stochastic versions of the Shallow water equations or to the definition of reduced order dynamical systems.

  13. Spectral power density of the random excitation for the photoacoustic wave equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Erkol

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The superposition of the Green's function and its time reversal can be extracted from the photoacoustic point sources applying the representation theorems of the convolution and correlation type. It is shown that photoacoustic pressure waves at locations of random point sources can be calculated with the solution of the photoacoustic wave equation and utilization of the continuity and the discontinuity conditions of the pressure waves in the frequency domain although the pressure waves cannot be measured at these locations directly. Therefore, with the calculated pressure waves at the positions of the sources, the spectral power density can be obtained for any system consisting of two random point sources. The methodology presented here can also be generalized to any finite number of point like sources. The physical application of this study includes the utilization of the cross-correlation of photoacoustic waves to extract functional information associated with the flow dynamics inside the tissue.

  14. Locations in television drama series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    , and reflect the growing academic and business interests, respectively, on places in a global media and consumption culture (Falkheimer & Jansson, 2006). Based on empirical location studies of three crime series, Wallander (Yellow Bird, 2008-2012), The Bridge (SVT1 & DR1, 2011-2013) and Dicte (Misofilm/TV2...

  15. Part Objects and Their Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1992-01-01

    The notion of location of part objects is introduced, yielding a reference to the containing object. Combined with locally defined objects and classes (block structure), singularly defined part objects, and references to part objects, it is a powerful language mechanism for defining objects...... with different aspects or roles. The use of part objects for inheritance of code is also explored....

  16. WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Lim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations in the Western Pacific Region (WHO Standard was released in 2008. Initially, there were 92/361 controversial acupuncture points (acupoints. Through seven informal consultations and four task force team meetings, 86 points were agreed upon among the 92 controversial acupoints, leaving 6 remaining controversial acupoints, demanding active research in the future. This will enhance the reproducibility and validity of acupuncture studies. It will also lead to a better understanding of acupuncture mechanisms in order to optimize its clinical efficacy for a range of diseases and syndromes. This book has two parts: General Guidelines for Acupuncture Point Locations and WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations. First of all, familiarity with the General Guidelines for Acupuncture Point Locations in this book can help the reader to understand and use the contents of this book in depth. I would like to thank all of the participating experts and scholars for this great work, who have overcome the limits of previous acupuncture references. I also appreciate the dedicated effort and harmonious leadership of Dr Choi Seung-hoon, former Regional Adviser in Traditional Medicine of Western Pacific Office, WHO.

  17. Smart location system; Sistema de localizacao inteligente Smart Location System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da; Antunes, Rodrigo de Castro; Azevedo, Fabio Augusto Ferreira de [PipeWay Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Afonso, Orlando de Jesus Ribeiro [Instituto de Pesquisas da Marinha, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Matsuura, Minoru; Santa Cruz, Sergio de Freitas [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Jose Alberto Costa dos; Hashiguchi, Decio Issao [GDK Engenharia (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes the technology used in the Intelligent Location System developed by Pipeway and includes some of the results already obtained optimizing repair time and logistic costs during the location of anomalies detected by intelligent pigs, a joint operation within the scope of the contract for Sub sea Pipeline Recovery in the Guanabara Bay with PETROBRAS/TRANSPETRO and GDK Engenharia. The system uses the ELF (Extra Low Frequency) transmission and reception technology at points near a pipe, with or without concrete coating, whose signals are recorded in the inspection tool memory to accurately establish reference points, thus preventing excessive dig work or dredging when human and operational risks tend to be high. (author)

  18. Global Locator, Local Locator, and Identifier Split (GLI-Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Menth

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The locator/identifier split is an approach for a new addressing and routing architecture to make routing in the core of the Internet more scalable. Based on this principle, we developed the GLI-Split framework, which separates the functionality of current IP addresses into a stable identifier and two independent locators, one for routing in the Internet core and one for edge networks. This makes routing in the Internet more stable and provides more flexibility for edge networks. GLI-Split can be incrementally deployed and it is backward-compatible with the IPv6 Internet. We describe its architecture, compare it to other approaches, present its benefits, and finally present a proof-of-concept implementation of GLI-Split.

  19. Universal randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Viktor S [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-31

    In the last two decades, it has been established that a single universal probability distribution function, known as the Tracy-Widom (TW) distribution, in many cases provides a macroscopic-level description of the statistical properties of microscopically different systems, including both purely mathematical ones, such as increasing subsequences in random permutations, and quite physical ones, such as directed polymers in random media or polynuclear crystal growth. In the first part of this review, we use a number of models to examine this phenomenon at a simple qualitative level and then consider the exact solution for one-dimensional directed polymers in a random environment, showing that free energy fluctuations in such a system are described by the universal TW distribution. The second part provides detailed appendix material containing the necessary mathematical background for the first part. (reviews of topical problems)

  20. Multiple criteria facility location problems: A survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farahani, Reza Zanjirani; SteadieSeifi, Maryam; Asgari, Nasrin

    2010-01-01

    .... There are many decision making problems whose information is spatial (geographical). These kinds of decisions are called location decisions. Location decisions are now a major part of operations research and management science (named location science). Facility location, location science and location models are terms that can be used instead. Facility lo...

  1. Modeling the Perceptions and Preferences of Pedestrians on Crossing Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian’s street-crossing behaviour has a significant effect on traffic performance and safety. The crossing behaviour is determined by human factors and environmental factors. Aiming at examining the pedestrian perceptions toward crossing facilities and preferences for crossing locations, an observational study of pedestrian crossing behaviour at urban street is conducted. The perceptions and preferences of pedestrians are collected using stated preference technique. A specific questionnaire is designed to conduct the stated preference survey. A multinomial logit model is proposed to describe the perceptions and preferences of pedestrians on crossing facilities and locations. The sensitivity analysis is performed to discuss the influence of various factors on crossing behaviour. Then the relationship between crossing locations and crossing distances is analyzed by a new proposed method. With the theoretical analysis, the engineering solutions considering pedestrian behaviour are suggested. The results are helpful to design human-centered crossing facilities in urban traffic.

  2. Random triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Matula, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    The author summarizes some previous results concerning random triangles. He describes the Gaussian triangle and random triangles whose vertices lie in a unit n-dimensional ball, in a rectangle or in a general bounded convex set. In the second part, the author deals with an inscribed triangle in a triangle - let ABC be an equilateral triangle and let M, N, O be three points, each laying on one side of the ABC. We call MNO inscribed triangle (in an equi- laterral triangle). The median triangle ...

  3. Random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Madan Lal

    1990-01-01

    Since the publication of Random Matrices (Academic Press, 1967) so many new results have emerged both in theory and in applications, that this edition is almost completely revised to reflect the developments. For example, the theory of matrices with quaternion elements was developed to compute certain multiple integrals, and the inverse scattering theory was used to derive asymptotic results. The discovery of Selberg's 1944 paper on a multiple integral also gave rise to hundreds of recent publications. This book presents a coherent and detailed analytical treatment of random matrices, leading

  4. It's All about Location, Location, Location: Children's Memory for the "Where'' of Personally Experienced Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Doydum, Ayzit O.; Pathman, Thanujeni; Larkina, Marina; Guler, O. Evren; Burch, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Episodic memory is defined as the ability to recall specific past events located in a particular time and place. Over the preschool and into the school years, there are clear developmental changes in memory for when events took place. In contrast, little is known about developmental changes in memory for where events were experienced. In the…

  5. MICROGRIDS: THE AGRIA TEST LOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Krkoleva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the pilot Microgrid in Macedonia, developed within the framework of the MOREMICROGRIDS (EU EP6 projecet, contract No. SES6-019864 project. This Microgrid is the first of its kind being developed in the Western Balkan region and serves as pilot site for introduction and examination of the Microgrids concept in non European Union conditions. The test network consists of a part of the low voltage grid, located on a pig farm. The main electricity source for the Microgrid is a small biogas plant, which uses the biogas produced by a waste water treatment process. The paper addresses the Microgrid design, development of test scenarios and test results from the pilot location.

  6. Location predicting methods for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yu

    2017-08-01

    Location prediction of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is important for fighting with its enemy and ensuring its normal operation. This paper presents the motion model of UAVs and reduces the state space into 7 dimensions. The Bayesian Network, Markov Chain, Curve Fitting and Neural Network are introduced for designing predicting methods. Then Curve Fitting Predicting method, Markov Chain Predicting method, Bayesian Network Predicting method and Neural Network Predicting method are designed for UAVs. The simulation result shows that 1) Neural Network Predicting method has highest predicting accuracy; 2) Markov Chain Predicting method and Bayesian Network Predicting method methods have similar performance and both are better than Bayesian Network Predicting method methods; 3) Neural Network Predicting method is the first choice when predicting the locations of UAVs.

  7. The potential for improvement of outcomes by personalized insulin treatment of type 1 diabetes as assessed by analysis of single-patient data from a randomized controlled cross-over insulin trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Kristensen, Peter L; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    improvement of outcomes by personalized insulin therapy by analyzing data from a cross-over trial at individual level. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of data from a two-year multicentre, prospective, randomised, open, blinded endpoint (PROBE) trial (the HypoAna trial). In a cross-over design 114 patients...... treatment. The rate of severe hypoglycemia with the superior treatment was lower compared to the rates obtained with analog insulin and with human insulin (0.67, 1.09, and 1.57 episode per patient-year, respectively (pPersonalized insulin treatment of type 1 diabetes based on single...

  8. Computer Model Locates Environmental Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Catherine Huybrechts Burton founded San Francisco-based Endpoint Environmental (2E) LLC in 2005 while she was a student intern and project manager at Ames Research Center with NASA's DEVELOP program. The 2E team created the Tire Identification from Reflectance model, which algorithmically processes satellite images using turnkey technology to retain only the darkest parts of an image. This model allows 2E to locate piles of rubber tires, which often are stockpiled illegally and cause hazardous environmental conditions and fires.

  9. Location Estimation using Delayed Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Larsen, Thomas Dall; Nørgård, Peter Magnus

    1998-01-01

    When combining data from various sensors it is vital to acknowledge possible measurement delays. Furthermore, the sensor fusion algorithm, often a Kalman filter, should be modified in order to handle the delay. The paper examines different possibilities for handling delays and applies a new...... technique to a sensor fusion system for estimating the location of an autonomous guided vehicle. The system fuses encoder and vision measurements in an extended Kalman filter. Results from experiments in a real environment are reported...

  10. Rare locations of calcifying tendinitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nidecker, A.; Hartweg, H.

    1983-12-01

    5 case-reports illustrate 2 rare locations of calcifying peritendinitis: The insertion of the deltoid tendon in the proximal humreus and the insertion of the gluteus maximus tendon in the femur. Knowledge of these insertion sites on one hand and the possibility of calcifying tendinitis at these sites on the other hand may allow proper diagnosis of certain shoulder- and hip joint pain syndromes and subsequent correct therapy.

  11. On Digital Simulation of Multicorrelated Random Processes and Its Applications. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, A. K.

    1973-01-01

    Two methods are described to simulate, on a digital computer, a set of correlated, stationary, and Gaussian time series with zero mean from the given matrix of power spectral densities and cross spectral densities. The first method is based upon trigonometric series with random amplitudes and deterministic phase angles. The random amplitudes are generated by using a standard random number generator subroutine. An example is given which corresponds to three components of wind velocities at two different spatial locations for a total of six correlated time series. In the second method, the whole process is carried out using the Fast Fourier Transform approach. This method gives more accurate results and works about twenty times faster for a set of six correlated time series.

  12. Location, Location: Jurisdiction & Conflicts in Transborder Contract Litigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    In transborder contract litigation place-based factors are often decisive, both as regards jurisdiction to adjudicate as well as the rules which determine the applicable substantive law. Relevant locations include the place where the contract was made, where the parties reside, transact business...... or own property, the place of delivery, payment or other performance etc. Using concrete case-based examples, Professor Lookofsky explains how rules of jurisdiction and contract conflicts in Europe are tied to rigidly defined, single-place-based factors. In the United States, by contrast...

  13. Consumption of high-fat meal containing cheese compared with vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomized controlled cross-over study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimize CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomized...

  14. Border Crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rivera, Alex

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that communities, cities, and nations are no longer culturally and ethnically monolithic and examines the possibilities of human fellowships based on faith. Highlights intermarriage, migration, and changes in family structure as sources of complexity, but argues that we must learn how to live together after having crossed traditional…

  15. An improved method for broadband interferometric lightning location using wavelet transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shi; Zhou, Bi-Hua; Shi, Li-Hua; Dong, Wan-Sheng; Zhang, Yi-Jun; Gao, Tai-Chang

    2009-09-01

    The principle of VHF broadband interferometer for lightning observations is to extract the phase differences between a pair of RF signals at different frequency components, and thereafter, to compute the direction of the radiation source. However, the phase difference spectra are usually distorted by random noise, which directly affects the location accuracy and reliability. In order to suppress phase interference effectively, a phase filtering algorithm which combines circular correlation with translation-invariant denoising is proposed. Application of the algorithm to a segment of observational data shows that the proposed algorithm does a much better job in recovering the phase spectra than other techniques. Simulated data distorted by the addition of random noise are also used to illustrate the improvements of the method in resolving incident angle, which is compared with other wavelet-based thresholding techniques and the conventional Fourier transform-based cross-correlation method. Finally, this phase filtering algorithm is applied to mapping two natural lightning processes. Contrast analysis reveals that this algorithm could be utilized to retrieve well-defined paths which are not discerned by conventional method, and depict the branches more clearly and precisely.

  16. Identification of Hazardous Road Locations on the basis of jerks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Jensen, Robin; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2015-01-01

    The dark figures for the Danish traffic safety have increased for decades and are now around 91%. As the Hazardous Road Location (HRL) identification, a cornerstone in the traffic safety work, is based on the registered accidents, the identification is increasingly more random and uncertain...... on data from three months of driving by 380 cars, which is equivalent to a distance of 1.9 million km. This indicates that concentrations of decelerations are located where there are high traffic volumes, but not that the design and furniture of the road on the location can explain an HRL. This also...... indicates that concentrations of jerks can be found where the road has safety problems or is inappropriately designed. This is supported by literature dealing with this topic. On the other hand, jerks are very sensitive to unevenness in the road surface, and data from these locations must be removed...

  17. Optimal location of a mine facility by genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumral, M. [Inonu University, Malatya (Turkey). School of Engineering

    2004-06-01

    When raw material is extracted from multiple mines or faces and when the construction of a mine facility is being planned, the selection for the optimal location of the facility is an important consideration because of high transportation costs. This paper presents an approach for the selection of optimal location of a mining facility based on the genetic algorithms which is a directed random search technique. The technique, simple and easy to apply, is demonstrated for the case of the location of a coal washery plant, whose supply comes from five mines with varying reserves and coal qualities, topographical conditions and mine status. The result shows that the solution produced by the proposed algorithm can be used to find the optimal location of any mining facility.

  18. New Location Improves Efficiency | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The physical proximity of the SAIC-Frederick Intellectual Property (IP) Office to the NCI Technology Transfer Center (NCI-TTC) is one of the many benefits of being at the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF), according to Courtney Silverthorn, Ph.D. Being in one location “has increased the effectiveness of both informal communication and formal meetings. We have already brainstormed solutions for several issues in the hallway during an informal chat,” said Silverthorn, an SAIC-Frederick IP specialist.

  19. Method of locating ground faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard L. (Inventor); Rose, Allen H. (Inventor); Cull, Ronald C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention discloses a method of detecting and locating current imbalances such as ground faults in multiwire systems using the Faraday effect. As an example, for 2-wire or 3-wire (1 ground wire) electrical systems, light is transmitted along an optical path which is exposed to magnetic fields produced by currents flowing in the hot and neutral wires. The rotations produced by these two magnetic fields cancel each other, therefore light on the optical path does not read the effect of either. However, when a ground fault occurs, the optical path is exposed to a net Faraday effect rotation due to the current imbalance thereby exposing the ground fault.

  20. On Voting and Facility Location

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Michal; Fiat, Amos; Golomb, Iddan

    2015-01-01

    We study mechanisms for candidate selection that seek to minimize the social cost, where voters and candidates are associated with points in some underlying metric space. The social cost of a candidate is the sum of its distances to each voter. Some of our work assumes that these points can be modeled on a real line, but other results of ours are more general. A question closely related to candidate selection is that of minimizing the sum of distances for facility location. The difference is ...

  1. Real-Time Monitoring of the Dayside Geosynchronous Magnetopause Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmon, R. J.; Lotoaniu, T. M.; Berguson, M.; Codrescu, S. M.; Shue, J. H.; Singer, H. J.; Rowland, W. F.; Denig, W. F.

    2014-12-01

    The magnetopause is a boundary separating the geospace magnetic environment from interplanetary space. Its location provides an important demarcation for satellite operators, the interpretation of plasma observations and a measure of the expected level of space weather activity. Substantial increases in the solar wind dynamic pressure and southward interplanetary magnetic field can result in a magnetopause compressed inward of geostationary orbit. In support of the needs of space weather forecasters, we have transitioned a version of the upcoming Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-R (launch ~ early 2016) magnetopause monitoring and crossing product into operations. The current version is based on GOES-13, -14 and -15 magnetic measurements and the Shue et al. (1998) model of the magnetopause, while the future version will take advantage of GOES-R's expanded range of particle energies and derived moments to better define the magnetopause location. This paper will present lessons learned from the research to operations (R2O) process, a statistical validation of product performance, comparisons to other similar products, and a brief summary of a few geosynchronous crossings. Our statistical validation uses GOES and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) satellite observations to calculate the detection performance characteristics of dayside crossings predicted by commonly used models of the magnetopause boundary including Chao et al. (2001), Petrinec and Russell (1996) and Shue et al. (1998). In our summary of important geosynchronous crossings, we briefly describe monitoring of the magnetopause during the February 2014 event, which resulted in a geosynchronous crossing and degradation of a high-latitude aircraft navigation system. The home of the Magnetopause Location and Geosynchronous Crossings monitoring and forecast product is: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/stp/mag_pause/

  2. genetic evaluation of seed traits from intraspecific crossing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2016-05-16

    cross) et F2. Les graines de toutes .... software (SAS, 2006). This test evaluated variability between families, the main effects of location on family production and the interaction between families-locations. Also, Principal ...

  3. Avoided Crossings in Small Metal Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, S.; Waintal, X.; Brouwer, P. W.

    2002-03-01

    The effect of spin-orbit scattering in a generic small metal grain causes neighbouring Zeeman split energies to repel forming an avoided crossing. The magnitude of the avoided crossing energy depends on the direction of the magnetic field and the strength of the spin-orbit scattering. We use Random Matrix Theory to calculate the statistical distribution of minimal energy separations of an avoided crossing for the case of weak spin-orbit scattering.

  4. A General k-Level Uncapacitated Facility Location Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongheng; Huang, Huei-Chuen

    In this paper a general k-level uncapacitated facility location problem(k-GLUFLP) is proposed. It is shown that the 2-level uncapacitated facility location problem with no fixed cost(2-GLUFLNP) is strong NP-complete and a heuristic algorithm with worst case ratio of 3/2 is given for 2-GLUFLNP when the service costs are assumed to be in the metric space. We also present a randomized 3-approximation algorithm for the k-GLUFLP, when k is a fixed integer.

  5. Location invariance in masked repetition priming of letters and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouki, Yousri; Meeter, Martijn; Grainger, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Earlier studies have suggested that information from a prime stimulus can be integrated with target information even when the two stimuli appear at different spatial locations. Here, we examined such location invariance in a masked repetition priming paradigm with single letter and word stimuli. In order to neutralize effects of acuity and spatial attention on prime processing, subliminal prime stimuli always appeared on fixation. Target location varied randomly from trial to trial along the horizontal meridian at one of seven possible locations for letter stimuli (-7° to +7°) and three positions for word stimuli (-4°, 0°, +4°). Speed of responding to letter and word targets was affected by target location, and by priming, but the size of repetition priming effects did not vary as a function of target location. These results suggest that masked repetition priming is mediated by representations that integrate information about object identity independently of object location. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Expectation-Maximization Tensor Factorization for Practical Location Privacy Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murakami Takao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Location privacy attacks based on a Markov chain model have been widely studied to de-anonymize or de-obfuscate mobility traces. An adversary can perform various kinds of location privacy attacks using a personalized transition matrix, which is trained for each target user. However, the amount of training data available to the adversary can be very small, since many users do not disclose much location information in their daily lives. In addition, many locations can be missing from the training traces, since many users do not disclose their locations continuously but rather sporadically. In this paper, we show that the Markov chain model can be a threat even in this realistic situation. Specifically, we focus on a training phase (i.e. mobility profile building phase and propose Expectation-Maximization Tensor Factorization (EMTF, which alternates between computing a distribution of missing locations (E-step and computing personalized transition matrices via tensor factorization (M-step. Since the time complexity of EMTF is exponential in the number of missing locations, we propose two approximate learning methods, one of which uses the Viterbi algorithm while the other uses the Forward Filtering Backward Sampling (FFBS algorithm. We apply our learning methods to a de-anonymization attack and a localization attack, and evaluate them using three real datasets. The results show that our learning methods significantly outperform a random guess, even when there is only one training trace composed of 10 locations per user, and each location is missing with probability 80% (i.e. even when users hardly disclose two temporally-continuous locations.

  7. Topological properties of random wireless networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wireless networks in which the node locations are random are best modelled as random geometric graphs (RGGs). In addition to their extensive application in the modelling of wireless networks, RGGs find many new applications and are being studied in their own right. In this paper we first provide a brief introduction to the ...

  8. Heat exchanger leakage problem location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.

  9. Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Mather, Mara; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not have a cost for the binding of nearby pictures to their locations. Thus, arousal can enhance binding of an arousing picture’s content to its location ...

  10. A discrete random walk on the hypercube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyuan; Xiang, Yonghong; Sun, Weigang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we study the scaling for mean first-passage time (MFPT) of random walks on the hypercube and obtain a closed-form formula for the MFPT over all node pairs. We also determine the exponent of scaling efficiency characterizing the random walks and compare it with those of the existing networks. Finally we study the random walks on the hypercube with a located trap and provide a solution of the Kirchhoff index of the hypercube.

  11. Random walks in a random environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Random walks as well as diffusions in random media are considered. Methods are developed that allow one to establish large deviation results for both the 'quenched' and the 'averaged' case. Keywords. Large deviations; random walks in a random environment. 1. Introduction. A random walk on Zd is a stochastic ...

  12. PVO VENUS ELECT TEMP PROBE DERVD IONOPAUSE LOCATION VER 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Ionopause File. This file gives the orbit-by-orbit times and locations of the ionopause crossings, which are evident as sharp gradients in Ne at the top of the...

  13. Rose Hip Powder That Contains the Natural Amount of Shells and Seeds Alleviates Pain in Osteoarthritis of the Dominant Hand—A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kaj; Campbell-Tofte, Joan I A; Hansen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    medication, in patients with osteoarthritis of the hand. Methods: The double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial included 30 patients with osteoarthritis of the dominant hand. Patients were randomly allocated to treatment with either five gram encapsulated RHP or placebo, for three months (Phase 1...... scale, focusing on 16 different daily activities of the hand. The consumption of rescue medication was also calculated at the beginning and at the end of each study phase. Data are based on the intention to treat. Results: At the end of Phase 1, 90% of patients in the group receiving RHP first (group A...... symptoms of osteoarthritis of the hand and consumption of rescue medication....

  14. Game location and aggression in rugby league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marc V; Bray, Steven R; Olivier, Stephen

    2005-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between aggression and game location in rugby league. We videotaped a random sample of 21 professional rugby league games played in the 2000 Super League season. Trained observers recorded the frequency of aggressive behaviours. Consistent with previous research, which used territoriality theories as a basis for prediction, we hypothesized that the home team would behave more aggressively than the away team. The results showed no significant difference in the frequency of aggressive behaviours exhibited by the home and away teams. However, the away teams engaged in substantially more aggressive behaviours in games they lost compared with games they won. No significant differences in the pattern of aggressive behaviours for home and away teams emerged as a function of game time (i.e. first or second half) or game situation (i.e. when teams were winning, losing or drawing). The findings suggest that while home and away teams do not display different levels of aggression, the cost of behaving aggressively (in terms of game outcome) may be greater for the away team.

  15. Random tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2017-01-01

    Written by the creator of the modern theory of random tensors, this book is the first self-contained introductory text to this rapidly developing theory. Starting from notions familiar to the average researcher or PhD student in mathematical or theoretical physics, the book presents in detail the theory and its applications to physics. The recent detections of the Higgs boson at the LHC and gravitational waves at LIGO mark new milestones in Physics confirming long standing predictions of Quantum Field Theory and General Relativity. These two experimental results only reinforce today the need to find an underlying common framework of the two: the elusive theory of Quantum Gravity. Over the past thirty years, several alternatives have been proposed as theories of Quantum Gravity, chief among them String Theory. While these theories are yet to be tested experimentally, key lessons have already been learned. Whatever the theory of Quantum Gravity may be, it must incorporate random geometry in one form or another....

  16. Random functions and turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Panchev, S

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 32: Random Functions and Turbulence focuses on the use of random functions as mathematical methods. The manuscript first offers information on the elements of the theory of random functions. Topics include determination of statistical moments by characteristic functions; functional transformations of random variables; multidimensional random variables with spherical symmetry; and random variables and distribution functions. The book then discusses random processes and random fields, including stationarity and ergodicity of random

  17. The LHCb Vertex Locator Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumlak, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Large Hadron Collider beauty LHCb detector is a dedicated flavour physics experiment, designed to efficiently detect decays of b- and c-hadrons to perform precise studies of CP violation and rare decays. At the end of Run 2, many of the LHCb measurements will remain statistically dominated. In order to increase the trigger yield for purely hadronic channels, the hardware trigger will be removed, and the full detector will be read out at 40 MHz. This, in combination with the five-fold increase in luminosity necessitates radical changes to LHCb's electronics with entire subdetector replacements required in some cases. The Vertex Locator (VELO) surrounding the interaction region is used to reconstruct the proton-proton collision points (primary vertices) and decay vertices of long-lived particles (secondary vertices). The upgraded VELO will be equipped with silicon hybrid pixel sensors, each read out by VeloPix ASICs. The highest occupancy ASICs will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhit/s and produce an output data rate of over 15 Gbit/s, with a total rate of 1.6 Tbit/s anticipated for the whole detector. Selected highlights of this challenging and ambitious project are described in this paper.

  18. LHCb VErtex LOcator (VELO) upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M. M.; LHCb VELO Group

    2013-01-01

    The VErtex LOcator (VELO) is a vital piece of apparatus providing tracking, triggering and vertexing to the LHCb experiment. Its superb impact parameter resolution and high efficiency enable LHCb to make precision measurements and searches for New Physics in the flavour sector. These proceedings focus on the R&D for the future LHCb VELO detector to be installed in the upgraded LHCb experiment. In order to increase hadronic yields and to be able to run at higher luminosities LHCb plans to upgrade the front end electronics, currently limited by a first level hardware trigger. For the silicon vertex detector this implies a complete rebuild of the modules and electronics, with improved cooling capability to cope with the high voltages and currents expected after significant radiation damage has been accrued. This paper presents the design considerations for the vertex detector upgrade together with the two proposed options for the sensor layout, based on strips or pixels. As part of the R&D programme a pixel based tracking telescope has been developed for use in testbeams, to gain experience with pixel tracking and to evaluate the technologies under consideration. This paper presents results from the last years running of the TimePix telescope and describes the integration of various test devices.

  19. Quasiconvex optimization and location theory

    CERN Document Server

    Santos Gromicho, Jaoquim António

    1998-01-01

    grams of which the objective is given by the ratio of a convex by a positive (over a convex domain) concave function. As observed by Sniedovich (Ref. [102, 103]) most of the properties of fractional pro­ grams could be found in other programs, given that the objective function could be written as a particular composition of functions. He called this new field C­ programming, standing for composite concave programming. In his seminal book on dynamic programming (Ref. [104]), Sniedovich shows how the study of such com­ positions can help tackling non-separable dynamic programs that otherwise would defeat solution. Barros and Frenk (Ref. [9]) developed a cutting plane algorithm capable of optimizing C-programs. More recently, this algorithm has been used by Carrizosa and Plastria to solve a global optimization problem in facility location (Ref. [16]). The distinction between global optimization problems (Ref. [54]) and generalized convex problems can sometimes be hard to establish. That is exactly the reason ...

  20. Attention to multiple locations is limited by spatial working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Alex; Sapir, Ayelet; Burnett, Katherine; d'Avossa, Giovanni

    2014-08-21

    What limits the ability to attend several locations simultaneously? There are two possibilities: Either attention cannot be divided without incurring a cost, or spatial memory is limited and observers forget which locations to monitor. We compared motion discrimination when attention was directed to one or multiple locations by briefly presented central cues. The cues were matched for the amount of spatial information they provided. Several random dot kinematograms (RDKs) followed the spatial cues; one of them contained task-relevant, coherent motion. When four RDKs were presented, discrimination accuracy was identical when one and two locations were indicated by equally informative cues. However, when six RDKs were presented, discrimination accuracy was higher following one rather than multiple location cues. We examined whether memory of the cued locations was diminished under these conditions. Recall of the cued locations was tested when participants attended the cued locations and when they did not attend the cued locations. Recall was inaccurate only when the cued locations were attended. Finally, visually marking the cued locations, following one and multiple location cues, equalized discrimination performance, suggesting that participants could attend multiple locations when they did not have to remember which ones to attend. We conclude that endogenously dividing attention between multiple locations is limited by inaccurate recall of the attended locations and that attention poses separate demands on the same central processes used to remember spatial information, even when the locations attended and those held in memory are the same. © 2014 ARVO.

  1. Privacy-Preserving Location-Based Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Chi Yin

    2010-01-01

    Location-based services (LBS for short) providers require users' current locations to answer their location-based queries, e.g., range and nearest-neighbor queries. Revealing personal location information to potentially untrusted service providers could create privacy risks for users. To this end, our objective is to design a privacy-preserving…

  2. Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Mara; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not…

  3. Privacy for location-based services

    CERN Document Server

    Ghinita, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Sharing of location data enables numerous exciting applications, such as location-based queries, location-based social recommendations, monitoring of traffic and air pollution levels, etc. Disclosing exact user locations raises serious privacy concerns, as locations may give away sensitive information about individuals' health status, alternative lifestyles, political and religious affiliations, etc. Preserving location privacy is an essential requirement towards the successful deployment of location-based applications. These lecture notes provide an overview of the state-of-the-art in locatio

  4. Optimizing the location of ambulances in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibene, Juan Carlos; Maldonado, Yazmin; Vera, Carlos; de Oliveira, Mauricio; Trujillo, Leonardo; Schütze, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    In this work we report on modeling the demand for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, followed by the optimization of the location of the ambulances for the Red Cross of Tijuana (RCT), which is by far the largest provider of EMS services in the region. We used data from more than 10,000 emergency calls surveyed during the year 2013 to model and classify the demand for EMS in different scenarios that provide different perspectives on the demand throughout the city, considering such factors as the time of day, work and off-days. A modification of the Double Standard Model (DSM) is proposed and solved to determine a common robust solution to the ambulance location problem that simultaneously satisfies all specified constraints in all demand scenarios selecting from a set of almost 1000 possible base locations. The resulting optimization problems are solved using integer linear programming and the solutions are compared with the locations currently used by the Red Cross. Results show that demand coverage and response times can be substantially improved by relocating the current bases without the need for additional resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Teleconnection Locator: TeleLoc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, M. K.; Duffy, D.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme climate events, such as tropical storms, droughts, and floods, have an enormous impact on all aspects of society. Being able to detect the causes of such events on a global scale is paramount to being able to predict when and where these events will occur. These teleconnections, where a small change in a closed, complex system creates drastic disturbances elsewhere in the system, are generally represented by an index, one of the most famous being the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, due to the enormity, complexity, and technical challenges surrounding climate and its data, it is hypothesized that many of these teleconnections have as of yet gone undiscovered. TeleLoc (Teleconnection Locator) is a machine-learning framework combining a number of techniques for finding correlations between weather trends and extreme climate events. The current focus is on connecting global trends with tropical cyclones. A combination of two data sets, The International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) and the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA2), are being utilized. PostGIS is used for raw data storage, and a Python API has been developed as the core of the framework. Cyclones are first clustered using a combination of Symbolic Aggregate ApproXimation (this allows for a symbolic, sequential representation of the various time-series variables of interest) and DBSCAN. This serves to break the events into subcategories, which alleviates computational load for the next step. Events which are clustered together (those with similar characteristics) are compared against global climate variables of interest, which are also converted to a symbolic form, leading up to the event using Association Rule Mining. Results will be shown where cyclones have been clustered, specifically in the West Pacific storm basin, as well as the global variable symbolic subsections with a high support that have been singled out for

  6. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Simulation of SET Operation in Phase-Change Random Access Memories with Heater Addition and Ring-Type Contactor for Low-Power Consumption by Finite Element Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yue-Feng; Song, Zhi-Tang; Ling, Yun; Liu, Yan; Feng, Song-Lin

    2009-11-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model for phase change random access memory (PCRAM) is established for comprehensive electrical and thermal analysis during SET operation. The SET behaviours of the heater addition structure (HS) and the ring-type contact in bottom electrode (RIB) structure are compared with each other. There are two ways to reduce the RESET current, applying a high resistivity interfacial layer and building a new device structure. The simulation results indicate that the variation of SET current with different power reduction ways is little. This study takes the RESET and SET operation current into consideration, showing that the RIB structure PCRAM cell is suitable for future devices with high heat efficiency and high-density, due to its high heat efficiency in RESET operation.

  7. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Simulation of Phase-Change Random Access Memory with Ring-Type Contactor for Low Reset Current by Finite Element Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yue-Feng; Ling, Yun; Song, Zhi-Tang; Feng, Song-Lin

    2008-09-01

    A three-dimensional finite element models for phase change random access memory (PCRAM) is established to simulate thermal and electrical behaviours during RESET operation. The RESET behaviours of the conventional structure (CS) and the ring-type contact in bottom electrode (RIB) are compared with each other. The simulation results indicate that the RIB cell has advantages of high heat efficiency for melting phase change material in cell, reduction of contact area and lower RESET current with maintaining good resistance contrast. The RESET current decreases from 1.26mA to 1.2mA and the heat consumption in GST material during programming increases from 12% to 37% in RIB structure. Thus the RIB structure PCRAM cell is suitable for future device with high heat efficiency and smaller RESET current.

  8. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas) are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork) - a randomized cross-over meal test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Marlene Dahlwad; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Christensen, Sheena M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef) because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas) should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources...... on appetite regulation. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas) are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork) regarding meal-induced appetite sensations. DESIGN: In total, 43 healthy, normal-weight, young men completed this randomized, double......-Legume compared to HP-Meat or LP-Legume (pVegetable-based meals (beans/peas) influenced appetite sensations favorably compared to animal-based meals (pork/veal) with similar energy and protein content, but lower fiber content. Interestingly, a vegetable-based meal with low protein content...

  9. On the Optimal Location of Sensors for Parametric Identification of Linear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Brincker, Rune

    1994-01-01

    An outline of the field of optimal location of sensors for parametric identification of linear structural systems is presented. There are few papers devoted to the case of optimal location of sensors in which the measurements are modeled by a random field with non-trivial covariance function...

  10. A pilot longitudinal study of the use of waxy maize heat modified starch in the treatment of adults with glycogen storage disease type I: a randomized double-blind cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Kaustuv; Mundy, Helen; Lilburn, Maggie F; Champion, Michael P; Morley, David W; Maillot, François

    2015-02-15

    Uncooked corn-starch (UCCS) has been the mainstay of therapy for the hepatic glycogen storage diseases (GSD) but is not always effective. A new starch (WMHMS) has demonstrated a more favourable short-term metabolic profile. To determine efficacy and safety of a new uncooked starch (WMHMS) compared to UCCS over 16 weeks treatment with each. A double-blind cross-over study of 10 adults (aged 16 - 38 years, six male) with GSD Ia and Ib. After an individualised fast, subjects were randomised to take a 50 g starch-load of either WMHMS or UCCS. Starch-loads terminated when blood glucose was starch administration schedule recommended. Each starch was delivered in coded sachets and intake was monitored for the following 16 weeks. After a washout period, the protocol was repeated with the alternative product. 4 subjects failed to establish therapy on the cross-over limb. Data from 7 paired starch load showed: longer median fasting duration with WMHMS (7.5 versus 5 hours; p = 0.023), slower decrease in the glucose curve (0.357 versus 0.632 mmol/hr p = 0.028) and less area under insulin curves for the first 4 hours (p = 0.03). Two of six subjects took 50% or less WMHMS compared to UCCS and one took more. Plasma triglycerides, cholesterol and uric acid were unchanged after each study phase. WMHMS leads to significant reduction in insulin release and reduced starch use in some GSD patients.

  11. Location, Location, Location: Where We Teach Primary Care Makes All the Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Christine; Wilkes, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Creating a new model to train a high-quality primary care workforce is of great interest to American health care stakeholders. There is consensus that effective educational approaches need to be combined with a rewarding work environment, emphasize a good work/life balance, and a focus on achieving meaningful outcomes that center on patients and the public. Still, significant barriers limit the numbers of clinicians interested in pursuing careers in primary care, including low earning potential, heavy medical school debt, lack of respect from physician colleagues, and enormous burdens of record keeping. To enlarge and energize the pool of primary care trainees, we look especially at changes that focus on institutions and the practice environment. Students and residents need training environments where primary care clinicians and interdisciplinary teams play a crucially important role in patient care. For a variety of reasons, many academic medical centers cannot easily meet these standards. The authors propose that a major part of primary care education and training be re-located to settings in high-performing health systems built on comprehensive integrated care models where primary care clinicians play a principle role in leadership and care delivery.

  12. Estimating the location of a tunnel using interferometric times of Rayleigh-wave scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaslilar, A.; Harmankaya, U.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Draganov, D.S.

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by a technique called seismic interferometry, we estimate the location of a scatterer using scattered waves. We isolate the scattered wavefield and evaluate the result of correlating scattered waves at different receiver locations. The cross-correlation eliminates the travel path between a

  13. Tracking Location and Features of Objects within Visual Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Patterson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Four studies examined how color or shape features can be accessed to retrieve the memory of an object's location. In each trial, 6 colored dots (Experiments 1 and 2 or 6 black shapes (Experiments 3 and 4 were displayed in randomly selected locations for 1.5 s. An auditory cue for either the shape or the color to-be-remembered was presented either simultaneously, immediately, or 2 s later. Non-informative cues appeared in some trials to serve as a control condition. After a 4 s delay, 5/6 objects were re-presented, and participants indicated the location of the missing object either by moving the mouse (Experiments 1 and 3, or by typing coordinates using a grid (Experiments 2 and 4. Compared to the control condition, cues presented simultaneously or immediately after stimuli improved location accuracy in all experiments. However, cues presented after 2 s only improved accuracy in Experiment 1. These results suggest that location information may not be addressable within visual working memory using shape features. In Experiment 1, but not Experiments 2–4, cues significantly improved accuracy when they indicated the missing object could be any of the three identical objects. In Experiments 2–4, location accuracy was highly impaired when the missing object came from a group of identical rather than uniquely identifiable objects. This indicates that when items with similar features are presented, location accuracy may be reduced. In summary, both feature type and response mode can influence the accuracy and accessibility of visual working memory for object location.

  14. Where Chicagoans tweet the most: Semantic analysis of preferential return locations of Twitter users

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Aiman; Yin, Junjun; Soltani, Kiumars; Padmanabhan, Anand; Wang, Shaowen

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on human mobility show that human movements are not random and tend to be clustered. In this connection, the movements of Twitter users captured by geo-located tweets were found to follow similar patterns, where a few geographic locations dominate the tweeting activity of individual users. However, little is known about the semantics (landuse types) and temporal tweeting behavior at those frequently-visited locations. Furthermore, it is generally assumed that the top two visite...

  15. Accurate source location from P waves scattered by surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Shen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate source locations of earthquakes and other seismic events are fundamental in seismology. The location accuracy is limited by several factors, including velocity models, which are often poorly known. In contrast, surface topography, the largest velocity contrast in the Earth, is often precisely mapped at the seismic wavelength (> 100 m). In this study, we explore the use of P-coda waves generated by scattering at surface topography to obtain high-resolution locations of near-surface seismic events. The Pacific Northwest region is chosen as an example. The grid search method is combined with the 3D strain Green's tensor database type method to improve the search efficiency as well as the quality of hypocenter solution. The strain Green's tensor is calculated by the 3D collocated-grid finite difference method on curvilinear grids. Solutions in the search volume are then obtained based on the least-square misfit between the 'observed' and predicted P and P-coda waves. A 95% confidence interval of the solution is also provided as a posterior error estimation. We find that the scattered waves are mainly due to topography in comparison with random velocity heterogeneity characterized by the von Kάrmάn-type power spectral density function. When only P wave data is used, the 'best' solution is offset from the real source location mostly in the vertical direction. The incorporation of P coda significantly improves solution accuracy and reduces its uncertainty. The solution remains robust with a range of random noises in data, un-modeled random velocity heterogeneities, and uncertainties in moment tensors that we tested.

  16. Location Privacy Protection on Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Justin; Fang, Xing

    Location information is considered as private in many scenarios. Protecting location information on mobile ad-hoc networks has attracted much research in past years. However, location information protection on social networks has not been paid much attention. In this paper, we present a novel location privacy protection approach on the basis of user messages in social networks. Our approach grants flexibility to users by offering them multiple protecting options. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to protect social network users' location information via text messages. We propose five algorithms for location privacy protection on social networks.

  17. Free probability and random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Mingo, James A

    2017-01-01

    This volume opens the world of free probability to a wide variety of readers. From its roots in the theory of operator algebras, free probability has intertwined with non-crossing partitions, random matrices, applications in wireless communications, representation theory of large groups, quantum groups, the invariant subspace problem, large deviations, subfactors, and beyond. This book puts a special emphasis on the relation of free probability to random matrices, but also touches upon the operator algebraic, combinatorial, and analytic aspects of the theory. The book serves as a combination textbook/research monograph, with self-contained chapters, exercises scattered throughout the text, and coverage of important ongoing progress of the theory. It will appeal to graduate students and all mathematicians interested in random matrices and free probability from the point of view of operator algebras, combinatorics, analytic functions, or applications in engineering and statistical physics.

  18. Random fixed points and random differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos S. Papageorgiou

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, first, we study random best approximations to random sets, using fixed point techniques, obtaining this way stochastic analogues of earlier deterministic results by Browder-Petryshyn, KyFan and Reich. Then we prove two fixed point theorems for random multifunctions with stochastic domain that satisfy certain tangential conditions. Finally we consider a random differential inclusion with upper semicontinuous orientor field and establish the existence of random solutions.

  19. Effects of supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognitive performance and cardiometabolic risk markers in healthy 51 to 72 years old subjects: a randomized controlled cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Anne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have been associated with a lower risk of age related cognitive decline, and to beneficially affect cardiometabolic risk factors. A relation exists between metabolic disorders such as diabetes type 2 and cognitive decline. Results regarding the potential effects of n-3 PUFA on risk factors in healthy subjects are divergent, and studies regarding the possible relation between cardiometabolic parameters and cognitive performance are scarce. The objective was to evaluate the effects of five weeks intake of long chain n-3 PUFA on cognitive performance in healthy individuals, and to exploit the possible relation between outcomes in cognitive tests to cardiometabolic risk parameters. Methods Fish oil n-3 PUFA (3g daily were consumed during 5weeks separated by a 5 week washout period in a cross-over placebo controlled study, including 40 healthy middle aged to elderly subjects. Cognitive performance was determined by tests measuring working memory (WM and selective attention. Results Supplementation with n-3 PUFA resulted in better performance in the WM-test compared with placebo (p p p p = 0.05, and s-TNF-α (p = 0.05, were inversely related to the performance in cognitive tests. Conclusions Intake of n-3 PUFA improved cognitive performance in healthy subjects after five weeks compared with placebo. In addition, inverse relations were obtained between cardiometabolic risk factors and cognitive performance, indicating a potential of dietary prevention strategies to delay onset of metabolic disorders and associated cognitive decline.

  20. Protein from Meat or Vegetable Sources in Meals Matched for Fiber Content has Similar Effects on Subjective Appetite Sensations and Energy Intake—A Randomized Acute Cross-Over Meal Test Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lone V. Nielsen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas affected ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs. Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ 19% of energy from protein, based on fava beans/split peas (28.5 g fiber, pork/veal or eggs supplemented with pea fiber to control for fiber content (28.5 g fiber, or eggs without supplementation of fiber (6.0 g fiber. Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour until the ad libitum meal three hours later. There were no differences in ad libitum energy intake across test meals (p > 0.05. Further, no differences were found across meals for hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, or composite appetite score (all p > 0.05. Iso-caloric, macronutrient-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations.