WorldWideScience

Sample records for random letter generation

  1. Letter to the editor: Generation of self organized critical connectivity network map (SOCCNM of randomly situated water bodies during flooding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Daya Sagar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents a brief framework based on nonlinear morphological transformations to generate a self organized critical connectivity network map (SOCCNM in 2-dimensional space. This simple and elegant framework is implemented on a section that contains a few simulated water bodies to generate SOCCNM. This is based on a postulate that the randomly situated surface water bodies of various sizes and shapes self organize during flooding process.

  2. GENERATING A MODEL FOR OFFICIAL LETTER TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Budiharjo

    2017-04-01

    Research in the first year focuses on exploring the patterns of English and Indonesian official letters and studying the quality of the translation produced by amateur translators. The patterns of official letter and the information about the translation quality will then be used as the foundation for generating the prototype of model for official letter translation. The data analyzed in this research consist of official letters in English and bahasa Indonesia and their translation and statements about the quality of the translation. The analysis was done in several stages. First, analyzing the characteristics of official letters in English and official letters in bahasa Indonesia. Second, analyzing the quality of the translation of the letters by referring to the statements of the informants. Next, constructing the prototype of model for translating official letter from English into bahasa Indonesia and vice versa. Offical letters written in English and those written in bahasa Indonesia have both similarities and differences. There are only minor problems of the translation of the official letters in terms of message transfer but there are some problems dealing with the naturalness of the translation. In translating official letter, a translator needs to understand the characteristics of official letter in both SL and TL and use the proper techniques.

  3. Data on eye behavior during idea generation and letter-by-letter reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Walcher

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the description of data information from an idea generation task (alternate uses task, (Guilford, 1967 [1] and a letter-by-letter reading task under two background brightness conditions with healthy adults as well as a baseline measurement and questionnaire data (SIPI (Huba et al., 1981 [2]; DDFS (Singer and Antrobus, 1972 [3], 1963; RIBS (Runco et al., 2001 [4]. Data are hosted at the Open Science Framework (OSF: https://osf.io/fh66g/ (Walcher et al., 2017 [5]. There you will find eye tracking data, task performance data, questionnaires data, analyses scripts (in R, R Core Team, 2017 [6], eye tracking paradigms (in the Experiment Builder (SR Research Ltd., [7] and graphs on pupil and angle of eye vergence dynamics. Data are interpreted and discussed in the article ‘Looking for ideas: Eye behavior during goal-directed internally focused cognition’ (Walcher et al., 2017 [8].

  4. Quantum random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Collantes, Miguel; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Random numbers are a fundamental resource in science and engineering with important applications in simulation and cryptography. The inherent randomness at the core of quantum mechanics makes quantum systems a perfect source of entropy. Quantum random number generation is one of the most mature quantum technologies with many alternative generation methods. This review discusses the different technologies in quantum random number generation from the early devices based on radioactive decay to the multiple ways to use the quantum states of light to gather entropy from a quantum origin. Randomness extraction and amplification and the notable possibility of generating trusted random numbers even with untrusted hardware using device-independent generation protocols are also discussed.

  5. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Alternative view of education in Zambia Pedantry or compromise Alternative view of education in Zambia I have just read the 'On the Map' report of the International School of Lusaka with very mixed feelings (Physics Education, March 2001). I have recently spent some time in Zambia, in Lusaka, and share Sue Pears' love for the country and the Zambians. The ISL is indeed a good, prestigious school, similar to International Schools in many other countries. But, as in most other developing countries, there is enormous variation between the different types of schooling, and the ISL is at one end of the spectrum. Most schools in Zambia are less favoured. Zambia is a wonderful, beautiful country full of the most friendly and resourceful people I know. It is also a very poor country. It is a country of enormous contrasts and its schools reflect that variation. It has a tiny, affluent 'middle' class of professionals, politicians, businessmen, employees of international businesses and NGOs—nearly all paid from overseas budgets. It has an enormous majority of poor folk, cheerfully living in very basic conditions but sharing their lives in extended families without complaint. The government is virtually bankrupt, and consequently those paid by the government—teachers, police, nurses etc—get a pittance. The wage for a teacher in a typical school is #20 per month (compared to a typical teacher in the UK who gets 100 times more, about #2000 per month). The GNP in Zambia is about 1 per day per person, and this has to pay for all the schools, hospitals, police, and the civic infrastructure that we take so much for granted (the GNP in UK is about 60 per day per person). Consequently most state schools do not have resources; they have a classroom and a teacher but little else. What resources the school has will be paid for by the school fees that every

  6. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE Contents: Force on a pendulum Sound slows down Bond is back Force on a pendulum The simple pendulum has been used by several educationalists for investigating the patterns of thinking among students and their observations that Aristotelian thinking persists among students at college level. I had also considered the simple pendulum in my 1985 letter in Physics Today [1], so I was interested to read the test given by Lenka Czudková and Jana Musilová [2]. When students were asked to draw net forces acting on the particle at various positions, 31.9% of students believed that the net force was tangential to the particle's path the whole time. To me this is no surprise because in our derivation of the equation for the period of a simple pendulum we assume that the unbalanced sine component provides the restoring force for the harmonic motion of the bob. Of course, Czudková and Musilová's question asked students for the net force on the particle, not the component. The student's answer fits well with the logic of the equilibrium of forces and the parallelogram law. Lastly, let me bring out the similarity between the student's answer and the thinking of George Gamow. He used to call positrons 'donkey' electrons because of their displacement against the applied force, before Paul Dirac termed them positrons. Victor Weisskeptf told me this anecdote in a letter in May 1982. References [1] Sathe D 1985 Phys. Today 38 144 [2] Czudková L and Musilová J 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 428 Dileep V Sathe Dadawala Jr College, Pune, India Sound slows down Without wanting to stir up more trouble amongst the already muddy waters of Physics teaching, consider how many times you have heard (or, more worryingly, read) this: 'Sound waves travel faster in a denser material' But...The velocity of simple longitudinal waves in a bulk medium is given by v = (K/ρ)1/2 where K is

  7. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Maths for physics? Help! Fire! Energy and mass Maths for physics? As a maths graduate working as a university research associate I should be well qualified to support my daughter, who has just started AS-level physics, with the maths she needs for the course. There seems to be little integration between the maths and physics departments, so that maths needed for physics has not yet been covered in maths lessons. This is a problem I remember from my own school days, but the shorter timescale and modular nature of the AS and A2 levels means that it is essential that this mismatch of knowledge is resolved now. I would like to know whether physics teachers in the UK have encountered this problem and whether there is a deficiency in the maths syllabus in relation to the requirements of the AS and A2 levels in Physics or whether this is a problem peculiar to my daughter's school. Eleanor Parent of A-level student, Sheffield, UK Help! Fire! Is there a crisis in physics education? Is physics didactics coming to an end? Yes and no. Being a delegate from Norway at the on-going conference Physics on Stage (6-10 November 2000) at CERN in Geneva, I have had the opportunity to discuss this with people from all over Europe. Yes, there is a crisis. (Look at the proceedings for details on this.) I'd like to take a broader look at this situation. Like Hari Seldon in Isaac Asimov's Foundation Trilogy, I believe that there is nothing like a real crisis to get things going... Famous is the quote from the American Patent Office around 1890: 'Everything has been invented that could be invented'. Fortunately, this spurred action. The Michelson and Morley experiment heralded a most exciting period for physics. Just a cosmic blink later we put a person on the Moon. Coming back to the crisis - I am certain that in the near future we will see an interesting development

  8. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: M-set as metaphor The abuse of algebra M-set as metaphor 'To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour' William Blake's implied relativity of spatial and temporal scales is intriguing and, given the durability of this worlds-within-worlds concept (he wrote in 1803) in art, literature and science, the blurring of distinctions between the very large and the very small must strike some kind of harmonious chord in the human mind. Could this concept apply to the physical world? To be honest, we cannot be absolutely sure. Most cosmological thinking still retains the usual notions of a finite universe and an absolute size scale extending from smallest to largest objects. In the boundless realm of mathematics, however, the story is quite different. The M-set was discovered by the French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot in 1980, created by just a few simple lines of computer code that are repeated recursively. As in Blake's poem, this 'world' has no bottom we have an almost palpable archetype for the concept of infinity. I would use the word 'tangible', but one of the defining features of the M-set is that nowhere in the labyrinth can one find a surface smooth enough for a tangent. Upon magnification even surfaces that appeared to be smooth explode with quills and scrolls and lightning bolts and spiral staircases. And there is something more, something truly sublime. Observe a small patch with unlimited magnifying power and, as you observe the M-set on ever-smaller scales, down through literally endless layers of ornate structure, you occasionally come upon a rapidly expanding cortex of dazzling colour with a small black structure at its centre. The black spot appears to be the M-set itself! There is no end to the hierarchy, no bottom-most level, just endless recursive

  9. Pseudo-random number generator based on asymptotic deterministic randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Kai [Department of Radio Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing (China)], E-mail: kaiwang@seu.edu.cn; Pei Wenjiang; Xia Haishan [Department of Radio Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Cheung Yiuming [Department of Computer Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2008-06-09

    A novel approach to generate the pseudorandom-bit sequence from the asymptotic deterministic randomness system is proposed in this Letter. We study the characteristic of multi-value correspondence of the asymptotic deterministic randomness constructed by the piecewise linear map and the noninvertible nonlinearity transform, and then give the discretized systems in the finite digitized state space. The statistic characteristics of the asymptotic deterministic randomness are investigated numerically, such as stationary probability density function and random-like behavior. Furthermore, we analyze the dynamics of the symbolic sequence. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the symbolic sequence of the asymptotic deterministic randomness possesses very good cryptographic properties, which improve the security of chaos based PRBGs and increase the resistance against entropy attacks and symbolic dynamics attacks.

  10. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Quantum uncertainties Reflections in a plastic box A brief history of quantum physics Correction Grammar and gender Quantum uncertainties Whilst I enjoyed Gesche Pospiech's article ('Uncertainty and complementarity: the heart of quantum physics' 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 393 9) I would like to expand on two comments he makes. Firstly the author claims that QM is linear, and a consequence of this is that any two superimposed states form an admissible third state. This is rather too sweeping, as it is true only for degenerate states. Otherwise quantum mechanics would allow a continuum of energies between states by a simple admixture of levels. The proof of this statement is trivial. For a Hamiltonian H and two orthogonal wavefunctions, ψ1 and ψ2 with energies E1 and E2 then (ψ1 + ψ2) is not an eigenfunction of that Hamiltonian as H(ψ1 + ψ2) = E1ψ1 + E2ψ2 ≠ E(ψ1 + ψ2) for any value of E, unless E1 = E2. Secondly Pospiech states that quantum objects show wave- or particle-like behaviour, depending on the measuring apparatus, and that occasionally experiments (such as Taylor's) reveal both. I would contest the validity of this type of thinking. All experiments on quantum objects reveal both types of behaviour—even ones which simply show straight line motion of photons. What is important, in addition, is our interpretation of the results. It takes an understanding of QED, for example, to see that an experiment which otherwise shows particle behaviour is, in fact, showing quantum behaviour. More contentiously though I would suggest that detection apparatus is incapable of detecting anything other than particles. Wave-like behaviour is revealed only by an analysis of the paths the particle could have taken. In other words, the interference of continuous fields sometimes predicts the same results when the detection is averaged over many events

  11. Thermodynamics of random number generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Crutchfield, James P.

    2017-06-01

    We analyze the thermodynamic costs of the three main approaches to generating random numbers via the recently introduced Information Processing Second Law. Given access to a specified source of randomness, a random number generator (RNG) produces samples from a desired target probability distribution. This differs from pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) that use wholly deterministic algorithms and from true random number generators (TRNGs) in which the randomness source is a physical system. For each class, we analyze the thermodynamics of generators based on algorithms implemented as finite-state machines, as these allow for direct bounds on the required physical resources. This establishes bounds on heat dissipation and work consumption during the operation of three main classes of RNG algorithms—including those of von Neumann, Knuth, and Yao and Roche and Hoshi—and for PRNG methods. We introduce a general TRNG and determine its thermodynamic costs exactly for arbitrary target distributions. The results highlight the significant differences between the three main approaches to random number generation: One is work producing, one is work consuming, and the other is potentially dissipation neutral. Notably, TRNGs can both generate random numbers and convert thermal energy to stored work. These thermodynamic costs on information creation complement Landauer's limit on the irreducible costs of information destruction.

  12. Random Process Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Address: Professor Bruce W. Schmeiser School of Industrial Engineering Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907 UjDISTIUMUTIO" TTMJ Approved for...algorithms developed under this contract are about twice as fast as the best alternatives available today. Peter Lewis at the Naval Postgraduate School ...generating bivariate gazua vectors. These algorithms are the only methods available which are valid for an gaia marginal distributions and j 6 -. . 4

  13. An advance letter did not increase the response rates in a telephone survey: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Renee N; Reid, Alison; Driscoll, Timothy R; Glass, Deborah C; Benke, Geza; Fritschi, Lin

    2013-12-01

    To test the impact of an advance letter on response and cooperation rates in a nationwide telephone survey, given previous inconsistent results. Within the context of a larger telephone survey, 1,000 Australian households were randomly selected to take part in this trial. Half were randomly allocated to receive an advance letter, whereas the remainder did not receive any advance communication. Response and cooperation rates were compared between the two groups. A total of 244 interviews were completed, 134 of which were with households that had been sent an advance letter. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no significant difference in response between those who had received a letter and those who had not (26.8% vs. 22.0%, respectively). In addition, there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of either cooperation (78.4% vs. 79.7%) or response rate (56.3% vs. 57.9%), and no clear differences emerged in terms of the demographic characteristics of the two groups. An advance letter was not seen to be effective in increasing response or cooperation rates in a nationwide telephone survey. Researchers should consider alternative methods of increasing participation in telephone surveys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Generating random networks and graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Coolen, Ton; Roberts, Ekaterina

    2017-01-01

    This book supports researchers who need to generate random networks, or who are interested in the theoretical study of random graphs. The coverage includes exponential random graphs (where the targeted probability of each network appearing in the ensemble is specified), growth algorithms (i.e. preferential attachment and the stub-joining configuration model), special constructions (e.g. geometric graphs and Watts Strogatz models) and graphs on structured spaces (e.g. multiplex networks). The presentation aims to be a complete starting point, including details of both theory and implementation, as well as discussions of the main strengths and weaknesses of each approach. It includes extensive references for readers wishing to go further. The material is carefully structured to be accessible to researchers from all disciplines while also containing rigorous mathematical analysis (largely based on the techniques of statistical mechanics) to support those wishing to further develop or implement the theory of rand...

  15. Employing online quantum random number generators for generating truly random quantum states in Mathematica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszczak, Jarosław Adam

    2013-01-01

    decrease depending on the connection speed between the computer and the server providing random numbers. Running time: Depends on the used source of randomness and the amount of random data used in the experiment. References: [1] M. Wahl, M. Leifgen, M. Berlin, T. Röhlicke, H.-J. Rahn, O. Benson., An ultrafast quantum random number generator with provably bounded output bias based on photon arrival time measurements, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 098, 171105 (2011). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3578456.

  16. An email-based intervention to improve the number and timeliness of letters sent from the hospital outpatient clinic to the general practitioner: A pair-randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Medlock

    Full Text Available Letters from the hospital to the general practitioner are important for maintaining continuity of care. Although doctors feel letters are important, they are often not written on time. To improve the number and timeliness of letters sent from the hospital outpatient department to the general practitioner using an email-based intervention evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.Users were interviewed to determine the requirements for the intervention. Due to high between-doctor variation at baseline, doctors were matched for baseline performance and pair-randomized. The effectiveness of the intervention was assessed using meta-analytic methods. The primary outcome was the number of patient visits which should have generated a letter that had a letter by 90 days after the visit. Satisfaction was assessed with an anonymous survey.The intervention consisted of a monthly email reminder for each doctor containing a list of his or her patients who were (overdue for a letter. Doctors in the intervention group had 21% fewer patient visits which did not have a letter by 90 days (OR = 5.7, p = 0.0020. Satisfaction with the system was very high.This study examines the effect of a simple reminder in absence of other interventions, and provides an example of an effective non-interruptive decision support intervention.A simple email reminder improved the number and timeliness of letters from the outpatient department to the general practitioner, and was viewed as a useful service by its users.

  17. Implementation of a discontinuation letter to reduce long-term benzodiazepine use--a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Steeg-van Gompel, Caroline H P A; Wensing, Michel; De Smet, Peter A G M

    2009-01-01

    Although it is recommended to restrict long-term use of benzodiazepines, and considerable attention has been paid to this, long-term use continues to be a problem. An informative discontinuation letter for patients has been shown to reduce long-term benzodiazepine use in general practice. However, little is known about its wide scale implementation in primary care. To determine the effectiveness of an intensive support programme for community pharmacies to send discontinuation letters to patients in cooperation with GPs. In a cluster randomized trial, 43 control pharmacies received a written manual and 47 experimental pharmacies received an intensive support programme. Primary outcome measures were the percentage of GPs who reviewed and returned lists of eligible patients and the percentage of long-term users who were sent a discontinuation letter within 4 months. The outcomes did not differ for the experimental versus control groups: 38% and 31% of the GPs, respectively, returned the patient lists; 14% and 10% of all long-term users in the two groups, respectively, received the discontinuation letter within 4 months. Substantially more pharmacies in the experimental group than in the control group finally managed to send discontinuation letters (70% vs. 40%). About one third of the pharmacies in the control group and two thirds of the pharmacies in the intervention group finally implemented the discontinuation letter. However, this difference was not apparent in the primary outcome measures. It seems crucial to involve GPs more effectively in implementation of the discontinuation letter.

  18. Self-correcting random number generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humble, Travis S.; Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-09-06

    A system and method for generating random numbers. The system may include a random number generator (RNG), such as a quantum random number generator (QRNG) configured to self-correct or adapt in order to substantially achieve randomness from the output of the RNG. By adapting, the RNG may generate a random number that may be considered random regardless of whether the random number itself is tested as such. As an example, the RNG may include components to monitor one or more characteristics of the RNG during operation, and may use the monitored characteristics as a basis for adapting, or self-correcting, to provide a random number according to one or more performance criteria.

  19. Analysis of android random number generator

    OpenAIRE

    Sarıtaş, Serkan

    2013-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Computer Engineering and the Graduate School of Engineering and Science of Bilkent University, 2013. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2013. Includes bibliographical references leaves 61-65. Randomness is a crucial resource for cryptography, and random number generators are critical building blocks of almost all cryptographic systems. Therefore, random number generation is one of the key parts of secure communication. Random number generatio...

  20. Do the letters F, A and S represent Indonesian letter fluency stimuli?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrawan, Donny; Hatta, Takeshi; Ohira, Hideki

    2015-03-01

    The letters F, A and S, originally used in the English letter fluency stimuli test, have been frequently adopted to assess executive function in many languages. However, few studies reported the significance of FAS testing employed in different languages. The current study explored whether FAS could be widely applied to the Indonesian language. A total of 211 undergraduate students from state and private universities who participated in this study were randomly assigned into four groups. Each group was exposed to six different letter fluency stimuli. The total number of words the participants produced for each letter stimulus were averaged and ranked to determine the degree of difficulty in generating words. Furthermore, the normal distribution and equal ratio comparison were examined to verify the representative letter fluency stimuli. In addition, the effect of sex and university affiliation on letter fluency performance was also analyzed. The letters A and S were among the easiest letters used to generate words; however, the letter F was regarded as a difficult stimulus. Furthermore, only the number of words beginning the letter S was distributed according to a normal curve. The number of words starting with the letters F and A were not normally distributed. Although sex difference was not associated with letter fluency performance, difference in university affiliation showed a significant effect on performance. Our findings suggest that consideration of several stimuli factors is required to accurately measure performance in the letter fluency task in a specific language. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Source-Independent Quantum Random Number Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhu; Zhou, Hongyi; Yuan, Xiao; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-01-01

    Quantum random number generators can provide genuine randomness by appealing to the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. In general, a physical generator contains two parts—a randomness source and its readout. The source is essential to the quality of the resulting random numbers; hence, it needs to be carefully calibrated and modeled to achieve information-theoretical provable randomness. However, in practice, the source is a complicated physical system, such as a light source or an atomic ensemble, and any deviations in the real-life implementation from the theoretical model may affect the randomness of the output. To close this gap, we propose a source-independent scheme for quantum random number generation in which output randomness can be certified, even when the source is uncharacterized and untrusted. In our randomness analysis, we make no assumptions about the dimension of the source. For instance, multiphoton emissions are allowed in optical implementations. Our analysis takes into account the finite-key effect with the composable security definition. In the limit of large data size, the length of the input random seed is exponentially small compared to that of the output random bit. In addition, by modifying a quantum key distribution system, we experimentally demonstrate our scheme and achieve a randomness generation rate of over 5 ×103 bit /s .

  2. Random Number Generators in Secure Disk Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hars Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cryptographic random number generators seeded by physical entropy sources are employed in many embedded security systems, including self-encrypting disk drives, being manufactured by the millions every year. Random numbers are used for generating encryption keys and for facilitating secure communication, and they are also provided to users for their applications. We discuss common randomness requirements, techniques for estimating the entropy of physical sources, investigate specific nonrandom physical properties, estimate the autocorrelation, then mix reduce the data until all common randomness tests pass. This method is applied to a randomness source in disk drives: the always changing coefficients of an adaptive filter for the read channel equalization. These coefficients, affected by many kinds of physical noise, are used in the reseeding process of a cryptographic pseudorandom number generator in a family of self encrypting disk drives currently in the market.

  3. Generating Realistic Labelled, Weighted Random Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Michael Charles; Liu, Weiru; Miller, Paul; Hunter, Ruth; Kee, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Generative algorithms for random graphs have yielded insights into the structure and evolution of real-world networks. Most networks exhibit a well-known set of properties, such as heavy-tailed degree distributions, clustering and community formation. Usually, random graph models consider only structural information, but many real-world networks also have labelled vertices and weighted edges. In this paper, we present a generative model for random graphs with discrete vertex labels and numeric edge weights. The weights are represented as a set of Beta Mixture Models (BMMs) with an arbitrary number of mixtures, which are learned from real-world networks. We propose a Bayesian Variational Inference (VI) approach, which yields an accurate estimation while keeping computation times tractable. We compare our approach to state-of-the-art random labelled graph generators and an earlier approach based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs). Our results allow us to draw conclusions about the contribution of vertex labels a...

  4. A Hybrid Random Number Generator(HRNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Skliar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a novel Hybrid Random Number Generator (HRNG. Here “hybrid” refers to the fact that to construct this generator it is necessary to use 1physical components – texts – and a physical process, and 2 a mathematical procedure. This HRNG makes it possible to generate genuine random numbers which may be used both for computer simulation of probabilistic systems and in the field of cryptography. The results of a comparative study of the binary strings generated by this HRNG and of those generated by two highly used implementations of a congruential algorithm designed to generate pseudorandom numbers are given here. One of the latter is the implementation incorporated into the Java 2 platform (version 1.6, and the other is the implementation incorporated into the runtime library of Microsoft’s Visual C++ 2008 compiler.

  5. On random field Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouritzin, Michael A; Newton, Fraser; Wu, Biao

    2013-04-01

    Herein, we propose generating CAPTCHAs through random field simulation and give a novel, effective and efficient algorithm to do so. Indeed, we demonstrate that sufficient information about word tests for easy human recognition is contained in the site marginal probabilities and the site-to-nearby-site covariances and that these quantities can be embedded directly into certain conditional probabilities, designed for effective simulation. The CAPTCHAs are then partial random realizations of the random CAPTCHA word. We start with an initial random field (e.g., randomly scattered letter pieces) and use Gibbs resampling to re-simulate portions of the field repeatedly using these conditional probabilities until the word becomes human-readable. The residual randomness from the initial random field together with the random implementation of the CAPTCHA word provide significant resistance to attack. This results in a CAPTCHA, which is unrecognizable to modern optical character recognition but is recognized about 95% of the time in a human readability study.

  6. The influence of two different invitation letters on Chlamydia testing participation: randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Hoor, Gill; Hoebe, Christian Jpa; van Bergen, Jan Eam; Brouwers, Elfi Ehg; Ruiter, Robert Ac; Kok, Gerjo

    2014-01-01

    In The Netherlands, screening for chlamydia (the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection worldwide) is a relatively simple and free procedure. Via an invitation letter sent by the public health services (PHS), people are asked to visit a website to request a test kit. They can then do a

  7. Generating Realistic Labelled, Weighted Random Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Charles Davis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Generative algorithms for random graphs have yielded insights into the structure and evolution of real-world networks. Most networks exhibit a well-known set of properties, such as heavy-tailed degree distributions, clustering and community formation. Usually, random graph models consider only structural information, but many real-world networks also have labelled vertices and weighted edges. In this paper, we present a generative model for random graphs with discrete vertex labels and numeric edge weights. The weights are represented as a set of Beta Mixture Models (BMMs with an arbitrary number of mixtures, which are learned from real-world networks. We propose a Bayesian Variational Inference (VI approach, which yields an accurate estimation while keeping computation times tractable. We compare our approach to state-of-the-art random labelled graph generators and an earlier approach based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs. Our results allow us to draw conclusions about the contribution of vertex labels and edge weights to graph structure.

  8. Fast Generation of Discrete Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe two methods and provide C programs for generating discrete random variables with functions that are simple and fast, averaging ten times as fast as published methods and more than five times as fast as the fastest of those. We provide general procedures for implementing the two methods, as well as specific procedures for three of the most important discrete distributions: Poisson, binomial and hypergeometric.

  9. Physical Principle for Generation of Randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2009-01-01

    A physical principle (more precisely, a principle that incorporates mathematical models used in physics) has been conceived as the basis of a method of generating randomness in Monte Carlo simulations. The principle eliminates the need for conventional random-number generators. The Monte Carlo simulation method is among the most powerful computational methods for solving high-dimensional problems in physics, chemistry, economics, and information processing. The Monte Carlo simulation method is especially effective for solving problems in which computational complexity increases exponentially with dimensionality. The main advantage of the Monte Carlo simulation method over other methods is that the demand on computational resources becomes independent of dimensionality. As augmented by the present principle, the Monte Carlo simulation method becomes an even more powerful computational method that is especially useful for solving problems associated with dynamics of fluids, planning, scheduling, and combinatorial optimization. The present principle is based on coupling of dynamical equations with the corresponding Liouville equation. The randomness is generated by non-Lipschitz instability of dynamics triggered and controlled by feedback from the Liouville equation. (In non-Lipschitz dynamics, the derivatives of solutions of the dynamical equations are not required to be bounded.)

  10. Generation and monitoring of a discrete stable random process

    CERN Document Server

    Hopcraft, K I; Matthews, J O

    2002-01-01

    A discrete stochastic process with stationary power law distribution is obtained from a death-multiple immigration population model. Emigrations from the population form a random series of events which are monitored by a counting process with finite-dynamic range and response time. It is shown that the power law behaviour of the population is manifested in the intermittent behaviour of the series of events. (letter to the editor)

  11. Random Numbers Generated from Audio and Video Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Te Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Random numbers are very useful in simulation, chaos theory, game theory, information theory, pattern recognition, probability theory, quantum mechanics, statistics, and statistical mechanics. The random numbers are especially helpful in cryptography. In this work, the proposed random number generators come from white noise of audio and video (A/V sources which are extracted from high-resolution IPCAM, WEBCAM, and MPEG-1 video files. The proposed generator applied on video sources from IPCAM and WEBCAM with microphone would be the true random number generator and the pseudorandom number generator when applied on video sources from MPEG-1 video file. In addition, when applying NIST SP 800-22 Rev.1a 15 statistics tests on the random numbers generated from the proposed generator, around 98% random numbers can pass 15 statistical tests. Furthermore, the audio and video sources can be found easily; hence, the proposed generator is a qualified, convenient, and efficient random number generator.

  12. Unbiased All-Optical Random-Number Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Steinle; Greiner, Johannes N.; Jörg Wrachtrup; Harald Giessen; Ilja Gerhardt

    2017-01-01

    The generation of random bits is of enormous importance in modern information science. Cryptographic security is based on random numbers which require a physical process for their generation. This is commonly performed by hardware random number generators. These exhibit often a number of problems, namely experimental bias, memory in the system, and other technical subtleties, which reduce the reliability in the entropy estimation. Further, the generated outcome has to be post-processed to "ir...

  13. Ternary jitter-based true random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latypov, Rustam; Stolov, Evgeni

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a novel family of generators producing true uniform random numbers in ternary logic is presented. The generator consists of a number of identical ternary logic combinational units connected into a ring. All the units are provided to have a random delay time, and this time is supposed to be distributed in accordance with an exponential distribution. All delays are supposed to be independent events. The theory of the generator is based on Erlang equations. The generator can be used for test production in various systems. Features of multidimensional random vectors, produced by the generator, are discussed.

  14. The effect of reminder letters on the uptake of an e-learning programme on dementia: a randomized trial in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Siersma, V.; Nielsen, B.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether three reminder letters mailed to GPs after dissemination of a Dementia Guideline increased the GPs' use of the corresponding e-learning programme (ELP). METHODS: Single-blinded randomized trial among all GPs in Copenhagen......, further research is needed in order to consider future implementation strategies for Internet-based Continuous Medical Education activities among not primed GPs Udgivelsesdato: 2009/12...

  15. Random number datasets generated from statistical analysis of randomly sampled GSM recharge cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagbue, Hilary I; Opanuga, Abiodun A; Oguntunde, Pelumi E; Ugwoke, Paulinus O

    2017-02-01

    In this article, a random number of datasets was generated from random samples of used GSM (Global Systems for Mobile Communications) recharge cards. Statistical analyses were performed to refine the raw data to random number datasets arranged in table. A detailed description of the method and relevant tests of randomness were also discussed.

  16. Quantum Random Number Generation on a Mobile Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Sanguinetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantum random number generators (QRNGs can significantly improve the security of cryptographic protocols by ensuring that generated keys cannot be predicted. However, the cost, size, and power requirements of current Quantum random number generators have prevented them from becoming widespread. In the meantime, the quality of the cameras integrated in mobile telephones has improved significantly so that now they are sensitive to light at the few-photon level. We demonstrate how these can be used to generate random numbers of a quantum origin.

  17. SPRNG Scalable Parallel Random Number Generator LIbrary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-16

    This revision corrects some errors in SPRNG 1. Users of newer SPRNG versions can obtain the corrected files and build their version with it. This version also improves the scalability of some of the application-based tests in the SPRNG test suite. It also includes an interface to a parallel Mersenne Twister, so that if users install the Mersenne Twister, then they can test this generator with the SPRNG test suite and also use some SPRNG features with that generator.

  18. Humans cannot consciously generate random numbers sequences: Polemic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figurska, Małgorzata; Stańczyk, Maciej; Kulesza, Kamil

    2008-01-01

    It is widely believed, that randomness exists in Nature. In fact such an assumption underlies many scientific theories and is embedded in the foundations of quantum mechanics. Assuming that this hypothesis is valid one can use natural phenomena, like radioactive decay, to generate random numbers. Today, computers are capable of generating the so-called pseudorandom numbers. Such series of numbers are only seemingly random (bias in the randomness quality can be observed). Question whether people can produce random numbers, has been investigated by many scientists in the recent years. The paper "Humans can consciously generate random numbers sequences..." published recently in Medical Hypotheses made claims that were in many ways contrary to state of art; it also stated far-reaching hypotheses. So, we decided to repeat the experiments reported, with special care being taken of proper laboratory procedures. Here, we present the results and discuss possible implications in computer and other sciences.

  19. Lettering -tuotesarja

    OpenAIRE

    Forselius, Tiia

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni tavoitteena oli suunnitella neljä erilasta tuotetta,missä hyödyntäisin lettering -kuvittamista ja tutkisin, miten eri materiaalit vaikuttavat suunnitteluprosessiin. Tutkin myös mitkä tekijät tekevät työstä hyvän ja laadukkaan, sekä miten eri tyylit vaikuttavat kuvituksen visuaaliseen viestiin. Suunnittelin lettering -kuvitukset paitaan, kylttiin, julisteeseen sekä koruun. As my thesis project I designed four different products with lettering illustrations and analysed how d...

  20. Analysis of Additive Random Number Generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Data Entered; I .,.,•• n .„^iMl~^.-». H .,il~l.*...,...-•..,.,.., • 1 ——’"- •"•’ ANALYSIS OF ADDITIVE RANDOM...among my teachers two of the best: my parents, Bil and Marleen Reiser. - , i — - •- - J I " ii. .1 I l. Kl U...the period, we know that r(pa*z) * pr(pa) and k - • - ----• •--- - -— — ...., . H ..J 1-..11.111 ’ Introduction that r(pa *’) divides

  1. Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum random-number generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, You-Qi; Guan, Jian-Yu; Zhou, Hongyi; Zhang, Qiang; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-12-01

    The randomness from a quantum random-number generator (QRNG) relies on the accurate characterization of its devices. However, device imperfections and inaccurate characterizations can result in wrong entropy estimation and bias in practice, which highly affects the genuine randomness generation and may even induce the disappearance of quantum randomness in an extreme case. Here we experimentally demonstrate a measurement-device-independent (MDI) QRNG based on time-bin encoding to achieve certified quantum randomness even when the measurement devices are uncharacterized and untrusted. The MDI-QRNG is randomly switched between the regular randomness generation mode and a test mode, in which four quantum states are randomly prepared to perform measurement tomography in real time. With a clock rate of 25 MHz, the MDI-QRNG generates a final random bit rate of 5.7 kbps. Such implementation with an all-fiber setup provides an approach to construct a fully integrated MDI-QRNG with trusted but error-prone devices in practice.

  2. Unbiased All-Optical Random-Number Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinle, Tobias; Greiner, Johannes N.; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Giessen, Harald; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2017-10-01

    The generation of random bits is of enormous importance in modern information science. Cryptographic security is based on random numbers which require a physical process for their generation. This is commonly performed by hardware random-number generators. These often exhibit a number of problems, namely experimental bias, memory in the system, and other technical subtleties, which reduce the reliability in the entropy estimation. Further, the generated outcome has to be postprocessed to "iron out" such spurious effects. Here, we present a purely optical randomness generator, based on the bistable output of an optical parametric oscillator. Detector noise plays no role and postprocessing is reduced to a minimum. Upon entering the bistable regime, initially the resulting output phase depends on vacuum fluctuations. Later, the phase is rigidly locked and can be well determined versus a pulse train, which is derived from the pump laser. This delivers an ambiguity-free output, which is reliably detected and associated with a binary outcome. The resulting random bit stream resembles a perfect coin toss and passes all relevant randomness measures. The random nature of the generated binary outcome is furthermore confirmed by an analysis of resulting conditional entropies.

  3. Unbiased All-Optical Random-Number Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Steinle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The generation of random bits is of enormous importance in modern information science. Cryptographic security is based on random numbers which require a physical process for their generation. This is commonly performed by hardware random-number generators. These often exhibit a number of problems, namely experimental bias, memory in the system, and other technical subtleties, which reduce the reliability in the entropy estimation. Further, the generated outcome has to be postprocessed to “iron out” such spurious effects. Here, we present a purely optical randomness generator, based on the bistable output of an optical parametric oscillator. Detector noise plays no role and postprocessing is reduced to a minimum. Upon entering the bistable regime, initially the resulting output phase depends on vacuum fluctuations. Later, the phase is rigidly locked and can be well determined versus a pulse train, which is derived from the pump laser. This delivers an ambiguity-free output, which is reliably detected and associated with a binary outcome. The resulting random bit stream resembles a perfect coin toss and passes all relevant randomness measures. The random nature of the generated binary outcome is furthermore confirmed by an analysis of resulting conditional entropies.

  4. Implementation of a discontinuation letter to reduce long-term benzodiazepine use--a cluster randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg-van Gompel, C.H.P.A. van de; Wensing, M.J.P.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de

    2009-01-01

    RATIONALE: Although it is recommended to restrict long-term use of benzodiazepines, and considerable attention has been paid to this, long-term use continues to be a problem. An informative discontinuation letter for patients has been shown to reduce long-term benzodiazepine use in general practice.

  5. Streaming Algorithms for Optimal Generation of Random Bits

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Hongchao; Bruck, Jehoshua

    2012-01-01

    Generating random bits from a source of biased coins (the biased is unknown) is a classical question that was originally studied by von Neumann. There are a number of known algorithms that have asymptotically optimal information efficiency, namely, the expected number of generated random bits per input bit is asymptotically close to the entropy of the source. However, only the original von Neumann algorithm has a 'streaming property' - it operates on a single input bit at a time and it genera...

  6. Random Number Generation for Petascale Quantum Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashok Srinivasan

    2010-03-16

    The quality of random number generators can affect the results of Monte Carlo computations, especially when a large number of random numbers are consumed. Furthermore, correlations present between different random number streams in a parallel computation can further affect the results. The SPRNG software, which the author had developed earlier, has pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) capable of producing large numbers of streams with large periods. However, they had been empirically tested on only thousand streams earlier. In the work summarized here, we tested the SPRNG generators with over a hundred thousand streams, involving over 10^14 random numbers per test, on some tests. We also tested the popular Mersenne Twister. We believe that these are the largest tests of PRNGs, both in terms of the numbers of streams tested and the number of random numbers tested. We observed defects in some of these generators, including the Mersenne Twister, while a few generators appeared to perform well. We also corrected an error in the implementation of one of the SPRNG generators.

  7. Impact of the condolence letter on the experience of bereaved families after a death in intensive care: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentish-Barnes, Nancy; Chevret, Sylvie; Azoulay, Elie

    2016-02-20

    As intensive care mortality is high, end of life is a subject of major concern for intensivists. In this context, relatives are particularly vulnerable and prone to post-ICU syndrome, in the form of high levels of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress, and complicated grief. Grieving families suffer from a feeling of abandonment and evoke the need to get back in touch with the team to ask questions and remove doubts, but very few actually do. Aiding families during the grieving process is an important aspect of palliative care. A condolence letter represents an opportunity to recognize the pain of the family member and the strong tie that linked the family member to the ICU team, and to offer additional information if necessary. The goal of the study is to measure the impact of the condolence letter on the experience of bereaved families after a death in the ICU. Our hypothesis is that a post-death follow-up in the form of a condolence letter sent by the ICU physician who was in charge of the patient may help to reduce the risks of presenting symptoms of anxiety/depression, post-traumatic stress, and complicated grief. This is a randomized, controlled, multicenter study. Research will compare two groups of bereaved family members: one group that does not receive a condolence letter (control) and one group that receives a condolence letter 15 days after the death (intervention). Each of the 22 participating centers will include 12 relatives. Participating relatives will be followed up by phone with a call at 1 month and one at 6 months to complete questionnaires, permitting evaluation of post-ICU burden. The main outcome is anxiety and depression measured at 1 month. Other outcomes include evaluation of quality of dying and death, post-traumatic stress, and complicated grief. This study will allow us to assess if sending a condolence letter can reduce the risks of presenting symptoms of anxiety and depression, complicated grief, and symptoms of post

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial on The Beneficial Effects of Training Letter-Speech Sound Integration on Reading Fluency in Children with Dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Fraga González

    Full Text Available A recent account of dyslexia assumes that a failure to develop automated letter-speech sound integration might be responsible for the observed lack of reading fluency. This study uses a pre-test-training-post-test design to evaluate the effects of a training program based on letter-speech sound associations with a special focus on gains in reading fluency. A sample of 44 children with dyslexia and 23 typical readers, aged 8 to 9, was recruited. Children with dyslexia were randomly allocated to either the training program group (n = 23 or a waiting-list control group (n = 21. The training intensively focused on letter-speech sound mapping and consisted of 34 individual sessions of 45 minutes over a five month period. The children with dyslexia showed substantial reading gains for the main word reading and spelling measures after training, improving at a faster rate than typical readers and waiting-list controls. The results are interpreted within the conceptual framework assuming a multisensory integration deficit as the most proximal cause of dysfluent reading in dyslexia.ISRCTN register ISRCTN12783279.

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial on The Beneficial Effects of Training Letter-Speech Sound Integration on Reading Fluency in Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga González, Gorka; Žarić, Gojko; Tijms, Jurgen; Bonte, Milene; van der Molen, Maurits W.

    2015-01-01

    A recent account of dyslexia assumes that a failure to develop automated letter-speech sound integration might be responsible for the observed lack of reading fluency. This study uses a pre-test-training-post-test design to evaluate the effects of a training program based on letter-speech sound associations with a special focus on gains in reading fluency. A sample of 44 children with dyslexia and 23 typical readers, aged 8 to 9, was recruited. Children with dyslexia were randomly allocated to either the training program group (n = 23) or a waiting-list control group (n = 21). The training intensively focused on letter-speech sound mapping and consisted of 34 individual sessions of 45 minutes over a five month period. The children with dyslexia showed substantial reading gains for the main word reading and spelling measures after training, improving at a faster rate than typical readers and waiting-list controls. The results are interpreted within the conceptual framework assuming a multisensory integration deficit as the most proximal cause of dysfluent reading in dyslexia. Trial Registration: ISRCTN register ISRCTN12783279 PMID:26629707

  10. The Reliability of Randomly Generated Math Curriculum-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Gerald G.; Smith, Bradley H.; Pender, Carolyn; Malone, Patrick S.; Roberts, Jarod; Hall, John D.

    2015-01-01

    "Curriculum-Based Measurement" (CBM) is a direct method of academic assessment used to screen and evaluate students' skills and monitor their responses to academic instruction and intervention. Interventioncentral.org offers a math worksheet generator at no cost that creates randomly generated "math curriculum-based measures"…

  11. Dynamic information about letter production influences visual letter perception: Evidence from an acquired letter recognition deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Reilhac

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Letter recognition is traditionally assumed to involve matching a perceptual representation of a stimulus letter with a stored representation of a static letter shape. However, people learn not only to recognize letters, but also to write them, and several researchers have suggested that knowledge concerning the dynamics of letter production (e.g., knowledge about the direction and sequencing of writing strokes may play a role in letter recognition (James & Atwood, 2009; Longcamp, Lagarrigue, & Velay, 2010; Parkinson & Khurana, 2007. We report results from NGN, a 77-year-old man who suffered a large left ventro-medial lesion as a consequence of stroke. NGN is severely impaired in visual letter identification. His perception of letter shapes is intact, but his ability to map these shapes onto abstract letter representations is severely disrupted. We investigated whether dynamic presentation of letters might improve NGN’s letter identification. Upper-case letters were presented individually in dynamic or static conditions (see Figure 1. In the Dynamic-Forward condition a moving dot drew a path from the beginning to the end of the letter as it is typically written, until the entire letter was displayed. In the Static condition the whole letter was displayed for the full duration required to “write” the letter in the dynamic condition. NGN’s letter identification accuracy was significantly higher in the Dynamic-Forward condition (90% than in the Static condition (73%, p < .001. Two additional dynamic conditions established that the advantage of the Dynamic-Forward condition was not due to the mere presence of motion in this condition (a possibility suggested by the findings of Rauschecker et al., 2011, or to the fact that the stimulus shape evolved over time. In the Dynamic-Backward condition a moving dot “wrote” the letter from end to beginning; and in the Dynamic-Random condition the dots making up the letter shape appeared in random

  12. Generation of Random Numbers and Parallel Random Number Streams for Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Barash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern methods and libraries for high quality pseudorandom number generation and for generation of parallel random number streams for Monte Carlo simulations are considered. The probability equidistribution property and the parameters when the property holds at dimensions up to logarithm of mesh size are considered for Multiple Recursive Generators.

  13. Brain potentials index executive functions during random number generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppich, Gregor; Däuper, Jan; Dengler, Reinhard; Johannes, Sönke; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F

    2004-06-01

    The generation of random sequences is considered to tax different executive functions. To explore the involvement of these functions further, brain potentials were recorded in 16 healthy young adults while either engaging in random number generation (RNG) by pressing the number keys on a computer keyboard in a random sequence or in ordered number generation (ONG) necessitating key presses in the canonical order. Key presses were paced by an external auditory stimulus to yield either fast (1 press/800 ms) or slow (1 press/1300 ms) sequences in separate runs. Attentional demands of random and ordered tasks were assessed by the introduction of a secondary task (key-press to a target tone). The P3 amplitude to the target tone of this secondary task was reduced during RNG, reflecting the greater consumption of attentional resources during RNG. Moreover, RNG led to a left frontal negativity peaking 140 ms after the onset of the pacing stimulus, whenever the subjects produced a true random response. This negativity could be attributed to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and was absent when numbers were repeated. This negativity was interpreted as an index for the inhibition of habitual responses. Finally, in response locked ERPs a negative component was apparent peaking about 50 ms after the key-press that was more prominent during RNG. Source localization suggested a medial frontal source. This effect was tentatively interpreted as a reflection of the greater monitoring demands during random sequence generation.

  14. Efficient Raman generation in a waveguide: A route to ultrafast quantum random number generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, D. G.; Bustard, P. J.; Moffatt, D. J.; Nunn, J.; Lausten, R.; Sussman, B. J., E-mail: ben.sussman@nrc.ca [National Research Council of Canada, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2014-02-03

    The inherent uncertainty in quantum mechanics offers a source of true randomness which can be used to produce unbreakable cryptographic keys. We discuss the development of a high-speed random number generator based on the quantum phase fluctuations in spontaneously initiated stimulated Raman scattering (SISRS). We utilize the tight confinement and long interaction length available in a Potassium Titanyl Phosphate waveguide to generate highly efficient SISRS using nanojoule pulse energies, reducing the high pump power requirements of the previous approaches. We measure the random phase of the Stokes output using a simple interferometric setup to yield quantum random numbers at 145 Mbps.

  15. Chaos-based Pseudo-random Number Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.

    2014-04-10

    Various methods and systems related to chaos-based pseudo-random number generation are presented. In one example, among others, a system includes a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate a series of digital outputs and a nonlinear post processing circuit to perform an exclusive OR (XOR) operation on a first portion of a current digital output of the PRNG and a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output. In another example, a method includes receiving at least a first portion of a current output from a PRNG and performing an XOR operation on the first portion of the current PRNG output with a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output.

  16. Random generation of RNA secondary structures according to native distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebel Markus E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Random biological sequences are a topic of great interest in genome analysis since, according to a powerful paradigm, they represent the background noise from which the actual biological information must differentiate. Accordingly, the generation of random sequences has been investigated for a long time. Similarly, random object of a more complicated structure like RNA molecules or proteins are of interest. Results In this article, we present a new general framework for deriving algorithms for the non-uniform random generation of combinatorial objects according to the encoding and probability distribution implied by a stochastic context-free grammar. Briefly, the framework extends on the well-known recursive method for (uniform random generation and uses the popular framework of admissible specifications of combinatorial classes, introducing weighted combinatorial classes to allow for the non-uniform generation by means of unranking. This framework is used to derive an algorithm for the generation of RNA secondary structures of a given fixed size. We address the random generation of these structures according to a realistic distribution obtained from real-life data by using a very detailed context-free grammar (that models the class of RNA secondary structures by distinguishing between all known motifs in RNA structure. Compared to well-known sampling approaches used in several structure prediction tools (such as SFold ours has two major advantages: Firstly, after a preprocessing step in time O(n2 for the computation of all weighted class sizes needed, with our approach a set of m random secondary structures of a given structure size n can be computed in worst-case time complexity Om⋅n⋅ log(n while other algorithms typically have a runtime in O(m⋅n2. Secondly, our approach works with integer arithmetic only which is faster and saves us from all the discomforting details of using floating point arithmetic with

  17. A Quickly Tested Pascal Random Number Generator for Microcomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    in any way at equal intervals spaced h units apart, the serial correlation of the series can be obtained for various lags and tested against...pass handily. The unit range between zero and unity was divided into 100 equally spaced frequencies, and the generated random numbers were...NSDTEST; (*MEAN AND SDEV TESTS*) FREQKOLTEST; (*CHISQ FREQ DISTR AND KOLMOGOROFF -SMIRNOV TESTS*) PAIRTEST; (*TEST DISTR OF RANDOM PAIRS*) TRIOTEST; (*TEST

  18. Analysis of entropy extraction efficiencies in random number generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-05-01

    Random numbers (RNs) have applications in many areas: lottery games, gambling, computer simulation, and, most importantly, cryptography [N. Gisin et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 74 (2002) 145]. In cryptography theory, the theoretical security of the system calls for high quality RNs. Therefore, developing methods for producing unpredictable RNs with adequate speed is an attractive topic. Early on, despite the lack of theoretical support, pseudo RNs generated by algorithmic methods performed well and satisfied reasonable statistical requirements. However, as implemented, those pseudorandom sequences were completely determined by mathematical formulas and initial seeds, which cannot introduce extra entropy or information. In these cases, “random” bits are generated that are not at all random. Physical random number generators (RNGs), which, in contrast to algorithmic methods, are based on unpredictable physical random phenomena, have attracted considerable research interest. However, the way that we extract random bits from those physical entropy sources has a large influence on the efficiency and performance of the system. In this manuscript, we will review and discuss several randomness extraction schemes that are based on radiation or photon arrival times. We analyze the robustness, post-processing requirements and, in particular, the extraction efficiency of those methods to aid in the construction of efficient, compact and robust physical RNG systems.

  19. Quantum random flip-flop and its applications in random frequency synthesis and true random number generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stipčević, Mario, E-mail: mario.stipcevic@irb.hr [Photonics and Quantum Optics Research Unit, Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials and Sensing Devices, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2016-03-15

    In this work, a new type of elementary logic circuit, named random flip-flop (RFF), is proposed, experimentally realized, and studied. Unlike conventional Boolean logic circuits whose action is deterministic and highly reproducible, the action of a RFF is intentionally made maximally unpredictable and, in the proposed realization, derived from a fundamentally random process of emission and detection of light quanta. We demonstrate novel applications of RFF in randomness preserving frequency division, random frequency synthesis, and random number generation. Possible usages of these applications in the information and communication technology, cryptographic hardware, and testing equipment are discussed.

  20. Solution-Processed Carbon Nanotube True Random Number Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviria Rojas, William A; McMorrow, Julian J; Geier, Michael L; Tang, Qianying; Kim, Chris H; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2017-08-09

    With the growing adoption of interconnected electronic devices in consumer and industrial applications, there is an increasing demand for robust security protocols when transmitting and receiving sensitive data. Toward this end, hardware true random number generators (TRNGs), commonly used to create encryption keys, offer significant advantages over software pseudorandom number generators. However, the vast network of devices and sensors envisioned for the "Internet of Things" will require small, low-cost, and mechanically flexible TRNGs with low computational complexity. These rigorous constraints position solution-processed semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as leading candidates for next-generation security devices. Here, we demonstrate the first TRNG using static random access memory (SRAM) cells based on solution-processed SWCNTs that digitize thermal noise to generate random bits. This bit generation strategy can be readily implemented in hardware with minimal transistor and computational overhead, resulting in an output stream that passes standardized statistical tests for randomness. By using solution-processed semiconducting SWCNTs in a low-power, complementary architecture to achieve TRNG, we demonstrate a promising approach for improving the security of printable and flexible electronics.

  1. A Stimulus Sampling Theory of Letter Identity and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Dennis; Kinoshita, Sachiko; van Casteren, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Early on during word recognition, letter positions are not accurately coded. Evidence for this comes from transposed-letter (TL) priming effects, in which letter strings generated by transposing two adjacent letters (e.g., "jugde") produce large priming effects, more than primes with the letters replaced in the corresponding position (e.g.,…

  2. The Evolution of Random Number Generation in MUVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    3 2. Collins JC . Testing, selection, and implementation of random number genera- tors. Aberdeen Proving Ground (MD): Army Research Laboratory (US...261–269. 13, 16 5. L‘Ecuyer P. Tables of linear congruential generators of different sizes and good lattice structure. Mathematics of Computation

  3. Random Scenario Generation for a Multiple Target Tracking Environment Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a simulation study on the generation of a random scenario for the performance of track splitting algorithm on a digital signal processor.  Much of the previous work [1] was done on specific (deterministic) scenarios. One of the reasons for considering the specific scenarios, wh...

  4. Simulations Using Random-Generated DNA and RNA Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, C. F. A.

    1977-01-01

    Using a very simple computer program written in BASIC, a very large number of random-generated DNA or RNA sequences are obtained. Students use these sequences to predict complementary sequences and translational products, evaluate base compositions, determine frequencies of particular triplet codons, and suggest possible secondary structures.…

  5. REGAL: a library to randomly and exhaustively generate automata

    OpenAIRE

    Bassino, Frédérique; David, Julien; Nicaud, Cyril

    2007-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a library devoted to the random and exhaustive generation of finite deterministic automata. This package provides a toolkit to experimentally study properties of automata, average complexities of algorithms dealing with automata or to compare different implementations of the same algorithm.

  6. Generation of genetically modified rodents using random ENU mutagenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boxtel, R.; Cuppen, E.

    2011-01-01

    The generation of genetically modified animals using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis is a fast and highly effective method. The technique is based on treating male animals with the supermutagen ENU, which randomly introduces mutations in the spermatogonial stem cells. By breeding these

  7. Electrical generation of stationary light in random scattering media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, S. M.; Armstrong, G. L.; Chan, H.-Y.; Mattson, E.; Mock, A.; Li, B.; Potts, J. R.; Cui, M.; Rand, S. C.; Oliveira, S. L.; Marchal, J.; Hinklin, T.; Laine, R. M.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years there has been great interest in controlling the speed of propagation of electromagnetic waves. In gases and crystals, coherent techniques have been applied to alter the speed of light without changing the physical or chemical structure of the medium. Also, light transmitted by highly disordered solids has exhibited signatures of Anderson localization, indicating the existence of a regime of ``stopped'' light that is mediated by random elastic scattering. However, to date, light has not been generated in a random medium as a pointlike excitation that is fixed in space from the outset. Here we report experimental evidence for the electrical generation and confinement of light within nanosized volumes of a random dielectric scattering medium in which a population inversion has been established, and discuss the properties of these novel light sources.

  8. Source-Device-Independent Ultrafast Quantum Random Number Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, Davide G.; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    Secure random numbers are a fundamental element of many applications in science, statistics, cryptography and more in general in security protocols. We present a method that enables the generation of high-speed unpredictable random numbers from the quadratures of an electromagnetic field without any assumption on the input state. The method allows us to eliminate the numbers that can be predicted due to the presence of classical and quantum side information. In particular, we introduce a procedure to estimate a bound on the conditional min-entropy based on the entropic uncertainty principle for position and momentum observables of infinite dimensional quantum systems. By the above method, we experimentally demonstrated the generation of secure true random bits at a rate greater than 1.7 Gbit /s .

  9. Efficient biased random bit generation for parallel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slone, Dale M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-09-28

    A lattice gas automaton was implemented on a massively parallel machine (the BBN TC2000) and a vector supercomputer (the CRAY C90). The automaton models Burgers equation ρt + ρρx = vρxx in 1 dimension. The lattice gas evolves by advecting and colliding pseudo-particles on a 1-dimensional, periodic grid. The specific rules for colliding particles are stochastic in nature and require the generation of many billions of random numbers to create the random bits necessary for the lattice gas. The goal of the thesis was to speed up the process of generating the random bits and thereby lessen the computational bottleneck of the automaton.

  10. The effect of reminder letters on the uptake of an e-learning programme on dementia: a randomized trial in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Bente; Steenstrup, Annette Plesner; Bro, Flemming

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether three reminder letters mailed to GPs after dissemination of a Dementia Guideline increased the GPs' use of the corresponding e-learning programme (ELP). Single-blinded randomized trial among all GPs in Copenhagen Municipality from 1 November 2006 to 1 May 2007. A total of 15 of 320 GPs (4.7%) had a web-based logon during the study period. The intervention group had a significantly increased frequency of web-based logons (P = 0.0192) equivalent to a hazard ratio of 8.0 (95% CI: 1.03-66.1; P = 0.047). NNT was calculated to 22.2. We could not detect any significant differences in any of the secondary outcomes. Three reminder letters added to a nation-wide dissemination increased the probability for a GP logon in the ELP by a Factor 8. However, in total, only a small proportion used the ELP. Thus, further research is needed in order to consider future implementation strategies for Internet-based Continuous Medical Education activities among not primed GPs.

  11. Random number generation based on digital differential chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-07-29

    In this paper, we present a fully digital differential chaos based random number generator. The output of the digital circuit is proved to be chaotic by calculating the output time series maximum Lyapunov exponent. We introduce a new post processing technique to improve the distribution and statistical properties of the generated data. The post-processed output passes the NIST Sp. 800-22 statistical tests. The system is written in Verilog VHDL and realized on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA. The generator can fit into a very small area and have a maximum throughput of 2.1 Gb/s.

  12. DNA based random key generation and management for OTP encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, Xin; Sun, Manhui

    2017-09-01

    One-time pad (OTP) is a principle of key generation applied to the stream ciphering method which offers total privacy. The OTP encryption scheme has proved to be unbreakable in theory, but difficult to realize in practical applications. Because OTP encryption specially requires the absolute randomness of the key, its development has suffered from dense constraints. DNA cryptography is a new and promising technology in the field of information security. DNA chromosomes storing capabilities can be used as one-time pad structures with pseudo-random number generation and indexing in order to encrypt the plaintext messages. In this paper, we present a feasible solution to the OTP symmetric key generation and transmission problem with DNA at the molecular level. Through recombinant DNA technology, by using only sender-receiver known restriction enzymes to combine the secure key represented by DNA sequence and the T vector, we generate the DNA bio-hiding secure key and then place the recombinant plasmid in implanted bacteria for secure key transmission. The designed bio experiments and simulation results show that the security of the transmission of the key is further improved and the environmental requirements of key transmission are reduced. Analysis has demonstrated that the proposed DNA-based random key generation and management solutions are marked by high security and usability. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. GASPRNG: GPU accelerated scalable parallel random number generator library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuang; Peterson, Gregory D.

    2013-04-01

    Graphics processors represent a promising technology for accelerating computational science applications. Many computational science applications require fast and scalable random number generation with good statistical properties, so they use the Scalable Parallel Random Number Generators library (SPRNG). We present the GPU Accelerated SPRNG library (GASPRNG) to accelerate SPRNG in GPU-based high performance computing systems. GASPRNG includes code for a host CPU and CUDA code for execution on NVIDIA graphics processing units (GPUs) along with a programming interface to support various usage models for pseudorandom numbers and computational science applications executing on the CPU, GPU, or both. This paper describes the implementation approach used to produce high performance and also describes how to use the programming interface. The programming interface allows a user to be able to use GASPRNG the same way as SPRNG on traditional serial or parallel computers as well as to develop tightly coupled programs executing primarily on the GPU. We also describe how to install GASPRNG and use it. To help illustrate linking with GASPRNG, various demonstration codes are included for the different usage models. GASPRNG on a single GPU shows up to 280x speedup over SPRNG on a single CPU core and is able to scale for larger systems in the same manner as SPRNG. Because GASPRNG generates identical streams of pseudorandom numbers as SPRNG, users can be confident about the quality of GASPRNG for scalable computational science applications. Catalogue identifier: AEOI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOI_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: UTK license. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 167900 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1422058 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C and CUDA. Computer: Any PC or

  14. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2014-09-01

    Correlated waveforms have a number of applications in different fields, such as radar and communication. It is very easy to generate correlated waveforms using infinite alphabets, but for some of the applications, it is very challenging to use them in practice. Moreover, to generate infinite alphabet constant envelope correlated waveforms, the available research uses iterative algorithms, which are computationally very expensive. In this work, we propose simple novel methods to generate correlated waveforms using finite alphabet constant and non-constant-envelope symbols. To generate finite alphabet waveforms, the proposed method map the Gaussian random variables onto the phase-shift-keying, pulse-amplitude, and quadrature-amplitude modulation schemes. For such mapping, the probability-density-function of Gaussian random variables is divided into M regions, where M is the number of alphabets in the corresponding modulation scheme. By exploiting the mapping function, the relationship between the cross-correlation of Gaussian and finite alphabet symbols is derived. To generate equiprobable symbols, the area of each region is kept same. If the requirement is to have each symbol with its own unique probability, the proposed scheme allows us that as well. Although, the proposed scheme is general, the main focus of this paper is to generate finite alphabet waveforms for multiple-input multiple-output radar, where correlated waveforms are used to achieve desired beampatterns. © 2014 IEEE.

  15. Missing Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Lee

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper tracks the symptom of ‘missing letters’ in order to connect the anxiety that permeates August Strindberg’s life and works to his destiny as the carrier of his dead sister’s crypt. In his 1887 essay “‘Soul Murder’ (A Propos “Rosmersholm”,” Strindberg reveals that the bottom-line of his anxiety is not interpersonal conflict, but the potential for loss that always accompanies transmitted messages along their itineraries. By couching this threat of loss in the image of missing letters, Strindberg establishes the interchangeability between letters that go missing in transit to those missing letters that enter the corpus uninvited through the apertures of communication. Following the trajectory of these missing letters in his oeuvre (most notably, inThe Father, Miss Julie, and The Dance of Death I, the paper eventually locates at the (missing dead center of Strindberg’s literary corpus the phantom transmission from mother to son of the author’s younger sister Eleonora. Cet article suit le phénomène des « lettres disparues » pour faire le lien entre les grandes inquiétudes qui imprègnent la vie et les œuvres d’August Strinberg et son destin de porter la crypte de sa sœur décédée. Dans son essai écrit en 1887, « Soul Murder (A Propos Rosmerholm » Strindberg révèle que le résultat de ses grandes inquiétudes n’est pas un conflit interpersonnel, mais la probabilité des messages de se perdre en cours de route. En déguisant la menace de perte en l’image des lettres disparues, Strindberg établit l’interchangeabilité entre les lettres disparues en transit et celles non sollicitées qui pénètrent le corpus à travers les ouvertures de communication. En suivant la trajectoire de ces lettres disparues dans ces œuvres (notamment dans Père, dansMademoiselle Julie et dans La danse de mort I, cet article trouve finalement la transmission fantôme de mère à fils de la sœur cadette

  16. New Design of Crypto-Based Pseudo random number generator (CBPRNG) using BLOW FISH cipher

    OpenAIRE

    T.Chalama Reddy; Dr.R.Seshadri

    2013-01-01

    Random Number Generators (RNGs) are an important building block for algorithms and protocols in cryptography. Random number generation is used in a wide variety of cryptographic operations, such as key generation and challenge/response protocols. A random number generator outputs a sequence of 0s and 1s such that at any position, the next bit cannot be expected on the previous bits. However, true random number produces non- deterministic output since if the same random generator is run twice,...

  17. PRIMITIVE MATRICES AND GENERATORS OF PSEUDO RANDOM SEQUENCES OF GALOIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beletsky

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In theory and practice of information cryptographic protection one of the key problems is the forming a binary pseudo-random sequences (PRS with a maximum length with acceptable statistical characteristics. PRS generators are usually implemented by linear shift register (LSR of maximum period with linear feedback [1]. In this paper we extend the concept of LSR, assuming that each of its rank (memory cell can be in one of the following condition. Let’s call such registers “generalized linear shift register.” The research goal is to develop algorithms for constructing Galois and Fibonacci generalized matrix of n-order over the field , which uniquely determined both the structure of corresponding generalized of n-order LSR maximal period, and formed on their basis Galois PRS generators of maximum length. Thus the article presents the questions of formation the primitive generalized Fibonacci and Galois arbitrary order matrix over the prime field . The synthesis of matrices is based on the use of irreducible polynomials of degree and primitive elements of the extended field generated by polynomial. The constructing methods of Galois and Fibonacci conjugated primitive matrices are suggested. The using possibilities of such matrices in solving the problem of constructing generalized generators of Galois pseudo-random sequences are discussed.

  18. At least some errors are randomly generated (Freud was wrong)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellen, A. J.; Senders, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to expose something about human error generating mechanisms. In the context of the experiment, an error was made when a subject pressed the wrong key on a computer keyboard or pressed no key at all in the time allotted. These might be considered, respectively, errors of substitution and errors of omission. Each of seven subjects saw a sequence of three digital numbers, made an easily learned binary judgement about each, and was to press the appropriate one of two keys. Each session consisted of 1,000 presentations of randomly permuted, fixed numbers broken into 10 blocks of 100. One of two keys should have been pressed within one second of the onset of each stimulus. These data were subjected to statistical analyses in order to probe the nature of the error generating mechanisms. Goodness of fit tests for a Poisson distribution for the number of errors per 50 trial interval and for an exponential distribution of the length of the intervals between errors were carried out. There is evidence for an endogenous mechanism that may best be described as a random error generator. Furthermore, an item analysis of the number of errors produced per stimulus suggests the existence of a second mechanism operating on task driven factors producing exogenous errors. Some errors, at least, are the result of constant probability generating mechanisms with error rate idiosyncratically determined for each subject.

  19. Generating Correlated QPSK Waveforms By Exploiting Real Gaussian Random Variables

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2012-11-01

    The design of waveforms with specified auto- and cross-correlation properties has a number of applications in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, one of them is the desired transmit beampattern design. In this work, an algorithm is proposed to generate quadrature phase shift- keying (QPSK) waveforms with required cross-correlation properties using real Gaussian random-variables (RV’s). This work can be considered as the extension of what was presented in [1] to generate BPSK waveforms. This work will be extended for the generation of correlated higher-order phase shift-keying (PSK) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) schemes that can better approximate the desired beampattern.

  20. Cellular Automata-Based Parallel Random Number Generators Using FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. K. Hoe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular computing represents a new paradigm for implementing high-speed massively parallel machines. Cellular automata (CA, which consist of an array of locally connected processing elements, are a basic form of a cellular-based architecture. The use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs for implementing CA accelerators has shown promising results. This paper investigates the design of CA-based pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs using an FPGA platform. To improve the quality of the random numbers that are generated, the basic CA structure is enhanced in two ways. First, the addition of a superrule to each CA cell is considered. The resulting self-programmable CA (SPCA uses the superrule to determine when to make a dynamic rule change in each CA cell. The superrule takes its inputs from neighboring cells and can be considered itself a second CA working in parallel with the main CA. When implemented on an FPGA, the use of lookup tables in each logic cell removes any restrictions on how the super-rules should be defined. Second, a hybrid configuration is formed by combining a CA with a linear feedback shift register (LFSR. This is advantageous for FPGA designs due to the compactness of the LFSR implementations. A standard software package for statistically evaluating the quality of random number sequences known as Diehard is used to validate the results. Both the SPCA and the hybrid CA/LFSR were found to pass all the Diehard tests.

  1. Random Sequence for Optimal Low-Power Laser Generated Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangi, D.; Virga, A.; Gulino, M. S.

    2017-08-01

    Low-power laser generated ultrasounds are lately gaining importance in the research world, thanks to the possibility of investigating a mechanical component structural integrity through a non-contact and Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) procedure. The ultrasounds are, however, very low in amplitude, making it necessary to use pre-processing and post-processing operations on the signals to detect them. The cross-correlation technique is used in this work, meaning that a random signal must be used as laser input. For this purpose, a highly random and simple-to-create code called T sequence, capable of enhancing the ultrasound detectability, is introduced (not previously available at the state of the art). Several important parameters which characterize the T sequence can influence the process: the number of pulses Npulses , the pulse duration δ and the distance between pulses dpulses . A Finite Element FE model of a 3 mm steel disk has been initially developed to analytically study the longitudinal ultrasound generation mechanism and the obtainable outputs. Later, experimental tests have shown that the T sequence is highly flexible for ultrasound detection purposes, making it optimal to use high Npulses and δ but low dpulses . In the end, apart from describing all phenomena that arise in the low-power laser generation process, the results of this study are also important for setting up an effective NDT procedure using this technology.

  2. Random phase-free computer-generated hologram

    CERN Document Server

    Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Addition of random phase to the object light is required in computer-generated holograms (CGHs) to widely diffuse the object light and to avoid its concentration on the CGH; however, this addition causes considerable speckle noise in the reconstructed image. For improving the speckle noise problem, techniques such as iterative phase retrieval algorithms and multi-random phase method are used; however, they are time consuming and are of limited effectiveness. Herein, we present a simple and computationally inexpensive method that drastically improves the image quality and reduces the speckle noise by multiplying the object light with the virtual convergence light. Feasibility of the proposed method is shown using simulations and optical reconstructions; moreover, we apply it to lens-less zoom-able holographic projection. The proposed method is useful for the speckle problems in holographic applications.

  3. Soliton generation from randomly modulated return-to-zero pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevyanko, Stanislav A.; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E.

    2008-11-01

    We consider return-to-zero (RZ) pulses with random phase modulation propagating in a nonlinear channel (modelled by the integrable nonlinear Schrödinger equation, NLSE). We suggest two different models for the phase fluctuations of the optical field: (i) Gaussian short-correlated fluctuations and (ii) generalized telegraph process. Using the rectangular-shaped pulse form we demonstrate that the presence of phase fluctuations of both types strongly influences the number of solitons generated in the channel. It is also shown that increasing the correlation time for the random phase fluctuations affects the coherent content of a pulse in a non-trivial way. The result obtained has potential consequences for all-optical processing and design of optical decision elements.

  4. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2016-01-13

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using Gaussian random variables in, e.g., radar and communication applications. In one example, a method includes mapping an input signal comprising Gaussian random variables (RVs) onto finite-alphabet non-constant-envelope (FANCE) symbols using a predetermined mapping function, and transmitting FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The FANCE waveforms can be based upon the mapping of the Gaussian RVs onto the FANCE symbols. In another example, a system includes a memory unit that can store a plurality of digital bit streams corresponding to FANCE symbols and a front end unit that can transmit FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The system can include a processing unit that can encode the input signal and/or determine the mapping function.

  5. Comparison of a quantum random number generator with pseudorandom number generators for their use in molecular Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghersi, Dario; Parakh, Abhishek; Mezei, Mihaly

    2017-12-05

    Four pseudorandom number generators were compared with a physical, quantum-based random number generator using the NIST suite of statistical tests, which only the quantum-based random number generator could successfully pass. We then measured the effect of the five random number generators on various calculated properties in different Markov-chain Monte Carlo simulations. Two types of systems were tested: conformational sampling of a small molecule in aqueous solution and liquid methanol under constant temperature and pressure. The results show that poor quality pseudorandom number generators produce results that deviate significantly from those obtained with the quantum-based random number generator, particularly in the case of the small molecule in aqueous solution setup. In contrast, the widely used Mersenne Twister pseudorandom generator and a 64-bit Linear Congruential Generator with a scrambler produce results that are statistically indistinguishable from those obtained with the quantum-based random number generator. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Quantum Statistical Testing of a Quantum Random Number Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humble, Travis S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The unobservable elements in a quantum technology, e.g., the quantum state, complicate system verification against promised behavior. Using model-based system engineering, we present methods for verifying the opera- tion of a prototypical quantum random number generator. We begin with the algorithmic design of the QRNG followed by the synthesis of its physical design requirements. We next discuss how quantum statistical testing can be used to verify device behavior as well as detect device bias. We conclude by highlighting how system design and verification methods must influence effort to certify future quantum technologies.

  7. A randomized controlled trial on the beneficial effects of training letter-speech sound integration on reading fluency in children with dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraga González, G.; Žarić, G.; Tijms, J.; Bonte, M.; Blomert, L.; van der Molen, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    A recent account of dyslexia assumes that a failure to develop automated letter-speech sound integration might be responsible for the observed lack of reading fluency. This study uses a pre-test-training-post-test design to evaluate the effects of a training program based on letter-speech sound

  8. Fully Digital Chaotic Oscillators Applied to Pseudo Random Number Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.

    2012-05-01

    adapted for pseudo random number generation by truncating statistically defective bits. Finally, a novel post-processing technique using the Fibonacci series is proposed and implemented with a non-autonomous driven hyperchaotic system to provide pseudo random number generators with high nonlinear complexity and controllable period length that enables full utilization of all branches of the chaotic output as statistically secure pseudo random output.

  9. High-Quality Random Number Generation Software for High-Performance Computing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Random number (RN) generation is the key software component that permits random sampling. Software for parallel RN generation (RNG) should be based on RNGs that are...

  10. Generative Learning Objects Instantiated with Random Numbers Based Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Bogdan Chirila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of interactive e-learning content requires special skills like programming techniques, web integration, graphic design etc. Generally, online educators do not possess such skills and their e-learning products tend to be static like presentation slides and textbooks. In this paper we propose a new interactive model of generative learning objects as a compromise betweenstatic, dull materials and dynamic, complex software e-learning materials developed by specialized teams. We find that random numbers based automatic initialization learning objects increases content diversity, interactivity thus enabling learners’ engagement. The resulted learning object model is at a limited level of complexity related to special e-learning software, intuitive and capable of increasing learners’ interactivity, engagement and motivation through dynamic content. The approach was applied successfully on several computer programing disciplines.

  11. Letter position dysgraphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvion, Aviah; Friedmann, Naama

    2010-10-01

    The article describes AE, a Hebrew-speaking individual with acquired dysgraphia, who makes mainly letter position errors in writing. His dysgraphia resulted from impairment in the graphemic buffer, but unlike previously studied patients, most of his errors related to the position of letters rather than to letter identity: 80% of his errors were letter position errors in writing, and only 7% of his errors were letter omissions, substitutions, and additions. Letter position errors were the main error type across tasks (writing to dictation and written naming), across output modalities (writing and typing), and across stimuli, e.g., migratable words (words in which letter migration forms another word), irregular words, and nonwords. Letter position errors occurred mainly in the middle letters of a word. AE's writing showed a significant length effect, and no lexicality, migratability, or frequency effects. His letter position deficit was manifested selectively in writing; he made no letter position errors in reading, demonstrating the dissociability of letter position encoding in reading and writing. These data support the existence of a letter order function in the graphemic buffer that is separate from the function responsible for activating letter identities. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  12. Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun

    2014-10-01

    We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator.

  13. Generation and Analysis of Constrained Random Sampling Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierzchlewski, Jacek; Arildsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Random sampling is a technique for signal acquisition which is gaining popularity in practical signal processing systems. Nowadays, event-driven analog-to-digital converters make random sampling feasible in practical applications. A process of random sampling is defined by a sampling pattern, whi...

  14. Van: An Open Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieman, John Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This essay is an open letter from a classroom teacher to a concerned citizen. The letter lists a variety of problems caused largely by standardization and the more corrosive effects of positivism. Many of these problems are unknown to those outside the immediate school setting. While the letter focuses on a specific setting, an inner city school…

  15. Realization of a Quantum Random Generator Certified with the Kochen-Specker Theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Anatoly; Jerger, Markus; Potočnik, Anton; Wallraff, Andreas; Fedorov, Arkady

    2017-12-15

    Random numbers are required for a variety of applications from secure communications to Monte Carlo simulation. Yet randomness is an asymptotic property, and no output string generated by a physical device can be strictly proven to be random. We report an experimental realization of a quantum random number generator (QRNG) with randomness certified by quantum contextuality and the Kochen-Specker theorem. The certification is not performed in a device-independent way but through a rigorous theoretical proof of each outcome being value indefinite even in the presence of experimental imperfections. The analysis of the generated data confirms the incomputable nature of our QRNG.

  16. Realization of a Quantum Random Generator Certified with the Kochen-Specker Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Anatoly; Jerger, Markus; Potočnik, Anton; Wallraff, Andreas; Fedorov, Arkady

    2017-12-01

    Random numbers are required for a variety of applications from secure communications to Monte Carlo simulation. Yet randomness is an asymptotic property, and no output string generated by a physical device can be strictly proven to be random. We report an experimental realization of a quantum random number generator (QRNG) with randomness certified by quantum contextuality and the Kochen-Specker theorem. The certification is not performed in a device-independent way but through a rigorous theoretical proof of each outcome being value indefinite even in the presence of experimental imperfections. The analysis of the generated data confirms the incomputable nature of our QRNG.

  17. LOMA: A fast method to generate efficient tagged-random primers despite amplification bias of random PCR on pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Wah

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogen detection using DNA microarrays has the potential to become a fast and comprehensive diagnostics tool. However, since pathogen detection chips currently utilize random primers rather than specific primers for the RT-PCR step, bias inherent in random PCR amplification becomes a serious problem that causes large inaccuracies in hybridization signals. Results In this paper, we study how the efficiency of random PCR amplification affects hybridization signals. We describe a model that predicts the amplification efficiency of a given random primer on a target viral genome. The prediction allows us to filter false-negative probes of the genome that lie in regions of poor random PCR amplification and improves the accuracy of pathogen detection. Subsequently, we propose LOMA, an algorithm to generate random primers that have good amplification efficiency. Wet-lab validation showed that the generated random primers improve the amplification efficiency significantly. Conclusion The blind use of a random primer with attached universal tag (random-tagged primer in a PCR reaction on a pathogen sample may not lead to a successful amplification. Thus, the design of random-tagged primers is an important consideration when performing PCR.

  18. Algorithm for generation pseudo-random series with arbitrarily assigned distribution law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.С. Єременко

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available  Method for generation pseudo-random series with arbitrarily assigned distribution law has been proposed. The praxis of using proposed method for generation pseudo-random series with anti-modal and approximate to Gaussian distribution law has been investigated.

  19. Generating Variable and Random Schedules of Reinforcement Using Microsoft Excel Macros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Stacie L; Bourret, Jason C

    2008-01-01

    Variable reinforcement schedules are used to arrange the availability of reinforcement following varying response ratios or intervals of time. Random reinforcement schedules are subtypes of variable reinforcement schedules that can be used to arrange the availability of reinforcement at a constant probability across number of responses or time. Generating schedule values for variable and random reinforcement schedules can be difficult. The present article describes the steps necessary to write macros in Microsoft Excel that will generate variable-ratio, variable-interval, variable-time, random-ratio, random-interval, and random-time reinforcement schedule values. PMID:18595286

  20. High-speed quantum-random number generation by continuous measurement of arrival time of photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Hua, Zhang; Liao, Qinghong; Yang, Hao

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate a novel high speed and multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring arrival time of photons with a common starting point. To obtain the unbiased and post-processing free random bits, the measured photon arrival time is converted into the sum of integral multiple of a fixed period and a phase time. Theoretical and experimental results show that the phase time is an independent and uniform random variable. A random bit extraction method by encoding the phase time is proposed. An experimental setup has been built and the unbiased random bit generation rate could reach 128 Mb/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 8 bits per detected photon. The random numbers passed all tests in the statistical test suite.

  1. The perfect cover letter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beatty, Richard H

    2004-01-01

    ... and care needed to prepare the employment cover letter- the very first document that meets the eyes of the employer when receiving a resume. As a seasoned employment professional, I have always found this a curious phenomenon, especially since it is the cover letter that serves as the initial introduction to prospective employers. iiiiv PREFACE ...

  2. Recommendations and illustrations for the evaluation of photonic random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joseph D.; Terashima, Yuta; Uchida, Atsushi; Baumgartner, Gerald B.; Murphy, Thomas E.; Roy, Rajarshi

    2017-09-01

    The never-ending quest to improve the security of digital information combined with recent improvements in hardware technology has caused the field of random number generation to undergo a fundamental shift from relying solely on pseudo-random algorithms to employing optical entropy sources. Despite these significant advances on the hardware side, commonly used statistical measures and evaluation practices remain ill-suited to understand or quantify the optical entropy that underlies physical random number generation. We review the state of the art in the evaluation of optical random number generation and recommend a new paradigm: quantifying entropy generation and understanding the physical limits of the optical sources of randomness. In order to do this, we advocate for the separation of the physical entropy source from deterministic post-processing in the evaluation of random number generators and for the explicit consideration of the impact of the measurement and digitization process on the rate of entropy production. We present the Cohen-Procaccia estimate of the entropy rate h (𝜖 ,τ ) as one way to do this. In order to provide an illustration of our recommendations, we apply the Cohen-Procaccia estimate as well as the entropy estimates from the new NIST draft standards for physical random number generators to evaluate and compare three common optical entropy sources: single photon time-of-arrival detection, chaotic lasers, and amplified spontaneous emission.

  3. Lightweight PUF-based Key and Random Number Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Van Herrewege, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    As embedded electronics continue to be integrated into our daily lives at such a pace that there are nowadays more cellphones than people on the planet, security is becoming ever more crucial. Unfortunately, this is all too often realized as an afterthought and thus the security implementations in many embedded devices offer little to no practical protection. Security does not require only cryptographic algorithms; two other critical modules in a secure system are a key generation module and ...

  4. Learning to write letters: examination of student and letter factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Petscher, Yaacov; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Learning to write the letters of the alphabet is an important part of learning how to write conventionally. In this study, we investigated critical factors in the development of letter-writing skills using exploratory item response models to simultaneously account for variance in responses due to differences between students and between letters. Letter-writing skills were assessed in 415 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years. At the student level, we examined the contribution of letter-name knowledge, letter-sound knowledge, and phonological awareness to letter-writing skills. At the letter level, we examined seven intrinsic and extrinsic factors in understanding how preschool children learn to write alphabet letters: first letter of name, letters in name, letter order, textual frequency, number of strokes, symmetry, and letter type. Results indicated that variation in letter-writing skills was accounted for more by differences between students rather than by differences between letters, with most of the variability accounted for by letter-name knowledge and age. Although significant, the contribution of letter-sound knowledge and phonological awareness was relatively small. Student-level mechanisms underlying the acquisition of letter-writing skills are similar to the mechanisms underlying the learning of letter sounds. However, letter characteristics, which appear to play a major role in the learning of letter names and letter sounds, did not appear to influence learning how to write letters in a substantial way. The exception was if the letter was in the child's name. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. A Comparison of Three Random Number Generators for Aircraft Dynamic Modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Jared A.

    2017-01-01

    Three random number generators, which produce Gaussian white noise sequences, were compared to assess their suitability in aircraft dynamic modeling applications. The first generator considered was the MATLAB (registered) implementation of the Mersenne-Twister algorithm. The second generator was a website called Random.org, which processes atmospheric noise measured using radios to create the random numbers. The third generator was based on synthesis of the Fourier series, where the random number sequences are constructed from prescribed amplitude and phase spectra. A total of 200 sequences, each having 601 random numbers, for each generator were collected and analyzed in terms of the mean, variance, normality, autocorrelation, and power spectral density. These sequences were then applied to two problems in aircraft dynamic modeling, namely estimating stability and control derivatives from simulated onboard sensor data, and simulating flight in atmospheric turbulence. In general, each random number generator had good performance and is well-suited for aircraft dynamic modeling applications. Specific strengths and weaknesses of each generator are discussed. For Monte Carlo simulation, the Fourier synthesis method is recommended because it most accurately and consistently approximated Gaussian white noise and can be implemented with reasonable computational effort.

  6. Doing Better by Getting Worse: Posthypnotic Amnesia Improves Random Number Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin Blair; Brugger, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Although forgetting is often regarded as a deficit that we need to control to optimize cognitive functioning, it can have beneficial effects in a number of contexts. We examined whether disrupting memory for previous numerical responses would attenuate repetition avoidance (the tendency to avoid repeating the same number) during random number generation and thereby improve the randomness of responses. Low suggestible and low dissociative and high dissociative highly suggestible individuals completed a random number generation task in a control condition, following a posthypnotic amnesia suggestion to forget previous numerical responses, and in a second control condition following the cancellation of the suggestion. High dissociative highly suggestible participants displayed a selective increase in repetitions during posthypnotic amnesia, with equivalent repetition frequency to a random system, whereas the other two groups exhibited repetition avoidance across conditions. Our results demonstrate that temporarily disrupting memory for previous numerical responses improves random number generation. PMID:22195022

  7. Doing better by getting worse: posthypnotic amnesia improves random number generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin Blair Terhune

    Full Text Available Although forgetting is often regarded as a deficit that we need to control to optimize cognitive functioning, it can have beneficial effects in a number of contexts. We examined whether disrupting memory for previous numerical responses would attenuate repetition avoidance (the tendency to avoid repeating the same number during random number generation and thereby improve the randomness of responses. Low suggestible and low dissociative and high dissociative highly suggestible individuals completed a random number generation task in a control condition, following a posthypnotic amnesia suggestion to forget previous numerical responses, and in a second control condition following the cancellation of the suggestion. High dissociative highly suggestible participants displayed a selective increase in repetitions during posthypnotic amnesia, with equivalent repetition frequency to a random system, whereas the other two groups exhibited repetition avoidance across conditions. Our results demonstrate that temporarily disrupting memory for previous numerical responses improves random number generation.

  8. High-speed true random number generation based on paired memristors for security electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng; Yin, Minghui; Xu, Changmin; Lu, Xiayan; Sun, Xinhao; Yang, Yuchao; Huang, Ru

    2017-11-01

    True random number generator (TRNG) is a critical component in hardware security that is increasingly important in the era of mobile computing and internet of things. Here we demonstrate a TRNG using intrinsic variation of memristors as a natural source of entropy that is otherwise undesirable in most applications. The random bits were produced by cyclically switching a pair of tantalum oxide based memristors and comparing their resistance values in the off state, taking advantage of the more pronounced resistance variation compared with that in the on state. Using an alternating read scheme in the designed TRNG circuit, the unbiasedness of the random numbers was significantly improved, and the bitstream passed standard randomness tests. The Pt/TaO x /Ta memristors fabricated in this work have fast programming/erasing speeds of ∼30 ns, suggesting a high random number throughput. The approach proposed here thus holds great promise for physically-implemented random number generation.

  9. Note: A 10 Gbps real-time post-processing free physical random number generator chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi; Liang, Futian; Wang, Xinzhe; Li, Feng; Chen, Lian; Jin, Ge

    2017-09-01

    A random number generator with high data rate, small size, and low power consumption is essential for a certain quantum key distribution (QKD) system. We designed a 10 Gbps random number generator ASIC, TRNG2016, for the QKD system. With a 6 mm × 6 mm QFN48 package, TRNG2016 has 10 independent physical random number generation channels, and each channel can work at a fixed frequency up to 1 Gbps. The random number generated by TRNG2016 can pass the NIST statistical tests without any post-processing. With 3.3 V IO power supply and 1.2 V core power supply, the typical power consumption of TRNG2016 is 773 mW with 10 channels on and running at 1 Gbps data rate.

  10. Note: Fully integrated 3.2 Gbps quantum random number generator with real-time extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Nie, You-Qi; Liang, Hao; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@ustc.edu.cn; Pan, Jian-Wei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); CAS Center for Excellence and Synergetic Innovation Center in Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhou, Hongyi; Ma, Xiongfeng [Center for Quantum Information, Institute for Interdisciplinary Information Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-07-15

    We present a real-time and fully integrated quantum random number generator (QRNG) by measuring laser phase fluctuations. The QRNG scheme based on laser phase fluctuations is featured for its capability of generating ultra-high-speed random numbers. However, the speed bottleneck of a practical QRNG lies on the limited speed of randomness extraction. To close the gap between the fast randomness generation and the slow post-processing, we propose a pipeline extraction algorithm based on Toeplitz matrix hashing and implement it in a high-speed field-programmable gate array. Further, all the QRNG components are integrated into a module, including a compact and actively stabilized interferometer, high-speed data acquisition, and real-time data post-processing and transmission. The final generation rate of the QRNG module with real-time extraction can reach 3.2 Gbps.

  11. Quantum cryptography using coherent states: Randomized encryption and key generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corndorf, Eric

    objectives of key generation and direct data-encryption, a new quantum cryptographic principle is demonstrated wherein keyed coherent-state signal sets are employed. Taking advantage of the fundamental and irreducible quantum-measurement noise of coherent states, these schemes do not require the users to measure the influence of an attacker. Experimental key-generation and data encryption schemes based on these techniques, which are compatible with today's WDM fiber-optic telecommunications infrastructure, are implemented and analyzed.

  12. Quantum random number generator based on quantum nature of vacuum fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, A. E.; Chivilikhin, S. A.; Gleim, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Quantum random number generator (QRNG) allows obtaining true random bit sequences. In QRNG based on quantum nature of vacuum, optical beam splitter with two inputs and two outputs is normally used. We compare mathematical descriptions of spatial beam splitter and fiber Y-splitter in the quantum model for QRNG, based on homodyne detection. These descriptions were identical, that allows to use fiber Y-splitters in practical QRNG schemes, simplifying the setup. Also we receive relations between the input radiation and the resulting differential current in homodyne detector. We experimentally demonstrate possibility of true random bits generation by using QRNG based on homodyne detection with Y-splitter.

  13. Modal generation of the design parameters of an elastic spacecraft by the random search method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, B. A.

    A method for the modal generation of the dynamic properties of an elastic spacecraft is proposed which is based on algorithms of random search in the space of design parameters. A practical implementation of this approach is illustrated by an example. It is shown that the modal parameter generation procedure based on the random search solves the problem of parameter selection. However, as in any other method, the accuracy of the computation of matrix elements is largely determined by the initial set of permissible values and the number of random samples in determining the subgradient of the objective function.

  14. Letter of Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  15. On the design of henon and logistic map-based random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magfirawaty; Suryadi, M. T.; Ramli, Kalamullah

    2017-10-01

    The key sequence is one of the main elements in the cryptosystem. True Random Number Generators (TRNG) method is one of the approaches to generating the key sequence. The randomness source of the TRNG divided into three main groups, i.e. electrical noise based, jitter based and chaos based. The chaos based utilizes a non-linear dynamic system (continuous time or discrete time) as an entropy source. In this study, a new design of TRNG based on discrete time chaotic system is proposed, which is then simulated in LabVIEW. The principle of the design consists of combining 2D and 1D chaotic systems. A mathematical model is implemented for numerical simulations. We used comparator process as a harvester method to obtain the series of random bits. Without any post processing, the proposed design generated random bit sequence with high entropy value and passed all NIST 800.22 statistical tests.

  16. 640-Gbit/s fast physical random number generation using a broadband chaotic semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limeng; Pan, Biwei; Chen, Guangcan; Guo, Lu; Lu, Dan; Zhao, Lingjuan; Wang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    An ultra-fast physical random number generator is demonstrated utilizing a photonic integrated device based broadband chaotic source with a simple post data processing method. The compact chaotic source is implemented by using a monolithic integrated dual-mode amplified feedback laser (AFL) with self-injection, where a robust chaotic signal with RF frequency coverage of above 50 GHz and flatness of ±3.6 dB is generated. By using 4-least significant bits (LSBs) retaining from the 8-bit digitization of the chaotic waveform, random sequences with a bit-rate up to 640 Gbit/s (160 GS/s × 4 bits) are realized. The generated random bits have passed each of the fifteen NIST statistics tests (NIST SP800-22), indicating its randomness for practical applications.

  17. Pseudo-Random Number Generators for Vector Processors and Multicore Processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Agner

    2015-01-01

    Large scale Monte Carlo applications need a good pseudo-random number generator capable of utilizing both the vector processing capabilities and multiprocessing capabilities of modern computers in order to get the maximum performance. The requirements for such a generator are discussed. New ways ...

  18. Launch of Zoological Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukatsu, Takema; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    A new open-access journal, Zoological Letters, was launched as a sister journal to Zoological Science, in January 2015. The new journal aims at publishing topical papers of high quality from a wide range of basic zoological research fields. This review highlights the notable reviews and research articles that have been published in the first year of Zoological Letters, providing an overview on the current achievements and future directions of the journal.

  19. Delay line length selection in generating fast random numbers with a chaotic laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Yuncai; Xue, Lugang; Hou, Jiayin; Zhang, Beibei; Wang, Anbang; Zhang, Mingjiang

    2012-04-10

    The chaotic light signals generated by an external cavity semiconductor laser have been experimentally demonstrated to extract fast random numbers. However, the photon round-trip time in the external cavity can cause the occurrence of the periodicity in random sequences. To overcome it, the exclusive-or operation on corresponding random bits in samples of the chaotic signal and its time-delay signal from a chaotic laser is required. In this scheme, the proper selection of delay length is a key issue. By doing a large number of experiments and theoretically analyzing the interplay between the Runs test and the threshold value of the autocorrelation function, we find when the corresponding delay time of autocorrelation trace with the correlation coefficient of less than 0.007 is considered as the delay time between the chaotic signal and its time-delay signal, streams of random numbers can be generated with verified randomness.

  20. Concurrent Generation of Pseudo Random Numbers with LFSR of Fibonacci and Galois Type

    OpenAIRE

    Emina I. Milovanović; Stojčev, Mile K.; Igor Ž. Milovanović; Tatjana R. Nikolić; Zoran Stamenković

    2016-01-01

    We have considered implementation of parallel test pattern generator based on a linear feedback shift register (LFSR) with multiple outputs used as a building block in built-in-self-test (BIST) design within SoC. The proposed design can drive several circuits under test (CUT) simultaneously. The mathematical procedure for concurrent pseudo random number (PRN) generation is described. We have implemented LFSRs that generate two and three PRNs in FPGA and ASIC technology. The design was tested ...

  1. Random laser action with coherent feedback via second-harmonic generation

    CERN Document Server

    Qiao, Yanqi; Cai, Zengyan; Chen, Xianfeng

    2016-01-01

    The random laser action with coherent feedback by second-harmonic generation (SHG) was experimentally demonstrated in this paper. Compared with the conventional random laser action based on photoluminescence effect, which needs strong photoresponse in the active medium and has a fixed response waveband due to the inherent energy level structure of the material, this random SHG laser action indicates a possible confinement of the nonlinear signal with ring cavities and widens the response waveband due to the flexible frequency conversion in nonlinear process. The combination of coherent random laser and nonlinear optics will provide us another possible way to break phase-matching limitations, with fiber or feedback-based wavefront shaping method to transmit the emission signal directionally. This work suggests potential applications in band-tunable random laser, phase-matching-free nonlinear optics and even brings in new consideration about random nonlinear optics (RNO).

  2. Random Number Generation and Executive Functions in Parkinson's Disease: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münte, Thomas F; Joppich, Gregor; Däuper, Jan; Schrader, Christoph; Dengler, Reinhard; Heldmann, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The generation of random sequences is considered to tax executive functions and has been reported to be impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD) previously. To assess the neurophysiological markers of random number generation in PD. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded in 12 PD patients and 12 age-matched normal controls (NC) while either engaging in random number generation (RNG) by pressing the number keys on a computer keyboard in a random sequence or in ordered number generation (ONG) necessitating key presses in the canonical order. Key presses were paced by an external auditory stimulus at a rate of 1 tone every 1800 ms. As a secondary task subjects had to monitor the tone-sequence for a particular target tone to which the number "0" key had to be pressed. This target tone occurred randomly and infrequently, thus creating a secondary oddball task. Behaviorally, PD patients showed an increased tendency to count in steps of one as well as a tendency towards repetition avoidance. Electrophysiologically, the amplitude of the P3 component of the ERP to the target tone of the secondary task was reduced during RNG in PD but not in NC. The behavioral findings indicate less random behavior in PD while the ERP findings suggest that this impairment comes about, because attentional resources are depleted in PD.

  3. Fractal generator for efficient production of random planar patterns and symbols in digital mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiyu; Liu, Gang; Ma, Xiaogang; Li, Xinchuan; He, Zhenwen

    2017-08-01

    In digital cartography, the automatic generation of random planar patterns and symbols is still an ongoing challenge. Those patterns and symbols of randomness have randomly variated configurations and boundaries, and their generating algorithms are constrained by the shape features, cartographic standards and many other conditions. The fractal geometry offers favorable solutions to simulate random boundaries and patterns. In the work presented in this paper, we used both fractal theory and random Iterated Function Systems (IFS) to develop a method for the automatic generation of random planar patterns and symbols. The marshland and the trough cross-bedding patterns were used as two case studies for the implementation of the method. We first analyzed the morphological characteristics of those two planar patterns. Then we designed algorithms and implementation schemes addressing the features of each pattern. Finally, we ran the algorithms to generate the patterns and symbols, and compared them with the requirements of a few digital cartographic standards. The method presented in this paper has already been deployed in a digital mapping system for practical uses. The flexibility of the method also allows it to be reused and/or adapted in various software platforms for digital mapping.

  4. Early stage hot spot analysis through standard cell base random pattern generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Joong-Won; Song, Jaewan; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Park, Seongyul; Yang, Seung-Hune; Lee, Sooryong; Kang, Hokyu; Madkour, Kareem; ElManhawy, Wael; Lee, SeungJo; Kwan, Joe

    2017-04-01

    Due to limited availability of DRC clean patterns during the process and RET recipe development, OPC recipes are not tested with high pattern coverage. Various kinds of pattern can help OPC engineer to detect sensitive patterns to lithographic effects. Random pattern generation is needed to secure robust OPC recipe. However, simple random patterns without considering real product layout style can't cover patterning hotspot in production levels. It is not effective to use them for OPC optimization thus it is important to generate random patterns similar to real product patterns. This paper presents a strategy for generating random patterns based on design architecture information and preventing hotspot in early process development stage through a tool called Layout Schema Generator (LSG). Using LSG, we generate standard cell based on random patterns reflecting real design cell structure - fin pitch, gate pitch and cell height. The output standard cells from LSG are applied to an analysis methodology to assess their hotspot severity by assigning a score according to their optical image parameters - NILS, MEEF, %PV band and thus potential hotspots can be defined by determining their ranking. This flow is demonstrated on Samsung 7nm technology optimizing OPC recipe and early enough in the process avoiding using problematic patterns.

  5. A revision of the subtract-with-borrow random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibidanov, Alexei

    2017-12-01

    The most popular and widely used subtract-with-borrow generator, also known as RANLUX, is reimplemented as a linear congruential generator using large integer arithmetic with the modulus size of 576 bits. Modern computers, as well as the specific structure of the modulus inferred from RANLUX, allow for the development of a fast modular multiplication - the core of the procedure. This was previously believed to be slow and have too high cost in terms of computing resources. Our tests show a significant gain in generation speed which is comparable with other fast, high quality random number generators. An additional feature is the fast skipping of generator states leading to a seeding scheme which guarantees the uniqueness of random number sequences. Licensing provisions: GPLv3 Programming language: C++, C, Assembler

  6. Compact quantum random number generator based on superluminescent light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shihai; Yang, Jie; Fan, Fan; Huang, Wei; Li, Dashuang; Xu, Bingjie

    2017-12-01

    By measuring the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise of the superluminescent light emitting diodes, we propose and realize a quantum random number generator (QRNG) featured with practicability. In the QRNG, after the detection and amplification of the ASE noise, the data acquisition and randomness extraction which is integrated in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) are both implemented in real-time, and the final random bit sequences are delivered to a host computer with a real-time generation rate of 1.2 Gbps. Further, to achieve compactness, all the components of the QRNG are integrated on three independent printed circuit boards with a compact design, and the QRNG is packed in a small enclosure sized 140 mm × 120 mm × 25 mm. The final random bit sequences can pass all the NIST-STS and DIEHARD tests.

  7. Quantum random number generation enhanced by weak-coherent states interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira da Silva, T; Xavier, G B; Amaral, G C; Temporão, G P; von der Weid, J P

    2016-08-22

    We propose and demonstrate a technique for quantum random number generation based on the random population of the output spatial modes of a beam splitter when both inputs are simultaneously fed with indistinguishable weak coherent states. We simulate and experimentally validate the probability of generation of random bits as a function of the average photon number per input, and compare it to the traditional approach of a single weak coherent state transmitted through a beam-splitter, showing an improvement of up to 32%. The ensuing interference phenomenon reduces the probability of coincident counts between the detectors associated with bits 0 and 1, thus increasing the probability of occurrence of a valid output. A long bit string is assessed by a standard randomness test suite with good confidence. Our proposal can be easily implemented and opens attractive performance gains without a significant trade-off.

  8. A Bidirectional Generalized Synchronization Theorem-Based Chaotic Pseudo-random Number Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Shuangshuang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a bidirectional generalized synchronization theorem for discrete chaos system, this paper introduces a new 5-dimensional bidirectional generalized chaos synchronization system (BGCSDS, whose prototype is a novel chaotic system introduced in [12]. Numerical simulation showed that two pair variables of the BGCSDS achieve generalized chaos synchronization via a transform H.A chaos-based pseudo-random number generator (CPNG was designed by the new BGCSDS. Using the FIPS-140-2 tests issued by the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST verified the randomness of the 1000 binary number sequences generated via the CPNG and the RC4 algorithm respectively. The results showed that all the tested sequences passed the FIPS-140-2 tests. The confidence interval analysis showed the statistical properties of the randomness of the sequences generated via the CPNG and the RC4 algorithm do not have significant differences.

  9. Generating Variable and Random Schedules of Reinforcement Using Microsoft Excel Macros

    OpenAIRE

    Bancroft, Stacie L; Bourret, Jason C

    2008-01-01

    Variable reinforcement schedules are used to arrange the availability of reinforcement following varying response ratios or intervals of time. Random reinforcement schedules are subtypes of variable reinforcement schedules that can be used to arrange the availability of reinforcement at a constant probability across number of responses or time. Generating schedule values for variable and random reinforcement schedules can be difficult. The present article describes the steps necessary to writ...

  10. Theory of fast nondeterministic physical random-bit generation with chaotic lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harayama, Takahisa; Sunada, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Muramatsu, Jun; Arai, Ken-ichi; Uchida, Atsushi; Davis, Peter

    2012-04-01

    We theoretically show that completely stochastic fast physical random bit generation at a rate of more than one gigabit per second can be realized by using lasers with optical delayed feedback which creates high-dimensional chaos of laser light outputs. The theory is based on the mixing property of chaos, which transduces microscopic quantum noise of spontaneous emission in lasers into random transitions between discrete macroscopic states.

  11. Graphene based widely-tunable and singly-polarized pulse generation with random fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, B. C.; Rao, Y. J.; Wang, Z. N.; Wu, Y.; Zhou, J. H.; Wu, H.; Fan, M. Q.; Cao, X. L.; Zhang, W. L.; Chen, Y. F.; Li, Y. R.; Churkin, D.; Turitsyn, S.; Wong, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Pulse generation often requires a stabilized cavity and its corresponding mode structure for initial phase-locking. Contrastingly, modeless cavity-free random lasers provide new possibilities for high quantum efficiency lasing that could potentially be widely tunable spectrally and temporally. Pulse generation in random lasers, however, has remained elusive since the discovery of modeless gain lasing. Here we report coherent pulse generation with modeless random lasers based on the unique polarization selectivity and broadband saturable absorption of monolayer graphene. Simultaneous temporal compression of cavity-free pulses are observed with such a polarization modulation, along with a broadly-tunable pulsewidth across two orders of magnitude down to 900 ps, a broadly-tunable repetition rate across three orders of magnitude up to 3 MHz, and a singly-polarized pulse train at 41 dB extinction ratio, about an order of magnitude larger than conventional pulsed fiber lasers. Moreover, our graphene-based pulse formation also demonstrates robust pulse-to-pulse stability and wide-wavelength operation due to the cavity-less feature. Such a graphene-based architecture not only provides a tunable pulsed random laser for fiber-optic sensing, speckle-free imaging, and laser-material processing, but also a new way for the non-random CW fiber lasers to generate widely tunable and singly-polarized pulses.

  12. Random fields generation on the GPU with the spectral turning bands method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, L.; Cosenza, B.; Kimeswenger, S.; Fahringer, T.

    2014-08-01

    Random field (RF) generation algorithms are of paramount importance for many scientific domains, such as astrophysics, geostatistics, computer graphics and many others. Some examples are the generation of initial conditions for cosmological simulations or hydrodynamical turbulence driving. In the latter a new random field is needed every time-step. Current approaches commonly make use of 3D FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) and require the whole generated field to be stored in memory. Moreover, they are limited to regular rectilinear meshes and need an extra processing step to support non-regular meshes. In this paper, we introduce TBARF (Turning BAnd Random Fields), a RF generation algorithm based on the turning band method that is optimized for massively parallel hardware such as GPUs. Our algorithm replaces the 3D FFT with a lower order, one-dimensional FFT followed by a projection step, and is further optimized with loop unrolling and blocking. We show that TBARF can easily generate RF on non-regular (non uniform) meshes and can afford mesh sizes bigger than the available GPU memory by using a streaming, out-of-core approach. TBARF is 2 to 5 times faster than the traditional methods when generating RFs with more than 16M cells. It can also generate RF on non-regular meshes, and has been successfully applied to two real case scenarios: planetary nebulae and cosmological simulations.

  13. Random bit generation using an optically injected semiconductor laser in chaos with oversampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Zhou; Chan, Sze-Chun

    2012-06-01

    Random bit generation is experimentally demonstrated using a semiconductor laser driven into chaos by optical injection. The laser is not subject to any feedback so that the chaotic waveform possesses very little autocorrelation. Random bit generation is achieved at a sampling rate of 10 GHz even when only a fractional bandwidth of 1.5 GHz within a much broader chaotic bandwidth is digitized. By retaining only 3 least significant bits per sample, an output bit rate of 30 Gbps is attained. The approach requires no complicated postprocessing and has no stringent requirement on the electronics bandwidth.

  14. Fortran code for generating random probability vectors, unitaries, and quantum states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eMaziero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of generating random configurations is recognized in many areas of knowledge. Fortran was born for scientific computing and has been one of the main programming languages in this area since then. And several ongoing projects targeting towards its betterment indicate that it will keep this status in the decades to come. In this article, we describe Fortran codes produced, or organized, for the generation of the following random objects: numbers, probability vectors, unitary matrices, and quantum state vectors and density matrices. Some matrix functions are also included and may be of independent interest.

  15. The Danish letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Ejlers, Steen

    2011-01-01

    open space when following another character, and the free-floating ring of the letter Å/å, which in 1948 was introduced in Denmark as a replacement of AA/aa, will in some cases interrupt the horizontal movement of a typeface when set in running text. Through various examples of Danish type designers......' attempt to create the optimal variation of these letters, we will give a brief introduction to the Danish typography tradition ranging from the early 20th Century and up until today....

  16. Learning to recognize letters in the periphery: Effects of repeated exposure, letter frequency, and letter complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husk, Jesse S.; Yu, Deyue

    2017-01-01

    Patients with central vision loss must rely on their peripheral vision for reading. Unfortunately, limitations of peripheral vision, such as crowding, pose significant challenges to letter recognition. As a result, there is a need for developing effective training methods for improving crowded letter recognition in the periphery. Several studies have shown that extensive practice with letter stimuli is beneficial to peripheral letter recognition. Here, we explore stimulus-related factors that might influence the effectiveness of peripheral letter recognition training. Specifically, we examined letter exposure (number of letter occurrences), frequency of letter use in English print, and letter complexity and evaluated their contributions to the amount of improvement observed in crowded letter recognition following training. We analyzed data collected across a range of training protocols. Using linear regression, we identified the best-fitting model and observed that all three stimulus-related factors contributed to improvement in peripheral letter recognition with letter exposure being the most important factor. As an important explanatory variable, pretest accuracy was included in the model as well to avoid estimate biases and was shown to have influence on the relationship between training improvement and letter exposure. When developing training protocols for peripheral letter recognition, it may be beneficial to not only consider the overall length of training, but also to tailor the number of stimulus occurrences for each letter according to its initial performance level, frequency, and complexity. PMID:28265651

  17. BUSINESS LETTERS GENRE PECULIARITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Derbishewa Khadizat Askhabalievna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Authentic business letters are classified according to lexico-phraseological collocations used in them. Methodology Semiotic method, descriptive method, method of continuous sampling. Practical implications The paper is of interest for specialists in the fields of Text linguistics, English for Specific Purposes and Business English.

  18. Letter to the Editor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cut an onion to maximize anti-cancer compounds and minimize eye irritation. Article History: Received : 01-08-2013. Keywords: Anti-Cancer. Sulfur Compounds. *Corresponding Author: E-mail: saha.dibyajyoti@gmail.com. LETTER. Cancer chemoprevention is defined as the use of pharmacological, natural or dietary agents ...

  19. The Fuzzy Scarlet Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Critics of the public release of teacher evaluation scores sometimes liken these ratings to the scarlet letter worn by Hester Prynne in Nathaniel Hawthorne's classic novel. The comparison is apt. But public school teachers who are subjected to public shaming because of their students' test scores can rarely expect the opportunities for redemption…

  20. Letters with Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Jean Morman

    1990-01-01

    Outlines several methods for students at elementary levels to use cut-out lettering. Describes a name creation project, a scrabble bulletin board, and methods to teach the language arts. Maintains that, if students use their own letterforms in the classroom, they will be more involved in learning. (KM)

  1. An On-Demand Optical Quantum Random Number Generator with In-Future Action and Ultra-Fast Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipčević, Mario; Ursin, Rupert

    2015-06-09

    Random numbers are essential for our modern information based society e.g. in cryptography. Unlike frequently used pseudo-random generators, physical random number generators do not depend on complex algorithms but rather on a physical process to provide true randomness. Quantum random number generators (QRNG) do rely on a process, which can be described by a probabilistic theory only, even in principle. Here we present a conceptually simple implementation, which offers a 100% efficiency of producing a random bit upon a request and simultaneously exhibits an ultra low latency. A careful technical and statistical analysis demonstrates its robustness against imperfections of the actual implemented technology and enables to quickly estimate randomness of very long sequences. Generated random numbers pass standard statistical tests without any post-processing. The setup described, as well as the theory presented here, demonstrate the maturity and overall understanding of the technology.

  2. Generation of sound by Alfven waves with random phases in the solar atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrukhin, N.S.; Fainshtein, S.M.

    1976-11-01

    The problem of the excitation of sound by Alfven waves meeting in the solar plasma is discussed. Kinetic equations for the interacting waves are derived and analyzed on the assumption that the Alfven waves have random phases. Estimates are given which show the possibility of the generation of LF-pulsations in the solar atmosphere.

  3. Examining Psychokinesis: The Interaction of Human Intention with Random Number Generators--A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Holger; Steinkamp, Fiona; Boller, Emil

    2006-01-01

    Seance-room and other large-scale psychokinetic phenomena have fascinated humankind for decades. Experimental research has reduced these phenomena to attempts to influence (a) the fall of dice and, later, (b) the output of random number generators (RNGs). The meta-analysis combined 380 studies that assessed whether RNG output correlated with human…

  4. A time series approach to random number generation: Using recurrence quantification analysis to capture executive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, W.; Maes, J.H.R.; Hasselman, F.W.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of executive functions plays a prominent role in contemporary experimental and clinical studies on cognition. One paradigm used in this framework is the random number generation (RNG) task, the execution of which demands aspects of executive functioning, specifically inhibition and

  5. Transposed-Letter Priming of Prelexical Orthographic Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    A prime generated by transposing two internal letters (e.g., jugde) produces strong priming of the original word (judge). In lexical decision, this transposed-letter (TL) priming effect is generally weak or absent for nonword targets; thus, it is unclear whether the origin of this effect is lexical or prelexical. The authors describe the Bayesian…

  6. Spectral turning bands for efficient Gaussian random fields generation on GPUs and accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, L.; Cosenza, B.; Kimeswenger, S.; Fahringer, T.

    2015-11-01

    A random field (RF) is a set of correlated random variables associated with different spatial locations. RF generation algorithms are of crucial importance for many scientific areas, such as astrophysics, geostatistics, computer graphics, and many others. Current approaches commonly make use of 3D fast Fourier transform (FFT), which does not scale well for RF bigger than the available memory; they are also limited to regular rectilinear meshes. We introduce random field generation with the turning band method (RAFT), an RF generation algorithm based on the turning band method that is optimized for massively parallel hardware such as GPUs and accelerators. Our algorithm replaces the 3D FFT with a lower-order, one-dimensional FFT followed by a projection step and is further optimized with loop unrolling and blocking. RAFT can easily generate RF on non-regular (non-uniform) meshes and efficiently produce fields with mesh sizes bigger than the available device memory by using a streaming, out-of-core approach. Our algorithm generates RF with the correct statistical behavior and is tested on a variety of modern hardware, such as NVIDIA Tesla, AMD FirePro and Intel Phi. RAFT is faster than the traditional methods on regular meshes and has been successfully applied to two real case scenarios: planetary nebulae and cosmological simulations.

  7. Performance of university students on random number generation at different rates to evaluate executive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Amer C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of adult young subjects in a Random Number Generation (RNG task by controlling the response speed (RS. METHOD: Sixty-nine university students of both sexes took part in the experiment (25.05 ± 6.71 year-old. Participants were alloted into 3 groups which differed in RS rates to generate numbers: 1, 2 and 4 seconds to generate each number. A digital metronomer was used to control RS. Participants were asked to generate 100 numbers. The responses were mensured through Evans's RNG Index. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences among the groups [F (3, 68 = 7.120; p < .05]. Differences were localized between 1 and 2 seconds (p = 0.004 and between 1 and 4 seconds (p = 0.006. No differences were observed between 2 and 4 seconds (p = 0.985. CONCLUSION: The present results suggest that the response speed in production of random numbers influences the performance of the Random Numbers Generation task.

  8. Genetic alphabet expansion transcription generating functional RNA molecules containing a five-letter alphabet including modified unnatural and natural base nucleotides by thermostable T7 RNA polymerase variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Michiko; Meyer, Adam J; Hirao, Ichiro; Ellington, Andrew D

    2017-11-14

    Thermostable T7 RNA polymerase variants were explored for genetic alphabet expansion transcription involving the unnatural Ds-Pa pair. One variant exhibited high incorporation efficiencies of functionally modified Pa substrates and enabled the simultaneous incorporation of 2'-fluoro-nucleoside triphosphates of pyrimidines into transcripts, allowing the generation of novel, highly functional RNA molecules.

  9. Synchronization of random bit generators based on coupled chaotic lasers and application to cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Ido; Butkovski, Maria; Peleg, Yitzhak; Zigzag, Meital; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Rosenbluh, Michael; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2010-08-16

    Random bit generators (RBGs) constitute an important tool in cryptography, stochastic simulations and secure communications. The later in particular has some difficult requirements: high generation rate of unpredictable bit strings and secure key-exchange protocols over public channels. Deterministic algorithms generate pseudo-random number sequences at high rates, however, their unpredictability is limited by the very nature of their deterministic origin. Recently, physical RBGs based on chaotic semiconductor lasers were shown to exceed Gbit/s rates. Whether secure synchronization of two high rate physical RBGs is possible remains an open question. Here we propose a method, whereby two fast RBGs based on mutually coupled chaotic lasers, are synchronized. Using information theoretic analysis we demonstrate security against a powerful computational eavesdropper, capable of noiseless amplification, where all parameters are publicly known. The method is also extended to secure synchronization of a small network of three RBGs.

  10. Generating log-normally distributed random numbers by using the Ziggurat algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Soo [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Uncertainty analyses are usually based on the Monte Carlo method. Using an efficient random number generator(RNG) is a key element in success of Monte Carlo simulations. Log-normal distributed variates are very typical in NPP PSAs. This paper proposes an approach to generate log normally distributed variates based on the Ziggurat algorithm and evaluates the efficiency of the proposed Ziggurat RNG. The proposed RNG can be helpful to improve the uncertainty analysis of NPP PSAs. This paper focuses on evaluating the efficiency of the Ziggurat algorithm from a NPP PSA point of view. From this study, we can draw the following conclusions. - The Ziggurat algorithm is one of perfect random number generators to product normal distributed variates. - The Ziggurat algorithm is computationally much faster than the most commonly used method, Marsaglia polar method.

  11. Dynamics of a semiconductor laser with polarization-rotated feedback and its utilization for random bit generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Neus; Soriano, Miguel C; Sukow, David W; Fischer, Ingo

    2011-12-01

    Chaotic semiconductor lasers have been proven attractive for fast random bit generation. To follow this strategy, simple robust systems and a systematic approach determining the required dynamical properties and most suitable conditions for this application are needed. We show that dynamics of a single mode laser with polarization-rotated feedback are optimal for random bit generation when characterized simultaneously by a broad power spectrum and low autocorrelation. We observe that successful random bit generation also is sensitive to digitization and postprocessing procedures. Applying the identified criteria, we achieve fast random bit generation rates (up to 4 Gbit/s) with minimal postprocessing. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  12. An adaptive random search for short term generation scheduling with network constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J A Marmolejo

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive random search approach to address a short term generation scheduling with network constraints, which determines the startup and shutdown schedules of thermal units over a given planning horizon. In this model, we consider the transmission network through capacity limits and line losses. The mathematical model is stated in the form of a Mixed Integer Non Linear Problem with binary variables. The proposed heuristic is a population-based method that generates a set of new potential solutions via a random search strategy. The random search is based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. The main key of the proposed method is that the noise level of the random search is adaptively controlled in order to exploring and exploiting the entire search space. In order to improve the solutions, we consider coupling a local search into random search process. Several test systems are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed heuristic. We use a commercial optimizer to compare the quality of the solutions provided by the proposed method. The solution of the proposed algorithm showed a significant reduction in computational effort with respect to the full-scale outer approximation commercial solver. Numerical results show the potential and robustness of our approach.

  13. PUFKEY: A High-Security and High-Throughput Hardware True Random Number Generator for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfang Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Random number generators (RNG play an important role in many sensor network systems and applications, such as those requiring secure and robust communications. In this paper, we develop a high-security and high-throughput hardware true random number generator, called PUFKEY, which consists of two kinds of physical unclonable function (PUF elements. Combined with a conditioning algorithm, true random seeds are extracted from the noise on the start-up pattern of SRAM memories. These true random seeds contain full entropy. Then, the true random seeds are used as the input for a non-deterministic hardware RNG to generate a stream of true random bits with a throughput as high as 803 Mbps. The experimental results show that the bitstream generated by the proposed PUFKEY can pass all standard national institute of standards and technology (NIST randomness tests and is resilient to a wide range of security attacks.

  14. PUFKEY: a high-security and high-throughput hardware true random number generator for sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongfang; Lu, Zhaojun; Zou, Xuecheng; Liu, Zhenglin

    2015-10-16

    Random number generators (RNG) play an important role in many sensor network systems and applications, such as those requiring secure and robust communications. In this paper, we develop a high-security and high-throughput hardware true random number generator, called PUFKEY, which consists of two kinds of physical unclonable function (PUF) elements. Combined with a conditioning algorithm, true random seeds are extracted from the noise on the start-up pattern of SRAM memories. These true random seeds contain full entropy. Then, the true random seeds are used as the input for a non-deterministic hardware RNG to generate a stream of true random bits with a throughput as high as 803 Mbps. The experimental results show that the bitstream generated by the proposed PUFKEY can pass all standard national institute of standards and technology (NIST) randomness tests and is resilient to a wide range of security attacks.

  15. Letter selection and letter assembly in acquired dysgraphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Irene P; Biran, Iftah; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2006-12-01

    We explored the constituents of the graphemic buffer in a patient with acquired dysgraphia and tested the hypothesis that the graphemic buffer is composed of 2 dissociable components: letter selection and letter assembly. Research on dysgraphia has established the graphemic buffer as a component of the spelling mechanism, and the buffer is considered a short-term memory store that is critical for letter production. However, little is known about the components within the buffer. We devised 2 spelling tasks that rely differentially on letter selection and letter assembly. In the selection task, our patient produced the letters that composed a target word, but she did not have to provide serial position information. In the assembly task, B.H. was given all the letters of a target word and was asked to spell the word by arranging the letters in the proper serial order. Compared to spelling to dictation, our patient did not benefit from being given letter identity information (ie, assembly task), but her performance improved significantly when position information was available (ie, selection task). Based on these data, and the comparison of her performance with another dysgraphic patient, we propose that the graphemic buffer engages in both letter selection and letter assembly.

  16. A comparison of letter and digit processing in letter-by-letter reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Janet L; Eskes, Gail A

    2008-01-01

    The extent to which letter-by-letter reading results from a specific orthographic deficit, as compared with a nonspecific disturbance in basic visuoperceptual mechanisms, is unclear. The current study directly compared processing of letters and digits in a letter-by-letter reader, G.M., using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task and a speeded matching task. Comparisons were made to a group of six brain-damaged individuals without reading deficits. In the RSVP task, G.M. had increased difficulty reporting the target identities when they were letters, as compared with digits. Although this general pattern was also evident in the control group, the magnitude of the letter-digit accuracy difference was greater in G.M. Similarly, in the matching task, G.M. was slower to match letters than digits, relative to the control group, although his response times to both item types were increased. These data suggest that letter-by-letter reading, at least in this case, results from a visuoperceptual encoding deficit that particularly affects letters, but also extends to processing of digits to a lesser extent. Results are consistent with the notion that a left occipitotemporal area is specialized for letter processing with greater bilaterality in the visual processing of digits.

  17. An Architecturally Constrained Model of Random Number Generation and its Application to Modelling the Effect of Generation Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Sexton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Random number generation (RNG is a complex cognitive task for human subjects, requiring deliberative control to avoid production of habitual, stereotyped sequences. Under various manipulations (e.g., speeded responding, transcranial magnetic stimulation, or neurological damage the performance of human subjects deteriorates, as reflected in a number of qualitatively distinct, dissociable biases. For example, the intrusion of stereotyped behaviour (e.g., counting increases at faster rates of generation. Theoretical accounts of the task postulate that it requires the integrated operation of multiple, computationally heterogeneous cognitive control ('executive' processes. We present a computational model of RNG, within the framework of a novel, neuropsychologically-inspired cognitive architecture, ESPro. Manipulating the rate of sequence generation in the model reproduced a number of key effects observed in empirical studies, including increasing sequence stereotypy at faster rates. Within the model, this was due to time limitations on the interaction of supervisory control processes, namely, task setting, proposal of responses, monitoring, and response inhibition. The model thus supports the fractionation of executive function into multiple, computationally heterogeneous processes.

  18. Complexity and properties of a multidimensional Cat-Hadamard map for pseudo random number generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Hue, Ta Thi; Hoang, Thang Manh

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a novel method to extend the Cat map from 2-dimension to higher dimension using the fast pseudo Hadamard Transform, and the resulted maps are called Cat-Hadamard maps. The complexity and properties of Cat-Hadamard maps are investigated under the point of view for cryptographic applications. In addition, we propose a method for constructing a pseudo random number generator using a novel design concept of the high dimensional Cat map. The simulation results show that the proposed generator fulfilled all the statistic tests of the NIST SP 800-90 A.

  19. Generation of random numbers on graphics processors: forced indentation in silico of the bacteriophage HK97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhmurov, A; Rybnikov, K; Kholodov, Y; Barsegov, V

    2011-05-12

    The use of graphics processing units (GPUs) in simulation applications offers a significant speed gain as compared to computations on central processing units (CPUs). Many simulation methods require a large number of independent random variables generated at each step. We present two approaches for implementation of random number generators (RNGs) on a GPU. In the one-RNG-per-thread approach, one RNG produces a stream of random numbers in each thread of execution, whereas the one-RNG-for-all-threads method builds on the ability of different threads to communicate, thus, sharing random seeds across an entire GPU device. We used these approaches to implement Ran2, Hybrid Taus, and Lagged Fibonacci algorithms on a GPU. We profiled the performance of these generators in terms of the computational time, memory usage, and the speedup factor (CPU time/GPU time). These generators have been incorporated into the program for Langevin simulations of biomolecules fully implemented on the GPU. The ∼250-fold computational speedup on the GPU allowed us to carry out single-molecule dynamic force measurements in silico to explore the mechanical properties of the bacteriophage HK97 in the experimental subsecond time scale. We found that the nanomechanical response of HK97 depends on the conditions of force application, including the rate of change and geometry of the mechanical perturbation. Hence, using the GPU-based implementation of RNGs, presented here, in conjunction with Langevin simulations, makes it possible to directly compare the results of dynamic force measurements in vitro and in silico.

  20. Analysis of a non-diffractive beam generated from an annular beam in random media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ziqi; Shiina, Tatsuo

    2017-11-01

    An annular beam has the ability to self-transform into a non-diffractive beam when it propagates in air at a long distance. In our previous study, we propagated an annular beam in random media and obtained a non-diffractive beam at a short propagation distance of a few tens centimeters by adjusting the concentration of random media and narrowing the view angle of the receiver. In this paper, we aim to analyze the components and characteristics of a non-diffractive beam and elucidate how the non-diffractive beam is generated in random media. The intensity variation of the scattered waveform is examined when the distance between the receiver and the back plane of a medium tank is changed. The waveform scattered in random media is constructed from forward scattering light at the center and multiple scattering light in the surrounding part. The forward scattering light at the center generates the non-diffractive beam. In numerical analysis based on diffusion theory, the calculation result of the non-diffractive beam shows agreement with the experimental result.

  1. Leveraging Random Number Generation for Mastery of Learning in Teaching Quantitative Research Courses via an E-Learning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsathorn, Wasita; Charoen, Danuvasin; Dryver, Arthur L.

    2014-01-01

    E-Learning brings access to a powerful but often overlooked teaching tool: random number generation. Using random number generation, a practically infinite number of quantitative problem-solution sets can be created. In addition, within the e-learning context, in the spirit of the mastery of learning, it is possible to assign online quantitative…

  2. The cosmic microwave background radiation power spectrum as a random bit generator for symmetric- and asymmetric-key cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeffrey S; Cleaver, Gerald B

    2017-10-01

    In this note, the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Radiation is shown to be capable of functioning as a Random Bit Generator, and constitutes an effectively infinite supply of truly random one-time pad values of arbitrary length. It is further argued that the CMB power spectrum potentially conforms to the FIPS 140-2 standard. Additionally, its applicability to the generation of a (n × n) random key matrix for a Vernam cipher is established.

  3. Letters to the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Heat and temperature Kevin Carlton Canterbury Christ Church University College, North Holmes Road, Canterbury, Kent CT1 1QU, UK James Bond's shoes J Oliver Linton Head of Physics, Wolverhampton Grammar School, Compton Road, Wolverhampton WV3 9RB, UK Of springs and strings Ronald Newburgh Extension School, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA Clarifying the concept Keith Atkin 14 Cortworth Road, Ecclesall, Sheffield S11 9LP, UK

  4. Letters to the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Narrow-band interference filters for lecture demonstrations A P Ovcharenko, B M Valiyov and V D Yegorenkov Kharkov State University, Ukraine Static electricity and the gas lift chair P Cooke Department of Physics, University of South Australia, Levels Campus, Pooraka, South Australia Relativistic mass Simon Carson Norton College, Langton Road, Norton, Malton, North Yorkshire YO17 9PT, UK Magazine or journal? Philip Britton Head of Physics, Leeds Grammar School, UK

  5. Letters to the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Comment on `Magnetic and electric field strengths of high voltage power lines and household appliances' José Luis Giordano Dept. de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales y Fluidos, CPSI, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain Twins paradox S R Carson Norton College, Malton, North Yorkshire, UK On alternative ways of finding the ratio of specific heats of gases Tomas Ficker Physics Department, Technical University of Brno, Czech Republic

  6. Application of random number generators in genetic algorithms to improve rainfall-runoff modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlumecký, Martin; Buchtele, Josef; Richta, Karel

    2017-10-01

    The efficient calibration of rainfall-runoff models is a difficult issue, even for experienced hydrologists. Therefore, fast and high-quality model calibration is a valuable improvement. This paper describes a novel methodology and software for the optimisation of a rainfall-runoff modelling using a genetic algorithm (GA) with a newly prepared concept of a random number generator (HRNG), which is the core of the optimisation. The GA estimates model parameters using evolutionary principles, which requires a quality number generator. The new HRNG generates random numbers based on hydrological information and it provides better numbers compared to pure software generators. The GA enhances the model calibration very well and the goal is to optimise the calibration of the model with a minimum of user interaction. This article focuses on improving the internal structure of the GA, which is shielded from the user. The results that we obtained indicate that the HRNG provides a stable trend in the output quality of the model, despite various configurations of the GA. In contrast to previous research, the HRNG speeds up the calibration of the model and offers an improvement of rainfall-runoff modelling.

  7. Engineering applications of fpgas chaotic systems, artificial neural networks, random number generators, and secure communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tlelo-Cuautle, Esteban; de la Fraga, Luis Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    This book offers readers a clear guide to implementing engineering applications with FPGAs, from the mathematical description to the hardware synthesis, including discussion of VHDL programming and co-simulation issues. Coverage includes FPGA realizations such as: chaos generators that are described from their mathematical models; artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict chaotic time series, for which a discussion of different ANN topologies is included, with different learning techniques and activation functions; random number generators (RNGs) that are realized using different chaos generators, and discussions of their maximum Lyapunov exponent values and entropies. Finally, optimized chaotic oscillators are synchronized and realized to implement a secure communication system that processes black and white and grey-scale images. In each application, readers will find VHDL programming guidelines and computer arithmetic issues, along with co-simulation examples with Active-HDL and Simulink. Readers will b...

  8. Thermodynamic method for generating random stress distributions on an earthquake fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barall, Michael; Harris, Ruth A.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a new method for generating random stress distributions on an earthquake fault, suitable for use as initial conditions in a dynamic rupture simulation. The method employs concepts from thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. A pattern of fault slip is considered to be analogous to a micro-state of a thermodynamic system. The energy of the micro-state is taken to be the elastic energy stored in the surrounding medium. Then, the Boltzmann distribution gives the probability of a given pattern of fault slip and stress. We show how to decompose the system into independent degrees of freedom, which makes it computationally feasible to select a random state. However, due to the equipartition theorem, straightforward application of the Boltzmann distribution leads to a divergence which predicts infinite stress. To avoid equipartition, we show that the finite strength of the fault acts to restrict the possible states of the system. By analyzing a set of earthquake scaling relations, we derive a new formula for the expected power spectral density of the stress distribution, which allows us to construct a computer algorithm free of infinities. We then present a new technique for controlling the extent of the rupture by generating a random stress distribution thousands of times larger than the fault surface, and selecting a portion which, by chance, has a positive stress perturbation of the desired size. Finally, we present a new two-stage nucleation method that combines a small zone of forced rupture with a larger zone of reduced fracture energy.

  9. rMotifGen: random motif generator for DNA and protein sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardin C Timothy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of short, subtle conserved motif regions within a set of related DNA or amino acid sequences can lead to discoveries about important regulatory domains such as transcription factor and DNA binding sites as well as conserved protein domains. In order to help assess motif detection algorithms on motifs with varying properties and levels of conservation, we have developed a computational tool, rMotifGen, with the sole purpose of generating a number of random DNA or protein sequences containing short sequence motifs. Each motif consensus can be user-defined, randomly generated, or created from a position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM. Insertions and mutations within these motifs are created according to user-defined parameters and substitution matrices. The resulting sequences can be helpful in mutational simulations and in testing the limits of motif detection algorithms. Results Two implementations of rMotifGen have been created, one providing a graphical user interface (GUI for random motif construction, and the other serving as a command line interface. The second implementation has the added advantages of platform independence and being able to be called in a batch mode. rMotifGen was used to construct sample sets of sequences containing DNA motifs and amino acid motifs that were then tested against the Gibbs sampler and MEME packages. Conclusion rMotifGen provides an efficient and convenient method for creating random DNA or amino acid sequences with a variable number of motifs, where the instance of each motif can be incorporated using a position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM or by creating an instance mutated from its corresponding consensus using an evolutionary model based on substitution matrices. rMotifGen is freely available at: http://bioinformatics.louisville.edu/brg/rMotifGen/.

  10. What Can Reduce Letter Migrations in Letter Position Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Naama; Rahamim, Einav

    2014-01-01

    Letter position dyslexia (LPD) is a peripheral dyslexia that causes errors of letter position within words, such as reading "cloud" as "could." In this study, we assessed the effect of various display manipulations and reading methods on the reading of 10 Hebrew readers with developmental LPD. These manipulations included…

  11. Emergence of deterministic Green's functions from noise generated by finite random sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Oleg A

    2009-12-01

    Two-point correlation functions of sufficiently diffuse wave fields generated by uncorrelated random sources are known to approximate deterministic Green's functions between the two points. This property is utilized increasingly for passive imaging and remote sensing of the environment. Here we show that the relation between the Green's functions and the noise cross-correlation function holds under much less restrictive conditions than previously thought. It can even hold when ambient noise sources have correlation ranges large compared to the wavelength. Admissible correlation ranges are limited from above by the size of the Fresnel zone at wave propagation between the points where noise cross correlation is evaluated.

  12. Random number generator based on an integrated laser with on-chip optical feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschaffelt, Guy; Khoder, Mulham; Van der Sande, Guy

    2017-11-01

    We discuss the design and testing of a laser integrated with a long on-chip optical feedback section. The device and feedback section have been fabricated on a generic photonic integration platform using only standard building blocks. We have been able to integrate a 10 cm feedback length on a footprint of 5.5 mm2. By controlling the amount of feedback, we achieve chaotic dynamics in the long-cavity regime and show that the resulting dynamics is sufficiently complex in order to generate random bits based on the chaotic intensity fluctuation at a rate of 500 Mbits/s.

  13. Application of random number generators in genetic algorithms to improve rainfall-runoff modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlumecký, M.; Buchtele, Josef; Richta, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 553, October (2017), s. 350-355 ISSN 0022-1694 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : genetic algorithm * optimisation * rainfall-runoff modeling * random generator Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 3.483, year: 2016 https://ac.els-cdn.com/S0022169417305516/1-s2.0-S0022169417305516-main.pdf?_tid=fa1bad8a-bd6a-11e7-8567-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1509365462_a1335d3d997e9eab19e23b1eee977705

  14. On Generating Optimal Signal Probabilities for Random Tests: A Genetic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Srinivas

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic Algorithms are robust search and optimization techniques. A Genetic Algorithm based approach for determining the optimal input distributions for generating random test vectors is proposed in the paper. A cost function based on the COP testability measure for determining the efficacy of the input distributions is discussed. A brief overview of Genetic Algorithms (GAs and the specific details of our implementation are described. Experimental results based on ISCAS-85 benchmark circuits are presented. The performance of our GAbased approach is compared with previous results. While the GA generates more efficient input distributions than the previous methods which are based on gradient descent search, the overheads of the GA in computing the input distributions are larger.

  15. A Chemical Reaction Network to Generate Random, Power-Law-Distributed Time Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Patrick; Schulze, Holger; Metzner, Claus

    2017-10-06

    In Lévy walks (LWs), particles move with a fixed speed along straight line segments and turn in new directions after random time intervals that are distributed according to a power law. Such LWs are thought to be an advantageous foraging and search strategy for organisms. While complex nervous systems are certainly capable of producing such behavior, it is not clear at present how single-cell organisms can generate the long-term correlated control signals required for a LW. Here, we construct a biochemical reaction system that generates long-time correlated concentration fluctuations of a signaling substance, with a tunable fractional exponent of the autocorrelation function. The network is based on well-known modules, and its basic function is highly robust with respect to the parameter settings.

  16. A Hardware Efficient Random Number Generator for Nonuniform Distributions with Arbitrary Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian de Schryver

    2012-01-01

    number generators is a very active research field. However, most state-of-the-art architectures are either tailored to specific distributions or use up a lot of hardware resources. At ReConFig 2010, we have presented a new design that saves up to 48% of area compared to state-of-the-art inversion-based implementation, usable for arbitrary distributions and precision. In this paper, we introduce a more flexible version together with a refined segmentation scheme that allows to further reduce the approximation error significantly. We provide a free software tool allowing users to implement their own distributions easily, and we have tested our random number generator thoroughly by statistic analysis and two application tests.

  17. A STUDY ON LEGIBILITY OF LETTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve ERSAN,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the most general sense, lettering is the art of drawing letters, in which the letter forms carry illustrtive features. In this research which is titled "An Analysis on Legibility in Letterings Used in Print Advertisements", letterings used in and specially designed for print ads are analysed and their contribution to the ads are examined. Legibility, which is the fundamental function of writing and typography is examined in the field of lettering that has an illustrative approach. Also, the article puts emphasis on the technique and form’s contribution on content in letterings. Keywords: Lettering, print advertisements, letter design, illustration, legibility.

  18. Generation mechanism of nonlinear ultrasonic Lamb waves in thin plates with randomly distributed micro-cracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Youxuan; Li, Feilong; Cao, Peng; Liu, Yaolu; Zhang, Jianyu; Fu, Shaoyun; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Ning

    2017-08-01

    Since the identification of micro-cracks in engineering materials is very valuable in understanding the initial and slight changes in mechanical properties of materials under complex working environments, numerical simulations on the propagation of the low frequency S 0 Lamb wave in thin plates with randomly distributed micro-cracks were performed to study the behavior of nonlinear Lamb waves. The results showed that while the influence of the randomly distributed micro-cracks on the phase velocity of the low frequency S 0 fundamental waves could be neglected, significant ultrasonic nonlinear effects caused by the randomly distributed micro-cracks was discovered, which mainly presented as a second harmonic generation. By using a Monte Carlo simulation method, we found that the acoustic nonlinear parameter increased linearly with the micro-crack density and the size of micro-crack zone, and it was also related to the excitation frequency and friction coefficient of the micro-crack surfaces. In addition, it was found that the nonlinear effect of waves reflected by the micro-cracks was more noticeable than that of the transmitted waves. This study theoretically reveals that the low frequency S 0 mode of Lamb waves can be used as the fundamental waves to quantitatively identify micro-cracks in thin plates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 1.2 GBit/s Pseudo Random Pulse Generator Using Multiplexing with GaAs Mesfet Gates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Carsten

    1978-01-01

    A l.2 Gbit/s RZ pseudo random bit generator using multiplexing of six 200 Mbit/s channels, and a GaAs-MESFET gate circuit which exhibits both high speed and simplicity are presented. As a new contribution to the treatment of pseudo random sequences it is shown how the autocorrelation function and...

  20. Letters From Beirut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura U. Marks

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In summer 2006 I returned to Lebanon for a third time. I had lived in Beirut for almost a year in 2002–2003, during which time I fell in love with the city, as so many people do—the generosity, resilience and joie de vivre of so many Lebanese people, the lively artistic scene, the intensity with which so many historical and international forces cross this small country. I built strong friendships then. I returned in 2004, and again in June 2006, this time to study Arabic at the American University of Beirut. On 14 July, in response to Hizballah’s action of taking two Israeli soldiers hostage and shooting across the Lebanese–Israeli border, Israel began an intense bombardment of Lebanese infrastructure, starting with the airport, as well as places where Hizballah supporters lived. A privileged outsider waiting to be evacuated, I was also helpless, afraid, and furious at the pro-Israeli tone of the international media. So I wrote daily letters to family, friends, and a growing email list of interested people. This is an edited version.

  1. The cosmic microwave background radiation power spectrum as a random bit generator for symmetric- and asymmetric-key cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this note, the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB Radiation is shown to be capable of functioning as a Random Bit Generator, and constitutes an effectively infinite supply of truly random one-time pad values of arbitrary length. It is further argued that the CMB power spectrum potentially conforms to the FIPS 140-2 standard. Additionally, its applicability to the generation of a (n × n random key matrix for a Vernam cipher is established. Keywords: Particle physics, Computer science, Mathematics, Astrophysics

  2. Harvesting Entropy for Random Number Generation for Internet of Things Constrained Devices Using On-Board Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Marcin Piotr; Jara, Antonio; Ogorzalek, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Entropy in computer security is associated with the unpredictability of a source of randomness. The random source with high entropy tends to achieve a uniform distribution of random values. Random number generators are one of the most important building blocks of cryptosystems. In constrained devices of the Internet of Things ecosystem, high entropy random number generators are hard to achieve due to hardware limitations. For the purpose of the random number generation in constrained devices, this work proposes a solution based on the least-significant bits concatenation entropy harvesting method. As a potential source of entropy, on-board integrated sensors (i.e., temperature, humidity and two different light sensors) have been analyzed. Additionally, the costs (i.e., time and memory consumption) of the presented approach have been measured. The results obtained from the proposed method with statistical fine tuning achieved a Shannon entropy of around 7.9 bits per byte of data for temperature and humidity sensors. The results showed that sensor-based random number generators are a valuable source of entropy with very small RAM and Flash memory requirements for constrained devices of the Internet of Things. PMID:26506357

  3. Harvesting entropy for random number generation for internet of things constrained devices using on-board sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Marcin Piotr; Jara, Antonio; Ogorzalek, Maciej

    2015-10-22

    Entropy in computer security is associated with the unpredictability of a source of randomness. The random source with high entropy tends to achieve a uniform distribution of random values. Random number generators are one of the most important building blocks of cryptosystems. In constrained devices of the Internet of Things ecosystem, high entropy random number generators are hard to achieve due to hardware limitations. For the purpose of the random number generation in constrained devices, this work proposes a solution based on the least-significant bits concatenation entropy harvesting method. As a potential source of entropy, on-board integrated sensors (i.e., temperature, humidity and two different light sensors) have been analyzed. Additionally, the costs (i.e., time and memory consumption) of the presented approach have been measured. The results obtained from the proposed method with statistical fine tuning achieved a Shannon entropy of around 7.9 bits per byte of data for temperature and humidity sensors. The results showed that sensor-based random number generators are a valuable source of entropy with very small RAM and Flash memory requirements for constrained devices of the Internet of Things.

  4. Harvesting Entropy for Random Number Generation for Internet of Things Constrained Devices Using On-Board Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Piotr Pawlowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Entropy in computer security is associated with the unpredictability of a source of randomness. The random source with high entropy tends to achieve a uniform distribution of random values. Random number generators are one of the most important building blocks of cryptosystems. In constrained devices of the Internet of Things ecosystem, high entropy random number generators are hard to achieve due to hardware limitations. For the purpose of the random number generation in constrained devices, this work proposes a solution based on the least-significant bits concatenation entropy harvesting method. As a potential source of entropy, on-board integrated sensors (i.e., temperature, humidity and two different light sensors have been analyzed. Additionally, the costs (i.e., time and memory consumption of the presented approach have been measured. The results obtained from the proposed method with statistical fine tuning achieved a Shannon entropy of around 7.9 bits per byte of data for temperature and humidity sensors. The results showed that sensor-based random number generators are a valuable source of entropy with very small RAM and Flash memory requirements for constrained devices of the Internet of Things.

  5. Optical key distribution system using atmospheric turbulence as the randomness generating function: classical optical protocol for information assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Marvin D.; Bas, Christophe F.; Gervais, David; Renda, Priscilla F.; Townsend, Daniel; Rushanan, Joseph J.; Francoeur, Joe; Donnangelo, Nick; Stenner, Michael D.

    2013-05-01

    We describe an experimental laboratory system that generates and distributes random binary sequence bit streams between two optical terminals (labeled Alice and Bob). The random binary sequence is generated through probing the optical channel of a turbulent atmosphere between the two terminals with coincident laser beams. The two laser beams experience differential phase delays while propagating through the atmospheric optical channel. The differential phase delays are detected and sampled at each terminal to yield raw random bit streams. The random bit streams are processed to remove bit errors and, through privacy amplification, to yield a bit stream known only to Alice and Bob. The same chaotic physical mechanism that provides randomness also provides confidentiality. The laboratory system yielded secret key bit rates of a few bits/second. For external optical channels over longer channel lengths with atmospheric turbulence levels, secret bit rates of 10 s of bits/second are predicted.

  6. Letters and Letter Writing in Early Modern Culture: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Del Lungo Camiciotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The recently renewed scholarly interest in historical letters and letter writing has given rise to several studies which explore the culture of epistolarity from different perspectives. The article offers an introduction to recent scholarship on epistolary discourse and practices in early modern culture. Given the importance of letters as data for several types of diachronic investigation, the article focuses on three points that are crucial for an understanding of the relevance of epistolary discourse itself in early modern European culture. Firstly, letters are invaluable data for historical linguistics, to which they provide information for the history of languages, and sociohistorical and sociolinguistic research. A second recent field of investigation considers letters as documents and material items; the results of research in this area have contributed to the reconstruction of official relationships and information exchanges in past cultures and shed light on social interaction. A third, more traditional area of study, deals with the letter as a form that has given rise to many different genres across the centuries, both practical and literary.

  7. An advanced monolithic digitalized random carrier frequency spread-spectrum clock generator for EMI suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Haiyan; Chen Zao; Zhang Bo; Li Zhaoji, E-mail: guohy5@sina.co [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2010-06-15

    A novel monolithic digitalized random carrier frequency modulation spread-spectrum clock generator (RCF-SSCG) is proposed. In this design, the output frequency of the proposed RCF-SSCG changes with the intensity of the capacitive charge and discharge current. Its analytical model is induced and the effect of the modulation parameters on the spread spectrum is numerically simulated and discussed. Compared with other works, this design has the advantages of small size, low power consumption and good robustness. The circuit has been fabricated in a 0.5 {mu}m CMOS process and applied to a class D amplifier in which the proposed RCF-SSCG occupies an area of 0.112 mm{sup 2} and consumes 9 mW. The experimental results confirm the theoretical analyses. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  8. Generation of Random Wind Speed Profiles for Evaluation of Stress in WT Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigazo, Alberto; Qin, Zian; Liserre, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbines are subjected to wind speed variations that cause a power profile that will stress the overall system. This stress is tranfered to the power converter, resulting in temperature variations of the power devices and, hence, causing the reduction of the lifetime. The lifetime expectation...... changes depending on the real wind speed once the wind turbine is operating. Usually, the real wind speed profiles are employed to evaluate this stress but they do not consider all possible operation conditions and require intensive computations. To solve these issues, this paper proposes the generation...... of random wind speed profiles, based on the measured ones, in order to evaluate the thermal stress of the power devices based on a simplified statistical approach....

  9. Copies of Unique Comment Letters

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Belles; Bureau of Reclamation

    2005-01-01

    Unique letters and messages regarding the "Notice to solicit comments and hold public meetings on the development of management strategies for Lake Powell and Lake Mead, including Lower Basin shortage guidelines, under low reservoir conditions."

  10. German Memo and Letter Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Arthur H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes German correspondence styles in order to assist American managers. Explains typical conventions of both letter and memo formats, emphasizing the need to appreciate differences between formal and informal modes of communication. (RS)

  11. A random generation approach to pattern library creation for full chip lithographic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Elain; Hong, Sid; Liu, Limei; Huang, Lucas; Yang, Legender; Kabeel, Aliaa; Madkour, Kareem; ElManhawy, Wael; Kwan, Joe; Du, Chunshan; Hu, Xinyi; Wan, Qijian; Zhang, Recoo

    2017-04-01

    As technology advances, the need for running lithographic (litho) checking for early detection of hotspots before tapeout has become essential. This process is important at all levels—from designing standard cells and small blocks to large intellectual property (IP) and full chip layouts. Litho simulation provides high accuracy for detecting printability issues due to problematic geometries, but it has the disadvantage of slow performance on large designs and blocks [1]. Foundries have found a good compromise solution for running litho simulation on full chips by filtering out potential candidate hotspot patterns using pattern matching (PM), and then performing simulation on the matched locations. The challenge has always been how to easily create a PM library of candidate patterns that provides both comprehensive coverage for litho problems and fast runtime performance. This paper presents a new strategy for generating candidate real design patterns through a random generation approach using a layout schema generator (LSG) utility. The output patterns from the LSG are simulated, and then classified by a scoring mechanism that categorizes patterns according to the severity of the hotspots, probability of their presence in the design, and the likelihood of the pattern causing a hotspot. The scoring output helps to filter out the yield problematic patterns that should be removed from any standard cell design, and also to define potential problematic patterns that must be simulated within a bigger context to decide whether or not they represent an actual hotspot. This flow is demonstrated on SMIC 14nm technology, creating a candidate hotspot pattern library that can be used in full chip simulation with very high coverage and robust performance.

  12. Composing chaotic music from the letter m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Anastasios D.

    Chaotic music is composed from a proposed iterative map depicting the letter m, relating the pitch, duration and loudness of successive steps. Each of the two curves of the letter m is based on the classical logistic map. Thus, the generating map is xn+1 = r xn(1/2 - xn) for xn between 0 and 1/2 defining the first curve, and xn+1 = r (xn - 1/2)(1 - xn) for xn between 1/2 and 1 representing the second curve. The parameter r which determines the height(s) of the letter m varies from 2 to 16, the latter value ensuring fully developed chaotic solutions for the whole letter m; r = 8 yielding full chaotic solutions only for its first curve. The m-model yields fixed points, bifurcation points and chaotic regions for each separate curve, as well as values of the parameter r greater than 8 which produce inter-fixed points, inter-bifurcation points and inter-chaotic regions from the interplay of the two curves. Based on this, music is composed from mapping the m- recurrence model solutions onto actual notes. The resulting musical score strongly depends on the sequence of notes chosen by the composer to define the musical range corresponding to the range of the chaotic mathematical solutions x from 0 to 1. Here, two musical ranges are used; one is the middle chromatic scale and the other is the seven- octaves range. At the composer's will and, for aesthetics, within the same composition, notes can be the outcome of different values of r and/or shifted in any octave. Compositions with endings of non-repeating note patterns result from values of r in the m-model that do not produce bifurcations. Scores of chaotic music composed from the m-model and the classical logistic model are presented.

  13. Assessment of the suitability of different random number generators for Monte Carlo simulations in gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo Diaz, N.; Vergara Gil, A. [Centre for Radiological Protection and Higiene, P.O. Box 6195, Habana (Cuba); Jurado Vargas, M. [Physics Department, University of Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)], E-mail: mjv@unex.es

    2010-03-15

    The Monte Carlo method has become a valuable numerical laboratory framework in which to simulate complex physical systems. It is based on the generation of pseudo-random number sequences by numerical algorithms called random generators. In this work we assessed the suitability of different well-known random number generators for the simulation of gamma-ray spectrometry systems during efficiency calibrations. The assessment was carried out in two stages. The generators considered (Delphi's linear congruential, mersenne twister, XorShift, multiplier with carry, universal virtual array, and non-periodic logistic map based generator) were first evaluated with different statistical empirical tests, including moments, correlations, uniformity, independence of terms and the DIEHARD battery of tests. In a second step, an application-specific test was conducted by implementing the generators in our Monte Carlo program DETEFF and comparing the results obtained with them. The calculations were performed with two different CPUs, for a typical HpGe detector and a water sample in Marinelli geometry, with gamma-rays between 59 and 1800 keV. For the Non-periodic Logistic Map based generator, dependence of the most significant bits was evident. This explains the bias, in excess of 5%, of the efficiency values obtained with this generator. The results of the application-specific assessment and the statistical performance of the other algorithms studied indicate their suitability for the Monte Carlo simulation of gamma-ray spectrometry systems for efficiency calculations.

  14. Letters to those who Dare Feel: Using Reflective Letter-Writing to Explore the Emotionality of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Pithouse-Morgan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Using reflective letter-writing as a method of generating data, a group of four researchers embarked on a collaborative autoethnographic inquiry into the emotional dimensions of researching social aspects of HIV & AIDS. In this article, we use the medium of a narrative dialogue to represent and re-examine our reflective letter-writing method. The dialogue draws attention to key features of reflective letter-writing as a collaborative autoethnographic research method and, in so doing, highlights and explores the nature, potential significance, and challenges of this method. Our discussion points to the value of a collaborative process of reflective letter-writing as a way for researchers to access and portray emotional aspects of their research experience, to deepen their engagement with these emotional dimensions, and to gain insight into their own and others' lived research experiences.

  15. Color associations for days and letters across different languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouw, Romke; Case, Laura; Gosavi, Radhika; Ramachandran, Vilayanur

    2014-01-01

    While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days). The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457) of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes) and participants who do not (non-synesthetes). We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for "A," red for "Monday," and white for "Sunday." We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences as shown by Simner et al. (2005). While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters) that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups.

  16. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romke eRouw

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days. The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457 of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes and participants who do not (non-synesthetes. We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for A, red for Monday, and white for Sunday. We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences shown by Simner et al (2005. While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups.

  17. Embedded Picture Mnemonics to Learn Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmidman, Adina; Ehri, Linnea

    2010-01-01

    Can embedded mnemonics ease the task of learning a foreign alphabet? English-speaking preschoolers (N = 36, M = 5;2 years) were taught 10 Hebrew letter-sound relations. Experimental letters were learned with mnemonics that embedded letter shapes in drawings of objects whose shapes resembled the letters and whose English names began with the…

  18. Essay: Physical Review Letters; Sam Goudsmit's Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Robert K

    2008-01-18

    Sam Goudsmit implemented his vision of converting the Letters section of Physical Review into a distinct journal fifty years ago. Physical Review Letters was designed to publish "only papers that really deserve rapid communication." The new journal became so successful with physicists throughout the world that Physical Review Letters now publishes 3500 Letters per year.

  19. Letter Writing: A Tool for Counselor Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Rachel M.

    2008-01-01

    Letter writing is an integral component of narrative therapy practice. In addition to the benefits of letter writing in counseling practice, letter writing may hold interesting possibilities for use in counselor education. This article provides a brief review of the benefits of letter writing in counseling practice and discusses the potential use…

  20. Research of the method of pseudo-random number generation based on asynchronous cellular automata with several active cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilan Stepan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, there are many tasks that are aimed at studying the dynamic changes in physical processes. These tasks do not give advance known result. The solution of such problems is based on the construction of a dynamic model of the object. Successful structural and functional implementation of the object model can give a positive result in time. This approach uses the task of constructing artificial biological objects. To solve such problems, pseudo-random number generators are used, which also find wide application for information protection tasks. Such generators should have good statistical properties and give a long repetition period of the generated pseudo-random bit sequence. This work is aimed at improving these characteristics. The paper considers the method of forming pseudo-random sequences of numbers on the basis of aperiodic cellular automata with two active cells. A pseudo-random number generator is proposed that generates three bit sequences. The first two bit sequences are formed by the corresponding two active cells in the cellular automaton. The third bit sequence is the result of executing the XOR function over the bits of the first two sequences and it has better characteristics compared to them. The use of cellular automata with two active cells allowed to improve the statistical properties of the formed bit sequence, as well as its repetition period. This is proved by using graphical tests for generators built based on cellular automata using the neighborhoods of von Neumann and Moore. The tests showed high efficiency of the generator based on an asynchronous cellular automaton with the neighborhood of Moore. The proposed pseudo-random number generators have good statistical properties, which makes it possible to use them in information security systems, as well as for simulation tasks of various dynamic processes.

  1. Embedded Platform for Automatic Testing and Optimizing of FPGA Based Cryptographic True Random Number Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Varchola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an evaluation platform for cryptographic True Random Number Generators (TRNGs based on the hardware implementation of statistical tests for FPGAs. It was developed in order to provide an automatic tool that helps to speed up the TRNG design process and can provide new insights on the TRNG behavior as it will be shown on a particular example in the paper. It enables to test sufficient statistical properties of various TRNG designs under various working conditions on the fly. Moreover, the tests are suitable to be embedded into cryptographic hardware products in order to recognize TRNG output of weak quality and thus increase its robustness and reliability. Tests are fully compatible with the FIPS 140 standard and are implemented by the VHDL language as an IP-Core for vendor independent FPGAs. A recent Flash based Actel Fusion FPGA was chosen for preliminary experiments. The Actel version of the tests possesses an interface to the Actel’s CoreMP7 softcore processor that is fully compatible with the industry standard ARM7TDMI. Moreover, identical tests suite was implemented to the Xilinx Virtex 2 and 5 in order to compare the performance of the proposed solution with the performance of already published one based on the same FPGAs. It was achieved 25% and 65% greater clock frequency respectively while consuming almost equal resources of the Xilinx FPGAs. On the top of it, the proposed FIPS 140 architecture is capable of processing one random bit per one clock cycle which results in 311.5 Mbps throughput for Virtex 5 FPGA.

  2. Effectiveness of second generation antipsychotics: A systematic review of randomized trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Hugo A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic reviews based on efficacy trials are inconclusive about which second generation antipsychotic drug (SGA should be preferred in normal clinical practice, and studies with longer duration and more pragmatic designs are called for. Effectiveness studies, also known as naturalistic, pragmatic, practical or real life studies, adhere to these principles as they aim to mimic daily clinical practice and have longer follow-up. Objective To review the head-to-head effectiveness of SGAs in the domains of global outcomes, symptoms of disease, and tolerability. Methods Searches were made in Embase, PubMED, and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials for effectiveness studies published from 1980 to 2008, week 1. Different combinations of the keywords antipsychotic*, neuroleptic* AND open, pragmatic, practical, naturalistic, real life, effectiveness, side effect*, unwanted effect*, tolera* AND compar* AND random* were used. Results Sixteen different reports of randomized head-to-head comparisons of SGA effectiveness were located. There were differences regarding sample sizes, inclusion criteria and follow-up periods, as well as sources of financial sponsorship. In acute-phase and first-episode patients no differences between the SGAs were disclosed regarding alleviating symptoms of disease. Olanzapine was associated with more weight gain and adverse effects on serum lipids. In the chronic phase patients olanzapine groups had longer time to discontinuation of treatment and better treatment adherence compared to other SGAs. The majority of studies found no differences between the SGAs in alleviating symptoms of psychosis in chronically ill patients. Olanzapine was associated with more metabolic adverse effects compared to the others SGAs. There were surprisingly few between-drug differences regarding side effects. First generation antipsychotics were associated with lower total mental health care costs in 2 of 3 studies

  3. NullSeq: A Tool for Generating Random Coding Sequences with Desired Amino Acid and GC Contents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia S Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The existence of over- and under-represented sequence motifs in genomes provides evidence of selective evolutionary pressures on biological mechanisms such as transcription, translation, ligand-substrate binding, and host immunity. In order to accurately identify motifs and other genome-scale patterns of interest, it is essential to be able to generate accurate null models that are appropriate for the sequences under study. While many tools have been developed to create random nucleotide sequences, protein coding sequences are subject to a unique set of constraints that complicates the process of generating appropriate null models. There are currently no tools available that allow users to create random coding sequences with specified amino acid composition and GC content for the purpose of hypothesis testing. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we developed a method that generates unbiased random sequences with pre-specified amino acid and GC content, which we have developed into a python package. Our method is the simplest way to obtain maximally unbiased random sequences that are subject to GC usage and primary amino acid sequence constraints. Furthermore, this approach can easily be expanded to create unbiased random sequences that incorporate more complicated constraints such as individual nucleotide usage or even di-nucleotide frequencies. The ability to generate correctly specified null models will allow researchers to accurately identify sequence motifs which will lead to a better understanding of biological processes as well as more effective engineering of biological systems.

  4. Goal-independent mechanisms for free response generation: creative and pseudo-random performance share neural substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Manzano, Örjan; Ullén, Fredrik

    2012-01-02

    To what extent free response generation in different tasks uses common and task-specific neurocognitive processes has remained unclear. Here, we investigated overlap and differences in neural activity during musical improvisation and pseudo-random response generation. Brain activity was measured using fMRI in a group of professional classical pianists, who performed musical improvisation of melodies, pseudo-random key-presses and a baseline condition (sight-reading), on either two, six or twelve keys on a piano keyboard. The results revealed an extensive overlap in neural activity between the two generative conditions. Active regions included the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices, inferior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex and pre-SMA. No regions showed higher activity in improvisation than in pseudo-random generation. These findings suggest that the activated regions fulfill generic functions that are utilized in different types of free generation tasks, independent of overall goal. In contrast, pseudo-random generation was accompanied by higher activity than improvisation in several regions. This presumably reflects the participants' musical expertise as well as the pseudo-random generation task's high load on attention, working memory, and executive control. The results highlight the significance of using naturalistic tasks to study human behavior and cognition. No brain activity was related to the size of the response set. We discuss that this may reflect that the musicians were able to use specific strategies for improvisation, by which there was no simple relationship between response set size and neural activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Aging effect on Executive Control in the Random Number Generation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Cavalheiro Hamdan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The decline of abilities related to Executive Control –EC with aging has been related with the Pre-Frontal System neurobiological aging. This study compared the score obtained in the Random Number Generation Test (RNG by two groups: 30 college students (older than 18 and 36 elderly (older than 60. This last group was divided according to the criteria of schooling in up to 8 years of schooling and over 8 years of schooling. The results show that the younger participants scored 0,344 ± 0,04 in the RNG test; the elderly with up to 8 years of schooling punctuated 0,432 ± 0,10 and that those who studied for 9 years or more reached a mean of 0,393 ± 0,05. The statistical analysis of these data suggest that the elderly performance in the RNG test (0,420 ± 0,09 was significantly worse when compared to the performance of the younger participants (t (64 = -3,9927; p = 0,0001, which confirms that the manipulation and inhibitory control abilities of information are decreased in older people, probably due to the natural aging process of the Frontal Cortex. Keywords: neuropsychology; aging; executive functions.

  6. Shocking Behavior: Random Wealth in Antebellum Georgia and Human Capital Across Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt; Ferrie, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Does the lack of wealth constrain parents' investments in the human capital of their descendants? We conduct a nearly fifty-year followup of an episode in which such constraints would have been plausibly relaxed by a random allocation of substantial wealth to families. We track descendants of participants in Georgia's Cherokee Land Lottery of 1832, in which nearly every adult white male in Georgia took part. Winners received close to the median level of wealth - a large financial windfall orthogonal to participants' underlying characteristics that might have also affected their children's human capital. Although winners had slightly more children than non-winners, they did not send them to school more. Sons of winners have no better adult outcomes (wealth, income, literacy) than the sons of non-winners, and winners' grandchildren do not have higher literacy or school attendance than non-winners' grandchildren. This suggests only a limited role for family financial resources in the formation of human capital in the next generations in this environment and a potentially more important role for other factors that persist through family lines.

  7. Turbulence generation by a shock wave interacting with a random density inhomogeneity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete Ruiz de Lira, C.

    2010-12-01

    When a planar shock wave interacts with a random pattern of pre-shock density non-uniformities, it generates an anisotropic turbulent velocity/vorticity field. This turbulence plays an important role in the early stages of the mixing process in a compressed fluid. This situation emerges naturally in a shock interaction with weakly inhomogeneous deuterium-wicked foam targets in inertial confinement fusion and with density clumps/clouds in astrophysics. We present an exact small-amplitude linear theory describing such an interaction. It is based on the exact theory of time and space evolution of the perturbed quantities behind a corrugated shock front for a single-mode pre-shock non-uniformity. Appropriate mode averaging in two dimensions results in closed analytical expressions for the turbulent kinetic energy, degree of anisotropy of velocity and vorticity fields in the shocked fluid, shock amplification of the density non-uniformity and sonic energy flux radiated downstream. These explicit formulae are further simplified in the important asymptotic limits of weak/strong shocks and highly compressible fluids. A comparison with the related problem of a shock interacting with a pre-shock isotropic vorticity field is also presented.

  8. Shocking Behavior: Random Wealth in Antebellum Georgia and Human Capital Across Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt; Ferrie, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Does the lack of wealth constrain parents’ investments in the human capital of their descendants? We conduct a nearly fifty-year followup of an episode in which such constraints would have been plausibly relaxed by a random allocation of substantial wealth to families. We track descendants of participants in Georgia’s Cherokee Land Lottery of 1832, in which nearly every adult white male in Georgia took part. Winners received close to the median level of wealth – a large financial windfall orthogonal to participants’ underlying characteristics that might have also affected their children’s human capital. Although winners had slightly more children than non-winners, they did not send them to school more. Sons of winners have no better adult outcomes (wealth, income, literacy) than the sons of non-winners, and winners’ grandchildren do not have higher literacy or school attendance than non-winners’ grandchildren. This suggests only a limited role for family financial resources in the formation of human capital in the next generations in this environment and a potentially more important role for other factors that persist through family lines. PMID:28529385

  9. A generator for unique quantum random numbers based on vacuum states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, C.; Wittmann, C.; Sych, D.

    2010-01-01

    Random numbers are a valuable component in diverse applications that range from simulations(1) over gambling to cryptography(2,3). The quest for true randomness in these applications has engendered a large variety of different proposals for producing random numbers based on the foundational unpre...

  10. Generation of Aptamers from A Primer-Free Randomized ssDNA Library Using Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Shih-Ming; Lai, Ji-Ching; Horng, Horng-Er; Liu, Tu-Chen; Hong, Chin-Yih

    2017-04-01

    Aptamers are oligonucleotides that can bind to specific target molecules. Most aptamers are generated using random libraries in the standard systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Each random library contains oligonucleotides with a randomized central region and two fixed primer regions at both ends. The fixed primer regions are necessary for amplifying target-bound sequences by PCR. However, these extra-sequences may cause non-specific bindings, which potentially interfere with good binding for random sequences. The Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection (MARAS) is a newly developed protocol for generating single-strand DNA aptamers. No repeat selection cycle is required in the protocol. This study proposes and demonstrates a method to isolate aptamers for C-reactive proteins (CRP) from a randomized ssDNA library containing no fixed sequences at 5‧ and 3‧ termini using the MARAS platform. Furthermore, the isolated primer-free aptamer was sequenced and binding affinity for CRP was analyzed. The specificity of the obtained aptamer was validated using blind serum samples. The result was consistent with monoclonal antibody-based nephelometry analysis, which indicated that a primer-free aptamer has high specificity toward targets. MARAS is a feasible platform for efficiently generating primer-free aptamers for clinical diagnoses.

  11. Some Bounds on the Deviation Probability for Sums of Nonnegative Random Variables Using Upper Polynomials, Moment and Probability Generating Functions

    OpenAIRE

    From, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    We present several new bounds for certain sums of deviation probabilities involving sums of nonnegative random variables. These are based upon upper bounds for the moment generating functions of the sums. We compare these new bounds to those of Maurer [2], Bernstein [4], Pinelis [16], and Bentkus [3]. We also briefly discuss the infinitely divisible distributions case.

  12. Credit Card Debt Hardship Letter Samples

    OpenAIRE

    lissa coffey

    2016-01-01

    Having trouble with your credit card debt? Below you will find examples of hardship letters. There are several things to consider when writing a credit card hardship letter. A hardship letter is the first step to letting the credit card company know that things are bad. This free credit card hardship letter sample is only a guide in order to start the negotiation. Credit card debt hardship letter example, hardship letter to credit card. If you are having trouble paying off your debt and need ...

  13. Random walks with long-range steps generated by functions of Laplacian matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Riascos, A. P.; Michelitsch, T. M.; Collet, B. A.; Nowakowski, A. F.; Nicolleau, F. C. G. A

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we explore different Markovian random walk strategies on networks with transition probabilities between nodes defined in terms of functions of the Laplacian matrix. We generalize random walk strategies with local information in the Laplacian matrix, that describes the connections of a network, to a dynamics determined by functions of this matrix. The resulting processes is non-local allowing transitions of the random walker from one node to nodes beyond its nearest neighbors. I...

  14. Letters from a Nightingale nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, E

    1996-01-01

    Mary Cadbury was one of six daughters in a wealthy Birmingham family, all of whom took up professional or unpaid philanthropic work. In 1873 Mary began nurse training at the Nightingale School, St Thomas's Hospital, and regularly sent letters to family and friends, which provide a graphic account of the experience of a nurse in the latter half of the nineteenth century.

  15. Mapping Letters through Interaction Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iturrioz, T.; Cano, J.; Wachowicz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Many kinds of text documents (e.g. newspapers, reports and letters) provide a potential source of geo-referenced information that is often underutilized. In interaction design, the use of dynamic icons and animation plays an important role in creating a sense of interactivity and feedback with

  16. Curriculum Vitae and Related Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sharyl Bender

    This booklet, which was developed by a college career center, explains the purpose of and procedures for writing curriculum vitae (CV) and related letters. The following topics are covered: when a CV is appropriate, points to consider when writing a CV, items usually included, possible sections to include in a CV, and steps in writing cover…

  17. Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Triana, Michel; Ternier, Stefaan; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Stieger, Lina; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa; Drachsler, Hendrik; Maher, Bridget; Henn, Patrick; Orrego, Carola; Marcus, Specht

    2014-01-01

    The electronic discharge letter mobile app takes advantage of Near Field Communication (NFC) within the PATIENT project and a related post-doc study. NFC enabled phones to read passive RFID tags, but can also use this short-range wireless technology to exchange (small) messages. NFC in that sense

  18. Random number generation in bilingual Balinese and German students: preliminary findings from an exploratory cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenge, Hans; Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus Jaya; Suryani, Luh Ketut

    2009-08-01

    Verbal random number generation is a procedurally simple task to assess executive function and appears ideally suited for the use under diverse settings in cross-cultural research. The objective of this study was to examine ethnic group differences between young adults in Bali (Indonesia) and Kiel (Germany): 50 bilingual healthy students, 30 Balinese and 20 Germans, attempted to generate a random sequence of the digits 1 to 9. In Balinese participants, randomization was done in Balinese (native language L1) and Indonesian (first foreign language L2), in German subjects in the German (L1) and English (L2) languages. 10 of 30 Balinese (33%), but no Germans, were unable to inhibit habitual counting in more than half of the responses. The Balinese produced significantly more nonrandom responses than the Germans with higher rates of counting and significantly less occurrence of the digits 2 and 3 in L1 compared with L2. Repetition and cycling behavior did not differ between the four languages. The findings highlight the importance of taking into account culture-bound psychosocial factors for Balinese individuals when administering and interpreting a random number generation test.

  19. Underlying Cause(s) of Letter Perseveration Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; Rapp, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Perseverations, the inappropriate intrusion of elements from a previous response into a current response, are commonly observed in individuals with acquired deficits. This study specifically investigates the contribution of failure-to activate and failure-to-inhibit deficit(s) in the generation of letter perseveration errors in acquired…

  20. Transposed-letter priming effects in reading aloud words and nonwords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousikou, Petroula; Kinoshita, Sachiko; Wu, Simon; Norris, Dennis

    2015-10-01

    A masked nonword prime generated by transposing adjacent inner letters in a word (e.g., jugde) facilitates the recognition of the target word (JUDGE) more than a prime in which the relevant letters are replaced by different letters (e.g., junpe). This transposed-letter (TL) priming effect has been widely interpreted as evidence that the coding of letter position is flexible, rather than precise. Although the TL priming effect has been extensively investigated in the domain of visual word recognition using the lexical decision task, very few studies have investigated this empirical phenomenon in reading aloud. In the present study, we investigated TL priming effects in reading aloud words and nonwords and found that these effects are of equal magnitude for the two types of items. We take this result as support for the view that the TL priming effect arises from noisy perception of letter order within the prime prior to the mapping of orthography to phonology.

  1. The AMA handbook of business letters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seglin, Jeffrey L; Coleman, Edward

    2002-01-01

    ... and Attachment Notations Distribution Notation 27 Postscript 28 27 CHAPTER 4. Stationery 29 Various Formats for Letter Writing Full Block 31 Block 33 Semiblock 34 Simplified Letter 34 Official...

  2. 7 CFR 1773.33 - Management letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management letter. 1773.33 Section 1773.33... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Reporting Requirements § 1773.33 Management letter. The CPA must prepare a management letter that includes, at a minimum, comments on: (a) Audit...

  3. 19 CFR 356.16 - Charging letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... party is entitled to review the documents or other physical evidence upon which the charge is based and... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Charging letter. 356.16 Section 356.16 Customs... Undertaking § 356.16 Charging letter. (a) Contents of letter. The Deputy Under Secretary will initiate...

  4. Letter report: Cold crucible melter assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, M.L.

    1996-03-01

    One of the activities of the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project is to assist the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Program in determining which melter systems should be performance tested for potential implementation in the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant. The Richland Operations Office (RL) has recommended that the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) be evaluated as a candidate ``next generation`` melter. As a result, the CCM System Evaluation cost account was established under the PVTD Project so that the CCM could be initially assessed on a high-priority basis. This letter report summarizes a brief initial review and assessment of the CCM. Using the recommendations made in this document, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and RL will make a decision regarding the urgency of performance testing the CCM. If the decision is favorable, a subcontract will be negotiated for performance testing of a CCM using Hanford HLW simulants in a pilot-scale facility. Because of the aggressive nature of the schedule, the CCM evaluation was not rigorous. The evaluation consisted of a literature review and interviews with proponents of the technology during a recent trip to France. This letter report summarizes the evaluation and makes recommendations regarding further work in this area.

  5. John von Neumann selected letters

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    John von Neuman was perhaps the most influential mathematician of the twentieth century, especially if his broad influence outside mathematics is included. Not only did he contribute to almost all branches of mathematics and created new fields, but he also changed post-World War II history with his work on the design of computers and with being a sought-after technical advisor to many figures in the U.S. military-political establishment in the 1940s and 1950s. The present volume is the first substantial collection of (previously mainly unpublished) letters written by von Neumann to colleagues, friends, government officials, and others. The letters give us a glimpse of the thinking of John von Neumann about mathematics, physics, computer science, science management, education, consulting, politics, and war. Readers of quite diverse backgrounds will find much of interest in this fascinating first-hand look at one of the towering figures of twentieth century science.

  6. Michelangelo, a Tireless Letter Writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Charles Fiorato

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A titan of artistic creation, the sculptor-painter-architect Michelangelo was also a tireless letter writer. Five hundred and eighteen of his letters have reached us, stretching from his youth to the eve of his death, but we know that many others have been lost. Written in a kind of familiar Florentine and in a style of minimalist ‘realism’ – which does not prevent the presence of either impetuous polemical flights or pages of literary indulgence – these letters deal mainly with everyday subjects: day-by-day relationships, either endearing or resentful, with his relatives, financial or property matters and, above all, the marriage problems which concerned his nephew Leonardo, the sole heir of the family. But one also discovers in them the artist’s warm feelings of friendship and love, his poetic and aesthetic exchanges, his relationships, often conflictual, with his fellow-artists and patrons as well as his reflections on old age and death. All in all, these letters represent a documentary chronicle of a Florentine bourgeois family and the technical hassle of an entrepreneur’s activity. If, on the one hand, the Carteggio does not shed light either on Michelangelo’s conception of art or the way in which he realized his works, on the other it illustrates certain latent aspects of his projects, as well as of his personality, which was at the same time melancholy and aggressive, surprisingly whole and manifold. This luxuriant correspondence presents, so to speak, a ‘genetic’ interest, since it reveals the hidden face of the brilliant conceiver and creator, of the artist and entrepreneur struggling with the obstacles whose overcoming makes creation possible. 

  7. The Jung-White Letters

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Kirsten; Nielsen, Sine Birkedal

    2012-01-01

    This report is based on the correspondence The Jung-White Letters, between psychotherapist C. G. Jung and theologian Victor White. Their correspondence deals mainly with the relationship between religion and science. The report analyses Jung and White's conflict on the subject of evil as understood in the Christian doctrine privatio boni, investigating the underlying epistemological reasoning behind their disagreement. Theologian White is influenced by the Catholic Dominican order, whose phil...

  8. Theory and implementation of a very high throughput true random number generator in field programmable gate array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonggang; Hui, Cong; Liu, Chong; Xu, Chao

    2016-04-01

    The contribution of this paper is proposing a new entropy extraction mechanism based on sampling phase jitter in ring oscillators to make a high throughput true random number generator in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) practical. Starting from experimental observation and analysis of the entropy source in FPGA, a multi-phase sampling method is exploited to harvest the clock jitter with a maximum entropy and fast sampling speed. This parametrized design is implemented in a Xilinx Artix-7 FPGA, where the carry chains in the FPGA are explored to realize the precise phase shifting. The generator circuit is simple and resource-saving, so that multiple generation channels can run in parallel to scale the output throughput for specific applications. The prototype integrates 64 circuit units in the FPGA to provide a total output throughput of 7.68 Gbps, which meets the requirement of current high-speed quantum key distribution systems. The randomness evaluation, as well as its robustness to ambient temperature, confirms that the new method in a purely digital fashion can provide high-speed high-quality random bit sequences for a variety of embedded applications.

  9. Critical contrastive rhetoric: The influence of L2 letter writing instruction on L1letter writing

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrnoosh Fakharzadeh

    2014-01-01

    The present study employed critical contrastive rhetoric to investigate the L2 to L1 transfer of organizational pattern and directness level of speech acts in business complaint letters. By examining the L1 complaint letters of 30 tourism university students in two phases of study, pre and post instruction of English complaint letter, the study revealed that the rhetorical organization of Persian letters are in a state of hybridity. The post instruction comparison of letters, however, showed ...

  10. Using histograms to introduce randomization in the generation of ensembles of decision trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Chandrika; Cantu-Paz, Erick; Littau, David

    2005-02-22

    A system for decision tree ensembles that includes a module to read the data, a module to create a histogram, a module to evaluate a potential split according to some criterion using the histogram, a module to select a split point randomly in an interval around the best split, a module to split the data, and a module to combine multiple decision trees in ensembles. The decision tree method includes the steps of reading the data; creating a histogram; evaluating a potential split according to some criterion using the histogram, selecting a split point randomly in an interval around the best split, splitting the data, and combining multiple decision trees in ensembles.

  11. The distributed neural system for top-down letter processing: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangang; Feng, Lu; Li, Ling; Tian, Jie

    2011-03-01

    This fMRI study used Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) to investigate top-down letter processing with an illusory letter detection task. After an initial training that became increasingly difficult, participant was instructed to detect a letter from pure noise images where there was actually no letter. Such experimental paradigm allowed for isolating top-down components of letter processing and minimizing the influence of bottom-up perceptual input. A distributed cortical network of top-down letter processing was identified by analyzing the functional connectivity patterns of letter-preferential area (LA) within the left fusiform gyrus. Such network extends from the visual cortex to high level cognitive cortexes, including the left middle frontal gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, left superior parietal gyrus, bilateral precuneus, and left inferior occipital gyrus. These findings suggest that top-down letter processing contains not only regions for processing of letter phonology and appearance, but also those involved in internal information generation and maintenance, and attention and memory processing.

  12. Open letter to the Italian Ministry of University and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Grady K

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Open letter to the Minister of Italian University. The government should get advice from the best Italian scientists for the necessary reform of the Italian University, with special concern to crucial processes as the appointment of new professors and academic evaluation. The current government proposal for a random draw of evaluation committees in charge for the appointment of new professors is considered as a wrong solution and harmful tool for dealing with such a crucial process.

  13. Generating Variable and Random Schedules of Reinforcement Using Microsoft Excel Macros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Stacie L.; Bourret, Jason C.

    2008-01-01

    Variable reinforcement schedules are used to arrange the availability of reinforcement following varying response ratios or intervals of time. Random reinforcement schedules are subtypes of variable reinforcement schedules that can be used to arrange the availability of reinforcement at a constant probability across number of responses or time.…

  14. ERP Indices of Stimulus Prediction in Letter Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Kaan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the current focus on anticipation in perception, action and cognition, including language processing, there is a need for a method to tap into predictive processing in situations in which cue and feedback stimuli are not explicitly marked as such. To this aim, event related potentials (ERPs were obtained while participants viewed alphabetic letter sequences (“A”, “B”, “C”, “D”, “E”, …, in which the letters were highly predictable, and random sequences (“S”, “B”, “A”, “I”, “F”, “M”, …, without feedback. Occasionally, the presentation of a letter in a sequence was delayed by 300 ms. During this delay period, an increased negativity was observed for predictive versus random sequences. In addition, the early positivity following the delay was larger for predictive compared with random sequences. These results suggest that expectation-sensitive ERP modulations can be elicited in anticipation of stimuli that are not explicit targets, rewards, feedback or instructions, and that a delay can strengthen the prediction for a particular stimulus. Applications to language processing will be discussed.

  15. A randomized controlled trial of an inference generation strategy intervention for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murza, Kimberly A; Nye, Chad; Schwartz, Jamie B; Ehren, Barbara J; Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L

    2014-08-01

    The present intervention study investigated the efficacy of the ACT & Check Strategy intervention to improve inference generation when reading, metacognitive ability, general reading comprehension, and social inference ability in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HF-ASD). Twenty-five adults with HF-ASD were randomly assigned to either a treatment or a control group. Treatment sessions were conducted in 1-hr sessions, twice a week, for a total of 6 weeks. Treatment focused on explicit instruction of components of inference generation, categories of inferences, and increasingly independent strategy use. The treatment group demonstrated significantly superior performance on 1 of 2 measures of inference generation in reading and 1 measure of metacognitive ability compared with the control group. Significant differences between groups were not found on measures of reading comprehension or social inference ability. These findings suggest that the ACT & Check Strategy was effective in improving participants' ability to generate inferences in reading and certain metacognitive abilities, but the skills do not appear to generalize to other social communication contexts, such as social inference generation. This research provides a measure of support for explicitly teaching inference generation to address a reading inference deficit in adults with HF-ASD.

  16. Mersenne Twister: A 623-Dimensionally Equidistributed Uniform Pseudo-Random Number Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Makoto; Nishimura, Takuji

    1998-01-01

    A new algorithm called Mersenne Twister (MT) is proposed for generating uniform pseudorandom numbers. For a particular choice of parameters, the algorithm provides a super astronomical period of 219937 - 1 and 623-dimensional equidistribution up to 32-bit accuracy, while using a working area of only 624 words. This is a new variant of the previously proposed generators, TGFSR, modified so as to admit a Mersenne-prime period. The characteristic polynomial has many terms. The distribution up to...

  17. Lost and Found, Letters and Methods: Assessing Attitudes toward Chiropractic and Medical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Kern

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes toward traditional and chiropractic medicine were compared using Milgram's lost letter technique. A total of 192 letters were placed on the windshields of vehicles in parking lots at six restaurants and department stores in each of four quadrants of a medium-sized, Southeastern city. These letters were addressed to "Admissions" at either a fictitious Institute of Medicine or Institute of Chiropractic Care. Return addresses included either a male or a female name. Thus, those who found a lost letter were faced with the option of returning or not returning a letter from either a male or a female, addressed to an Institute of traditional or non-traditional medicine. After examining previous studies which had used the lost letter technique, numerous methodological improvements were implemented. For example, letters were randomly assigned to potential drop spots for each of 24 study locations (six study locations in each of four city quadrants, and a Latin square design was used to control for possible order effects in the four study conditions that were implemented. Nearly 65% of the letters (124 of 192 were returned. We found: 1 letters addressed to a fictitious Institute of Chiropractic Care were just as likely to be returned as those addressed to a fictitious Institute of Medicine; 2 letters with female return addresses were as likely to be returned as those with male return addresses; 3 there was no interaction between study conditions; 4 based on what was essentially a replication study, a comparison of the pattern of returns using the first and second cycle of lost letters (n = 96 for each cycle revealed an equivalent pattern of no-difference findings. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v1i1.78

  18. Pseudorandom Number Generators for Mobile Devices: An Examination and Attempt to Improve Randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    what if the tickets are not properly mixed and instead are just put in a jar as they are being sold? What if the lottery tickets have different sizes...winner of the raffle randomly, and the lottery would not be considered fair. In the situation described in the previous paragraph, the raffle...official drawing the winning ticket is clearly a great risk to biasing the outcome. Therefore, mechanical raffle and lottery machines are widely used in

  19. Pseudo-Random Modulation of a Laser Diode for Generating Ultrasonic Longitudinal Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Anatasi, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Laser generated ultrasound systems have historically been more complicated and expensive than conventional piezoelectric based systems, and this fact has relegated the acceptance of laser based systems to niche applications for which piezoelectric based systems are less suitable. Lowering system costs, while improving throughput, increasing ultrasound signal levels, and improving signal-to-noise are goals which will help increase the general acceptance of laser based ultrasound. One current limitation with conventional laser generated ultrasound is a material s damage threshold limit. Increasing the optical power to generate more signal eventually damages the material being tested due to rapid, high heating. Generation limitations for laser based ultrasound suggests the use of pulse modulation techniques as an alternate generation method. Pulse modulation techniques can spread the laser energy over time or space, thus reducing laser power densities and minimizing damage. Previous experiments by various organizations using spatial or temporal pulse modulation have been shown to generate detectable surface, plate, and bulk ultrasonic waves with narrow frequency bandwidths . Using narrow frequency bandwidths improved signal detectability, but required the use of expensive and powerful lasers and opto-electronic systems. The use of a laser diode to generate ultrasound is attractive because of its low cost, small size, light weight, simple optics and modulation capability. The use of pulse compression techniques should allow certain types of laser diodes to produce usable ultrasonic signals. The method also does not need to be limited to narrow frequency bandwidths. The method demonstrated here uses a low power laser diode (approximately 150 mW) that is modulated by controlling the diode s drive current and the resulting signal is recovered by cross correlation. A potential application for this system which is briefly demonstrated is in detecting signals in thick

  20. Experimental observation of second-harmonic generation and diffusion inside random media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faez, Sanli; Johnson, P. M.; Mazurenko, D. A.; Lagendijk, Ad

    We have experimentally measured the distribution of the second-harmonic intensity that is generated inside a highly scattering slab of porous gallium phosphide. Two complementary techniques for determining the distribution are used. First, the spatial distribution of second-harmonic light intensity

  1. Simulated Performance Evaluation of a Selective Tracker Through Random Scenario Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

      The paper presents a simulation study on the performance of a target tracker using selective track splitting filter algorithm through a random scenario implemented on a digital signal processor.  In a typical track splitting filter all the observation which fall inside a likelihood ellipse...... are used for update, however, in our proposed selective track splitting filter less number of observations are used for track update.  Much of the previous performance work [1] has been done on specific (deterministic) scenarios. One of the reasons for considering the specific scenarios, which were...

  2. The isector: a simple and direct method for generating isotropic, uniform random sections from small specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb

    1992-01-01

    The very simple and strong principle of vertical sections devised by Baddeley et al. has been a major advance in stereology when any kind of anisotropy is present in the specimen under study. On the other hand, some important stereological estimators still require isotropic, uniform random sectio....... This paper deals with a simple technique for embedding specimens in rubber moulds with spherical cavities. After the embedding, any handling or the resulting sphere independent of the specimen will induce isotropy of the final histological sections....

  3. Can Targeted Intervention Mitigate Early Emotional and Behavioral Problems?: Generating Robust Evidence within Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla Doyle

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of a targeted Irish early intervention program on children's emotional and behavioral development using multiple methods to test the robustness of the results. Data on 164 Preparing for Life participants who were randomly assigned into an intervention group, involving home visits from pregnancy onwards, or a control group, was used to test the impact of the intervention on Child Behavior Checklist scores at 24-months. Using inverse probability weighting to account for differential attrition, permutation testing to address small sample size, and quantile regression to characterize the distributional impact of the intervention, we found that the few treatment effects were largely concentrated among boys most at risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. The average treatment effect identified a 13% reduction in the likelihood of falling into the borderline clinical threshold for Total Problems. The interaction and subgroup analysis found that this main effect was driven by boys. The distributional analysis identified a 10-point reduction in the Externalizing Problems score for boys at the 90th percentile. No effects were observed for girls or for the continuous measures of Total, Internalizing, and Externalizing problems. These findings suggest that the impact of this prenatally commencing home visiting program may be limited to boys experiencing the most difficulties. Further adoption of the statistical methods applied here may help to improve the internal validity of randomized controlled trials and contribute to the field of evaluation science more generally.ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN04631728.

  4. Internal wave generation by tidal flow over periodically and randomly distributed seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Likun; Buijsman, Maarten C.; Comino, Eva; Swinney, Harry L.

    2017-06-01

    We examine numerically the conversion of barotropic tidal energy into internal waves by flow over an isolated seamount and over systems of periodically and randomly distributed 1100 m tall seamounts with Gaussian profiles. The simulations use the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) to calculate for an infinitely deep ocean the dependence of the energy conversion on seamount slope, seamount separation, tidal direction, and the size and aspect ratio of the simulation domain. For neighboring seamounts with a slope greater than the internal wave beam slope, wave interference reduces the conversion relative to that calculated for an isolated seamount, and relative to that predicted by linear theory for a seamount of slope less than the beam slope. The conversion by an individual seamount in a system of random seamounts separated by an average distance of 18 km is found to be suppressed by 16% relative to the conversion by an isolated seamount. This study provides insight into tidal conversion by ocean seamounts modeled as Gaussian mountains with slopes both smaller and larger than the beam slope. We conclude that the total energy conversion by all seamounts (peak height ≥1000 m) and knolls (peak height 500-1000 m), taking into account interference affects, is of the order of 1% of the total barotropic to baroclinic energy conversion in the oceans, which is about twice as large as previous estimates.

  5. Synaptic signal streams generated by ex vivo neuronal networks contain non-random, complex patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmook; Zemianek, Jill M; Shultz, Abraham; Vo, Anh; Maron, Ben Y; Therrien, Mikaela; Courtright, Christina; Guaraldi, Mary; Yanco, Holly A; Shea, Thomas B

    2014-11-01

    Cultured embryonic neurons develop functional networks that transmit synaptic signals over multiple sequentially connected neurons as revealed by multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) embedded within the culture dish. Signal streams of ex vivo networks contain spikes and bursts of varying amplitude and duration. Despite the random interactions inherent in dissociated cultures, neurons are capable of establishing functional ex vivo networks that transmit signals among synaptically connected neurons, undergo developmental maturation, and respond to exogenous stimulation by alterations in signal patterns. These characteristics indicate that a considerable degree of organization is an inherent property of neurons. We demonstrate herein that (1) certain signal types occur more frequently than others, (2) the predominant signal types change during and following maturation, (3) signal predominance is dependent upon inhibitory activity, and (4) certain signals preferentially follow others in a non-reciprocal manner. These findings indicate that the elaboration of complex signal streams comprised of a non-random distribution of signal patterns is an emergent property of ex vivo neuronal networks. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Resource Letter: GW-1: Global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firor, John W.

    1994-06-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the possibility of a human-induced climate change—a global warming. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: the Greenhouse Effect, sources of infrared-trapping gases, climate models and their uncertainties, verification of climate models, past climate changes, and economics, ethics, and politics of policy responses to climate change. [The letter E after an item indicates elementary level or material of general interest to persons becoming informed in the field. The letter I, for intermediate level, indicates material of somewhat more specialized nature, and the letter A indicates rather specialized or advanced material.

  7. Highly efficient hybrid energy generator: coupled organic photovoltaic device and randomly oriented electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boongik; Lee, Kihwan; Park, Jongjin; Kim, Jongmin; Kim, Ohyun

    2013-03-01

    A hybrid architecture consisting of an inverted organic photovoltaic device and a randomly-oriented electrospun PVDF piezoelectric device was fabricated as a highly-efficient energy generator. It uses the inverted photovoltaic device with coupled electrospun PVDF nanofibers as tandem structure to convert solar and mechanical vibrations energy to electricity simultaneously or individually. The power conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic device was also significantly improved up to 4.72% by optimized processes such as intrinsic ZnO, MoO3 and active layer. A simple electrospinning method with the two electrode technique was adopted to achieve a high voltage of - 300 mV in PVDF piezoelectric fibers. Highly-efficient HEG using voltage adder circuit provides the conceptual possibility of realizing multi-functional energy generator whenever and wherever various energy sources are available.

  8. ANALYSIS AND VALIDATION OF GRID DEM GENERATION BASED ON GAUSSIAN MARKOV RANDOM FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Aguilar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs are considered as one of the most relevant geospatial data to carry out land-cover and land-use classification. This work deals with the application of a mathematical framework based on a Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF to interpolate grid DEMs from scattered elevation data. The performance of the GMRF interpolation model was tested on a set of LiDAR data (0.87 points/m2 provided by the Spanish Government (PNOA Programme over a complex working area mainly covered by greenhouses in Almería, Spain. The original LiDAR data was decimated by randomly removing different fractions of the original points (from 10% to up to 99% of points removed. In every case, the remaining points (scattered observed points were used to obtain a 1 m grid spacing GMRF-interpolated Digital Surface Model (DSM whose accuracy was assessed by means of the set of previously extracted checkpoints. The GMRF accuracy results were compared with those provided by the widely known Triangulation with Linear Interpolation (TLI. Finally, the GMRF method was applied to a real-world case consisting of filling the LiDAR-derived DSM gaps after manually filtering out non-ground points to obtain a Digital Terrain Model (DTM. Regarding accuracy, both GMRF and TLI produced visually pleasing and similar results in terms of vertical accuracy. As an added bonus, the GMRF mathematical framework makes possible to both retrieve the estimated uncertainty for every interpolated elevation point (the DEM uncertainty and include break lines or terrain discontinuities between adjacent cells to produce higher quality DTMs.

  9. Effect of orthographic processes on letter-identity and letter-position encoding in dyslexic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eReilhac

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify letters and encode their position is a crucial step of the word recognition process. However and despite their word identification problem, the ability of dyslexic children to encode letter-identity and letter-position within strings was not systematically investigated. This study aimed at filling this gap and further explored how letter identity and letter position encoding is modulated by letter context in developmental dyslexia. For this purpose, a letter-string comparison task was administered to French dyslexic children and two chronological-age (CA and reading-age (RA-matched control groups. Children had to judge whether two successively and briefly presented 4-letter-strings were identical or different. Letter-position and letter-identity were manipulated through the transposition (e.g., RTGM vs. RMGT or substitution of two letters (e.g., TSHF vs. TGHD. Non-words, pseudo-words and words were used as stimuli to investigate sub-lexical and lexical effects on letter encoding. Dyslexic children showed both substitution and transposition detection problems relative to CA controls. A substitution advantage over transpositions was only found for words in dyslexic children whereas it extended to pseudo-words in RA controls and to all type of items in CA controls. Letters were better identified in the dyslexic group when belonging to orthographically familiar strings. Letter position encoding was very impaired in dyslexic children who did not show any word context effect in contrast to CA controls. Overall, the current findings point to a strong letter identity and letter position encoding disorder in developmental dyslexia.

  10. W-Band Millimeter-Wave Vector Signal Generation Based on Precoding-Assisted Random Photonic Frequency Tripling Scheme Enabled by Phase Modulator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Xinying; Xu, Yuming; Xiao, Jiangnan; Yu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    We propose W-band photonic millimeter-wave (mm-wave) vector signal generation employing a precoding-assisted random frequency tripling scheme enabled by a single phase modulator cascaded with a wavelength selective switch (WSS...

  11. Letter Names and Phonological Awareness Help Children to Learn Letter-Sound Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Martins, Claudia; Mesquita, Tereza Cristina Lara; Ehri, Linnea

    2011-01-01

    Two experimental training studies with Portuguese-speaking preschoolers in Brazil were conducted to investigate whether children benefit from letter name knowledge and phonological awareness in learning letter-sound relations. In Experiment 1, two groups of children were compared. The experimental group was taught the names of letters whose sounds…

  12. Quantum random number generator based on ‘Fermi–Dirac’ statistics of photocounts of faint laser pulses with a 75 Mbit s‑1 rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balygin, K. A.; Zaitsev, V. I.; Klimov, A. N.; Kulik, S. P.; Molotkov, S. N.; Popova, E.; Vinogradov, S.

    2017-12-01

    We implemented experimentally a quantum random number generator, based on the registration of quasi-single-photon light by a silicon photo-multiplier, which allows one to reliably achieve the Poisson statistics of photocounts. The use of the optimal grouping of photocounts and a polynomial-length sequence of the method for extracting the random sequence 0 and 1 made it possible to achieve the output rate of a provably random sequence up to 75 Mbit s-1 .

  13. Random Forests Are Able to Identify Differences in Clotting Dynamics from Kinetic Models of Thrombin Generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayavel Arumugam

    Full Text Available Current methods for distinguishing acute coronary syndromes such as heart attack from stable coronary artery disease, based on the kinetics of thrombin formation, have been limited to evaluating sensitivity of well-established chemical species (e.g., thrombin using simple quantifiers of their concentration profiles (e.g., maximum level of thrombin concentration, area under the thrombin concentration versus time curve. In order to get an improved classifier, we use a 34-protein factor clotting cascade model and convert the simulation data into a high-dimensional representation (about 19000 features using a piecewise cubic polynomial fit. Then, we systematically find plausible assays to effectively gauge changes in acute coronary syndrome/coronary artery disease populations by introducing a statistical learning technique called Random Forests. We find that differences associated with acute coronary syndromes emerge in combinations of a handful of features. For instance, concentrations of 3 chemical species, namely, active alpha-thrombin, tissue factor-factor VIIa-factor Xa ternary complex, and intrinsic tenase complex with factor X, at specific time windows, could be used to classify acute coronary syndromes to an accuracy of about 87.2%. Such a combination could be used to efficiently assay the coagulation system.

  14. Why doctors do not answer referral letters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Fam Pract 2009. Abstract. Background: Healthcare workers at primary healthcare (PHC) clinics are frustrated by the fact that they do not receive replies to their referral letters to doctors. Referral letters act as ... Correspondence to: Prof Selma Smith, e-mail: selma.smith@up.ac.za. Keywords: referral and communication; ...

  15. The unpublished letters on Steve Biko

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    become pawns in a political power game. The letters. Some of the ... Writing on behalf of the FaCUlty Board, Professor Phillip. Tobias, then Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at the. University of the Witwatersrand, submitted a letter which said in part: The Board of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of the Witwatersrand ...

  16. Early-visual factors in letter confusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blommaert, F J

    1988-01-01

    For the purpose of quantifying models of letter recognition, similarities are often specified in terms of stimulus properties. In this paper, an approach is advocated based on similarities between internal letter representations or internal letter images, i.e. it is argued that optical and retinal factors play a more prominent role in letter confusions than is usually assumed. To illustrate this, letter images were calculated on the basis of earlier experimentally determined point spread functions (Blommaert et al., Spatial Vision 2, 99-115, 1987). Next, data on confusion matrices from Bouma (Vision Res. 11, 459-474, 1971) were taken to evaluate different measures which might be useful for quantifying similarities between internal letter representations. In the analysis of experimental data, Luce's (In: Handbook of Mathematical Psychology, 1963) choice model was used. It was found that if similarities were expressed in terms of differences between image contours, a fair first order approximation of Bouma's experimental results could be formulated (overall correlation coefficient of 0.95). Other measures like correlations between spatial frequency spectra of letter images were found to be less successful. The method used provides a means to relate quantitatively stimulus features and optical and early-visual factors to letter confusions.

  17. Letter-Sound Relationships of Phonic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Louis

    Using 17, 211 words drawn from the word list compiled for the Stanford Spelling Study (1963) and drawing upon the "American Heritage Dictionary of the American Language" as the pronunciation reference, a researcher approached the language as if little was known about its letter-sound relationships and examined by computer the letter-sound…

  18. Letters in Time and Retinotopic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Various phenomena in tachistoscopic word identification and priming (WRODS and LTRS are confused with and prime WORDS and LETTERS) suggest that position-specific channels are not used in the processing of letters in words. Previous approaches to this issue have sought alternative matching rules because they have assumed that these phenomena reveal…

  19. Letter to Editor - "Reply to RP Heaney"

    Science.gov (United States)

    A letter to the editor was submitted in reply to a letter written to the editor of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition regarding a recent publication (Hunt, CD. and Johnson, LK. Calcium requirements: new estimations for men and women by cross-sectional statistical analyses of calcium balance...

  20. Essay: the origin of physical review letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigg, George L

    2008-11-21

    When Sam Goudsmit, then Editor of Physical Review, decided to publish the Letters separately, he asked me to become Assistant Editor of the new journal. I wound up staying at PRL for a quarter of a century. I describe some of the new techniques we developed to speed up review and production so that Letters could be quickly published.

  1. Culture and subculture in transactional letter writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Okamura, Akiko

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the relative contributions of subculture membership and mother-tongue status/target culture membership in writing transactional letters. We examined the letters accompanying articles initially submitted for publication by 26 NSE and 23 NNSE academics, and compared them...

  2. Evolutionary theory in letters to the editor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Eric Orion; Lowe, Clayton Cory

    2015-05-01

    This research note presents the results of a content analysis of 234 letters to the editors that discuss evolutionary theory and were published in American newspapers. We find that letters to the editor both support and hinder the cause of teaching evolutionary theory in American secondary schools. On the one hand, anti-evolutionary theory messages are marginalized in the letters section. This marginalization signals a low level of legitimacy for creationism. It might also contribute to the sense of tension that sustains creationist identities. On the other hand, relatively few letters explicitly note the fact that scientists or the scientific community accept evolution. Interestingly, the obscuration of the scientific community's support for evolutionary theory occurs both in letters supporting and opposing evolutionary theory. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Design Improvements for Frequently Misrecognized Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Larson, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    To enhance typeface legibility we studied how to improve the design of individual letters. Three diff erent fonts were created, each containing several variations of the most frequently misrecognized letters. These variations were tested both with distance and short exposure methodologies. Creati...... letters benefi t from being widened, and that x-height characters benefi t from using more of the ascending and descending area. These fi ndings can be used to improve the design of future typefaces.......To enhance typeface legibility we studied how to improve the design of individual letters. Three diff erent fonts were created, each containing several variations of the most frequently misrecognized letters. These variations were tested both with distance and short exposure methodologies. Creating...

  4. Critical contrastive rhetoric: The influence of L2 letter writing instruction on L1letter writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Fakharzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study employed critical contrastive rhetoric to investigate the L2 to L1 transfer of organizational pattern and directness level of speech acts in business complaint letters. By examining the L1 complaint letters of 30 tourism university students in two phases of study, pre and post instruction of English complaint letter, the study revealed that the rhetorical organization of Persian letters are in a state of hybridity. The post instruction comparison of letters, however, showed a tendency towards applying English conventions both in organization and directness level of complaint speech act in the L1 complaint letters. The results also revealed that after instruction the expert in the field of tourism viewed some letters as inappropriate in terms of politeness which is reflected through some lexical items.

  5. Prete-moi Ton Logiciel pour Ecrire un Mot (Lend Me Your Software Program So I Can Write a Letter).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangenot, Francois

    1993-01-01

    A brief discussion and description of one commercially available software package ("Pour Ecrire un Mot") for writing letters of various types uses the love letter as an example of the software's functioning. Answers to the prompting questions on the screen determine the few variable parameters of the text to be generated. (four…

  6. The effect of letter string length and report condition on letter recognition accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Avesh; Karmazinaite, Berta; Rossow, Andrea S

    Letter sequence recognition accuracy has been postulated to be limited primarily by low-level visual factors. The influence of high level factors such as visual memory (load and decay) has been largely overlooked. This study provides insight into the role of these factors by investigating the interaction between letter sequence recognition accuracy, letter string length and report condition. Letter sequence recognition accuracy for trigrams and pentagrams were measured in 10 adult subjects for two report conditions. In the complete report condition subjects reported all 3 or all 5 letters comprising trigrams and pentagrams, respectively. In the partial report condition, subjects reported only a single letter in the trigram or pentagram. Letters were presented for 100ms and rendered in high contrast, using black lowercase Courier font that subtended 0.4° at the fixation distance of 0.57m. Letter sequence recognition accuracy was consistently higher for trigrams compared to pentagrams especially for letter positions away from fixation. While partial report increased recognition accuracy in both string length conditions, the effect was larger for pentagrams, and most evident for the final letter positions within trigrams and pentagrams. The effect of partial report on recognition accuracy for the final letter positions increased as eccentricity increased away from fixation, and was independent of the inner/outer position of a letter. Higher-level visual memory functions (memory load and decay) play a role in letter sequence recognition accuracy. There is also suggestion of additional delays imposed on memory encoding by crowded letter elements. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. A red-letter day !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Today is a red-letter day for the LHC and CERN as a beam of protons has travelled around the LHC ring for the very first time! The start of LHC operation marks the end of a long period in which you have given your all, and this first particle beam circulating in the accelerator now paves the way for discoveries that will open up a whole new field of knowledge. The history of the LHC began in 1984 with a debate on the possible objectives of a future accelerator, based on the state of our knowledge at that time. The CERN Council then approved the single-stage construction of the LHC in 1996, giving the go-ahead for the work that has now reached completion. For the past twelve years, physicists, engineers and technicians from CERN and its associated institutes have been engaged in constructing the three pillars of the LHC: the accelerator (including the upgrade of the existing accelerator chain), the four experiments, and the computing ...

  8. Benefits of Reiki therapy for a severely neutropenic patient with associated influences on a true random number generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Melvin L; Beem, Lance W

    2011-12-01

    Reiki therapy is documented for relief of pain and stress. Energetic healing has been documented to alter biologic markers of illness such as hematocrit. True random number generators are reported to be affected by energy healers and spiritually oriented conscious awareness. The patient was a then 54-year-old severely ill man who had hepatitis C types 1 and 2 and who did not improve with conventional therapy. He also suffered from obesity, the metabolic syndrome, asthma, and hypertension. He was treated with experimental high-dose interferon/riboviron therapy with resultant profound anemia and neutropenia. Energetic healing and Reiki therapy was administered initially to enhance the patient's sense of well-being and to relieve anxiety. Possible effects on the patient's absolute neutrophil count and hematocrit were incidentally noted. Reiki therapy was then initiated at times of profound neutropenia to assess its possible effect on the patient's absolute neutrophil count (ANC). Reiki and other energetic healing sessions were monitored with a true random number generator (RNG). Statistically significant relationships were documented between Reiki therapy, a quieting of the electronically created white noise of the RNG during healing sessions, and improvement in the patient's ANC. The immediate clinical result was that the patient could tolerate the high-dose interferon regimen without missing doses because of absolute neutropenia. The patient was initially a late responder to interferon and had been given a 5% chance of clearing the virus. He remains clear of the virus 1 year after treatment. The association between changes in the RNG, Reiki therapy, and a patient's ANC is the first to the authors' knowledge in the medical literature. Future studies assessing the effects of energetic healing on specific biologic markers of disease are anticipated. Concurrent use of a true RNG may prove to correlate with the effectiveness of energetic therapy.

  9. A time-series approach to random number generation: Using recurrence quantification analysis to capture executive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter eOomens

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of executive functions plays a prominent role in contemporary experimental and clinical studies on cognition. One paradigm used in this framework is the random number generation (RNG task, the execution of which demands aspects of executive functioning, specifically inhibition and working memory. Data from the RNG task are best seen as a series of successive events. However, traditional RNG measures that are used to quantify executive functioning are mostly summary statistics referring to deviations from mathematical randomness. In the current study, we explore the utility of recurrence quantification analysis (RQA, a nonlinear method that keeps the entire sequence intact, as a better way to describe executive functioning compared to traditional measures. To this aim, 242 first- and second-year students completed a non-paced RNG task. Principal component analysis of their data showed that traditional and RQA measures convey more or less the same information. However, RQA measures do so more parsimoniously and have a better interpretation.

  10. Location invariance in masked repetition priming of letters and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouki, Yousri; Meeter, Martijn; Grainger, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Earlier studies have suggested that information from a prime stimulus can be integrated with target information even when the two stimuli appear at different spatial locations. Here, we examined such location invariance in a masked repetition priming paradigm with single letter and word stimuli. In order to neutralize effects of acuity and spatial attention on prime processing, subliminal prime stimuli always appeared on fixation. Target location varied randomly from trial to trial along the horizontal meridian at one of seven possible locations for letter stimuli (-7° to +7°) and three positions for word stimuli (-4°, 0°, +4°). Speed of responding to letter and word targets was affected by target location, and by priming, but the size of repetition priming effects did not vary as a function of target location. These results suggest that masked repetition priming is mediated by representations that integrate information about object identity independently of object location. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Second harmonic generation in gallium phosphide microdisks on silicon: from strict \\bar{4} to random quasi-phase matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemé, P.; Dumeige, Y.; Stodolna, J.; Vallet, M.; Rohel, T.; Létoublon, A.; Cornet, C.; Ponchet, A.; Durand, O.; Léger, Y.

    2017-06-01

    The convergence of nonlinear optical devices and silicon photonics is a key milestone for the practical development of photonic integrated circuits. The associated technological issues often stem from material incompatibility. This is the case of second order nonlinear processes in monolithically integrated III-V semiconductor devices on silicon, where structural defects called antiphase domains strongly impact the optical properties of the material. We theoretically investigate the influence of antiphase domains on second harmonic generation in III-V whispering gallery mode microresonators on silicon and focus on the effects of the antiphase domains’ mean size (i.e. the correlation length of the distribution). We demonstrate that the domain distributions can have opposite effects depending on the nonlinear process under consideration: while antiphase domains negatively impact second harmonic generation under \\bar{4} quasi-phase matching conditions (independent of the correlation length), large conversion efficiencies can arise far from \\bar{4}-quasi-phase matching provided that the APD correlation length remains within an appropriate range, and is still compatible with the spontaneous emergence of such defects in the usual III-V on Si epilayers. Such a build-up can be explained by the occurrence of random quasi-phase matching in the system.

  12. Letter to Dr. Felix Bronner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Dear Dr. Bronner: I have been reading in The Physiologist the letters from senior physiologists for many years with great interest. It is impressive that many of the respondents are still pursuing scientific endeavours in their 70's and some even in their 80's. The interesting task is to ponder the relative causative proportions of heredity and environment responsible. One wonders whether knowing something about physiology engenders longer and more productive lives? I suspect so because of the accompanying self-discipline. But another factor would seem to be the pervasive joy of working in this profession. I have been fortunate to be able to acquire the joy of physiology during my graduate studies at Illinois, and to have been able to carry it over here at NASA, Ames Research Center for the past 40 years. A truly academic style research environment at a federal research center is rare. The trick to a joyous research career is to overcome those ever-present slings and arrows of outrageous fortune with dignity whenever possible. To that end I have found solace and guidance in reading the history of warfare and its leaders, especially Sun Tsu's The Art of War and Clauswitz's On War. I became eligible for retirement in 1993, but to insure domestic tranquility and also the joy of pursuing my research hobby have continued working in the laboratory on human research. It is troubling to see that funding for individual scientists conducting human research is declining rapidly, along with their new ideas; perhaps the old ones are more comfortable. Hopefully I can provide a similar response when I'm 80! Thanks for your interest. Sincerely, John Greenleaf

  13. Scott's Lake Excavation Letters on Human Remains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is two letters written about the repatriation of Santee Indian human remains and funerary objects to Santee Sioux Tribe. Includes an inventory of human remains...

  14. 1998 Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four of these letters are to Administrator Carol Browner and one to the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. They regard proposed residential lead standards, identification of dangerous levels of lead, and the Federal Asthma Initiative.

  15. An empirical test of pseudo random number generators by means of an exponential decaying process; Una prueba empirica de generadores de numeros pseudoaleatorios mediante un proceso de decaimiento exponencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coronel B, H.F.; Hernandez M, A.R.; Jimenez M, M.A. [Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, A.P. 475, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Mora F, L.E. [CIMAT, A.P. 402, 36000 Guanajuato (Mexico)]. e-mail: hcoronel@uv.mx

    2007-07-01

    Empirical tests for pseudo random number generators based on the use of processes or physical models have been successfully used and are considered as complementary to theoretical tests of randomness. In this work a statistical methodology for evaluating the quality of pseudo random number generators is presented. The method is illustrated in the context of the so-called exponential decay process, using some pseudo random number generators commonly used in physics. (Author)

  16. Structured printed referral letter (form letter; saves time and improves communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P.J.C. Ramanayake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Referral of patients to hospitals, specialists and other institutions is an essential part of primary health care. Patients are referred to specialists when investigation or therapeutic options are exhausted in primary care or when opinion or advice is needed from them. Referral has considerable implications for patients, health care system and health care costs. Good communication between primary and secondary care is essential for the smooth running of any health care system. Referral and reply letters are the sole means of communication between doctors most of the time and breakdown in communication could lead to poor continuity of care, delayed diagnoses, polypharmacy, increased litigation risk and unnecessary testing. A referral letter also helps to avoid patient dissatisfaction and loss of confidence in family physician. Studies of referral letters have reported that specialists are dissatisfied with their quality and content. Inclusion of letter writing skills in the medical curriculum, peer assessment and feedback have shown to improve the quality of referral letters. . Form letters have shown to enhance information content and communication in referral process. In Sri Lanka referral letters are usually hand written and frequent complaints are that these letters do not contain adequate information and retrieval of information is a problem due to poor legibility and clarity. Sometimes Primary care doctors refer patients to hospitals and specialists with only verbal instructions. To address these short comings this form letter was introduced. Based on the guidelines and systematic review of published articles, items of information to be included were decided. Printed forms of the letter are kept in the practice and the doctor has to just fill up relevant information under each heading. The objectives of introducing this structured referral letter was to improve the quality and standard of referral letters and save time for both general

  17. On Coding Non-Contiguous Letter Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric eDandurand

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the hypothesis that printed word identification initially involves the parallel mapping of visual features onto location-specific letter identities, we analyze the type of information that would be involved in optimally mapping this location-specific orthographic code onto a location-invariant lexical code. We assume that some intermediate level of coding exists between individual letters and whole words, and that this involves the representation of letter combinations. We then investigate the nature of this intermediate level of coding given the constraints of optimality. This intermediate level of coding is expected to compress data while retaining as much information as possible about word identity. Information conveyed by letters is a function of how much they constrain word identity and how visible they are. Optimization of this coding is a combination of minimizing resources (using the most compact representations and maximizing information. We show that in a large proportion of cases, non-contiguous letter sequences contain more information than contiguous sequences, while at the same time requiring less precise coding. Moreover, we found that the best predictor of human performance in orthographic priming experiments was within-word ranking of conditional probabilities, rather than average conditional probabilities. We conclude that from an optimality perspective, readers learn to select certain contiguous and non-contiguous letter combinations as information that provides the best cue to word identity.

  18. How useful are post consultation letters to patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partridge Martyn R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of the NHS plan it was suggested that all patients receive copies of letters sent to their General Practitioner following outpatient consultations. The former Secretary of State for Health extended this proposal, suggesting that patients have a specific letter to themselves after a hospital consultation. Methods The aim of this study was to send cardiorespiratory patients attending Charing Cross Hospital, a copy of the letter sent to their G.P. plus a specific letter to themselves and to assess the usefulness and comprehensibility of each. The letters were analysed for dictation time, Flesch Reading Ease Score, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level and word count. Eighty-four out of 105 sequential patients (80% consented and were sent both types of letter after their attendance. Patients returned both letters circling any items they did not understand and stated a preference for the GP letter, patient letter, or both. The patients' GPs were subsequently also asked for their views on each letter. Results GP letters took significantly longer to dictate than patient letters. The Flesch Reading Ease Score was significantly higher in the patient letters, indicating that the patient letters were easier to read. The GP letters were significantly longer than the patient letters and patients were significantly more likely to circle more items in the GP letters (p Conclusion Patients appreciate copies of the letter being sent to their GP but comprehension is less good than with a shorter letter written especially to the patient. More attention needs to be paid to making letters to GPs simpler to read without losing the structure and detail liked by GPs. A compromise might be to dictate the letter in front of the patient and to provide a speciality-specific glossary to accompany each letter.

  19. Neural Network and Letter Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hue Yeon

    Neural net architectures and learning algorithms that recognize hand written 36 alphanumeric characters are studied. The thin line input patterns written in 32 x 32 binary array are used. The system is comprised of two major components, viz. a preprocessing unit and a Recognition unit. The preprocessing unit in turn consists of three layers of neurons; the U-layer, the V-layer, and the C -layer. The functions of the U-layer is to extract local features by template matching. The correlation between the detected local features are considered. Through correlating neurons in a plane with their neighboring neurons, the V-layer would thicken the on-cells or lines that are groups of on-cells of the previous layer. These two correlations would yield some deformation tolerance and some of the rotational tolerance of the system. The C-layer then compresses data through the 'Gabor' transform. Pattern dependent choice of center and wavelengths of 'Gabor' filters is the cause of shift and scale tolerance of the system. Three different learning schemes had been investigated in the recognition unit, namely; the error back propagation learning with hidden units, a simple perceptron learning, and a competitive learning. Their performances were analyzed and compared. Since sometimes the network fails to distinguish between two letters that are inherently similar, additional ambiguity resolving neural nets are introduced on top of the above main neural net. The two dimensional Fourier transform is used as the preprocessing and the perceptron is used as the recognition unit of the ambiguity resolver. One hundred different person's handwriting sets are collected. Some of these are used as the training sets and the remainders are used as the test sets. The correct recognition rate of the system increases with the number of training sets and eventually saturates at a certain value. Similar recognition rates are obtained for the above three different learning algorithms. The minimum error

  20. LIPS TRACKING IDENTIFICATION OF A CORRECT QURANIC LETTERS PRONUNCIATION FOR TAJWEED TEACHING AND LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tareq Altalmas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mastering the recitation of the holy Quran is an obligation among Muslims. It is an important task to fulfill other Ibadat like prayer, pilgrimage and zikr. However, the traditional way of teaching Quran recitation is a hard task due to the extensive training time and effort required from both teacher and learner. In fact, learning the correct pronunciation of the Quranic letters is the first step in mastering Tajweed (Rules and Guidance in Quranic recitation. The pronunciation of Arabic letters is based on its points of articulation and the characteristics of a particular letter. In this paper we implement the lip identification technique from video signal acquired from expert to extract the movement data of the lips while pronouncing the correct Quranic letters. The extracted lip movement data from expert helps in categorizing the letters into 5 groups and in deciding the final shape of the lips. Later the technique was then tested among a public reciter and then compared for similarity verification between the public and the professional reciter. The system is able to extract the lips movement of the random user and draw the displacement graph and compared with the pronunciation of the expert. The error will be shown if the user has mistakenly pronounced the letter and suggested for improvement. More subjects with different background will be tested in very near future with feedback instructions. Machine learning techniques will be implemented at later stage for the real time application for learning process.

  1. Age-related differences in the automatic processing of single letters: implications for selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffner, Kirk R; Alperin, Brittany R; Mott, Katherine K; Holcomb, Phillip J

    2014-01-22

    Older adults exhibit diminished ability to inhibit the processing of visual stimuli that are supposed to be ignored. The extent to which age-related changes in early visual processing contribute to impairments in selective attention remains to be determined. Here, 103 adults, 18-85 years of age, completed a color selective attention task in which they were asked to attend to a specified color and respond to designated target letters. An optimal approach would be to initially filter according to color and then process letter forms in the attend color to identify targets. An asymmetric N170 ERP component (larger amplitude over left posterior hemisphere sites) was used as a marker of the early automatic processing of letter forms. Young and middle-aged adults did not generate an asymmetric N170 component. In contrast, young-old and old-old adults produced a larger N170 over the left hemisphere. Furthermore, older adults generated a larger N170 to letter than nonletter stimuli over the left, but not right hemisphere. More asymmetric N170 responses predicted greater allocation of late selection resources to target letters in the ignore color, as indexed by P3b amplitude. These results suggest that unlike their younger counterparts, older adults automatically process stimuli as letters early in the selection process, when it would be more efficient to attend to color only. The inability to ignore letters early in the processing stream helps explain the age-related increase in subsequent processing of target letter forms presented in the ignore color.

  2. Category, Letter, and Emotional Verbal Fluency in Spanish-English Bilingual Speakers: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauters, Lisa; Marquardt, Thomas P

    2017-08-28

    The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of bilingual speakers on an emotional verbal fluency task to category and letter verbal fluency tasks. A second purpose was to compare performances on these tasks to language proficiency ratings. Twelve verbal fluency tasks were administered to 21 Spanish-English bilingual speakers. Results were analyzed for differences between fluency types (category, letter, and emotional) and languages (English and Spanish). Participants generated the most items in category fluency tasks and the least items in emotional fluency tasks. The number of items generated for letter and emotional fluency tasks were not significantly different, but both were significantly lower than the number of items generated in category fluency. More items were generated for positive emotions than for negative emotions. Differences between languages for category and letter fluency tasks were significantly correlated with differences in language proficiency ratings, but this finding was not found for emotional fluency tasks. Self-ratings of proficiency and language dominance correlated significantly with performance on category and letter fluency tasks and may be useful predictors of differences between languages on these tasks. Emotional fluency was not significantly correlated with language proficiency ratings, suggesting that performance on emotional fluency may be more significantly affected by emotional processing ability. The emotional verbal fluency task has potential as a component of neuropsychological evaluations to screen easily and quickly for emotional processing deficits, including those associated with traumatic brain injury and depression. Additionally, results support a positivity bias in language and cognition processes.

  3. Critical side channel effects in random bit generation with multiple semiconductor lasers in a polarization-based quantum key distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Heasin; Choi, Byung-Seok; Choe, Joong-Seon; Kim, Kap-Joong; Kim, Jong-Hoi; Youn, Chun Ju

    2017-08-21

    Most polarization-based BB84 quantum key distribution (QKD) systems utilize multiple lasers to generate one of four polarization quantum states randomly. However, random bit generation with multiple lasers can potentially open critical side channels that significantly endangers the security of QKD systems. In this paper, we show unnoticed side channels of temporal disparity and intensity fluctuation, which possibly exist in the operation of multiple semiconductor laser diodes. Experimental results show that the side channels can enormously degrade security performance of QKD systems. An important system issue for the improvement of quantum bit error rate (QBER) related with laser driving condition is further addressed with experimental results.

  4. Neural Correlates of Top-Down Letter Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Hongchuan; Rieth, Cory A.; Huber, David E.; Li, Wu; Lee, Kang; Tian, Jie

    2010-01-01

    This fMRI study investigated top-down letter processing with an illusory letter detection task. Participants responded whether one of a number of different possible letters was present in a very noisy image. After initial training that became increasingly difficult, they continued to detect letters even though the images consisted of pure noise,…

  5. 12 CFR 337.2 - Standby letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standby letters of credit. 337.2 Section 337.2... UNSAFE AND UNSOUND BANKING PRACTICES § 337.2 Standby letters of credit. (a) Definition. As used in this section, the term standby letter of credit means any letter of credit, or similar arrangement however...

  6. Representation of Letter Position in Spelling: Evidence from Acquired Dysgraphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; McCloskey, Michael; Rapp, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The graphemic representations that underlie spelling performance must encode not only the identities of the letters in a word, but also the positions of the letters. This study investigates how letter position information is represented. We present evidence from two dysgraphic individuals, CM and LSS, who perseverate letters when spelling: that…

  7. Disentangling the developmental trajectories of letter position and letter identity coding using masked priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezilas, Yvette; McKague, Meredith; Kohnen, Saskia; Badcock, Nicholas A; Castles, Anne

    2017-02-01

    Masked transposed-letter (TL) priming effects have been used to index letter position processing over the course of reading development. Whereas some studies have reported an increase in TL priming over development, others have reported a decrease. These findings have led to the development of 2 somewhat contradictory accounts of letter position development: the lexical tuning hypothesis and the multiple-route model. One factor that may be contributing to these discrepancies is the use of baseline primes that substitute letters in the target word, which may confound the effect of changes in letter position processing over development with those of letter identity. The present study included an identity prime (e.g., listen-LISTEN), in addition to the standard two-substituted-letter (2SL; e.g., lidfen-LISTEN) and all-letter-different (ALD; e.g., rodfup-LISTEN) baselines, to remove the potential confound between letter position and letter identity information in determining the effect of the TL prime. Priming effects were measured in a lexical decision task administered to children aged 7-12 and a group of university students. Using inverse transformed response times, targets preceded by a TL prime were responded to significantly faster than those preceded by 2SL and ALD primes, and priming remained stable across development. In contrast, targets preceded by a TL prime were responded to significantly slower than those preceded by an ID prime, and this reaction-time cost increased significantly over development, with adults showing the largest cost. These findings are consistent with a lexical tuning account of letter position development, and are inconsistent with the multiple-route model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Generation of transgenic mouse line expressing Kusabira Orange throughout body, including erythrocytes, by random segregation of provirus method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanaka, Sanae; Ooehara, Jun; Morita, Yohei; Ema, Hideo; Takahashi, Satoru; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Otsu, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Onodera, Masafumi; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2013-06-14

    Fluorescent-protein transgenic mice are useful for obtaining marked somatic cells to study kinetics of development or differentiation. Fluorescence-marked hematopoietic stem cells in particular are commonly used for studying hematopoiesis. However, as far as we know, no transgenic mouse line is described in which a fluorescent protein is stably and constitutively expressed in all hematopoietic cells, including erythrocytes and platelets. Using the random segregation of provirus (RSP) method, we generated from retrovirally transduced mouse embryonic stem cells a transgenic mouse line expressing a red/orange fluorescent protein, Kusabira Orange (KuO). KuO transgenic mouse line cells carry only one proviral integration site and stably express KuO in all hematopoietic-lineage elements, including erythrocytes and platelets. Moreover, bone-marrow transplantation in KuO transgenic mice demonstrated normal hematopoieisis. KuO transgenic mice likely will prove useful for study of hematopoiesis that includes erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of Hot Rolling for Generating Low Deviation Twins and a Disconnected Random Boundary Network in Inconel 600 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Sandeep; Yadav, Prabhat Chand; Shekhar, Shashank

    2018-02-01

    In this investigation, Inconel 600 alloy was thermomechanically processed to different strains via hot rolling followed by a short-time annealing treatment to determine an appropriate thermomechanical process to achieve a high fraction of low-Σ CSL boundaries. Experimental results demonstrate that a certain level of deformation is necessary to obtain effective "grain boundary engineering"; i.e., the deformation must be sufficiently high to provide the required driving force for postdeformation static recrystallization, yet it should be low enough to retain a large fraction of original twin boundaries. Samples processed in such a fashion exhibited 77 pct length fraction of low-Σ CSL boundaries, a dominant fraction of which was from Σ3 ( 64 pct), the latter with very low deviation from its theoretical misorientation. The application of hot rolling also resulted in a very low fraction of Σ1 ( 1 pct) boundaries, as desired. The process also leads to so-called "triple junction engineering" with the generation of special triple junctions, which are very effective in disrupting the connectivity of the random grain boundary network.

  10. Use of Hot Rolling for Generating Low Deviation Twins and a Disconnected Random Boundary Network in Inconel 600 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Sandeep; Yadav, Prabhat Chand; Shekhar, Shashank

    2017-12-01

    In this investigation, Inconel 600 alloy was thermomechanically processed to different strains via hot rolling followed by a short-time annealing treatment to determine an appropriate thermomechanical process to achieve a high fraction of low-Σ CSL boundaries. Experimental results demonstrate that a certain level of deformation is necessary to obtain effective "grain boundary engineering"; i.e., the deformation must be sufficiently high to provide the required driving force for postdeformation static recrystallization, yet it should be low enough to retain a large fraction of original twin boundaries. Samples processed in such a fashion exhibited 77 pct length fraction of low-Σ CSL boundaries, a dominant fraction of which was from Σ3 ( 64 pct), the latter with very low deviation from its theoretical misorientation. The application of hot rolling also resulted in a very low fraction of Σ1 ( 1 pct) boundaries, as desired. The process also leads to so-called "triple junction engineering" with the generation of special triple junctions, which are very effective in disrupting the connectivity of the random grain boundary network.

  11. Effects of an Introductory Letter on Response Rates to a Teen/Parent Telephone Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Susan I.; Mayer, Joni A.; Clapp, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted a pilot study in preparation for a larger investigation that will rely on telephone surveys to assess select health behaviors of teens and their parents, with a focus on indoor tanning. This study used a randomized design to assess the impact of a presurvey letter on response rates to a telephone survey, as well as prevalence…

  12. Caring Letters for Military Suicide Prevention: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Psychology : Research and Practice) with VA colleagues. This paper is not included as an appendix because it was not funded by this project. MONTHS 1-6...Phase I – Preparation and Regulatory Review • Months 1-6: Obtain IRB approvals to conduct a clinical trial using human subjects See status below...ORP, Human Research Protection Office (HRPO), and Madigan Army Medical Center Department of Clinical Investigation (DCI); (b) prepare manuscripts

  13. A masked priming ERP study of letter processing using single letters and false fonts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Priya; Coch, Donna

    2009-06-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) research on letter processing has suggested that a P150 reflects low-level, featural processing, whereas a P260 reflects high-level, abstract letter processing. In order to investigate the specificity of these effects, ERPs were recorded in a masked priming paradigm using matching and nonmatching pairs of letters (e.g., g-g, g-j) and false fonts (e.g.,[SYMBOL: SEE TEXT], [SYMBOL: SEE TEXT]). If the P150 priming effect indexes featural processing, there should be no effect of condition on the P150, since the letters and false fonts shared visual features. If the P260 priming effect indexes the processing of abstract letter representations, it should be evident only in the letter condition. As was expected, the P150 priming effect was similar for letters and false fonts; however, the P260 priming effect was also similar between conditions. Thus, the P260 priming effect may not be sensitive to abstract letter processing per se, or such processing may be extremely abstract.

  14. Letter from President Millard Fillmore to the Emperor of Japan: The President's Letter Opened a Closed Country to the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkert, Marvin; Potter, Lee Ann

    2004-01-01

    In 1852, Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the U.S. Navy sailed to Japan with instructions to deliver a letter from President Millard Fillmore to the Emperor. The letter eventually led to the 1854 Treaty of Kanagawa and the opening of Japan to trade with Western nations. The State Department's letter book copy of the letter is featured in this…

  15. Exact distribution of a pattern in a set of random sequences generated by a Markov source: applications to biological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regad Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In bioinformatics it is common to search for a pattern of interest in a potentially large set of rather short sequences (upstream gene regions, proteins, exons, etc.. Although many methodological approaches allow practitioners to compute the distribution of a pattern count in a random sequence generated by a Markov source, no specific developments have taken into account the counting of occurrences in a set of independent sequences. We aim to address this problem by deriving efficient approaches and algorithms to perform these computations both for low and high complexity patterns in the framework of homogeneous or heterogeneous Markov models. Results The latest advances in the field allowed us to use a technique of optimal Markov chain embedding based on deterministic finite automata to introduce three innovative algorithms. Algorithm 1 is the only one able to deal with heterogeneous models. It also permits to avoid any product of convolution of the pattern distribution in individual sequences. When working with homogeneous models, Algorithm 2 yields a dramatic reduction in the complexity by taking advantage of previous computations to obtain moment generating functions efficiently. In the particular case of low or moderate complexity patterns, Algorithm 3 exploits power computation and binary decomposition to further reduce the time complexity to a logarithmic scale. All these algorithms and their relative interest in comparison with existing ones were then tested and discussed on a toy-example and three biological data sets: structural patterns in protein loop structures, PROSITE signatures in a bacterial proteome, and transcription factors in upstream gene regions. On these data sets, we also compared our exact approaches to the tempting approximation that consists in concatenating the sequences in the data set into a single sequence. Conclusions Our algorithms prove to be effective and able to handle real data sets with

  16. Exact distribution of a pattern in a set of random sequences generated by a Markov source: applications to biological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background In bioinformatics it is common to search for a pattern of interest in a potentially large set of rather short sequences (upstream gene regions, proteins, exons, etc.). Although many methodological approaches allow practitioners to compute the distribution of a pattern count in a random sequence generated by a Markov source, no specific developments have taken into account the counting of occurrences in a set of independent sequences. We aim to address this problem by deriving efficient approaches and algorithms to perform these computations both for low and high complexity patterns in the framework of homogeneous or heterogeneous Markov models. Results The latest advances in the field allowed us to use a technique of optimal Markov chain embedding based on deterministic finite automata to introduce three innovative algorithms. Algorithm 1 is the only one able to deal with heterogeneous models. It also permits to avoid any product of convolution of the pattern distribution in individual sequences. When working with homogeneous models, Algorithm 2 yields a dramatic reduction in the complexity by taking advantage of previous computations to obtain moment generating functions efficiently. In the particular case of low or moderate complexity patterns, Algorithm 3 exploits power computation and binary decomposition to further reduce the time complexity to a logarithmic scale. All these algorithms and their relative interest in comparison with existing ones were then tested and discussed on a toy-example and three biological data sets: structural patterns in protein loop structures, PROSITE signatures in a bacterial proteome, and transcription factors in upstream gene regions. On these data sets, we also compared our exact approaches to the tempting approximation that consists in concatenating the sequences in the data set into a single sequence. Conclusions Our algorithms prove to be effective and able to handle real data sets with multiple sequences, as well

  17. K-Ras(G12D)-selective inhibitory peptides generated by random peptide T7 phage display technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kotaro; Kamada, Yusuke; Sameshima, Tomoya; Yaguchi, Masahiro; Niida, Ayumu; Sasaki, Shigekazu; Miwa, Masanori; Ohkubo, Shoichi; Sakamoto, Jun-Ichi; Kamaura, Masahiro; Cho, Nobuo; Tani, Akiyoshi

    2017-03-11

    Amino-acid mutations of Gly 12 (e.g. G12D, G12V, G12C) of V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (K-Ras), the most promising drug target in cancer therapy, are major growth drivers in various cancers. Although over 30 years have passed since the discovery of these mutations in most cancer patients, effective mutated K-Ras inhibitors have not been marketed. Here, we report novel and selective inhibitory peptides to K-Ras(G12D). We screened random peptide libraries displayed on T7 phage against purified recombinant K-Ras(G12D), with thorough subtraction of phages bound to wild-type K-Ras, and obtained KRpep-2 (Ac-RRCPLYISYDPVCRR-NH 2 ) as a consensus sequence. KRpep-2 showed more than 10-fold binding- and inhibition-selectivity to K-Ras(G12D), both in SPR analysis and GDP/GTP exchange enzyme assay. K D and IC 50 values were 51 and 8.9 nM, respectively. After subsequent sequence optimization, we successfully generated KRpep-2d (Ac-RRRRCPLYISYDPVCRRRR-NH 2 ) that inhibited enzyme activity of K-Ras(G12D) with IC 50  = 1.6 nM and significantly suppressed ERK-phosphorylation, downstream of K-Ras(G12D), along with A427 cancer cell proliferation at 30 μM peptide concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a K-Ras(G12D)-selective inhibitor, contributing to the development and study of K-Ras(G12D)-targeting drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Casting epPCR (cepPCR): A simple random mutagenesis method to generate high quality mutant libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianhua; Ruff, Anna J; Arlt, Marcus; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    During the last decade, directed evolution has become a standard protein engineering strategy to reengineer proteins for industrial applications under high stress conditions (e.g., high temperature, extreme pH, ionic liquids, or organic solvents). The most commonly employed method for diversity generation to improve biocatalysts for these properties is random mutagenesis by error-prone polymerase chain reaction (epPCR). However, recent reports show that epPCR often fails to produce >70% of beneficial positions/amino acid exchanges which improve enzyme properties such as organic solvent or ionic liquid resistance. In this report, bsla (543 bp, small lipase gene from Bacillus subtilis) was divided into three fragments (147, 192, 204 bp). Each fragment was subjected to an epPCR with a high mutation load (22, 31, and 33 mutations per kb) in order to increase the number of identified beneficial positions while maintaining a fraction of active population which can efficiently be screened in agar plate or microtiter plate format. The use of this "casting epPCR" process termed as (cepPCR), doubles the number of identified beneficial positions (from 14% to 29%), when compared to standard epPCR for the BSLA enzyme model. A further increase to 39% of beneficial positions is obtainable through combination of cepPCR with the transversion biased sequence saturation mutagenesis (SeSaM) method. Furthermore, sequencing of up to 600 mutations per fragment provided valuable insights into the correlation of total throughput and number of identified beneficial positions as well as how an efficient balance of screening efforts to obtainable results can be achieved in directed evolution campaigns. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1921-1927. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Traditions of martyrdom in the Ignatian Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fuhrmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The letters of Ignatius represent one of the key texts for the emergence of martyrdom during the second century AD in Christianity. This article is concerned with the question whether Ignatius contributed to a “theology of martyrdom” or whether he rather relied on previous traditions. The author argues, by undertaking an analysis of certain pragmatics and semantics, that the motif of martyrdom is solely used to buttress Ignatius’ claim for authority among his intended addressees by referring to an understanding of martyrdom that has its roots in the New Testament. An identification of the author of the letters with a historical martyr is regarded as unlikely.

  20. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor Letter from the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Dear authors and reviewers of articles for Measurement Science and Technology, I would like to thank all those who have published papers with us in 2010, and special thanks go to those of you who have kindly reviewed articles for the journal. I would also like to take this opportunity to update you on some of the developments on the journal and look ahead to 2011. As many of you are no doubt aware, our impact factor (a measure of the average number of times recent papers are referred to by others) is currently 1.317. This is often taken as an indication of the quality and relevance of recently published research, and although as readers we develop our own instinct for journals of high quality, it is gratifying as an Editor to see the data from an independent organization (Thomson ISI) agreeing with my own assessment. Measurement Science and Technology is a journal with a broad scope covering new measurement techniques in all fields of science and engineering. I therefore find it particularly enjoyable to read summaries of recent research in our strong topical review programme as these cover many varied topics of interest. In 2010 several interesting articles by international leaders in their field were published, for example: Single-photon generation and detection, by G S Buller and R J Collins of Heriot-Watt University [1]. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy in life sciences, by Jan Willem Borst and Antonie J W G Visser, from the Microspectroscopy Centre of Wageningen University [2]. Biological and chemical sensors for cancer diagnosis, by Elfriede Simon of Siemens AG [3]. I hope that these articles, and the others published in 2010 and now in 2011, will provide a useful overview for our readers, and be helpful to new researchers. When speaking to young researchers I am particularly aware that having their articles published in a timely fashion is important, and I am pleased that our publication times are highly competitive, with most authors receiving a

  1. Letters in the Forest: Global precedence effect disappears for letters but not for non-letters under reading-like conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eLachmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Normally-skilled reading involves special processing strategies for letters, which are habitually funneled into an abstract letter code. On the basis of previous studies we argue that this habit leads to the preferred usage of an analytic strategy for the processing of letters, while non-letters are preferably processed via a holistic strategy. The well-known Global Precedence Effect (GPE seems to contradict to this assumption, since, with compound, hierarchical figures, including letter items, faster responses are observed to the global than to the local level of the figure, as well as an asymmetric interference effect from global to local level. We argue that with letters these effects depend on presentation conditions; only when they elicit the processing strategies automatized for reading, an analytic strategy for letters in contrast to non-letters is to be expected. We compared the GPE for letters and non-letters in central viewing, with the global stimulus size close to the functional visual field in whole word reading (6.5o of visual angle and local stimuli close to the critical size for fluent reading of individual letters (.5o of visual angle. Under these conditions, the GPE remained robust for non-letters. For letters, however, it disappeared: letters showed no overall response time advantage for the global level and symmetric congruence effects (local-to-global as well as global-to local interference. We interpret these results as according to the view that reading is based on resident analytic visual processing strategies for letters.

  2. Referral letters to the emergency department: is the medication list accurate?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCullagh, M

    2015-02-01

    Medication errors are common when patients transfer across healthcare boundaries. This study was designed to investigate the quality of information on medicines provided by general practitioners (GPs) on emergency department (ED) referral letters. A convenience sample of referral letters to the ED of a teaching hospital was reviewed. The medication list and\\/or patient\\'s drug allergy status were noted. Medicines reconciliation including patient (or carer) interview was conducted to determine the patient\\'s actual home medication list. This was compared with the GP list and any discrepancies were identified and addressed. A total of 92 referral letters were included in the analysis of which 60 were computer-generated and 32 were hand-written. GPs provided dose and frequency of administration information in 47 (51%) of the letters sampled i.e. 44 (71%) computer-generated versus 3 (10%) hand-written; p < 0.001. In addition, the patient was taking their medicines exactly as per the GP list in 20 (22%) of cases. The patient\\'s drug allergy status was documented in 13 (14%) of the letters.

  3. Employer Preferences for Resumes and Cover Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullery, Nancy M.; Ickes, Linda; Schullery, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of employers' preferences for resume style, resume delivery method, and cover letters. Employers still widely prefer the standard chronological resume, with only 3% desiring a scannable resume. The vast majority of employers prefer electronic delivery, either by email (46%) or at the company's Web site…

  4. Resource letter ETC-1 - Extraterrestrial civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Thomas B. H.; Brin, Glen David

    1989-01-01

    This resource letter provides a guide to the literature about intelligent life beyond the human sphere of exploration. It offers a starting point for professionals and academics interested in participating in the debate about the existence of other technological civilizations or in SETI. It can also serve as a reference for teaching. Several extensive bibliographies are cited.

  5. SiD Letter of Intent

    CERN Document Server

    Aihara, H.; Oreglia, M.; Berger, E.L.; Guarino, V.; Repond, J.; Weerts, H.; Xia, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Srivastava, A.; Butler, J.M.; Goldstein, Joel; Velthuis, J.; Radeka, V.; Zhu, R.-Y.; Lutz, P.; de Roeck, A.; Elsener, K.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Grefe, C.; Klempt, W.; Linssen, L.; Schlatter, D.; Speckmayer, P.; Thom, J.; Yang, J.; Christian, D.C.; Cihangir, S.; Cooper, W.E.; Demarteau, M.; Fisk, H.E.; Garren, L.A.; Krempetz, K.; Kutschke, R.K.; Lipton, R.; Para, A.; Tschirhart, R.; Wenzel, H.; Yarema, R.; Grunewald, M.; Pankov, A.; U., Gomel State Tech.; Dutta, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Balbuena, J.P.; Fleta, C.; Lozano, M.; Ullan, M.; Christian, G.B.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Fuster, J.; Lacasta, C.; Marinnas, C.; Vos, M.; Duarte, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Jaramillo, R.; Lopez, Virto A.; Martinez-Eivero, C.; Moya, D.; Ruiz-Mimeno, A.; Vila, I.; Colledani, C.; Dorokhov, A.; Hu-Guo, C.; Winter, M.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Onoprienko, D.V.; Kim, G.N.; Park, H.; Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.-J.; Cap, S.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Espargiliare, A.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Jacquemier, J.; Karyotakis, Y.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Gronberg, J.; Walston, S.; Wright, D.; Sawyer, L.; Laloum, M.; Ciobanu, C.; Chauveau, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Andricek, L.; Moser, H.-G.; Cowan, R.f.; Fisher, P.; Yamamoto, R.K.; Kenney, ClMl; Boos, E.E.; Merkin, M.; Chen, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Dyshkant, A.; Hedin, D.; Zutshi, V.; Galkin, V.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Ossetski, D.; Saveliev, V.; Kapusta, F.; De Masi, R.; Vrba, V.; Lu, C.; McDonald, K.T.; Smith, A.J.S.; Bortoletto, D.; Coath, R.; Crooks, J.; Damerell, C.; Gibson, M.; Nichols, A.; Stanitzki, M.; Strube, J.; Turchetta, R.; Tyndel, M.; Weber, M.; Worm, S.; Zhang, Z.; Barklow, T.L.; Belymam, A.; Breidenbach, M.; Cassell, R.; Craddock, W.; Deaconu, C.; Dragone, A.; Graf, N.A.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Hewett, J.L.; Jaros, J.A.; Johnson, A.S.; Kim, P.C.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Markiewicz, T.; Maruyama, T.; McCormick, J.; Moffeit, K.; Neal, H.A.; Nelson, T.K.; Oriunno, M.; Partridge, R.; Peskin, M.E.; Rizzo, T.G.; Rowson, P.; Su, D.; Woods, M.; Chakrabarti, S.; Dieguez, A.; Garrido, Ll.; Kaminski, J.; Conway, J.S.; Chertok, M.; Gunion, J.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Tripathi, S.M.; Fadeyev, V.; Schumm, B.A.; Oreglia, M.; Gill, J.; Nauenberg, U.; Oleinik, G.; Wagner, S.R.; Ranjan, K.; Shivpuri, R.; Varner, G.S.; Orava, R.; Van Kooten, R.; Bilki, B.; Charles, M.; Kim, T.J.; Mallik, U.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Brau, B.P.; Willocq, S.; Taylor, G.N.; Riles, Keith; Yang, H.-J.; Kriske, R.; Cremaldi, L.; Rahmat, R.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Seidel, S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Wayne, M.; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N.; Strom, D.M.; Torrence, E.; Banda, Y.; Burrows, P.N.; Devetak, E.; Foster, B.; Lastovicka, T.; Li, Y.-M.; Nomerotski, A.; Riera-Babures, J.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Manly, S.; Adeva, B.; Iglesias Escudero, C.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Saborido Silva, J.J.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Gao, D.; Jie, W.; Jungfeng, Y.; Li, C.; Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Sun, Y.; Wang, Q.; Yi, J.; Yonggang, W.; Zhao, Z.; De, K.; Farbin, A.; Park, S.; Smith, J.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Lou, X.C.; Abe, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Lubatti, H.J.; Band, H.R.; Feyzi, F.; Prepost, R.; Karchin, P.E.; Milstene, C.; Baltay, C.; Dhawan, S.; Kwon, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Letter of intent describing SiD (Silicon Detector) for consideration by the International Linear Collider IDAG panel. This detector concept is founded on the use of silicon detectors for vertexing, tracking, and electromagnetic calorimetry. The detector has been cost-optimized as a general-purpose detector for a 500 GeV electron-positron linear collider.

  6. Fallout from Chernobyl [Letters to the editor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, E.D. (Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Abelin, T.; Egger, M. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland)) (and others)

    1994-11-12

    Six brief letters discuss the possible health effects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident including an increase in thyroid cancer in children in Belarus, chromosomal abnormalities in workers from Latvia who cleared up the Chernobyl accident site, an increased trisomy 21 in Berlin but a lack of increased childhood leukaemia incidence in Greece. (UK).

  7. The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Ternier, Stefaan; Drachsler, Hendrik; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Lezcano, L., Ternier, S., Drachsler, H., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2013, September). The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App. In iProceedings of MEDICINE 2.0: 6th World Congress on Social Media, Mobile Apps, Internet/Web 2.0 (pp. 221-222). London, England. Retrieved from

  8. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter D

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal publishes original research, case report/case series, letter to the editor, reviews of health related issues in medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, nursing, public ... Discovery and Innovation is a journal of the African Academy of Sciences (AAS) and the Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS) meant to ...

  9. Varsity letters documenting modern colleges and universities

    CERN Document Server

    Samuels, Helen Willa

    1998-01-01

    A study of the functions of colleges and universities, Varsity Letters is intended to aid those responsible for the documentation of these institutions. Samuels offers specific advice about the records of modern colleges and universities and proposes a method to ensure their adequate documentation. She also offers a method to analyze and plan the preservation of records for any type of institution.

  10. Scientific Letter: Homemade heroin substitute causing hallucinations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: Homemade heroin substitute causing hallucinations. TI Lemon. Abstract. No Abstracts. African Journal of Psychiatry • November 2013, 16(6). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajpsy.v16i6.51.

  11. "Physical Review Letters" in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolillo, Paul J.; Lynch, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Ask any physicist what the preeminent journal in the field is, and I think the almost unanimous answer will be "Physical Review Letters" ("PRL"). This weekly journal of the American Physical Society publishes high-impact research from all the major subdisciplines of physics. This journal is not the one you would think is the first place a high…

  12. Resource Letter GL-1: Gravitational Lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Philip J.; Clowe, Douglas

    2012-09-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to a selection of the literature on gravitational lensing and its applications. Journal articles, books, popular articles, and websites are cited for the following topics: foundations of gravitational lensing, foundations of cosmology, history of gravitational lensing, strong lensing, weak lensing, and microlensing.

  13. Editorial: Letter from the Editors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Heitmeyer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This time our focus section features work from the first conference hosted by IJCV. In 2011 Donatella della Porta and Gary LaFree, both members of the journal’s advisory board, brought together in Bielefeld experts from around the world to thoroughly debate the question of radicalization and de-radicalization. In contrast to prior approaches that mostly focused on the context of terrorism, the aim of this focus section is to present work employing new theoretical and methodological approaches to generate findings that go well beyond terrorism and related phenomena and thus contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the processes, dynamics, and mechanisms of radicalization and de-radicalization. Our heartfelt thanks go to the two guest editors – as well as the entire conference team – for realising this ambitious project and for putting together this collection of papers.The open section contains two articles of additional interest. Rafi Nets-Zehngut uses the example of the 1948 Palestinian exodus to describe the characteristics of internal and external collective memories in Israeli society. The section closes with a contribution by Claudia Diehl and Jan-Philipp Steinmann who explore the impact of the release and public discussion of Thilo Sarrazin’s book Deutschland schafft sich ab (Germany abolishes itself on public perception of immigrants in Germany.

  14. Event related potentials reveal early phonological and orthographic processing of single letters in letter-detection and letter-rhyme paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sewon Adrian Bann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When and where phonological processing occurs in the brain is still under some debate. Most paired-rhyme and phonological priming studies used word stimuli, which involve complex neural networks for word recognition and semantics. This study investigates early (300ms orthographic and phonological processing of letters.Methods: Eighteen participants aged 20-35 engaged in three two-forced choice experiments, one letter-detection (LetterID and two letter-rhyme (Paired-Rhyme and Letter-Rhyme tasks. From the EEG recordings, ERP differences within and across task stimuli were found. We also calculated the global field power (GFP for each participant. Accuracies and reaction times were also measured from their button presses for each task. Results: Behavioural: Reaction times were 18ms faster to letter than pseudoletter stimuli, and 27ms faster to rhyme than nonrhyme stimuli. ERP/GFP: In the LetterID task, grand-mean EPs showed typical P1, N1, P2, and P3 waveform morphologies to letter and pseudoletter stimuli, with GFPs to pseudoletters being greater than letters from 160-600ms. Across both rhyme tasks, there were greater negativities for nonrhyme than for rhyme stimuli at 145ms and 426ms. The P2 effect for rhyme stimuli was smaller than letter stimuli when compared across tasks.Conclusion: Differences in early processing of letters versus pseudoletters between 130-190ms suggest that letters are processed earlier and perhaps faster in the brain than pseudoletters. The P2 effect between letter and rhyme stimuli likely reflect sublexical phonological processing. Together, findings from our study fill in evidence for the temporal dynamics of orthographic and phonological processing of single letters.

  15. Predicting the velocity and azimuth of fragments generated by the range destruction or random failure of rocket casings and tankage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, M.; Mukunda, M.

    The proliferation of space vehicle launch sites and the projected utilization of these facilities portends an increase in the number of on-pad, ascent, and on-orbit solid-rocket motor (SRM) casings and liquid-rocket tanks which will randomly fail or will fail from range destruct actions. Beyond the obvious safety implications, these failures may have serious resource implications for mission system and facility planners. SRM-casing failures and liquid-rocket tankage failures result in the generation of large, high velocity fragments which may be serious threats to the safety of launch support personnel if proper bunkers and exclusion areas are not provided. In addition, these fragments may be indirect threats to the general public's safety if they encounter hazardous spacecraft payloads which have not been designed to withstand shrapnel of this caliber. They may also become threats to other spacecraft if, by failing on-orbit, they add to the ever increasing space-junk collision cross-section. Most prior attempts to assess the velocity of fragments from failed SRM casings have simply assigned the available chamber impulse to available casing and fuel mass and solved the resulting momentum balance for velocity. This method may predict a fragment velocity which is high or low by a factor of two depending on the ratio of fuel to casing mass extant at the time of failure. Recognizing the limitations of existing methods, the authors devised an analytical approach which properly partitions the available impulse to each major system-mass component. This approach uses the Physics International developed PISCES code to couple the forces generated by an Eulerian modeled gas flow field to a Lagrangian modeled fuel and casing system. The details of a predictive analytical modeling process as well as the development of normalized relations for momentum partition as a function of SRM burn time and initial geometry are discussed in this paper. Methods for applying similar modeling

  16. "Why Downt You Riyt Back to Me?": Family Letter Writing in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pole, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This article presents research that investigated how a school year-long letter-writing project between kindergarten students and extended family members could facilitate literacy development in students, as well as provide a way to build inter-generational bonds through correspondence focused on family history and stories. Analysis centered on the…

  17. Common-cavity ytterbium/Raman random distributed feedback fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han; Wang, Zinan; He, Qiheng; Sun, Wei; Rao, Yunjiang

    2017-06-01

    In this letter, a common-cavity random distributed feedback fiber laser which can generate both 1064 nm ytterbium-doped random lasing and 1115 nm ytterbium-Raman random lasing is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for the first time. The common cavity is based on the combination of the double-cladding ytterbium-doped fiber and the standard single mode fiber (SMF); a 1064 nm high-reflectivity fiber Bragg grating and the fiber flat-end are connected to the signal port of the pump combiner as the point reflectors. The generated 1064 nm random lasing can serve as the Raman pump in the SMF, thus 1115 nm random lasing could be stimulated with the hybrid ytterbium-Raman gain. The feedback for 1115 nm random lasing is the combination of flat-end fiber and random Rayleigh feedback. By controlling the value of flat-end fiber’s reflectivity to 0.002, stable 1.91 W of 1064 nm ytterbium-doped random lasing and 3.72 W of 1115 nm ytterbium-Raman random lasing are generated successively. This work could provide a simple and cost-effective way to generate high-power random lasing.

  18. Disk calculator indicates legible lettering size for slide projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultberg, R. R.

    1965-01-01

    Hand-operated disk calculator indicates the minimum size of letters and numbers in relation to the width and height of a working drawing. The lettering is legible when a slide of the drawing is projected.

  19. 50 CFR 216.189 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA sonar) Sonar § 216.189 Renewal of Letters of... modification to the Letter of Authorization, NMFS will provide a period of 30 days for public review and...

  20. Letter to President [Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Laguna Atascosa Wilderness area. The letter...

  1. Patient information letters on nutrition: development and implementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, J.J. van; Drenthen, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1998 the Dutch College of General Practitioners (NHG) began developing patient information letters (PILs), based on the practice guidelines for family physicians (FPs) (NHG standards). Five nutritional guidance letters have since been developed with the Dutch Nutrition Center.

  2. Can words be read without abstract letter identities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fischer-Baum

    2014-04-01

    CH’s acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia left him with a profound impairment in processing abstract letter identities. This impairment affected his ability to process strings of letters in a variety of tasks; for example nonword reading, spelling, recognizing orally spelled words. However, while impaired, his single word reading was surprisingly good given his single letter impairment, suggesting an additional route to word meaning from visually-presented familiar words that does not require abstract letter identities.

  3. Possibility of applying Role Lettering to Career Education in university

    OpenAIRE

    佐瀬, 竜一

    2016-01-01

      The purpose of this article was to discuss the possibility of Role Lettering to Career Education in university. We asked the membership in the psychological class to participate in the experiment of Role Lettering. Some people of them accepted to participate in the experiment voluntary. Finally, 98 healthy college students at same university in Japan were participated. They were inexperienced in Role Lettering. They were asked the Role Lettering to consult the distress the Career. It was di...

  4. Improving breast and colon cancer screening rates: a comparison of letters, automated phone calls, or both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lindsay; Hendren, Samantha; Humiston, Sharon; Winters, Paul; Fiscella, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Low-cost interventions to improve cancer screening among primary care patients are needed. The comparative effectiveness of personalized letters, automated telephone calls, and both on breast cancer (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is not known. A pragmatic, randomized, controlled trial was conducted in 2011 to 2012. Eligible primary care patients were women ages 50 to 74 years who were past due for mammography and men or women who were past due for mammography or CRC screening of any kind (>12 months since last fecal occult blood test, >5 years since last sigmoidoscopy/double-contrast barium enema, or >10 years since last colonoscopy), respectively. Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 interventions: personalized mailed letters, automated telephone calls, or both. The primary outcome was medical record documentation of a completed mammogram or CRC screening within 36 weeks of randomization. We estimated the costs of each intervention and calculated the marginal cost-effectiveness per person screened. The crude screening rates for BC were 19%, 22%, and 37% and for CRC were 17%, 14%, and 24% for the letter, automated call, and combined (letter/automated call) groups, respectively. The combined intervention group had a statistically higher screening rate (P costs $5.11 per additional person screened for BC and $13.14 per additional person screened for CRC. In a primary care practice, letters plus automated telephone calls are better than either alone in increasing cancer screening rates among patients who are overdue for screening. These findings suggest the promise of a relatively inexpensive intervention to improve cancer screening. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  5. Design of high-throughput and low-power true random number generator utilizing perpendicularly magnetized voltage-controlled magnetic tunnel junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hochul Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A true random number generator based on perpendicularly magnetized voltage-controlled magnetic tunnel junction devices (MRNG is presented. Unlike MTJs used in memory applications where a stable bit is needed to store information, in this work, the MTJ is intentionally designed with small perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA. This allows one to take advantage of the thermally activated fluctuations of its free layer as a stochastic noise source. Furthermore, we take advantage of the voltage dependence of anisotropy to temporarily change the MTJ state into an unstable state when a voltage is applied. Since the MTJ has two energetically stable states, the final state is randomly chosen by thermal fluctuation. The voltage controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA effect is used to generate the metastable state of the MTJ by lowering its energy barrier. The proposed MRNG achieves a high throughput (32 Gbps by implementing a 64×64 MTJ array into CMOS circuits and executing operations in a parallel manner. Furthermore, the circuit consumes very low energy to generate a random bit (31.5 fJ/bit due to the high energy efficiency of the voltage-controlled MTJ switching.

  6. Design of high-throughput and low-power true random number generator utilizing perpendicularly magnetized voltage-controlled magnetic tunnel junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hochul; Ebrahimi, Farbod; Amiri, Pedram Khalili; Wang, Kang L.

    2017-05-01

    A true random number generator based on perpendicularly magnetized voltage-controlled magnetic tunnel junction devices (MRNG) is presented. Unlike MTJs used in memory applications where a stable bit is needed to store information, in this work, the MTJ is intentionally designed with small perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). This allows one to take advantage of the thermally activated fluctuations of its free layer as a stochastic noise source. Furthermore, we take advantage of the voltage dependence of anisotropy to temporarily change the MTJ state into an unstable state when a voltage is applied. Since the MTJ has two energetically stable states, the final state is randomly chosen by thermal fluctuation. The voltage controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect is used to generate the metastable state of the MTJ by lowering its energy barrier. The proposed MRNG achieves a high throughput (32 Gbps) by implementing a 64 ×64 MTJ array into CMOS circuits and executing operations in a parallel manner. Furthermore, the circuit consumes very low energy to generate a random bit (31.5 fJ/bit) due to the high energy efficiency of the voltage-controlled MTJ switching.

  7. Letter representations in writing: An fMRI adaptation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eDufor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Behavioral and neuropsychological research in reading and spelling has provided evidence for the role of the following types of orthographic representations in letter writing: letter forms, letter case, and abstract letter identities. We report on the results of an fMRI investigation designed to identify the neural substrates of these different representational types. Using a neural adaptation paradigm we examined the neural distribution of inhibition and release from inhibition in a letter-writing task in which, on every trial, participants produced three repetitions of the same letter and a fourth letter that was either identical to (no-change trial or different from the previous three (change trial. Change trials involved a change in the shape, case and/or identity of the letter. After delineating the general letter writing network by identifying areas that exhibited significant neural adaptation effects on no-change trials, we used deconvolution analysis to examine this network for effects of release from inhibition on change trials. In this way we identified regions specifically associated with the representation of letter shape (left SFS and SFG/pre-CG and letter identity (left fusiform gyrus or both (cerebellum, post-central gyrus and middle frontal gyrus. No regions were associated with the representation of letter case. This study showcases an investigational approach that allows for the differentiation of the neurotopography of the representational types that are key to our ability to produce written language.

  8. Covert Reading of Letters in a Case of Global Alexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Chiara; Bencini, Giulia; Meneghello, Francesca; Piron, Lamberto; Semenza, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the case of a global alexic patient with a severe reading deficit affecting words, letters and Arabic numbers, following a left posterior lesion. The patient (VA) could not match spoken letters to their graphic form. A preserved ability to recognize shape and canonical orientation of letters indicates intact access to the…

  9. 31 CFR 535.416 - Letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Letters of credit. 535.416 Section... § 535.416 Letters of credit. (a) Question. Prior to the effective date, a bank subject to the jurisdiction of the United States has issued or confirmed a documentary letter of credit for a non-Iranian...

  10. 22 CFR 92.54 - “Letters rogatory” defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Letters Rogatory § 92.54 “Letters rogatory” defined. In its broader sense in international... serving of a summons, subpoena, or other legal notice, or the execution of a civil judgment. In United... applicable laws of that jurisdiction. See § 92.66 for procedures in the use of letters rogatory requesting...

  11. Letter representations in writing: an fMRI adaptation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufor, Olivier; Rapp, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    BEHAVIORAL AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN READING AND SPELLING HAS PROVIDED EVIDENCE FOR THE ROLE OF THE FOLLOWING TYPES OF ORTHOGRAPHIC REPRESENTATIONS IN LETTER WRITING: letter shapes, letter case, and abstract letter identities. We report on the results of an fMRI investigation designed to identify the neural substrates of these different representational types. Using an fMRI adaptation paradigm we examined the neural distribution of inhibition and release from inhibition in a letter-writing task in which, on every trial, participants produced three repetitions of the same letter and a fourth letter that was either identical to (no-change trial) or different from the previous three (change trial). Change trials involved a change in the shape, case, and/or identity of the letter. After delineating the general letter writing network by identifying areas that exhibited significant neural adaptation effects on no-change trials, we used deconvolution analysis to examine this network for effects of release from inhibition on change trials. In this way we identified regions specifically associated with the representation of letter shape (in the left SFS and SFG/pre-CG) and letter identity [in the left fusiform gyrus (FG)] or both [right cerebellum, left post-central gyrus (post-CG), and left middle frontal gyrus (MFG)]. No regions were associated with the representation of letter case. This study showcases an investigational approach that allows for the differentiation of the neurotopography of the representational types that are key to our ability to produce written language.

  12. The Relationship between Letter Fluency Measures and Arabic GPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated two widely-used early literacy skill's indicators in reflecting growth in first-grade language achievement skills. It compared two curriculum-based assessments of letter knowledge: Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) and Letter Sound Fluency (LSF) in the Arabic language. A sample of 125 first-grade students, 100 average readers and…

  13. A Key to the Art of Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    2008-01-01

    The article examines A. Lane's grammar A Key to the Art of Letters and its contexts. Symbolically published at the threshold to the eighteenth century, Lane presents an unusually bold plan to make English a world language. Although Lane's book holds a key position in the development of English gr...... that Lane is the first to use English as the basis for writing universal grammar, as part of his strategy to promote English as a universal code for learning and science......The article examines A. Lane's grammar A Key to the Art of Letters and its contexts. Symbolically published at the threshold to the eighteenth century, Lane presents an unusually bold plan to make English a world language. Although Lane's book holds a key position in the development of English...

  14. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  15. Fifty years of Chemical Physics Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, A. David

    2017-09-01

    Chemical Physics Letters was born in 1967. In the first Number, published in February that year, the Founding Editors, Jan Hoytink and Laurens Jansen, stipulated that the journal would be truly international and that all submitted papers will be refereed. The aim was to provide a convenient means for the rapid dissemination of research results in the field of chemical physics. There would be an emphasis on theoretical interpretation. This article reviews the progress of the journal over its first fifty years.

  16. Essay: reflections on Physical Review Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, David

    2008-08-01

    During my tenure as APS Editor-in-Chief Physical Review Letters changed from a journal whose authors were mostly from the U.S. to one whose authors were mostly from abroad. I encouraged authors to publicize their work even before their papers were accepted for publication. And I sought to raise the quality of the papers that were published even higher than before.

  17. Assessing randomness and complexity in human motion trajectories through analysis of symbolic sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen ePeng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Complexity is a hallmark of intelligent behavior consisting both of regular patterns and random variation. To quantitatively assess the complexity and randomness of human motion, we designed a motor task in which we translated subjects' motion trajectories into strings of symbol sequences. In the first part of the experiment participants were asked to perform self-paced movements to create repetitive patterns, copy pre-specified letter sequences, and generate random movements. To investigate whether the degree of randomness can be manipulated, in the second part of the experiment participants were asked to perform unpredictable movements in the context of a pursuit game, where they received feedback from an online Bayesian predictor guessing their next move. We analyzed symbol sequences representing subjects' motion trajectories with five common complexity measures: predictability, compressibility, approximate entropy, Lempel-Ziv complexity, as well as effective measure complexity. We found that subjects’ self-created patterns were the most complex, followed by drawing movements of letters and self-paced random motion. We also found that participants could change the randomness of their behavior depending on context and feedback. Our results suggest that humans can adjust both complexity and regularity in different movement types and contexts and that this can be assessed with information-theoretic measures of the symbolic sequences generated from movement trajectories.

  18. Age and Individual Differences in Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computer-Generated Sinusoidal and Quasi-Random Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined age group and individual differences in controlled force exertion by emulating sinusoidal and quasi-random waveforms in 222 right-handed female adults aged 20 to 86 years. The subjects matched their submaximal grip strength by the dominant hand to changing demand values displayed as either a sinusoidal or a quasi-random…

  19. Long-term effectiveness of computer-generated tailored patient education on benzodiazepines : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Wolde, Geeske Brecht; Dijkstra, Arie; Van Empelen, Pepijn; van den Hout, Wilbert; Neven, Arie Knuistingh; Zitman, Frans

    Aims Chronic benzodiazepine use is highly prevalent and is associated with a variety of negative health consequences. The present study examined the long-term effectiveness of a tailored patient education intervention on benzodiazepine use. Participants A randomized controlled trial was conducted

  20. Moderate consumption of wine, through both its phenolic compounds and alcohol content, promotes hydroxytyrosol endogenous generation in humans. A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Farré, Magí; Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Papaseit, Esther; Pujadas, Mitona; Fitó, Montserrat; Robledo, Patricia; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Cheynier, Véronique; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Escudier, Jean-Louis; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-06-01

    In humans, urinary hydroxytyrosol (OHTyr) concentrations have been associated to alcohol and wine consumption. To explore the role of wine components on promoting an endogenous OHTyr generation we performed a cross-over, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial (n = 28 healthy volunteers). Ethanol (wine and vodka), dealcoholized wine, and placebo were administered. Alcohol, dealcoholized wine, and particularly wine promoted a de novo OHTyr generation in vivo in humans. Potential OHTyr precursors (tyrosine, tyrosol, tyramine) were investigated in rats. Tyrosol was metabolized to OHTyr. Collating both studies, it is postulated that an increased Tyr bioavailability, a shift to a reductive pathway in dopamine and tyramine oxidative metabolism, and the biotransformation of Tyr to OHTyr were mechanisms involved in the OHTyr endogenous generation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Evaluation of the methodologies used to generate random pavement profiles based on the power spectral density: An approach based on the International Roughness Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Jesús Goenaga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pavement roughness is the main variable that produces the vertical excitation in vehicles. Pavement profiles are the main determinant of (i discomfort perception on users and (ii dynamic loads generated at the tire-pavement interface, hence its evaluation constitutes an essential step on a Pavement Management System. The present document evaluates two specific techniques used to simulate pavement profiles; these are the shaping filter and the sinusoidal approach, both based on the Power Spectral Density. Pavement roughness was evaluated using the International Roughness Index (IRI, which represents the most used index to characterize longitudinal road profiles. Appropriate parameters were defined in the simulation process to obtain pavement profiles with specific ranges of IRI values using both simulation techniques. The results suggest that using a sinusoidal approach one can generate random profiles with IRI values that are representative of different road types, therefore, one could generate a profile for a paved or an unpaved road, representing all the proposed categories defined by ISO 8608 standard. On the other hand, to obtain similar results using the shaping filter approximation a modification in the simulation parameters is necessary. The new proposed values allow one to generate pavement profiles with high levels of roughness, covering a wider range of surface types. Finally, the results of the current investigation could be used to further improve our understanding on the effect of pavement roughness on tire pavement interaction. The evaluated methodologies could be used to generate random profiles with specific levels of roughness to assess its effect on dynamic loads generated at the tire-pavement interface and user’s perception of road condition.

  2. Generator. Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoedler, R.; Bossmann, H.P.

    1992-03-12

    The invention refers to a thermo-electric generator, whose main part is a sodium concentration cell. In conventional thermo-electric generators of this kind, the sodium moving from a hot space to a colder space must be transported back to the hot space via a circulation pipe and a pump. The purpose of the invention is to avoid the disadvantages of this return transport. According to the invention, the thermo-electric generator is supported so that it can rotate, so that the position of each space relative to its propinquity to the heat source can be changed at any time.

  3. Gender differences in recommendation letters for postdoctoral fellowships in geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Kuheli; Pfaff, Danielle L.; Bernstein, Ariel F.; Dillard, Joseph S.; Block, Caryn J.

    2016-11-01

    Gender disparities in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics, including the geosciences, are well documented and widely discussed. In the geosciences, despite receiving 40% of doctoral degrees, women hold less than 10% of full professorial positions. A significant leak in the pipeline occurs during postdoctoral years, so biases embedded in postdoctoral processes, such as biases in recommendation letters, may be deterrents to careers in geoscience for women. Here we present an analysis of an international data set of 1,224 recommendation letters, submitted by recommenders from 54 countries, for postdoctoral fellowships in the geosciences over the period 2007-2012. We examine the relationship between applicant gender and two outcomes of interest: letter length and letter tone. Our results reveal that female applicants are only half as likely to receive excellent letters versus good letters compared to male applicants. We also find no evidence that male and female recommenders differ in their likelihood to write stronger letters for male applicants over female applicants. Our analysis also reveals significant regional differences in letter length, with letters from the Americas being significantly longer than any other region, whereas letter tone appears to be distributed equivalently across all world regions. These results suggest that women are significantly less likely to receive excellent recommendation letters than their male counterparts at a critical juncture in their career.

  4. The time course of visual influences in letter recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madec, Sylvain; Le Goff, Kévin; Riès, Stéphanie K; Legou, Thierry; Rousselet, Guillaume; Courrieu, Pierre; Alario, F-Xavier; Grainger, Jonathan; Rey, Arnaud

    2016-06-01

    This study builds on a specific characteristic of letters of the Roman alphabet-namely, that each letter name is associated with two visual formats, corresponding to their uppercase and lowercase versions. Participants had to read aloud the names of single letters, and event-related potentials (ERPs) for six pairs of visually dissimilar upper- and lowercase letters were recorded. Assuming that the end product of processing is the same for upper- and lowercase letters sharing the same vocal response, ERPs were compared backward, starting from the onset of articulatory responses, and the first significant divergence was observed 120 ms before response onset. Given that naming responses were produced at around 414 ms, on average, these results suggest that letter processing is influenced by visual information until 294 ms after stimulus onset. This therefore provides new empirical evidence regarding the time course and interactive nature of visual letter perception processes.

  5. The effect of reminder letters on the uptake of an e-learning programme on dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Bente

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether three reminder letters mailed to GPs after dissemination of a Dementia Guideline increased the GPs' use of the corresponding e-learning programme (ELP). METHODS: Single-blinded randomized trial among all GPs in Copenhagen......, further research is needed in order to consider future implementation strategies for Internet-based Continuous Medical Education activities among not primed GPs....

  6. Letter Name Knowledge and the Ability To Learn To Read by Processing Letter-Phoneme Relations in Words: Evidence from Brazilian Portuguese-Speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Martins, Claudia; Resende, Selmara Mamede; Rodrigues, Larissa Assuncao

    2002-01-01

    Investigates whether Brazilian Portuguese-speaking prereaders who have mastered letter names are capable of processing letter-sound relations to learn to read words in which the letters correspond to phonemes contained in the names of the letters. Suggests they can use their knowledge of the names of the letters to learn to read by processing and…

  7. Generator. Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossmann, H.P.; Knoedler, R.

    1992-03-12

    The invention refers to a thermo-electric generator, which contains sodium as the means of heat transport. The sodium moves from the space of higher temperature through a space into the space of lower temperature. One can do without a pump for transporting the sodium back from the space of lower temperature to the space of higher temperature, as the thermo-electric generator can rotate around an axis. It is therefore possible to interchange the position of the two spaces relative to the heat source.

  8. Attention effects on the processing of task-relevant and task-irrelevant speech sounds and letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eMittag

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs to study effects of selective attention on the processing of attended and unattended spoken syllables and letters. Participants were presented with syllables randomly occurring in the left or right ear and spoken by different voices and with a concurrent foveal stream of consonant letters written in darker or lighter fonts. During auditory phonological and non-phonological tasks, they responded to syllables in a designated ear starting with a vowel and spoken by female voices, respectively. These syllables occurred infrequently among standard syllables starting with a consonant and spoken by male voices. During visual phonological and non-phonological tasks, they responded to consonant letters with names starting with a vowel and to letters written in dark fonts, respectively. These letters occurred infrequently among standard letters with names starting with a consonant and written in light fonts. To examine genuine effects of attention and task on ERPs not overlapped by ERPs associated with target processing or deviance detection, these effects were studied only in ERPs to auditory and visual standards. During selective listening to syllables in a designated ear, ERPs to the attended syllables were negatively displaced during both phonological and non-phonological auditory tasks. Selective attention to letters elicited an early negative displacement and a subsequent positive displacement of ERPs to attended letters being larger during the visual phonological than non-phonological task suggesting a higher demand for attention during the visual phonological task. Active suppression of unattended speech during the auditory phonological and non-phonological tasks and during the visual phonological tasks was suggested by a rejection positivity to unattended syllables. We also found evidence for suppression of the processing of task-irrelevant visual stimuli in visual ERPs during auditory tasks involving

  9. Algoritmi matematici nelle lettere di Gerbert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, P.

    The content of Gerbert's "scientific" letters is analyzed in detail, with special emphasis on arithmetical and geometrical issues, such as multiplication and division rules related to the use of abacus, superparticular numbers and evaluation of the area of an equilateral triangle. It is shown that Gerbert's area formula, albeit based on rational fractions, could hardly be conceived without knowledge of Pythagoras' theorem. This fact casts a light also on the astronomical tools created by Gerbert, where the didactical aspect cannot be separated from the accuracy of the demonstrations and of the measurements.

  10. Resource Letter OSE-1: Observing Solar Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Fraknoi, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the available literature, listing selected books, articles, and online resources about scientific, cultural, and practical issues related to observing solar eclipses. It is timely, given that a total solar eclipse will cross the continental United States on August 21, 2017. The next total solar eclipse path crossing the U.S. and Canada will be on April 8, 2024. In 2023, the path of annularity of an annular eclipse will cross Mexico, the United States, and Canada, with partial phases visible throughout those countries.

  11. Fully digital jerk-based chaotic oscillators for high throughput pseudo-random number generators up to 8.77Gbits/s

    KAUST Repository

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.

    2014-06-18

    This paper introduces fully digital implementations of four di erent systems in the 3rd order jerk-equation based chaotic family using the Euler approximation. The digitization approach enables controllable chaotic systems that reliably provide sinusoidal or chaotic output based on a selection input. New systems are introduced, derived using logical and arithmetic operations between two system implementations of different bus widths, with up to 100x higher maximum Lyapunov exponent than the original jerkequation based chaotic systems. The resulting chaotic output is shown to pass the NIST sp. 800-22 statistical test suite for pseudorandom number generators without post-processing by only eliminating the statistically defective bits. The systems are designed in Verilog HDL and experimentally verified on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA for a maximum throughput of 15.59 Gbits/s for the native chaotic output and 8.77 Gbits/s for the resulting pseudo-random number generators.

  12. The Continuity of American Letters in "The Scarlet Letter" and "The Beast in the Jungle."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Jane

    1967-01-01

    Fictional works, of different literary periods, which share a common perception of man can be explicated and compared with each other to illustrate a continuing tradition in American literature. Such a basis for comparison exists between Hawthorne's romance, "The Scarlet Letter," which appeared in 1850, and Henry James' fantasy,…

  13. ERP correlates of letter identity and letter position are modulated by lexical frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gómez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created two pseudowords: A transposed-letter (TL: BRIGDE) and a replaced-letter pseudoword (RL: BRITGE). ERPs were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in two tasks: Semantic categorization (Experiment 1) and lexical decision (Experiment 2). For high-frequency stimuli, similar ERPs were obtained for words and TL-pseudowords, but the N400 component to words was reduced relative to RL-pseudowords, indicating less lexical/semantic activation. In contrast, TL- and RL-pseudowords created from low-frequency stimuli elicited similar ERPs. Behavioral responses in the lexical decision task paralleled this asymmetry. The present findings impose constraints on computational and neural models of visual-word recognition. PMID:23454070

  14. Dysgraphia for letters: a form of motor memory deficit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, N; Lawton, N F

    1983-01-01

    A case of pure dysgraphia is presented in which the patient could accurately copy letters which she could not write. The patient did not show any evidence of significant reading or speech impairment or any buccofacial or limb apraxia. Both oral and "block spelling" performance were intact. The writing impairment, which was bilateral, appeared to consist of a memory difficulty for the motor movements associated with letters. The dysgraphia was shown to be specific to letters as the patient was able to transcribe certain numbers and patterns which were similar to letters in their visuospatial complexity. It is suggested that dysgraphia for letters may represent a specific type of motor memory deficit, dissociable from copying skills and the ability to draw letter-like forms. PMID:6875593

  15. Antisepsis regimen in the surgical treatment of HPV generated cervical lesions: polyhexamethylene biguanide vs chlorhexidine. A randomized, double blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerli, S; Bavetta, F; Di Renzo, G C

    2012-12-01

    To reduce the risk of local infections after surgical treatments for HPV infected cervical lesions, the post-operative regimen is generally based on the use of vaginal antimicrobial agents. The efficacy and safety of polyhexamethylene biguanide-based vaginal suppositories was compared to a similar chlorhexidine-based treatment, in the post recovery regimen after surgical treatment of cervical lesions. 50 women who underwent to CO2 laser therapy for cervical lesions were randomly assigned to receive 10 days of antiseptic treatment with chlorhexidine digluconate vaginal suppositories, or polyhexamethylene biguanide vaginal suppositories (Monogin®/Biguanelle® ovuli, Lo.Li. Pharma, Italy). A weekly follow-up check was performed for 6 weeks. Polyhexamethylene biguanide-based treatment showed improved efficacy compared to chlorhexidine, in terms of healing process and prevention of bacterial infections. Due to its safety and effectiveness, the vaginal treatment with polyhexamethylene biguanide is preferred to chlorexidine, in accordance with previously reported in vitro evidences.

  16. SPARSE: Seed Point Auto-Generation for Random Walks Segmentation Enhancement in medical inhomogeneous targets delineation of morphological MR and CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haibin; Zhen, Xin; Gu, Xuejun; Yan, Hao; Cervino, Laura; Xiao, Yang; Zhou, Linghong

    2015-03-08

    In medical image processing, robust segmentation of inhomogeneous targets is a challenging problem. Because of the complexity and diversity in medical images, the commonly used semiautomatic segmentation algorithms usually fail in the segmentation of inhomogeneous objects. In this study, we propose a novel algorithm imbedded with a seed point autogeneration for random walks segmentation enhancement, namely SPARSE, for better segmentation of inhomogeneous objects. With a few user-labeled points, SPARSE is able to generate extended seed points by estimating the probability of each voxel with respect to the labels. The random walks algorithm is then applied upon the extended seed points to achieve improved segmentation result. SPARSE is implemented under the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) programming environment on graphic processing unit (GPU) hardware platform. Quantitative evaluations are performed using clinical homogeneous and inhomogeneous cases. It is found that the SPARSE can greatly decrease the sensitiveness to initial seed points in terms of location and quantity, as well as the freedom of selecting parameters in edge weighting function. The evaluation results of SPARSE also demonstrate substantial improvements in accuracy and robustness to inhomogeneous target segmentation over the original random walks algorithm.

  17. On the short-term predictability of fully digital chaotic oscillators for pseudo-random number generation

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa

    2014-06-18

    This paper presents a digital implementation of a 3rd order chaotic system using the Euler approximation. Short-term predictability is studied in relation to system precision, Euler step size and attractor size and optimal parameters for maximum performance are derived. Defective bits from the native chaotic output are neglected and the remaining pass the NIST SP. 800-22 tests without post-processing. The resulting optimized pseudorandom number generator has throughput up to 17.60 Gbits/s for a 64-bit design experimentally verified on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA with logic utilization less than 1.85%.

  18. Development and comparison of algorithms for generating a scan sequence for a random access scanner. [ZAP (and flow charts for ZIP and SCAN), in FORTRAN for DEC-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eason, R. O.

    1980-09-01

    Many data acquisition systems incorporate high-speed scanners to convert analog signals into digital format for further processing. Some systems multiplex many channels into a single scanner. A random access scanner whose scan sequence is specified by a table in random access memory will permit different scan rates on different channels. Generation of this scan table can be a tedious manual task when there are many channels (e.g. 50), when there are more than a few scan rates (e.g. 5), and/or when the ratio of the highest scan rate to the lowest scan rate becomes large (e.g. 100:1). An algorithm is developed which will generate these scan sequences for the random access scanner and implements the algorithm on a digital computer. Application of number theory to the mathematical statement of the problem led to development of several algorithms which were implemented in FORTRAN. The most efficient of these algorithms operates by partitioning the problem into a set of subproblems. Through recursion they solve each subproblem by partitioning it repeatedly into even smaller parts, continuing until a set of simple problems is created. From this process, a pictorial representation or wheel diagram of the problem can be constructed. From the wheel diagram and a description of the original problem, a scan table can be constructed. In addition, the wheel diagram can be used as a method of storing the scan sequence in a smaller amount of memory. The most efficient partitioning algorithm solved most scan table problems in less than a second of CPU time. Some types of problems, however, required as much as a few minutes of CPU time. 26 figures, 2 tables.

  19. SARAPAN—A Simulated-Annealing-Based Tool to Generate Random Patterned-Channel-Age in CANDU Fuel Management Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddy Kastanya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In any reactor physics analysis, the instantaneous power distribution in the core can be calculated when the actual bundle-wise burnup distribution is known. Considering the fact that CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium utilizes on-power refueling to compensate for the reduction of reactivity due to fuel burnup, in the CANDU fuel management analysis, snapshots of power and burnup distributions can be obtained by simulating and tracking the reactor operation over an extended period using various tools such as the *SIMULATE module of the Reactor Fueling Simulation Program (RFSP code. However, for some studies, such as an evaluation of a conceptual design of a next-generation CANDU reactor, the preferred approach to obtain a snapshot of the power distribution in the core is based on the patterned-channel-age model implemented in the *INSTANTAN module of the RFSP code. The objective of this approach is to obtain a representative snapshot of core conditions quickly. At present, such patterns could be generated by using a program called RANDIS, which is implemented within the *INSTANTAN module. In this work, we present an alternative approach to derive the patterned-channel-age model where a simulated-annealing-based algorithm is used to find such patterns, which produce reasonable power distributions.

  20. Generation of random mutants to improve light-use efficiency of Nannochloropsis gaditana cultures for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Giorgio; Bellan, Alessandra; Segalla, Anna; Meneghesso, Andrea; Alboresi, Alessandro; Morosinotto, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The productivity of an algal culture depends on how efficiently it converts sunlight into biomass and lipids. Wild-type algae in their natural environment evolved to compete for light energy and maximize individual cell growth; however, in a photobioreactor, global productivity should be maximized. Improving light use efficiency is one of the primary aims of algae biotechnological research, and genetic engineering can play a major role in attaining this goal. In this work, we generated a collection of Nannochloropsis gaditana mutant strains and screened them for alterations in the photosynthetic apparatus. The selected mutant strains exhibited diverse phenotypes, some of which are potentially beneficial under the specific artificial conditions of a photobioreactor. Particular attention was given to strains showing reduced cellular pigment contents, and further characterization revealed that some of the selected strains exhibited improved photosynthetic activity; in at least one case, this trait corresponded to improved biomass productivity in lab-scale cultures. This work demonstrates that genetic modification of N. gaditana has the potential to generate strains with improved biomass productivity when cultivated under the artificial conditions of a photobioreactor.

  1. The first letter position effect in visual word recognition: The role of spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Balota, David A; Weigand, Alexandra J; Scaltritti, Michele; Besner, Derek

    2017-04-01

    A prominent question in visual word recognition is whether letters within a word are processed in parallel or in a left to right sequence. Although most contemporary models posit parallel processing, this notion seems at odds with well-established serial position effects in word identification that indicate preferential processing for the initial letter. The present study reports 4 experiments designed to further probe the locus of the first position processing advantage. The paradigm involved masked target words presented for short durations and required participants to subsequently select from 2 alternatives, 1 which was identical to the target and 1 that differed by a single letter. Experiment 1 manipulated the case between the target and the alternatives to ensure that previous evidence for a first position effect was not due to simple perceptual matching. The results continued to yield a robust first position advantage. Experiment 2 attempted to eliminate postperceptual decision processes as the explanatory mechanism by presenting single letters as targets and requiring participants to select an entire word that contained the target letter at different positions. Here the first position advantage was eliminated, suggesting postperceptual decision processes do not underlie the effect. The final 2 experiments presented masked stimuli either all vertically (Experiment 3) or randomly intermixed vertical and horizontal orientation (Experiment 4). In both cases, a robust first position advantage was still obtained. The authors consider alternative interpretations of this effect and suggest that these results are consistent with a rapid deployment of spatial attention to the beginning of a target string which occurs poststimulus onset. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. NEESPI focus issues in Environmental Research Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julian; Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2010-05-01

    In 2007 and 2009 Environmental Research Letters published focus issues (edited by Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja) made up of work carried out by NEESPI participants. Here, we present the content of those focus issues as an invaluable resource for researchers working in the NEESPI study area. The first of the two issues, published in 2007 with title 'Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change', presents a diverse collection of articles that are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions. The second issue, published in 2009, with title 'Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia' presents diverse, assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia.

  3. Who wrote the "Letter to the Hebrews"?: data mining for detection of text authorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabordo, Madeleine; Chai, Shong Y.; Berryman, Matthew J.; Abbott, Derek

    2005-02-01

    This paper explores the authorship of the Letter to the Hebrews using a number of different measures of relationship between different texts of the New Testament. The methods used in the study include file zipping and compression techniques, prediction by the partial matching technique and the word recurrence interval technique. The long term motivation is that the techniques employed in this study may find applicability in future generation web search engines, email authorship identification, detection of plagiarism and terrorist email traffic filtration.

  4. GP letter writing in colorectal cancer: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwa, Moyez; Burr, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    The usual mode of communication with the specialist in the UK is a referral letter. Letters now primarily document the GPs' concerns for the patient and are no longer required to persuade the specialist to offer an appointment. The content of referral letters from GPs has failed to satisfy specialists responding to a series of surveys. Evidence suggests that GPs who improve their letters to specialists also refer more cases with significant pathology. The aims of this research are to explore the factors that may influence GPs in writing the referral letter when consulting patients presenting with lower bowel symptoms. A convenience sample of twelve GPs was interviewed in Nottinghamshire and inner city Sheffield practices. A framework approach was utilised in the analysis of data. Data from the interviews followed the prescribed steps, including: familiarisation, identifying a thematic framework, indexing, charting and mapping, and interpretation. The thematic framework reflected four major themes. These were: (1) the nature and content of referral letters, (2) knowledge about colorectal cancer, (3) issues relating to the quality of referral letters in colorectal cases and (4) factors that effect the use of guidelines for referral. GPs only have very short consultations in which to address many and complex issues. Pre-referral assessment in colorectal cases includes intimate examination of the patient. Therefore the writing of the letter of referral is often postponed until long after the patient has left the GP's office. Some GPs do not believe the consultant reads the letter of referral. However, GPs are keen to provide best care and welcome feedback about the quality of their letters. They acknowledge the responsibility to communicate with colleagues effectively and have differing ideas about what constitutes an adequate referral letter.

  5. Priming psychic and conjuring abilities of a magic demonstration influences event interpretation and random number generation biases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eMohr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Magical ideation and belief in the paranormal is considered to represent a trait-like character; people either believe in it or not. Yet, anecdotes indicate that exposure to an anomalous event can turn sceptics into believers. This transformation is likely to be accompanied by altered cognitive functioning such as impaired judgements of event likelihood. Here, we investigated whether the exposure to an anomalous event changes individuals’ explicit traditional (religious and non-traditional (e.g. paranormal beliefs as well as cognitive biases that have previously been associated with non-traditional beliefs, e.g. repetition avoidance when producing random numbers in a mental dice task. In a classroom, 91 students saw a magic demonstration after their psychology lecture. Before the demonstration, half of the students were told that the performance was done respectively by a conjuror (magician group or a psychic (psychic group. The instruction influenced participants’ explanations of the anomalous event. Participants in the magician, as compared to the psychic group, were more likely to explain the event through conjuring abilities while the reverse was true for psychic abilities. Moreover, these explanations correlated positively with their prior traditional and non-traditional beliefs. Finally, we observed that the psychic group showed more repetition avoidance than the magician group, and this effect remained the same regardless of whether assessed before or after the magic demonstration. We conclude that pre-existing beliefs and contextual suggestions both influence people’s interpretations of anomalous events and associated cognitive biases. Beliefs and associated cognitive biases are likely flexible well into adulthood and change with actual life events.

  6. The referral letter - a problem of communication | Lachman | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... offices of the hospital. A sample of the letters collected, systematically stratified to represent the available days during the study, was analysed. Detailed analysis of 1143 (12,3%) letters was undertaken. The private sector, i.e. general practitioners, was the largest referral agency, followed by communitybased day hospitals.

  7. Positioning Resumes and Cover Letters as Reflective-Reflexive Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, Chalice

    2012-01-01

    Although the resume and cover letter genre is widely discussed in both popular and scholarly publications, discussion thus far has failed to acknowledge that the process of creating a resume and cover letter has the potential for encouraging students' reflective and reflexive capacities. This article suggests that business communication educators…

  8. 48 CFR 432.406 - Letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letters of credit. 432.406... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Advance Payments for Non-Commercial Items 432.406 Letters of credit. The HCA is... of credit. ...

  9. Pirates at Parties: Letter Position Processing in Developing Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, Saskia; Castles, Anne

    2013-01-01

    There has been much recent interest in letter position coding in adults, but little is known about the development of this process in children learning to read. Here, the letter position coding abilities of 127 children in Grades 2, 3, and 4 (aged 7-10 years) were examined by comparing their performance in reading aloud "migratable" words (e.g.,…

  10. Learning about the Civil War through Soldiers' Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how students in an American history class learned about the Civil War through soldiers' letters. Letters from the Civil War era come in a variety of styles and syntax. Some are easy to read while others are extremely difficult to transcribe. But every one of them speaks to the reader, revealing an unknown entity from another…

  11. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colizoli, O.; Murre, J.M.J.; Rouw, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter ‘a’ always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits

  12. The referral letter communIcatIon a problem of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional ,descriptive study assesses the letters sent with referred ... The referral of patients to hospital for investigation, specialist opinion or ... SAMJ. VOL 79. 19 JAN 1991. 99. TABLE I. OVERALL LETTER ANALYSIS. History. Examination. Diagnosis. Investigation. Treatment. No. %. No. %. No. %. No. %. No. %.

  13. 50 CFR 216.208 - Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and Operation of Offshore Oil and Gas Facilities in the U.S. Beaufort Sea § 216.208 Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization, unless...

  14. Mud, Blood, and Bullet Holes: Teaching History with War Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    From handwritten letters of the American Revolution to typed emails from Iraq and Afghanistan, correspondence from U.S. troops offers students deep insight into the specific conflicts and experiences of soldiers. Over 100,000 correspondences have been donated to the Legacy Project, a national initiative launched in 1998 to preserve war letters by…

  15. Why Doctors Do Not Answer Referral Letters | Smith | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Healthcare workers at primary healthcare (PHC) clinics are frustrated by the fact that they do not receive replies to their referral letters to doctors. Referral letters act as permission slips to allow patients easy access to treatment by specialists at secondary and tertiary service levels and communicate reasons for ...

  16. Transhuman Education? Sloterdijk's Reading of Heidegger's "Letter on Humanism"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Fiachra

    2017-01-01

    Peter Sloterdijk presented a reading of Heidegger's "Letter on Humanism" at a conference held at Elmau in 1999. Reinterpreting the meaning of humanism in the light of Heidegger's "Letter," Sloterdijk focused his presentation on the need to redefine education as a form of genetic "taming" and proposed what seemed to be…

  17. Ten steps to writing curriculum vitae covering letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Chris

    2007-12-01

    As guides for recruiters, the covering letters of applicants' curricula vitae (CVs) can be almost as important as the CVs themselves. When applying for posts therefore, you should regard the writing of such letters as an opportunity to distinguish yourself from other candidates.

  18. Strengthening the Ethics and Visual Rhetoric of Sales Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Linda Stallworth

    2008-01-01

    This article provides details about a comprehensive assignment for teaching sales letters in a business communication course. During the past 5 years, this assignment has evolved, moving beyond one that focused almost exclusively on strategies for making the letter persuasive, and therefore effective, to an expanded form that devotes time and…

  19. Teaching Braille Letters, Numerals, Punctuation, and Contractions to Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Brittany C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Braille-character recognition is one of the foundational skills required for teachers of braille. Prior research has evaluated computer programming for teaching braille-to-print letter relations (e.g., Scheithauer & Tiger, 2012). In the current study, we developed a program (the Visual Braille Trainer) to teach not only letters but also…

  20. Letter position coding across modalities: the case of Braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; García-Chamorro, Cristina; Martín-Suesta, Miguel; Gómez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words. Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters. We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities. The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality) occur at a relatively late, abstract locus.

  1. Letter position coding across modalities: the case of Braille readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perea

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words. METHODOLOGY: Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities. CONCLUSIONS: The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality occur at a relatively late, abstract locus.

  2. Letter Position Coding Across Modalities: The Case of Braille Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; García-Chamorro, Cristina; Martín-Suesta, Miguel; Gómez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Background The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words. Methodology Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters. Principal Findings We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities. Conclusions The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality) occur at a relatively late, abstract locus. PMID:23071522

  3. Editorial: acceptance criteria and editorial procedures for Optics Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Andersen, Peter E.; Justus, Brian L.

    2014-01-01

    Optics Letters Editors strive to provide timely reviews and decisions for authors while bringing top quality papers to the optics community. The purpose of this editorial is to explain Optics Letters' acceptance criteria and editorial procedures. Our hope is that greater transparency concerning...

  4. Letters to a Young Baller: Exploring Epistolary Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawansky, Megan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the possibilities of epistolary criticism within the realm of sport studies and aspires to encourage scholars to consider the use of non-traditional sport memorabilia and source materials when telling emotive stories about sport and sport practices. The use of letters and the letter-writing format to tell a personal narrative…

  5. Scientific Letter: Stabbing nails into the neck: an unusual self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: Stabbing nails into the neck: an unusual self-damaging behavior mandating neurosurgery. A Aghabiklooei, R Aghabiklooei, N Zamani. Abstract. Scientific Letter - No Abstract Available. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  6. Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Sexuality Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education" reinforces scriptural and theological commitments to truth-telling in calling for "full and honest education about sexual and reproductive health." This "Open Letter" was published in 2002, at about the midpoint of a decade-long federal government commitment to…

  7. The Overlap Model: A Model of Letter Position Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Pablo; Ratcliff, Roger; Perea, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has shown that letter identity and letter position are not integral perceptual dimensions (e.g., jugde primes judge in word-recognition experiments). Most comprehensive computational models of visual word recognition (e.g., the interactive activation model, J. L. McClelland & D. E. Rumelhart, 1981, and its successors) assume that…

  8. 77 FR 47516 - Issuance of Investigation Completion Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 571 RIN 3141-AA49 Issuance of Investigation Completion Letters AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends our regulations to provide for the issuance of an investigation completion letter if the Agency...

  9. The learning and teaching euphemism in business letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yifei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Flynn’s Principle Branching Direction (1984, English and Chinese belonged to two different language systems. English was right-branching language and Chinese was left-branching language, and that was the basic knowledge to interfere students to learn English well. Existing in different kinds of cul-tures, euphemism is a way of expression to substitute implicit language for harsh words. This paper is the analy-sis about learning and teaching of euphemism in business letters. Since business letters play more and more im-portant roles in business, businessmen have attached great importance to figure out how to establish long and friendly relationship with clients through business letters. This paper will make a thorough analysis about the realization of euphemism in business letters from two aspects as word and grammar, and it will introduce three main functions of euphemism in business letter.

  10. The Effectiveness of Pictured Letters Mnemonics Strategy in Learning Similar English Language Letters among Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakhiel, Maysoon A.; Al Rub, Mohammed O. Abu

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of pictured letters mnemonics strategy in learning similar English language letters among students with learning disabilities in Saudi Arabia according to experimental group (1) and (2), control group, gender, and interaction between them. The study sample comprised (90) students with…

  11. Letters to Parents in Math: 40 Ready-To-Use Letters in English and Spanish. Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razionale, Janet

    This book provides dozens of carefully prepared letters for parents in English and Spanish that teachers can send home weekly. Each of the 40 letters focuses on direct and easy-to-implement mathematics activities that can be incorporated regularly into a family's daily routine without turning the home into a school away from school. The letters…

  12. Generation of multi-channel high-speed physical random numbers originated from two chaotic signals of mutually coupled semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X.; Wu, Z. M.; Wu, J. G.; Deng, T.; Fan, L.; Zhong, Z. Q.; Chen, J. J.; Xia, G. Q.

    2015-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel technique to generate multi-channel high-speed physical random numbers (PRNs) by taking two chaotic signal outputs from mutually coupled semiconductor lasers (MC-SLs) as entropy sources. First, through controlling the operation parameters of the MC-SL system, two time-delay signature (TDS) suppressed chaotic signals can be obtained. Next, each of these two chaotic signals is sampled by an 8 bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with a sampling rate of 10 GHz, and then a bitwise exclusive-OR (XOR) operation on the corresponding bits in samples of the chaotic signal and its time delayed signal is implemented to obtain 8 bit XOR data. Furthermore, through selecting the five least significant bits (LSBs) of 8 bit XOR data to form 5 bit Boolean sequences, two sets of PRN streams with a rate up to 50 Gbits s-1 are generated and successfully pass the NIST statistical tests. Finally, merging these two sets of 50 Gbits s-1 PRN streams by an interleaving operation, another set of the 100 Gbits s-1 PRN stream, which meets all the quality criteria of NIST statistical tests, is also acquired.

  13. Priming of abstract letter representations may be universal: The case of Arabic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carreiras, Manuel; Perea, Manuel; Mallouh, Reem Abu

    2012-01-01

    ...) and for letter pairs with dissimilar features (e.g., g–G). Here, we examined whether priming of abstract letter representations occurs in an orthographic system, Arabic, in which the letters show an intricate number of contextual forms...

  14. Angles of Refraction: The Letters of Mary Delany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Chiavetta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mary Delany (1700-1788 is particularly famous for her paper-cuttings or ‘mosaicks’ based on botanical subjects. A very lively woman of fashion, she was close to Queen Charlotte and one of the Bluestocking Ladies. She left a vivid portrait of life and society in eighteenth century England and Ireland in the six volumes of her Autobiography and Letters, edited in 1861 by her descendant Lady Llanover. Her autobiography is made up of 18 letters sent to her most intimate friend, Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Portland. The first letter is dated 1740, but in this, as in the following ones, Mrs. Delany narrates her past life to her friend, starting from the early years of her life, describing her unhappy marriage, financial difficulties as a widow, and family relationships. Along with these ‘autobiographical’ letters, other letters written by her to her sister Ann are introduced, which date to the periods of life Mrs. Delany is dealing with. The aim of this paper is to focus on the textual, linguistic and content differences between the two letter types, and analyse how the identity of Mary Delany is differently constructed and perceived in the explicit autobiographical letters addressed to the Duchess of Portland, and the ones written to her sister. 

  15. What's in a referral letter: does the detail matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, J A; Ellwood, D A; Robertson, M

    2011-08-01

    Background: The referral letter is an often-overlooked yet essential element that contributes to the quality of patient care when specialist services are accessed. In the field of maternal-fetal medicine, incomplete referral letters that fail to comprehensively identify pregnancy risk factors can have significant implications for pregnancy management and delivery planning. Objectives: To evaluate the quality and completeness of referral letters from general practitioners and obstetricians to the Fetal Medicine Unit (FMU) at The Canberra Hospital and to improve practice through validation of a patient questionnaire with sensitivity for identifying pregnancy risk factors. Methods: Self reported information from a questionnaire completed by pregnant women presenting for initial consultation to the FMU was compared with information contained in the written referral letter for that particular patient. Information compared was categorised as mandatory referral information, significant past obstetric or gynaecological history, or other relevant medical history. Results: The patient questionnaire was successful in providing clinicians with relevant medical information in addition to that which was contained in professional referrals in 57% (95% confidence interval (CI) 48-67%) of cases. Significantly more risk factors for the current pregnancy were highlighted in the questionnaires than in the referral letters (P = 0.008). Conclusions: A significant proportion of referral letters received by the FMU during the study period lacked completeness in many key areas. Recommendations to improve this situation include the routine use of patient questionnaires or referral letter templates, the development of local referral guidelines, and regular clinician education.

  16. Random thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ajansen; kwhitefoot; panteltje1; edprochak; sudhakar, the

    2014-07-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “How to make a quantum random-number generator from a mobile phone” (16 May, http://ow.ly/xFiYc, see also p5), which describes a way of delivering random numbers by counting the number of photons that impinge on each of the individual pixels in the camera of a Nokia N9 smartphone.

  17. The Social Name-Letter Effect on Online Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kooti, Farshad; Magno, Gabriel; Weber, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    The Name-Letter Effect states that people have a preference for brands, places, and even jobs that start with the same letter as their own first name. So Sam might like Snickers and live in Seattle. We use social network data from Twitter and Google+ to replicate this effect in a new environment. We find limited to no support for the Name-Letter Effect on social networks. We do, however, find a very robust Same-Name Effect where, say, Michaels would be more likely to link to other Michaels th...

  18. David Bohm : causality and chance, letters to three women

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The letters transcribed in this book were written by physicist David Bohm to three close female acquaintances in the period 1950 to 1956. They provide a background to his causal interpretation of quantum mechanics and the Marxist philosophy that inspired his scientific work in quantum theory, probability and statistical mechanics. In his letters, Bohm reveals the ideas that led to his ground breaking book Causality and Chance in Modern Physics. The political arguments as well as the acute personal problems contained in these letters help to give a rounded, human picture of this leading scientist and twentieth century thinker.

  19. Training less threatening interpretations over the Internet: Does the number of missing letters matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Shari A.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Cognitive Bias Modification to reduce threat interpretations (CBM-I) trains individuals to resolve ambiguous scenarios via completion of word fragments that assign benign meanings to scenarios. The current study tested: 1) whether Internet-based CBM-I can shift interpretations to be more positive/less negative, and 2) whether varying the number of letters missing in the word fragments (assumed to increase task difficulty) moderates CBM-I’s effects. Methods Participants (N=350) completed a brief online version of CBM-I, followed by assessments of interpretation bias, fear of negative evaluation, and anticipatory anxiety. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 conditions: control (half of scenarios ended positively, half negatively), or 4 positive conditions (all scenarios ended positively, but word fragments varied on number of letters missing, from 0 to 3). Results Relative to the control condition, all positive conditions led to more positive/less negative interpretations. When analyses were re-run with only a highly socially anxious subset of the sample (n=100), conditions in which the final word of scenarios was missing 0, 1, or 2 letters led to more positive/less negative interpretations compared to the control condition, but the condition missing 3 letters did not differ from the control condition. There were no differences between conditions on other outcome measures. Limitations Training was brief, and an unselected sample was used. Conclusions Results suggest a brief Internet-based CBM-I paradigm can shift interpretation bias, but not necessarily other anxiety-relevant outcomes. Making the task too difficult may blunt effects for highly socially anxious individuals. PMID:25579609

  20. Training less threatening interpretations over the Internet: Does the number of missing letters matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Shari A; Teachman, Bethany A

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive Bias Modification to reduce threat interpretations (CBM-I) trains individuals to resolve ambiguous scenarios via completion of word fragments that assign benign meanings to scenarios. The current study tested: 1) whether Internet-based CBM-I can shift interpretations to be more positive/less negative, and 2) whether varying the number of letters missing in the word fragments (assumed to increase task difficulty) moderates CBM-I's effects. Participants (N = 350) completed a brief online version of CBM-I, followed by assessments of interpretation bias, fear of negative evaluation, and anticipatory anxiety. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 conditions: control (half of scenarios ended positively, half negatively), or 4 positive conditions (all scenarios ended positively, but word fragments varied on number of letters missing, from 0 to 3). Relative to the control condition, all positive conditions led to more positive/less negative interpretations. When analyses were re-run with only a highly socially anxious subset of the sample (n = 100), conditions in which the final word of scenarios was missing 0, 1, or 2 letters led to more positive/less negative interpretations compared to the control condition, but the condition missing 3 letters did not differ from the control condition. There were no differences between conditions on other outcome measures. Training was brief, and an unselected sample was used. Results suggest a brief Internet-based CBM-I paradigm can shift interpretation bias, but not necessarily other anxiety-relevant outcomes. Making the task too difficult may blunt effects for highly socially anxious individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. International Large Detector. Letter of intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeck, Holger [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Falkiner High Energy Physics Group; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko [Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (AT). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik] (and others)

    2010-07-01

    In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their

  2. Secret letters cast light on Copenhagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, Matin

    2001-11-01

    Letters by Niels Bohr that have been kept secret since his death could explain the mystery of why Werner Heisenberg visited him in Copenhagen in 1941. When the author Michael Frayn spent two years writing Copenhagen, he had no idea how successful the play would become. He doubted that audiences would sit through a historical drama about a war-time meeting between Werner Heisenberg - head of Germany's nuclear programme - and his old mentor Niels Bohr in the Nazi-occupied Danish capital in 1941. But Frayn's efforts paid off. Audiences and critics alike have thrilled at the way the award-winning play probes the historical uncertainty that surrounds the encounter. Was Heisenberg fishing for information about the Allies' atomic plans - or was he trying to recruit Bohr for Germany's bomb programme? Did Heisenberg want to suggest that the Germans were close to finishing a bomb so that the Allies would make peace with Hitler? Maybe he was simply seeking approval from Bohr for his own atomic work. There is also a moral debate: did Heisenberg know how to build a bomb, but decided not to - or did he want to build one, but got his calculations wrong? Unfortunately, no-one was there to record or observe the encounter and we cannot know for sure what was said or implied between the two men. All we do know is that the pair dined together and took a short walk - and that the incident damaged Bohr and Heisenberg's friendship forever. To piece together what happened, historians of science have had to rely on Heisenberg's post-war recollections - which have been ambiguous and contradictory - along with scraps of evidence from secondary sources. (U.K.)

  3. Code-switching in letter writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Sobahle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The study sets out to investigate code switching in letter writing among a small group ofXhosa speaking people. Code switching is found in informal speech and informal writing. It was established from the data that the closer people are, the more code switching there is. Code switching seems to follow a pattern in that it was observed to occur: (a only with certain people (b when talking about certain topics (c when wanting to exclude another person (d when emphasising a point. Code switching also appears to have a 'grammar' of its own. It is not in any way a pidgin. It is clear from the data that code switching does not reflect denial of one's identity. English, being the medium of education for Blacks in South Africa, is therefore bound to be reflected not only in their speech but also in their writing. Die studie het ten doe/ om registeroorskakeling in die skryf van briewe deur 'n klein groepie Xhosasprekendes te ondersoek. Registeroorskakeling word gevind in informele spraak en informele skryfwerk. Daar is uit die data vasgestel dat hoe intiemer mense is hoe meer vind registeroorskakeling plaas. Volgens waarneming blyk dit dat registeroorskakeling 'n patroon volg, want dit het voorgekom: (a net by sekere mense (b wanneer oor sekere onderwerpe gepraat is (c wanneer 'n ander per soon uitgeskakel is (d wanneer 'n mening beklemtoon is. Registeroorskakeling blyk 'n eie grammatika te he. Dit is geensins "pidgin" nie. Dit blyk uit data dat die skrywer se identiteit nie verlore raak tydens registeroorskakeling nie. Omdat Engels die medium van onderrig vir Swartes in Suid-Afrika is, sal dit noodwendig nie net in hulle spraak nie, maar ook in hul skryfwerk gereflekteer word.

  4. Development and evaluation of a non-ribosomal random PCR and next-generation sequencing based assay for detection and sequencing of hand, foot and mouth disease pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh To; Tran, Thanh Tan; Hoang, Van Minh Tu; Nghiem, Ngoc My; Le, Nhu Nguyen Truc; Le, Thanh Thi My; Phan, Qui Tu; Truong, Khanh Huu; Le, Nhan Nguyen Thanh; Ho, Viet Lu; Do, Viet Chau; Ha, Tuan Manh; Nguyen, Hung Thanh; Nguyen, Chau Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; van Doorn, H Rogier; Le, Tan Van

    2016-07-07

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has become a major public health problem across the Asia-Pacific region, and is commonly caused by enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6), CV-A10 and CV-A16. Generating pathogen whole-genome sequences is essential for understanding their evolutionary biology. The frequent replacements among EV serotypes and a limited numbers of available whole-genome sequences hinder the development of overlapping PCRs for whole-genome sequencing. We developed and evaluated a non-ribosomal random PCR (rPCR) and next-generation sequencing based assay for sequence-independent whole-genome amplification and sequencing of HFMD pathogens. A total of 16 EV-A71/CV-A6/CV-A10/CV-A16 PCR positive rectal/throat swabs (Cp values: 20.9-33.3) were used for assay evaluation. Our assay evidently outperformed the conventional rPCR in terms of the total number of EV-A71 reads and the percentage of EV-A71 reads: 2.6 % (1275/50,000 reads) vs. 0.1 % (31/50,000) and 6 % (3008/50,000) vs. 0.9 % (433/50,000) for two samples with Cp values of 30 and 26, respectively. Additionally the assay could generate genome sequences with the percentages of coverage of 94-100 % of 4 different enterovirus serotypes in 73 % of the tested samples, representing the first whole-genome sequences of CV-A6/10/16 from Vietnam, and could assign correctly serotyping results in 100 % of 24 tested specimens. In all but three the obtained consensuses of two replicates from the same sample were 100 % identical, suggesting that our assay is highly reproducible. In conclusion, we have successfully developed a non-ribosomal rPCR and next-generation sequencing based assay for sensitive detection and direct whole-genome sequencing of HFMD pathogens from clinical samples.

  5. 19 CFR 177.9 - Effect of ruling letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conditions on which the ruling was based. If, in the opinion of any Customs Service field office by whom the... information sufficient to permit the ruling letter in question to be identified. (d)-(e) ...

  6. Word Frequency Effects for LEET Lettering in Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Jeremy W

    2016-01-01

    Letter substitution has been shown to have a cost to word recognition performance, such as increased reaction time. The use of orthographically similar numbers or symbols as a substitute for letters is known as LEET. Perea, Duñabeitia, and Carreiras (2008) showed that word recognition was not affected when LEET substitutions were used as primes. This study examined whether the effects of LEET prime substitutions would remain constant across word frequency. The apparent lack of substitution costs may have been an effect of word-level processing such as holistic bias for high-frequency words. Evidence that LEET does not have an appreciable cost to performance across word frequency suggests that such orthographic substitutions are processed much like normally lettered words, which supported Perea et al.'s findings. It was suggested that LEET substitutions offset substitution costs because of orthography (because of more complete processing of nonsubstituted letters) rather than lexical effects (i.e., holistic bias).

  7. Office of Management and Budget Circular A-133 Reminder Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letters are sent to EPA recipients to remind them to obtain and submit an annual audit report in accordance with the Single Audit Act Amendments of 1996, Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-133.

  8. The case of letter rhyming: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna; George, Elyse; Berger, Natalie

    2008-11-01

    Previous visual event-related potential (ERP) studies using prime-target pairs of word and pseudoword stimuli have reported a robust rhyming effect such that nonrhyming targets elicit a larger N450 than rhyming targets. However, results of similar studies using simpler linguistic stimuli-single letters-are equivocal. We used lowercase and uppercase letter pairs in a simple ERP prime-target rhyming paradigm to further investigate whether single letters could elicit the typical rhyming effect and, if so, whether the rhyming effect was sensitive to physical orthography (which differed between the case conditions). The typical N450 rhyming effect was observed in both the lowercase and uppercase letter pair conditions, with similar amplitude and latency between conditions. This pattern of results suggests that the N450 rhyming effect is not sensitive to physical (case) orthography and likely primarily indexes phonological processing related to the rhyme task.

  9. 15 CFR 700.63 - Letters of Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS... the customer). (b) A Letter of Understanding is not used to alter scheduling between rated orders, to...

  10. Letter from Army Corps of Engineers [Havasu National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a letter from the Army Corps of Engineers to the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. It confirms that the proposed wilderness designation does not...

  11. Consultation letters for medically unexplained physical symptoms in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, Rob; Blankenstein, Annette H.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; Krol, Boudien; Stewart, Roy; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, CM

    2010-01-01

    Background In primary care between 10% and 35% of all visits concern patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS). MUPS are associated with high medical consumption, significant disabilities and psychiatricmorbidity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of consultation letters

  12. 50 CFR 216.187 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA sonar) Sonar § 216.187 Applications for Letters of... marine mammal populations. (d) The National Marine Fisheries Service will review an application for a...

  13. 50 CFR 216.119 - Modifications to Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Coastal Commercial Fireworks Displays at... risk to the well-being of the species or stocks of marine mammals specified in § 216.110(b), a Letter...

  14. Dear authors: We do read your cover letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an editorial written as Editor-in-Chief (EIC) for the Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society (JAOCS) describing the importance of writing a cover letter for the submission of manuscripts to JAOCS....

  15. Name-letter branding under scrutiny: real products, new algorithms, and the probability of buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan

    2010-06-01

    People like letters matching their own first and last name initials more than nonname letters. This name-letter effect has also been found for brands, i.e., people like brands resembling their own name letters (initial or first three). This has been termed name-letter branding effect. In the present study of 199 participants, ages 12 to 79 years, this name-letter branding effect was found for a modified design (1) using real products, (2) concentrating on product names rather than brand names, (3) using five different products for each letter of the Roman alphabet, (4) asking for the buying probability, and (5) using recently introduced algorithms, controlling for individual response tendencies (i.e., liking all letters more or less) and general normative popularity of particular letters (i.e., some letters are generally preferred more than other letters).

  16. Illusory Increases in Font Size Improve Letter Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages, Martin; Boyle, Stephanie C; Jenkins, Rob

    2017-08-01

    Visual performance of human observers depends not only on the optics of the eye and early sensory encoding but also on subsequent cortical processing and representations. In two experiments, we demonstrated that motion adaptation can enhance as well as impair visual acuity. Observers who experienced an expanding motion aftereffect exhibited improved letter recognition, whereas observers who experienced a contracting motion aftereffect showed impaired letter recognition. We conclude that illusory enlargement and shrinkage of a visual stimulus can modulate visual acuity.

  17. Acceptance Rates in Physical Review Letters: No Seasonal Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    2013-01-01

    Are editorial decisions biased? A recent discussion in Learned Publishing has focused on one aspect of potential bias in editorial decisions, namely seasonal (e.g., monthly) variations in acceptance rates of research journals. In this letter, we contribute to the discussion by analyzing data from Physical Review Letters (PRL), a journal published by the American Physical Society. We studied the 190,106 papers submitted to PRL from January 1990 until September 2012. No statistically significan...

  18. The effects of alphabet and expertise on letter perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Robert W; Wilson, Colin; Rapp, Brenda

    2016-08-01

    Long-standing questions in human perception concern the nature of the visual features that underlie letter recognition and the extent to which the visual processing of letters is affected by differences in alphabets and levels of viewer expertise. We examined these issues in a novel approach using a same-different judgment task on pairs of letters from the Arabic alphabet with 2 participant groups: 1 with no prior exposure to Arabic and 1 with reading proficiency. Hierarchical clustering and linear mixed-effects modeling of reaction times and accuracy provide evidence that both the specific characteristics of the alphabet and observers' previous experience with it affect how letters are perceived and visually processed. The findings of this research further our understanding of the multiple factors that affect letter perception and support the view of a visual system that dynamically adjusts its weighting of visual features as expert readers come to more efficiently and effectively discriminate the letters of the specific alphabet they are viewing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Preventive letter: doubling the return rate after gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Pablo R; Borzone, Gisella R; Berkowitz, Loni; Mertens, Nicolás; Busso, Dolores; Santos, José L; Poblete, José A; Vera, Claudio; Belmar, Cristián; Goldenberg, Denisse; Samith, Bárbara; Acosta, Ana M; Escalona, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    To measure the impact of a "Preventive Letter" designed to encourage the return of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) mothers to follow up visit after delivery, in the context of a worldwide concern about low return rates after delivery of these patients. Mothers with GDM require medical evaluation and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 6 weeks after delivery, in order to: [a] confirm remission of GDM and [b] provide advice on the prevention of type 2 diabetes. In the year 2003 we developed a "Preventive Letter", containing three aspects: [a] current treatment, [b] suggested management during labor, and [c] a stapled laboratory order for OGTT to be performed 6 weeks after delivery. The return rate after delivery was assessed in two groups of GDM mothers: [a] "Without Preventive Letter" (n = 253), and "With Preventive Letter" (n = 215). Both groups, similar with respect to age (33.0 ± 5.4 and 32.3 ± 4.9 years respectively, p = 0.166) and education time (14.9 ± 1.8 and 15.0 ± 1.8 years respectively, p = 0.494), showed a significant difference in the 1-year return rate after delivery, as assessed by the Kaplan-Meier test: 32.0 % for the group "Without Preventive Letter", and 76.0 % for the group "With Preventive Letter" (p diabetes.

  20. Randomized clinical study for comparative evaluation of fourth-generation fluoroquinolones with the combination of fortified antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vinit Mahendra; Tandon, Radhika; Satpathy, Gita; Nayak, Niranjan; Chawla, Bhavna; Agarwal, Tushar; Sharma, Namrata; Titiyal, Jeewan S; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2010-07-01

    Comparative evaluation of efficacy of monotherapy with moxifloxacin (0.5%) or gatifloxacin (0.3%) with combination therapy of cefazolin (5%) and tobramycin (1.3%) in treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Patients diagnosed with bacterial keratitis (ulcer diameter 2-8 mm) were randomized to 1 of the 3 treatment groups (tobramycin 1.3% and cefazolin 5%, gatifloxacin 0.3%, or moxifloxacin 0.5%). After obtaining corneal scrapings, assigned study medication was instilled hourly for 48 hours and tapered as per clinical response. Healing of ulcer, duration to cure, adverse reactions, antibiogram profile, treatment failures, final visual acuity, and corneal opacity size were evaluated. A total of 61 patients were enrolled [cefazolin and tobramycin (n = 20), gatifloxacin (n = 21), and moxifloxacin (n = 20)]. Overall, 57 patients (93%) healed on treatment. On comparison of the mean time taken to heal, no statistically significant difference was found among all the 3 treatment groups (P = 0.98). Positive bacterial culture was obtained in only 38 patients (62%). There was no significant difference in the bacterial isolates in each treatment group. There were 4 (7%) treatment failures (perforation or nonhealing ulcer): 1 (5%) each in moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin group and 2 (10%) in fortified antibiotics group. All regimens were well tolerated. The study failed to find a difference in the efficacy of monotherapy with fourth-generation fluoroquinolones in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers of 2-8 mm size when compared with combination therapy of fortified antibiotics.

  1. Letter - Reply: Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-06-01

    In response to the letter by Gorelli (2010) about Hamacher & Norris (2010), he is quite right about Aboriginal people witnessing impact events in Australia. There are several oral traditions regarding impact sites, some of which were probably witnessed, as Gorelli pointed out. The Henbury craters he mentions, with a young age of only ∼ 4200 years, have oral traditions that seem to describe a cosmic impact, including an aversion to drinking water that collects in the craters in fear that the fire-devil (which came from the sun, according to an Elder) would rain iron in them again. Other impact sites, such as Gosse's Bluff crater (Tnorala in the Arrernte language) and Wolfe Creek crater (Kandimalal in the Djaru language) have associated impact stories, despite their old ages (142 Ma and ∼0.3 Ma, respectively). In addition, many fireball and airburst events are described in Aboriginal oral traditions, a number of which seem to indicate impact events that are unknown to Western science. I have published a full treatise of meteorite falls and impact events in Australian Aboriginal culture that I would like to bring to the attention of Gorelli and WGN readers (Hamacher & Norris, 2009). Although our paper was published in the 2009 volume of Archaeoastronomy, it did not appear in print until just recently, which is probably why it has gone unnoticed. Recent papers describing the association between meteorites and Aboriginal cosmology (Hamacher, 2011) and comets in Aboriginal culture (Hamacher & Norris, 2011) have also been published, and would likely be of interest to WGN readers. I heartily agree with Gorelli that oral traditions are fast disappearing, taking with them a wealth of information about not only that peoples' culture, but also about past geologic and astronomical events, such as meteorite falls and cosmic impacts (a branch of the growing field of Geomythology). There is an old saying that "when a man dies, a library goes with him". This is certainly the

  2. MODERN THAMIZH SANDHI RULES GENERATOR IN NLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nirmala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thamizh sandhi rules generator deals with addition, deletion, getting changes with existing Information and this adjoining letters/sandhi grammar rules processing with indirect/bi-lingual machine translation. This Modern Thamizh Sandhi Rules Generator is implemented under Unicode based Indic Script. Modern Thamizh sandhi generation is the initial stage of developing the Word Formation rules in Thamizh computational method.

  3. Uncertainty Sets For Wind Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Dvorkin, Yury; Lubin, Miles; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    As penetration of wind power generation increases, system operators must account for its stochastic nature in a reliable and cost-efficient manner. These conflicting objectives can be traded-off by accounting for the variability and uncertainty of wind power generation. This letter presents a new methodology to estimate uncertainty sets for parameters of probability distributions that capture wind generation uncertainty and variability.

  4. From Notebook to Novel and from Diary to Dante: Reading Robert Dessaix’s Night Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Trapè

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has developed out of a larger work in progress, which focuses on representations of Italy in contemporary Australian fiction and non-fiction prose. This larger project aims to add to an established body of work on travel writing by considering Australian texts that describe Australian travel in Italy, Italian people and Italian places. In this paper, I will specifically focus on the representations of Italy in Robert Dessaix’s novel Night Letters (1996. My paper will explore the relationship between the writer’s actual journey in Italy and that of the creative work’s main character. The novel offers the protagonist’s account in the form of letters, which describe his travel from Switzerland across Northern Italy to Venice. I will begin by briefly outlining the Italian itinerary followed by Dessaix that would eventually inspire the novel. I will then explore the relationship between Dessaix’s notebooks recording his two journeys in Italy and the literary accomplishment of Night Letters. My aim is to show ways in which an itinerary becomes a story, a complex narrative. Reference will be made to factual accounts and descriptions in the author’s own diaries with an analysis of their generative role as key sources for the fictional work. This will be done through a close reading of particular passages, in the diaries and in the novel, concerning the same event. A comparative analysis of the notebooks and Night Letters can show that Dessaix’s diary entries relating to Italian places are woven into the fictional fabric of the ‘night letters’ according to a unifying principle.

  5. Primary care endorsement letter and a patient leaflet to improve participation in colorectal cancer screening: results of a factorial randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitson, P; Ward, A M; Heneghan, C; Halloran, S P; Mant, D

    2011-08-09

    The trial aimed to investigate whether a general practitioner's (GP) letter encouraging participation and a more explicit leaflet explaining how to complete faecal occult blood test (FOBT) included with the England Bowel Cancer Screening Programme invitation materials would improve uptake. A randomised controlled 2 × 2 factorial trial was conducted in the south of England. Overall, 1288 patients registered with 20 GPs invited for screening in October 2009 participated in the trial. Participants were randomised to either a GP's endorsement letter and/or an enhanced information leaflet with their FOBT kit. The primary outcome was verified with return of the test kit within 20 weeks. Both the GP's endorsement letter and the enhanced procedural leaflet, each increased participation by ∼6% - the GP's letter by 5.8% (95% CI: 4.1-7.8%) and the leaflet by 6.0% (95% CI: 4.3-8.1%). On the basis of the intention-to-treat analysis, the random effects logistic regression model confirmed that there was no important interaction between the two interventions, and estimated an adjusted rate ratio of 1.11 (P=0.038) for the GP's letter and 1.12 (P=0.029) for the leaflet. In the absence of an interaction, an additive effect for receiving both the GP's letter and leaflet (11.8%, 95% CI: 8.5-16%) was confirmed. The per-protocol analysis indicated that the insertion of an electronic GP's signature on the endorsement letter was associated with increased participation (P=0.039). Including both an endorsement letter from each patient's GP and a more explicit procedural leaflet could increase participation in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme by ∼10%, a relative improvement of 20% on current performance.

  6. How To Write a Business Letter. Power of the Printed Word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Malcolm

    Business letters should turn people on rather than turning them off. To write a good business letter, know what the goal is before starting to write, call the reader by name, tell what the letter is about in the first paragraph, refer to dates when answering letters, and write from the reader's point of view. Be positive, be nice, and be natural.…

  7. From word superiority to word inferiority: Visual processing of letters and words in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    impaired in letter naming and word processing, and performance with letters and words was dissociated in all four patients, with word reading being more severely impaired than letter recognition. This suggests that the word reading deficit in pure alexia may not be reduced to an impairment in single letter...

  8. A Dynamic Causal Modeling Analysis of the Effective Connectivities Underlying Top-Down Letter Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangang; Li, Jun; Rieth, Cory A.; Huber, David E.; Tian, Jie; Lee, Kang

    2011-01-01

    The present study employed dynamic causal modeling to investigate the effective functional connectivity between regions of the neural network involved in top-down letter processing. We used an illusory letter detection paradigm in which participants detected letters while viewing pure noise images. When participants detected letters, the response…

  9. Use of Mobile Applications for Hospital Discharge Letters: Improving Handover at Point of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Bridget; Drachsler, Hendrik; Kalz, Marco; Hoare, Cathal; Sorensen, Humphrey; Lezcano, Leonardo; Henn, Pat; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Handover of patient care is a time of particular risk and it is important that accurate and relevant information is clearly communicated. The hospital discharge letter is an important part of handover. However, the quality of hospital discharge letters is variable and letters frequently omit important information. The Cork Letter-Writing…

  10. Towards optimizing the name letter test as a measure of implicit self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, L.; Rotteveel, M.; Dijksterhuis, A.

    2009-01-01

    A common measure for implicit self-esteem is the name letter effect, traditionally calculated as the rated attractiveness of someone’s initials or name letters minus the average attractiveness of those same letters rated by people not having those initial or name letters. We present evidence showing

  11. Towards Optimizing the Name Letter Test as a Measure of Implicit Self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, L.W.; Rotteveel, M.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    A common measure for implicit self-esteem is the name letter effect, traditionally calculated as the rated attractiveness of someone's initials or name letters minus the average attractiveness of those same letters rated by people not having those initial or name letters. We present evidence showing

  12. Effect on survey response rate of hand written versus printed signature on a covering letter: randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN67566265

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayers Sarah

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important that response rates to postal surveys are as high as possible to ensure that the results are representative and to maximise statistical power. Previous research has suggested that any personalisation of approach helps to improve the response rate. This experiment tested whether personalising questionnaires by hand signing the covering letter improved the response rate compared with a non-personalised group where the investigator's signature on the covering letter was scanned into the document and printed. Methods Randomised controlled trial. Questionnaires about surgical techniques of caesarean section were mailed to 3,799 Members and Fellows of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists resident in the UK. Individuals were randomly allocated to receive a covering letter with either a computer printed signature or a hand written signature. Two reminders were sent to non-respondents. The outcome measures were the proportion of questionnaires returned and their time to return. Results The response rate was 79.1% (1506/1905 in the hand-signed group and 78.4% (1484/1894 in the scanned and printed signature group. There was no detectable difference between the groups in response rate or time taken to respond. Conclusion No advantage was detected to hand signing the covering letter accompanying a postal questionnaire to health professionals.

  13. Direct and Indirect Written Corrective Feedback in the Context of Genre-based Instruction on Job Application Letter Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mirzaii

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that a considerable proportion of today’s writing programs operate according to the principles of genre-based instruction, research has not adequately dealt with the teaching of various genres (e.g., job application letters. Nor has research, to date, attempted to address the issue of written corrective feedback in conjunction with genre-based instruction. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate the impact of written corrective feedback in the context of genre-based instruction on job application letters. To this end, 120 Iranian advanced-level EFL learners at Kish Institute of Science and Technology participated in the present study. After administering the TOEFL test, 80 students scoring within ±1 SD of the mean score were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups?namely, Direct Feedback Group or Indirect Feedback Group. Having sat a writing pretest, the participants received genre-based instruction on how to compose job application letters. Meanwhile, they were supplied with direct or indirect feedback on their writing. Following this instruction, a writing posttest was administered, the results of which showed that direct corrective feedback was more effective than indirect corrective feedback in the context of genre-based instruction on letters of job application.

  14. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M J; Rouw, Romke

    2012-01-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter 'a' always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words) was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14) = 5.85, p = .030). Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13) = 0.51, p = .05). The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14) = 2.79, p = .014) and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term 'synesthetic' training program.

  15. Pseudo-Synesthesia through Reading Books with Colored Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Rouw, Romke

    2012-01-01

    Background Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter ‘a’ always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. Methodology/Principal Findings Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words) was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14) = 5.85, p = .030). Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13) = 0.51, p = .05). The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14) = 2.79, p = .014) and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. Conclusion/Significance To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term ‘synesthetic’ training program. PMID

  16. Training Synesthetic Letter-color Associations by Reading in Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Rouw, Romke

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing, hearing and thinking about letters, words and numbers. We describe our method for investigating to what extent synesthetic associations between letters and colors can be learned by reading in color in nonsynesthetes. Reading in color is a special method for training associations in the sense that the associations are learned implicitly while the reader reads text as he or she normally would and it does not require explicit computer-directed training methods. In this protocol, participants are given specially prepared books to read in which four high-frequency letters are paired with four high-frequency colors. Participants receive unique sets of letter-color pairs based on their pre-existing preferences for colored letters. A modified Stroop task is administered before and after reading in order to test for learned letter-color associations and changes in brain activation. In addition to objective testing, a reading experience questionnaire is administered that is designed to probe for differences in subjective experience. A subset of questions may predict how well an individual learned the associations from reading in color. Importantly, we are not claiming that this method will cause each individual to develop grapheme-color synesthesia, only that it is possible for certain individuals to form letter-color associations by reading in color and these associations are similar in some aspects to those seen in developmental grapheme-color synesthetes. The method is quite flexible and can be used to investigate different aspects and outcomes of training synesthetic associations, including learning-induced changes in brain function and structure. PMID:24638033

  17. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Colizoli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter 'a' always appears as light blue. In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14 = 5.85, p = .030. Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13 = 0.51, p = .05. The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14 = 2.79, p = .014 and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term 'synesthetic' training program.

  18. LEXICAL UNITS STARTING WITH THE LETTERS «Б» AND «B» MATCHING IN THE PLANE OF EXPRESSION (BASED ON THE RUSSIAN AND ENGLISH LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Maria A. Ankudinova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to lexical units starting with the letters «б» and «b» matching in the plane of expression, based on the Russian and English languages. Lexical units were chosen by the random sampling method, were classified and analyzed, based on their spelling and pronunciation.

  19. Complications of intravascular catheters in ICU: definitions, incidence and severity. A randomized controlled trial comparing usual transparent dressings versus new-generation dressings (the ADVANCED study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Silvia Calviño; Schwebel, Carole; Hamidfar-Roy, Rebecca; Bonadona, Agnès; Lugosi, Maxime; Ara-Somohano, Claire; Minet, Clémence; Potton, Leïla; Cartier, Jean-Charles; Vésin, Aurelien; Chautemps, Magalie; Styfalova, Lenka; Ruckly, Stephane; Timsit, Jean-François

    2016-11-01

    To describe all post-insertion complications involving most used intravascular access, and to determine whether the use of a new-generation transparent dressing (3M™ IV Advanced) might reduce their number and impact on ICU patient outcomes. Patients older than 18, with an expected length of stay ≥48 h and requiring at least one central venous catheter (CVC), arterial catheter (AC), haemodialysis catheter (HDC), pulmonary arterial catheters (PAC) or peripheral venous catheter (PVC) were randomized into two groups: a new-generation transparent dressing, or the hospital's classical transparent dressing, and were followed daily for any infectious and non-infectious complications. Complications were graduated for severity by an independent international multicentre multidisciplinary panel of practitioners using a Delphi process. We included 628 patients, 2214 catheters (873 PVCs, 630 CVCs, 512 ACs and 199 HDCs and PACs) and 4836 dressings. Overall incidence rate was of 60.9/1000 catheter-days. The most common complication was dysfunction (34.6/1000 catheter-days), mainly for PVCs (16/1000 catheter-days) and ACs (12.9/1000 catheter-days). Infectious complications incidence rate in CVCs and ACs was of 14.5/1000, mostly due to colonization (14.2/1000 catheter-days). Thrombosis incidence was of 3.8/1000 catheter-days with severe and very severe complications in 16 cases (1.8/1000 catheter-days) and one thrombosis-related death. 3M™ IV Advanced dressing did not decrease the rate of catheters with at least a minor complication [57.37/1000 vs. 57.52/1000 catheter-days, HR 1.03, CI (0.84-1.27), p = 0.81]. Incidence rates for each single complication remained equivalent: infectious [HR 0.93 (0.62-1.40), p = 0.72], deep thrombosis [HR 0.90 (0.39-2.06), p = 0.80], extravasation and phlebitis [HR 1.40 (0.69-2.82), p = 0.35], accidental removal [1.07 (0.56-2.04), p = 0.84] and dysfunction [HR 1.04 (0.80-1.35), p = 0.79]. The ADVANCED study showed the overall risk

  20. THE EFFECTS OF WORD FAMILIARITY AND LETTER STRUCTURE FAMILIARITY ON THE PERCEPTION OF WORDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that familiarity of letter structure (as opposed to familiarity of the word ) would facilitate the...perception of the word . The results showed an interaction between letter structure familiarity and work familiarity such that while letter structure...familiarity facilitated correct identification of the letters of the word , letter structure familiarity resulted in inhibiting the perception of

  1. Add-on mirtazapine enhances antipsychotic effect of first generation antipsychotics in schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Grigori; Terevnikov, Viatcheslav; Joffe, Marina; Stenberg, Jan-Henry; Burkin, Mark; Tiihonen, Jari

    2009-03-01

    Mirtazapine, an antidepressant with a broad spectrum of receptor affinity may, if combined with first generation antipsyhotics (FGAs), improve clinical profile of the FGAs. However, potentiation of the antipsychotic effect by mirtazapine has not been reported thus far. We explored the efficacy of adjunctive mirtazapine on symptoms of schizophrenia in patients having an insufficient response to different FGAs. Schizophrenia-diagnosed patients with a prolonged disease and a history of a poor response to numerous antipsychotics, who were at least moderately ill despite their FGAs treatment, received add-on mirtazapine (n=20) or placebo (n=19) in a 6-week double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT). The analysis was made on a Modified Intent-to-Treat (MITT) basis with Last Observations Carried Forward (LOCF). Mirtazapine outranged placebo on almost all measures. The clear-cut clinical relevance of this finding was demonstrated by a large effect size of 1.00 (95% CI 0.23-1.67, p=0.003) on the total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores (the primary outcome). The PANSS positive subscale scores decreased by 17.2% with mirtazapine vs. 1.6% with placebo (p<0.001), and the PANSS negative subscale scores by 12% and 3% (p<0.001), correspondingly. This is the first RCT reporting a robust additive antipsychotic effect of an adjunctive antidepressant. Mirtazapine-FGAs combination appears to be a safe, well-tolerated and efficacious treatment option in this challenging population. These findings are important due to the current re-emerging attention to FGAs. The focus of further studies should be expanded to include combinations with or switching to novel antipsychotics, different subpopulations of patients with schizophrenia, finding of optimal doses, and comparison with clozapine.

  2. Self-generation and positivity effects following transcranial random noise stimulation in medial prefrontal cortex: A reality monitoring task in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Nicola; Di Domenico, Alberto; Palumbo, Rocco; Fairfield, Beth

    2017-06-01

    Activation of medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) has been typically found during reality monitoring tasks (i.e., distinguishing between internal self-generated vs external information). No study, however, has yet investigated whether transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS) over the mPFC leads to a reduction in reality-monitoring misattributions in aging. In particular, stimulating mPFC should increase the number of cognitive operations engaged while encoding and this distinctive information may help older adults to discriminate between internal and external sources better. In addition, given that older adults are more sensitive to positively-charged information compared to younger adults and that mPFC is typically recruited during encoding of positive stimuli with reference to themselves, activation of mPFC should further sustain source retrieval in older adults. In this double-blind, sham-controlled study, we examined whether tRNS over the mPFC of healthy younger and older adults during encoding enhances subsequent reality monitoring for seen versus imagined emotionally-charged words. Our findings show that tRNS enhances reality monitoring for positively-charged imagined words in the older adult group alone, highlighting the role that mPFC plays in their memory for positive information. In line with the control-based account of positivity effects, our results add evidence about the neurocognitive processes involved in reality monitoring when older adults face emotionally-charged events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Letters of Marcus Antonius Kappus from colonial America IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Stanonik

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The letter of Marcus Antonius Kappus which we publish in our present the fourth - continuation of his letters from Colonial America, is not preserved - as the first three letters are - in a manuscript. Instead we find it published in the famous contemporary collection of Jesuitic letters which appeared from 1728 till 1758 under the editorship of Joseph Stöcklein and his successors in Augsburg and Graz under the title Der neue Welt-Bott mit Allerhand Nachrichten derer Missionariorum Soc. Jesu. Kappus' letter can be found in vol. I, part II, p. 86-88 under the number 56. It has never since 1728 been reprinted in German, neither has it ever been published in an English translation. Our reprint of the German text is justified because Stöcklein's collection is generally not available even in the largest libraries, especially in America. An English translation can be useful because of the difficulties the old form of its German with its localisms can cause to its readers.

  4. Age changes in the missing-letter effect revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Klein, Raymond M; Landry, Tina

    2005-06-01

    When participants search for a target letter while reading, they make more omissions if the target letter is embedded in frequent function words than in less frequent content words. Reflecting developmental changes in component language and literacy skills, the size of this effect increases with age. With adults, the missing-letter effect is due to both word function and word frequency. With children, it is unclear whether the growing size of the missing-letter effect across development is due to a larger effect of word function, word frequency, or both because previous studies with children seeking to isolate the influence of word frequency and word function suffer from important methodological limitations. With these methodological limitations eliminated (Experiments 1 and 2), performance in a letter detection task was assessed for children in Grades 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 as well as for undergraduate students. The results revealed that the influence of word function increases with age, whereas the effect of frequency is fairly stable across ages. Furthermore, normative predictability data collected in Experiment 3 revealed that third graders and undergraduate students were equally good at predicting function slots in a sentence.

  5. Written work: the social functions of Research Ethics Committee letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Woods, Mary; Angell, Emma; Ashcroft, Richard E; Bryman, Alan

    2007-08-01

    Research Ethics Committees (RECs) are increasingly institutionalised as a feature of research practice, but have remained strangely neglected by social scientists. In this paper, we argue that analysis of letters from RECs to researchers offers important insights into how RECs operate. We report a traditional content analysis and an ethnographic content analysis of 141 letters to researchers, together with an analysis of the organisational and institutional arrangements for RECs in the UK. We show that REC letters perform three important social functions. First, they define what is deemed by a REC to be ethical practice for any particular application, and confer authority on that definition. They do this actively, through comments on particular aspects of proposals, and passively, through silences about other aspects. Second, they provide an account of the work of the REC, and function as a form of institutional display. Third, they specify the nature of the relationship between the REC and the applicant, casting the applicant in a supplicant role and requiring forms of docility. Writing and reading REC letters require highly specific competences, and engage both parties in a Bourdieusian "game" that discourages challenges from researchers. The authority of RECs' decisions derives not from their appeal to the moral superiority of any ethical position, but through their place in the organisational structure and the social positioning of the parties to the process thus implied. Letters are the critical point at which RECs act on researchers and their projects.

  6. Formation of automatic letter-colour associations in non-synaesthetes through likelihood manipulation of letter-colour pairings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnir, Flor; Thut, Gregor

    2012-12-01

    Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is a well-characterized phenomenon in which achromatic letters and/or digits automatically and systematically trigger specific colour sensations. Models of its underlying mechanisms diverge on a central question: whether triggered sensations reflect (1) an overdeveloped capacity in normal cross-modal processing (i.e., sharing characteristics with the general population), or rather (2) qualitatively deviant processing (i.e., unique to a few individuals). To test to what extent synaesthesia-like (automatic) letter-colour associations may be learned by non-synaesthetes into adulthood, implied by (1), we developed a learning paradigm that aimed to implicitly train such associations via a visual search task that employed statistical probability learning of specific letter-colour pairs. In contrast to previous synaesthesia-training studies (Cohen Kadosh, Henik, Catena, Walsh, & Fuentes, 2009; Meier & Rothen, 2009), here all participants were naïve as to the end-goal of the experiment (i.e., the formation of letter-colour associations), mimicking the learning conditions of acquired grapheme-colour synaesthesia (Hancock, 2006; Witthoft & Winawer, 2006). In two experiments, we found evidence for significant binding of colours to letters by non-synaesthetes. These newly-formed associations showed synaesthesia-like characteristics, because they correlated in strength with performance on individual synaesthetic Stroop-tasks (experiment 1), and because interference between the learned (associated) colour and the real colour during letter processing depended on their relative positions in colour space (opponent vs. non-opponent colours, experiment 2) suggesting automatic formation on a perceptual rather than conceptual level, analogous to synaesthesia. Although not evoking conscious colour percepts, these learned, synaesthesia-like associations in non-synaesthetes support that common mechanisms may underlie letter-colour associations in synaesthetes

  7. Dimensionality and Reliability of Letter Writing in 3- to 5-Year-Old Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Petscher, Yaacov; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the dimensionality and reliability of letter writing skills in preschool children with the aim of determining whether a sequence existed in how children learn to write the letters of the alphabet. Additionally, we examined gender differences in the development of letter writing skills. 471 children aged 3 to 5 years old completed a letter writing task. Results from factor analyses indicated that letter writing represented a unidimensional skill. Similar to research findings that the development of letter-names and letter-sound knowledge varies in acquisition, our findings indicate that the ability to write some letters is acquired earlier than the ability to write other letters. Although there appears to be an approximate sequence for the easiest and most difficult letters, there appears to be a less clear sequence for letters in the middle stages of development. Overall, girls had higher letter writing scores compared to boys. Gender differences regarding difficulty writing specific letters was less conclusive; however, results indicated that when controlling for ability level, girls had a higher probability of writing a letter correctly than boys. Implications of these findings for the assessment and instruction of letter writing are discussed.

  8. Romanian letter-writing: a cultural-rhetorical perspective (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Iuliana Morcov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at revealing the features of Romanian letter-writing during its stages of formation and consolidation. The structural and the stylistic analysis of letters is carried out with regard to the composition of the documents written in Old Romanian according to the requirements imposed by the Slavonic template and with regard to the rhetorical division of the three styles: the simple style, the middle style and the grand style. The description of the Old Romanian epistolary style is based on a taxonomy inspired by Roman Jakobson’s functional communicative model (1964. Following the six factors identified by Jakobson, letters are classified according to the socio-cultural status and the communicative competence of the addresser and of the addressee and in line with the context, the channel and the linguistic code used to write them.

  9. "Test" is a Four Letter Word

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, G M

    2005-05-03

    For a number of years I had the pleasure of teaching Testing Seminars all over the world and meeting and learning from others in our field. Over a twelve year period, I always asked the following questions to Software Developers, Test Engineers, and Managers who took my two or three day seminar on Software Testing: 'When was the first time you heard the word test'? 'Where were you when you first heard the word test'? 'Who said the word test'? 'How did the word test make you feel'? Most of the thousands of responses were similar to 'It was my third grade teacher at school, and I felt nervous and afraid'. Now there were a few exceptions like 'It was my third grade teacher, and I was happy and excited to show how smart I was'. But by and large, my informal survey found that 'testing' is a word to which most people attach negative meanings, based on its historical context. So why is this important to those of us in the software development business? Because I have found that a preponderance of software developers do not get real excited about hearing that the software they just wrote is going to be 'tested' by the Test Group. Typical reactions I have heard over the years run from: 'I'm sure there is nothing wrong with the software, so go ahead and test it, better you find defects than our customers'. to these extremes: 'There is no need to test my software because there is nothing wrong with it'. 'You are not qualified to test my software because you don't know as much as I do about it'. 'If any Test Engineers come into our office again to test our software we will throw them through the third floor window'. So why is there such a strong negative reaction to testing? It is primitive. It goes back to grade school for many of us. It is a negative word that congers up negative emotions. In other words, 'test' is a four letter word

  10. A common left occipito-temporal dysfunction in developmental dyslexia and acquired letter-by-letter reading?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Richlan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We used fMRI to examine functional brain abnormalities of German-speaking dyslexics who suffer from slow effortful reading but not from a reading accuracy problem. Similar to acquired cases of letter-by-letter reading, the developmental cases exhibited an abnormal strong effect of length (i.e., number of letters on response time for words and pseudowords.Corresponding to lesions of left occipito-temporal (OT regions in acquired cases, we found a dysfunction of this region in our developmental cases who failed to exhibit responsiveness of left OT regions to the length of words and pseudowords. This abnormality in the left OT cortex was accompanied by absent responsiveness to increased sublexical reading demands in phonological inferior frontal gyrus (IFG regions. Interestingly, there was no abnormality in the left superior temporal cortex which--corresponding to the onological deficit explanation--is considered to be the prime locus of the reading difficulties of developmental dyslexia cases.The present functional imaging results suggest that developmental dyslexia similar to acquired letter-by-letter reading is due to a primary dysfunction of left OT regions.

  11. Standardized Letter of Recommendation for Otolaryngology Residency Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jonathan N.; Liang, Conan; McFann, Kim; Abaza, Mona M.; Streubel, Sven-Olrik; Prager, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Develop a standardized letter of recommendation (SLOR) for otolaryngology residency application that investigates the qualities desired in residents and letter writer’s experience. Compare this SLOR to narrative letters of recommendation (NLOR). Study Design Prospective SLOR/NLOR Comparison. Methods The SLOR was sent to a NLOR writer for each applicant. The applicant’s NLOR/SLOR pair was blinded and ranked in seven categories by three reviewers. Inter-rater reliability and NLOR/SLOR rankings were compared. Means of cumulative NLOR and SLOR scores were compared to our departmental rank list. Results Thirty-one SLORs (66%) were collected. The SLORs had higher inter-rater reliability for applicant’s qualifications for otolaryngology, global assessment, summary statement, and overall letter ranking. Writer’s background, comparison to contemporaries/predecessors, and letter review ease had higher inter-rater reliability on the NLORs. Mean SLOR rankings were higher for writer’s background (p=0.0007), comparison of applicant to contemporaries/predecessors (p=0.0031), and letter review ease (p<0.0001). Mean SLOR writing time was 4.17±2.18 minutes. Mean ranking time was significantly lower (p<0.0001) for the SLORs (39.24±23.45 seconds) compared to the NLORs (70.95±40.14 seconds). Means of cumulative SLOR scores correlated with our rank list (p=0.004), whereas means of cumulative NLOR scores did not (p=0.18). Means of cumulative NLOR and SLOR scores did not correlate (p=0.26). Conclusions SLORs require little writing time, save reviewing time, and are easier to review compared to NLORs. Our SLOR had higher inter-rater reliability in 4 of 7 categories and was correlated with our rank list. This tool conveys standardized information in an efficient manner. PMID:23172646

  12. Dear Hacker Letters to the Editor of 2600

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Actual letters written to the leading hackers' magazine. For 25 years, 2600: The Hacker Quarterly has given voice to the hacker community in all its manifestations. This collection of letters to the magazine reveals the thoughts and viewpoints of hackers, both white and black hat, as well as hacker wannabes, technophiles, and people concerned about computer security. Insightful and entertaining, the exchanges illustrate 2600 's vast readership, from teenage rebels, anarchists, and survivalists to law enforcement, consumer advocates, and worried parents.: 2600: The Hacker Quarterly has been the

  13. Letters rhyme: electrophysiological evidence from children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna; Mitra, Priya; George, Elyse; Berger, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral accuracy judgments were recorded in a letter name rhyming paradigm (e.g., A-J versus A-B) with 6- to 8-year-old beginning readers and adults. A typical N450 rhyming effect was evident for both children and adults, with few differences in mean amplitude or peak latency between groups. The size and timing of the electrophysiological effect were not correlated with standardized measures of phonological or reading ability, but accuracy in the ERP task was. Single letters elicit a similar ERP rhyming effect in young children and adults, suggesting the early establishment of neurocognitive systems used in the rhyme task.

  14. Una lettera a Sylos Labini. (A letter to Sylos Labini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Modigliani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The letter, dated 14 September 1956, starts a decade long correspondence between Franco Modigliani and Paolo Sylos Labini. Here Modigliani discusses at length a first draft of Sylos Labini’s book on oligopoly theory. Differently from Modigliani’s well known 1958 review of the book, Modigliani focuses here not mainly on the structure of oligopoly industries, but especially on the macroeconomic implications of Sylos Labini’s model. The letter is reproduced with Sylos Labini’s annotated comments on Modigliani’s remarks. JEL codes: B31, D43, E13

  15. Consultation letters for medically unexplained physical symptoms in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedeman, Rob; Blankenstein, Annette H; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; Krol, Boudien; Stewart, Roy; Groothoff, Johan W

    2010-12-08

    In primary care between 10% and 35% of all visits concern patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS). MUPS are associated with high medical consumption, significant disabilities and psychiatric morbidity. To assess the effectiveness of consultation letters (CLs) to assist primary care physicians or occupational health physicians in the treatment of patients with MUPS and diagnostic subgroups. We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group Controlled Trials Registers, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 2, 2009), MEDLINE  (1966-2009), MEDLINE In Process (2009-08-17), EMBASE (1974-2009), PSYCINFO (1980-2009) and CINAHL (1982-2009). We screened the references lists of selected studies and consulted experts in the field to identify any additional, eligible RCTs. RCTs of CLs for patients with MUPS being treated in primary care settings. Two authors independently screened the abstracts of the studies identified through the searches and independently assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. We resolved any disagreement by discussion with a third review author. We assessed heterogeneity and, where a number of studies reported the same outcomes, pooled results in a meta-analysis. We included six RCTs, with a total of 449 patients. In four studies (267 patients) the CL intervention resulted in reduced medical costs (in two studies the outcomes could be pooled: MD -352.55 US Dollars (95% CI -522.32 to -182.78)) and improved physical functioning (three studies, MD 5.71 (95% CI 4.11 to 7.31)). In two studies (182 patients) the intervention was a joint consultation with a psychiatrist in presence of the physician, and resulted in reduced severity of somatization symptoms, reduced medical consumption and improved social functioning. There is limited evidence that a CL is effective in terms of medical costs and improvement of physical functioning

  16. Developing a bone mineral density test result letter to send to patients: a mixed-methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmonds SW

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie W Edmonds,1,2 Samantha L Solimeo,3 Xin Lu,1 Douglas W Roblin,4,8 Kenneth G Saag,5 Peter Cram6,7 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2College of Nursing, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; 3Center for Comprehensive Access and Delivery Research and Evaluation, Iowa City Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Iowa City, IA, USA; 4Kaiser Permanente of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA, USA; 5Department of Rheumatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 6Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 7University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada; 8School of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA Purpose: To use a mixed-methods approach to develop a letter that can be used to notify patients of their bone mineral density (BMD results by mail that may activate patients in their bone-related health care. Patients and methods: A multidisciplinary team developed three versions of a letter for reporting BMD results to patients. Trained interviewers presented these letters in a random order to a convenience sample of adults, aged 50 years and older, at two different health care systems. We conducted structured interviews to examine the respondents’ preferences and comprehension among the various letters. Results: A total of 142 participants completed the interview. A majority of the participants were female (64.1% and white (76.1%. A plurality of the participants identified a specific version of the three letters as both their preferred version (45.2%; P<0.001 and as the easiest to understand (44.6%; P<0.01. A majority of participants preferred that the letters include specific next steps for improving their bone health. Conclusion: Using a mixed-methods approach, we were able to develop and optimize a printed letter for communicating a complex test result (BMD to patients. Our results may offer guidance to clinicians, administrators, and researchers who are

  17. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Lonigan, Christopher J; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children's emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4-5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name writing; whereas alphabet knowledge, print knowledge, and name writing made positive contributions to letter writing. Both name-writing and letter-writing skills made significant contributions to the prediction of spelling after controlling for age, parental education, print knowledge, phonological awareness, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge; however, only letter-writing abilities made a significant unique contribution to the prediction of spelling when both letter-writing and name-writing skills were considered together. Name writing reflects knowledge of some letters rather than a broader knowledge of letters that may be needed to support early spelling. Children's letter-writing skills may be a better indicator of children's emergent literacy and developing spelling skills than are their name-writing skills at the end of the preschool year. Spelling is a developmentally complex skill beginning in preschool and includes letter writing and blending skills, print knowledge, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge.

  18. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children’s emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4–5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name writing; whereas alphabet knowledge, print knowledge, and name writing made positive contributions to letter writing. Both name-writing and letter-writing skills made significant contributions to the prediction of spelling after controlling for age, parental education, print knowledge, phonological awareness, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge; however, only letter-writing abilities made a significant unique contribution to the prediction of spelling when both letter-writing and name-writing skills were considered together. Name writing reflects knowledge of some letters rather than a broader knowledge of letters that may be needed to support early spelling. Children’s letter-writing skills may be a better indicator of children’s emergent literacy and developing spelling skills than are their name-writing skills at the end of the preschool year. Spelling is a developmentally complex skill beginning in preschool and includes letter writing and blending skills, print knowledge, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge. PMID:21927537

  19. Visual and Artistic Functions of Letters Khaghani’s Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M. Zolfaghari

    Full Text Available The intensity of emotion and vibration of meaning in the poet's mind causes him to go beyond the ordinary language and through metaphors, similes and linguistic preparation he conveys intellectual and emotional meanings. He has a sharp eye and a sensitive spirit and creative temprement and by inventing new images shows the creativity and imagination in various arenas and attempts in the way of literary strength and creating personal style and this point more than anything else must be done by presenting images and newness. Perhaps in the sixth century, and especially in Azerbaijani school, more than other periods, poets have been looking for creating innovative style in eloquence. Their major attempts were mainly in imaging, it was a wide field that they have competed and it is natural that in this illustration the alphabet letters would be very helpful. Khaghani poetry as one of the greatest poets of this school has the perfect poetrical book of painting and meaning, and delicated pattern in new and different scientific, cultural and religious paintings and letters are a broad range of elements that put a new field in front of the poet and he is aware of the potential features of the letters and also the new images and the artistic creativity.This paper shows descriptive - analytical study of various aspects of Khaghani’s poetry and frequency of letters in the alphabet, authentic images based on alphabet, taken at different pseudo relevance of poetry in the context of multiple semantic and literal characters, making figures of speech based on literary characters, images and characters and the sense of connection . . . which has been shown in his poetry.Letter has double and even multiple uses in Khaghani poetic works (divan and more than the construction of words which is the real and common sense that is used as an artistic. There is a world in the heart of every letter, word and morpheme lies in the poet's point of view is the last and

  20. Recurrence of random walks with long-range steps generated by fractional Laplacian matrices on regular networks and simple cubic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelitsch, T. M.; Collet, B. A.; Riascos, A. P.; Nowakowski, A. F.; Nicolleau, F. C. G. A.

    2017-12-01

    We analyze a Markovian random walk strategy on undirected regular networks involving power matrix functions of the type L\\frac{α{2}} where L indicates a ‘simple’ Laplacian matrix. We refer to such walks as ‘fractional random walks’ with admissible interval 0 α (recurrent for d≤slantα ) of the lattice. As a consequence, for 0global mean first passage times (Kemeny constant) for the fractional random walk. For an infinite 1D lattice (infinite ring) we obtain for the transient regime 0world properties with the emergence of Lévy flights on large (infinite) lattices.

  1. How do we code the letters of a word when we have to write it? Investigating double letter representation in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Sonia; Peereman, Ronald; Ghimenton, Anna

    2014-05-01

    How do we code the letters of a word when we have to write it? We examined whether the orthographic representations that the writing system activates have a specific coding for letters when these are doubled in a word. French participants wrote words on a digitizer. The word pairs shared the initial letters and differed on the presence of a double letter (e.g., LISSER/LISTER). The results on latencies, letter and inter-letter interval durations revealed that L and I are slower to write when followed by a doublet (SS) than when not (ST). Doublet processing constitutes a supplementary cognitive load that delays word production. This suggests that word representations code letter identity and quantity separately. The data also revealed that the central processes that are involved in spelling representation cascade into the peripheral processes that regulate movement execution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Mentoring Opportunity: A Joint Effort in Writing Letters of Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Zubin

    2017-01-01

    Integrity in writing letters of recommendation is important to academic research because it is an influential criterion used pervasively in peer review. While research in the integrity of recommendation letters has concentrated on contents of the letter, bias, and reliability, few have questioned the process of letter writing. Here, I argue that letter writing should be a joint opportunity between mentor/supervisor/advisor and trainee. It results in more compelling letters, may prevent errors and the use of biased language, and serves as an excellent mentoring opportunity promoting self-reflection.

  3. Model business letters, emails and other business documents

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    For anyone who wants to communicate effectively in business, this is your complete reference guide for any form of written communication. Packed with over 500 sample documents, over 100 tips for better business writing and useful templates you can apply to your writing immediately, Model Business Letters will help you put the key rules of good business writing into action.

  4. Letters Home as an Alternative to Lab Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, W. Brian

    2014-01-01

    The traditional lab report is known to create several pedagogical shortcomings in the introductory physics course, particularly with regard to promoting student engagement and encouraging quality writing. This paper discusses the use of a "letter home" written to a non-physicist as an alternative to lab reports that creates a more…

  5. Repeated Reading Intervention Effects in Kindergartners with Partial Letter Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorp, K. van; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    The direct, transfer and retention effects of a repeated reading intervention study of single CVC (consonant in the onset and a vowel and consonant in the rime) words in kindergartners with partial letter knowledge were examined. A total of 26 second-year kindergartners participated in this study.

  6. Repeated Reading Intervention Effects in Kindergartners with Partial Letter Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gorp, Karly; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    The direct, transfer and retention effects of a repeated reading intervention study of single CVC (consonant in the onset and a vowel and consonant in the rime) words in kindergartners with partial letter knowledge were examined. A total of 26 second-year kindergartners participated in this study. Participants were divided over two feedback…

  7. 24 CFR 1710.18 - No action letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION General Requirements § 1710.18 No action letter. (a) If the sale of lots is subject to the registration requirements of the Act but the circumstances of the sale are such that no affirmative action to enforce the registration requirements is needed...

  8. Integration of letters and speech sounds in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Atteveldt, Nienke; Formisano, Elia; Goebel, Rainer; Blomert, Leo

    2004-01-01

    Most people acquire literacy skills with remarkable ease, even though the human brain is not evolutionarily adapted to this relatively new cultural phenomenon. Associations between letters and speech sounds form the basis of reading in alphabetic scripts. We investigated the functional neuroanatomy

  9. Standardized letters of recommendation and successful match into otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimple, Adam J; McClurg, Stanley W; Del Signore, Anthony G; Tomoum, Mohamed O; Lin, Feng-Chang; Senior, Brent A

    2016-05-01

    Historically, narrative letters of recommendation have been utilized in the selection of applicants for otolaryngology residency programs. In the last two application cycles, our specialty adopted a standardized letter of recommendation (SLOR). The intent was to decrease time burden for letter writers and to provide readers with an objective evaluation of applicants. The objective of this study was to determine attributes in the SLOR that correlate with matching into a residency program. We performed a retrospective study using SLOR, United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step 1 scores, and matched outcomes of applicants who applied to our institution for the 2013 and 2014 match cycle. We included the following variables from the SLOR in the statistical analysis to determine which ones were associated with matching: patient care, medical knowledge, communication skills, procedural skills, research, initiative and drive, commitment to otolaryngology, commitment to academic medicine, match potential, and USMLE1 scores. We identified 532 applicants and 963 SLOR. In successful applicants, scores for patient care, medical knowledge, communication skills, initiative and drive, and match potential were statistically higher (P otolaryngology, commitment to academic medicine, and USMLE step 1 scores were not higher among successfully matched applicants. Although SLOR can save time for letter writers and provide an objective description of applicants, the utility of individual domains within the SLOR is questionable. Additionally, it is concerning that applicants' professionalism and procedural skills are not correlated with matching in our specialty. NA. Laryngoscope, 126:1071-1076, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Rock 'n' Roll Heroes: Letter to President Eisenhower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jean W., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    This primary source document can be used to teach secondary students about the rock 'n' roll era that emerged in the 1950's. The document is a letter written in 1958 by three teenagers to President Eisenhower concerning the induction of Elvis Presley into the U.S. Army. Class activities are also suggested. (RM)

  11. The Greek lead letter from Ruscino (Languedoc, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Rébé

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A new lead tablet with Greek text, possibly a letter from the 4th c. BC, is published here. The edition and partial translation is accompanied by a chronological, paleographic and linguistic study, and a comment that includes some hypotheses about its interpretation within this special genre of documents, whose number and significance are continuously increasing.

  12. 48 CFR 52.228-14 - Irrevocable Letter of Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Credit. 52.228-14 Section 52.228-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....228-14 Irrevocable Letter of Credit. As prescribed in 28.204-4, insert the following clause... completion of any warranty period; or (C) For payment bonds only, until resolution of all claims filed...

  13. Word-initial letters influence fixation durations during fluent reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Hand

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined how word-initial letters influence lexical access during reading. Eye movements were monitored as participants read sentences containing target words. Three factors were independently manipulated. First, target words had either high or low constraining word-initial letter sequences (e.g., dwarf or clown, respectively. Second, targets were either high or low in frequency of occurrence (e.g., train or stain, respectively. Third, targets were embedded in either biasing or neutral contexts (i.e., targets were high or low in their predictability. This 2 (constraint × 2 (frequency × 2 (context design allowed us to examine the conditions under which a word’s initial letter sequence could facilitate processing. Analyses of fixation duration data revealed significant main effects of constraint, frequency, and context. Moreover, in measures taken to reflect early lexical processing (i.e., first and single fixation duration, there was a significant interaction between constraint and context. The overall pattern of findings suggests lexical access is facilitated by highly constraining word-initial letters. Results are discussed in comparison to recent studies of lexical features involved in word recognition during reading.

  14. Order and Position in Primary Memory for Letter Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Catherine L.; Estes, William K.

    1977-01-01

    A short-term recall task in which letters were spaced in different ways by distractor digits was used to separate aspects of primary and secondary memory processes and to permit examination of primary memory for position, order and item independently. Memory for order appeared derivative to memory for temporal position. (CHK)

  15. Just keep it simple : a field experiment on fundraising letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René; Crutzen, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies how the use of a colour picture in fundraising letters affect response rates and the amount donated in a fundraising campaign. Envelopes, with a full colour picture were tested against envelopes, without a picture in a controlled field experiment at a national religious charity in

  16. Referral letters to the psychiatrist in Nigeria: is communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Over half of patients with psychiatric disorders are first seen by primary care physicians before referral to the psychiatrist. An efficient referral system is, therefore, important to offering quality care to such patients. Communication between physicians is often sub-optimal and referral letters to specialists sometimes ...

  17. Referral letters to the psychiatrist in Nigeria: is communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Objective: Over half of patients with psychiatric disorders are first seen by primary care physicians before referral to the psychi- atrist. An efficient referral system is, therefore, important to offering quality care to such patients. Communication between phy- sicians is often sub-optimal and referral letters to specialists ...

  18. Blind Rage: An Open Letter to Helen Keller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleege, Georgina

    2007-01-01

    In a letter addressed to Helen Keller, the author discusses the frustrations of being blind in the modern-day world. She reflects on the seeming pettiness of her complaints next to the difficulties Keller would have faced, especially given all of the new technologies and accommodations available to the blind. She wonders how Keller dealt with her…

  19. 50 CFR 216.207 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and Operation of Offshore Oil and Gas Facilities in the U.S. Beaufort Sea § 216.207 Applications for Letters of Authorization...

  20. 50 CFR 216.209 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and Operation of Offshore Oil and Gas Facilities in the U.S. Beaufort Sea § 216.209 Renewal of Letters of Authorization. (a) A...

  1. 50 CFR 216.210 - Modifications to Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and Operation of Offshore Oil and Gas Facilities in the U.S. Beaufort Sea § 216.210 Modifications to Letters of Authorization...

  2. Note in margine ad alcune lettere inedite della Marchesa Colombi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fourteen unpublished letters by the Marchesa Colombi (nine are addressed to friends living in Novara and five to her colleague, Luigia Codemo) enlighten Colombi's personality both as a woman and as a writer. Furthermore, events which had a strong impact on her life (i.e. the break-up of her marriage, etc.) ...

  3. Grooming the Victim: An Analysis of a Perpetrator's Seduction Letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Mark I.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the sexual victimization of adolescent males, with emphasis on victim selection factors and strategies. A letter written by a middle-aged man to entice a teenage boy into sexual activity is then presented and analyzed. (DB)

  4. medication history documentation in referral letters of children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Referral letters are the interface between healthcare professionals in the primary healthcare centre or general practice and centres for higher level of care.1 They are expected to provide information such as the demographics of the patient, the clinical information, and medication history. In addition, they ...

  5. Resource Letter FNP-1: Frontiers of nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, G. F.

    2004-08-01

    This Resource Letter provides a bibliography of the current research activities in nuclear physics and also a guide for finding useful nuclear data. The major areas included are nuclear structure and reactions, symmetry tests, nuclear astrophysics, nuclear theory, high-density matter, and nuclear instrumentation.

  6. Tactile Perception and Braille Letter Recognition: Effects of Developmental Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Sally S.

    1978-01-01

    The extent to which a developmental program of tactile perception and braille letter recognition would affect errors in these abilities and reduce scrubbing and backtracking behaviors of 30 legally blind braille users (5-15 years old) was studied. (Author/BD)

  7. Transposed-Letter Priming across Inflectional Morpheme Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Ehsan Shafiee; Witzel, Naoko

    2017-01-01

    This study reports findings from two experiments testing whether a transposed-letter (TL) priming effect can be obtained when the transposition occurs across morphological boundaries. Previous studies have primarily tested derivationally complex words or compound words, but have not examined a more rule-based and productive morphological…

  8. Black Greek-Lettered Organizations and Civic Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article discuss the potential impact of Black Greek-Lettered Organizations (BGLOs) in advancing African American civil and political rights. During the antebellum years and Jim Crow era, barriers to Black voting included enslavement, anti-literacy laws, violence and intimidation, grandfather clauses, gerrymandering, literacy requirements,…

  9. Reversing Letters and Reading Transformed Text in Dyslexia: A Reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Peter H.; Melngailis, Ilze

    1996-01-01

    Reexamines whether probands and affected relatives in dyslexia families reverse easily confused letters more frequently under experimental conditions than normal readers from the same families and whether they show unusual facility in reading geometrically transformed text. Indicates that young dyslexia students reverse easily confused letters…

  10. Letter to the editor The number of urine specimens for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contents/approach-to-the-adult-with-asymptomatic- bacteriuria. Letter to the editor. The number of urine specimens for bacteriological examination in women. Ertugrul Guclu, Tuba Damar, Oguz Karabay. 1. Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Sakarya University Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya, Turkey.

  11. Justification and authority in institutional review board decision letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Justin T; Gleason, Katharine A; Joffe, Steven

    2017-10-16

    While ethnographic study has described the discussions that occur during human subjects research ethics review, investigators have minimal access to the interactions of ethics oversight committees. They instead receive letters stipulating changes to their proposed studies. Ethics committee letters are central to the practice of research ethics: they change the nature of research, alter the knowledge it produces, and in doing so construct what ethical research is and how it is pursued. However, these letters have rarely been objects of analysis. Accordingly, we conducted a qualitative analysis of letters written by American institutional review boards (IRBs) overseeing biomedical and health behavioral research. We sought to clarify how IRBs exercise their authority by assessing the frequency with which they provided reasons for their stipulations as well as the nature of these reasons. We found that IRBs frequently do not justify their stipulations; rather, they often leave ethical or regulatory concerns implicit or frame their comments as boilerplate language replacements, procedural instructions, or demands for missing information. When they do provide justifications, their rationales exhibit substantial variability in explicitness and clarity. These rhetorical tendencies indicate that the authority of IRBs is grounded primarily in their role as bureaucratic gatekeepers. We conclude by suggesting that greater attention to justification could help shift the basis of the IRB-researcher relationship from compliance to mutual accountability. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. A Letter from a Black Mom to Her Son

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Dyan

    2012-01-01

    An African American mother and teacher educator uses examples from her own childhood to describe how she hopes her child will be treated by teachers, and what she fears. In her letter to her son, the African American mom expresses how she want teachers to know her son's journey to school--metaphorically and physically. She wants them to know that…

  13. Letter from the editor | Tawe | Jos Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jos Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Letter from the editor. G.S Tawe. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE ...

  14. Letters to the Editor: Poor complementary feeding practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Letters to the Editor: Poor complementary feeding practices among young children in Cameroon. Samuel Nambile Cumber, Nancy Bongkiynuy, Shalom Jaila, Joyce Mahlako Tsoka-Gwegweni. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  15. Letter to the Editor Correspondence: Iron deficiency anaemia among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Letter to the Editor. Correspondence: Iron deficiency anaemia among apparently healthy pre-school children in Lagos, Nigeria. Anirban Mandal1, Puneet Kaur Sahi2. 1. Department of Pediatrics, Sitaram Bhartia Institute of Science and Research, New Delhi, India. 2. Department of Pediatrics, Kalawati Saran Children's ...

  16. Letter to Editor | Acharya | Internet Journal of Medical Update ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internet Journal of Medical Update - EJOURNAL. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Letter to Editor. S Acharya, A Gupta, C Kulkarni, SN ...

  17. Letter to the Editor: Polluting the well | Rodseth | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23, No 6 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Letter to the Editor: Polluting the ...

  18. Letter to the Editor | Joob | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 4 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Letter to the Editor. B Joob, V Wiwanitkit. Abstract. Ebola outbreak in west Africa ...

  19. Letter to Editor | Kieran | Annals of Medical and Health Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Letter to Editor. W Kieran. Abstract.

  20. The Wartime Success of Karl Shapiro's V-Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    The American soldier-poet Karl Shapiro won the Pulitzer Prize for V-Letter and Other Poems (1944), making him an instant celebrity. The volume was written while he was stationed in Australia and New Guinea during World War II. Shaprio sent the completed poems to his fiancée, Evalyn Katz, who edited