WorldWideScience

Sample records for random laser action

  1. Random laser action with coherent feedback via second-harmonic generation

    CERN Document Server

    Qiao, Yanqi; Cai, Zengyan; Chen, Xianfeng

    2016-01-01

    The random laser action with coherent feedback by second-harmonic generation (SHG) was experimentally demonstrated in this paper. Compared with the conventional random laser action based on photoluminescence effect, which needs strong photoresponse in the active medium and has a fixed response waveband due to the inherent energy level structure of the material, this random SHG laser action indicates a possible confinement of the nonlinear signal with ring cavities and widens the response waveband due to the flexible frequency conversion in nonlinear process. The combination of coherent random laser and nonlinear optics will provide us another possible way to break phase-matching limitations, with fiber or feedback-based wavefront shaping method to transmit the emission signal directionally. This work suggests potential applications in band-tunable random laser, phase-matching-free nonlinear optics and even brings in new consideration about random nonlinear optics (RNO).

  2. Random Laser Action in Nd:YAG Crystal Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Azkargorta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the room temperature random stimulated emission at 1.064 μm of a Nd:YAG crystal powder (Neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet in a very simple pump configuration with no assistance from an internal mirror. The laser threshold energy as a function of pump beam area and pump wavelength has been measured, as well as the temporal dynamics of emission pulses. The absolute energy of stimulated emission and the absolute laser slope efficiency have been measured by using a method proposed by the authors. The results show a surprising high efficiency that takes the low Nd3+ ion concentration of the crystal powder into account.

  3. Solid-State Random Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Noginov, Mikhail A

    2005-01-01

    Random lasers are the simplest sources of stimulated emission without cavity, with the feedback provided by scattering in a gain medium. First proposed in the late 60’s, random lasers have grown to a large research field. This book reviews the history and the state of the art of random lasers, provides an outline of the basic models describing their behavior, and describes the recent advances in the field. The major focus of the book is on solid-state random lasers. However, it also briefly describes random lasers based on liquid dyes with scatterers. The chapters of the book are almost independent of each other. So, the scientists or engineers interested in any particular aspect of random lasers can read directly the relevant section. Researchers entering the field of random lasers will find in the book an overview of the field of study. Scientists working in the field can use the book as a reference source.

  4. Human action analysis with randomized trees

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Gang; Liu, Zicheng

    2014-01-01

    This book will provide a comprehensive overview on human action analysis with randomized trees. It will cover both the supervised random trees and the unsupervised random trees. When there are sufficient amount of labeled data available, supervised random trees provides a fast method for space-time interest point matching. When labeled data is minimal as in the case of example-based action search, unsupervised random trees is used to leverage the unlabelled data. We describe how the randomized trees can be used for action classification, action detection, action search, and action prediction.

  5. Optical physics: Clear directions for random lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Diederik S.

    2016-11-01

    Random lasers use disordered structures to produce light, which is usually emitted in many directions. A random laser that can produce a collimated beam offers a wide range of applications, from imaging to security scanning.

  6. Random lasing action in a polydimethylsiloxane wrinkle induced disordered structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Zhenhua; Wu, Leilei; Zhu, Shu; Zheng, Yuanlin; Chen, Xianfeng, E-mail: xfchen@sjtu.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2014-07-14

    This paper presents a chip-scale random lasing action utilizing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wrinkles with random periods as disordered medium. Nanoscale wrinkles with long range disorder structures are formed on the oxidized surface of a PDMS slab and confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Light multiply scattered at each PDMS wrinkle-dye interfaces is optically amplified in the presence of pump gain. The shift of laser emission wavelength when pumping at different regions indicates the randomness of the winkle period. In addition, a relatively low threshold of about 27 μJ/mm{sup 2} is realized, which is comparable with traditional optofluidic dye laser. This is due to the unique sinusoidal Bragg-grating-like random structure. Contrast to conventional microfluidic dye laser that inevitably requires the accurate design and implementation of microcavity to provide optical feedback, the convenience in both fabrication and operation makes PDMS wrinkle based random laser a promising underlying element in lab-on-a-chip systems and integrated microfluidic networks.

  7. Random lasing action in a polydimethylsiloxane wrinkle induced disordered structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhenhua; Wu, Leilei; Zhu, Shu; Zheng, Yuanlin; Chen, Xianfeng

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a chip-scale random lasing action utilizing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wrinkles with random periods as disordered medium. Nanoscale wrinkles with long range disorder structures are formed on the oxidized surface of a PDMS slab and confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Light multiply scattered at each PDMS wrinkle-dye interfaces is optically amplified in the presence of pump gain. The shift of laser emission wavelength when pumping at different regions indicates the randomness of the winkle period. In addition, a relatively low threshold of about 27 μJ/mm2 is realized, which is comparable with traditional optofluidic dye laser. This is due to the unique sinusoidal Bragg-grating-like random structure. Contrast to conventional microfluidic dye laser that inevitably requires the accurate design and implementation of microcavity to provide optical feedback, the convenience in both fabrication and operation makes PDMS wrinkle based random laser a promising underlying element in lab-on-a-chip systems and integrated microfluidic networks.

  8. Spatial Extent of Random Laser Modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, K.L.; Tjerkstra, R.W.; Mosk, Allard; Lagendijk, Aart

    2007-01-01

    We have experimentally studied the distribution of the spatial extent of modes and the crossover from essentially single-mode to distinctly multimode behavior inside a porous gallium phosphide random laser. This system serves as a paragon for random lasers due to its exemplary high index contrast.

  9. The Theory of Random Laser Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xun Ya Jian

    2002-01-01

    Studies of random laser systems are a new direction with promising potential applications and theoretical interest. The research is based on the theories of localization and laser physics. So far, the research shows that there are random lasing modes inside the systems which is quite different from the common laser systems. From the properties of the random lasing modes, they can understand the phenomena observed in the experiments, such as multi-peak and anisotropic spectrum, lasing mode number saturation, mode competition and dynamic processes, etc. To summarize, this dissertation has contributed the following in the study of random laser systems: (1) by comparing the Lamb theory with the Letokhov theory, the general formulas of the threshold length or gain of random laser systems were obtained; (2) they pointed out the vital weakness of previous time-independent methods in random laser research; (3) a new model which includes the FDTD method and the semi-classical laser theory. The solutions of this model ...

  10. Turbulence hierarchy in a random fibre laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Iván R Roa; Lima, Bismarck C; Pincheira, Pablo I R; Brum, Arthur A; Macêdo, Antônio M S; Vasconcelos, Giovani L; de S Menezes, Leonardo; Raposo, Ernesto P; Gomes, Anderson S L; Kashyap, Raman

    2017-05-31

    Turbulence is a challenging feature common to a wide range of complex phenomena. Random fibre lasers are a special class of lasers in which the feedback arises from multiple scattering in a one-dimensional disordered cavity-less medium. Here we report on statistical signatures of turbulence in the distribution of intensity fluctuations in a continuous-wave-pumped erbium-based random fibre laser, with random Bragg grating scatterers. The distribution of intensity fluctuations in an extensive data set exhibits three qualitatively distinct behaviours: a Gaussian regime below threshold, a mixture of two distributions with exponentially decaying tails near the threshold and a mixture of distributions with stretched-exponential tails above threshold. All distributions are well described by a hierarchical stochastic model that incorporates Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence, which includes energy cascade and the intermittence phenomenon. Our findings have implications for explaining the remarkably challenging turbulent behaviour in photonics, using a random fibre laser as the experimental platform.

  11. Action correlations and random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilansky, Uzy; Verdene, Basile [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2003-03-28

    The correlations in the spectra of quantum systems are intimately related to correlations which are of genuine classical origin, and which appear in the spectra of actions of the classical periodic orbits of the corresponding classical systems. We review this duality and the semiclassical theory which brings it about. The conjecture that the quantum spectral statistics are described in terms of random matrix theory, leads to the proposition that the classical two-point correlation function is also given in terms of a universal function. We study in detail the spectrum of actions of the Baker map, and use it to illustrate the steps needed to reveal the classical correlations, their origin and their relation to symbolic dynamics00.

  12. Comparative studies of laser action on ice water and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laser action on ice, water and some selected hydrocarbons such as engine oil, diesel and kerosene is investigated in this study. The aim is to determine the Doppler shift in wavelength (Δ λ) of a He-Ne laser beam when passed through ice water and the hydrocarbons. Using the method earlier adopted by Igboekwe and ...

  13. Short infrared laser pulses block action potentials in neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Alex J.; Tolstykh, Gleb P.; Martens, Stacey L.; Ibey, Bennett L.; Beier, Hope T.

    2017-02-01

    Short infrared laser pulses have many physiological effects on cells including the ability to stimulate action potentials in neurons. Here we show that short infrared laser pulses can also reversibly block action potentials. Primary rat hippocampal neurons were transfected with the Optopatch2 plasmid, which contains both a blue-light activated channel rhodopsin (CheRiff) and a red-light fluorescent membrane voltage reporter (QuasAr2). This optogenetic platform allows robust stimulation and recording of action potential activity in neurons in a non-contact, low noise manner. For all experiments, QuasAr2 was imaged continuously on a wide-field fluorescent microscope using a Krypton laser (647 nm) as the excitation source and an EMCCD camera operating at 1000 Hz to collect emitted fluorescence. A co-aligned Argon laser (488 nm, 5 ms at 10Hz) provided activation light for CheRiff. A 200 mm fiber delivered infrared light locally to the target neuron. Reversible action potential block in neurons was observed following a short infrared laser pulse (0.26-0.96 J/cm2; 1.37-5.01 ms; 1869 nm), with the block persisting for more than 1 s with exposures greater than 0.69 J/cm2. Action potential block was sustained for 30 s with the short infrared laser pulsed at 1-7 Hz. Full recovery of neuronal activity was observed 5-30s post-infrared exposure. These results indicate that optogenetics provides a robust platform for the study of action potential block and that short infrared laser pulses can be used for non-contact, reversible action potential block.

  14. Laser Incident Lessons Learned and Action List

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarotski, Dmitry Anatolievitch [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    On Thursday November 19, 2015, LANL postdoc received an eye injury from a reflected, nonvisible laser beam (Class 4, pulsed, wavelength 800 nanometer). The setup is configured to split the laser output into two work areas in which qualified operators conduct research experiments. During this incident, the laser output beam was being projected to both experimental work areas, although only one experimental area was actively being used. The second laser beam directed to the second work area was blocked by an inappropriate device (Plexiglas, reflective, non-normal incidence) that reflected substantial portion of the beam toward the first setup. In preparation for the measurements, worker stepped on the stepstool and decided to remove the laser goggles to better see the micrometer readings which were difficult to see due to insufficient lighting. Immediately, he noticed a flash of light in his eye. The operator quickly replaced the laser eye-wear and then, using an infrared viewer, located a stray laser beam being reflected from the plexiglas beam block. The operator did not think he had sustained any injury and continued working. Later that day, however, he noticed a blurry spot in the vision of his left eye. He notified his supervisor on Friday morning, November 20, 2015, and was taken by CINT management to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) medical facility for evaluation. SNL Medical did not find any abnormalities, but referred the operator to a local ophthalmologist for further evaluation. Further evaluations by the ophthalmologist on November 21 and November 23 identified a small spot of inflammation near the fovea on the retina in his left eye. The ophthalmologist stated that this spot would most likely heal on its own and that the blurry spot on the operator's vision would go away. A follow-up visit was scheduled. The employee was released back to work without restrictions.

  15. Ultrafast dynamics and laser action of organic semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Vardeny, Zeev Valy

    2009-01-01

    Spurred on by extensive research in recent years, organic semiconductors are now used in an array of areas, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaics, and other optoelectronics. In all of these novel applications, the photoexcitations in organic semiconductors play a vital role. Exploring the early stages of photoexcitations that follow photon absorption, Ultrafast Dynamics and Laser Action of Organic Semiconductors presents the latest research investigations on photoexcitation ultrafast dynamics and laser action in pi-conjugated polymer films, solutions, and microcavities.In the first few chapters, the book examines the interplay of charge (polarons) and neutral (excitons) photoexcitations in pi-conjugated polymers, oligomers, and molecular crystals in the time domain of 100 fs-2 ns. Summarizing the state of the art in lasing, the final chapters introduce the phenomenon of laser action in organics and cover the latest optoelectronic applications that use lasing based on a variety of caviti...

  16. NAFASS in action: How to control randomness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigmatullin, R. R.; Zhang, Wei

    2013-03-01

    In this paper the original method of transformation of one random function to another one is suggested. The problem of transformation of one random function to another one is based on the NAFASS approach suggested previously by one of the authors (RRN) in paper [1]. The problem can be formulated as follows: is it possible to transform one random function to another one (the functional forms of the both functions are not known) during the fixed segment of time t1? The solution of this problem shown in this paper gives a chance to manage with random functions that describe many complex systems, where the adequate model pretending on their functional or analytical description is not known. This transformation based on the successful solution of the Prony's problem gives unique chances to manage with some chemical processes, technological processes and understand better the general behavior of the different complex systems which cannot be managed by the human being. Besides this solution another solution of this problem related to control of detrended random sequences is considered also.

  17. Characterisation of random DFB Raman laser amplifier for WDM transmission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosa, Paweł; Rizzelli, Giuseppe; Tan, Mingming; Harper, Paul; Ania-Castañόn, Juan Diego

    2015-01-01

    We perform a full numerical characterisation of half-open cavity random DFB Raman fibre laser amplifier schemes for WDM transmission in terms of signal power variation, noise and nonlinear impairments...

  18. Measuring milk fat content by random laser emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegão, Luis M. G.; Pagani, Alessandra A. C.; Zílio, Sérgio C.; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Rodrigues, José J.

    2016-10-01

    The luminescence spectra of milk containing rhodamine 6G are shown to exhibit typical signatures of random lasing when excited with 532 nm laser pulses. Experiments carried out on whole and skim forms of two commercial brands of UHT milk, with fat volume concentrations ranging from 0 to 4%, presented lasing threshold values dependent on the fat concentration, suggesting that a random laser technique can be developed to monitor such important parameter.

  19. Self-healing organic-dye-based random lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Benjamin R; Eilers, Hergen

    2015-01-01

    One of the primary difficulties in the implementation of organic-dye-based random lasers is the tendency of organic dyes to irreversibly photodecay. In this letter we report the observation of "reversible" photodegradation in a Rhodamine 6G and ZrO$_2$ nanoparticle doped polyurethane random laser. We find that during degradation the emission broadens, redshifts, and decreases in intensity. After degradation the system is observed to self-heal leading to the emission returning to its pristine intensity, giving a recovery efficiency of 100%. While the peak intensity fully recovers, the process is not strictly "reversible" as the emission after recovery is still found to be broadened and redshifted. The combination of the peak emission fully recovering and the broadening of the emission leads to a remarkable result: the random laser cycled through degradation and recovery has a greater integrated emission intensity than the pristine system.

  20. Estimation of random bending strain using a scanning laser vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, R. N.; Xu, Y.; Bao, W.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented which were obtained from vibration measurements at discrete locations on a randomly excited structure to estimate the power spectral density of bending strain. The technique is intended to be applied using a scanning laser vibrometer to allow a non-contacting measurement of random bending strain over the surface of a structure. The experimental setup is described along with the data analysis procedure. The results presented here indicate that the method is practical and can lead to reliable estimates.

  1. Characterisation of random DFB Raman laser amplifier for WDM transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Paweł; Rizzelli, Giuseppe; Tan, Mingming; Harper, Paul; Ania-Castañón, Juan Diego

    2015-01-01

    We perform a full numerical characterisation of half-open cavity random DFB Raman fibre laser amplifier schemes for WDM transmission in terms of signal power variation, noise and nonlinear impairments, showcasing the excellent potential of this scheme to provide amplification for DWDM transmission with very low gain variation. © 2015 Optical Society of America

  2. Characterisation of random DFB Raman laser amplifier for WDM transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Paweł; Rizzelli, Giuseppe; Tan, Mingming; Harper, Paul; Ania-Castañόn, Juan Diego

    2015-11-02

    We perform a full numerical characterisation of half-open cavity random DFB Raman fibre laser amplifier schemes for WDM transmission in terms of signal power variation, noise and nonlinear impairments, showcasing the excellent potential of this scheme to provide amplification for DWDM transmission with very low gain variation.

  3. Robustness of replica symmetry breaking phenomenology in random laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, Federico; Ignesti, Emilio; Lepri, Stefano; Cavalieri, Stefano

    2016-11-16

    Random lasers are optical sources where light is amplified by stimulated emission along random paths through an amplifying scattering medium. Connections between their physics and the one of quenched disordered nonlinear systems, notably spin glasses, have been recently suggested. Here we report a first experimental study of correlations of spectral fluctuations intensity in a random laser medium where the scatterers displacement significantly changes among consecutive shots. Remarkably, our results reveal that the replica symmetry breaking (RSB) phenomenology is robust with respect to an averaging over different realizations of the disorder. Moreover, besides opening new intriguing questions about the understanding of such a phenomenon, this work aims to clarify the connection between the RSB with the onset of the Lévy regime, i.e. the fluctuations regime that is a peculiar feature of the random lasing under critical conditions. Our results suggest that the former occurs independently of the latter and then the RSB phenomenology is a generic feature linked to the random laser threshold.

  4. Influence of liquid crystalline phases on the tunability of a random laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trull, José; Salud, Josep; Diez-Berart, Sergio; López, David O.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we report the temperature behavior of an optimized disordered photonic system-based liquid crystal by means of heat capacity and refractive index measurements. The scattering system is formed by a porous borosilicate glass random matrix (about 60%) infiltrated with a smectogenic liquid crystal (about 16%) and a small amount of laser dye (0.1%). The rest of the scattering system is about 24% air, giving rise to a high refractive index contrast scattering system. Such a system has the functionality to change the refractive index contrast with temperature due to the liquid crystal temperature behavior. The system, optically pumped by the second harmonic of a Q -switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser working at 532 nm, exhibits random laser action, the threshold of which depends upon the liquid crystalline mesophase. Temperatures of existence of the smectic-B phase correspond to the most optimized random laser. In such a mesophase, the transport mean free path has been determined as about 16 μm in a coherent backscattering experiment.

  5. 'Social Laser': action amplification by stimulated emission of social energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2016-01-13

    The problem of the 'explanation' of recent social explosions, especially in the Middle East, but also in Southern Europe and the USA, has been debated actively in the social and political literature. We can mention the contributions of P. Mason, F. Fukuyama, E. Schmidt, J. Cohen and I. Krastev to this debate. We point out that the diversity of opinions and conclusions is really amazing. At the moment, there is no consistent and commonly acceptable theory of these phenomena. We present a model of social explosions based on a novel approach for the description of social processes, namely the quantum-like approach. Here quantum theory is treated simply as an operational formalism-without any direct relation to physics. We explore the quantum-like laser model to describe the possibility of action amplification by stimulated emission of social energy. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Laser beam propagation through random media

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Larry C

    2005-01-01

    Since publication of the first edition of this text in 1998, there have been several new, important developments in the theory of beam wave propagation through a random medium, which have been incorporated into this second edition. Also new to this edition are models for the scintillation index under moderate-to-strong irradiance fluctuations; models for aperture averaging based on ABCD ray matrices; beam wander and its effects on scintillation; theory of partial coherence of the source; models of rough targets for ladar applications; phase fluctuations; analysis of other beam shapes; plus exp

  7. REVIEW ARTICLE: Towards a random laser with cold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, W.; Mercadier, N.; Michaud, F.; Brivio, D.; Froufe-Pérez, L. S.; Carminati, R.; Eremeev, V.; Goetschy, A.; Skipetrov, S. E.; Kaiser, R.

    2010-02-01

    Atoms can scatter light and they can also amplify it by stimulated emission. From this simple starting point, we examine the possibility of realizing a random laser in a cloud of laser-cooled atoms. The answer is not obvious as both processes (elastic scattering and stimulated emission) seem to exclude one another: pumping atoms to make them behave as an amplifier drastically reduces their scattering cross-section. However, we show that even the simplest atom model allows the efficient combination of gain and scattering. Moreover, the supplementary degrees of freedom that atoms offer allow the use of several gain mechanisms, depending on the pumping scheme. We thus first study these different gain mechanisms and show experimentally that they can induce (standard) lasing. We then present how the constraint of combining scattering and gain can be quantified, which leads to an evaluation of the random laser threshold. The results are promising and we draw some prospects for a practical realization of a random laser with cold atoms.

  8. Laser assisted fabrication of random rough surfaces for optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissonneau, V., E-mail: vincent.brissonneau@im2np.fr [Thales Optronique SA, Avenue Gay-Lussac, 78995 Elancourt (France); Institut Materiaux Microelectronique Nanosciences de Provence, Aix Marseille Universite, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397 Marseille (France); Escoubas, L. [Institut Materiaux Microelectronique Nanosciences de Provence, Aix Marseille Universite, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397 Marseille (France); Flory, F. [Institut Materiaux Microelectronique Nanosciences de Provence, Ecole Centrale Marseille, Marseille (France); Berginc, G. [Thales Optronique SA, Avenue Gay-Lussac, 78995 Elancourt (France); Maire, G.; Giovannini, H. [Institut Fresnel, Aix Marseille Universite, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397 Marseille (France)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Random rough surfaces are photofabricated using an argon ion laser. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Speckle and surface correlation function are linked. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposure beam is modified allowing tuning the correlation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theoretical examples are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental results are compared with theoretical expectation. - Abstract: Optical surface structuring shows great interest for antireflective or scattering properties. Generally, fabricated surface structures are periodical but random surfaces that offer new degrees of freedom and possibilities by the control of their statistical properties. We propose an experimental method to create random rough surfaces on silicon by laser processing followed by etching. A photoresist is spin coated onto a silicon substrate and then exposed to the scattering of a modified laser beam. The beam modification is performed by using a micromirror matrix allowing laser beam shaping. An example of tuning is presented. An image composed of two white circles with a black background is displayed and the theoretical shape of the correlation is calculated. Experimental surfaces are elaborated and the correlation function calculated from height mapping. We finally compared the experimental and theoretical correlation functions.

  9. Shedding light: laser physics and mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, E

    2010-02-01

    Lasers have affected health care in many ways. Clinical applications have been found in a number of medical and surgical specialities. In particular, applications of laser technology in phlebology has made it essential for vein physicians to obtain a fundamental knowledge of laser physics, laser operation and also to be well versed in laser safety procedures. This article reviews recommended text books and current literature to detail the basics of laser physics and its application to venous disease. Laser safety and laser side effects are also discussed.

  10. Organic random lasers in the weak-scattering regime

    CERN Document Server

    Polson, R C; 10.1103/PhysRevB.71.045205

    2005-01-01

    We used the ensemble-averaged power Fourier transform (PFT) of random laser emission spectra over the illuminated area to study random lasers with coherent feedback in four different disordered organic gain media in the weak scattering regime, where the light mean free path, l* is much larger than the emission wavelength. The disordered gain media include a pi -conjugated polymer film, an opal photonic crystal infiltrated with a laser dye (rhodamine 6G; R6G) having optical gain in the visible spectral range, a suspension of titania balls in R6G solution, and biological tissues such as chicken breast infiltrated with R6G. We show the existence of universality among the random resonators in each gain medium that we tested, in which at the same excitation intensity a dominant random cavity is excited in different parts of the sample. We show a second universality when scaling the average PFT of the four different media by l*; we found that the dominant cavity in each disordered gain medium scales with l *. The e...

  11. Random Sequence for Optimal Low-Power Laser Generated Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangi, D.; Virga, A.; Gulino, M. S.

    2017-08-01

    Low-power laser generated ultrasounds are lately gaining importance in the research world, thanks to the possibility of investigating a mechanical component structural integrity through a non-contact and Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) procedure. The ultrasounds are, however, very low in amplitude, making it necessary to use pre-processing and post-processing operations on the signals to detect them. The cross-correlation technique is used in this work, meaning that a random signal must be used as laser input. For this purpose, a highly random and simple-to-create code called T sequence, capable of enhancing the ultrasound detectability, is introduced (not previously available at the state of the art). Several important parameters which characterize the T sequence can influence the process: the number of pulses Npulses , the pulse duration δ and the distance between pulses dpulses . A Finite Element FE model of a 3 mm steel disk has been initially developed to analytically study the longitudinal ultrasound generation mechanism and the obtainable outputs. Later, experimental tests have shown that the T sequence is highly flexible for ultrasound detection purposes, making it optimal to use high Npulses and δ but low dpulses . In the end, apart from describing all phenomena that arise in the low-power laser generation process, the results of this study are also important for setting up an effective NDT procedure using this technology.

  12. Selection of statistical indices in the biospeckle laser analysis regarding filtering actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Fernando Pujaico; Braga, Roberto Alves

    2017-07-01

    This paper tests some traditional methods to analyze dynamic laser speckle regarding their filtering actions. Additionally, we propose two new biospeckle indices based on the binary entropy, including one that avoids filtering the original signals. The work was based on theoretical developments and was validated using a drying paint monitoring test. We proved that the dynamic laser speckle, or biospeckle, is compromised by filtering actions and that it is possible to elect an index that does not provide filtering.

  13. Mechanisms of graphene exfoliation under the action of femtosecond laser radiation in liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorkov, K. S.; Kochuev, D. A.; Ilin, V. A.; Chkalov, R. V.; Prokoshev, V. G.; Arakelian, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    The processes of graphene structures formation under the action of the femtosecond laser radiation on carbon samples in liquid nitrogen are discussed. Mechanisms of graphene sheets exfoliation are proposed depending on the power density of the laser radiation: in the first case, the separation occurs due to the volumetric expansion during heating the region occupied by nitrogen molecules; at a laser radiation energy exceeding the ablation threshold, the surface of graphite begins to breakdown in the region of the action, followed by separation into graphene layers.

  14. The rising power of random distributed feedback fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pu; Ye, Jun; Xu, Jiangming; Zhang, Hanwei; Huang, Long; Wu, Jian; Xiao, Hu; Leng, Jinyong

    2018-01-01

    Random distributed feedback fiber lasers (RDFFL) are now attracting more and more attentions for their unique cavity-free, mode-free and structural simplicity features and broadband application potentials in many fields, such as long distance sensing, speck free imaging, nonlinear frequency conversion as well as new pump source. In this talk, we will review the recent research progresses on high power RDFFLs. We have achieved (1) More than 400 W RDFFL with nearly Gaussian beam profile based on crucial employment of fiber mismatching architecture. (2) High power RDFFL with specialized optical property that include: high power narrow-band RDFFL, hundred-watt level linearly-polarized RDFFL, hundred-watt level high-order RDFFL. (3) Power enhancements of RDFFL to record kilowatt level are demonstrated with the aid of fiber master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) with different pump schemes.

  15. Blinding Techniques in Randomized Controlled Trials of Laser Therapy: An Overview and Possible Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Relf

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-level laser therapy has evidence accumulating about its effectiveness in a variety of medical conditions. We reviewed 51 double blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs of laser treatment. Analysis revealed 58% of trials showed benefit of laser over placebo. However, less than 5% of the trials had addressed beam disguise or allocation concealment in the laser machines used. Many of the trials used blinding methods that rely on staff cooperation and are therefore open to interference or bias. This indicates significant deficiencies in laser trial methodology. We report the development and preliminary testing of a novel laser machine that can blind both patient and operator to treatment allocation without staff participation. The new laser machine combines sealed preset and non-bypassable randomization codes, decoy lights and sound, and a conical perspex tip to overcome laser diode glow detection.

  16. Theory of fast nondeterministic physical random-bit generation with chaotic lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harayama, Takahisa; Sunada, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Muramatsu, Jun; Arai, Ken-ichi; Uchida, Atsushi; Davis, Peter

    2012-04-01

    We theoretically show that completely stochastic fast physical random bit generation at a rate of more than one gigabit per second can be realized by using lasers with optical delayed feedback which creates high-dimensional chaos of laser light outputs. The theory is based on the mixing property of chaos, which transduces microscopic quantum noise of spontaneous emission in lasers into random transitions between discrete macroscopic states.

  17. Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi Jie; Yan, Changling; Yu, Nanfang; Unterhinninghofen, Julia; Wiersig, Jan; Pflügl, Christian; Diehl, Laurent; Edamura, Tadataka; Yamanishi, Masamichi; Kan, Hirofumi; Capasso, Federico

    2010-01-01

    Optical microcavities can be designed to take advantage of total internal reflection, which results in resonators supporting whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) with a high-quality factor (Q factor). One of the crucial problems of these devices for practical applications such as designing microcavity lasers, however, is that their emission is nondirectional due to their radial symmetry, in addition to their inefficient power output coupling. Here we report the design of elliptical resonators with a wavelength-size notch at the boundary, which support in-plane highly unidirectional laser emission from WGMs. The notch acts as a small scatterer such that the Q factor of the WGMs is still very high. Using midinfrared (λ ∼ 10 μm) injection quantum cascade lasers as a model system, an in-plane beam divergence as small as 6 deg with a peak optical power of ∼5 mW at room temperature has been demonstrated. The beam divergence is insensitive to the pumping current and to the notch geometry, demonstrating the robustness of this resonator design. The latter is scalable to the visible and the near infrared, thus opening the door to very low-threshold, highly unidirectional microcavity diode lasers. PMID:21149678

  18. Low-level laser therapy for temporomandibular disorders (tmd) treatment: a systematic review of randomized trials

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Priscila; Melo, Nicole; Silva, Pâmela; Montenegro, Robinsom; Bonan, Paulo; Batista, André

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Conducting a systematic review of randomized clinical trials focusing on the efficacy of LLLT on pain control in patients with TMD, diagnosed by the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Search was performed at PubMed/MEDLINE database with the terms: (1) “Laser AND temporomandibular disorders”; (2) “Laser AND temporomandibular disorders AND RDC/TMD”; (3) “Low-level laser therapy AND temporomandibular disorders”; (4) “Low-level laser...

  19. Comparison of two picosecond lasers to a nanosecond laser for treating tattoos: a prospective randomized study on 49 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorgeou, A; Perrillat, Y; Gral, N; Lagrange, S; Lacour, J-P; Passeron, T

    2017-07-31

    Q-switched nanosecond lasers demonstrated their efficacy in treating most types of tattoos, but complete disappearance is not always achieved even after performing numerous laser sessions. Picosecond lasers are supposed to be more efficient in clearing tattoos than nanosecond lasers, but prospective comparative data remain limited. To compare on different types of tattoos the efficacy of a nanosecond laser with two types of picosecond lasers. We conducted a prospective randomized study performed from December 2014 to June 2016 on adult patients with all types of tattoos. The tattoos were divided into two halves of equal size. After randomization, half of the tattoo was treated with a picosecond laser and the other half with a nanosecond laser. The evaluation was performed on standardized pictures performed before treatment and 2 months after the last session, by two physicians, not involved in the treatment, blinded on the type of treatments received. The main end point was a clearance above 75% of the tattoos. A total of 49 patients were included. Professional tattoos represented 85.7%, permanent make-up 8.2% and non-professional tattoo 6.1%. The majority were black or blue and 10.2% were polychromatic. No patient was lost during follow-up. A reduction of 75% or more of the colour intensity was obtained for 33% of the tattoos treated with the picosecond lasers compared to 14% with the nanosecond laser (P = 0.008). An improvement superior to 75% was obtained in 34% monochromic black or blue tattoos with the picosecond lasers compared to 9% for the nanosecond laser. Only one of the five polychromic tattoos achieved more than 75% of improvement with the two types of laser. Our results show a statistically significant superiority of the picosecond lasers compared to the nanosecond laser for tattoo clearance. However, they do not show better efficacy for polychromic tattoos and the difference in terms of side-effects was also minimal with a tendency of picosecond

  20. Graphene based widely-tunable and singly-polarized pulse generation with random fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, B. C.; Rao, Y. J.; Wang, Z. N.; Wu, Y.; Zhou, J. H.; Wu, H.; Fan, M. Q.; Cao, X. L.; Zhang, W. L.; Chen, Y. F.; Li, Y. R.; Churkin, D.; Turitsyn, S.; Wong, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Pulse generation often requires a stabilized cavity and its corresponding mode structure for initial phase-locking. Contrastingly, modeless cavity-free random lasers provide new possibilities for high quantum efficiency lasing that could potentially be widely tunable spectrally and temporally. Pulse generation in random lasers, however, has remained elusive since the discovery of modeless gain lasing. Here we report coherent pulse generation with modeless random lasers based on the unique polarization selectivity and broadband saturable absorption of monolayer graphene. Simultaneous temporal compression of cavity-free pulses are observed with such a polarization modulation, along with a broadly-tunable pulsewidth across two orders of magnitude down to 900 ps, a broadly-tunable repetition rate across three orders of magnitude up to 3 MHz, and a singly-polarized pulse train at 41 dB extinction ratio, about an order of magnitude larger than conventional pulsed fiber lasers. Moreover, our graphene-based pulse formation also demonstrates robust pulse-to-pulse stability and wide-wavelength operation due to the cavity-less feature. Such a graphene-based architecture not only provides a tunable pulsed random laser for fiber-optic sensing, speckle-free imaging, and laser-material processing, but also a new way for the non-random CW fiber lasers to generate widely tunable and singly-polarized pulses.

  1. Double threshold behavior in a resonance-controlled ZnO random laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Niyuki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We observed unusual lasing characteristics, such as double thresholds and blue-shift of lasing peak, in a resonance-controlled ZnO random laser. From the analysis of lasing threshold carrier density, we found that the lasing at 1st and 2nd thresholds possibly arises from different mechanisms; the lasing at 1st threshold involves exciton recombination, whereas the lasing at 2nd threshold is caused by electron-hole plasma recombination, which is the typical origin of conventional random lasers. These phenomena are very similar to the transition from polariton lasing to photon lasing observed in a well-defined cavity laser.

  2. Laser acupuncture in children with headache: a double-blind, randomized, bicenter, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschling, Sven; Meyer, Sascha; Gribova, Inessa; Distler, Ludwig; Berrang, Jens; Gortner, Ludwig; Graf, Norbert; Shamdeen, M Ghiath

    2008-07-15

    To investigate whether laser acupuncture is efficacious in children with headache and if active laser treatment is superior to placebo laser treatment in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of low level laser acupuncture in 43 children (mean age (SD) 12.3 (+/-2.6) years) with headache (either migraine (22 patients) or tension type headache (21 patients)). Patients were randomized to receive a course of 4 treatments over 4 weeks with either active or placebo laser. The treatment was highly individualised based on criteria of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The primary outcome measure was a difference in numbers of headache days between baseline and the 4 months after randomization. Secondary outcome measures included a change in headache severity using a 10 cm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain and a change in monthly hours with headache. Measurements were taken during 4 weeks before randomization (baseline), at weeks 1-4, 5-8, 9-12 and 13-16 from baseline. The mean number of headaches per month decreased significantly by 6.4 days in the treated group (pmeasures headache severity and monthly hours with headache decreased as well significantly at all time points compared to baseline (pchildren with headache with active laser treatment being clearly more effective than placebo laser treatment.

  3. High-power random distributed feedback fiber laser: From science to application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xueyuan [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Naval Academy of Armament, Beijing 100161 (China); Zhang, Hanwei; Xiao, Hu; Ma, Pengfei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Liu, Zejin [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2016-10-15

    A fiber laser based on random distributed feedback has attracted increasing attention in recent years, as it has become an important photonic device and has found wide applications in fiber communications or sensing. In this article, recent advances in high-power random distributed feedback fiber laser are reviewed, including the theoretical analyses, experimental approaches, discussion on the practical applications and outlook. It is found that a random distributed feedback fiber laser can not only act as an information photonics device, but also has the feasibility for high-efficiency/high-power generation, which makes it competitive with conventional high-power laser sources. In addition, high-power random distributed feedback fiber laser has been successfully applied for midinfrared lasing, frequency doubling to the visible and high-quality imaging. It is believed that the high-power random distributed feedback fiber laser could become a promising light source with simple and economic configurations. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Testing relativity again, laser, laser, laser, laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einstein, A.

    2015-01-01

    laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser,

  5. Delay line length selection in generating fast random numbers with a chaotic laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Yuncai; Xue, Lugang; Hou, Jiayin; Zhang, Beibei; Wang, Anbang; Zhang, Mingjiang

    2012-04-10

    The chaotic light signals generated by an external cavity semiconductor laser have been experimentally demonstrated to extract fast random numbers. However, the photon round-trip time in the external cavity can cause the occurrence of the periodicity in random sequences. To overcome it, the exclusive-or operation on corresponding random bits in samples of the chaotic signal and its time-delay signal from a chaotic laser is required. In this scheme, the proper selection of delay length is a key issue. By doing a large number of experiments and theoretically analyzing the interplay between the Runs test and the threshold value of the autocorrelation function, we find when the corresponding delay time of autocorrelation trace with the correlation coefficient of less than 0.007 is considered as the delay time between the chaotic signal and its time-delay signal, streams of random numbers can be generated with verified randomness.

  6. Random laser from engineered nanostructures obtained by surface tension driven lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Ghofraniha, N; Di Maria, F; Barbarella, G; Gigli, G; Conti, C

    2013-01-01

    The random laser emission from the functionalized thienyl-S,S-dioxide quinquethiophene (T5OCx) in confined patterns with different shapes is demonstrated. Functional patterning of the light emitter organic material in well defined features is obtained by spontaneous molecular self-assembly guided by surface tension driven (STD) lithography. Such controlled supramolecular nano-aggregates act as scattering centers allowing the fabrication of one-component organic lasers with no external resonator and with desired shape and efficiency. Atomic force microscopy shows that different geometric pattern with different supramolecular organization obtained by the lithographic process tailors the coherent emission properties by controlling the distribution and the size of the random scatterers.

  7. Random bit generation using an optically injected semiconductor laser in chaos with oversampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Zhou; Chan, Sze-Chun

    2012-06-01

    Random bit generation is experimentally demonstrated using a semiconductor laser driven into chaos by optical injection. The laser is not subject to any feedback so that the chaotic waveform possesses very little autocorrelation. Random bit generation is achieved at a sampling rate of 10 GHz even when only a fractional bandwidth of 1.5 GHz within a much broader chaotic bandwidth is digitized. By retaining only 3 least significant bits per sample, an output bit rate of 30 Gbps is attained. The approach requires no complicated postprocessing and has no stringent requirement on the electronics bandwidth.

  8. Action observation training for functional activities after stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hee; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of action observation training and motor imagery training on recovery from chronic stroke. Thirty patients who were more than six months post stroke participated in this study and were randomly allocated to three groups. The action observation training group practiced additional action observation training for five 30-minute sessions over a four-week period. The motor imagery training group practiced additional motor imagery training for five 30-minute sessions over a four-week period. The following clinical measures were used for assessment of dynamic balance and gait abilities: Timed Up and Go Test, Functional Reaching Test, Walking Ability Questionnaire, and Functional Ambulation Category. Spatiotemporal gait parameters were also collected using a GAITRite system. Compared with the physical training group, the action observation training group showed significant improvement in the Timed Up and Go test, gait speed, cadence, and single limb support of the affected side. No significant differences in any of the outcome measures were observed between the action observation training group and the motor imagery training group. Action observation training and motor imagery training results in improvement of dynamic balance and gait ability. These results suggest the feasibility and suitability of action observation training for patients with chronic stroke.

  9. Experimental evidence of replica symmetry breaking in random lasers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghofraniha, N; Viola, I; Di Maria, F; Barbarella, G; Gigli, G; Leuzzi, L; Conti, C

    2015-01-01

    Spin-glass theory is one of the leading paradigms of complex physics and describes condensed matter, neural networks and biological systems, ultracold atoms, random photonics and many other research fields...

  10. Crystal growth, optical spectroscopy and laser action of Tm3+-doped monoclinic magnesium tungstate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lizhen; Lin, Haifeng; Zhang, Ge; Mateos, Xavier; Serres, Josep Maria; Aguiló, Magdalena; Díaz, Francesc; Griebner, Uwe; Petrov, Valentin; Wang, Yicheng; Loiko, Pavel; Vilejshikova, Elena; Yumashev, Konstantin; Lin, Zhoubin; Chen, Weidong

    2017-02-20

    We report on the crystal growth, spectroscopic investigation and laser performance of Tm3+-doped monoclinic magnesium tungstate (Tm:MgWO4), for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. A high-quality crystal has been grown by the top seeded solution growth method. The relevant spectroscopic properties are characterized in terms of absorption, luminescence and Raman spectroscopy. Judd-Ofelt (J-O) analysis is performed to evaluate the spontaneous emission probabilities and the radiative lifetimes. The absorption, stimulated-emission and gain cross-section spectra are determined for the principal light polarizations. The first laser action in the 2 μm spectral range is demonstrated in the regime of continuous-wave operation with a maximum output power of 775 mW and a slope efficiency of 39%.

  11. A review of the mechanism of action of lasers and photodynamic therapy for onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Anil Kumar; Keyal, Uma; Wang, Xiuli; Gellén, Emese

    2017-02-01

    Onychomycosis is one of the most common diseases in the field of dermatology. It refers to the fungal infection of the nail plate or nail bed with high incidence in the general population. The available treatment options for onychomycosis have limited use due to side effects, drug interactions, and contraindications, which necessitates the application of an alternative treatment for onychomycosis. In the recent years, lasers and photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been recognized as alternative treatment options. Most of the previous studies have found them to be safe and effective treatment modalities in this indication; however, the results varied greatly and the in vitro and in vivo outcomes are contradictory. In the present review, studies related to the mechanism of action of lasers and PDT for the treatment of onychomycosis will be discussed, with a focus on to find explanation to the contradictory results.

  12. Helium-neon laser in viability of random skin flap in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfildi, Carlos E; Liebano, Richard E; Hochman, Bernardo S; Ferreira, Lydia M

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of helium-neon (He-Ne) laser random skin flap viability in rats. Experimentally controlled randomized study. Forty-eight Wistar-EPM rats were used, weighed, and divided into 4 groups with 12 rats each. The random skin flap was performed measuring 10 x 4 cm, with a plastic sheet interposed between the flap and the donor site. The Group 1 (control) underwent sham irradiation with He-Ne laser. The Group 2 was submitted to laser irradiation, using the punctual contact technique on the skin flap surface. The Group 3 was submitted to laser irradiation surrounding the skin flap, and the Group 4 was submitted to laser irradiation both on the skin flap surface and around it. The experimental groups were submitted to He-Ne laser irradiation with 3 J/cm(2) energy density immediately after the surgery and for the four subsequent days. The percentage of necrotic area of the four groups was calculated at the 7th post-operative day, through a paper-template method. Group 1 reached an average necrotic area of 48.86%; Group 2, 38.67%; Group 3, 35.34%; and Group 4, 22.61%. After the statistic analysis, results showed that all experimental groups reached statistically significant values when compared to the control group, and Group 4 was the best one, when compared to all groups of this study (P<0.001). The He-Ne laser irradiation was efficient to increase random skin flap viability in rats. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Photochemical mechanisms of biological action of low-intensity laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanov, Gennady I.; Poltanov, Evgeny A.

    2004-08-01

    Low-intensity laser irradiation (LILI) is effectively used in clinical practice but the mechanisms of its stimulating action are still far from being understood completely and considered in the scientific literature only hypothetically. The main effects of LILI proved both in clinics and in experiments are bactericidal effect, vasodilatation, improved microcirculation, formation and growth of new microvessels, acceleration of wound healing, relieving of pain syndrome. We put forward a free radical conception underlying these effects. In this paper the experimental evidences of this conception is considered.

  14. REVIEW ARTICLE: Random lasers based on organic epitaxial nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quochi, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    We present a review on random lasing in organic nanofibers made of oligophenyl nanocrystals grown by molecular epitaxy on polar substrates. The nanofibers have sub-wavelength cross-sectional dimensions and can extend in length up to the millimeter scale. We report on random lasing properties of nanofibers, under subpicosecond photopumping, both in the coherent and incoherent regimes. With the aid of both optical and morphological studies on individual fibers, we get insight into one-dimensional coherent feedback taking place along the nanofibers' axes. Model calculations of light propagation in disordered media allow us to give a semiquantitative description of one-dimensional coherent random lasing near the lasing threshold. We also report on amplified simulated emission in individual nanofibers and demonstrate that nanoscale linear optical amplifiers can be obtained by molecular self-assembly at surfaces. Photophysical studies of nanofibers resorting to subpicosecond luminescence and pump-probe spectroscopy give us valuable information on temperature-dependent, excited-state nonlinear processes, such as exciton-exciton annihilation and photoinduced absorption. Excited-state effects strongly influence lasing thresholds under quasi-continuous-wave photoexcitation conditions, as demonstrated in photoexcitation experiments performed with nanosecond pulses. Last, we briefly discuss the potential of organic epitaxial nanofibers featuring low-threshold random lasing for photonic sensing applications.

  15. Laser action due to Ar II and Ne II ions pumped by an optical breakdown produced by a CO sub 2 laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollonov, V.V.; Derzhavin, S.I.; Noraev, D.A.; Sirotkin, A.A. (Institut Obshchei Fiziki, Moscow (USSR))

    1990-09-01

    The paper reports laser action in Ar II at wavelengths of 454.5 and 427.8 nm and in Ne II at 332.4 and 334.5 nm under pumping by X-rays emitted from an optical-breakdown plasma produced by a CO2 laser. Alternative mechanisms of active-medium formation under optical breakdown are discussed. 7 refs.

  16. Analysis of the structure of random packings of powder particles in laser additive technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under consideration are the peculiarities of the computer simulation of random packings of the particles involved in the laser additive technologies of selective laser melting and sintering of powders. The results of definition of random packings of monodisperse solid spheres are presented. Numerical analysis and structural investigations of their morphology are carried out. The peculiar character of the theoretical and computer models used for the analysis of particle packings in real powder media is understood. The technique of ray tracing is proposed for the description of laser radiation absorption and scattering in the layer of the stainless steel powder with the structure of the loose packing of mono-size spherical particles

  17. Fractional Nonablative 1540 nm Laser Resurfacing for Thermal Burn Scars: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, M.; Moreau, K.E.R.; Beyer, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective: Burn scars cause permanent and disfiguring problems for many patients and limited treatments are available. Nonablative fractional lasers induce a wound healing response, which may lead to remodeling of burn sear texture. This randomized trial evaluates efficacy...... and adverse effects of 1540 nm fractional laser versus untreated control for burn scars. Materials and Methods: Seventeen adult patients with burn scars of 1 year or older and Fitzpatrick skin types I-III were included in the study. Side-by-side test areas were randomized to (i) three monthly 1540 nm.......0015; 12 weeks: 4 (2-5), P = 0.0007). Patients were satisfied with treatments (week 12: 7 (4-8.5)) and 8/17 patients evaluated burn scars to be moderately or significantly improved. Skin redness increased transiently from laser treatments. No significant differences were found in skin pigmentation...

  18. Efficacy and safety of femtosecond laser-assisted corneal endothelial keratoplasty: a randomized multicenter clinical trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Y.Y.; Schouten, J.S.A.G.; Tahzib, N.G.; Wijdh, R.J.; Pels, E.; Cleynenbreugel, H. van; Eggink, C.A.; Rijneveld, W.J.; Nuijts, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of femtosecond laser-assisted endothelial keratoplasty (FLEK) versus penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in patients with corneal endothelial disease. METHODS: A randomized multicenter clinical trial of 80 eyes of 80 patients with corneal endothelial disease

  19. Efficacy and Safety of Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Corneal Endothelial Keratoplasty : A Randomized Multicenter Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Yanny Y. Y.; Schouten, Jan S. A. G.; Tahzib, Nayyirih G.; Wijdh, Robert-Jan; Pels, Elisabeth; van Cleynenbreugel, Hugo; Eggink, Catharina A.; Rijneveld, Wilhelmina J.; Nuijts, Rudy M. M. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of femtosecond laser-assisted endothelial keratoplasty (FLEK) versus penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in patients with corneal endothelial disease. Methods. A randomized multicenter clinical trial of 80 eyes of 80 patients with corneal endothelial disease

  20. Development of Novel Composite and Random Materials for Nonlinear Optics and Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noginov, Mikhail

    2002-01-01

    A qualitative model explaining sharp spectral peaks in emission of solid-state random laser materials with broad-band gain is proposed. The suggested mechanism of coherent emission relies on synchronization of phases in an ensemble of emitting centers, via time delays provided by a network of random scatterers, and amplification of spontaneous emission that supports the spontaneously organized coherent state. Laser-like emission from powders of solid-state luminophosphors, characterized by dramatic narrowing of the emission spectrum and shortening of emission pulses above the threshold, was first observed by Markushev et al. and further studied by a number of research groups. In particular, it has been shown that when the pumping energy significantly exceeds the threshold, one or several narrow emission lines can be observed in broad-band gain media with scatterers, such as films of ZnO nanoparticles, films of pi-conjugated polymers or infiltrated opals. The experimental features, commonly observed in various solid-state random laser materials characterized by different particle sizes, different values of the photon mean free path l*, different indexes of refraction, etc.. can be described as follows. (Liquid dye random lasers are not discussed here.)

  1. A Randomized Trial of SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing after Simulation to Promote Educational Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghera, Amish; Emery, Matt; Bounds, Richard; Bush, Colleen; Stansfield, R Brent; Gillett, Brian; Santen, Sally A

    2018-01-01

    Goal setting is used in education to promote learning and performance. Debriefing after clinical scenario-based simulation is a well-established practice that provides learners a defined structure to review and improve performance. Our objective was to integrate formal learning goal generation, using the SMART framework (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time-bound), into standard debriefing processes (i.e., "SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing") and subsequently measure the impact on the development of learning goals and execution of educational actions. This was a prospective multicenter randomized controlled study of 80 emergency medicine residents at three academic hospitals comparing the effectiveness of SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing to a standard debriefing. Residents were block randomized on a rolling basis following a simulation case. SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing included five minutes of formal instruction on the development of SMART learning goals during the summary/application phase of the debrief. Outcome measures included the number of recalled learning goals, self-reported executed educational actions, and quality of each learning goal and educational action after a two-week follow-up period. The mean number of reported learning goals was similar in the standard debriefing group (mean 2.05 goals, SD 1.13, n =37 residents), and in the SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing group (mean 1.93, SD 0.96, n =43), with no difference in learning goal quality. Residents receiving SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing completed more educational actions on average (Control group actions completed 0.97 (SD 0.87), SMART debrief group 1.44 (SD 1.03) p =0.03). The number and quality of learning goals reported by residents was not improved as a result of SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing. Residents did, however, execute more educational actions, which is consistent with the overarching intent of any educational intervention.

  2. Tuning the Quantum Efficiency of Random Lasers - Intrinsic Stokes-Shift and Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubatsch, Andreas; Frank, Regine

    2015-11-01

    We report the theoretical analysis for tuning the quantum efficiency of solid state random lasers. Vollhardt-Wölfle theory of photonic transport in disordered non-conserving and open random media, is coupled to lasing dynamics and solved positionally dependent. The interplay of non-linearity and homogeneous non-radiative frequency conversion by means of a Stokes-shift leads to a reduction of the quantum efficiency of the random laser. At the threshold a strong decrease of the spot-size in the stationary state is found due to the increase of non-radiative losses. The coherently emitted photon number per unit of modal surface is also strongly reduced. This result allows for the conclusion that Stokes-shifts are not sufficient to explain confined and extended mode regimes.

  3. Mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped by an amplified random fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yaping; Shen, Meili; Wang, Peng; Li, Xiao; Xu, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the concept of random fiber lasers has attracted a great deal of attention for its feature to generate incoherent light without a traditional laser resonator, which is free of mode competition and insure the stationary narrow-band continuous modeless spectrum. In this Letter, we reported the first, to the best of our knowledge, optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by an amplified 1070 nm random fiber laser (RFL), in order to generate stationary mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser. The experiment realized a watt-level laser output in the mid-IR range and operated relatively stable. The use of the RFL seed source allowed us to take advantage of its respective stable time-domain characteristics. The beam profile, spectrum and time-domain properties of the signal light were measured to analyze the process of frequency down-conversion process under this new pumping condition. The results suggested that the near-infrared (near-IR) signal light `inherited' good beam performances from the pump light. Those would be benefit for further develop about optical parametric process based on different pumping circumstances.

  4. Common-cavity ytterbium/Raman random distributed feedback fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han; Wang, Zinan; He, Qiheng; Sun, Wei; Rao, Yunjiang

    2017-06-01

    In this letter, a common-cavity random distributed feedback fiber laser which can generate both 1064 nm ytterbium-doped random lasing and 1115 nm ytterbium-Raman random lasing is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for the first time. The common cavity is based on the combination of the double-cladding ytterbium-doped fiber and the standard single mode fiber (SMF); a 1064 nm high-reflectivity fiber Bragg grating and the fiber flat-end are connected to the signal port of the pump combiner as the point reflectors. The generated 1064 nm random lasing can serve as the Raman pump in the SMF, thus 1115 nm random lasing could be stimulated with the hybrid ytterbium-Raman gain. The feedback for 1115 nm random lasing is the combination of flat-end fiber and random Rayleigh feedback. By controlling the value of flat-end fiber’s reflectivity to 0.002, stable 1.91 W of 1064 nm ytterbium-doped random lasing and 3.72 W of 1115 nm ytterbium-Raman random lasing are generated successively. This work could provide a simple and cost-effective way to generate high-power random lasing.

  5. Two-dimensional coherent random laser in photonic crystal fiber with dye-doped nematic liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yusuke; Shao-Chieh, Chen; Kajikawa, Kotaro

    2017-11-10

    A random laser of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with holes filled with laser dye-doped nematic liquid crystal (NLC) is reported. When the excitation polarization was along the PCF axis, the measured laser threshold was 80  μJ/mm(2) per pulse, which is much lower than the previously reported random laser of PCF filled with laser dye-doped organic solvent. This low threshold is due to the high refractive index of the NLC, which produces a greater scattering efficiency. In contrast, when the excitation polarization is perpendicular to the PCF axis, the threshold was much higher or the laser oscillation was absent. This is because of the lower refractive index of the NLC for the perpendicular polarization. The laser oscillation was absent in the isotropic phase because of a low fluorescence efficiency at high temperatures.

  6. High-power ultralong-wavelength Tm-doped silica fiber laser cladding-pumped with a random distributed feedback fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoxi; Du, Xueyuan; Wang, Xiong; Zhou, Pu; Zhang, Hanwei; Wang, Xiaolin; Liu, Zejin

    2016-07-15

    We demonstrated a high-power ultralong-wavelength Tm-doped silica fiber laser operating at 2153 nm with the output power exceeding 18 W and the slope efficiency of 25.5%. A random distributed feedback fiber laser with the center wavelength of 1173 nm was employed as pump source of Tm-doped fiber laser for the first time. No amplified spontaneous emissions or parasitic oscillations were observed when the maximum output power reached, which indicates that employing 1173 nm random distributed feedback fiber laser as pump laser is a feasible and promising scheme to achieve high-power emission of long-wavelength Tm-doped fiber laser. The output power of this Tm-doped fiber laser could be further improved by optimizing the length of active fiber, reflectivity of FBGs, increasing optical efficiency of pump laser and using better temperature management. We also compared the operation of 2153 nm Tm-doped fiber lasers pumped with 793 nm laser diodes, and the maximum output powers were limited to ~2 W by strong amplified spontaneous emission and parasitic oscillation in the range of 1900-2000 nm.

  7. Hypospadias repair using laser tissue soldering (LTS): preliminary results of a prospective randomized study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Andrew J.; Cooper, Christopher S.; Canning, Douglas A.; Snyder, Howard M., III; Zderic, Stephen A.

    1998-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate laser tissue soldering using an 808 nm diode laser and wavelength- matched human albumin solder for urethral surgery in children. Methods: Currently, 30 boys, ages 3 months to 8 years were randomized to standard suturing (n equals 22) or 'sutureless' laser hypospadias repair (n equals 18). Laser soldering was performed with a human albumin solder doped with indocyanine green dye (2.5 mg/ml) using a laser power output of 0.5 W, pulse duration of 0.5 sec, and interval of 0.1 sec. Power density was approximately 16 W/cm2. In the laser group, sutures were used for tissue alignment only. At the time of surgery, neourethral and penile lengths, operative time for urethral repair, and number of sutures/throws were measured. Postoperatively, patients were examined for complications of wound healing, stricture, or fistula formation. Results: Mean age, severity of urethral defect, type of repair, and neourethra length were equivalent between the two groups. Operative time was significantly faster for laser soldering in both simple (1.6 plus or minus 0.21 min, p less than 0.001) and complex (5.4 plus or minus 0.28 min, p less than 0.0001) hypospadias repairs compared to controls (10.6 plus or minus 1.4 min and 27.8 plus or minus 2.9 min, respectively). The mean number of sutures used in the laser group for simple and complex repairs (3.3 plus or minus 0.3 and 8.1 plus or minus 0.64, respectively) were significantly (p less than 0.0001) less than for controls (8.2 plus or minus 0.84 and 20 plus or minus 2.3, respectively). Followup was between 3 months and 14 months. The overall complication rate in the laser group (11%) was lower than the controls (23%). However, statistical significance (p less than 0.05) was achieved only for the subgroup of patients undergoing simple repairs (LTS, 100% success versus suturing, 69% success). Conclusions: These preliminary results indicate that laser tissue soldering for hypospadias repair

  8. High-power ultralong-wavelength Tm-doped silica fiber laser cladding-pumped with a random distributed feedback fiber laser

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxi Jin; Xueyuan Du; Xiong Wang; Pu Zhou; Hanwei Zhang; Xiaolin Wang; Zejin Liu

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated a high-power ultralong-wavelength Tm-doped silica fiber laser operating at 2153?nm with the output power exceeding 18?W and the slope efficiency of 25.5%. A random distributed feedback fiber laser with the center wavelength of 1173?nm was employed as pump source of Tm-doped fiber laser for the first time. No amplified spontaneous emissions or parasitic oscillations were observed when the maximum output power reached, which indicates that employing 1173?nm random distributed fe...

  9. Time-resolved dynamics of granular matter by random laser emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folli, Viola; Ghofraniha, Neda; Puglisi, Andrea; Leuzzi, Luca; Conti, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Because of the huge commercial importance of granular systems, the second-most used material in industry after water, intersecting the industry in multiple trades, like pharmacy and agriculture, fundamental research on grain-like materials has received an increasing amount of attention in the last decades. In photonics, the applications of granular materials have been only marginally investigated. We report the first phase-diagram of a granular as obtained by laser emission. The dynamics of vertically-oscillated granular in a liquid solution in a three-dimensional container is investigated by employing its random laser emission. The granular motion is function of the frequency and amplitude of the mechanical solicitation, we show how the laser emission allows to distinguish two phases in the granular and analyze its spectral distribution. This constitutes a fundamental step in the field of granulars and gives a clear evidence of the possible control on light-matter interaction achievable in grain-like system.

  10. Pain Reduction After Laser Acupuncture Treatment in Geriatric Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi R Helianthi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to compare the effectiveness of active laser acupuncture with placebo on reducing pain intensity and improving functional outcome in geriatric patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA. Methods: a double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in geriatrics with knee OA at Medical Acupuncture Outpatient Clinic, Integrated Geriatric Outpatient Clinic, Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, during May to October 2015. Sixty two patients with knee OA  were randomly assigned into two groups: active laser acupuncture group or placebo laser acupuncture group. Interventions were carried out using a gallium aluminum arsenide laser device at the ST35 Dubi, ST36 Zusanli, SP9 Yinlingquan, GB34 Yanglingquan and EX - LE - 4 Neixiyan acupuncture points on the affected knee for ten sessions of treatment, i.e. twice a week. Patients were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS and Lequesne index at baseline, after four sessions, after nine sessions and at 2 weeks after the treatment had been stopped. Results: the VAS scores were significantly improved in the active laser acupuncture group compared to the placebo group. The evaluation of VAS scores was carried out after four treatment sessions (mean difference: 0.39; p<0.001, after nine treatment sessions (mean difference: 37.48; p<0.001 and at 2 weeks post intervention (mean difference: 39.15; p<0.001. The evaluation also showed significant improvement of Lequesne index after four treatment sessions (mean difference: 4.68; p<0.001, after nine treatment sessions (mean difference: 5.90; p<0.001 and at 2 weeks post intervention (mean difference: 6.48; p<0.001. Conclusion: active laser acupuncture is effective in reducing pain.

  11. Synchronization of random bit generators based on coupled chaotic lasers and application to cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Ido; Butkovski, Maria; Peleg, Yitzhak; Zigzag, Meital; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Rosenbluh, Michael; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2010-08-16

    Random bit generators (RBGs) constitute an important tool in cryptography, stochastic simulations and secure communications. The later in particular has some difficult requirements: high generation rate of unpredictable bit strings and secure key-exchange protocols over public channels. Deterministic algorithms generate pseudo-random number sequences at high rates, however, their unpredictability is limited by the very nature of their deterministic origin. Recently, physical RBGs based on chaotic semiconductor lasers were shown to exceed Gbit/s rates. Whether secure synchronization of two high rate physical RBGs is possible remains an open question. Here we propose a method, whereby two fast RBGs based on mutually coupled chaotic lasers, are synchronized. Using information theoretic analysis we demonstrate security against a powerful computational eavesdropper, capable of noiseless amplification, where all parameters are publicly known. The method is also extended to secure synchronization of a small network of three RBGs.

  12. 640-Gbit/s fast physical random number generation using a broadband chaotic semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limeng; Pan, Biwei; Chen, Guangcan; Guo, Lu; Lu, Dan; Zhao, Lingjuan; Wang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    An ultra-fast physical random number generator is demonstrated utilizing a photonic integrated device based broadband chaotic source with a simple post data processing method. The compact chaotic source is implemented by using a monolithic integrated dual-mode amplified feedback laser (AFL) with self-injection, where a robust chaotic signal with RF frequency coverage of above 50 GHz and flatness of ±3.6 dB is generated. By using 4-least significant bits (LSBs) retaining from the 8-bit digitization of the chaotic waveform, random sequences with a bit-rate up to 640 Gbit/s (160 GS/s × 4 bits) are realized. The generated random bits have passed each of the fifteen NIST statistics tests (NIST SP800-22), indicating its randomness for practical applications.

  13. Broadband supercontinuum light source seeded by random distributed feedback fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, R.; Rao, Y. J.; Zhang, W. L.; Wu, H.; Zeng, X.

    2017-04-01

    A novel broadband light source based on supercontinuum (SC) generation seeded by random distributed feedback fiber laser (RFL) is proposed and demonstrated for the first time. A half-opened fiber cavity formed by FBG and TrueWave fiber is used to generate random lasing and SC simultaneously. Experimental results indicate that RFL can be used as an effective pump for generation of SC. SC with 20-dB bandwidth of >250 nm was obtained. Such a broadband SC light source seeded by RFL may pave a way to generate high power broadband RFLs for use in optical sensing and measurement.

  14. Soft-assignment random-forest with an application to discriminative representation of human actions in videos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The bag-of-features model is a distinctive and robust approach to detect human actions in videos. The discriminative power of this model relies heavily on the quantization of the video features into visual words. The quantization determines how well the visual words describe the human action. Random

  15. Transmission performance improvement using random DFB laser based Raman amplification and bidirectional second-order pumping

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, M.; Rosa, P; Le, S.T.; Iqbal, Md A.; Phillips, I.D.; Harper, P.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that a distributed Raman amplification scheme based on random distributed feedback (DFB) fiber laser enables bidirectional second-order Raman pumping without increasing relative intensity noise (RIN) of the signal. This extends the reach of 10 × 116 Gb/s DP-QPSK WDM transmission up to 7915 km, compared with conventional Raman amplification schemes. Moreover, this scheme gives the longest maximum transmission distance among all the Raman amplification schemes presented in this p...

  16. REVIEW ARTICLE: Recent developments in the theory of multimode random lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Oleg; Deych, Lev

    2010-02-01

    We review recent extensions of semiclassical multimode laser theory to open systems with overlapping resonances and inhomogeneous refractive index. An essential ingredient of the theory is a system of biorthogonal quasimodes that describe field decay in an open passive system and are used as a basis for lasing modes. We discuss applications of the semiclassical theory, as well as other experimental and numerical results related to random lasing with mode competition.

  17. A Low-Literacy Asthma Action Plan to Improve Provider Asthma Counseling: A Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H Shonna; Gupta, Ruchi S; Tomopoulos, Suzy; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Egan, Maureen; van Schaick, Linda; Wolf, Michael S; Sanchez, Dayana C; Warren, Christopher; Encalada, Karen; Dreyer, Benard P

    2016-01-01

    The use of written asthma action plans (WAAPs) has been associated with reduced asthma-related morbidity, but there are concerns about their complexity. We developed a health literacy-informed, pictogram- and photograph-based WAAP and examined whether providers who used it, with no training, would have better asthma counseling quality compared with those who used a standard plan. Physicians at 2 academic centers randomized to use a low-literacy or standard action plan (American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology) to counsel the hypothetical parent of child with moderate persistent asthma (regimen: Flovent 110 μg 2 puffs twice daily, Singulair 5 mg daily, Albuterol 2 puffs every 4 hours as needed). Two blinded raters independently reviewed counseling transcriptions. medication instructions presented with times of day (eg, morning and night vs number of times per day) and inhaler color; spacer use recommended; need for everyday medications, even when sick, addressed; and explicit symptoms used. 119 providers were randomly assigned (61 low literacy, 58 standard). Providers who used the low-literacy plan were more likely to use times of day (eg, Flovent morning and night, 96.7% vs 51.7%, P counseling time was similar (3.9 [2.5] vs 3.8 [2.6] minutes, P = .8). Use of a low-literacy WAAP improves the quality of asthma counseling by helping providers target key issues by using recommended clear communication principles. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser for Keratosis Pilaris: A Single-Blind, Randomized, Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanop Vachiramon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Keratosis pilaris (KP is a common condition which can frequently be cosmetically disturbing. Topical treatments can be used with limited efficacy. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of fractional carbon dioxide (CO2 laser for the treatment of KP. Patients and Methods. A prospective, randomized, single-blinded, intraindividual comparative study was conducted on adult patients with KP. A single session of fractional CO2 laser was performed to one side of arm whereas the contralateral side served as control. Patients were scheduled for follow-up at 4 and 12 weeks after treatment. Clinical improvement was graded subjectively by blinded dermatologists. Patients rated treatment satisfaction at the end of the study. Results. Twenty patients completed the study. All patients stated that the laser treatment improved KP lesions. At 12-week follow-up, 30% of lesions on the laser-treated side had moderate to good improvement according to physicians’ global assessment (p=0.02. Keratotic papules and hyperpigmentation appeared to respond better than the erythematous component. Four patients with Fitzpatrick skin type V developed transient pigmentary alteration. Conclusions. Fractional CO2 laser treatment may be offered to patients with KP. Dark-skinned patients should be treated with special caution.

  19. Inhibition of HSV-1 replication by laser diode-irradiation: possible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnarumma, G; De Gregorio, V; Fusco, A; Farina, E; Baroni, A; Esposito, V; Contaldo, M; Petruzzi, M; Pannone, G; Serpico, R

    2010-01-01

    Herpes labialis are the most frequent clinical manifestations of HSV-1 infection. Epithelial cells are able to respond to HSV-1 presence inducing the expression of IL-6, IL-1, TNF-α and IL-8. These proinflammatory cytokines have a function in the acute-phase response mediation, chemotaxis, inflammatory cell activation and antigen-presenting cells. In the human epithelial cell models, it has been demonstrated that, after an early induction of proinflammatory host response, HSV-1 down-modulates the proinflammatory cytokine production through the accumulation of two viral proteins, ICP4 and ICP27, whose transcription is induced by tegument protein VP16. These viral proteins, through the decreasing of stabilizing the mRNAs of proinflammatory genes, delay cytokine production to an extent that allows the virus to replicate. Moreover, viral transactivating proteins, ICP-0 and VP-16 induce IL-10 expression. The conventional treatment of herpes labialis involves the topical and systemic use of antiviral drugs but it is necessary to find new therapies that can act in a selective and non-cytotoxic manner in viral infection. Laser diode therapy has been considered as a non-invasive alternative treatment to the conventional treatment of herpes labialis in pain therapy, in modulation of inflammation and in wound healing. This study aims to report a possible mechanism of action of laser diode irradiation in prevention and reduction of severity of labial manifestations of herpes labialis virus. We investigated, in an in vitro model of epithelial cells HaCat, the laser-effect on HSV-1 replication and we evaluated the modulation of expression of certain proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6), antimicrobial peptide HBD2, chemokine IL-8 and the immunosuppressive cytokine, IL-10. Our results lead us to hypothesize that LD-irradiation acts in the final stage of HSV-1 replication by limiting viral spread from cell to cell and that laser therapy acts also on the host immune

  20. Randomized prospective study comparing a single radioiodine dose and a single laser therapy session in autonomously functioning thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Helle; Bennedbaek, Finn Noe; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) with radioiodine in hot thyroid nodules. DESIGN: Thirty consecutive outpatients with subclinical or mild hyperthyroidism and a scintigraphically solitary hot nodule with extraglandular suppression were randomized to e...

  1. Quality of vision after femtosecond laser-assisted descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty: a randomized, multicenter clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Y.Y.; Berg, T.J. van den; Schouten, J.S.A.G.; Pels, E.; Wijdh, R.J.; Cleynenbreugel, H. van; Eggink, C.A.; Rijneveld, W.J.; Nuijts, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the quality of vision (straylight and contrast sensitivity) after femtosecond laser-assisted Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (FS DSEK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK). DESIGN: Prospective, randomized clinical trial. METHODS: setting: Multicenter (5 ophthalmic

  2. Quality of Vision After Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty and Penetrating Keratoplasty : A Randomized, Multicenter Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Yanny Y. Y.; van den Berg, Tom J. T. P.; Schouten, Jan S.; Pels, Elisabeth; Wijdh, Robert-Jan; van Cleynenbreugel, Hugo; Eggink, Catharina A.; Rijneveld, Wilhelmina J.; Nuijts, Rudy M. M. A.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the quality of vision (straylight and contrast sensitivity) after femtosecond laser-assisted Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (FS DSEK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK). DESIGN: Prospective, randomized clinical trial. METHODS: SETTING: Multicenter (5 ophthalmic

  3. Treatment of diffuse diabetic maculopathy with intravitreal triamcinolone and laser photocoagulation: randomized clinical trial with morphological and functional evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gil, Alberto Luiz; Azevedo, Mirela Jobim de; Tomasetto, Giovani Generali; Muniz, Carlos Henrique Gervini; Lavinsky, Jacó

    2011-01-01

    .... The purpose of this double blind randomized clinical trial was to compare the treatment of diffuse diabetic macular edema with intravitreal triamcinolone or laser in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients...

  4. Dynamics of a semiconductor laser with polarization-rotated feedback and its utilization for random bit generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Neus; Soriano, Miguel C; Sukow, David W; Fischer, Ingo

    2011-12-01

    Chaotic semiconductor lasers have been proven attractive for fast random bit generation. To follow this strategy, simple robust systems and a systematic approach determining the required dynamical properties and most suitable conditions for this application are needed. We show that dynamics of a single mode laser with polarization-rotated feedback are optimal for random bit generation when characterized simultaneously by a broad power spectrum and low autocorrelation. We observe that successful random bit generation also is sensitive to digitization and postprocessing procedures. Applying the identified criteria, we achieve fast random bit generation rates (up to 4 Gbit/s) with minimal postprocessing. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  5. Low Intensity laser therapy in patients with burning mouth syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Nobuo SUGAYA

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of low intensity laser therapy in patients with Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS. Thirty BMS subjects were randomized into two groups – Laser (LG and Placebo (CG. Seven patients dropped out, leaving 13 patients in LG and 10 patients in CG. Each patient received 4 irradiations (laser or placebo twice a week, for two consecutive weeks (blinded to the type of irradiation received. Infrared laser (AsGaAI irradiations were applied to the affected mucosa in scanning mode, wavelength of 790 nm, output power of 20 mW and fluence of 6 J/cm2. A visual analogue scale (VAS was used to assess the therapeutic effect before and after each irradiation, and at all the control time periods: 7, 14, 30, 60 and 90 days after the last irradiation. One researcher delivered irradiation and another recorded the results. Both researchers were blinded, the first to the results, and the second to the type of radiation applied. The results were categorized according to the percentage of symptom level variation, and showed a statistically better response in LG in only two categories of the control checkpoints (p=0.02; Fisher’s Exact Test. According to the protocol used in this study, low intensity laser therapy is as beneficial to patients with BMS as placebo treatment, indicating a great emotional component of involvement in BMS symptomatology. Nevertheless, there were positive results in some statistical analyses, thus encouraging further research in BMS laser therapy with other irradiation parameters.

  6. Effect of laser acupuncture on obesity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chi-Chuan; Tseng, Alan; Chang, Chia-Hao

    2015-05-15

    Obesity-related diseases have a profound economic impact on health care systems. Laser acupuncture has been shown to have beneficial effects on obesity. However, to our knowledge, those trials were either non-randomized, non-blinded or included low-calorie diet control. We have, therefore, designed a patient-assessor-blinded, randomized, sham-controlled crossover trial to investigate the significance of laser acupuncture on obesity. 104 subjects above 20 years of age with a body mass index (BMI) of over 25 kg/m(2) will be divided into 2 groups: experimental and control. Each subject will receive the treatment relevant to their group 3 times a week for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks of treatment the subject will enter a 2-week washout period, after which the subjects will switch groups. Measurements will include BMI, body fat percentage, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference, hip circumference, skinfold thickness, thigh circumference, body fat, blood pressure, heart rate, hunger and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). The results of this study will provide the basis for future large-scale multicenter trials investigating the effects of laser acupuncture on obesity. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02167308 ; registration date: 14 June 2014.

  7. Random laser emission from a Rhodamine B-doped GPTS/TEOS-derived organic/silica monolithic xerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegão, Luis M. G.; Manoel, D. S.; Otuka, A. J. G.; Ferreira, P. H. D.; Vollet, D. R.; Donatti, D. A.; De Boni, L.; Mendonça, C. R.; De Vicente, F. S.; Rodrigues, J. J., Jr.; Alencar, M. A. R. C.

    2017-06-01

    A Rhodamine B-doped 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTS)/tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-derived organic/silica monolithic xerogel with excellent optical properties was prepared and its potential as a random laser host investigated. This hybrid material has a non-porous organic/inorganic morphology with silica-rich nanoparticles of less than 10 nm in diameter homogeneously dispersed within the matrix. Random laser emission with incoherent feedback, centered at 618 nm, was observed from Rhodamine B incorporated into the monolithic xerogel when excited by a 532 nm pulsed laser. This hybrid system is shown to be very promising for the development of a new class of random laser-based integrated devices, with applications ranging from optical bio-imaging to sensing.

  8. Do Motion Controllers Make Action Video Games Less Sedentary? A Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Bowling, J. Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    Sports- and fitness-themed video games using motion controllers have been found to produce physical activity. It is possible that motion controllers may also enhance energy expenditure when applied to more sedentary games such as action games. Young adults (N = 100) were randomized to play three games using either motion-based or traditional controllers. No main effect was found for controller or game pair (P > .12). An interaction was found such that in one pair, motion control (mean [SD] 0.96 [0.20] kcal · kg−1 · hr−1) produced 0.10 kcal · kg−1 · hr−1 (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.17) greater energy expenditure than traditional control (0.86 [0.17] kcal · kg−1 · hr−1, P = .048). All games were sedentary. As currently implemented, motion control is unlikely to produce moderate intensity physical activity in action games. However, some games produce small but significant increases in energy expenditure, which may benefit health by decreasing sedentary behavior. PMID:22028959

  9. Do Motion Controllers Make Action Video Games Less Sedentary? A Randomized Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Lyons

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sports- and fitness-themed video games using motion controllers have been found to produce physical activity. It is possible that motion controllers may also enhance energy expenditure when applied to more sedentary games such as action games. Young adults (N = 100 were randomized to play three games using either motion-based or traditional controllers. No main effect was found for controller or game pair (P > .12. An interaction was found such that in one pair, motion control (mean [SD] 0.96 [0.20] kcal ⋅ kg-1 ⋅ hr-1 produced 0.10 kcal ⋅ kg-1 ⋅ hr-1 (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.17 greater energy expenditure than traditional control (0.86 [0.17] kcal ⋅ kg-1 ⋅ hr-1, P = .048. All games were sedentary. As currently implemented, motion control is unlikely to produce moderate intensity physical activity in action games. However, some games produce small but significant increases in energy expenditure, which may benefit health by decreasing sedentary behavior.

  10. Do motion controllers make action video games less sedentary? A randomized experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth J; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Ribisl, Kurt M; Bowling, J Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    Sports- and fitness-themed video games using motion controllers have been found to produce physical activity. It is possible that motion controllers may also enhance energy expenditure when applied to more sedentary games such as action games. Young adults (N = 100) were randomized to play three games using either motion-based or traditional controllers. No main effect was found for controller or game pair (P > .12). An interaction was found such that in one pair, motion control (mean [SD] 0.96 [0.20] kcal · kg(-1) · hr(-1)) produced 0.10 kcal · kg(-1) · hr(-1) (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.17) greater energy expenditure than traditional control (0.86 [0.17] kcal · kg(-1) · hr(-1), P = .048). All games were sedentary. As currently implemented, motion control is unlikely to produce moderate intensity physical activity in action games. However, some games produce small but significant increases in energy expenditure, which may benefit health by decreasing sedentary behavior.

  11. Random laser emission at dual wavelengths in a donor-acceptor dye mixture solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Kedia

    Full Text Available The work was aimed to generate random laser emissions simultaneously at two wavelengths in a weakly scattering system containing mixture of binary dyes, rhodamine-B (Rh-B and oxazine-170 (O-170 dispersed with ZnO nano-particles serving as scattering centres. Random lasing performances for individual Rh-B dye were extensively studied for varying small signal gain/scatterer density and we found lasing threshold to significantly depend upon number density of dispersed nano-particles. In spite of inefficient pumping, we demonstrated possibility of random lasing in O-170 dye solution on account of resonance energy transfer from Rh-B dye which served as donor. At optimum concentrations of fluorophores and scatterer in dye mixture solution, incoherent random lasing was effectively attained simultaneously at two wavelengths centered 90 nm apart. Dual-emission intensities, lasing thresholds and rate of amplifications could be controlled and made equivalent for both donor and acceptor in dye mixture solution by appropriate choice of concentrations of dyes and scatterers. Keywords: Random lasing, Energy transfer, Rhodamine-B, Oxazine-170, Zinc oxide

  12. Random number generator based on an integrated laser with on-chip optical feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschaffelt, Guy; Khoder, Mulham; Van der Sande, Guy

    2017-11-01

    We discuss the design and testing of a laser integrated with a long on-chip optical feedback section. The device and feedback section have been fabricated on a generic photonic integration platform using only standard building blocks. We have been able to integrate a 10 cm feedback length on a footprint of 5.5 mm2. By controlling the amount of feedback, we achieve chaotic dynamics in the long-cavity regime and show that the resulting dynamics is sufficiently complex in order to generate random bits based on the chaotic intensity fluctuation at a rate of 500 Mbits/s.

  13. Fusion of blastomeres in mouse embryos under the action of femtosecond laser radiation. Efficiency of blastocyst formation and embryo development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osychenko, A A; Zalesskii, A D; Krivokharchenko, A S; Zhakhbazyan, A K; Nadtochenko, V A [N N Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ryabova, A V [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-31

    Using the method of femtosecond laser surgery we study the fusion of two-cell mouse embryos under the action of tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation with the fusion efficiency reaching 60%. The detailed statistical analysis of the efficiency of blastomere fusion and development of the embryo up to the blastocyst stage after exposure of the embryos from different mice to a femtosecond pulse is presented. It is shown that the efficiency of blastocyst formation essentially depends on the biological characteristics of the embryo, namely, the strain and age of the donor mouse. The possibility of obtaining hexaploid embryonal cells using the methods of femtosecond laser surgery is demonstrated. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  14. Ruby laser-assisted depilation: The mode of action and potential ways of improved outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Adam Partington

    Aim - To improve efficacy and lessen side effects resulting from normal mode ruby laser (NMRL)-assisted depilation via a greater understanding of its mode of action and the development of novel methods of reducing associated epidermal damage. Employing a thermal imaging camera and ex vivo hair-bearing skin, the targets for the NMRL (pulse duration 900 musec and spot size 7 mm) were defined, the temperatures reached and the heat dissipation rates determined. Production of heat was confined to the hair follicles, with the peak temperatures reached varying considerably between hairs within the same treatment area and also between individuals. Histological assessment for a known indicator of cellular damage (p53 expression) identified the sites and extent of damage, which correlated with the peak temperatures measured. An energy meter was used to detect the penetration of NMRL light through ex vivo skin, which was found to be deeper than previously theorised. The black-haired mouse (C57B1/10) was assessed both macroscopically and histologically and found to be an acceptable animal model of NMRL depilation and associated epidermal damage. Attempts to reduce the epidermal damage by simply stopping the light reaching the epidermis using a chromophore block were assessed. Chromophore did indeed reduce the amount of epidermal damage detected in laser-irradiated ex vivo human skin, whereas in contrast it increased the wounding seen in the much thinner skin of the mouse. Nevertheless the mouse model showed that this technique did not affect the depilation efficacy. An alternative method of reducing epidermal damage using induction of the cells' intrinsic protective mechanisms (heat shock proteins, HSP) was assessed using cultured keratinocytes and the mouse model. Primarily, the sub-lethal temperature optimum for HSP expression in human keratinocytes was determined, then an in vitro model of NMRL-associated epidermal damage was established and the heat pre-treatment assessed

  15. Effect of low-level laser therapy on bone repair: a randomized controlled experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Valéria Regina Gonzalez; do Bomfim, Fernando Russo Costa; Machado, Paula Carolina Dias; da Silva Morsoleto, Maria José Misael; Chohfi, Milton; Plapler, Helio

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on bone repair in femoral fractures. Sixty adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into one of two groups: group A (ostectomy + LLLT) or group B (ostectomy + sham laser). An experimental model of complete bone fracture was surgically created by removing a 2-mm fragment from the middle third of the femoral shaft. Data were analyzed on days 8, 13, and 18 after the fracture (subgroups 1, 2, and 3). Samples were assessed for changes in inflammatory infiltration; trabecular bone matrix, periosteal, and new bone formations; and changes in the expression of particular osteogenic-related proteins (osteocalcin, osteopontin, and osteonectin). Microscopic analysis revealed a significant decrease in inflammatory infiltration, intense trabecular bone matrix and periosteal formation, and an increase in newly formed bone after laser irradiation. We also found an increase in the expression of bone matrix proteins with LLLT, with a significant difference measured for osteocalcin in the LLLT group at day 8 (p = 0.007). We show that LLLT plays an important role in augmenting bone tissue formation, which is relevant to fracture healing. LLLT may therefore be indicated as an adjunct therapeutic tool in clinical practice for the treatment or recovery of nonunion injuries.

  16. Pulsed dye laser versus long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloid: A comparative randomized split-scar trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohamady, Abd El-Shakour Abd El-Hafiz; Ibrahim, Shady Mahmoud Attia; Muhammad, Muhammad Mohsen

    2016-08-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are benign fibrous growths that occur after trauma or wounding of the skin and present a major therapeutic problem. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of pulsed dye laser (PDL) versus Nd:YAG laser in hypertrophic scar and keloid. Twenty patients with hypertrophic scars and keloid were included in this prospective, randomized, split-scar study. Half of each scar was randomized to treatment with a 595-nm PDL and the contralateral half with the 1064-nm Nd:YAG. Each patient received 6 laser treatment sessions at 1-month intervals. The scars were evaluated at baseline and one month after the last laser session using the Vancouver scar scale (VSS). One month after the last laser treatment, final total VSS analysis of treated sites by PDL and long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser revealed significant improvements (p treatments for keloid and hypertrophic scar provide significant improvement with insignificant difference between both modalities.

  17. Studies on spectral analysis of randomly sampled signals: Application to laser velocimetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sree, David

    1992-01-01

    Spectral analysis is very useful in determining the frequency characteristics of many turbulent flows, for example, vortex flows, tail buffeting, and other pulsating flows. It is also used for obtaining turbulence spectra from which the time and length scales associated with the turbulence structure can be estimated. These estimates, in turn, can be helpful for validation of theoretical/numerical flow turbulence models. Laser velocimetry (LV) is being extensively used in the experimental investigation of different types of flows, because of its inherent advantages; nonintrusive probing, high frequency response, no calibration requirements, etc. Typically, the output of an individual realization laser velocimeter is a set of randomly sampled velocity data. Spectral analysis of such data requires special techniques to obtain reliable estimates of correlation and power spectral density functions that describe the flow characteristics. FORTRAN codes for obtaining the autocorrelation and power spectral density estimates using the correlation-based slotting technique were developed. Extensive studies have been conducted on simulated first-order spectrum and sine signals to improve the spectral estimates. A first-order spectrum was chosen because it represents the characteristics of a typical one-dimensional turbulence spectrum. Digital prefiltering techniques, to improve the spectral estimates from randomly sampled data were applied. Studies show that the spectral estimates can be increased up to about five times the mean sampling rate.

  18. Tooth bleaching using three laser systems, halogen-light unit, and chemical action agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Housova, Devana; Sulc, Jan; Nemec, Michal; Koranda, Petr; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji

    2004-09-01

    μThe study describes the preclinical experience with laser-activated bleaching agent for discolored teeth. Extracted human upper central incisors were selected, and in the bleaching experiment 35% hydrogen peroxide was used. Three various laser systems and halogen-light unit for activation of the bleaching agent were applied. They were Alexandrite laser (wavelength 750 nm and 375 nm - SHG), Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 1.064 m), and Er:YAG laser (wavelength 2.94 μm). The halogen-light unit was used in a standard regime. The enamel surface was analyzed in the scanning electron microscope. The method of chemical oxidation results in a 2-3 shade change in one treatment. The halogen-light units produced the same effect with shorter time of bleaching process (from 630 s to 300 s). The Alexandrite laser (750 nm) and bleaching agent helped to reach the desired color shade after a shorter time (400 s). Alexandrite laser (375 nm) and Nd:YAG laser had no effect on the longevity of the process of bleaching. Overheating of the chemical bleaching agent was visible after Er:YAG laser activation (195 s). Slight surface modification after bleaching process was detected in SEM.

  19. Large spot transpupillary thermotherapy: A quicker laser for treatment of high risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity - A randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Parag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare structural and functional outcome and time efficiency between standard spot sized conventional pulsed mode diode laser and continuous mode large spot transpupillary thermotherapy (LS TTT for treatment of high risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Ten eyes of five preterm babies having bilateral symmetrical high risk prethreshold ROP were included in this study. One eye of each baby was randomized to get either standard spot sized conventional pulsed mode diode laser or continuous mode LS TTT. There was no significant difference between structural or functional outcome in either group. The mean time taken for conventional diode laser was 20.07 minutes, while that for LS TTT was 12.3 minutes. LS TTT was 40% more time efficient than the conventional laser. It may be better suited for the very small fragile premature infants as it is quicker than the conventional laser.

  20. Intracavity-pumped Raman laser action in a mid IR, continuous-wave (cw) MgO:PPLN optical parametric oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okishev, Andrey V; Zuegel, Jonathan D

    2006-12-11

    Intracavity-pumped Raman laser action in a fiber-laser-pumped, single-resonant, continuous-wave (cw) MgO:PPLN optical parametric oscillator with a high-Q linear resonator has been observed for the first time to our knowledge. Experimental results of this phenomenon investigation will be discussed.

  1. High efficiency laser action in mildly doped Yb:LuYAG ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirri, A.; Toci, G.; Li, J.; Xie, T.; Pan, Y.; Babin, Vladimir; Beitlerová, Alena; Nikl, Martin; Vannini, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 73, Nov (2017), s. 312-318 ISSN 0925-3467 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser ceramics * Yb laser * mixed garnets * LuYAG Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.238, year: 2016

  2. The effectiveness of low laser therapy in subacromial impingement syndrome: a randomized placebo controlled double-blind prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem Koldas Dogan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Conflicting results were reported about the effectiveness of Low level laser therapy on musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of 850-nm gallium arsenide aluminum (Ga-As-Al laser therapy on pain, range of motion and disability in subacromial impingement syndrome. METHODS: A total of 52 patients (33 females and 19 males with a mean age of 53.59±11.34 years with subacromial impingement syndrome were included. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups. Group I (n = 30, laser group received laser therapy (5 joule/cm² at each point over maximum 5-6 painful points for 1 minute. Group II (n = 22, placebo laser group received placebo laser therapy. Initially cold pack (10 minutes was applied to all of the patients. Also patients were given an exercise program including range of motion, stretching and progressive resistive exercises. The therapy program was applied 5 times a week for 14 sessions. Pain severity was assessed by using visual analogue scale. Range of motion was measured by goniometer. Disability was evaluated by using Shoulder Pain and Disability Index. RESULTS: In group I, statistically significant improvements in pain severity, range of motion except internal and external rotation and SPADI scores were observed compared to baseline scores after the therapy (p0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The Low level laser therapy seems to have no superiority over placebo laser therapy in reducing pain severity, range of motion and functional disability.

  3. Effects of Positive Action on the emotional health of urban youth: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kendra M; DuBois, David L; Bavarian, Niloofar; Acock, Alan; Silverthorn, Naida; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Vuchinich, Samuel; Flay, Brian R

    2013-12-01

    We examined the effects of Positive Action (PA), a school-based social-emotional learning and health promotion program, on the emotional health of predominately low-income and ethnic minority urban youth. The study was a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled trial involving 14 Chicago public schools. Outcomes were assessed over a 6-year period of program implementation for a cohort of youth in each school, followed from grades 3 to 8. Youth reported on their emotional health (positive affect, life satisfaction, depression, anxiety) and social-emotional and character development. Growth-curve and structural-equation modeling analyses assessed overall program effects on the emotional health outcomes as well as mediation of these effects via the program's impact on youths' social-emotional and character development. Students in PA schools, compared with those in control schools, had more favorable change over the course of the study in positive affect (standardized mean difference effect size [ES] = .17) and life satisfaction (ES = .13) as well as significantly lower depression (ES = -.14) and anxiety (ES = -.26) at study end point. Program effects for positive affect, depression, and anxiety were mediated by more favorable change over time in social-emotional and character development for students in PA schools. Results suggest that universal, school-based programs can benefit the emotional health of youth in low-income, urban settings. The modest magnitude of effects over an extended period of program implementation, however, reflects the challenges of both mounting interventions and offsetting formidable risks for mental health problems in such environments. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An acousto-optically steered laser scanning system for measurement of action potential spread in intact heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morad, M; Dillon, S; Weiss, J

    1986-01-01

    An optical scanning device that combines a voltage-sensitive dye and an acousto-optically steered He-Ne laser beam is described. This device is capable of scanning 128 sites every 4 ms and recording and storing the fluorescence signals for a duration of up to 1 s (several beats). Comparison of an activation map constructed from laser scanning to those obtained from multiple extracellular electrodes suggests that this technique is highly reliable. Although motion-induced light scattering appears to alter the shape of the action potential, the upstroke can be distinguished quite reliably even in a vigorously contracting muscle. This technique provides high resolution (up to 50 micron) and high flexibility (i.e., the scanned sites can be concentrated over a small or very large area) in measuring the spread of activation in heart muscle. By having only one excitation and one measurement element, the approach offers simplicity and high flexibility to the user. We have shown that this system can be readily applied to the task for which it was intended--probing the mechanisms of arrhythmias in the mammalian myocardium. It has been demonstrated, for example, that arrhythmias due to automaticity can be readily distinguished from those due to reentry through the mapping capability of the laser scanner. In addition, the ability of laser scanner to measure membrane depolarization directly during arrhythmias may make this technique superior to conventional electrocardiographic mapping techniques.

  5. [Femtosecond laser for refractive corneal surgery: foundations, mode of action and clinical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrochen, M; Donges, A; Korn, G

    2006-12-01

    Modern corneal laser surgery for the correction of optical errors of the eye requires a precise, reliable and reproducible creation of corneal lenticels (flaps). The use of ultra-short laser pulses with pulse durations of a few 100 femtoseconds (10(-13) s) allows for non-thermal cuts of ocular tissue. Mean flap thicknesses as small as 100 microm with a reproducibility of 10 microm (standard deviation) can be created by using mechano-optical adaptations through the eye. Thus, the femtosecond laser can be considered a good alternative approach with a safety in clinical use that is comparable with that of mechanical microkeratomes.

  6. Prophylactic laser treatment of soft drusen maculopathy: a prospective, randomized Nordic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frennesson, Christina I; Bek, Toke; Jaakkola, Aino; Nilsson, Sven Erik G

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether mild laser treatment of soft drusen maculopathy might reduce the incidence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and/or significantly reduce loss of visual acuity compared with outcomes in a control group.  A total of 135 patients (mean age 70.4 years) were randomized into a treatment group of 67 subjects and a control group of 68 subjects. The treatment group was subdivided into a group of 54 subjects with bilateral soft drusen and a group of 13 subjects with unilateral soft drusen in the study eye and advanced AMD in the fellow eye. The control group was subdivided into a bilateral group of 54 subjects and a unilateral group of 14 subjects. Sub-threshold or barely visible laser spots were scattered on and between drusen in the posterior pole. Inclusion of patients was stopped prematurely as other studies did not show any benefit from the treatment. Mean follow-up time was 3.7 years. More CNVs developed in the treated group (4/54 eyes in the bilateral group, 3/13 eyes in the unilateral group; 7/67 eyes in total) than in the control group (3/54 eyes in the bilateral group, 2/14 eyes in the unilateral group; 5/68 eyes in total) but these differences were not statistically significant for either the bilateral or unilateral groups (p = 0.20-0.32). No CNV developed in the bilateral treated group before 4 years of follow-up. Visual acuity was significantly reduced from baseline to the last follow-up in all groups (p laser treatment of soft drusen maculopathy was neither beneficial nor harmful and cannot be recommended.

  7. Transmission performance improvement using random DFB laser based Raman amplification and bidirectional second-order pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M; Rosa, P; Le, S T; Iqbal, Md A; Phillips, I D; Harper, P

    2016-02-08

    We demonstrate that a distributed Raman amplification scheme based on random distributed feedback (DFB) fiber laser enables bidirectional second-order Raman pumping without increasing relative intensity noise (RIN) of the signal. This extends the reach of 10 × 116 Gb/s DP-QPSK WDM transmission up to 7915 km, compared with conventional Raman amplification schemes. Moreover, this scheme gives the longest maximum transmission distance among all the Raman amplification schemes presented in this paper, whilst maintaining relatively uniform and symmetric signal power distribution, and is also adjustable in order to be highly compatible with different nonlinearity compensation techniques, including mid-link optical phase conjugation (OPC) and nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT).

  8. Laser acupuncture reduces pain in pediatric kidney biopsies: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Aris; Benedict, Kelly A; Sun, Karen; Brakeman, Paul R; Lim, Jessica; Kim, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Evaluate laser acupuncture (LA) as an adjuvant therapy in pain management during percutaneous kidney biopsy procedure in children and adolescents. This prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial enrolled patients aged 7 to 26 years admitted to a children's hospital for percutaneous kidney biopsy. Patients received LA to treatment points (acupuncture group) or sham points (control group) before the procedure. The laser delivered a dose of 42 J/cm over 10 acupoints. Patients and parents rated the pain during and after the biopsy, and change in pain scores were calculated for each patient. Anxiety, vital signs, sedation medication, and patient's biopsy experience were secondary outcomes. Sixty-nine treatments (33 in the acupuncture group and 36 in the control group) were eligible for analysis. Patients in the acupuncture group reported a significantly improved change in the pain score after the biopsy compared with the controls (0.8 vs -0.5, P = 0.044). Patients in the acupuncture group had a statistically significant decrease in procedure vital signs including heart rate (-1.8 vs 5.6, P = 0.043) and respiratory rate (-2.4 vs 0.4, P = 0.045) when compared with controls. Parents also perceived a correspondingly greater improvement in their child's pain for those in the acupuncture group compared with the controls (2.3 vs 0.3, P = 0.04). Adjunctive LA significantly improved pain after pediatric percutaneous kidney biopsies.

  9. Short-Term Effect of Laser Acupuncture on Lower Back Pain: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Young Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This trial was performed to investigate the efficacy of laser acupuncture for the alleviation of lower back pain. Methods. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to either the laser acupuncture group (n=28 or the sham laser acupuncture group (n=28. Participants in both groups received three treatment sessions over the course of one week. Thirteen acupuncture points were selected. The visual analogue scale for pain, pressure pain threshold, Patient Global Impression of Change, and Euro-Quality-of-Life Five Dimensions questionnaire (Korean version were used to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture treatment on lower back pain. Results. There were no significant differences in any outcome between the two groups, although the participants in both groups showed a significant improvement in each assessed parameter relative to the baseline values. Conclusion. Although there was no significant difference in outcomes between the two groups, the results suggest that laser acupuncture can provide effective pain alleviation and can be considered an option for relief from lower back pain. Further studies using long-term intervention, a larger sample size, and rigorous methodology are required to clarify the effect of laser acupuncture on lower back pain.

  10. Laser peripheral iridotomy versus laser peripheral iridotomy plus laser peripheral iridoplasty in the treatment of multi-mechanism angle closure: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shida; Lv, Jianhua; Fan, Sujie; Zhang, Hong; Xie, Lin; Xu, Ling; Jiang, Bing; Yuan, Huipin; Liang, Yuanbo; Li, Shuning; Chen, Pingyan; Zhang, Xiulan; Wang, Ningli

    2017-03-17

    China has the largest burden of primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) worldwide. The mechanism of the angle closure is complex and includes pupillary block and non-pupillary block. Currently, opinion is that laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) alone is not sufficient to prevent disease progression. Laser peripheral iridoplasty (LPIP) is an alternative and effective way of widening the angle recess in eyes that are affected by primary angle closure (PAC). However, it is not known if greater benefit would be achieved using LPI plus LPIP for PAC with multiple mechanisms (MAC). Thus, the aim of this study is to demonstrate if LPI plus LPIP would be more effective than single LPI in controlling the progression of PAC with multiple mechanisms, based on ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) classification. A secondary aim is to determine whether or not this would result in the use of less medication and/or prolong the time to antiglaucoma surgery. This multiple-mechanism angle-closure study will comprise a 3-year, multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, open-label, superiority trial, the aim of which will be to evaluate the safety and efficacy of LPI plus LPIP versus LPI for PAC. It is anticipated that 240 adults, diagnosed with PAC (the mechanism of angle closure will be assessed by UBM and it will be determined whether or not it involves multiple mechanisms) will be recruited from ten ophthalmic centers in China. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive either single LPI or LPI plus LPIP. Participant assessment will be designed to test the rate of disease progression and who will be followed up for 3 years. The primary outcome will be the disease progression rate and a comparison will be made between the LPI and LPI plus LPIP groups using Pearson's χ 2 test. Logistic regression analysis will be performed to account for the central effect. If the LPI plus LPIP is found to significantly decrease the rate of PAC progression, this intervention could potentially be a

  11. Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy With Potassium-titanyl-phosphate Laser Versus Conventional Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy: An Animal Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rioja, Jorge; Morcillo, Esther; Novalbos, José P.; Sánchez-Hurtado, Miguel A.; Soria, Federico; Pérez-Duarte, Francisco; Díaz-Güemes Martín-Portugüés, Idoia; Laguna, Maria Pilar; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco Miguel; Rodríguez-Rubio Cortadellas, Federico

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the feasibility, safety, and short-term results of potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (KTP-LPN) vs conventional laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (C-LPN). MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty large white female pigs were randomized to KTP-LPN or

  12. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Spectroscopic investigation of thermodynamic parameters of a plasma plume formed by the action of cw CO2 laser radiation on a metal substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'chenko, Zh V.; Azharonok, V. V.; Filatova, I. I.; Shimanovich, V. D.; Golubev, V. S.; Zabelin, A. M.

    1996-09-01

    Emission spectroscopy methods were used in an investigation of thermodynamic parameters of a surface plasma formed by the action of cw CO2 laser radiation of (2-5)×106 W cm-2 intensity on stainless steel in a protective He or Ar atmosphere. The spatiotemporal structure and pulsation characteristics of the plasma plume were used to determine the fields of the plasma electron density and temperature.

  13. Clinical Effects of Laser Acupuncture plus Chinese Cupping on the Pain and Plasma Cortisol Levels in Patients with Chronic Nonspecific Lower Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mu-Lien Lin; Jih-Huah Wu; Chi-Wan Lin; Chuan-Tsung Su; Hung-Chien Wu; Yong-Sheng Shih; I-Ting Chiu; Chao-Yi Chen; Wen-Dien Chang

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. Chronic nonspecific lower back pain (LBP) is a common disease. Insufficient data is currently available to conclusively confirm the analgesic effects of laser acupuncture on LBP. This study evaluated the effectiveness of laser acupuncture plus Chinese cupping in LBP treatment. Methods. Patients with chronic nonspecific LBP were enrolled for a randomized controlled trial and assigned to the laser acupuncture group (laser acupuncture plus Chinese cupping) and control group (sham las...

  14. Efficacy and safety of femtosecond laser-assisted corneal endothelial keratoplasty: a randomized multicenter clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanny Y Y; Schouten, Jan S A G; Tahzib, Nayyirih G; Wijdh, Robert-Jan; Pels, Elisabeth; van Cleynenbreugel, Hugo; Eggink, Catharina A; Rijneveld, Wilhelmina J; Nuijts, Rudy M M A

    2009-12-15

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of femtosecond laser-assisted endothelial keratoplasty (FLEK) versus penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in patients with corneal endothelial disease. A randomized multicenter clinical trial of 80 eyes of 80 patients with corneal endothelial disease were randomized to FLEK or PK. Clinical outcomes (astigmatism and visual acuity) and incidence of postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. At 12 months, the percentage of eyes with a refractive astigmatism less than or equal to 3 diopters was higher in the FLEK group in comparison with the PK group (86.2% vs. 51.3%, P=0.004). The mean postoperative best corrected visual acuity was 20/70+/-2 lines in the FLEK group and 20/44+/-2 lines in the PK group (Pastigmatism and results in an absence of wound healing related problems in patients with endothelial disease. However, visual acuity is lower as compared with conventional PK, and the high level of endothelial cell loss warrants a modification of the insertion technique of the endothelial graft.

  15. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults : a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayes, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cogni...

  16. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Soledad eBallesteros; Antonio ePrieto; Julia eMayas; Pilar eToril; Carmen ePita; Laura ePonce de León; José Manuel Reales; John eWaterworth

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cogn...

  17. Should we embed randomized controlled trials within action research: arguing from a case study of telemonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Day

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Action research (AR and randomized controlled trials (RCTs are usually considered to be theoretically and practically incompatible. However, we argue that their respective strengths and weaknesses can be complementary. We illustrate our argument from a recent study assessing the effect of telemonitoring on health-related quality of life, self-care, hospital use, costs and the experiences of patients, informal carers and health care professionals in two urban hospital services and one remote rural primary care service in New Zealand. Methods Data came from authors’ observations and field notes of discussions with three groups: the healthcare providers and healthcare consumers who participated in the research, and a group of 17 researchers and collaborators. The consumers had heart failure (Site A, urban, airways disease (Site B, urban, and diabetes (Site C, rural. The research ran from 2008 (project inception until 2012 (project close-off. Researchers came from a wide range of disciplines. Both RCT and AR methods were recognised from early in the process but often worked in parallel rather than together. In retrospect, we have mapped our observed research processes to the AR cycle characteristics (creation of communicative space, democracy and participation, iterative learning and improvement, emergence, and accommodation of different ways of knowing. Results We describe the context, conduct and outcomes of the telemonitoring trial, framing the overall process in the language of AR. Although not fully articulated at the time, AR processes made the RCT sensitive to important context, e.g. clinical processes. They resulted in substantive changes to the design and conduct of the RCT, and to interpretation and uptake of findings, e.g. a simpler technology procurement process emerged. Creating a communicative space enabled co-design between the researcher group and collaborators from the provider participant group, and a stronger

  18. Percutaneous laser disc decompression versus conventional microdiscectomy in sciatica: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Patrick A; Brand, Ronald; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske; Jacobs, Wilco C H; Schenk, Barry; van den Berg-Huijsmans, Annette A; Koes, Bart W; van Buchem, M A; Arts, Mark P; Peul, Wilco C

    2015-05-01

    Percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) is a minimally invasive treatment for lumbar disc herniation, with Food and Drug Administration approval since 1991. However, no randomized trial comparing PLDD to conventional treatment has been performed. In this trial, we assessed the effectiveness of a strategy of PLDD as compared with conventional surgery. This randomized prospective trial with a noninferiority design was carried out in two academic and six teaching hospitals in the Netherlands according to an intent-to-treat protocol with full institutional review board approval. One hundred fifteen eligible surgical candidates, with sciatica from a disc herniation smaller than one-third of the spinal canal, were included. The main outcome measures for this trial were the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire for sciatica, visual analog scores for back and leg pain, and the patient's report of perceived recovery. Patients were randomly allocated to PLDD (n=57) or conventional surgery (n=58). Blinding was impossible because of the nature of the interventions. This study was funded by the Healthcare Insurance Board of the Netherlands. The primary outcome, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, showed noninferiority of PLDD at 8 (-0.1; [95% confidence interval (CI), -2.3 to 2.1]) and 52 weeks (-1.1; 95% CI, -3.4 to 1.1) compared with conventional surgery. There was, however, a higher speed of recovery in favor of conventional surgery (hazard ratio, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.42-0.97]). The number of reoperations was significantly less in the conventional surgery group (38% vs. 16%). Overall, a strategy of PLDD, with delayed surgery if needed, resulted in noninferior outcomes at 1 year. At 1 year, a strategy of PLDD, followed by surgery if needed, resulted in noninferior outcomes compared with surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Implementing a Fetal Health Surveillance Guideline in Clinical Practice: A Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial of Action Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelgrove-Clarke, Erna; Davies, Barbara; Flowerdew, Gordon; Young, David

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of an Action Learning intervention on nurses' use of a fetal health surveillance (FHS) guideline during labor of women who were low risk on admission for delivery. Using a pragmatic randomized controlled trial, nurses were randomized to Action Learning (n = 44) or Usual Care (n = 45). Low-risk women were assigned to either an Action Learning nurse (n = 122) or a Usual Care nurse (n = 148). Data on practices during an episode of care (nurses' FHS practices from admission through to delivery in low-risk women) were collected at three trial time points: 1 month prior, during 6 months, and 1 month following. Guideline adherence, women's perception of birth experience, and enablers and inhibitors to intermittent auscultation (IA) were collected. Multivariate logistic regression determined the variables (chosen by the nurses) that predicted Action Learning nurses' adherence to FHS practices. Statistically significant change was not evident between nurses' rate of FHS practices in the Action Learning group compared with Usual Care (Δ6.8%, odds ratio [OR] 0.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-2.83). Postpartum, women reported high satisfaction with no significant difference by study group. Two labor events, epidural and narcotic analgesia, most influenced guideline appropriate care (p = .000, OR -4.04; p = .000, OR = 2.89) within the experimental group. Despite lack of between-group significant changes in FHS practices, Action Learning nurses, who chose areas of practice that presented obstacles to their guideline adherence ability (epidurals and narcotics), significantly changed their FHS practices. Researchers need to consider whether practice is long-standing acceptance of the evidence by healthcare providers, and the provider's intentions for implementation effectiveness when choosing an implementation strategy. Supportive nurses, Doppler availability, and clear policies support adherence to an IA guideline

  20. The Antibacterial Effect of Nd:YAG Laser Treatment of Teeth with Apical Periodontitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granevik Lindström, Maria; Wolf, Eva; Fransson, Helena

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this blind, in vivo, randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in endodontic treatment of single-rooted teeth with apical periodontitis. The hypothesis was that mechanical enlargement of the root canal and Nd:YAG laser irradiation would yield more negative bacterial samples than conventional treatment. Forty-one patients (45 teeth) were allocated to the laser (n = 22) or control (n = 23) group. The teeth in the laser group were instrumented, irrigated with saline, and irradiated with Nd:YAG laser according to a standard protocol. The teeth in the control group were similarly instrumented but irrigated with 1% unbuffered sodium hypochlorite and 15% EDTA solution. Bacterial samples were taken before and after treatment, blinded, and immediately sent for culturing and analysis. The initial bacterial samples were positive in 20 of 22 teeth in the laser group and 18 of 23 (P = .414) in the control group. After the initial treatment, negative bacterial samples were found in 11 teeth in the laser group and 13 (P = .768) in the control group. After 2 to 4 days with no antibacterial dressing in the root canals, 5 teeth in the laser group and 9 (P = .337) in the control group yielded negative bacterial samples. After intervention, neither the test group nor the control group yielded predictable negative bacterial samples. Thus, the results failed to verify the hypothesis that Nd:YAG laser irradiation would yield significantly more negative bacterial samples than conventional irrigation with 1% unbuffered sodium hypochlorite solution. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The adjunct therapeutic effect of lasers with medication in the management of orofacial pain: double blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanat, Dariush; Ebrahimi, Hooman; Lavaee, Fatemeh; Alipour, Abbass

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of laser therapy in conjunction with a pharmaceutical approach to alleviate myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome. A few clinical studies have evaluated the analgesic effect of laser therapy on orofacial pain, most of which reported controversial results. Myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS), trigeminal neuralgia, and atypical facial pain are the most common facial pain. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of GaAs laser (peak power 10 W; pulse frequency 3000 Hz; average power 0.012 W; wavelength 980 nm; irradiation duration 300 sec; and dose 12.73 J/cm(2)) on the management of common orofacial pain. The laser group (n=30) received 10 sessions of treatment with GaAs laser. The control group (n=30) was treated identically with sham laser. All patients received the appropriate pharmaceutical treatment as well. Visual analog scale (VAS) was recorded for all patients at baseline, and immediately, 2, and 4 months after the final treatment session. The qualitative variables among the groups were compared using the χ(2) test. Both groups demonstrated a significant reduction in pain with the progression of time (p0.05). Whereas laser therapy in the present study failed to show any significance over the control group, the role of covariates such as radiation parameters (wave length, dose) should not be overlooked. We found no significant level of efficacy for the GaAs laser in the management of common orofacial pain. Further studies are suggested to evaluate the efficacy of other types of lasers with different parameters in the management of orofacial pains.

  2. Treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis with Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation: A randomized controlled split mouth clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Hasan Guney; Albaba, Mohammed Rateb; Caygur, Ayse; Cengiz, Esra; Boke-Karacaoglu, Fatma; Tumer, Hayriye

    2017-05-01

    The present randomized controlled split mouth clinical study aimed to investigate the efficacy of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on pain reduction and healing rate of recurrent aphthous stomatitis. 40 patients with RAS were recruited for this study and RAS ulcerations of each patient were randomly assigned to the control or test group. In the test group, Er,Cr:YSGG laser with non-contact mode was used to irradiate RAS lesions. In the placebo group, RAS lesions were irradiated with the same device without laser emission. Pain was evaluated with visual analog scale (VAS) while a clinician graded healing of RAS (HRAS). In the placebo group at immediate; scores of VAS presented no statistically significance; in the test group, laser application showed significant pain reducing, at 1st day control. In the test group, a significantly healing effect at 1st day control was observed and this effect was maintained throughout the study. In the placebo group, scores of HRAS were statistically significant at controls on 3, 7, 10days. Statistically significant difference between the scores of VAS and HRAS was found for all control days except day 10 according to the intergroup comparisons. Based on these findings, Er,Cr:YSGG laser application at 0.25W without water may be appropriate to reduce pain and also accelerate the healing of RAS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Action of a 904-nm diode laser in orthopedics and traumatology: a clinical study on 447 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Giuseppe

    2001-10-01

    Objective: The evidence in medical literature is that a beneficial analgesic effect can only be obtained by employing laser radiation of relatively low power density and wavelengths which are able to penetrate tissue. For this reason the semiconductor, or laser diode (GaAs, 904 nm), is the most appropriate choice in pain-reduction therapy. Summary Background Data: Low power laser (or LLL) acts on the Prostaglandins synthesis, increases the endorphins synthesis in the Rolando gelatinous substance and in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The L-Arginine, which is the classic substrate of nitric oxide, carries on vasodilatory and anti- inflammatory action. Methods: Treatment was carried out on 447 cases and 435 patients (250 women and 185 men) between 20th May 1987 and 31st December 1999. The patients, whose age ranged from 25 to 70, were suffering from rheumatic, degenerative and traumatic pathologies as well as cutaneous ulcers. The majority of patients had been seen by orthopaedists and rheumatologists and had undergone x-ray, ultrasound scan, etc. All patients had previously received drug-based treatment and/or physiotherapy, with poor results. Two thirds were experiencing acute symptomatic pain, while the others presented a chronic pathology with recurrent crises. We used a pulsed IR diode laser, GaAs emitting at 904 nm. Frequency of treatment: 1 application per day for 5 consecutive days, followed by a 2-day interval. The percentage reduction in symptoms or improvement in functional status were determined on the basis of objective analysis as it happens in the Legal and Insurance Medicine field. Results: Very good results were achieved especially with cases of symptomatic osteoarthritis of the cervical vertebrae, with sport-related injuries, epicondylitis, osteoarthritis of the knee, periarthritis and with cutaneous ulcers. The beneficial action of the LLLT in the latter pathology is linked to the increase in collagen and to fibroblast proliferation. The total

  4. Effect of 660nm low power laser on pain and healing in palatal donor sites; a randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Moslemi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims : Free gingival graft is one of the most predictable procedures for gingival augmentation, but patient’s discomfort and pain during healing period of palatal donor site is a significant concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 660nm low power laser on pain and healing in palatal donor sites.   Materials and Methods: The present split mouth randomized controlled clinical trial was performed in 12 patients at the department of periodontics of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Patients’ allocation was done by balanced block randomization (laser group and placebo group. In laser test group (wave length: 660 nm, power: 200mW, time of irradiation: 32s was applied immediately post-surgery and in day 1, 2, 4 and 7 after that. In the control group, laser application was done with off power mode. Evaluation of epithelialization and healing was done with H2O2 and photograph. The number of palliative pills and bleeding was recorded. Wilcoxon test was used to analyze healing during the study. Patient’s pain during study was analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA. Mc Nemar test was used to analyze bleeding. Level of statistical significance was set at 0.05.   Results: Laser group showed better epithelialization (P=0.02 and healing (P=0.01 in day 14 after surgery and showed better epithelialization in day 21(P=0.05. No statistically differences were observed between laser group and control group in terms of bleeding and medication (P=0.51, (P=1.   Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the low power laser can promote palatal wound healing during the second and third week after free gingival graft procedures.

  5. Do Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Benefit From Low-Level Laser Therapy? A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thierry P; Koes, Bart W; Geelen, Sven J; Huisstede, Bionka M

    2017-06-16

    To systematically review the literature on the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database were searched for relevant systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) up to April 8, 2016. Two reviewers independently applied the inclusion criteria to select potential studies. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and assessed the methodologic quality. A best-evidence synthesis was performed to summarize the results of the 2 systematic reviews and 17 RCTs that were included. Strong evidence was found for the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy compared with placebo treatment in the very short term (0 to ≤5wk). After 5 weeks, the positive effects of low-level laser therapy on pain, function, or recovery diminished over time (moderate and conflicting evidence were found at 7- and 12-wk follow-up, respectively). In the very short term, low-level laser therapy is more effective as a single intervention than placebo low-level laser therapy in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome, after which the positive effects of low-level laser therapy tend to subside. Evidence in the midterm and long term is sparse. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fluorescence-controlled Er:YAG laser for caries removal in permanent teeth: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommisch, Henrik; Peus, Katja; Kneist, Susanne; Krause, Felix; Braun, Andreas; Hedderich, Jürgen; Jepsen, Søren; Eberhard, Jörg

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this randomized clinical study was to compare the efficacy of a fluorescence-controlled erbium-loaded yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser with conventional bur treatment for caries therapy in adults. Twenty-six patients with 102 carious lesions were treated using either the Er:YAG laser, at threshold levels of 7, 8, 9, and 10 [U], or rotary burs. Both techniques were applied to each lesion at separate locations. After treatment, dentine samples were obtained using a carbide bur. The viable counts of Streptococcus mutans (SM) and lactobacilli (LB) [expressed as colony-forming units (log10 CFUs)], treatment time, pain, vibration, and sound intensity were determined. The median numbers of CFUs for SM and LB were not statistically different between laser and bur treatment at threshold levels 7 and 8 [U]. At threshold levels 9 and 10 [U], the median number of CFUs for LB [1.11 (range: 0.00-2.04)] were significantly higher following laser treatment than following bur treatment [0.30 (range: 0.00-0.60)]. The results indicate that treatment with a fluorescence-controlled Er:YAG laser at threshold levels of 7 and 8 removed caries to a level similar to that achieved using conventional bur treatment, with clinically irrelevant amounts of remaining bacteria. Although more time consuming, laser treatment provided higher patient comfort than bur treatment.

  7. Critical side channel effects in random bit generation with multiple semiconductor lasers in a polarization-based quantum key distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Heasin; Choi, Byung-Seok; Choe, Joong-Seon; Kim, Kap-Joong; Kim, Jong-Hoi; Youn, Chun Ju

    2017-08-21

    Most polarization-based BB84 quantum key distribution (QKD) systems utilize multiple lasers to generate one of four polarization quantum states randomly. However, random bit generation with multiple lasers can potentially open critical side channels that significantly endangers the security of QKD systems. In this paper, we show unnoticed side channels of temporal disparity and intensity fluctuation, which possibly exist in the operation of multiple semiconductor laser diodes. Experimental results show that the side channels can enormously degrade security performance of QKD systems. An important system issue for the improvement of quantum bit error rate (QBER) related with laser driving condition is further addressed with experimental results.

  8. Laser and photochemotherapy for the treatment of oral mucositis in young patients: Randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros-Filho, João Batista; Maia Filho, Etevaldo Matos; Ferreira, Meire Coelho

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) combined with photochemotherapy (PCT) for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in young patients. A randomized, blind, clinical trial with a split-mouth design was conducted involving a sample of 15 cancer patients aged three to 16 years at the Aldenora Bello Hospital in the city of São Luís, Brazil. The treatments (PCT+LLLT and LLLT alone) were randomly determined for each side of the oral cavity. The patients were blinded to the type of therapy performed on each side. The outcome was the area of the lesion measured in cm2 over an eight-day evaluation period. Treatment and follow up of the lesions under evaluation as well as other lesions occurred until complete remission. Friedman and Wilcoxon tests were employed. Significance was set at a 95% confidence level (α=0.05) and the effect size was calculated. A statistically significant difference was found between therapies for lesion area on Days 6-8 (p=0.020, 0.011 and 0.005, respectively), which was confirmed by the moderate effect size. Lesions submitted to PCT+LLLT had a smaller area at the end of the evaluation period. Based on the present findings, PCT+LLLT had a greater therapeutic effect in comparison to LLLT alone regarding the reduction in the degree of severity of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of Laser Therapy in Ankle Sprains : Design of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bie, Robert A.; de Vet, Henrica CW; Knipschild, Paul G.; van den Wildenberg, Frans AJM; Lenssen, Ton F.; Bouter, Lex

    1997-01-01

    Studies on low intensity 904 nm laser therapy in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders show conflicting results. Yet, on the basis of a systematic review we concluded that 904 nm laser therapy for musculoskeletal disorders seems to be promising, when compared to placebo laser therapy. Quick

  10. High efficiency laser action of 1% at. Yb3+:2O3 ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirri, Angela; Toci, Guido; Nikl, Martin; Vannini, Matteo

    2012-09-24

    We report the spectroscopic characteristics and the laser performances of a low-doped 1% at. Yb:Sc(2)O(3) ceramic sample. Under end- pumping at 933 nm and 968 nm in quasi-CW mode, at 1040.5 nm the laser delivers a maximum output power of 4.3 W and 1.77 W, respectively with a corresponding slope efficiency of 74% and 80%, which are, to the best of our knowledge, the highest value reported in literature for ceramics. We explored the tuning range of the sample, which spans from 1005 nm to 1050.5 nm, and finally we characterized the low losses tunable cavity at 1032 nm.

  11. Laser therapy for onychomycosis in patients with diabetes at risk for foot complications: study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial (LASER-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijenhuis-Rosien, Leonie; Kleefstra, Nanne; Wolfhagen, Maurice J; Groenier, Klaas H; Bilo, Henk J G; Landman, Gijs W D

    2015-03-22

    In a sham-controlled double-blind trial, we aim to establish the efficacy and safety of the local application of laser therapy in patients with diabetes, onychomycosis and risk factors for diabetes-related foot complications. Onychomycosis leads to thickened and distorted nails, which in turn lead to increased local pressure. The combination of onychomycosis and neuropathy or peripheral arterial disease (PAD) increases the risk of developing diabetes-related foot complications. Usual care for high-risk patients with diabetes and onychomycosis is completely symptomatic with frequent shaving and clipping of the nails. No effective curative local therapies exist, and systemic agents are often withheld due to concerns for side effects and interactions. The primary aim is to evaluate the efficacy of four sessions of Nd:YAG 1064 nM laser application on the one-year clinical and microbiological cure rate in a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled design with blinded outcome assessment. Mandatory inclusion criteria are diagnosis of diabetes, risk factors for developing foot ulcers defined as a modified Simm's classification score 1 or 2 and either neuropathy or PAD. A total of 64 patients are randomized to intervention or sham treatment performed by a podiatrist. This study will be the first double-blind study that investigates the effects of local laser therapy on onychomycosis, specifically performed in patients with diabetes with additional risk factors for foot complications. Clinical trials.gov as NCT01996995 , first received 22 November 2013.

  12. A randomized placebo-blind study of the effect of low power laser on pain caused by irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Karen Müller; de Souza, Lárissa Marcondes Paladini; Tortamano, Isabel Peixoto; Adde, Carlos Alberto; Rocha, Rodney Garcia; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    This randomized placebo-blind study aimed to evaluate the effect of laser phototherapy (LPT) on pain caused by symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (SIP). Sixty patients diagnosed with SIP were randomly assigned to treatment groups (n = 15): G1 (control), G2 (laser placebo-sham irradiation), G3 (laser irradiation at 780 nm, 40 mW, 4 J/cm 2 ), and G4 (laser irradiation at 780 nm, 40 mW, 40 J/cm 2 ). Spontaneous pain was recorded using a VAS score before (T0), immediately after (T1), and 15 min after treatment (T2). Local anesthetics failure during emergency endodontic treatment was also assessed. There was no pain difference in T1 and T2 between the experimental laser groups (G3 and G4) and the placebo group (G2). The 4-J/cm 2 (G3) irradiation resulted in significant increase in the local anesthetics failure in lower jar teeth. This effect could be suggested as consequence of the LPT improvement in local circulation and vasodilatation that would result in the increase of local anesthetic agent absorption. The application of 780-nm diode laser irradiation, at 4 and 40 J/cm 2 , showed no effect in reducing the pain in SIP in comparison to the placebo group. The fluence of 4 J/cm 2 showed a negative effect in local anesthetics, resulting in significant increase of complimentary local anesthesia during emergency endodontic treatment. This work provides evidence of the consequence of LPT application on teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. LPT should be avoided in teeth with pain due to irreversible pulpitis.

  13. High- vs low-power holmium laser lithotripsy: a prospective, randomized study in patients undergoing multitract minipercutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shushang; Zhu, Lingfeng; Yang, Shunliang; Wu, Weizhen; Liao, Lianming; Tan, Jianming

    2012-02-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of high-power holmium: yttrium aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser lithotripsy for multitract modified minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) in the treatment of patients with large staghorn renal calculi. A randomized, prospective study was conducted. Two-hundred seventy-three consecutive patients (291 renal units) with large staghorn renal calculi were randomized to undergo multitract MPCNL with 30-W low-power or 70-W high-power Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy. Both groups were compared in terms of perioperative findings and postoperative outcomes, including procedure time, stone-free rate, length of hospital stay, transfusion rates, renal function recovery, and other complications. The average patient age was 49.2 years (range 22-73) and mean stone size was 5.54±0.7 cm. The 2 groups had some comparable perioperative findings and outcome, including tracts required per operated renal unit (n), blood loss, postoperative fever, postoperative hospital stay, stone-free rate, and improvement of operated renal function. The operation time in the high-power group was significantly shorter than that in the low-power group (129.20±17.2 vs 105.18±14.2, Phigh-power Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy can greatly decrease the operative time without increasing the intraoperative complications or delaying postoperative renal function recovery when compared with low-power Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Low level helium neon laser therapy for chemoradiotherapy induced oral mucositis in oral cancer patients - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Ajay Prashad; Fernandes, Donald J; Vidyasagar, Mamidipudi S; Maiya, G Arun

    2012-09-01

    Patients receiving chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for oral cancer (OC) often develop oral mucositis (OM). OM associated pain severely affects oral functions and nutrition of the patient, resulting in narcotic analgesic use and CRT interruption. Laser therapy has shown some promising results in preventing and treating OM caused by cancer therapies. So in this trial we used prophylactic Low Level Helium Neon (He-Ne) Laser for the prevention and treatment of CRT induced OM in OC patients. This double blinded trial block randomized 121 primary OC patients scheduled to undergo CRT [RT dosage=66 Gray/33 fractions for 5 days/week and chemotherapy (3 weekly Cisplatin)] into laser (n=60) and placebo (n=61) group. Laser group received He-Ne Laser (λ=632.8 nm, P=24 mW, ED=3.5 J/cm(2)) while placebo received sham treatment just before radiation for 6.5 weeks. OM (RTOG/EORTC Scale), its associated pain, and total parenteral nutrition (TPN), were assessed on every week by a blinded assessor. Also opioid analgesic use, weight loss and any CRT break were recorded. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test and Man Whitney U test. Level of significance was set at plaser than placebo group patients. Also duration of severe OM and pain experienced was less in laser than placebo group. CRT break required only for placebo group (9%) patients. Low Level He-Ne Laser decreased the incidence of CRT induced severe OM and its associated pain, opioid analgesics use and TPN. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of multiple filaments in self-accelerating actions of laser filamentation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuze; Nie, Jinsong; Sun, Ke

    2017-11-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of multiple filaments in self-accelerating actions by using corrected accelerating parabolic beams (CAPBs) are numerically investigated. By increasing the number of main lobes, the curved filaments can be elongated, leading to a longer displacement. The replenished energy originating from curved multiple filaments (MFs) that constructively interfere with the central one plays a crucial role in the phenomenon. At the bifurcation position, a beam pattern in which secondary lobes tightly follow the main lobes is formed, which is beneficial for the accelerating action of MFs. A new curved filament is generated due to the merging of side-curved MFs, and its accelerating strength decreases gradually with further propagation. Moreover, a special spatiotemporal profile that enhances the possibility of acceleration is also formed. The use of the accelerating beam with the appropriate amount of main lobes provides a new approach to elongate curved filaments.

  16. Low-level infrared laser therapy in chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a randomized placebo-controlled trial in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Alessandra; Porto, Fernanda Antola; Miraglia, Patrícia; Brunetto, Algemir Lunardi

    2009-01-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is one of the most frequent complications of chemotherapy for which there is no standard therapy; treatment is mostly conservative. This study was conducted to determine whether low-intensity laser therapy (LLLT) can reduce the duration of chemotherapy-induced OM. A placebo-controlled randomized trial was carried out using LLLT or placebo (sham treatment). Children and adolescents with cancer receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation between October 2005 and May 2006 were eligible as soon as they developed OM. Patients received intervention for 5 days. The LLLT group was treated with laser GaAlAs, wavelength (lambda): 830 nm (infrared), power: 100 mW, dose: 4 J/cm, and placebo group underwent sham treatment. The grade of OM was clinically assessed by the National Cancer Institute, Common Toxicity Criteria scale. Twenty-one patients developed OM and were evaluable for analysis; 18 (86%) patients had a diagnosis of leukemia or lymphoma and 3(14%) had solid tumors. The mean age was 8.2 (+/-3.1) years. Nine patients were randomized in the laser group and 12 in the placebo-control group. Once OM was diagnosed, the patients had daily OM grading assessments before laser or sham application and thereafter until complete healing of the lesions. On day 7 after OM diagnosis, 1/9 of patients remained with lesions in laser group and 9/12 of patients in the placebo-control group (P=0.029). In the laser group, the mean of OM duration was 5.8+/-2 days and in the placebo group was 8.9+/-2.4 days (P=0.004). Our study has shown evidence that laser therapy in addition to oral care can decrease the duration of chemotherapy-induced OM. Our results confirm the promising results observed in adult cancer patients and should encourage pediatric oncologists to use laser therapy as first-line option in children with chemotherapy-induced OM.

  17. Effect of low-level laser therapy on inflammatory mediator release during chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a randomized preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Geisa Badauy Lauria; Sacono, Nancy Tomoko; Othon-Leite, Angélica Ferreira; Mendonça, Elismauro Francisco; Arantes, Adriano Moraes; Bariani, César; Duarte, Luciana Garcia Lobo; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira; Queiroz-Júnior, Celso Martins; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida; Batista, Aline Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are submitted to a conditioning regimen of high-dose chemotherapy, with or without radiation therapy, which usually results in oral ulcerations and mucosal barrier breakdown. Oral mucositis (OM) is a common and debilitating toxicity side effect of autologous and allogeneic HSCT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the severity of OM and inflammatory mediator (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, TGF-β, metalloproteinases, and growth factors) levels in saliva and blood of HSCT patients. Thirty patients were randomly assigned to two groups: control (n = 15) and laser (n = 15). LLLT was applied from the first day of the conditioning regimen until day 7 post-HSCT (D + 7). Saliva and blood were collected from patients on admission (AD), D-1, D + 3, D + 7, and on marrow engraftment day (ME). Clinical results showed less severe OM in the laser group (p levels in saliva on D + 7 (p = 0.04). Significant differences were also observed for IL-10 on D + 7 and on ME in blood plasma, when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). No significant differences were seen in saliva or blood for the other inflammatory mediators investigated. LLLT was clinically effective in reducing the severity of chemotherapy-induced OM in HSCT patients, and its mechanism of action does not seem to be completely linked to the modulation of pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors or matrix metalloproteinases.

  18. Percutaneous laser disc decompression versus microdiscectomy for sciatica: Cost utility analysis alongside a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske; Brouwer, Patrick A; Brand, Ronald; Koes, Bart; van den Hout, Wilbert B; van Buchem, Mark A; Peul, Wilco C

    2017-10-01

    Background Percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) for patients with lumbar disc herniation is believed to be cheaper than surgery. However, cost-effectiveness has never been studied. Materials and Methods A cost utility analysis was performed alongside a randomized controlled trial comparing PLDD and conventional surgery. Patients reported their quality of life using the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D), 36-item short form health survey (SF-36 and derived SF-6D) and a visual analogue scale (VAS). Using cost diaries patients reported health care use, non-health care use and hours of absenteeism from work. The 1-year societal costs were compared with 1-year quality adjusted life years (QALYs) based on the United States (US) EQ-5D. Sensitivity analyses were carried out on the use of different utility measures (Netherland (NL) EQ-5D, SF-6D, or VAS) and on the perspective (societal or healthcare). Results On the US EQ-5D, conventional surgery provided a non-significant gain in QALYs of 0.033 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.026 to 0.093) in the first year. PLDD resulted in significantly lower healthcare costs (difference €1771, 95% CI €303 to €3238) and non-significantly lower societal costs (difference €2379, 95% CI -€2860 to €7618). For low values of the willingness to pay for a QALY, the probability of being cost-effective is in favor of PLDD. For higher values of the willingness to pay, between €30,000 and €70,000, conventional microdiscectomy becomes favorable. Conclusions From a healthcare perspective PLDD, followed by surgery when needed, results in significantly lower 1-year costs than conventional surgery. From a societal perspective PLDD appears to be an economically neutral innovation.

  19. Systematic Angle Random Walk Estimation of the Constant Rate Biased Ring Laser Gyro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohu Feng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An actual account of the angle random walk (ARW coefficients of gyros in the constant rate biased rate ring laser gyro (RLG inertial navigation system (INS is very important in practical engineering applications. However, no reported experimental work has dealt with the issue of characterizing the ARW of the constant rate biased RLG in the INS. To avoid the need for high cost precise calibration tables and complex measuring set-ups, the objective of this study is to present a cost-effective experimental approach to characterize the ARW of the gyros in the constant rate biased RLG INS. In the system, turntable dynamics and other external noises would inevitably contaminate the measured RLG data, leading to the question of isolation of such disturbances. A practical observation model of the gyros in the constant rate biased RLG INS was discussed, and an experimental method based on the fast orthogonal search (FOS for the practical observation model to separate ARW error from the RLG measured data was proposed. Validity of the FOS-based method was checked by estimating the ARW coefficients of the mechanically dithered RLG under stationary and turntable rotation conditions. By utilizing the FOS-based method, the average ARW coefficient of the constant rate biased RLG in the postulate system is estimated. The experimental results show that the FOS-based method can achieve high denoising ability. This method estimate the ARW coefficients of the constant rate biased RLG in the postulate system accurately. The FOS-based method does not need precise calibration table with high cost and complex measuring set-up, and Statistical results of the tests will provide us references in engineering application of the constant rate biased RLG INS.

  20. Caries removal in deciduous teeth using an Er:YAG laser: a randomized split-mouth clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valério, Rodrigo Alexandre; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Serra, Monica Campos; Polizeli, Silvana Aparecida Fernandes; Nemezio, Mariana Alencar; Galo, Rodrigo; Aires, Carolina Patrícia; Dos Santos, Ana Carolina; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present clinical randomized split-mouth study was to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of an Er:YAG laser for caries removal in primary molars, microbiological dentin analysis, and clinical restorations after 1 year in 29 children. The children's teeth were randomized into two groups: (I) an Er:YAG laser group and (II) a bur preparation group. The efficiency of the treatments (the time necessary for the removal of carious tissue) was evaluated based on the time spent on caries removal in the deciduous molars. The effectiveness (caries removal capacity) of the caries removal was determined by means of a blind test in which the examiner performed a tactile and visual examination of the dentin. Microbiological analysis was performed by counting the Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus sp in the remaining dentin. Clinical analysis of restorations was performed using the USPHS method in combination with photographs of restored teeth, 7 days after the restorative procedure and again after 1 year. All cavities were restored with the Adper Single Bond 2/Filtek Z350 system. The obtained data were analyzed with a significance level of 5 %. The Er:YAG laser was less effective and had the same efficacy as bur preparation during caries removal at the pulpal wall of deciduous molars. In the surrounding walls, bur preparation was the more effective method. Regardless of the method employed, the affected dentin in the pulpal wall had similar amounts of S. mutans and Lactobacillus sp. The restorations were clinically accepted by the USPHS method over a 1-year period. It can be concluded that caries removal with an Er:YAG laser has no influence on the clinical behavior of restorations. Irradiation with an Er:YAG laser is appropriate for caries removal in primary teeth.

  1. Voice Quality After Treatment of Early Vocal Cord Cancer: A Randomized Trial Comparing Laser Surgery With Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, Leena-Maija, E-mail: leena-maija.aaltonen@hus.fi [Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Rautiainen, Noora; Sellman, Jaana [Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Saarilahti, Kauko [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Mäkitie, Antti; Rihkanen, Heikki [Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Laranne, Jussi; Kleemola, Leenamaija [Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, and University of Tampere, Tampere (Finland); Wigren, Tuija [Department of Oncology, Tampere University Hospital, and University of Tampere, Tampere (Finland); Sala, Eeva [Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Turku University Hospital, and University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Lindholm, Paula [Department of Oncology, Turku University Hospital, and University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Grenman, Reidar [Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Turku University Hospital, and University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Joensuu, Heikki [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-10-01

    Objective: Early laryngeal cancer is usually treated with either transoral laser surgery or radiation therapy. The quality of voice achieved with these treatments has not been compared in a randomized trial. Methods and Materials: Male patients with carcinoma limited to 1 mobile vocal cord (T1aN0M0) were randomly assigned to receive either laser surgery (n=32) or external beam radiation therapy (n=28). Surgery consisted of tumor excision with a CO{sub 2} laser with the patient under general anaesthesia. External beam radiation therapy to the larynx was delivered to a cumulative dose of 66 Gy in 2-Gy daily fractions over 6.5 weeks. Voice quality was assessed at baseline and 6 and 24 months after treatment. The main outcome measures were expert-rated voice quality on a grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain (GRBAS) scale, videolaryngostroboscopic findings, and the patients' self-rated voice quality and its impact on activities of daily living. Results: Overall voice quality between the groups was rated similar, but voice was more breathy and the glottal gap was wider in patients treated with laser surgery than in those who received radiation therapy. Patients treated with radiation therapy reported less hoarseness-related inconvenience in daily living 2 years after treatment. Three patients in each group had local cancer recurrence within 2 years from randomization. Conclusions: Radiation therapy may be the treatment of choice for patients whose requirements for voice quality are demanding. Overall voice quality was similar in both treatment groups, however, indicating a need for careful consideration of patient-related factors in the choice of a treatment option.

  2. Fractional CO2 laser resurfacing for atrophic acne scars: a randomized controlled trial with blinded response evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedelund, Lene; Haak, Christina S; Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Bogh, Morten K; Bjerring, Peter; Haedersdal, Merete

    2012-08-01

    The treatment of acne scars with fractional CO(2) lasers is gaining increasing impact, but has so far not been compared side-by-side to untreated control skin. In a randomized controlled study to examine efficacy and adverse effects of fractional CO(2) laser resurfacing for atrophic acne scars compared to no treatment. Patients (n = 13) with atrophic acne scars in two intra-individual areas of similar sizes and appearances were randomized to (i) three monthly fractional CO(2) laser treatments (MedArt 610; 12-14 W, 48-56 mJ/pulse, 13% density) and (ii) no treatment. Blinded on-site evaluations were performed by three physicians on 10-point scales. Endpoints were change in scar texture and atrophy, adverse effects, and patient satisfaction. Preoperatively, acne scars appeared with moderate to severe uneven texture (6.15 ± 1.23) and atrophy (5.72 ± 1.45) in both interventional and non-interventional control sites, P = 1. Postoperatively, lower scores of scar texture and atrophy were obtained at 1 month (scar texture 4.31 ± 1.33, P scar texture 4.26 ± 1.97, P scar texture 3.89 ± 1.7, P scar texture to be mild or moderately improved. Adverse effects were minor. In this single-blinded randomized controlled trial we demonstrated that moderate to severe atrophic acne scars can be safely improved by ablative fractional CO(2) laser resurfacing. The use of higher energy levels might have improved the results and possibly also induced significant adverse effects. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Phase transformations on the surface of YAG composite ceramics under the action of directed laser treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasova, M., E-mail: vlasovamarina@inbox.ru; Márquez Aguilar, P.A.; Escobar Martinez, A.; Kakazey, M.; Guardian Tapia, R.; Trujillo Estrada, A.

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • During directed laser treatment of the surface of the composite ceramics consisting of predominantly Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the oriented crystallization of YAG and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} takes place. • As a result of high-temperature heating, in the surface layer of tracks, the partial dissociation of Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}, Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}, and Al{sub 2}Y{sub 4}O{sub 9} and enrichment in YAlO{sub 3} occur. • The content of YAlO{sub 3}, the size of YAG crystallites, and their crystallographic texturing depend on the irradiation mode. • After laser treatment, the ceramic material transforms into a three-layer macrostructure consisting of the basic ceramic material, near-surface textured layer, and surface layer. - Abstract: The laser treatment of composite ceramics based on Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} with Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}, Al{sub 2}Y{sub 4}O{sub 9}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} additives is accompanied by the melting of the surface layer and formation of tracks. In the volume of tracks, the partial dissociation of Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}, Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}, and Al{sub 2}Y{sub 4}O{sub 9}, and the formation of new phases such as YAlO{sub 3} of orthorhombic and hexagonal modifications along with the appearance of additional content of Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are observed. The content of all these phases depends on the irradiation mode and the phase composition of the ceramics. With increase in the corundum content in ceramic specimens, in the tracks, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content increases, and the Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} content decreases. In the volume of tracks, Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} crystallites are textured. The size of YAG crystallites and their crystallographic texturing depend on the irradiation mode and Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase ratio. On the surface of tracks, a layer enriched in YAlO{sub 3} forms. Thus, as a result of laser

  4. Intracavity-Pumped Raman Laser Action in a Mid-IR, Continuous-Wave (cw) MgO:PPLN Optical Parametric Oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okishev, A.V.; Zuegel, J.D.

    2006-12-13

    Intracavity-pumped Raman laser action in a fiber-laser–pumped, single-resonant, continuous-wave (cw) MgO:PPLN optical parametric oscillator with a high-Q linear resonator has been observed for the first time to our knowledge. Experimental results of this phenomenon investigation will be discussed.

  5. Pseudo-Random Modulation of a Laser Diode for Generating Ultrasonic Longitudinal Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Anatasi, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Laser generated ultrasound systems have historically been more complicated and expensive than conventional piezoelectric based systems, and this fact has relegated the acceptance of laser based systems to niche applications for which piezoelectric based systems are less suitable. Lowering system costs, while improving throughput, increasing ultrasound signal levels, and improving signal-to-noise are goals which will help increase the general acceptance of laser based ultrasound. One current limitation with conventional laser generated ultrasound is a material s damage threshold limit. Increasing the optical power to generate more signal eventually damages the material being tested due to rapid, high heating. Generation limitations for laser based ultrasound suggests the use of pulse modulation techniques as an alternate generation method. Pulse modulation techniques can spread the laser energy over time or space, thus reducing laser power densities and minimizing damage. Previous experiments by various organizations using spatial or temporal pulse modulation have been shown to generate detectable surface, plate, and bulk ultrasonic waves with narrow frequency bandwidths . Using narrow frequency bandwidths improved signal detectability, but required the use of expensive and powerful lasers and opto-electronic systems. The use of a laser diode to generate ultrasound is attractive because of its low cost, small size, light weight, simple optics and modulation capability. The use of pulse compression techniques should allow certain types of laser diodes to produce usable ultrasonic signals. The method also does not need to be limited to narrow frequency bandwidths. The method demonstrated here uses a low power laser diode (approximately 150 mW) that is modulated by controlling the diode s drive current and the resulting signal is recovered by cross correlation. A potential application for this system which is briefly demonstrated is in detecting signals in thick

  6. Laser action in Eu-doped GaN thin-film cavity at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Steckl, A. J.

    2004-11-01

    Rare-earth-based lasing action in GaN is demonstrated. Room-temperature stimulated emission (SE) was obtained at 620 nm from an optical cavity formed by growing in situ Eu-doped GaN thin films on sapphire substrates. The SE threshold for optical pumping of a ˜1 at. % Eu-doped GaN sample was ˜10kW/cm2. The SE threshold was accompanied by reductions in the emission linewidth and lifetime. A modal gain of ˜43cm-1 and a modal loss of ˜20cm-1 were obtained.

  7. Early results of low-level laser application for masticatory muscle pain: a double-blind randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancakli, Erkan; Gökçen-Röhlıg, Bilge; Balık, Ali; Öngül, Değer; Kıpırdı, Selin; Keskın, Haluk

    2015-10-23

    To evaluate the effect of Low Level Laser (LLL) application at the points of greatest pain in patients with chronic masticatory muscle pain. A total number of 30 (21 women, 9 men, with a mean age of 39.2) were selected after the diagnosis of MPDS according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorder (RDC/TMD). The patients were randomly divided into three groups; laser group I (n = 10); patients received the LLL at the point of greatest pain, laser group II (n = 10); patients received LLL at pre-established points in the effected muscles and placebo group (n = 10). LLL and placebo were applied three times per week, for a total of 12 sessions. Mandibular mobility was examined, masticator muscles tenderness were assessed and PPT values were obtained. Subjective pain levels were evaluated using VAS. The measurements performed before the treatment and after the completion of the therapy. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, and frequency) Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test and paired-sample t-tests were used for analysis. In both laser groups, there was a statically significant reduction in PPT values of the muscles, number of muscles without any pain on palpation increased significantly, mandibular movements' ranges were improved. Laser group I demonstrated statistically better results than the Laser group II in all of the measured values. Plasebo group did not show any statistically difference in any of the measured values. LLLT can be accepted as an alternative treatment modality in the management of masticatory muscle pain and direct irradiation seems to effect better. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN31085 , Date of registration 28/08/20145.

  8. Laser Therapy and Occlusal Stabilization Splint for Temporomandibular Disorders in Patients With Fibromyalgia Syndrome: A Randomized, Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Torres, Guadalupe; Rodríguez-Archilla, Alberto; Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo; Albornoz-Cabello, Manuel; Aguilar-Ferrándiz, María Encarnación; Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María

    2016-09-01

    Context • Patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) report frequent and severe symptoms from temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). The appropriate treatment of TMDs remains controversial. No studies have occurred on the efficacy of therapy with a laser or an occlusal stabilization splint in the treatment of TMDs in patients with FMS. Objective • The study intended to investigate the therapeutic effects of laser therapy and of an occlusal stabilization splint for reducing pain and dysfunction and improving the quality of sleep in patients with TMDs and FMS. Design • The research team designed a single-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Setting • The study took place in the research laboratory at the University of Granada (Granada, Spain). Participants • Participants were 58 women and men who had been diagnosed with FMS and TMDs and who were referred from the clinical setting. Intervention • Participants were randomly assigned to the occlusal-splint or the laser group. The laser group received a treatment protocol in which laser therapy was applied to the participant's tender points, and the occlusal-splint group underwent a treatment protocol in which an occlusal stabilization splint was used. Both groups underwent treatment for 12 wk. Outcomes Measures • Pain intensity, widespread pain, quality of sleep, severity of symptoms, active and passive mouth opening, and joint sounds were assessed in both groups at baseline and after the last intervention. The measurements used were (1) a visual analogue scale (VAS), (2) the Widespread Pain Index (WPI), (3) the Symptom Severity Scale (SSS), (4) the Patient's Global Impression of Change (PGIC), (5) the Pittsburgh Quality of Sleep Questionnaire Index (PSQI), (6) an assessment of the number of tender points, (7) a measurement of the active mouth opening, (8) a measurement of the vertical overlap of the incisors, and (9) the measurement of joint sounds during mouth opening and closing. Results • The group X time

  9. Fractional nonablative 1,540-nm laser resurfacing of atrophic acne scars. A randomized controlled trial with blinded response evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedelund, Lene; Moreau, Karen Estell R; Beyer, Ditte M

    2010-01-01

    fractional laser treatment of acne scars. Ten patients with acne scars were included. Two intraindividual areas of similar size and appearance within contralateral anatomical regions were randomized to (1) 3-monthly laser treatments with a StarLux 1,540-nm fractional handpiece, and (2) no treatment. Blinded...... appeared more even and smooth than untreated control areas (4.5, 2-6.5, versus 6.5, 4.5-8, P=0.0156, at 4 weeks; 4.5, 2.5-6.5, versus 6.5, 4.5-8, at 12 weeks; P=0.0313). Patients were satisfied with the treatment (5.5, 1-7, after 12 weeks) and five of the ten patients evaluated their acne scars......The efficacy of nonablative fractional laser resurfacing of acne scars has been described in case reports and uncontrolled trials. The present study is the first randomized controlled trial in this field. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and adverse effects of 1,540-nm nonablative...

  10. Ultraviolet Laser Action in Ferromagnetic Zn1−x Fe x O Nanoneedles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau SP

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fe-doped ZnO nanoneedles (NDs were fabricated by an Ar+ ion sputtering technique operated at room temperature. The as-grown samples show both ferromagnetic and lasing properties. The saturated magnetization moment was measured from 0.307 to 0.659 emu cm−3 at the field of 10 kOe with various Fe concentrations. Intense ultraviolet random lasing emission was observed from Zn1 − x Fe x O NDs at room temperature. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy result reveals that the doped Fe atoms occupy the Zn sites and lead to a decrease in oxygen deficiency.

  11. Comparison of pain and swelling after removal of oral leukoplakia with CO₂ laser and cold knife: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jornet, Pía; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare conventional surgery with carbon dioxide (CO₂) laser in patients with oral leukoplakia, and to evaluate the postoperative pain and swelling. A total of 48 patients (27 males and 21 females) with a mean age of 53.7 ± 11.7 years and diagnosed with oral leukoplakia were randomly assigned to receive treatment either with conventional surgery using a cold knife or with a CO₂ laser technique. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to score pain and swelling at different postoperative time points. Pain and swelling reported by the patients was greater with the conventional cold knife than with the CO₂ laser, statistically significant differences for pain and swelling were observed between the two techniques during the first three days after surgery. Followed by a gradual decrease over one week. In neither group was granuloma formation observed, and none of the patients showed malignant transformation during the period of follow-up. The CO₂ laser causes only minimal pain and swelling, thus suggesting that it may be an alternative method to conventional surgery in treating patients with oral leukoplakia.

  12. Adjunctive Non-Surgical Therapy of Inflamed Periodontal Pockets During Maintenance Therapy Using Diode Laser: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Naomi-Trang; Byarlay, Matthew R; Reinhardt, Richard A; Marx, David B; Meinberg, Trudy A; Kaldahl, Wayne B

    2015-10-01

    Numerous studies have documented the clinical outcomes of laser therapy for untreated periodontitis, but very few have reported on lasers treating inflamed pockets during maintenance therapy. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of scaling and root planing (SRP) plus the adjunctive use of diode laser therapy to SRP alone on changes in the clinical parameters of disease and on the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) inflammatory mediator interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in patients receiving regular periodontal maintenance therapy. This single-masked and randomized, controlled, prospective study includes 22 patients receiving regular periodontal maintenance therapy who had one or more periodontal sites with a probing depth (PD) ≥ 5 mm with bleeding on probing (BOP). Fifty-six sites were treated with SRP and adjunctive laser therapy (SRP + L). Fifty-eight sites were treated with SRP alone. Clinical parameters, including PD, clinical attachment level (CAL), and BOP, and GCF IL-1β levels were measured immediately before treatment (baseline) and 3 months after treatment. Sites treated with SRP + L and SRP alone resulted in statistically significant reductions in PD and BOP and gains in CAL. These changes were not significantly different between the two therapies. Similarly, differences in GCF IL-1β levels between SRP + L and SRP alone were not statistically significant. In periodontal maintenance patients, SRP + L did not enhance clinical outcomes compared to SRP alone in the treatment of inflamed sites with ≥ 5 mm PD.

  13. Clinical effect of bovine amniotic membrane and hydrocolloid on wound by laser treatment: prospective comparative randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seonguk; Yoon, Ji Young; Park, Seon Yong; Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Suh, Dae Hun

    2014-01-01

    Bovine amniotic membrane (BAM) has been regarded as an ideal dressing material because it accelerates epithelization and has anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and strong analgesic effects. To evaluate the clinical effects of BAM and compare them to that of hydrocolloid dressings on wounds created by ablative laser treatments, 49 subjects with nevi or scars requiring ablative laser treatment were evaluated. To compare efficacy, we divided the body into six areas and included patients with two or more similar skin lesions in the same body area. After ablative laser treatments, BAM and hydrocolloid dressing were applied to the wounds with random allocation. Clinical assessments were performed at baseline, 1, 4, 6, 8, 11, and 13 days after treatment. Histologic changes were assessed by skin biopsy. BAM treatment induced faster epithelization than hydrocolloid treatment (6.7 vs. 9.2 days). Erythema and oozing faded more quickly, and the satisfaction score was higher in BAM-treated sites than it was in hydrocolloid-treated sites, without severe adverse effects. Histologic analysis confirmed epithelization and immunohistochemistry revealed different growth factor profiles between the two treatment modalities. BAM benefits wound healing following ablative laser treatment. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  14. Combined laser acupuncture and desmopressin for treating resistant cases of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: a randomized comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moursy, Essam Eldin S; Kamel, Naglaa F; Kaseem, Ahmed F

    2014-12-01

    Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) is a common sociomedical problem affecting children that may persist until adulthood despite various lines of therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of combined laser acupuncture and desmopressin in managing patients with resistant MNE, compared with their efficacy when used as monotherapy. The study included 186 patients with a mean age of 15.7 years (range 10-21 years) presenting with persistent MNE. All patients were evaluated clinically and investigated with urine analysis, plain X-ray of the urinary tract and abdominal ultrasonography. They were randomized into three equal groups based on the line of management: group A, managed with laser acupuncture alone; group B, managed with desmopressin alone; and group C, managed with a combination of laser acupuncture and desmopressin, with a treatment course of 3 months and follow-up period of 6 months to record the efficacy of therapy, side-effects and bladder capacity. A statistically significant higher cure rate was reported in group C patients, being reported in 33, 35 and 46 patients in groups A, B and C, respectively. Improvement was reported in 18, 17 and 13 cases in groups A, B and C, respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant. Bladder capacity significantly increased only in patients receiving acupuncture (groups A and C). Combined laser acupuncture and desmopressin is a promising and valid option to manage resistant cases of MNE.

  15. Clinical Improvement and Safety of Ablative Fractional Laser Therapy for Post-Surgical Scars: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custis, Trenton; Eisen, Daniel B

    2015-11-01

    Ablative fractional laser (AFL) therapy for scars is an area of increasing interest. While the enthusiasm for these treatments is high, a systematic review of their use on surgical scars has not been done. To identify randomized trials that study the efficacy of ablative fractionated laser therapy for treatment of surgical scars. EMBASE, Web of Science, and Pubmed databases were searched for randomized trials with 10 or more surgical wounds. No restrictions were placed on the language of the publications. Three randomized trials were identified that met the criteria for the review. One study found superior efficacy of ablative fractionated laser treatment of surgical scars compared to pulsed dye laser while the others found equivalent efficacy when compared to dermabrasion or pulsed dye laser. One study found a superior safety profile for ablative fractionated laser treatment over dermabrasion. No studies compared fractionated laser therapy to sham therapy or observation. AFL compares well with the scar amelioration techniques of dermabrasion and pulsed dye laser. Additional studies are needed to further contrast AFL to these and other modalities as well as to observation alone.

  16. New random trigger-feature for ultrashort-pulsed laser increases throughput, accuracy and quality in micromachining applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Andreas; Ammann, Hubert; Benetti, Marco; Wassermann, Dominique; Jaeggi, Beat; Remund, Stefan; Neuenschwander, Beat

    2017-02-01

    For most micromachining applications, the laser focus has to be moved across the workpiece, either by steering the beam or by moving the workpiece. To maximize throughput, this movement should be as fast as possible. However, the required positioning accuracy often limits the obtainable speed. Especially the machining of small and complex features with high precision is constrained by the motion-system's maximum acceleration, limiting the obtainable moving spot velocity to very low values. In general, processing speed can vary widely within the same processing job. To obtain optimum quality at maximum throughput, ideally the pulse energy and the pulse-to-pulse pitch on the workpiece are kept constant. This is only possible if laser-pulses can be randomly triggered, synchronized to the current spot velocity. For ultrafast lasers this is not easily possible, as by design they are usually operated at a fixed pulse repetition rate. The pulse frequency can only be changed by dividing down with integer numbers which leads to a rather coarse frequency grid, especially when applied close to the maximum used operating frequency. This work reports on a new technique allowing random triggering of an ultrafast laser. The resulting timing uncertainty is less than ±25ns, which is negligible for real-world applications, energy stability is <2% rms. The technique allows using acceleration-ramps of the implemented motion system instead of applying additional override moves or skywriting techniques. This can reduce the processing time by up to 40%. Results of applying this technique to different processing geometries and strategies will be presented.

  17. Treatment of diffuse diabetic maculopathy with intravitreal triamcinolone and laser photocoagulation: randomized clinical trial with morphological and functional evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Luiz Gil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Treatment of diffuse macular edema in diabetes mellitus is currently unsatisfactory. The purpose of this double blind randomized clinical trial was to compare the treatment of diffuse diabetic macular edema with intravitreal triamcinolone or laser in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients using a morphofunctional assessment. METHODS: Fourteen patients (21 eyes with clinically significant diffuse macular-edema, previously untreated and with a macular thickness >250 µm at optical coherence tomography were randomized for treatment with laser or intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetate. Optical coherence tomography, biomicroscopy, fundoscopy, fluorescein angiography, tonometry, scotometry, visual and contrast acuities were performed at 0, 1, 3 and 6 months. RESULTS: At pre-treatment stage, Laser (n=9 and Triamcinolone (n=12 groups did not differ regarding retinal thickness, visual and contrast acuities. In Triamcinolone group macular thickness decreased after 1 month (424.1 ± 19.9 µm to 358.4 ± 18.2 µm; p=0.04 and started to return to the initial values in the 3rd month (p=0.02. No changes occurred in macular scotometry and visual and contrast acuities. No side effects were observed with both treatments. CONCLUSION: During the study macular thickness diminished in the triamcinolone group, especially in the first month of treatment. At 3 and 6 months there was no difference. Macular thickness did not change during the study in the laser group. In the study sample it was not possible to demonstrate differences relates to visual acuity and scotometry between the two groups. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00668239

  18. Treatment of diffuse diabetic maculopathy with intravitreal triamcinolone and laser photocoagulation: randomized clinical trial with morphological and functional evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Alberto Luiz; Azevedo, Mirela Jobim de; Tomasetto, Giovani Generali; Muniz, Carlos Henrique Gervini; Lavinsky, Jacó

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of diffuse macular edema in diabetes mellitus is currently unsatisfactory. The purpose of this double blind randomized clinical trial was to compare the treatment of diffuse diabetic macular edema with intravitreal triamcinolone or laser in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients using a morphofunctional assessment. Fourteen patients (21 eyes) with clinically significant diffuse macular-edema, previously untreated and with a macular thickness >250 µm at optical coherence tomography were randomized for treatment with laser or intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetate. Optical coherence tomography, biomicroscopy, fundoscopy, fluorescein angiography, tonometry, scotometry, visual and contrast acuities were performed at 0, 1, 3 and 6 months. At pre-treatment stage, Laser (n=9) and Triamcinolone (n=12) groups did not differ regarding retinal thickness, visual and contrast acuities. In Triamcinolone group macular thickness decreased after 1 month (424.1 ± 19.9 µm to 358.4 ± 18.2 µm; p=0.04) and started to return to the initial values in the 3(rd) month (p=0.02). No changes occurred in macular scotometry and visual and contrast acuities. No side effects were observed with both treatments. During the study macular thickness diminished in the triamcinolone group, especially in the first month of treatment. At 3 and 6 months there was no difference. Macular thickness did not change during the study in the laser group. In the study sample it was not possible to demonstrate differences relates to visual acuity and scotometry between the two groups. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00668239.

  19. Fractional CO2 laser assisted delivery of topical anesthetics: A randomized controlled pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Arne A.; Bakker, Myrna M.; de Rie, Menno A.; Wolkerstorfer, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Many dermatological procedures are performed under local anesthesia. Topical anesthesia requires prolonged occlusion and is often insufficient. Infiltration anesthesia is associated with discomfort. Pretreatment with an ablative fractional laser (AFXL) may enhance penetration of topical drugs,

  20. All-optically controllable random laser based on a dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal with nano-sized droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C-R; Lin, S-H; Guo, C-H; Chang, S-H; Mo, T-S; Chu, S-C

    2010-02-01

    This study elucidates for the first time an all-optically controllable random laser in a dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (DDPDLC) with nano-sized LC droplets. Experimental results demonstrate that the lasing intensity of the random laser can be controlled to decrease by increasing irradiation time/intensity of one green beam, and increase by increasing the irradiation time of one red beam. The all-optical controllability of the random laser is attributed to the green (red)-beaminduced isothermal nematic-->isotropic (isotropic-->nematic) phase transition in LC droplets by trans-->cis (cis-->trans back) isomerization of azo dyes. This isomerization may decrease (increase) the difference between the refractive indices of the LC droplets and the polymer, thereby increasing (decreasing) the diffusion constant (or transport mean free path), subsequently decreasing the scattering strength and, thus, random lasing intensity.

  1. Fractal Time Random Walk and Subrecoil Laser Cooling Considered as Renewal Processes with Infinite Mean Waiting Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardou, F.

    There exist important stochastic physical processes involving infinite mean waiting times. The mean divergence has dramatic consequences on the process dynamics. Fractal time random walks, a diffusion process, and subrecoil laser cooling, a concentration process, are two such processes that look qualitatively dissimilar. Yet, a unifying treatment of these two processes, which is the topic of this pedagogic paper, can be developed by combining renewal theory with the generalized central limit theorem. This approach enables to derive without technical difficulties the key physical properties and it emphasizes the role of the behaviour of sums with infinite means.

  2. Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeron, T

    2012-12-01

    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. [Lasers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeron, T

    2012-11-01

    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M.; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others. PMID:25352805

  5. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others.

  6. Chronic effects of resistance exercise using reciprocal muscle actions on functional and proprioceptive performance of young individuals: randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euler Alves Cardoso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested that benefits from resistance exercise (RE using antagonist muscle pre-activation could be transferred to functional activities. However, chronic studies using pre-activation through reciprocal actions in neuromuscular performance and functional activities are scarce. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of 12 RE sessions using reciprocal muscle actions and a traditional mode on functional and proprioceptive performance of young individuals. Forty eight young subjects were randomized into two groups: 1 reciprocal training (RT, 3 sets; 10 repetitions; knee flexion immediately followed by knee extension, 2 traditional training (TRA, 3 sets. 10 repetitions; knee extension. Pre and post evaluations were characterized by balance tests, hop tests (HT and ”8” shape circuit (RC8. ANOVA 2X2 of mixed model was applied to analyze differences between pre and post-training conditions and between groups. For overall and anterior-posterior balance, no significant differences were found between RT and TRA (p>0.05. Similarly, no post-training differences were found. The medial lateral balance in the dominant limb showed no significant differences in post-training for both groups (p = 0.94, but the non-dominant limb showed significant differences between groups (p<0.01. In HT, significant post-training increases were found within groups (p<0.01, but no differences were found between them (p=0.90. RC8 was different between groups (p=0.03, indicating better post-training running time for TRA. Resistance exercise caused transfers to balance and functional performance, and training with reciprocal muscle actions showed better rates for HT and medial lateral knee balance.

  7. Hemoglobin, exercise training, and health status in patients with chronic heart failure (from the HF-ACTION randomized controlled trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña, Ileana L; Lin, Li; Weinfurt, Kevin P; Isitt, John J; Whellan, David J; Schulman, Kevin A; Flynn, Kathryn E

    2013-10-01

    Anemia is common in patients with chronic heart failure (HF), with a prevalence ranging from 10% to 56%, and may be a risk factor for poor outcomes. Anemia in HF remains poorly understood, with significant gaps in its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), with most studies in HF being retrospective or from registries. The purpose of this study was to explore the relation of hemoglobin (Hgb) with HRQoL and training-induced changes in HRQoL in a cohort of patients in Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training (HF-ACTION). Using data from HF-ACTION, a randomized controlled trial of exercise training in patients with HF and low left ventricular ejection fractions, HRQoL was measured using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) at baseline, 3 and 12 months, and annually up to 4 years. Treatment group effects on HRQoL were estimated using linear mixed models according to the intention-to-treat principle. It was hypothesized that baseline Hgb would be correlated with baseline KCCQ scales and that Hgb would moderate the beneficial effect of exercise training on HRQoL. Hgb level was not significantly correlated with baseline HRQoL. Baseline Hgb did not moderate the beneficial effect of exercise training on KCCQ overall or subscales relative to usual care. In conclusion, in the HF-ACTION cohort, there was no correlation with baseline Hgb and baseline HRQoL as measured by the KCCQ. In addition, the beneficial effects of HRQoL from exercise training were not modulated by baseline Hgb. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Miscellaneous Lasing Actions in Organo-Lead Halide Perovskite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zonghui; Wang, Shuai; Yi, Ningbo; Gu, Zhiyuan; Gao, Yisheng; Song, Qinghai; Xiao, Shumin

    2017-06-21

    Lasing actions in organo-lead halide perovskite films have been heavily studied in the past few years. However, due to the disordered nature of synthesized perovskite films, the lasing actions are usually understood as random lasers that are formed by multiple scattering. Herein, we demonstrate the miscellaneous lasing actions in organo-lead halide perovskite films. In addition to the random lasers, we show that a single or a few perovskite microparticles can generate laser emissions with their internal resonances instead of multiple scattering among them. We experimentally observed and numerically confirmed whispering gallery (WG)-like microlasers in polygon shaped and other deformed microparticles. Meanwhile, owing to the nature of total internal reflection and the novel shape of the nanoparticle, the size of the perovskite WG laser can be significantly decreased to a few hundred nanometers. Thus, wavelength-scale lead halide perovskite lasers were realized for the first time. All of these laser behaviors are complementary to typical random lasers in perovskite film and will help the understanding of lasing actions in complex lead halide perovskite systems.

  9. Nd:YAG laser in occlusal caries prevention of primary teeth: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucci-Neto, Walter; de Castro-Raucci, Larissa Moreira Spinola; Lepri, Cesar Penazzo; Faraoni-Romano, Juliana Jendiroba; Gomes da Silva, Jaciara Miranda; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries is still the most prevalent chronic disease affecting human populations. Among the preventive treatments performed, it has been reported that laser irradiation combined with topical fluoride can induce an even greater increase in enamel caries resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Nd:YAG laser, with or without fluoride, in occlusal caries prevention of the primary dentition. A double-blind split-mouth study design was used. Fifty-two children with high caries risk (7.6 ± 1.4 years) were selected and received the following: G1--the first molar was a negative control, and the second received a resin sealant; G2--the first molar was a negative control, and the second received laser irradiation (50 mJ, 10 Hz, 0.5 W); G3--the first molar received only acidulate phosphate fluoride (APF), and the second received APF + laser; G4--fisrt molar received only fluoride varnish, and the second received fluoride varnish + laser. Patients were followed up to 12 months to evaluate the presence of white-spot lesions and/or caries cavities by three calibrated observers. Thirty-five patients completed the study. Significant differences were found between the treatment and control groups (p laser-alone and resin sealant resulted in statistically lower caries formation than the negative control group (p laser irradiation in primary teeth effectively prevented occlusal caries in pits and fissures when used alone with lower energy over a 1-year period.

  10. Low-level laser therapy for treatment of neurosensory disorders after orthognathic surgery: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, M-A-V; Paranhos, L-R; Martins-Filho, P-R-S

    2017-11-01

    Low-level laser has been widely used in Dentistry and many studies have focused on its application in oral surgeries. This study was conducted with the aim of searching for scientific evidence concerning the effectiveness of laser to reduce pain or paresthesia related to orthognathic surgery. An electronic search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, LILACS, SciELO, CENTRAL, Google Scholar, OpenGrey, and ClinicalTrials.gov, up to November 2016, with no restrictions on language or year of publication. Additionally, a hand search of the reference list of the selected studies was carried out. The PICOS strategy was used to define the eligibility criteria and only randomized clinical trials were selected. Out of 1,257 identified citations, three papers fulfilled the criteria and were included in the systematic review. The risk of bias was assessed according to the Cochrane Guidelines for Clinical Trials and results were exposed based on a descriptive analysis. One study showed that laser therapy was effective to reduce postoperative pain 24 hours (P=0.007) and 72 hours (P=0.007) after surgery. Other study revealed the positive effect of laser to improve neurosensory recovery 60 days after surgery, evaluated also by the two-point discrimination (P=0.005) and sensory (P=0.008) tests. The third study reported an improvement for general sensibility of 68.75% for laser group, compared with 21.43% for placebo (P=0.0095), six months after surgery. Individual studies suggested a positive effect of low-level laser therapy on reduction of postoperative pain and acceleration of improvement of paresthesia related to orthognathic surgery. However, due to the insufficient number and heterogeneity of studies, a meta-analysis evaluating the outcomes of interest was not performed, and a pragmatic recommendation about the use of laser therapy is not possible. This systematic review was conducted according to the statements of PRISMA and was registered at PROSPERO under the

  11. Low-energy He/Ne laser in the prevention of radiation-induced mucositis. A multicenter phase III randomized study in patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensadoun, R J; Franquin, J C; Ciais, G; Darcourt, V; Schubert, M M; Viot, M; Dejou, J; Tardieu, C; Benezery, K; Nguyen, T D; Laudoyer, Y; Dassonville, O; Poissonnet, G; Vallicioni, J; Thyss, A; Hamdi, M; Chauvel, P; Demard, F

    1999-07-01

    Use of the low-energy helium-neon laser (LEL) appears to be a simple atraumatic technique for the prevention and treatment of mucositis of various origins. Preliminary findings, and significant results obtained for chemotherapy-induced mucositis in a previous phase III study, prompted a randomized multicenter double-blind trial to evaluate LEL in the prevention of acute radiation-induced stomatitis. Irradiation by LEL corresponds to local application of a high-photon-density monochromatic light source. Activation of epithelial healing for LEL-treated surfaces, the most commonly recognized effect, has been confirmed by numerous in vitro studies. The mechanism of action at a molecular and enzymatic level is presently being studied. From September 1994 to March 1998, 30 patients were randomized. Technical specification: 60 mW (25 mW at Reims, 1 patient), He-Ne, wavelength 632.8 nm. The trial was open to patients with carcinoma of the oropharynx, hypopharynx and oral cavity, treated by radiotherapy alone (65 Gy at a rate of 2 Gy/fraction, 5 fractions per week) without prior surgery or concomitant chemotherapy. The malignant tumor had to be located outside the tested laser application areas (9 points): posterior third of the internal surfaces of the cheeks, soft palate and anterior tonsillar pillars. Patients were randomized to LEL or placebo light treatment, starting on the first day of radiotherapy and before each session. The treatment time (t) for each application point was given by the equation : t(s)= energy (J/cm2) x surface (cm2)/Power (W). Objective assessment of the degree of mucositis was recorded weekly by a physician blinded to the type of treatment, using the WHO scale for grading of mucositis and a segmented visual analogue scale for pain evaluation. Protocol feasibility and compliance were excellent. Grade 3 mucositis occured with a frequency of 35.2% without LEL and of 7.6% with LEL (Ptherapy is capable of reducing the severity and duration of oral

  12. A randomized controlled trial investigation of a non-stimulant in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ACTION: Rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Simon D

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ACTION study (Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Controlled Trial Investigation Of a Non-stimulant is a multi-center, double-blind, randomized cross-over trial of the non-stimulant medication, Atomoxetine, in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The primary aims are to examine the efficacy of atomoxetine for improving cognition and emotional function in ADHD and whether any improvements in these outcomes are more pronounced in participants with comorbid anxiety; and to determine if changes in these outcomes after atomoxetine are more reliable than changes in diagnostic symptoms of ADHD. This manuscript will describe the methodology and rationale for the ACTION study. Methods Children and adolescents aged 6 - 17 y with ADHD will be enrolled. Clinical interview and validated scales will be used to confirm diagnosis and screen for exclusion criteria, which include concurrent stimulant use, and comorbid psychiatric or neurological conditions other than anxiety. Three assessment sessions will be conducted over the 13-week study period: Session 1 (Baseline, pre-treatment, Session 2 (six weeks, atomoxetine or placebo, and Session 3 (13 weeks, cross-over after one-week washout period. The standardized touch-screen battery, "IntegNeuro™", will be used to assess cognitive and emotional function. The primary measure of response will be symptom ratings, while quality of life will be a secondary outcome. Logistic regression will be used to determine predictors of treatment response, while repeated measures of analysis will determine any differences in effect of atomoxetine and placebo. Results The methodology for the ACTION study has been detailed. Conclusions The ACTION study is the first controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of atomoxetine using objective cognitive and emotional function markers, and whether these objective measures predict outcomes with atomoxetine in ADHD

  13. Creating action plans in a serious video game increases and maintains child fruit-vegetable intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe; Bhatt, Riddhi; Vazquez, Isabel; Cullen, Karen W; Baranowski, Janice; Baranowski, Tom; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-18

    Child fruit and vegetable intake is below recommended levels, increasing risk for chronic disease. Interventions to influence fruit and vegetable intake among youth have had mixed effects. Innovative, theory-driven interventions are needed. Goal setting, enhanced by implementation intentions (i.e., plans tightly connected to a behavioral goal), may offer a solution. Action plans state "how" a goal will be achieved, while coping plans identify a potential barrier and corresponding solution. The research reported here evaluated the short- and long-term effects of goal setting enhanced with implementation intentions on child fruit and vegetable intake in a 10-episode, theoretically-grounded serious videogame promoting fruit and vegetables. This is one of the first studies to test the efficacy of implementation intentions on the dietary intake of healthy children. A four-group randomized design with three data collection periods (baseline, immediate post-intervention, 3 months post-intervention) was employed. Groups varied on whether children created an implementation intention (none, action, coping, both) as part of goal setting. Participants were 4th and 5th grade children (~9-11 years old) and one parent. An a priori power analysis indicated this would provide >80% power to detect a small effect (Cohen's d = 0.17). Children played a 10-episode online videogame; parents received 10 electronic newsletters and access to a parent-only website. The primary outcome was child fruit and vegetable intake, assessed via three, dietitian-assisted telephone recalls at each data collection period. The primary analysis was conducted using a repeated measures analysis of covariance with a mixed model procedure. Secondary analyses examined intervention effects on fruit and vegetables separately. Four hundred parent/child dyads were recruited. A significant group-by-time interaction for fruit and vegetable intake (p < 0.001) was found in only the Action group, which had

  14. Efficacy of laser phototherapy in comparison to topical clobetasol for the treatment of oral lichen planus: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillenburg, Caroline Siviero; Martins, Marco Antonio Trevizani; Munerato, Maria Cristina; Marques, Márcia Martins; Carrard, Vinícius Coelho; Filho, Manoel Sant'Ana; Castilho, Rogério Moraes; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2014-06-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common chronic mucocutaneous inflammatory disease and a search for novel therapeutic options has been performed. We sought to compare the efficacy of laser phototherapy (LPT) to topical clobetasol propionate 0.05% for the treatment of atrophic and erosive OLP. Forty-two patients with atrophic/erosive OLP were randomly allocated to two groups: clobetasol group (n=21): application of topical clobetasol propionate gel (0.05%) three times a day; LPT group (n=21): application of laser irradiation using InGaAlP diode laser three times a week. Evaluations were performed once a week during treatment (Days 7, 14, 21, and 30) and in four weeks (Day 60) and eight weeks (Day 90) after treatment. At the end of treatment (Day 30), significant reductions in all variables were found in both groups. The LPT group had a higher percentage of complete lesion resolution. At follow-up periods (Days 60 and 90), the LPT group maintained the clinical pattern seen at Day 30, with no recurrence of the lesions, whereas the clobetasol group exhibited worsening for all variables analyzed. These findings suggest that the LPT proved more effective than topical clobetasol 0.05% for the treatment of OLP.

  15. Efficacy of high intensity diode laser as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontal treatment: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micheli, Giorgio; de Andrade, Ana Karina Pinto; Alves, Vanessa Tubero Euzebio; Seto, Marcio; Pannuti, Cláudio Mendes; Cai, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    The high intensity diode laser has been studied in periodontics for the reduction of subgingival bacteria in non-surgical treatment. Our study evaluated the bacterial effect as well as changes in periodontal clinical parameters promoted by root scaling and planing associated with this wavelength. Twenty-seven patients randomly assigned in two groups underwent root scaling and planing on the tested sites, and only the experimental group received the diode laser irradiation. Among the clinical parameters studied, the clinical probing depth (CPD) and the clinical attachment level (CAL) resulted in significant enhancement in the control group when compared with the experimental group (P = 0.014 and P = 0.039, respectively). The results were similar for both groups regarding the plaque index (PI) and bleeding on probing (BP). No significant difference in the microbiological parameters was observed between the control and experimental groups. It was possible to conclude that the high power diode laser adjunct to the non-surgical periodontal treatment did not promote additional effects to the conventional periodontal treatment.

  16. Effect of laser-assisted zona thinning, during assisted reproduction, on pregnancy outcome in women with endometriosis: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Adel Mohamed; El-Noury, Amr; Al-Inany, Hesham; Bibars, Mamdouh; Taha, Tamer; Salama, Sameh; Hassan, Fatma; Zein, Eman

    2018-02-01

    To compare the ICSI-ET outcomes in patients with endometriosis with or without laser-assisted zona pellucida thinning. Randomized controlled trial. The study was conducted in the Obstetrics & Gynecology Department, Cairo University hospital, and two private IVF centers in Cairo & Beni-Suif from July 2015 to January 2017 upon infertile and known endometriosis patients who planned to do ICSI-ET. Before randomization, all patients received the same ovarian stimulation preparation, oocyte retrieval procedures, and the same intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedures. After randomization, laser-assisted hatching was performed only for embryos of 158 patients, while the other group (n = 150) no laser-assisted hatching was made. The verification of pregnancy was achieved by the serum hCG concentration 14 days after the embryo transfer, and the clinical pregnancy was confirmed 2 weeks later by the presence of gestational sac with pulsating fetal pole on vaginal ultrasonography. The main outcome measures were the clinical pregnancy rate and the clinical implantation rate. Both groups were comparable with regard their baseline characteristics, baseline hormonal profile, the ovarian stimulation characteristics, and the ovulation characteristics. The mean number of embryos developed per patient and the mean transferred number of embryos per patient were comparable between groups (p value > 0.05). The implantation rate was significantly higher (p value 0.002) in the study group than the control group with an odds ratio of 1.86 (CI 95% 1.24-2.80) and NNT 13.81 (CI 95% 8.35-39.94). The clinical pregnancy rate, was significantly (p value 0.022) higher in the study group than in the control group with an odds ratio of 1.79 (CI 95% 1.05-3.06) and NNT 9.57 (CI 95% 5.03-98.99). That laser-assisted hatching by thinning of the zona pellucida may be a suitable method to improve the ICSI-ET outcomes, in term of the implantation and the pregnancy rates, in cases of endometriosis. Pan

  17. Outcomes of transurethral resection and holmium laser enucleation in more than 60 g of prostate: A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhanwar, Ankur; Sinha, Rahul J; Bansal, Ankur; Prakash, Gaurav; Singh, Kawaljit; Singh, Vishwajeet

    2017-01-01

    Transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) is considered a gold standard surgical procedure. The management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has undergone tremendous change in recent years and shifted from open to minimal invasive procedure. With the advancement in technology and skills of surgeons, lasers have been used more liberally, particularly holmium laser. Holmium laser enucleation of prostate (HoLEP) is seen as close rival of TURP. The objective if this study is to observe long- and short-term outcomes of transurethral resection and holmium laser enucleation in the prostate of more than 60 g. This prospective randomized study includes 164 patients. Inclusion criteria were age 60 g, gross hematuria secondary to BPH, recurrent urinary tract infection, acute urinary retention, postvoid residual >150 ml, and Schafer Grade II or more. BPH associated with neurogenic bladder, stricture urethra, and carcinoma prostate were excluded from the study. Group 1 comprises patients who underwent TURP and Group 2 comprises who underwent HoLEP. Follow-up was done at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after the surgery. Data of 144 patients were analyzed. The mean age of patients in TURP and HoLEP group was 66.78 ± 7.81 and 67.70 ± 7.44 years, respectively (P = 0.47), mean prostatic volume was 74.5 ± 12.56 and 75.6 ± 12.84 g, respectively (P = 0.60), operative time was 73.10 ± 10.49 and 89.56 ± 13.81 min, respectively (P = 0.0001). Mean resected tissue was 44.80 ± 9.87 and 48.49 ± 10.87, respectively (P = 0.03). The sexual function did not changed significantly in postoperative follow-up. HoLEP is associated with less blood loss, lower transfusion rates, and a shorter hospital stay. The disadvantage of HoLEP is longer operative time and postoperative dysuria.

  18. Ablative fractional laser therapy as treatment for Becker nevus: a randomized controlled pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Arne A.; Wind, Bas S.; Kroon, Marije W.; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; van der Veen, J. P. Wietze; Nieuweboer-Krobotová, Ludmila; van der Wal, Allard C.; Bos, Jan D.; Beek, Johan F.

    2011-01-01

    Becker nevus (BN) is an uncommon pigment disorder characterized by hyperpigmentation and sometimes hypertrichosis. To date, no effective treatment has been available. We sought to assess efficacy and safety of ablative 10,600-nm fractional laser therapy (FLT) in the treatment of BN. Eleven patients

  19. Comparing the treatment outcomes of potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser vaporization and transurethral electroresection for primary nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer: A prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yansheng; Guan, Weimin; Chen, Weihao; Xie, Changliang; Ouyang, Yun; Wu, Yiguang; Liu, Cuilong

    2015-04-01

    In urology, potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser is mainly used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia with a low rate of intraoperative and postoperative complications. A prospective, randomized study was undertaken to investigate the treatment outcomes of KTP laser vaporization for primary non-muscle-invasive bladder tumors (NMIBTs) as compared with conventional monopolar transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT). This study was designed as a prospective, randomized trial. After institutional review board approval, 229 consecutive patients with NMIBTs were randomized to 2 groups. Among them, 116 patients underwent KTP laser vaporization of a bladder tumor (laser group) and 113 patients underwent standard transurethral electroresection of the bladder tumors using monopolar loop electrode (TURBT group). According to the prognostic factors for recurrence, all patients were divided into low, intermediate or high risk subgroups. The clinical data were recorded and compared between the two groups. Eighty-nine patients in laser group and 94 in TURBT group were evaluable for the study end points. The preoperative characteristics of the patients were comparable in the two groups. There was no statistical difference in operation time between the two groups. Patients in the laser group had fewer perioperative complications and more patients needed bladder irrigation in the TURBT group. Compared with laser group, patients in the TURBT group had longer catheterization time and hospitalization duration. There were no statistical differences in the oncologic results in term of 2-year recurrence rates as compared between the two groups. Our study demonstrated that using KTP laser, transurethral vaporization is an effective and safe treatment for the patients with primary NMIBT. Compared with traditional TURBT, the KTP laser surgery had fewer perioperative complications and similar oncological results. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Individualized Cognition-Action intervention to prevent behavioral disturbances and functional decline in institutionalized older adults: a randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechamps, Arnaud; Alban, Rigier; Jen, Joanne; Decamps, Arnaud; Traissac, Thalie; Dehail, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an individualized Cognition-Action (CA) intervention to reduce behavioral disturbances in severely deconditioned institutionalized old adults. 12 weeks randomized pilot trial of either individualized Cognition-Action program (n = 24) or routine medical care as control (C, n = 25). Long-term care (LTC) of the Geriatric Department from the University State Hospital in Bordeaux, France. 49 institutionalized old patients with at least one Neuropsychiatric symptoms > or =4. The CA rationale was a non-preconceived ideas approach over the patient's abilities and discourse. Patients received short bouts of 5-15 min and accumulated 50 min of interaction per week. CA intervention used five standardized exercises as tools to enhance communication and social interactions. CA was compared to usual care. Primary outcomes were the Neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) total and symptoms scores. Secondary outcomes were the BERG balance scale, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Quality of life AM-PAC-CAT and Muscle strength. The CA group had a clinically significant NPI total score reduction compared to C, -7, 95%CI [-10.8 to -3], eta2 = 0.24. CA group showed a risk reduction of NPI total score worsening, OR = 0.09, 95%CI [0.02-0.37]. BERG total score was clinically improved in the CA group compared to C, 4.9 95%CI [0.7-9.2], eta2(p)= 0.11. CA patients reduced their GDS score and improved their Quality of life and Strength. The combination of tailored guidance and simple standardized exercises was an effective behavioral management approach for behavioral disturbances reduction and functional autonomy improvement in institutionalized old adult populations.

  1. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad eBallesteros

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time, attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness, immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM and executive control (shifting strategy did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02007616http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02007616

  2. A randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of an interactive mobile messaging intervention for underserved smokers: Project ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidrine Damon J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a significant decrease in smoking prevalence over the past ten years, cigarette smoking still represents the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Moreover, smoking prevalence is significantly higher among those with low levels of education and those living at, or below, the poverty level. These groups tend to be confronted with significant barriers to utilizing more traditional smoking cessation intervention approaches. The purpose of the study, Project ACTION (Adult smoking Cessation Treatment through Innovative Outreach to Neighborhoods, is to utilize a mobile clinic model, a network of community sites (i.e., community centers and churches and an interactive mobile messaging system to reach and deliver smoking cessation treatment to underserved, low-income communities. Methods/Design We are using a group-randomized design, with the community site as the sampling unit, to compare the efficacy of three smoking cessation interventions: 1 Standard Care - brief advice to quit smoking, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, and self-help materials; 2 Enhanced Care - standard care components plus a cell phone-delivered text/graphical messaging component; and 3 Intensive Care - enhanced care components plus a series of 11 cell phone-delivered proactive counseling sessions. An economic evaluation will also be performed to evaluate the relative cost effectiveness of the three treatment approaches. We will recruit 756 participants (252 participants in each of the 3 intervention groups. At the time of randomization, participants complete a baseline assessment, consisting of smoking history, socio-demographic, and psychosocial variables. Monthly cell phone assessments are conducted for 6 months-post enrollment, and a final 12-month follow-up is conducted at the original neighborhood site of enrollment. We will perform mixed-model logistic regression to compare the efficacy of the three smoking

  3. Toward defeating diffraction and randomness for laser beam propagation in turbulent atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Lushnikov, Pavel M.; Vladimirova, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    A large distance propagation in turbulent atmosphere results in disintegration of laser beam into speckles. We find that the most intense speckle approximately preserves both the Gaussian shape and the diameter of the initial collimated beam while loosing energy during propagation. One per 1000 of atmospheric realizations produces at 7km distance an intense speckle above 20\\% of the initial power. Such optimal realizations create effective extended lenses focusing the intense speckle beyond t...

  4. Clinical Effects of Laser Acupuncture plus Chinese Cupping on the Pain and Plasma Cortisol Levels in Patients with Chronic Nonspecific Lower Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mu-Lien; Wu, Jih-Huah; Lin, Chi-Wan; Su, Chuan-Tsung; Wu, Hung-Chien; Shih, Yong-Sheng; Chiu, I-Ting; Chen, Chao-Yi; Chang, Wen-Dien

    2017-01-01

    Chronic nonspecific lower back pain (LBP) is a common disease. Insufficient data is currently available to conclusively confirm the analgesic effects of laser acupuncture on LBP. This study evaluated the effectiveness of laser acupuncture plus Chinese cupping in LBP treatment. Patients with chronic nonspecific LBP were enrolled for a randomized controlled trial and assigned to the laser acupuncture group (laser acupuncture plus Chinese cupping) and control group (sham laser plus Chinese cupping). Laser acupuncture (808 nm; 40 mW; 20 Hz; 15 J/cm2) and Chinese cupping were applied on the Weizhong (BL40) and Ashi acupoints for 5 consecutive days. Plasma cortisol levels were assessed before and after the 5-day treatment session. The visual analog scale (VAS) scores were recorded at baseline and throughout the 5-day treatment session. After the treatment session, the plasma cortisol levels and VAS scores decreased significantly in both groups. In the laser acupuncture group, the VAS scores decreased significantly on days 4 and 5, and an enhanced reduction in VAS scores was observed. Laser acupuncture plus Chinese cupping at the Weizhong (BL40) and Ashi acupoints effectively reduced pain and inflammation in chronic nonspecific LBP. This therapy could be a suitable option for LBP treatment in clinical settings.

  5. The effects of two different low level laser therapies in the treatment of patients with chronic low back pain: A double-blinded randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koldaş Doğan, Şebnem; Ay, Saime; Evcik, Deniz

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two different laser therapy regimens on pain, lumbar range of motions (ROM) and functional capacity in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Forty nine patients with CLBP were randomly assigned into two groups. Group 1 (n= 20) received hot-pack + laser therapy 1 (wavelength of 850 nm Gallium-Aluminum-Arsenide (Ga-Al-As) laser); group 2 (n= 29) received hot-pack + laser therapy 2 (wavelength of 650 nm Helyum-Neon (He-Ne), 785 ve 980 nm Gal-Al-As combined plaque laser) for 15 sessions. Pain severity, patient's and physician's global assessments were evaluated with visual analogue scale (VAS). Modified Schober test, right and left lateral flexion measurements were done. Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (MODQ) was used for evaluation of functional disability. Measurements were done before and after the treatment. After treatment there were statistically significant improvements in pain severity, patient's and physician's global assessment, ROM and MODQ scores in both groups (Ptreatment there were statistically significant differences between the groups in lateral flexion measurements and MODQ scores (Ppain severity, Modified Schober test, patient's and physician's global assessments (P> 0.05) in favor of those patients who received combined plaque laser therapy (group 2). Laser therapy applied with combined He-Ne and Ga-Al-As provides more improvements in lateral flexion measurements and disability of the patients, however no superiority of the two different laser devices to one another were detected on pain severity.

  6. Clinical Effects of Laser Acupuncture plus Chinese Cupping on the Pain and Plasma Cortisol Levels in Patients with Chronic Nonspecific Lower Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Lien Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Chronic nonspecific lower back pain (LBP is a common disease. Insufficient data is currently available to conclusively confirm the analgesic effects of laser acupuncture on LBP. This study evaluated the effectiveness of laser acupuncture plus Chinese cupping in LBP treatment. Methods. Patients with chronic nonspecific LBP were enrolled for a randomized controlled trial and assigned to the laser acupuncture group (laser acupuncture plus Chinese cupping and control group (sham laser plus Chinese cupping. Laser acupuncture (808 nm; 40 mW; 20 Hz; 15 J/cm2 and Chinese cupping were applied on the Weizhong (BL40 and Ashi acupoints for 5 consecutive days. Plasma cortisol levels were assessed before and after the 5-day treatment session. The visual analog scale (VAS scores were recorded at baseline and throughout the 5-day treatment session. Results. After the treatment session, the plasma cortisol levels and VAS scores decreased significantly in both groups. In the laser acupuncture group, the VAS scores decreased significantly on days 4 and 5, and an enhanced reduction in VAS scores was observed. Conclusion. Laser acupuncture plus Chinese cupping at the Weizhong (BL40 and Ashi acupoints effectively reduced pain and inflammation in chronic nonspecific LBP. This therapy could be a suitable option for LBP treatment in clinical settings.

  7. Long-term effect of pulsed high-intensity laser therapy in the treatment of post-mastectomy pain syndrome: a double blind, placebo-control, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebid, Anwar Abdelgayed; El-Sodany, Ahmed Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    We assess the long-term effect of pulsed high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) in the treatment of the post-mastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS). A total of 61 women participated in this study (30 in the laser group and 31 in the placebo laser group), with a mean age of 53.56 ± 1.11 years. Patients who were randomly assigned to the laser group received HILT three times per week for 4 weeks, plus a routine physical therapy program (RPTP). The placebo laser group received placebo HILT plus RPTP. The outcomes measured were pain level by visual analog scale (VAS), shoulder range of motion (ROM), and quality of life (QOL). Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA with repeated measures to compare the differences between baseline and post-treatment measurements and after 12 weeks of follow-up for both groups. The level of statistical significance was set at P placebo group. VAS results showed a significant decrease post-treatment in the laser group relative to the placebo group, and QOL results showed a significant improvement in the laser group compared with the placebo group and still improved after 12 weeks of follow-up. HILT combined with an RPTP appears to be more effective in patients with PMPS than a placebo laser procedure with RPTP.

  8. A Double-Blind Randomized Trial Comparing Implants with Laser-Microtextured and Machined Collar Surfaces: Microbiologic and Clinical Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Renzo; Rappelli, Giorgio; Piemontese, Matteo; Procaccini, Maurizio; Quaranta, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcome of and determine the differences in periodonto-pathogenic microbiota around two types of implant collar surfaces: laser-microtextured (test) vs machined (control). Seventeen patients (11 periodontally healthy, and 6 periodontally compromised) were selected to receive the two different implants, placed randomly, in two edentulous sites. Six months following the surgical placement of the dental implants, subgingival plaque samples were collected using paper points from the peri-implant sulcus and from the sulcus of an adjacent tooth. The presence of five putative periodontal pathogens, namely, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythensis, was assessed using real-time polymerized chain reaction (RT-PCR). Peri-implant parameters and intraoral radiographs were recorded up to 1 year after abutment connection. In the main population, and in the periodontally compromised subgroup, the total number of periodontal pathogens around test implant sites was lower than control implant sites and adjacent tooth sites, with a statistically significant difference (P < .05). In periodontally healthy patients, the mean probing pocket depth for the test implant was 1.31 ± 0.51 mm, compared with 2.66 ± 0.83 mm for the control implant, while in periodontally compromised patients, it was 1.61 ± 0.58 mm for the test implant, compared with a mean value of 2.84 ± 1.0 mm for the control implant. Implants with a laser-microtextured collar surface are not more vulnerable to pathogenic microflora colonization than implants with a machined collar surface. In both of the subgroups of patients (periodontally healthy and periodontally compromised), implants with a laser-microtextured collar surface have a better clinical outcome at 1 year of loading, compared with implants with a machined collar surface.

  9. Photoepilation with a diode laser vs. intense pulsed light: a randomized, intrapatient left-to-right trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, A; Steinert, S; Baeumler, W; Landthaler, M; Babilas, P

    2013-06-01

    Safe and efficient options for removing unwanted hair are in great demand. Laser devices and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources are the most commonly used treatment modalities. Yet, only a few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing laser and IPL devices are available, and RCTs with long-term results are missing from the literature. To compare the safety and long-term efficacy of diode lasers (DL) and IPL sources for axillary hair removal, we conducted an intrapatient, left-to-right, assessor-blinded and controlled trial. IPL (Ellipse Flex PPT; Danish Dermatological Development, Hoersholm, Denmark; λem=600-950 nm) and DL (LightSheer XC system; Lumenis Inc., Santa Clara, CA, U.S.A.; λem=800 nm) treatments were evaluated in 30 study participants (skin type II-III) with unwanted axillary hair growth. Six treatments with each device were carried out at 4-week intervals. Final assessment was conducted 12 months after the last treatment by means of hair counts using close-up photographs. The primary endpoint was reduction in hair growth, analysed on an intention-to-treat and last-observation-carried-forward basis (n=30), and secondary endpoints were patient-rated efficacy, treatment-related pain, adverse effects and treatment duration. Both devices significantly reduced hair counts. Mean reductions from baseline (3 and 12 months after the last treatment) were 59·7% and 69·2% for DL and 42·4% and 52·7% for IPL treatment (PIPL); PIPL); PIPL treatments are highly effective, long lasting and safe. DL was found to be more effective than IPL treatment. DL treatment was more painful but less time-consuming than IPL therapy. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. Effects of LED-laser hybrid light on bleaching effectiveness and tooth sensitivity: a randomized clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolatto, Janaina F.; Pretel, Hermes; Neto, Carolina S.; Andrade, Marcelo F.; Moncada, Gustavo; Oliveira Junior, Osmir B.

    2013-08-01

    The study evaluated the effectiveness and the sensitivity of in-office tooth bleaching with the use of a hybrid photo-activation system composed by LEDs and lasers. 40 patients, both genders, aged 18 through 25 years, were randomly distributed into two treatment groups: group I, 35% hydrogen peroxide, with a total bleaching time of 135 min divided into three sessions, and group II, 35% hydrogen peroxide and photo-thermal catalysis by an LED-laser system (300 mW cm-2), for a total bleaching time of 72 min divided into three sessions. The treatment efficiency was measured by reflectance spectroscopy and sensitivity by a visual analog scale (VAS). The final luminosity value (ΔL), color variation (ΔE) and sensitivity (S) resulting from the treatments were analyzed by the generalized estimating equations method (GEEs), and Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparisons at 5% significance. The two groups presented similar colors (ΔE) and luminosities (ΔL) after treatment. Group I presented a greater sensitivity index (37.6 ± 5.9%) compared to group II (11.1 ± 3.3%), statistically significant at p catalyst of the bleaching agents, showed a significant decrease of provoked tooth sensitivity and a treatment time reduced by 53%, with the same aesthetic results as without a light source.

  11. Urchin-like artificial gallium oxide nanowires grown by a novel MOCVD/CVD-based route for random laser application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Ronaldo P. de [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); Colégio Militar do Recife, Exército Brasileiro, Recife PE 50730-120 (Brazil); Oliveira, Nathalia Talita C. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); Dominguez, Christian Tolentino; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; Araújo, Cid B. de [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife (Brazil); Falcão, Eduardo H. L.; Alves, Severino; Luz, Leonis L. da [Departamento de Química Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife (Brazil); Chassagnon, Remi [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Sacilotti, Marco [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife (Brazil); Nanoform Group, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, Université de Bourgogne, Dijon (France)

    2016-04-28

    A novel procedure based on a two-step method was developed to obtain β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The first step consists in the gallium micro-spheres growth inside a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition environment, using an organometallic precursor. Nanoscale spheres covering the microspheres were obtained. The second step involves the CVD oxidization of the gallium micro-spheres, which allow the formation of β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires on the micro-sphere surface, with the final result being a nanostructure mimicking nature's sea urchin morphology. The grown nanomaterial is characterized by several techniques, including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence. A discussion about the growth mechanism and the optical properties of the β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} material is presented considering its unknown true bandgap value (extending from 4.4 to 5.68 eV). As an application, the scattering properties of the nanomaterial are exploited to demonstrate random laser emission (around 570 nm) when it is permeated with a laser dye liquid solution.

  12. Urchin-like artificial gallium oxide nanowires grown by a novel MOCVD/CVD-based route for random laser application

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Ronaldo P.; Oliveira, Nathalia Talita C.; Dominguez, Christian Tolentino; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; Falcão, Eduardo H. L.; Alves, Severino; da Luz, Leonis L.; Chassagnon, Remi; de Araújo, Cid B.; Sacilotti, Marco

    2016-04-01

    A novel procedure based on a two-step method was developed to obtain β-Ga2O3 nanowires by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The first step consists in the gallium micro-spheres growth inside a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition environment, using an organometallic precursor. Nanoscale spheres covering the microspheres were obtained. The second step involves the CVD oxidization of the gallium micro-spheres, which allow the formation of β-Ga2O3 nanowires on the micro-sphere surface, with the final result being a nanostructure mimicking nature's sea urchin morphology. The grown nanomaterial is characterized by several techniques, including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence. A discussion about the growth mechanism and the optical properties of the β-Ga2O3 material is presented considering its unknown true bandgap value (extending from 4.4 to 5.68 eV). As an application, the scattering properties of the nanomaterial are exploited to demonstrate random laser emission (around 570 nm) when it is permeated with a laser dye liquid solution.

  13. Low-level laser therapy and anesthetic infiltration for orofacial pain in patients with fibromyalgia: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R-C-V; de Sousa, E; Scudine, K-O; Meira, U; de Oliveira E Silva, E; Gomes, A; Limeira-Junior, F-A

    2017-12-23

    To compare the analgesic effect of anesthetic infiltration of lidocaine 2% and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) by GaAlAs into tender points of patients with orofacial pain and fibromyalgia (FM). A randomized clinical trial was performed with adults (N=66) that were allocated into two groups (1:1): Group A received LLLT irradiation by Diode Laser GaAlAs (780nm) with expositions twice a week during six weeks and Group B was treated with anesthetic infiltration of lidocaine 2% without vasoconstrictor once a week for four weeks. The pain assessment included the Visual Analogic Scale (VAS) and tenderness to palpation. No dropout and adverse effect was observed during the study. The pain decreased significantly in each group after the treatment (p=0.0001, β=1.0), even though no statistical difference was found between both treatments (p=0.46, β= 0.82). The presence of tender points decreased after both treatments, with responsively in some types of masticatory muscles (p<0.05) except posterior temporalis muscle. The patients perception showed that both treatments were effective and a few patients reported that the treatment did not improve welfare. The LLLT by GaAlAs and anesthetic infiltration of lidocaine 2% were equally effective to control orofacial pain in FM individuals.

  14. Prospective, randomized, contralateral eye comparison of tetracaine and proparacaine for pain control in laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshirfar M

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar,1 Mark D Mifflin,1 Michael V McCaughey,2 Adam J Gess1 1John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM, USA Background: Tetracaine and proparacaine are two of the most commonly used medications for providing topical anesthesia in laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK. These agents have not been previously compared in a prospective manner to determine their efficacy in these settings. Methods: This prospective, single-masked, randomized study comprised 256 eyes from 128 consecutive patients being treated with LASIK or PRK who were randomized to receive tetracaine in one eye and proparacaine in the other. The patients were blinded as to which anesthetic agent was used in each eye. Pain levels were graded on a 0–10 scale, and were assessed upon instillation, during surgery, immediately postoperatively, 30 minutes postoperatively, overnight, and on postoperative day 1. Patients were asked 30 minutes after surgery which anesthetic agent they would choose. Results: Both anesthetic agents resulted in diminished amounts of subjective pain in patients undergoing LASIK and PRK. Tetracaine caused significantly more pain upon instillation than proparacaine for both LASIK and PRK patients. LASIK patients noted significantly less pain 30 minutes after surgery when treated with tetracaine. Significantly more LASIK patients preferred the eye treated with tetracaine. These differences were not present in the PRK group. Conclusion: Both tetracaine and proparacaine are effective methods of topical anesthesia in LASIK and PRK. Tetracaine caused significantly more pain upon instillation in all patients, but resulted in greater analgesia 30 minutes after surgery in the LASIK group. Patients in the LASIK group expressed a preference for tetracaine over proparacaine. There was no significant drop preference among PRK patients

  15. Comparison of clinical effectiveness of laser acupuncture and amitriptyline in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN): a sham controlled randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Khan, Imran; Anwar, Shahzad; Hanif, Asif; Ayub, Muhammad; Jamil Raja, Arsalan

    2014-02-01

    Background: Painful neuropathy is a very common complication in diabetic patients. Various treatment strategies like manual therapies, conservative management, drug therapy and exercise have been opted for this problem. Studies have shown clinical effectiveness of laser acupuncture as well. On the other hand, Amitryptaline is also a commonly used treatment for this disease. We aim to compare the efficacy of both treatments. Objective: To assess the effect of laser acupuncture in patients suffering from painful diabetic neuropathy and its comparison with standard of care. Patients and Method: This study was conducted in Diabetic and Endocrine Management Center (DEMC) Lahore General Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. A randomized control trial (RCT) was opted and a total of 164 patients were chosen using Non-probability purposive sampling technique. Pain was graded by using a patient friendly Visual Analogue Score (VAS), scoring from 0 to 10. Treatment was done involving organized fortnightly follow ups. Data of all patients was recorded on Performa and was entered and analyzed for descriptive statistics in PASW 18 (IBM®. SPSS). Results: A total of 164 subjects were included in the study who were subdivided into three groups labeled as A, B and C for laser therapy treatment, amitryptaline treatment and controls respectively. The mean age of subjects was 51.54+/-10.46 in Group A, 49.38+/-10.56 in Group B and 51.70+/-11.43 in Group C. The difference of mean ages in all study groups was statistically insignificant (p-value= 0.469). The average pain score in patients who received laser therapy was 5.95+/-0.91 before treatment, whereas after treatment it was 4.31+/-0.98. The mean pain score in subjects having Amitryptaline before starting the treatment was 6.87+/-0.71 and after treatment, it was 6.23+/-0.98. The mean score for daily life activities in subjects who received laser therapy was 9.562.37 before treatment, while after treatment it was 7.56+/-1.54. The average score

  16. Pulsed dye laser vs. intense pulsed light for port-wine stains: a randomized side-by-side trial with blinded response evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, A; Togsverd-Bo, K; Zachariae, C

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulsed dye lasers (PDLs) are considered the treatment of choice for port-wine stains (PWS). Studies have suggested broadband intense pulsed light (IPL) to be efficient as well. So far, no studies have directly compared the PDL with IPL in a randomized clinical trial. OBJECTIVES...

  17. Impact of male hormonal contraception on prostate androgens and androgen action in healthy men: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaghel, Elahe A; Lin, Daniel W; Amory, John K; Wright, Jonathan L; Marck, Brett T; Nelson, Peter S; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Bremner, William J; Page, Stephanie T

    2012-08-01

    Male hormonal contraception (MHC) combines hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis blockade with exogenous androgen delivery to maintain extragonadal androgen end-organ effects. Concern exists that MHC may adversely impact prostate health. The objective of the study was to determine the molecular impact of MHC on intraprostatic androgen concentrations and androgen action. This was a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. The study was conducted at an academic medical center. 32 healthy men aged 25-55 yr participated in the study. Interventions included placebo, daily transdermal testosterone (T) (T-gel), T-gel + depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (T+DMPA), or T-gel + dutasteride daily (T+D) for 12 wk, and prostate biopsy during treatment wk 10. Serum and prostate androgen concentrations and prostate epithelial-cell gene expression were measured. Thirty men completed the study. Serum T levels were significantly increased in T-gel and T+D groups compared with baseline (P < 0.05) but were decreased with the addition of DMPA. Intraprostatic androgens were no different from placebo with T-gel treatment. Addition of DMPA to T resulted in 40% lower intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentration (P = 0.0273 vs. placebo), whereas combining dutasteride with T resulted in a 90% decrease in intraprostatic DHT (P = 0.0012), 11-fold increased intraprostatic T (P = 0.0011), and 7-fold increased intraprostatic androstenedione (P = 0.0011). Significant differences in global or androgen-regulated prostate epithelial-cell gene expression were not observed. Androgen-regulated gene expression correlated with epithelial-cell androgen receptor and prostatic DHT in placebo, T-gel, and T+DMPA arms and with T and androstenedione levels in the T+D arm. MHC regimens do not markedly alter gene expression in benign prostate epithelium, suggesting they may not alter risk of prostate disease. Longer-term studies examining the impact of MHC on prostate health are needed.

  18. Prophylactic laser treatment in early age-related maculopathy: an 8-year follow-up in a randomized pilot study shows a reduced incidence of exudative complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frennesson, Christina I

    2003-10-01

    To study the effect of mild laser treatment on the incidence of exudative complications in patients with soft drusen maculopathy in a longterm perspective. In a prospective study, 38 patients with early age-related maculopathy and good visual acuity (VA) were randomized either to laser treatment using an argon green laser or to observation. At 8 years, 29 patients remained in the study, 16 in the control group and 13 in the treatment group. During follow-up, mean VA decreased significantly in both groups, to 0.53 in the treatment group (p laser treatment of soft drusen maculopathy significantly reduced the rate of exudative complications in a longterm perspective. As the study is small, the results should be viewed with caution.

  19. An On-Demand Optical Quantum Random Number Generator with In-Future Action and Ultra-Fast Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipčević, Mario; Ursin, Rupert

    2015-06-09

    Random numbers are essential for our modern information based society e.g. in cryptography. Unlike frequently used pseudo-random generators, physical random number generators do not depend on complex algorithms but rather on a physical process to provide true randomness. Quantum random number generators (QRNG) do rely on a process, which can be described by a probabilistic theory only, even in principle. Here we present a conceptually simple implementation, which offers a 100% efficiency of producing a random bit upon a request and simultaneously exhibits an ultra low latency. A careful technical and statistical analysis demonstrates its robustness against imperfections of the actual implemented technology and enables to quickly estimate randomness of very long sequences. Generated random numbers pass standard statistical tests without any post-processing. The setup described, as well as the theory presented here, demonstrate the maturity and overall understanding of the technology.

  20. Effect of photonic stop-band on the modes of a weakly scattering DCM-PVA waveguide random laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Anirban; Ojha, N. N. Subhashree; Bhaktha, B. N. Shivakiran

    2017-06-01

    We present an experimental study on the effect of the photonic stop-band (PSB) on the random laser (RL) emission characteristics of a 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film (DCM-PVA). The film, having its refractive index greater than the substrate and density variations at the microscopic scale, acts as a disordered active planar waveguide. The propagation losses for the transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) modes of the waveguide are observed to be 0.50 and 0.74 dB/cm, respectively, at λ = 632.8 nm. The waveguiding DCM-PVA film is then sandwiched between two silica 3-D photonic crystals (opals). The overlap of the DCM-PVA photoluminescence with the PSB of the opals is controlled by the choice of the particle size used for opal fabrication. The random lasing threshold studies have been carried out for both TM and TE polarizations for opals with different particle sizes. A reduction in the threshold of RL emission, with respect to the DCM-PVA waveguide, by about 20 times (to 0.67 mJ/cm2) is observed when the photoluminescence of the DCM-PVA film overlaps with the PSB of the opal structure for TM polarization, showing that the embedding of an RL in an engineered PSB material is an effective way to reduce the thresholds of RLs.

  1. Combined photoablative and photodynamic diode laser therapy as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontal treatment: a randomized split-mouth clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannelli, Marco; Formigli, Lucia; Lorenzini, Luca; Bani, Daniele

    2012-10-01

    Comparing the efficacy of photoablative and photodynamic diode laser in adjunct to scaling -root planing (SRP) and SRP alone for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Twenty-six patients were studied. Maxillary left or right quadrants were randomly assigned to sham-laser treatment + SRP or laser + SRP. This consisted of photoablative intra/extra-pocket de-epithelization with diode laser (λ = 810 nm), followed by single SRP and multiple photodynamic treatments (once weekly, 4-10 applications, mean ± SD: 3.7 ± 2.4) using diode laser (λ = 635 nm) and 0.3% methylene blue as photosensitizer. The patients were monitored at days 0 and 365 by clinical assessment (probing depth, PD; clinical attachment level, CAL; bleeding on probing, BOP) and at days 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 365 by cytofluorescence analysis of gingival exfoliative samples taken in proximity of the teeth to be treated (polymorphonuclear leukocytes, PMN; red blood cells, RBC; damaged epithelial cells, DEC; bacteria). At day 365, compared with the control quadrants, the laser + SRP therapy yielded a significant (p gingival samples (p < 0.001). Diode laser treatment (photoablation followed by multiple photodynamic cycles) adjunctive to conventional SRP improves healing in chronic periodontitis patients. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Holmium laser enucleation versus photoselective vaporization for prostatic adenoma greater than 60 ml: preliminary results of a prospective, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmansy, Hazem; Baazeem, Abdulaziz; Kotb, Ahmed; Badawy, Hesham; Riad, Essam; Emran, Ashraf; Elhilali, Mostafa

    2012-07-01

    To our knowledge we report the first single center, prospective, randomized study comparing holmium laser enucleation and high performance GreenLight™ prostate photoselective vaporization as surgical treatment of prostatic adenomas greater than 60 ml. A total of 80 patients with a large prostatic adenoma were randomly assigned to surgical treatment with holmium laser enucleation or photoselective vaporization. International Prostate Symptom Score, International Index of Erectile Function-15, maximum flow rate, post-void residual urine, serum prostate specific antigen and transrectal ultrasound volume were recorded. Patient baseline characteristics were similar for holmium laser enucleation and photoselective vaporization. Operative time and catheter removal time were almost equal in the 2 groups (p = 0.7 and 0.2, respectively). Eight vaporization cases were converted to transurethral prostate resection or holmium laser enucleation intraoperatively due to bleeding. A significantly higher maximum flow rate and lower post-void residual urine were noted in holmium laser cases during the entire followup (at 1 year each p = 0.02). However, no significant difference in International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life or International Index of Erectile Function-15 was detected. Prostate volume and serum PSA decreased 78% and 88% in the holmium laser group, and 52% and 60% in the vaporization group, respectively. Holmium laser enucleation and photoselective vaporization are effective for lower urinary tract symptoms due to a large prostatic adenoma. Early subjective functional results (maximum flow rate and post-void residual urine) of holmium laser enucleation appear to be superior to those of photoselective vaporization. In our hands cases intended to be treated with photoselective vaporization were at 22% risk of conversion to another modality. This could reflect our determination to vaporize to the capsule in all vaporization cases. Copyright © 2012 American

  3. Effect of pulsed Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of neuropathic foot ulcers in children with spina bifida: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebid, Anwar Abdelgayed; El-Kafy, Ehab Mohame Abd; Alayat, Mohamed Salaheldien Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of pulsed Nd:YAG laser treatment of neuropathic foot ulcers in children with spina bifida. Children with spina bifida face increased risk for developing neuropathic foot ulcers. In a randomized controlled trial, 39 children and adolescents (ages 6-15 years) with spina bifida and stage III neuropathic foot ulcers were randomly assigned to the laser group or the placebo laser group. The former received pulsed Nd:YAG laser treatments (i.e., total energy of 300-350 J during three sessions/week) plus standard wound care, and the latter received sham laser treatments plus standard wound care. Wound size and wound appearance were assessed for all patients at the beginning of the treatment, after 5 weeks, and after 10 weeks. The decrease in wound surface area at 5 and 10 weeks post- treatment was significantly greater in the laser group (i.e., 2.44 ± 0.33 and 0.29 ± 0.25 cm(2), respectively) than in the placebo group (i.e., 3.81 ± 0.18 and 3.24 ± 0.44 cm(2), respectively). Also, the decrease in the total score for the Pressure Sore Status Tool (PSST) at 5 and 10 weeks post-treatment was significantly different for the laser group (i.e., 32.76 ± 2.30 and 17.52 ± 1.66, respectively) than for the placebo group (i.e., 46.50 ± 2.12 and 38.11 ± 3.17, respectively). Treatment with pulsed neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser combined with standard wound care decreases wound size and improves wound appearance for stage III neuropathic foot ulcers in children with spina bifida.

  4. Photodegradation and self-healing in a Rhodamine 6G dye and Y$_2$O$_3$ nanoparticle-doped polyurethane random laser

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Benjamin R; Eilers, Hergen

    2015-01-01

    One of the fundamental difficulties in implementing organic dyes in random lasers is irreversible photodegradation of the dye molecules, leading to loss of performance and the need to replace the dye. We report the observation of self-healing after photodegradation in a Rhodamine 6G dye and nanoparticle doped polyurethane random laser. During irradiation we observe two distinct temporal regions in which the random lasing (RL) emission first increases in intensity and redshifts, followed by further redshifting, spectral broadening, and decay in the emission intensity. After irradiation the emission intensity is found to recover back to its peak value, while still being broadened and redshifted, which leads to the result of an enhancement of the spectrally integrated intensity. We also perform IR-VIS absorbance measurements and find that the results suggest that during irradiation some of the dye molecules form dimers and trimers and that the polymer host is irreversibly damaged by photooxidation and Norrish ty...

  5. The effect of Laser and taping on pain, functional status and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: A placebo- randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayvay, Emre Serdar; Tok, Damla; Turgut, Elif; Tunay, Volga Bayrakci

    2016-01-01

    Conservative treatments have been proved to be effective to control pain and optimize function in fibromyalgia, however there is need for scientific evidence to make better clinical application across various physiotherapy applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Laser and taping applications on pain, flexibility, anxiety, depression, functional status and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Forty-five female patients with fibromyalgia syndrome were included to the study and randomly allocated into three treatment groups; Laser (n= 15), placebo Laser (n= 15), and taping applications (n= 15). Visual analogue scale for pain intensity, trunk flexibility, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire for functional status, Short Form 36 Questionnaire for quality of life and health status, and Beck Depression Inventory for anxiety level were evaluated before and after three weeks interventions. There were decreased pain severity in activity (p= 0.028), anxiety level (p= 0.01) and improved general health status, quality of life (p= 0.01) found at Laser group, whereas there were increased trunk flexibility, flexion (p= 0.03), extension (p= 0.02) found at taping group. After interventions, there were decreased pain severity for whole groups at night for Laser group (p= 0.04), placebo Laser group (p= 0.001), taping group (p= 0.01) and improved functional status found for Laser group (p= 0.001), placebo Laser group (p= 0.001), taping group (p= 0.01). Kinesiotape application had a similar effect on parameters in FMS patient, so this method could be preferred instead of Laser application for rehabilitation program.

  6. Efficacy of punch elevation combined with fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing in facial atrophic acne scarring: A randomized split-face clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Faghihi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of treatments for reducing the appearance of acne scars are available, but general guidelines for optimizing acne scar treatment do not exist. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical effectiveness and side effects of fractional carbon dioxide (CO 2 laser resurfacing combined with punch elevation with fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing alone in the treatment of atrophic acne scars. Materials and Methods: Forty-two Iranian subjects (age range 18-55 with Fitzpatrick skin types III to IV and moderate to severe atrophic acne scars on both cheeks received randomized split-face treatments: One side received fractional CO 2 laser treatment and the other received one session of punch elevation combined with two sessions of laser fractional CO 2 laser treatment, separated by an interval of 1 month. Two dermatologists independently evaluated improvement in acne scars 4 and 16 weeks after the last treatment. Side effects were also recorded after each treatment. Results: The mean ± SD age of patients was 23.4 ± 2.6 years. Clinical improvement of facial acne scarring was assessed by two dermatologists blinded to treatment conditions. No significant difference in evaluation was observed 1 month after treatment (P = 0.56. Their evaluation found that fractional CO 2 laser treatment combined with punch elevation had greater efficacy than that with fractional CO 2 laser treatment alone, assessed 4 months after treatment (P = 0.02. Among all side effects, coagulated crust formation and pruritus at day 3 after fractional CO 2 laser treatment was significant on both treatment sides (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Concurrent use of fractional laser skin resurfacing with punch elevation offers a safe and effective approach for the treatment of acne scarring.

  7. Clinical and biochemical effects of diode laser as an adjunct to nonsurgical treatment of chronic periodontitis: a randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Mehmet; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Dundar, Niyazi; Hakki, Sema S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this randomized, parallel, controlled clinical trial was to examine the clinical and biochemical efficacy of diode laser as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP). Thirty chronic periodontitis patients were randomly assigned into two groups to receive SRP alone (control) or SRP followed by diode laser (test). Plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing depth, and clinical attachment level were measured at baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. The gingival crevicular fluid levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) and tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Test group showed significantly a better outcome compared to the control group in full-mouth clinical parameters. MMP-1, MMP-8, and TIMP-1 showed significant differences between groups after treatment compared to baseline (p laser provided significant improvements in clinical parameters and MMP-8 was significantly impacted by the adjunctive laser treatment at first month providing an insight to how lasers can enhance the outcomes of the nonsurgical periodontal therapy.

  8. The effects of a multigrowth factor-containing cream on recovery after laser treatment: a double-blinded, randomized, split-face controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sungsik; Shin, Jung U; Lee, Youngin; Kwon, Tae Gwang; Lee, Ju Hee

    2017-03-01

    Patients who receive laser treatments may experience transient erythema, edema, and crusts for several days. Although a variety of growth factor-containing creams for promoting recovery after laser treatment are available, evidence for their efficacy remains insufficient. We performed a randomized controlled split-face study to assess the effects of a multigrowth factor (MGF)-containing cream on patients recovering from laser treatment. Twenty patients underwent treatment using an ablative fractional laser and were randomized with respect to the side of the face treated with an MGF-containing cream or control cream. We measured post-treatment erythema and pigmentation using the erythema and melanin indices, respectively, and evaluated the total area of microcrusts with dermoscopy. Additionally, patient satisfaction levels and global improvement scores were assessed. We found that the area of microcrusts was significantly smaller in the MGF-treated regions. Global improvement scores for post-treatment edema and wrinkles were also significantly higher for MGF cream-treated sides than for the control sides. The MGF cream-treated regions showed a more rapid recovery from crusts and edema. Thus, the use of an MGF-containing cream after laser treatment can effectively reduce recovery time. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Pulsed CO2 Laser Ablation of Superficial Basal Cell of Limbs and Trunk: A Comparative Randomized Clinical Trial With Cryotherapy and Surgical Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Cristina; Facchinetti, Elena; Arisi, Mariachiara; Ortel, Bernhard; Calzavara-Pinton, Piergiacomo

    2017-07-01

    Pulsed CO2 laser is a treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC) although robust clinical evidence has not been reported so far. The authors investigated efficacy, safety, time to wound healing, cosmetic outcome, patient satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness ratio of pulsed CO2 laser in comparison to cryotherapy and surgery. BCCs of the trunk and extremities were randomized to one of the treatments. After 90 days, efficacy and cosmetic outcome were assessed. Patients recorded the time to complete healing of the wound and scored their overall satisfaction. Two hundred forty patients were randomized. After 3 months, complete remission (CR) rate with pulsed CO2 laser was 78.8%. This was significantly lower than surgery, whereas the CR rate with cryotherapy was not significantly different. Cosmetic result was better with surgery. High satisfaction was reported by 65.0% of patients treated with CO2 ablation. Time of wound healing was significantly shorter with CO2 laser. In comparison to cryotherapy, pulsed CO2 laser showed no statistically significant difference in efficacy, cosmetic outcome, and patient satisfaction. Time to healing was shorter; the cost and cost-effectiveness ratio were similar. Surgery had the greatest efficacy rate. The main limitation of this study was the short duration of follow-up (3 months).

  10. Non-ablative fractional laser provides long-term improvement of mature burn scars--a randomized controlled trial with histological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taudorf, Elisabeth H; Danielsen, Patricia L; Paulsen, Ida F; Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Dierickx, Christine; Paasch, Uwe; Haedersdal, Merete

    2015-02-01

    Non-ablative fractional laser-treatment is evolving for burn scars. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical and histological long-term outcome of 1,540 nm fractional Erbium: Glass laser, targeting superficial, and deep components of mature burn scars. Side-by-side scar-areas were randomized to untreated control or three monthly non-ablative fractional laser-treatments using superficial and extra-deep handpieces. Patient follow-up were at 1, 3, and 6 months. Primary outcome was improvement in overall scar-appearance on a modified-Patient-and-Observer-Scar-Assessment-Scale (mPOSAS, 1 = "normal skin", 10 = "worst imaginable scar"). Secondary outcomes included histology, patient satisfaction (0-10), patient-assessed improvement, and safety. Study was completed by 17 of 20 randomized patients with normotrophic (n = 11), hypertrophic (n = 5) or atrophic (n = 1) scars. Scar-appearance improved from laser-treatments (P ablative fractional laser-treatments induce long-term clinical and histological improvement of mature burn scars. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A randomized controlled trial of brain training with non-action video games in older adults: Results of the 3-month follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Soledad eBallesteros; Julia eMayas; Antonio ePrieto; Pilar Toril Barrera; Carmen Pita González; Laura Ponce De León Romero; José Manuel Reales; John Alexander Waterworth

    2015-01-01

    This randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616) investigated the maintenance of training effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with selected games from a commercial package on several age-declining cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing after a 3-month no-contact period. Two groups of cognitively normal older adults participated in both the post-training (posttest) and the present follow-up study, the experimental group who received training and th...

  12. Comparison of mechanical and femtosecond laser tunnel creation for intrastromal corneal ring segment implantation in keratoconus: prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubaloglu, Anil; Sari, Esin Sogutlu; Cinar, Yasin; Cingu, Kürşat; Koytak, Arif; Coşkun, Erol; Ozertürk, Yusuf

    2010-09-01

    To compare the outcomes of mechanical and femtosecond laser-assisted tunnel creation for intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation in eyes with keratoconus. Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. In this prospective study, consecutive eyes with keratoconus were randomly assigned to have ICRS tunnel creation with a mechanical device or a femtosecond laser. Keraring ICRS with a 5.0 mm diameter and 160-degree arc length were implanted in all cases. The uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities, refraction, and keratometry (K) readings were measured preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively, and the data in the mechanical group and the femtosecond group were compared statistically. One year postoperatively, there was significant improvement in UDVA, CDVA, K readings, spherical equivalent (SE), and manifest sphere and cylinder in both groups (Pmechanical group and 2.0 lines in the femtosecond group and the CDVA by 3.3 lines and 2.7 lines, respectively; the mean reduction in maximum keratometry was 4.50 diopters (D) and 4.70 D, respectively, and the mean reduction in SE, 3.18 D and 3.09 D, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in visual or refractive results (P>.05). Anterior corneal perforation, superficial segment placement, and segment extrusion occurred in 1 eye each in the mechanical group. Segment migration occurred in 1 eye in the femtosecond group. Despite intraoperative complications in the mechanical group, the visual and refractive outcomes were similar to those in the femtosecond group. Copyright (c) 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Action of AlGaInP laser and high frequency generator in cutaneous wound healing. A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Rayssilane Cardoso de; Maia Filho, Antônio Luiz Martins; Nicolau, Renata Amadei; Mendes, Lianna Martha Soares; Barros, Talvany Luis de; Neves, Silvana Maria Véras

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate in a macroscopic, histological and histomorphometric manner the healing process of cutaneous wounds in mice. The sample consisted of 40 male mice and was divided in four groups: 1st group (control, n=10), 2nd group (High Frequency Generator - HF, the maximum amplitude range, 120s, n=10), 3rd group (AlGaInP Laser 660 nm, 30mW power, 5 J/cm2, applying scan mode, 120s, n=10) and 4thgroup (AlGaInP Laser 660 nm, 30 mW power, 8 J/cm2, applying scan mode, n=10). The surgical incision was made with an 8 mm diameter punch perpendicularly to the back of the animal. The statistical analysis was achieved by the statistical test One Way Anova post hoc Tukey Test and significance at phealing, and both lasers were effective in the remodeling phase. The AlGaInP lasers from 5 J/cm2 to 8 J/cm2 showed better biomodulatory results in the acute and remodeling phases respectively, however, the HF was less effective than the laser, providing significant benefits only in the acute phase of tissue repair.

  14. Two laser ablation techniques for a prostate less than 60 mL: lessons learned 70 months after a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshal, Ahmed M; Elmansy, Hazem M; Elhilali, Mostafa M

    2013-08-01

    To report lessons learned and predictors of long-term outcome after a randomized trial comparing 2 widely available lasers (2123 nm and 532 nm) in prostate ablation as treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. Between March 2005 and April 2007, 109 patients with a prostate volume of less than 60 mL were recruited and randomized to treatment: 57 underwent holmium laser ablation of the prostate (HOLAP) and 52 underwent photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) using an 80-W potassium titanyl phosphate laser. The changes in subjective (International Prostate Symptom Score quality of life and International Index of Erectile Function-15) and objective (postvoid residual urine maximal flow rate) outcome parameters were compared. The long-term outcome, timing, and predictors of negative outcome were assessed. Cost analysis was included. After a median of 71.3 months, significant comparable improvement was documented in all subjective and objective urinary parameters from baseline measures at different points of follow-up. Retreatment for infravesical obstruction was 19.2% in HOLAP and 25% in PVP (P >.05). Smaller prostate volume was significantly associated with bladder neck contracture (BNC) after laser ablation, regardless the type of laser used. BNC and de novo urethral stricture seem to be the main causes for an early (first-year) reintervention. Redo treatment for recurring prostate adenoma was associated with less postoperative prostate-specific antigen reduction (.05). PVP and HOLAP seem to be equally effective and safe, with similar long-term outcome data, including cost. Regardless the laser wavelength, at least 1 of 5 patients will need retreatment. BNC is a more prevalent cause of early retreatment in smaller glands with both lasers. Postoperative prostate-specific antigen reduction of less than 20% warrants careful follow-up for recurrent symptoms secondary to residual prostate tissue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Split Mouth Randomized Clinical Comparative Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Gingival Depigmentation Procedure Using Conventional Scalpel Technique or Diode Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suragimath, Girish; Lohana, Mohini Hemant; Varma, Siddhartha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dark or black coloured gingiva is an esthetic concern especially in subjects with high lip line or gummy smile. Gingival depigmentation procedure is a type of perioplastic surgery where the gingival epithelium is excised with various techniques to lighten the colour of the gingiva. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of gingival depigmentation procedure with conventional scalpel technique and diode laser application. Methods: This split mouth randomized study was conducted on 12 subjects (18-40 years of age), exhibiting melanin hyperpigmentation of gingiva. The anterior labial sextant of maxilla and mandible were divided into two halves involving three anterior teeth i.e. central incisor, lateral incisor and canine on each side. The divided areas were randomly allotted for depigmentation procedure either with scalpel technique or diode laser operating at 980 nm wavelength. Various parameters such as bleeding, pain, difficulty of procedure and wound healing were assessed and compared between the two techniques. The level of melanin pigment was assessed with Dummette Gupta index and photographic analysis with the help of adobe software. The subjects were followed up to one year to see for recurrence of melanin pigmentation. Results: Bleeding during surgery, pain score and difficulty of procedure assessed by the operator were statistically higher for scalpel technique as compared to laser technique. Wound healing did not show any statistical significant difference between both techniques. Gingival depigmentation procedures with scalpel as well as laser technique were effective when compared preoperatively and at consecutive postoperative visits, and this was statistically significant. Comparison of melanin depigmentation procedure between scalpel and laser technique did not show any significant differences at all postoperative intervals. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that gingival depigmentation was

  16. Low level laser effects on pain to palpation and electromyographic activity in TMD patients: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venezian, Giovana Cherubini; da Silva, Marco Antônio Moreira Rodrigues; Mazzetto, Rafaela Galli; Mazzetto, Marcelo Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of diode laser (GaAIAs - 780 nm) on pain to palpation and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles. The laser was applied on the temporalis and masseter muscles twice a week (four weeks). Forty-eight (48) patients with myofascial pain were randomly assigned between actual and placebo treatments and between the energetic doses of 25 J/cm2 and 60 J/cm2, and were evaluated using VAS before, immediately after the final application, and 30 days after the laser treatment. Surface electromyography was performed with maximum dental clenching before and after laser therapy. The results show there were no significant statistical differences in the EMG activity between the groups before and after laser treatment. With regard to the pain at palpation, although both groups presented a significant difference in the symptoms before and after the treatment, only the active doses showed statistically significant reductions in pain level in all the regions of the palpated muscles. However, there was no significant statistical difference between groups (experimental and placebo). In conclusion, low level laser did not promote any changes in EMG activity. The treatment did, however, lessen the pain symptoms in the experimental groups.

  17. Randomized prospective parallel controlled study of the safety and effectiveness of Er:YAG laser use in children for caries removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Besten, Pam K.; White, Joel M.; Pelino, Jose; Lee, Kisup; Parkins, Frederick M.

    2000-03-01

    The Er:YAG laser has been proposed as a useful tool for caries removal. In this study, we report a prospective parallel controlled study of the Dental Erbium Laser for caries removal and cavity preparation in pediatric patients. A total of 92 patients in two separate sites were randomized to treatment in a 2:1 ratio laser to conventional dental drill. The subject ages ranged from 4 to 18 years with a mean of 10.5 years with an even distribution by gender. The mean recorded treatment energy for caries removal was 147 mJ and for cavity preparation was 170 mJ. There were no significant differences in pain reported by the drill or laser treated subjects, and no complications or adverse events were reported after treatment or at any other interval during the study. The determination of success was based on four criteria: (1) acceptable caries removal, (2) acceptable cavity preparation, (3) maintenance of pulp vitality, and (4) restoration intact and serviceable. Using these criteria, it was found that all 32 of the drill procedures were a success and 59 out of 60 laser procedures were a success. This study shows that the Erbium-YAG laser is suitable for caries removal and cavity preparation in children.

  18. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate versus transurethral resection of the prostate: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Nao; Fu, Yaowen; Tian, Tengzheng; Gao, Jialin; Wang, Yuantao; Wang, Song; An, Wei

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A total of 164 cases of BPH were selected from patients who were hospitalized between January 2010 and December 2011. Patients had received either HoLEP or TURP treatment. Clinical data were collected from the perioperative period, 1 month after surgery, and 12 months after surgery. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the maximum urinary flow rate (Q max), postvoid residual volume (PVR), international prostate symptom score (IPSS), or quality-of-life score (QOL score) at 1 month after surgery (p = 0.56, p = 0.346, p = 0.536 and p = 0.145, respectively). However, after 12 months, patients from the HoLEP group demonstrated better scores in Qmax, PVR, IPSS, and QOL than those from the TURP group (p = 0.037, p = 0.003, p < 0.001 and p = 0.019, respectively). The two groups had comparable operation time (p = 0.105), catheterization time (p = 0.173), and length of hospital stay (p = 0.395), but were statistically different in the weight of resected prostate tissue (p < 0.001), bladder irrigation time (p < 0.001), hemoglobin levels (p = 0.011), and blood sodium levels (p = 0.002) after surgery. Compared to TURP, HoLEP was safer and had better long-term efficacy as assessed by multiple quantitative measures. Therefore, HoLEP may present a better option in the treatment of BPH.

  19. Using gold nanorods labelled with antibodies under the photothermal action of NIR laser radiation on Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuchina, E S; Petrov, P O; Kozina, K V; Tuchin, V V [N.G. Chernyshevsky Saratov State University, Saratov (Russian Federation); Ratto, F; Pini, R [Institute of Applied Physics ' Nello Carrara' , National Research Council, via Madonna del Piano 10 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Centi, S [University of Florence, Dept. Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, viale Morgagni 50, 50134 Firenze (Italy)

    2014-07-31

    The effect of NIR laser radiation (808 nm) and gold nanorods on the cells of two strains of Staphylococcus aureus, one of them being methicillin-sensitive and the other being methicillinresistant, is studied. Nanorods having the dimensions 10 × 44 nm with the absorption maximum in the NIR spectral region, functionalised with human immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, are synthesised. It is shown that the use of nanoparticles in combination with NIR irradiation leads to killing up to 97% of the population of microorganisms. (laser biophotonics)

  20. Action of diode laser (830 nm) on cutaneous wound healing process: biometrical and histological study in rats; Acao do diodo laser emitindo em 830 nm, sobre o processo de cicatrizacao de lesoes cutaneas: estudo biometrico e histologico em ratos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende, Sandra Bastos

    2001-07-01

    In this research, it was analyzed the acceleration of the healing process of cutaneous lesions in mice, using a diode laser emitting in 830 nm. The 64 selected animals in this study were randomically divided into four groups of 16 animals each (G1, G2, G3 and G4). Biometric and histological comparisons were accomplished in the following periods: 3, 7 and 14 days after the surgery and laser application. Three laser irradiation configurations were used: a punctual contact (G2) and two non-contact and uniform (G3 and G4). For group G2, the laser intensity was 428 mW/cm{sup 2} , and for groups G3 and G4 it was 53 mW/cm{sup 2}. The total doses were D = 3 J/cm{sup 2} for groups G2 and G4, and D = 1,3 J/cm{sup 2} for G3. The first group, G1, was considered control and thus not submitted to any treatment after the surgery. All irradiated lesions presented acceleration of the healing process with regard to the control group. However, our results clearly indicate that the smaller laser intensity (uniform irradiation) leaded to the best results. On the other hand, the smaller used dose also leaded to the more significant and expressive results. The combination of the intensity value of 53 mW/cm{sup 2} and the dose of 1,3 J/cm{sup 2} leaded to optimal results, regarding the Biometric and histological analysis, presenting faster lesion contraction, quicker neoformation of epithelial and conjunctive tissue (with more collagen fibers ). (author)

  1. Short-term effects of high-intensity laser therapy on frozen shoulder: A prospective randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sae Hoon; Kim, Yeon Ho; Lee, Hwa-Ryeong; Choi, Young Eun

    2015-12-01

    Frozen shoulder, which is characterized by shoulder pain and limitation of the range of motion (ROM), is a common disorder. High-intensity laser therapy (HILT) was recently introduced in the musculoskeletal therapeutic field. The objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical efficacy of HILT in patients with frozen shoulder. A prospective randomized controlled study. Patients with frozen shoulder were randomly divided into 2 groups: a HILT group (n = 33) and a placebo group (n = 33). The treatment was administered 3 times per week on alternate days for 3 weeks. For all patients, the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, VAS for satisfaction, and passive ROM were measured at baseline and 3, 8, and 12 weeks after the treatment. The HILT group had a lower pain VAS score at 3 weeks (3.2 ± 1.7 vs. 4.3 ± 2.2, p = 0.033) and 8 weeks (2.2 ± 2.0 vs. 3.4 ± 2.7, p = 0.042), however, no statistically significant difference in the pain VAS was observed between the two groups at the final follow-up (12 weeks). No statistical difference in the ROM and the satisfaction VAS was observed between the 2 groups at serial follow-ups. In management of frozen shoulder, HILT provided significant pain relief at 3 and 8 weeks, but not at the final follow-up time point. HILT is a noninvasive adjuvant treatment that can reduce pain in frozen shoulders. Further study is needed in order to optimize the dose and duration of HILT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-pulsed dye laser versus long-pulsed dye laser-assisted photodynamic therapy for acne vulgaris: A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, M.; Togsverd, K.; Wiegell, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Long-pulsed dye laser (LPDL)-assisted photodynamic therapy has been suggested to be superior to laser alone for acne vulgaris but no evidence is available. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of LPDL alone versus LPDL in photodynamic therapy with methylaminolevulinic acid (...

  3. Low-energy laser action on median and radial nerve post-traumatic lesion after surgical suture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipa, Ciprian; Bunila, Daniela; Crangulescu, Nicolae; Nacu, Mihaela; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.; Stanciulescu, Viorica; Vasiliu, Virgil V.

    1996-01-01

    The low energy laser (LEL) biostimulatory effects on nervous tissue regeneration are well known. Thirty two patients with medial and/or radial nerve traumatic forearm lesion after surgical suture were divided into two groups: A-18 patients were treated with LEL; B-14 patients, witness, were treated with placebo lasers and classical medical and physical therapy. Lasers used were: HeNe, 632.5 nm wavelength, 2 mW power, and GaAlAs diode laser, 880 nm wavelength, pulsed emission with an output power 2 mW. Before, during, and after treatment EMG was done in order to measure objectively the efficiency of the treatment. We obtained good results after 4 - 5 months at 14 patients (77.7%) from group A and about the same results at 10 patients (71.3%) from group B, but after at least 8 months the good results were noticed concerning the improvements of EMG registration and on movements and force of the fingers. Finally we can say that the favorable results were obtained in at least twice shorter time with LEL treatment than with classical therapy.

  4. A prospective randomized controlled study of oral tranexamic acid for preventing postinflammatory hyperpigmentation after Q-switched ruby laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Harunosuke; Araki, Jun; Eto, Hitomi; Doi, Kentaro; Hirai, Rintaro; Kuno, Shinichiro; Higashino, Takuya; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2011-05-01

    Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is the most common skin complication in Asians after invasive cosmetic treatments. To determine whether oral tranexamic acid (TA) reduces the incidence of PIH after Q-switched ruby laser (QSRL) treatment. Thirty-two Japanese women underwent QSRL treatment for senile lentigines on the face. They were randomly divided into two groups that did (n=15) and did not (n=17) receive oral TA treatment (750 mg/d) for the first 4 weeks after QSRL treatment. Nineteen participants had melasma-like maculae at baseline. Clinical and colorimetric assessments were performed at baseline and 2 and 4 weeks later. Pigmentation was effectively treated using QSRL at 2 weeks, but PIH was frequently seen at 4 weeks. There was no significant difference in the incidence of PIH between participants who received oral TA and those who did not. The presence of melasma did not influence the effectiveness of the treatment. Although oral TA has been reported to have depigmentation effects, it may not be effective for preventing PIH after QSRL. Considering the dosage and duration of treatment, an optimal protocol may be needed to induce the efficacy of this treatment to achieve the PIH-preventing effect of oral TA. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  5. Change in clinical indices following laser or scalpel treatment for periodontitis: A split-mouth, randomized, multi-center trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David M.; Nicholson, Dawn M.; McCarthy, Delwin; Yukna, Raymond A.; Reynolds, Mark A.; Greenwell, Henry; Finley, James; McCawley, Thomas K.; Xenoudi, Pinelopi; Gregg, Robert H.

    2014-02-01

    Data are presented from a multi-center, prospective, longitudinal, clinical trial comparing four different treatments for periodontitis, (1) the LANAPTM protocol utilizing a FR pulsed-Nd:YAG laser; (2) flap surgery using the Modified Widman technique (MWF); (3) traditional scaling and root planing (SRP); and (4) coronal debridement (CD). Each treatment was randomized to a different quadrant. Fifty-one (54) subjects were recruited at five centers that included both private practice and university-based investigators. At 6-months and 12 months post-treatment the LANAPTM protocol and MWF yielded equivalent results based on changes in probing depths. The major difference observed between the two procedures was that patients reported significantly greater comfort following the LANAP™ procedure than following the MWF (P<0.001). There was greater reduction in bleeding in the LANAPTM quadrant than in the other three at both 6 and 12 months. Improvements following SRP were better than expected at 6 months and continued to improve, providing outcomes that were equivalent to both LANAPTM and MWF at 12 months. The improvement in the SRP quadrants suggests the hypothesis that an aspect of the LANAPTM protocol generated a significant, positive and unanticipated systemic (or trans-oral) effect on sub-gingival wound healing.

  6. Ozone Gas Bath Combined with Endovenous Laser Therapy for Lower Limb Venous Ulcers: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Ting; Zhao, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Jian-Wei; Li, Xin-Sheng; Wu, Zhen-Hai

    2016-10-01

    Endovenous laser therapy (EVLT) is safe and effective for lower limb venous ulcers. However, severe necrosis and infection in the ulcer area are contraindications of puncture and EVLT. Local bath with ozone gas has been shown to improve the condition of ulcer areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of ozone gas bath combined with EVLT in comparison with EVLT alone for the treatment for lower limb venous ulcers. Ninety-two patients with venous ulcers were randomized to receive ozone gas bath combined with EVLT (OEVLT group) or EVLT alone (EVLT group). In the OEVLT group, the venous ulcers were preconditioned with ozone gas bath prior to EVLT. The minimum follow-up time was 12 months. The two groups were compared in terms of complete occlusion of the treated veins, ulcer healing ratio, ratio of ulcer recurrence, patient satisfaction, complications, and side effects. There was no significant difference in venous occlusion between the two groups. The ratio of ulcer healing in the OEVLT group was significantly higher than the EVLT group at 12 months follow-up. Patients in the OEVLT group showed better satisfaction and a lower recurrence ratio than the OEVLT group. No severe complications or side effects occurred in either groups. Ozone gas bath combined with EVLT showed improved efficacy for the treatment of lower limb venous ulcers and lower recurrence ratio comparison with EVLT alone. This procedure is a safe and technically feasible.

  7. A randomized clinical trial of the effect of low-level laser therapy before composite placement on postoperative sensitivity in class V restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Horieh; Maleknejad, Fatemeh; Sharifi, Mahsa; Ahrari, Farzaneh

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of low-level laser irradiation when applied just before placement of resin composite on reducing postoperative sensitivity of class V lesions. In this randomized clinical trial, 31 patients with 62 class V cavities were included (two teeth in each participant). The teeth were randomly assigned into laser and placebo groups. After cavity preparation, the teeth in the experimental group were subjected to irradiation from a low-power red laser (630 nm, 28 mW, continuous wave, 60 s, 1.68 J), which was applied for 1 min on the axial wall of the cavity. In the control group, the same procedure was performed but with laser simulation. Then, a self-etch adhesive was applied and the cavities were restored with a microhybrid resin composite. Before treatment and on days 1, 14, and 30 after treatment, tooth sensitivity to a cold stimulus was recorded using a visual analogue scale. Data were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests (p class V restorations.

  8. Effect of low-level laser therapy (808 nm) on markers of muscle damage: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felismino, Amanda Soares; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha; Ferraresi, Cleber; de Araújo Moura Lemos, Telma Maria; de Brito Vieira, Wouber Hérickson

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase (CK) and strength performance) in the biceps brachii. Twenty-two physically active men were randomized into two groups: placebo and laser. All volunteers were submitted to an exercise-induced muscle damage protocol for biceps brachii (biceps curl, 10 sets of 10 repetitions with load of 50% of one-repetition maximum test (1RM)). Active LLLT (808 nm; 100 mW; 35.7 W/cm(2), 357.14 J/cm(2) per point, energy of 1 J per point applied for 10 s on four points of the biceps brachii belly of each arm) or placebo was applied between the sets of the biceps curl exercise. CK activity and maximum strength performance (1RM) were measured before, immediately after, 24, 48, and 72 h after the exercise-induced muscle damage protocol. There was an increase in CK activity after the muscle damage protocol in both groups; however, this increase was attenuated in the laser group compared to the placebo group at 72 h (placebo = 841 vs. laser = 357%; p effect on the recovery of strength performance.

  9. Swallowing action immediately before intravenous fentanyl at induction of anesthesia prevents fentanyl-induced coughing: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, Saori; Tokunaga, Shoji; Tsukamoto, Masanori; Yoshino, Jun; Fujimura, Naoyuki; Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    Fentanyl is a strong µ-opioid analgesic which attenuates the stimulation of surgical invasion and tracheal intubation. However, intravenous fentanyl often induces coughing [fentanyl-induced coughing (FIC)] during induction of anesthesia. We found that the swallowing action, when requested at induction of anesthesia, attenuated FIC. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between the occurrence of FIC and the swallowing action. The study included American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II patients, aged 20-64 years, who were undergoing elective surgery. They were divided into two groups-one group was urged to perform the swallowing action immediately before intravenous fentanyl (S group), and the other group performed no swallowing action (non-S group). The patients first received intravenous fentanyl and were observed for 90 s. Each patient's background, dose of fentanyl and occurrence of coughing were investigated from their records and a motion picture recording. The incidence of FIC was evaluated by chi-squared test, and severity was tested by Wilcoxon rank-sum test. P fentanyl may be a simple and clinically feasible method for preventing FIC effectively. Clinical trial number: UMIN000012086 ( https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr.cgi?function=brows&action=brows&type=summary&recptno=Rn000014126&language=J ).

  10. Silica core/conjugated polymer shell particles via seeded Knoevenagel dispersion polymerization - laser action in whispering gallery mode resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, Sibel; Mikosch, Annabel; Haehnle, Bastian; Witczak, Łukasz; Kuehne, Alexander J C

    2016-12-06

    Here, we present a seeded Knoevenagel dispersion polymerization to generate hybrid particles with a conjugated polymer shell on inorganic silica cores. This seeded dispersion polymerization facilitates the generation of core-shell particles, which exhibit whispering gallery mode lasing. The lasing threshold decreases while the spectral range of emission increases with increasing shell thickness. This novel seeded Knoevenagel dispersion polymerization opens up a facile and metal free pathway towards single particle conjugated polymer lasers on the micrometer scale.

  11. Experimental study of the critical point region of aluminum under the action of the powerful nanosecond laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepetskaya, E. B.; Karabutov, A. A.; Kaptilniy, A. G.; Ksenofontov, D. M.; Makarov, V. A.; Podymova, N. B.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is a report on the novel experimental method of the study of the thermodynamic parameters of thin aluminum films in the critical point region. The controlled supercritical state of aluminum is achieved for the first time as a result of the heating of these films by the absorption of the powerful nanosecond pulse of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at the fundamental wavelength. The possibility is demonstrated to find simultaneously the temporal dependencies of the temperature, of the pressure and of the density of aluminum during the experiment with the thin aluminum films confined at both sides by the quartz glass substrates. These dependencies are obtained taking into account the nonlinear dependence on the incident laser intensity of the light reflection coefficient from the irradiated surface of aluminum. For the first time the thermodynamic cooling cycle of aluminum after its heating by the powerful nanosecond laser pulse is plotted in the space of variables’ temperature—pressure and temperature—density that get into the supercritical region.

  12. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in the management of tinnitus due to noise-induced hearing loss: a double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Shokouh, Pedram; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Baradaranfar, Mohammad Hossein; Bahaloo, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background. Several remedial modalities for the treatment of tinnitus have been proposed, but an effective standard treatment is still to be confirmed. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy on tinnitus accompanied by noise-induced hearing loss. Methods. This was a double-blind randomized clinical trial on subjects suffering from tinnitus accompanied by noise-induced hearing loss. The study intervention was 20 sessions of low-level laser therapy every other day, 20 minutes each session. Tinnitus was assessed by three methods (visual analog scale, tinnitus handicap inventory, and tinnitus loudness) at baseline, immediately and 3 months after the intervention. Results. All subjects were male workers with age range of 30-51 years. The mean tinnitus duration was 1.85 ± 0.78 years. All three measurement methods have shown improved values after laser therapy compared with the placebo both immediately and 3 months after treatment. Laser therapy revealed a U-shaped efficacy throughout the course of follow-up. Nonresponse rate of the intervention was 57% and 70% in the two assessment time points, respectively. Conclusion. This study found low-level laser therapy to be effective in alleviating tinnitus in patients with noise-induced hearing loss, although this effect has faded after 3 months of follow-up. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand clinical trials registry with identifier ACTRN12612000455864).

  13. Comparison of pain and swelling after removal of oral leukoplakia with CO2 laser and cold knife: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jornet, Pía

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare conventional surgery with carbon dioxide (CO2) laser in patients with oral leukoplakia, and to evaluate the postoperative pain and swelling. Study design: A total of 48 patients (27 males and 21 females) with a mean age of 53.7 ± 11.7 years and diagnosed with oral leukoplakia were randomly assigned to receive treatment either with conventional surgery using a cold knife or with a CO2 laser technique. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to score pain and swelling at different postoperative time points. Results: Pain and swelling reported by the patients was greater with the conventional cold knife than with the CO2 laser, statistically significant differences for pain and swelling were observed between the two techniques during the first three days after surgery. Followed by a gradual decrease over one week. In neither group was granuloma formation observed, and none of the patients showed malignant transformation during the period of follow-up. Conclusions: The CO2 laser causes only minimal pain and swelling, thus suggesting that it may be an alternative method to conventional surgery in treating patients with oral leukoplakia. Key words:Oral leukoplakia, treatment, laser surgery, cold knife, pain, swelling. PMID:23229239

  14. Fractional Erbium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser Versus Microneedling in Treatment of Atrophic Acne Scars: A Randomized Split-Face Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mai Abdel Raouf; Shokeir, Hisham Ali; Fawzy, Marwa M

    2017-01-01

    Ablative fractional erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser and microneedling have been popularized in recent years and their effectiveness and side effects individually reported. No previous study, however, has directly compared the efficacy and safety between the 2 different treatments. To compare the efficacy and safety of the ablative fractional Er:YAG laser and microneedling for the treatment of atrophic acne scars. Thirty patients with atrophic acne scars were randomly treated in a split-face manner with a fractional Er:YAG laser on one side and microneedling on the other side. All patients received 5 treatments with a 1-month interval. Objective and subjective assessments were obtained at baseline and at 3 months after the final treatment. At the 3-month follow-up, both treatment modalities induced noticeable clinical and histological improvement, with significantly better results in fractional Er:YAG laser versus microneedling (70% vs 30%), respectively (p acne scars, with significantly higher scar response to the fractional Er:YAG laser treatment.

  15. Comparison of Nonablative Fractional Erbium Laser 1,340 nm and Microneedling for the Treatment of Atrophic Acne Scars: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachafeiro, Thaís; Escobar, Gabriela; Maldonado, Gabriela; Cestari, Tania; Corleta, Oly

    2016-02-01

    The efficacy and safety of nonablative fractional laser for acne scars treatment has been described in several studies. Recently, microneedling treatment has been showing promising results with lower costs, quick healing time, and low risk of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). To compare the effectiveness and safety of nonablative fractional erbium laser 1,340 nm and microneedling for the treatment of facial atrophic acne scars. Forty-six patients with atrophic facial acne scars were randomized to microneedling and laser groups, receiving 3 sessions performed monthly. Two blinded dermatologists applied the validated "Quantitative Global Grading System for Postacne Scarring" scale, before, 2 months, and 6 months after the treatment. Side effects were recorded at each follow-up visit and patient's satisfaction was evaluated. Both groups showed a significant improvement, and there was no statistically significant difference between results of both therapies (p = .264). The erythema after each session was longer in the laser group and 13.6% subjects experienced PIH. No PIH was observed in the microneedling group. This study shows that both nonablative fractional laser 1,340 nm and microneedling are comparable and effective in the treatment of atrophic acne scars. Microneedling is well tolerated, with fewer side effects and lower down time.

  16. Efficacy of Combined Photoablative-Photodynamic Diode Laser Therapy Adjunctive to Scaling and Root Planing in Periodontitis: Randomized Split-Mouth Trial with 4-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannelli, Marco; Formigli, Lucia; Lorenzini, Luca; Bani, Daniele

    2015-09-01

    We previously showed that photoablative laser therapy followed by multiple photodynamic cycles (PAPD) after scaling/root planing (SRP) improved healing of periodontitis patients as compared with conventional SRP after 1-year follow-up. This study reports the favorable results of PAPD plus SRP in patients with chronic periodontitis at a 4-year follow-up. Twenty-four patients were studied. Maxillary left or right quadrants were randomly assigned to PAPD laser treatment or sham-treatment and SRP. PAPD consisted of: (1) photoablative intra/extrapocket de-epithelization with diode laser (λ 810 nm, 1 W), and (2) photodynamic treatments (4-10 weekly) with diode laser (λ 635 nm, 100 mW) and 0.3% methylene blue as photoactive antiseptic, performed after SRP. Sham treatment was performed with switched- off laser. Probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and bleeding-on-probing (BOP) were evaluated. Additional disease markers, namely polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), erythrocytes (RBC), damaged epithelial cells (DEC), and bacteria were assayed by cytofluorescence on gingival exfoliative samples. At 4-year follow-up, PAPD plus SRP significantly improved PD, CAL, and BOP, as well as bacterial contamination and PMN-RBC shedding in the exfoliative samples, compared with sham treatment plus SRP. This effect was greater than that observed at 1-year follow-up. PAPD plus SRP provided significant, durable improvement of chronic periodontitis over sham treatment plus SRP alone.

  17. Lack of efficacy with 1064-nm neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser for the treatment of onychomycosis: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmig, S Tyler; Rahman, Zakia; Henderson, Michael T; Rotatori, R Maxwell; Gladstone, Hayes; Tang, Jean Y

    2014-05-01

    Laser therapies have been Food and Drug Administration approved for temporary nail plate clearance; however, there is minimal evidence of their long-term efficacy. We sought to evaluate the clinical and mycological clearance of toenails treated with 1064-nm neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser versus no treatment. This was a randomized, controlled, single-center trial comparing 2 treatments with 1064-nm neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser (fluence of 5 J/cm(2), rate of 6 Hz) spaced 2 weeks apart versus no treatment in 27 patients (N = 125 affected nails) with clinical and mycological diagnosis of onychomycosis. At 3 months, patients were assessed with mycological cultures and proximal nail plate measurements. Patients treated with laser were also assessed with proximal nail plate measurements at 12 months. At 3 months, 33% of patients treated with laser achieved a negative mycological culture compared with 20% of the control group (P = .49), and had more proximal nail plate clearance compared with control subjects (0.44 vs 0.15 mm, P = .18), which was not statistically significant. At 12 months, there was no difference in nail plate clearance between laser versus control subjects (0.24 vs 0.15 mm, P = .59). Our study was limited by the small sample size and number of treatments. There was no significant mycological culture or clinical nail plate clearance with 1064-nm neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser compared with control. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Low-level laser therapy prevents severe oral mucositis in patients submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Betânia; da Motta Silveira, Fabiana Moura; de Orange, Flávia Augusta

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy for the prevention of oral mucositis in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This is a randomized, parallel, superiority trial including 35 patients divided into the following: laser (n = 17) and sham (n = 18). The variables assessed were oral mucositis (grade 2 of the World Health Organization oral toxicity scale), severe oral mucositis (grade 3 or 4), and pain (according to a visual analogue scale). In the laser group, a InGaAlP laser, wavelength of 650 nm, power 100 mW, energy per point of 2 J, time 20 s by point, extremity fiber optic 0.028 cm(2), and energy density 70 J/cm(2), was used, applied the first day of conditioning until D + 5, while the sham group received simulated laser over the same period. No statistically significant difference was found in the incidence of oral mucositis (p = 0.146). Severe mucositis was found in 40% of the patients (14/35), 3 in the intervention group (17.65%) and 11 in the sham group (61.11%) (p = 0.015). The cumulative probability of survival with respect to the development of severe oral mucositis was >0.6 for the intervention group and 0 for the control group (p = 0.0397). On the day on which pain was considered the worst, patients in the sham group were more likely to classify their pain as severe compared to those in the laser group (p = 0.041). Low-level laser therapy proved effective for the prevention of severe oral mucositis and intense oral pain in patients submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  19. Holmium laser ablation of the prostate versus photoselective vaporization of prostate 60 cc or less: short-term results of a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzayat, Ehab A; Al-Mandil, Majid S; Khalaf, Ismail; Elhilali, Mostafa M

    2009-07-01

    We report on the first randomized trial to our knowledge comparing holmium laser ablation and photoselective vaporization of the prostate in patients with a small to moderate size prostate. Between March 2005 and April 2007, 109 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate size 60 cc or smaller were randomized to photoselective vaporization of the prostate (52) or holmium laser ablation of the prostate (57). All patients were evaluated by preoperative and postoperative International Prostate Symptom Score, peak flow rate and post-void residual urine volume, measurement of prostate specific antigen and transrectal ultrasound prostate volume. Followup evaluations were performed during visits at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Mean +/- SD preoperative prostate volume was 33.1 +/- 14.5 and 37.3 +/- 13.6 cc in the holmium laser ablation group and the photoselective vaporization group, respectively. Holmium laser ablation of the prostate required more operating time than photoselective vaporization (69.8 vs 55.5 minutes, p = 0.008). In the holmium laser ablation group the International Prostate Symptom Score improved from 20 +/- 6.8 to 6.2 +/- 3.9 and peak urinary flow rate increased from 6.7 +/- 3.9 to 17.2 +/- 8 ml per second. In the photoselective vaporization group the International Prostate Symptom Score improved from 18.4 +/- 6.6 to 8.2 +/- 6.2 and peak urinary flow rate increased from 6.4 +/- 3.9 to 18.4 +/- 8.4 ml per second. Urethral stricture rates were 1.7% vs 5.7%, bladder neck contractures were 3.5% vs 7.7% and revaporization rates were 3.5% vs 1.9% in the holmium laser ablation and photoselective vaporization groups, respectively. Holmium laser ablation and photoselective vaporization of the prostate are safe and effective in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia with a small to moderate size prostate. Both procedures are easy to learn but holmium laser ablation of the prostate requires a longer operating

  20. Music Therapy’s Effects on Mexican Migrant Farmworkers’ Levels of Depression, Anxiety and Social Isolation: A Mixed Methods Randomized Control Trial Utilizing Participatory Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swantes, Melody

    2011-01-01

    methods approach incorporating a randomized control trial with repeated measures and participatory action research. A total of 125 farmwokers participated in this study over the course of two distinct phases. Farmworkers in Phase I were randomly assigned to music therapy, English as a second language...... are not able to meet the needs in culturally sensitive ways presented by this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music therapy on Mexican farmworkers’ levels of depression, anxiety, and social isolation. In addition, this study sought to examine how the migrant farmworkers used...... music-making sessions between music therapy sessions as a coping skill to further improve their overall mental health. Finally, this study sought to examine how migrant farmworkers engaged in the research process and how they valued their relationship with the researcher. This study utilized a mixed...

  1. Application of a plasma-jet for skin antisepsis: analysis of the thermal action of the plasma by laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, O.; Richter, H.; Patzelt, A.; Alborova, A.; Humme, D.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Hartmann, B.; Hinz, P.; Kramer, A.; Koch, S.

    2010-06-01

    Recently, it was reported that a plasma-jet could be efficiently applied for the antisepsis of wounds. In this case, the discharge in an argon gas stream was used to produce a so-called ``cold plasma'' on the skin surface. The thermal action of the plasma on the skin was investigated in the present study by means of laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and by histological analysis. Consequently, the plasma beam was moved with a definite velocity at an optimal distance over the skin surface. The structural changes of the tissue were analyzed. It was found by LSM that a thermal damage could be detected only in the upper cell layers of the stratum corneum (SC) at moving velocities of the plasma beam, usually applied in clinical practice. Deeper parts of the SC were not damaged. The structural changes were so superficial that they could be detected only by LSM but not by analysis of the histological sections.

  2. Effectiveness of low-level laser therapy for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: design of a randomized single-blinded controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Rafael Inácio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common neuropathy in the upper extremity, resulting from the compression of the median nerve at wrist level. Clinical studies are essentials to present evidence on therapeutic resources use at early restoration on peripheral nerve functionality. Low-level laser therapy has been widely investigated in researches related to nerve regeneration. Therefore, it is suggested that the effect of low-level laser therapy associated with other conservative rehabilitation techniques may positively affect symptoms and overall hand function in compressive neuropathies such as carpal tunnel syndrome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy in addition to orthoses therapy and home orientations in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Methods/Design Patients older than 18 years old will be included, with clinical diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome, excluding comorbidies. A physiotherapist will conduct intervention, with a blinding evaluator. Randomization will be applied to allocate the patients in each group: with association or not to low-level laser therapy. All of them will be submitted to orthoses therapy and home orientations. Outcome will be assessed through: pain visual analogic scale, Semmes Weinstein monofilaments™ threshold sensibility test, Pinch Gauge™, Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire and two point discrimination test. Discussion This paper describes the design of a randomized controlled trial, which aim to assess the effectiveness of conservative treatment added to low-level laser therapy for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Trial registration Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (ReBec - 75ddtf / Universal Trial Number: U1111-1121-5184

  3. Adjunctive clinical effect of a water-cooled Nd:YAG laser in a periodontal maintenance care programme: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slot, Dagmar E; Timmerman, Mark F; Versteeg, Paula A; van der Velden, Ubele; van der Weijden, Fridus A

    2012-12-01

    Various laser systems are currently available for intra-oral use. Neodymium:Yttrium-Aluminium Garnet lasers(Nd:YAG) have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for soft tissue treatment in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to test whether the use of a water-cooled Nd:YAG laser during a maintenance care programme as an adjunct to supragingival and subgingival debridement (scaling and root planing, SRP) with hand and ultrasonic instruments results in clinical improvement compared with SRP alone. This study was an examiner-blind, randomized and controlled clinical trial using a split-mouth design. Thirty subjects were selected, originally diagnosed with moderate to severe generalized periodontitis, following a periodontal maintenance care programme (PMC). Immediately after SRP in two randomly assigned contra-lateral quadrants, all pockets ≥5 mm were additionally treated with a Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 4W, 250-μsec pulse). Clinical assessments [probing pocket depth PPD, bleeding on pocket probing (BOPP)] were performed pre-treatment and at 6 months. Based on these assessments, the periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA) was calculated. At 6 months, the clinical parameters had significantly improved for both regimens. No statistically significant differences between treatment modalities were observed for PPD and BOPP scores at any time. PISA scores supported these findings. In residual pockets ≥5 mm, treated in a PMC, the adjunctive use of an Nd:YAG laser does not provide a clinically significant additional advantage. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Cryotherapy is preferable to ablative CO2 laser for the treatment of isolated actinic keratoses of the face and scalp: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, C; Facchinetti, E; Rossi, M T; Specchia, C; Ortel, B; Calzavara-Pinton, P

    2014-05-01

    Actinic keratosis (AK) may progress to squamous cell carcinoma. In the case of normal or mildly photodamaged skin, lesion-directed treatments are considered valuable options despite poor published evidence of their therapeutic activity. The aim of this single-centre, open-label, prospective, nonsponsored, randomized, controlled clinical trial was to compare CO2 laser ablation with cryotherapy in the treatment of isolated AKs of the face and scalp. Patients with isolated (≤ 4) AKs of the face and scalp were randomized to receive CO2 laser ablation or cryotherapy. After 90 days, the overall complete remission (CR) rates of patients and lesions were assessed and correlated with thickness grade. Two hundred patients with a total number of 543 AKs were enrolled. The CR rates of lesions after 3 months were 78·2% with cryotherapy and 72·4% with CO2 laser ablation. Thicker lesions were significantly more responsive to cryotherapy (P = 0·034). Seventy-three patients (71·6%) had CR of all lesions 3 months after cryotherapy and 64 (65·3%) after laser ablation. At 12 months after treatment the number of patients with CR was reduced to 53 with cryotherapy and 14 with laser ablation. The rate of patients and lesions with CR is similar after 3 months, but more patients remain in stable remission for 12 months after cryotherapy. Cryotherapy is more effective for thick lesions. The cosmetic outcome was good or excellent in almost all patients. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Low-level laser therapy: A novel therapeutic approach to temporomandibular disorder – A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shobha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy (LLLT/low intensity laser therapy (LILT in the management of temporomandibular joint (TMJ pain in a random and double-blind research design. Materials and Methods: TMJ pain patients, randomly assigned into two groups: Group 1 (n = 20 and Group 2 (n = 20, received 2–3 treatments per week for 8 sessions of active LILT with diode laser (gallium aluminum arsenide, 810 nm, 0.1 W. Measures of TMJ pain during function were evaluated at baseline, after completion of 8 sessions of laser treatment, and 30 days after the final laser therapy. Results: At the final treatment point, within-group, pain reduction was observed in both active LLLT and placebo groups at day 0 (P = 0.000, 8th session (P = 0.000, and 1 month (P = 0.001. Between the groups, there is no significant difference at day 0 (P = 0.214, 8th session (P = 0.806, and 1 month (P = 0.230. Significant increased mouth opening was observed in both Group 1 and Group 2 (P = 0.006 and P = 0.021, respectively after treatment. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups (P = 0.330. Furthermore, significant improvement in clicking was recorded before and after treatment both in Group 1 (P = 0.000 and Group 2 (P = 0.001. Conclusion: The study suggests that LLLT is not better than placebo at reducing TMJ pain during function. It may be assumed that a more tailored application of LLLT should be developed to take into account the multifactorial aspect of the disorder.

  6. Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and low-level laser therapy on the muscle architecture and functional capacity in elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Mônica de Oliveira; Pompeo, Klauber Dalcero; Brodt, Guilherme Auler; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; da Silva Junior, Danton Pereira; Vaz, Marco Aurélio

    2015-06-01

    To determine the effects of low-level laser therapy in combination with neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the muscle architecture and functional capacity of elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis. A randomized, evaluator-blinded clinical trial with sequential allocation of patients to three different treatment groups. Exercise Research Laboratory. A total of 45 elderly females with knee osteoarthritis, 2-4 osteoarthritis degrees, aged 66-75 years. Participants were randomized into one of the following three intervention groups: electrical stimulation group (18-32 minutes of pulsed current, stimulation frequency of 80 Hz, pulse duration of 200 μs and stimulation intensity fixed near the maximal tolerated), laser group (low-level laser therapy dose of 4-6 J per point, six points at the knee joint) or combined group (electrical stimulation and low-level laser therapy). All groups underwent a four-week control period (without intervention) followed by an eight-week intervention period. The muscle thickness, pennation angle and fascicle length were assessed by ultrasonography, and the functional capacity was assessed using the 6-minute walk test and the Timed Up and Go Test. After intervention, only the electrical stimulation and combined groups exhibited significant increases in the muscle thickness (27%-29%) and pennation angle (24%-34%) values. The three groups exhibited increased performance on the walk test (5%-9%). However, no significant differences in terms of functional improvements were observed between the groups. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation reduced the deleterious effects of osteoarthritis on the quadriceps structure. Low-level laser therapy did not potentiate the effects of electrical stimulation on the evaluated parameters. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Problem behavior and urban, low-income youth: a randomized controlled trial of positive action in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kendra M; Schure, Marc B; Bavarian, Niloofar; DuBois, David L; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Silverthorn, Naida; Acock, Alan; Vuchinich, Samuel; Flay, Brian R

    2013-06-01

    Youth problem behaviors remain a public health issue. Youth in low-income, urban areas are particularly at risk for engaging in aggressive, violent, and disruptive behaviors. To evaluate the effects of a school-based social-emotional learning and health promotion program on problem behaviors and related attitudes among low-income, urban youth. A matched-pair, cluster RCT. Participants were drawn from 14 Chicago Public Schools over a 6-year period of program delivery with outcomes assessed for a cohort of youth followed from Grades 3 to 8. Data were collected from Fall 2004 to Spring 2010, and analyzed in Spring 2012. The Positive Action program includes a scoped and sequenced K-12 classroom curriculum with six components: self-concept, social and emotional positive actions for managing oneself responsibly, and positive actions directed toward physical and mental health, honesty, getting along with others, and continually improving oneself. The program also includes teacher, counselor, family, and community training as well as activities directed toward schoolwide climate development. Youth reported on their normative beliefs in support of aggression and on their bullying, disruptive, and violent behaviors; parents rated youths' bullying behaviors and conduct problems; schoolwide data on disciplinary referrals and suspensions were obtained from school records. Multilevel growth-curve modeling analyses conducted on completion of the trial indicated that Positive Action mitigated increases over time in (1) youth reports of normative beliefs supporting aggressive behaviors and of engaging in disruptive behavior and bullying (girls only) and (2) parent reports of youth bullying behaviors (boys only). At study end-point, students in Positive Action schools also reported a lower rate of violence-related behavior than students in control schools. Schoolwide findings indicated positive program effects on both disciplinary referrals and suspensions. Program effect sizes

  8. A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study on Ablative Fractional CO2 Laser for Consecutive Patients Presenting With Various Scar Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drooge, Anne Margreet; Vrijman, Charlotte; van der Veen, Wietze; Wolkerstorfer, Albert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although ablative fractional laser is the gold standard for acne scars, evidence is still lacking for other types of scars. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the ablative fractional 10,600-nm CO2 laser in the treatment of various scar types. MATERIALS AND METHODS The

  9. The Effects of Diode Laser Therapy as an Adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing in the Treatment of Aggressive Periodontitis: A 1-Year Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarese, Giovanni; Ramaglia, Luca; Cicciù, Marco; Cordasco, Giancarlo; Isola, Gaetano

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the clinical, microbial, and inflammatory effects of a diode laser as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) versus SRP alone for the treatment of generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP). Using a split-mouth design, 31 patients with GAgP were enrolled in the study. The maxillary right and left quadrants were randomly assigned to SRP+diode laser or SRP alone. Patients were examined on a regular basis for clinical, microbiological, and inflammatory mediator changes over a 1-year period. Clinical attachment level (CAL) was the primary outcome variable chosen. In addition, subgingival biofilm samples and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) inflammatory mediators were analyzed at each follow-up session. Compared to baseline, both treatments demonstrated an improvement in periodontal parameters at 1 year. However, SRP+diode laser produced a significant improvement in probing depth (PD; 2.56 ± 0.44 vs. 3.36 ± 0.51 mm, p diode laser group, the bacteria of orange complex group were significantly reduced at 30 and 60 days compared to SRP alone. Moreover, SRP+diode laser determined a reduction in mean GCF level of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-1β/IL-10 ratio at 15 and 30 days compared to SRP alone (p diode laser yielded a significant reduction in some clinical parameters, while microbial and inflammatory mediator changes were not significantly reduced compared to SRP alone.

  10. Laser acupuncture and probiotics in school age children with asthma: a randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study of therapy guided by principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockert, Karin; Schneider, Barbara; Porenta, Gerold; Rath, Regina; Nissel, Helmut; Eichler, Irmgard

    2007-03-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) postulates an interaction between the lung as a Yin-organ and the large intestine as a Yang-organ. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate in asthmatic school age children whether treatment with laser acupuncture and probiotics according to TCM portends a clinical benefit to standard medical treatment performed according to pediatric guidelines. Seventeen children aged 6-12 yr with intermittent or mild persistent asthma were enrolled in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot study. Eight patients received laser acupuncture for 10 wk and probiotic treatment in the form of oral drops (living non-pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis) for 7 wk. Nine patients in the control group were treated with a laser pen which did not emit laser light and were given placebo drops. Peak flow variability (PFV) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) were measured and Quality of Life was assessed by a standardized questionnaire. Laser acupuncture and probiotics significantly decreased mean (standard deviation) weekly PFV as a measurement of bronchial hyperreactivity by -17.4% (14.2) in the TCM group vs. 2.2% (22.5) in the control group (p = 0.034). No significant effect was detected for FEV(1), Quality of Life criteria and additional medication. As an exploratory result, patients in the TCM group had fewer days of acute febrile infections when compared with the control group [1.14 (1.4) vs. 2.66 (2.5), p = 0.18]. In conclusion, this pilot study generates the hypothesis that the interactive treatment of lung and large intestine according to TCM by laser acupuncture and probiotics has a beneficial clinical effect on bronchial hyperreactivity in school age children with intermittent or mild persistent asthma and might be helpful in the prevention of acute respiratory exacerbations. These results should be confirmed by further studies.

  11. Low energy Helium-Neon laser in the prevention of oral mucositis in patients undergoing bone marrow transplant: results of a double blind randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, D; Tardieu, C; Schubert, M; Peterson, D; Resbeut, M; Faucher, C; Franquin, J C

    1997-07-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of Helium-Neon (He-Ne) laser in the prevention of oral mucositis induced by high dose chemoradiotherapy before autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Between 1993 and 1995, 30 consecutive patients receiving an autologous peripheral stem-cell or bone marrow transplant (BMT) after high dose chemoradiotherapy were randomized to possibly receive prophylactic laser to the oral mucosa after giving informed consent. Chemotherapy consisted of cyclophosphamide, 60 mg/kg intravenously (I.V.) on day (d)-5 and d-4 in 27 cases, or melphalan 140 mg/kg I.V. on d-4 in three cases. Total body irradiation (TBI) consisted of 12 Gy midplane dose in six fractions (4 Gy/day for three days). He-Ne laser (632.8 nm wavelength, power 60 mW) applications were performed daily from d-5 to d-1 on five anatomic sites of the oral mucosa. Oral examination was performed daily from d0 to d + 20. Mucositis was scored according to an oral exam guide with a 16 item scale of which four were assessed by the patients themselves. Mean daily self assessment scores for oral pain, ability to swallow and oral dryness were measured. A daily mucositis index (DMI) and a cumulative oral mucositis score (COMS) were established. Requirement for narcotics and parenteral nutrition was recorded. The COMS was significantly reduced among laser treated (L+) patients (p = 0.04). The improvement of DMI in L+ patients was also statistically significant (p parenteral nutrition was not reduced (p = NS). Helium-Neon laser treatment was well tolerated, feasible in all cases, and reduced high dose chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis. Optimal laser treatment schedules still needs to be defined.

  12. Radiological (MRI and Biochemical effects of Low Level LASER therapy in chronic Osteo arthritis in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia: A Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Nambi S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is one of the degenerative diseases and Low level laser therapy (LLLT has been prescribed as nonoperative treatment in physiotherapy. But the available evidences of finding the radiological and biochemical effectiveness of LLLT are very few. So, the purpose of this study is to find the radiological and biochemical effect of Low level laser therapy (LLLT in the treatment of Osteoarthritis. 34 subjects who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were divided into two groups (Active Laser group – ALG & Placebo Laser group - PLG with randomized sampling method. ALG was treated with active laser head, whereas PLG treated same like ALG but without emission of energy. Both groups were applied with kinesio tape for 4 weeks. The frequency of the treatment was three times per week for 4 weeks in both groups. Subjects were assessed at baseline, 4th and 8th week. Contact area (mm2 – medial & lateral and cartilage thickness (percentage - medial & lateral was measured by Magnetic resonance image (MRI and CTX-II (μmg/mmol was measured by urine analysis. A statistically significant (p ≤0.05 difference between both groups were noted at the period of 8 week for contact area (lateral and CTX-II and insignificant (p ≥ 0.05 difference in contact area (medial and cartilage thickness (medial & lateral were noted. In conclusion, the low level laser therapy is helpful in modifying the biochemical components and leads to make changes in the cartilage which subsequently improve the quality of life of OA patients.

  13. Effectiveness of percutaneous laser disc decompression versus conventional open discectomy in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation; design of a prospective randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koes Bart W

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The usual surgical treatment of refractory sciatica caused by lumbar disc herniation, is open discectomy. Minimally invasive procedures, including percutaneous therapies under local anesthesia, are increasingly gaining attention. One of these treatments is Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression (PLDD. This treatment can be carried out in an outpatient setting and swift recovery and return to daily routine are suggested. Thus far, no randomized trial into cost-effectiveness of PLDD versus standard surgical procedure has been performed. We present the design of a randomized controlled trial, studying the cost-effectiveness of PLDD versus conventional open discectomy in patients with sciatica from lumbar disc herniation. Methods/design The study is a randomized prospective multi-center trial, in which two treatment strategies are compared in a parallel group design. Patients (age 18–70 years visiting the neurosurgery department of the participating hospitals, are considered for inclusion in the trial when sciatica due to lumbar disc herniation has lasted more than 8 weeks. Patients with disc herniation smaller than 1/3 of the spinal canal diameter, without concomitant lateral recess stenosis or sequestration, are eligible for participation, and are randomized into one of two treatment arms; either Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression or conventional discectomy. The functional outcome of the patient, as assessed by the Roland Disability Questionnaire for Sciatica at 8 weeks and 1 year after treatment, is the primary outcome measure. The secondary outcome parameters are recovery as perceived by the patient, leg and back pain, incidence of re-intervention, complications, quality of life, medical consumption, absence of work and secondary costs. Discussion Open discectomy is still considered to be the golden standard in the surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Whether Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression has at least as

  14. A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of an ablative fractional 2940-nm erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser with a nonablative fractional 1550-nm erbium-doped glass laser for the treatment of photoaged Asian skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hye-Rim; Yun, Woo-Jin; Lee, Ye Jin; Lee, Mi-Woo; Chang, SungEun

    2015-01-01

    As compared with ablative fractional CO2 laser, ablative fractional erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser is considered to be a more suitable treatment option for photoaged skin in Asians due to the lower incidence of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. To compare the efficacy and safety of ablative fractional Er:YAG laser (ablative fractional resurfacing [AFR]) and nonablative fractional 1550-nm Er:glass laser (non-AFR [NAFR]) in the treatment of photoaging. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded comparative study. In three sessions, at four-week intervals, 19 patients received Er:YAG AFR, and 15 patients received Er:glass NAFR. Pigmentation, uneven tone/erythema, wrinkles and overall features of photoaging were scored. Patient satisfaction, adverse effects and pain scores were recorded. Melanin and erythema indexes were measured. Reductions in pigmentation and uneven tone/erythema scores were significantly greater after Er:YAG AFR, while wrinkle score reduction was significantly greater after Er:glass NAFR. Physician and patient assessments for the overall features showed greater improvement in the Er:glass NAFR. Treatment-related pain or adverse events were less in the Er:YAG AFR. Both Er:YAG AFR and Er:glass NAFR are effective and safe and could be used in a complementary manner for treating photoaged Asian skin.

  15. Treatment-enhanced paired action contributes substantially to change across multiple health behaviors: secondary analyses of five randomized trials

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Hui-Qing; Prochaska, James O.; Rossi, Joseph S.; Redding, Colleen A.; Paiva, Andrea L.; Blissmer, Bryan; Velicer, Wayne F.; Johnson, Sara S.; Kobayashi, Hisanori

    2013-01-01

    The dominant paradigm of changing multiple health behaviors (MHBs) is based on treating, assessing, and studying each behavior separately. This study focused on individuals with co-occurring baseline health-risk behavior pairs and described whether they changed over time on both or only one of the behaviors within each pair. Data from five randomized trials of computer-tailored interventions (CTIs) that simultaneously treated MHBs were analyzed. The differences between treatment and control p...

  16. Comparison of 12-w versus 14-w endovenous laser ablation in the treatment of great saphenous varicose veins: 5-year outcomes from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Nehemiah; Wallace, Tom; Carradice, Daniel; Mazari, Fayyaz A K; Chetter, Ian C

    2013-07-01

    Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for lower limb varicose veins in the short and midterm results. This study reports the 5-year outcomes of EVLA technique at different power settings. Patients with primary symptomatic, unilateral varicose veins secondary to saphenofemoral junction (SFJ) incompetence and great saphenous vein (GSV) reflux were recruited and randomized to either 12W (intermittent laser withdrawal) or 14W (continuous laser withdrawal). They were assessed at baseline, 1, 6, 12, 52, 104 weeks, and 5 years. Outcome measures included: Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS), pain scores, time taken to return to normal functions, complications, recurrence, quality of life (QoL), and duplex ultrasound findings. 76 consecutive patients, M: F 30:46, median age 54(IQR: 37.3-59) years were randomized. Intragroup analysis: Significant improvement was seen in both groups in VCSS, pain scores, Aberdeen varicose vein questionnaire (AVVQ) scores, Shortform-36 (SF-36) and Euroqol (EQ-5D) domains over the follow-up period (P 0.05). Late outcomes following EVLA were superior for the 14W continuous power settings achieving better long term venous occlusion and lowered recurrence rates without increasing post-operative morbidity. Hence 14W continuous setting should be the energy delivery mode of choice.

  17. The advocacy in action study a cluster randomized controlled trial to reduce pedestrian injuries in deprived communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, R A; Towner, E; Christie, N; Kendrick, D; Jones, S J; Hayes, M; Kimberlee, R; Sarvotham, T; Macey, S; Brussoni, M; Sleney, J; Coupland, C; Phillips, C

    2008-04-01

    Road traffic-related injury is a major global public health problem. In most countries, pedestrian injuries occur predominantly to the poorest in society. A number of evaluated interventions are effective in reducing these injuries. Very little research has been carried out into the distribution and determinants of the uptake of these interventions. Previous research has shown an association between local political influence and the distribution of traffic calming after adjustment for historical crash patterns. This led to the hypothesis that advocacy could be used to increase local politicians knowledge of pedestrian injury risk and effective interventions, ultimately resulting in improved pedestrian safety. To design an intervention to improve the uptake of pedestrian safety measures in deprived communities. Electoral wards in deprived areas of England and Wales with a poor record of pedestrian safety for children and older adults. Design mixedmethods study, incorporating a cluster randomized controlled trial. Data mixture of Geographical Information Systems data collision locations, road safety interventions, telephone interviews, and questionnaires. Randomization 239 electoral wards clustered within 57 local authorities. Participants 615 politicians representing intervention and control wards. Intervention a package of tailored information including maps of pedestrian injuries was designed for intervention politicians, and a general information pack for controls. Primary outcome number of road safety interventions 25 months after randomization. Secondary outcomes politicians interest and involvement in injury prevention cost of interventions. Process evaluation use of advocacy pack, facilitators and barriers to involvement, and success.

  18. Drop-on-demand sample delivery for studying biocatalysts in action at X-ray free-electron lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Franklin D; Gul, Sheraz; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Burgie, E Sethe; Young, Iris D; Lebrette, Hugo; Srinivas, Vivek; Brewster, Aaron S; Michels-Clark, Tara; Clinger, Jonathan A; Andi, Babak; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Pastor, Ernest; de Lichtenberg, Casper; Hussein, Rana; Pollock, Christopher J; Zhang, Miao; Stan, Claudiu A; Kroll, Thomas; Fransson, Thomas; Weninger, Clemens; Kubin, Markus; Aller, Pierre; Lassalle, Louise; Bräuer, Philipp; Miller, Mitchell D; Amin, Muhamed; Koroidov, Sergey; Roessler, Christian G; Allaire, Marc; Sierra, Raymond G; Docker, Peter T; Glownia, James M; Nelson, Silke; Koglin, Jason E; Zhu, Diling; Chollet, Matthieu; Song, Sanghoon; Lemke, Henrik; Liang, Mengning; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Zouni, Athina; Messinger, Johannes; Bergmann, Uwe; Boal, Amie K; Bollinger, J Martin; Krebs, Carsten; Högbom, Martin; Phillips, George N; Vierstra, Richard D; Sauter, Nicholas K; Orville, Allen M; Kern, Jan; Yachandra, Vittal K; Yano, Junko

    2017-04-01

    X-ray crystallography at X-ray free-electron laser sources is a powerful method for studying macromolecules at biologically relevant temperatures. Moreover, when combined with complementary techniques like X-ray emission spectroscopy, both global structures and chemical properties of metalloenzymes can be obtained concurrently, providing insights into the interplay between the protein structure and dynamics and the chemistry at an active site. The implementation of such a multimodal approach can be compromised by conflicting requirements to optimize each individual method. In particular, the method used for sample delivery greatly affects the data quality. We present here a robust way of delivering controlled sample amounts on demand using acoustic droplet ejection coupled with a conveyor belt drive that is optimized for crystallography and spectroscopy measurements of photochemical and chemical reactions over a wide range of time scales. Studies with photosystem II, the phytochrome photoreceptor, and ribonucleotide reductase R2 illustrate the power and versatility of this method.

  19. Efficacy of high and low level laser therapy in the treatment of Bell's palsy: a randomized double blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayat, Mohamed Salaheldien Mohamed; Elsodany, Ahmed Mohamed; El Fiky, Amir Abdel Raouf

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the effects of high intensity laser therapy (HILT) and low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the treatment of patients with Bell's palsy. Forty-eight patients participated in and completed this study. The mean age was 43 ± 9.8 years. They were randomly assigned into three groups: HILT group, LLLT group, and exercise group. All patients were treated with facial massage and exercises, but the HILT and LLLT groups received the respective laser therapy. The grade of facial recovery was assessed by the facial disability scale (FDI) and the House-Brackmann scale (HBS). Evaluation was carried out 3 and 6 weeks after treatment for all patients. Laser treatments included eight points on the affected side of the face three times a week for 6 successive weeks. FDI and HBS were used to assess the grade of recovery. The scores of both FDI and HBS were taken before as well as 3 and 6 weeks after treatment. The Friedman test and Wilcoxon signed ranks test were used to compare the FDI and HBS scores within each group. The result showed that both HILT and LLLT significantly improved the recovery of patients with Bell's palsy. Moreover, HILT was the most effective treatment modality compared to LLLT and massage with exercises. Thus, both HILT and LLLT are effective physical therapy modalities for the recovery of patients with Bell's palsy, with HILT showing a slightly greater improvement than LLLT.

  20. Randomized clinical trial of CO₂ LASER pinpoint irradiation technique versus chemical reconstruction of skin scars (CROSS) in treating ice pick acne scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Radwa; Mohammed, Ghada; Ismail, Nader; Elakhras, Atef

    2014-01-01

    Pinpoint irradiation technique CO₂ LASER and Chemical Reconstruction Of Skin Scars (CROSS) are effective treatments for atrophic acne scars as fractional photothermolysis. This study was designed to prospectively compare the use of a pinpoint irradiation technique versus TCA CROSS in treating ice pick acne scars. Thirty-two patients with ice pick acne scars were included in this open, label pilot study. Pinpoint irradiation technique by CO₂ LASER and TCA CROSS were applied for the study and control group, respectively. Twenty-eight patients with ice pick acne scars were included in this open, label pilot study. They were randomly assigned to two groups: the first group (14 patients) received pinpoint irradiation by CO₂ LASER as a study group, and the second group (14 patients) received TCA CROSS as a control group. In both treatments, there were four sessions at 3-week interval, and 3 months of follow up. There were statistically significant difference in acne scar severity index and qualitative scarring grading system in the improvement results between the study and control groups (p < 0.05). Pinpoint irradiation technique by CO₂ LASER is safe and more effective than TCA CROSS technique. Clinical improvement was achieved in all 14 patients without dramatic adverse effects.

  1. Laser therapy for onychomycosis in patients with diabetes at risk for foot complications : study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial (LASER-1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijenhuis-Rosien, Leonie; Kleefstra, Nanne; Wolfhagen, Maurice J.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Landman, Gijs W. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In a sham-controlled double-blind trial, we aim to establish the efficacy and safety of the local application of laser therapy in patients with diabetes, onychomycosis and risk factors for diabetes-related foot complications. Onychomycosis leads to thickened and distorted nails, which in

  2. Self-action of continuous laser radiation and Pearcey diffraction in a water suspension with light-absorbing particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Bekshaev, A. Ya.; Maksimyak, P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Water suspension of light-absorbing nano-sized particles is an example of a medium in which non-linear effects are present at moderate light intensities favorable for optical treatment of organic and biological objects. We study experimentally the phenomena emerging in a thin layer of such a medium...... under the action of inhomogeneous light field formed due to the Pearcey diffraction pattern near a microlens focus. In this high-gradient field, the light energy absorbed by the particles induces inhomogeneous distribution of the medium refraction index, which results in observable self...

  3. Multi-Range Conditional Random Field for Classifying Railway Electrification System Objects Using Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Jung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Railways have been used as one of the most crucial means of transportation in public mobility and economic development. For safe railway operation, the electrification system in the railway infrastructure, which supplies electric power to trains, is an essential facility for stable train operation. Due to its important role, the electrification system needs to be rigorously and regularly inspected and managed. This paper presents a supervised learning method to classify Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS data into ten target classes representing overhead wires, movable brackets and poles, which are key objects in the electrification system. In general, the layout of the railway electrification system shows strong spatial regularity relations among object classes. The proposed classifier is developed based on Conditional Random Field (CRF, which characterizes not only labeling homogeneity at short range, but also the layout compatibility between different object classes at long range in the probabilistic graphical model. This multi-range CRF model consists of a unary term and three pairwise contextual terms. In order to gain computational efficiency, MLS point clouds are converted into a set of line segments to which the labeling process is applied. Support Vector Machine (SVM is used as a local classifier considering only node features for producing the unary potentials of the CRF model. As the short-range pairwise contextual term, the Potts model is applied to enforce a local smoothness in the short-range graph; while long-range pairwise potentials are designed to enhance the spatial regularities of both horizontal and vertical layouts among railway objects. We formulate two long-range pairwise potentials as the log posterior probability obtained by the naive Bayes classifier. The directional layout compatibilities are characterized in probability look-up tables, which represent the co-occurrence rate of spatial relations in the horizontal and vertical

  4. Low-level laser therapy for treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in childhood: a randomized double-blind controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadori, Francesca; Bardellini, Elena; Conti, Giulio; Pedrini, Nicola; Schumacher, Richard Fabian; Majorana, Alessandra

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if low-level laser therapy could be useful to reduce chemotherapy-related oral mucositis grading and pain in childhood undergoing chemotherapy. A randomized double-blind clinical trial was carried out. Patients from 3 to 18 years of age undergoing cancer therapy and presenting OM grade 2 or more were eligible for this study. Patients were randomly divided in two groups: group A received laser therapy from the day of OM diagnosis and other 3 consecutive days (830 nm wavelength, power 150 mW, spot size 1 cm(2), 30 s per cm(2), energy density 4.5 J/cm(2)); group B received sham therapy (placebo) with the same timing. Two blind clinicians performed OM scoring and pain evaluation at day 1 (immediately before the beginning of laser treatment-T0), day 4 (after finishing laser therapy cycle-T1) and at day 7 (T2) as follow-up. A total of 123 patients were included in the study. Group A was composed of 62 children while group B is 61; in both groups, there was a progressive reduction in grade of OM, and at day 7, not every mucosal lesion disappeared. The difference in the decline of OM grading between the two groups resulted not statistically significant (p = 0.07). A statistically significant difference in pain reduction between two groups both at T1 and at T2 (p mucositis in children, while no significant benefit was noted in reducing OM grade.

  5. Low level laser therapy against radiation induced oral mucositis in elderly head and neck cancer patients-a randomized placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Ajay Prashad; Fernandes, Donald J; Vidyasagar, Mamidipudi S; Maiya, Arun G; Guddattu, Vausudev

    2015-03-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is treatment of choice for Elderly Head and Neck Cancer (HNC) patients. Oral mucositis (OM) during RT affects patient's routine oral activities and overall health. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) provided some promising results against cancer therapy induced OM in children and adults. No study specifically evaluated effects of LLLT against RT induced OM in elderly HNC patients until date, hence we did this study. This double blinded study randomized 46 elderly HNC patients scheduled for RT [Dosage=66 Gray (2 Gy/fraction), 5 fractions/week, total 33 fractions for 6.5 weeks], into laser (22) and placebo (24) groups. Laser group patients received LLLT [Helium-Neon, λ=632.8 nm, power density=0.024 W/cm(2), dosage=3.0 J/point at six anatomical sites bilaterally i.e. 12 locations, total dose/session=36 J, beam aperture diameter=0.6 mm, beam spot size=1 cm(2), irradiated area diameter=1 cm(2), irradiation time/point=125 s, 5 sessions/week, non-contact method-distance between probe and irradiated tissues laser. OM grades (RTOG/EORTC Scale), oral pain, weight loss, need for morphine analgesics and tube feeding, and RT break were recorded by a blinded assessor. Descriptive statistics and repeated measures ANOVA were used for analysis keeping plaser than placebo group. No difference was found for enteral feeding use (p=0.667) between two groups. LLLT decreased the severity of OM and oral pain in elderly HNC patients. Also, lesser weight loss, morphine analgesic use and radiation break happened in laser group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of low-level laser at auriculotherapy points to reduce postoperative pain in inferior third molar surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio-Filho, Hélio; Sotto-Ramos, Juliane; Pinto, Erika Horácio; Cabral, Marcia Regina; Longo, Priscila Larcher; Tortamano, Isabel Peixoto; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat; Silva, Daniela Fátima Teixeira; Pavani, Christine; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini

    2016-09-02

    A comfortable postoperative return to daily activities has increased the need to control inflammation after third molar surgery. Anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics are not exempt from adverse effects such as allergies and chronic gastritis, and they are not without cost. The association between low-level laser and auricular acupuncture can be an alternative when conventional drugs are contraindicated. Among its advantages, we can mention the low risk of side effects, low cost and simplicity of application. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of low-level laser at auriculotherapy points in reducing postoperative pain in lower third molar surgery. Ninety bilateral, symmetrical lower third molar surgeries will be performed in 45 healthy patients. Each patient will be their own control, through a split-mouth crossover study. One side of the mouth will be randomly chosen and, immediately after surgery, will be treated with low-level laser. After 21 days, the contralateral side will be operated on with low-level laser simulation used postoperatively. This regimen (laser application or not) will be repeated at 24 and 48 h after surgery. All patients will be requested to take analgesics (acetaminophen) if they have pain, i.e. in case of pain. Neither the surgeon nor the patients will know the assigned treatment. The primary variable will be postoperative pain assessed using a Visual Analog Scale, and the secondary variables will be trismus, edema, local temperature, dysphagia, presence of infection and painkiller ingestion. These variables will be assessed at baseline, 24 h, 48 h and 7 days after surgery. Blood samples for systemic inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8) analysis will be assessed at baseline and 24 h after surgery. Some authors believe that using a wavelength of 633 to 670 nm is a good option for laser therapy in the field of acupuncture. This wavelength can penetrate biological tissue to a depth of about 3 mm. However

  7. Comparison of therapeutic efficacy between acupuncture and low level laser in the treatment of cervical myofascial pain syndrome: a single blinded randomized clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Eslamian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Neck pain is a medical and public problem with a prevalence of 9-18 percent in general population. Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS is a regional pain syndrome that is characterized with muscular tender and triggers points. Laser therapy and acupuncture are two methods applied in the treatment of MPS. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acupuncture and low level laser in cervical MPS treatment. Material and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial study, during a 15-month period, 60 patients with CMPs, referred to physical medicine and rehabilitation clinic, were divided into three groups Gr1 underwent acupuncture plus drugs, Gr2 laser therapy plus drugs and Gr3 only medication. Pain severity using visual analogue scale (VAS, Range of motion (ROM with goniometry, palpation sensitivity with finger compression and daily function with neck questionnaire were assessed before, immediately after and two months after treatment. The obtained data were analyzed using statistical software SPSS version 16. Results: Sixty patients of CMPs were included in this study. In acupuncture group, 5 male and 15 female (mean age of 38.8±6.36, in laser group, 6 male and 14 female (mean age of 37.7±5.64 and in control group, 8 male and 12 female (mean age of 37.6±5.17 were evaluated. There was significant difference in majority of parameters in two treatment groups compared to control group. But neck ROM in left lateral bending and VAS score, showed better improvement in acupuncture group than the other 2 groups (P<0.001. Nevertheless two months afterwards, no significant difference was detected between laser and acupuncture groups. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that both acupuncture and laser therapy along with exercise and drugs are more effective than routine and only medication treatments in management of CMPs. However, with respect to myofascial pain pathology, acupuncture, at least in short term has more beneficial

  8. A randomized trial of photoselective vaporization of the prostate using the 80-W potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser vs transurethral prostatectomy, with a 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchier-Hayes, David M; Van Appledorn, Scott; Bugeja, Pat; Crowe, Helen; Challacombe, Ben; Costello, Anthony J

    2010-04-01

    To compare the potassium-titanyl-phosphate Greenlight(TM) 80-W laser ablation system for photovaporization of the prostate (PVP; Laserscope, San Jose, CA, USA) with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), as many technologies have been proposed as equivalent or superior to TURP without gaining widespread acceptance, due to lack of data from randomized trials. In all, 120 patients were randomized to undergo either TURP or PVP after a full urological evaluation, which was repeated at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Irrigation use, duration of catheterization (DOC), length of hospital stay (LOS), blood loss, cost and operative time were also assessed. Both groups showed a significant increase in mean (sd) maximum urinary flow rate from baseline (P technique when compared to TURP, producing equivalent improvements in flow rates and IPSS with the advantages of markedly reduced LOS, DOC and adverse events. A long-term follow-up is being undertaken to ensure durability of these results.

  9. The utilization of a diode laser in the surgical treatment of peri-implantitis. A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Christos A; Vouros, Ioannis; Menexes, Georgios; Konstantinidis, Antonis

    2015-11-01

    A comparison of different treatment modalities of peri-implantitis can lead to the development and application of more effective and efficient methods of therapy in clinical practice. This study compares the effectiveness of open flap debridement used alone, with an approach employing the additional use of a diode laser for the treatment of peri-implantitis. Nineteen patients were divided into two groups and treated for peri-implantitis. In the control group (C group), the therapy utilized access flaps, plastic curettes, and sterilized gauzes soaked in saline. The test group (L group) was treated similarly but with additional irradiation using a diode laser. The parameters studied were pocket depth (PD) as the primary outcome variable, clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), and plaque index (PI) as secondary variables. Measurements were performed at three different time points, baseline (BSL), 3 months, and 6 months after treatment. Three months after treatment, a mean PD reduction of 1.19 mm for the control group and 1.38 mm for the laser group was recorded. The corresponding BOP changes were 72.9 and 66.7%, respectively. These changes were significant and remained at the same levels at the 6-month examination (p diode laser does not seem to have an extra beneficiary effect. The additional use of a diode laser in the surgical treatment of peri-implantitis offers a limited clinical benefit.

  10. A phase III randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial to determine the efficacy of low level laser therapy for the prevention of oral mucositis in patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Mark M; Eduardo, Fernanda P; Guthrie, Katherine A; Franquin, Jean-Claude; Bensadoun, Rene-Jean J; Migliorati, Cesar A; Lloid, C Michele E; Eduardo, Carlos P; Walter, Niccoli-Filho; Marques, Marcia M; Hamdi, Mohd

    2007-10-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a significant early complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). This phase III randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was designed to compare the ability of 2 different low level GaAlAs diode lasers (650 nm and 780 nm) to prevent oral mucositis in HCT patients conditioned with chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Seventy patients were enrolled and randomized into 1 of 3 treatment groups: 650 nm laser, 780 nm laser or placebo. All active laser treatment patients received daily direct laser treatment to the lower labial mucosa, right and left buccal mucosa, lateral and ventral surfaces of the tongue, and floor of mouth with energy densities of 2 J/cm2. Study treatment began on the first day of conditioning and continued through day +2 post HCT. Mucositis and oral pain was measured on days 0, 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, and 21 post HCT. The 650 nm wavelength reduced the severity of oral mucositis and pain scores. Low level laser therapy was well-tolerated and no adverse events were noted. While these results are encouraging, further study is needed to truly establish the efficacy of this mucositis prevention strategy. Future research needs to determine the effects of modification of laser parameters (e.g., wavelength, fluence, repetition rate of energy delivery, etc.) on the effectiveness of LLE laser to prevent OM.

  11. The Diuretic Action of Weak and Strong Alcoholic Beverages in Elderly Men: A Randomized Diet-Controlled Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polhuis, Kristel C M M; Wijnen, Annemarthe H C; Sierksma, Aafje; Calame, Wim; Tieland, Michael

    2017-06-28

    With ageing, there is a greater risk of dehydration. This study investigated the diuretic effect of alcoholic beverages varying in alcohol concentration in elderly men. Three alcoholic beverages (beer (AB), wine (AW), and spirits (S)) and their non-alcoholic counterparts (non-alcoholic beer (NAB), non-alcoholic wine (NAW), and water (W)) were tested in a diet-controlled randomized crossover trial. For the alcoholic beverages, alcohol intake equaled a moderate amount of 30 g. An equal volume of beverage was given for the non-alcoholic counterpart. After consumption, the urine output was collected every hour for 4 h and the total 24 h urine output was measured. AW and S resulted in a higher cumulative urine output compared to NAW and W during the first 4 h (effect size: 0.25 mL p 0.40, p > 0.10). AB and NAB did not differ at any time point (effect size: -0.02 mL p > 0.70). For urine osmolality, and the sodium and potassium concentration, the findings were in line. In conclusion, only moderate amounts of stronger alcoholic beverages, such as wine and spirits, resulted in a short and small diuretic effect in elderly men.

  12. A randomized controlled trial of brain training with non-action video games in older adults: Results of the 3-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad eBallesteros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616 investigated the maintenance of training effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with selected games from a commercial package on several age-declining cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing after a 3-month no-contact period. Two groups of cognitively normal older adults participated in both the post-training (posttest and the present follow-up study, the experimental group who received training and the control group who attended several meetings with the research team during the study but did not receive training. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. Significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group had been previously found at posttest, in processing speed, attention and visual recognition memory, as well as in two dimensions of subjective wellbeing. In the current study, improvement from baseline to 3 months follow-up was found only in wellbeing (Affection and Assertivity dimensions in the trained group whereas there was no change in the control group. Previous significant improvements in processing speed, attention and spatial memory become nonsignificant after the 3-month interval. Training older adults with non-action video games enhanced aspects of cognition just after training but this effect disappeared after a 3-month no-contact follow-up period. Cognitive plasticity can be induced in older adults by training, but to maintain the benefits periodic boosting sessions would be necessary.

  13. A randomized controlled trial of brain training with non-action video games in older adults: results of the 3-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Laura, Ponce de León; Reales, José M; Waterworth, John A

    2015-01-01

    This randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616) investigated the maintenance of training effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with selected games from a commercial package on several age-declining cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing after a 3-month no-contact period. Two groups of cognitively normal older adults participated in both the post-training (posttest) and the present follow-up study, the experimental group who received training and the control group who attended several meetings with the research team during the study but did not receive training. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. Significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group had been previously found at posttest, in processing speed, attention and visual recognition memory, as well as in two dimensions of subjective wellbeing. In the current study, improvement from baseline to 3 months follow-up was found only in wellbeing (Affection and Assertivity dimensions) in the trained group whereas there was no change in the control group. Previous significant improvements in processing speed, attention and spatial memory become non-significant after the 3-month interval. Training older adults with non-action video games enhanced aspects of cognition just after training but this effect disappeared after a 3-month no-contact follow-up period. Cognitive plasticity can be induced in older adults by training, but to maintain the benefits periodic boosting sessions would be necessary.

  14. Low level laser therapy for concurrent chemoradiotherapy induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients - a triple blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Ajay Prashad; Fernandes, Donald J; Vidyasagar, Mamidipudi S; Maiya, Arun G; Vadhiraja, Bejadi M

    2012-09-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is most cumbersome acute side effect of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). OM associated pain affects oral functions and nutrition of the patient that may result in discontinuity of treatment. Several modalities have been tried to prevent and treat OM, but none proved completely successful until date. We used prophylactic low level laser therapy (LLLT) for the prevention and treatment of CCRT induced OM. In this triple blinded study, 221 HNC patients scheduled to undergo CCRT (Cisplatin (1, 22, 43 day)+RT=66 Grays (2 Gy/fraction), 33 fractions, 5 fractions/week, for 45 days) were block randomized into laser (n=111) and placebo (n=110) group. Laser group received LLLT (HeNe, λ=632.8 nm, power-density=24 mW, dosage=3.0 J/point, total dosage/session=36-40 J, spot-size=1cm(2), 5 sessions/week) while placebo received sham treatment daily prior to radiation. OM (RTOG/EORTC Scale), oral pain (VAS), dysphagia (FIS), weight loss and CCRT break were assessed. Data were analyzed using frequencies and percentage, generalized estimating equations (GEE) and odds ratio. There was significant reduction in incidence of severe OM (F=16.64, df=8876, plaser than placebo group patients. LLLT decreased the incidence of CCRT induced severe OM and its associated pain, dysphagia and opioid analgesics use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-invasive treatment to grade 1 essential hypertension by percutaneous laser and electric pulse to acupoint with music: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Hong-Rui; Hong, Zhong-Si; Chen, Yi-Shen; Hong, Hai-Yu; Weng, Ze-Bin; Yang, Zhang-Bin; Shi, Jing-Li; Chen, Zhong-Ben

    2016-09-01

    To study a non-drug therapy for hypertension disease by combining percutaneous laser and electric pulse stimulation to acupoint with music, and to test the efficiency of the combining treatment to grade 1 essential hypertension. A total of 174 patients with grade 1 essential hypertension were randomly assigned to 3 groups with a random number table after Chinese medicine (CM) syndrome differentiation: the photoelectric and musical treatment group (Group 1, with a self-developed multi-mode audio frequency pulse photoelectric therapeutic apparatus), acupuncture group (Group 2), and oral placebo group (Group 3), 58 cases per group. The curative effect of each group was evaluated by the changes of blood pressure and CM syndrome integral before and after treatment. Compared with Group 3, there were significant decrease of blood pressure and CM syndrome integral in Group 1 and Group 2 (P0.05). The multi-mode audio frequency pulse photoelectric therapeutic apparatus, combining music, laser and electric pulse stimulation, is clinically useful for grade 1 essential hypertension. This "three in one" therapy method is non-invasive, easy and simple to handle. It is expected to be popularized as a new alternative treatment.

  16. Transurethral holmium laser enucleation of the prostate versus transurethral electrocautery resection of the prostate: a randomized prospective trial in 200 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Rainer M; Ahyai, Sascha; Lehrich, Karin; Fayad, Amr

    2004-09-01

    Transurethral electrocautery resection (TURP) is generally regarded as the gold standard surgical treatment for bladder outflow obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia despite its rather high morbidity. The high powered holmium:YAG laser can be used endoscopically to enucleate obstructing prostatic tissue in a relatively bloodless manner. The technique of transurethral holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) was compared to standard TURP for the surgical management of prostate adenomas in a randomized, prospective clinical trial. A total of 200 urodynamically obstructed patients with a prostate of less than 100 gm on transrectal ultrasound were randomized to HoLEP or TURP. All patients were assessed preoperatively, and 1, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Patient baseline characteristics, perioperative data and postoperative outcome were compared. All complications were noted. HoLEP was significantly superior to TURP in terms of catheter time, hospital stay and hemoglobin loss but operative time was longer. HoLEP and TURP resulted in a significant improvement in American Urological Association symptom scores, peak urinary flow rates and post-void residual urine volumes with symptoms scores and residual volume significantly better in the holmium group. Effects on continence and potency were similar in the 2 groups but adverse events were less frequent in the holmium group. HoLEP and TURP are highly effective procedures for removing obstructing prostatic adenomas. HoLEP resulted in significantly better micturition parameters and less perioperative morbidity.

  17. Long-term effects of pulsed high-intensity laser therapy in the treatment of post-burn pruritus: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebid, Anwar Abdelgayed; Ibrahim, Abeer Ramadan; Omar, Mohammed Taher; El Baky, Amal Mohamed Abd

    2017-04-01

    We assessed the long-term effects of pulsed high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) in post-burn pruritus treatment. A total of 49 adult burn patients with mean age of 31.53 ± 10.14 years participated, with 24 patients randomly assigned to the active laser group (ALG) and 25 in the placebo laser group (PLG). The ALG received HILT three times per week for 6 weeks, while the PLG received placebo HILT. Both groups received 10-mg cetirizine tablets twice daily and 10 mg at bedtime. All patients were advised to massage their burn scars with coconut oil for 5 min four times daily. The outcomes measured were the itch severity scale (ISS), impairment of pruritus-related quality of life (QoL), pain level by the visual analog scale (VAS), hand grip strength by handheld dynamometer, and daily cetirizine intake. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the baseline and post-treatment measurements and after 12 weeks of follow-up. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. ISS decreased significantly in the ALG after 6 weeks of treatment and after 12 weeks of follow-up compared with the PLG. The QoL results showed a significant improvement in the ALG compared with the PLG, which continued after 12 weeks. VAS results significantly decrease, hand grip strength significantly improved, and cetirizine intake significantly decreased post-treatment in the ALG relative to the PLG. HILT combined with cetirizine seems more effective in patients with post-burn pruritus than a placebo laser procedure with cetirizine.

  18. Treatment of acne scars with fractional CO2 laser at 1-month versus 3-month intervals: an intra-individual randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørn, Marie; Stausbøl-Grøn, Birgitte; Braae Olesen, Anne; Hedelund, Lene

    2014-02-01

    Treatment of acne scars with ablative fractional CO2 laser appears to be an effective and well-tolerated treatment. However, so far the influence of treatment interval has not been evaluated. To evaluate whether treatment of acne scars with fractional CO2 laser resurfacing at 1-month interval achieves better results with no difference in the occurrence of adverse effects, than treatment given at 3-months interval. Patients (n = 13) with symmetrical atrophic acne scars on right and left sides of the mid-face and lower-face were randomized to two fractional CO2 laser treatments at 1-month versus 3-month intervals. Blinded on-site evaluations were performed 1 and 6 months after the last treatment on 10-point scales. Endpoints were scar atrophy, patient satisfaction, and adverse effects. Pre-operatively, acne scars were moderately atrophic (5.86 ± 1.87). After treatment acne scars appeared with less atrophy on both treated sides 1 month postoperatively (1-month interval 1.96 ± 1.23, P scar atrophy at any time postoperatively (P = 0.81). Patients were moderately and equally satisfied with the treatment result on facial sides (P = 0.93). Postoperative adverse effects were minor and not influenced by the treatment interval. Fractional CO2 laser resurfacing improves atrophic acne scars and a treatment interval of either 1-month or 3-months does not seem to influence the improvement of scar atrophy nor the occurrence of postoperative adverse effects. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Nonablative 1550-nm fractional laser therapy versus triple topical therapy for the treatment of melasma: A randomized controlled pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, Marije W.; Wind, Bas S.; Beek, Johan F.; van der Veen, J. P. Wietze; Nieuweboer-Krobotová, Ludmila; Bos, Jan D.; Wolkerstorfer, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Various treatments are currently available for melasma. However, results are often disappointing. We sought to assess the efficacy and safety of nonablative 1550-nm fractional laser therapy and compare results with those obtained with triple topical therapy (the gold standard). Twenty female

  20. Taking ACTION to reduce pain: ACTION study rationale, design and protocol of a randomized trial of a proactive telephone-based coaching intervention for chronic musculoskeletal pain among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhimani, Rozina H; Cross, Lee J S; Taylor, Brent C; Meis, Laura A; Fu, Steven S; Allen, Kelli D; Krein, Sarah L; Do, Tam; Kerns, Robert D; Burgess, Diana J

    2017-01-13

    Rates of chronic pain are rising sharply in the United States and worldwide. Presently, there is evidence of racial disparities in pain treatment and treatment outcomes in the United States but few interventions designed to address these disparities. There is growing consensus that chronic musculoskeletal pain is best addressed by a biopsychosocial approach that acknowledges the role of psychological and environmental factors, some of which differ by race. The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial is to test the effectiveness of a non-pharmacological, self-regulatory intervention, administered proactively by telephone, at improving pain outcomes and increasing walking among African American patients with hip, back and knee pain. Participants assigned to the intervention will receive a telephone counselor delivered pedometer-mediated walking intervention that incorporates action planning and motivational interviewing. The intervention will consist of 6 telephone counseling sessions over an 8-10 week period. Participants randomly assigned to Usual Care will receive an informational brochure and a pedometer. The primary outcome is chronic pain-related physical functioning, assessed at 6 months, by the revised Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire, a measure recommended by the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT). We will also examine whether the intervention improves other IMMPACT-recommended domains (pain intensity, emotional functioning, and ratings of overall improvement). Secondary objectives include examining whether the intervention reduces health care service utilization and use of opioid analgesics and whether key contributors to racial/ethnic disparities targeted by the intervention mediate improvement in chronic pain outcomes Measures will be assessed by mail and phone surveys at baseline, three months, and six months. Data analysis of primary aims will follow intent-to-treat methodology. We

  1. A fast, easy circumcision procedure combining a CO2 laser and cyanoacrylate adhesive: a non-randomized comparative trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahsin Gorgulu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Circumcision is performed as a routine operation in many countries, more commonly for religious and cultural reasons than for indicated conditions, such as phimosis and balanitis. There are many techniques available, and recently electrocautery and both Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers, instead of blades, have been used for skin and mucosal incisions. However, the infection risk in circumcisions performed using a CO2 laser was 10% higher. There are also reports of sutureless procedures using cyanoacrylate, but these have higher risks of hematoma and hemorrhage. We combined a CO2 laser and cyanoacrylate to shorten the operation time and to decrease bleeding complications. Materials and Methods : Circumcisions were performed under general anesthesia with CO2 laser and cyanoacrylate combination in 75 6–9-year-old boys between May 2013 and August 2014 only for religious reasons. As a control, we compared them retrospectively with 75 age-matched patients who were circumcised using the conventional guillotine method in our clinic. Results No hematomas, bleeding, or wound infections were observed. One wound dehiscence (1.33% occurred during the early postoperative period and healed without any additional procedures. The median operating time was 7 (range 6–9 minutes. The conventional guillotine group comprised one hematoma (1.3%, two wound dehiscences (2.6%, and two hemorrhages (2.6%, and the median operating time was 22 (range 20–26 minutes. The difference in surgical time was significant (p<0.001, with no significant difference in the rate of complications between the two groups. Conclusion The combined CO2 laser and cyanoacrylate procedure not only decreased the operating time markedly, but also eliminated the disadvantages associated with each individual procedure alone.

  2. The Twister laser fiber degradation and tissue ablation capability during 980-nm high-power diode laser ablation of the prostate. A randomized study versus the standard side-firing fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Hassan; Alokda, Alsayed; Mahmoud, Hisham

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this work is to test the ablation capability and fiber degradation of the novel Twister fibers (TW), in both the large (LTW) and the standard (STW) sizes, against the standard side-firing (SF) fiber in a clinical setting during the treatment of BPH patients using the 980-nm high-power diode laser (HPDL). One hundred and twenty BPH patients treated with HPDL (Ceralase300, Biolitec AG, Jena, Germany) were randomized to receive treatment by one of the three fibers. Operative time corrected to tissue volume, laser treatment time, and laser energy were measured. Ablation rate was calculated as follows: the decrease of the prostate volume after 6 months/laser time. The fibers' resistance to degradation was defined by the laser energy needed to degrade the fiber completely. Preoperative prostate volume of 76 ± 38, 70 ± 39, and 88 ± 49 cc decreased by 49 ± 16, 51 ± 20, and 63 ± 16% for the SF, STW, and LTW fibers, respectively. This difference was highly significant when the LTW was compared to the other two fibers (p < 0.001). Prostate volume reduction post-operatively within each group as compared to the pre-operative volume was highly significant (p < 0.001). The ablation rate was highest in LTW, being 1.31 ± 0.59, 1.09 ± 0.51, and 1.54 ± 0.44 cc/min for the SF, STW, and LTW fibers, respectively. The LTW fiber resisted degradation more than the other fibers and the STW more than the SF fiber (p < 0.001). This study demonstrates the higher ablation efficiency and resistance to degradation of the LTW fiber as compared to the STW and SF fibers. The STW fiber has a similar ablation rate of the SF fiber but resists degradation better.

  3. Efficacy of pulsed Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayat, Mohamed Salaheldien Mohamed; Aly, Tarek Helmy Ahmed; Elsayed, Aly Elsayed Mohamed; Fadil, Ammar Suliman Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pulsed Nd:YAG laser plus glucosamine/chondroitin sulfate (GCS) in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) by examining changes in pain and knee function, as well as synovial thickness (ST) and femoral cartilage thickness (FCT). Sixty-seven male patients participated, with a mean (SD) age of 53.85 (4.39) years, weight of 84.01 (4.70) kg, height of 171.51 (3.96) cm, and BMI of 28.56 (1.22). Group 1 was treated with high-intensity laser therapy (HILT), GCS, and exercises (HILT + GCS + EX). Group 2 was treated with GCS plus exercises (GCS + EX), and group 3 received placebo laser plus exercises (PL + EX). The outcomes measured were pain level and functional disability using the visual analog scale (VAS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), respectively. ST and FCT were measured by ultrasound examination. Statistical analyses were performed to compare differences between baseline and after 6 weeks of treatment and then after 3 months of follow-up. Statistical significance was set at p treatment of KOA patients.

  4. Dexmedetomidine Dose Dependently Enhances the Local Anesthetic Action of Lidocaine in Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block: A Randomized Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Kentaro; Sugiyama, Kazuna

    2016-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine (DEX) dose dependently enhances the local anesthetic action of lidocaine in rats. We hypothesized that the effect might also be dose dependent in humans. We evaluated the effect of various concentrations of DEX with a local anesthetic in humans. Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomly assigned by a computer to receive 1.8 mL of 1 of 4 drug combinations: (1) 1% lidocaine with 2.5 ppm (parts per million) (4.5 μg) DEX, (2) lidocaine with 5.0 ppm (9.0 μg) DEX, (3) lidocaine with 7.5 ppm (13.5μg) DEX, or (4) lidocaine with 1:80,000 (22.5 μg) adrenaline (AD), to produce inferior alveolar nerve block. Pulp latency and lower lip numbness (for assessing onset and duration of anesthesia) were tested, and sedation level, blood pressure, and heart rate were recorded every 5 minutes for 20 minutes, and every 10 minutes from 20 to 60 minutes. Pulp latency of each tooth increased compared with baseline, from 5 to 15 minutes until 60 minutes. There were no significant intergroup differences at any time point. Anesthesia onset was not different between groups. Anesthesia duration was different between groups (that with DEX 7.5 ppm was significantly longer than that with DEX 2.5 ppm and AD; there was no difference between DEX 2.5 ppm and AD). Blood pressure decreased from baseline in the 5.0 and 7.5 ppm DEX groups at 30 to 60 minutes, although there was no hypotension; moreover, heart rate did not change in any group. Sedation score did not indicate deep sedation in any of the groups. Dexmedetomidine dose dependently enhances the local anesthetic action of lidocaine in humans. Dexmedetomidine at 2.5 ppm produces similar enhancement of local anesthesia effect as addition of 1:80,000 AD.

  5. A randomized controlled trial of brain training with non-action video games in older adults: results of the 3-month follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Laura, Ponce de León; Reales, José M.; Waterworth, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616) investigated the maintenance of training effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with selected games from a commercial package on several age-declining cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing after a 3-month no-contact period. Two groups of cognitively normal older adults participated in both the post-training (posttest) and the present follow-up study, the experimental group who received training and the control group who attended several meetings with the research team during the study but did not receive training. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. Significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group had been previously found at posttest, in processing speed, attention and visual recognition memory, as well as in two dimensions of subjective wellbeing. In the current study, improvement from baseline to 3 months follow-up was found only in wellbeing (Affection and Assertivity dimensions) in the trained group whereas there was no change in the control group. Previous significant improvements in processing speed, attention and spatial memory become non-significant after the 3-month interval. Training older adults with non-action video games enhanced aspects of cognition just after training but this effect disappeared after a 3-month no-contact follow-up period. Cognitive plasticity can be induced in older adults by training, but to maintain the benefits periodic boosting sessions would be necessary. PMID:25926790

  6. Cholecalciferol supplementation does not influence β-cell function and insulin action in obese adolescents: a prospective double-blind randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Asma; Vella, Adrian; Balagopal, P Babu; Fischer, Philip R; Weaver, Amy L; Piccinini, Francesca; Dalla Man, Chiara; Cobelli, Claudio; Giesler, Paula D; Laugen, Jeanette M; Kumar, Seema

    2015-02-01

    There is increasing interest in the extraskeletal effects of vitamin D, particularly in the obese state with regard to the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of 2 doses of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) supplementation on insulin action (Si) and pancreatic β-cell function in obese adolescents. We performed a 12-wk double-blind, randomized comparison of the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on Si and β-cell function in obese Caucasian adolescents (body mass index > 95(th) percentile). The subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 400 IU/d (n = 25) or 2000 IU/d (n = 26) of vitamin D3. Each subject underwent a 7-sample 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, with glucose, insulin, and C-peptide measurements, to calculate Si and β-cell function as assessed by the disposition index (DI), with use of the oral minimal model before and after supplementation. A total of 51 subjects aged 15.0 ± 1.9 y were enrolled. Included for analysis at follow-up were a total of 46 subjects (20 male and 26 female adolescents), 23 in each group. Initial serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was 24.0 ± 8.1 μg/L. There was no correlation between 25(OH)D concentrations and Si or DI. There was a modest but significant increase in 25(OH)D concentration in the 2000 IU/d group (3.1 ± 6.5 μg/L, P = 0.04) but not in the 400 IU/d group (P = 0.39). There was no change in Si or DI following vitamin D3 supplementation in either of the treatment groups (all P > 0.10). The current study shows no effect from vitamin D3 supplementation, irrespective of its dose, on β-cell function or insulin action in obese nondiabetic adolescents with relatively good vitamin D status. Whether obese adolescents with vitamin D deficiency and impaired glucose metabolism would respond differently to vitamin D3 supplementation remains unclear and warrants further studies. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00858247. © 2015

  7. Effect of laser photobiomodulation on wound healing and postoperative pain following free gingival graft: A split-mouth triple-blind randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Mohadeseh; Paknejad, Mojgan; Jamali, Raika; Nokhbatolfoghahaei, Hanieh; Fekrazad, Reza; Moslemi, Neda

    2017-07-01

    Free gingival graft (FGG) is one of the most predictable techniques for gingival augmentation. However, patient's discomfort and pain during healing period are significant concerns. The aim of this study was to assess if laser photobiomodulation (PBM) was effective in terms of enhancing wound healing and reducing postoperative pain. Twelve patients participated in this split-mouth randomized controlled clinical trial. Each patient had a 30-day interval between the two procedures. In the test group, donor and recipient sites received diode laser (660nm, 200mW, continuous mode, time of irradiation:32s, energy density: 4J/cm(2), spot size:0.5cm) immediately after FGG surgery, and 1,2,4 and 7days later. The control side received the same sequence of irradiation with the laser-off. Complete wound epithelialization of donor site and clinical wound healing and visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score of donor and recipient sites were evaluated after surgery. At 14 and 21days after surgery, the number of donor sites with complete epithelialization was greater in laser group compared to the placebo. After 21days, all donor sites in the test group were epithelialized completely, while at the same time, only eight donor sites in the control group showed complete epithelialization (P value=0.05). In terms of clinical healing of the recipient and donor sites, the test and control groups did not show any significant difference during the 45-day period, except at days 1 (for recipient site) and 14 (for donor site), when the test group showed better results (P values: 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). The VAS pain score did not show statistically significant difference between two groups during the study period, except for the first 3h after procedure when laser group showed greater VAS pain score (P valuesFGG procedure with the parameters used in this study could accelerate the rate of epithelialization at the donor site. However, it did not reduce postoperative pain. Copyright © 2017

  8. Treatment of upper limb lymphedema with low-level laser: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro,Silvia Elizate; Resende, Lilian Valim; Felicíssimo,Mônica Faria; Araújo, Angélica Rodrigues de; Vaz,Camila Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Low-level lasers have been suggested as a complement to lymphedema treatment. However, this therapy’s mechanism of action and its effects are poorly understood up to the present. Objective To conduct a systematic literature review to analyze the effects of low-level laser in the treatment of upper-limb lymphedema in women submitted to breast cancer surgery. Material and methods Randomized clinical trials were included, in Portuguese, English and Spanish, from January 1990 to July...

  9. Impact of 160 W Greenlight laser vaporization of the prostate on erectile function: a prospective randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yun; Liu, Cuilong; Guan, Weimin; Zhao, Yubo; Xu, Yansheng; Wu, Yiguang

    2014-08-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the impact of 160 W Greenlight laser vaporization of the prostate on erectile function by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) in 1-year follow-up in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Although high-power Greenlight laser has greatly improved the efficiency of vaporization of the prostate, the impact of it on erectile function remains uncertain. A total of 80 BPH patients with normal erectile function or mild erectile dysfunction (IIEF-5 ≥12) were included in this study. They were randomly assigned to two equal groups: 80 or 160 W. Both groups were compared regarding all relevant preoperative, operative, and postoperative parameters. Urinary function in terms of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QOL) score, maximum flow rate (Qmax), and residual urinary volume (RUV) were evaluated at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Erectile function was evaluated by IIEF-5 at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Baseline characteristics of the two groups were comparable. Mean operative time was significantly shorter for the 160 W group. Urinary function in terms of IPSS, QOL, Qmax, and RUV were all significantly improved over baseline in both groups. There were no significant differences in these urinary functional parameters between the two groups at any point of follow-up. IIEF-5 scores of both groups significantly decreased at 3 months postoperatively compared with baseline, but at 6 and 12 months postoperatively, IIEF-5 score of either group increased to baseline, and was not different from baseline. At any point of follow-up, IIEF-5 scores of the two groups were comparable. Greenlight laser (160 W) vaporization of the prostate will not increase the risk of impairing erectile function.

  10. Treatment of Acne Vulgaris With Salicylic Acid Chemical Peel and Pulsed Dye Laser: A Split Face, Rater-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekakh, Olga; Mahoney, Anne Marie; Novice, Karlee; Kamalpour, Julia; Sadeghian, Azeen; Mondo, Dana; Kalnicky, Cathy; Guo, Rong; Peterson, Anthony; Tung, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed dye laser (PDL) has been used to treat acne lesions and scar erythema by interrupting superficial vasculature. Salicylic acid chemical peels are employed chiefly due to their lipophilic, comedolytic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Although studies have looked at peels and laser therapy independently in acne management, we examined these treatments in combination. Our primary objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of concurrent use of salicylic acid peels with PDL versus salicylic acid peels alone in the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris. Adult patients with moderate to severe acne were included. Subjects received a total of 3 treatments at 3-week intervals. Per randomized split-face treatment, at week 0, one half of the subject's face was treated with PDL (595 nm) followed by whole face application of a 30% salicylic acid peel. At weeks 3 and 6, the treatments were repeated. At 0 and 9 weeks, patients were assessed with the Global Evaluation Acne (GEA) scale and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire. Nineteen subjects were enrolled, and 18 completed the study. Significant improvement in acne was seen in both the combined (laser and peel) and chemical peel alone treatment arms (P peel only group. Based on the GEA scale scoring, a statistically significant greater difference in acne improvement was seen, from week 0 to week 9, in the combination treatment group compared with the peel only group (P = .003). While acne subjects had significant benefit from the salicylic acid peel alone, they experienced greater significant benefit from PDL treatment used in conjunction with salicylic acid peels. The adjunctive utilization of PDL to salicylic acid peel therapy can lead to better outcomes in acne management.

  11. Diode laser (980 nm) vaporization in comparison with transurethral resection of the prostate for benign prostatic hyperplasia: randomized clinical trial with 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghi, Mohammad Reza; Mazloomfard, Mohammad Mohsen; Mokhtarpour, Hooman; Moeini, Aida

    2014-09-01

    To compare outcomes of diode laser vaporization of prostate with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) as a gold-standard treatment. A total number of 115 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia underwent TURP and 980-nm diode vaporization of prostate in a balanced randomization (1:1) from 2010 to 2012 and were followed up for 24 months. Baseline characteristics of the patients, perioperative data, and postoperative outcomes were compared. The primary end point of the study was assessing the values of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and maximum flow rate (Qmax) to predict the functional improvement of each group. The trial is registered at http://www.irct.ir (number IRCT201202138146N3). The mean age (± standard deviation) of the patients was 68.2 ± 7.8 years in TURP and 68.5 ± 8.8 in diode groups. In TURP and diode groups, the operation time was 54.9 ± 15.3 vs 60.6 ± 22.6 minutes (P = .14), Foley catheterization time was 88.9 ± 22.5 vs 20.1 ± 4.6 hours (P = .0001) and postoperative hospital stay was 59.9 ± 14.4 vs 25.8 ± 9.2 hours (P = .0001) respectively. Outcome with regard to increase in Qmax, decrease in IPSS, and decrease in postvoid residual urine volume showed a dramatic improvement in both groups during the first 6 months. In the TURP group, the values of IPSS and Qmax were respectively lower and higher than diode patients at 12 and 24 months of follow-up. According to our study, diode laser vaporization (980 nm) offers a safe and feasible procedure in the management of patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hypertrophy; however, at longer follow-up the functional outcome of diode laser vaporization has been less efficient than TURP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical efficacy of subgingival debridement with adjunctive erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser treatment in patients with chronic periodontitis: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Sánchez, Ignacio; Ortiz-Vigón, Alberto; Matos, Rita; Herrera, David; Sanz, Mariano

    2015-04-01

    The efficacy of erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser application as an adjunct to subgingival debridement in the treatment of chronic periodontitis (CP) is controversial. This study assesses the efficacy of combining full-mouth subgingival debridement with Er:YAG laser application in the treatment of patients with CP. In this 12-month, single-masked, parallel-group clinical trial, 40 patients with moderate CP were selected and randomly assigned to a test group (one session of full-mouth ultrasonic subgingival debridement followed 1 week later by Er:YAG application in sites with initial probing depths [PDs] of ≥4.5 mm) and a control group (two sessions of ultrasonic debridement within 1 week). The main outcome variable was change in PD; the secondary outcomes were change in clinical attachment level and proportion of sites with bleeding on probing. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and after 3, 6, and 12 months. Data were analyzed as intention to treat using analysis of variance to assess intergroup differences. Both treatments resulted in significant clinical improvements. The test group achieved, in comparison with the control, a significantly lower percentage of sites with PD ≥4.5 mm (17.44% versus 22.83%, respectively; P = 0.004) and a tendency for a lower percentage of sites with PD ≥4.5 mm and bleeding on probing (9.78% versus 12.69%; P = 0.052). This limited added clinical effect may justify the use of a protocol combining full-mouth ultrasonic debridement with laser therapy in the treatment of initial moderate CP.

  13. Intense pulsed light vs. long-pulsed dye laser treatment of telangiectasia after radiotherapy for breast cancer: a randomized split-lesion trial of two different treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymann, P.; Hedelund, L.; Hædersdal, Merete

    2009-01-01

    ); the interventions were randomly assigned to left/right or upper/lower halves. Primary end-points were reduction in telangiectasia, patient satisfaction and preferred treatment. Secondary end-points were pain and adverse effects. Efficacy was registered by blinded photographic evaluations 3 months after the final......Background Chronic radiodermatitis is a common sequela of treatment for breast cancer and potentially a psychologically distressing factor for the affected women. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of treatments with a long-pulsed dye laser (LPDL) vs. intense pulsed light (IPL...... treatment. Results Eleven patients completed the study. Telangiectasia cleared with both treatments but the efficacy of LPDL was superior. Blinded photographic evaluations showed median vessel clearances of 90% (LPDL) and 50% (IPL) (P = 0.01). LPDL treatments were associated with lower pain scores than IPL...

  14. Long-pulsed dye laser versus intense pulsed light for photodamaged skin: A randomized split-face trial with blinded response evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, G.F.; Hedelund, L.; Haedersdal, M.

    2008-01-01

    assigned to left and right sides. Primary end-points were telangiectasias, irregular pigmentation and preferred treatment. Secondary end-points were skin texture, rhytids, pain, and adverse effects. Efficacy was evaluated by patient self-assessments and by blinded clinical on-site and photographic......Objective: In a randomized controlled split-face trial to evaluate efficacy and adverse effects from rejuvenation with long-pulsed dye laser (LPDL) versus intense pulsed light (IPL). Materials and Methods: Twenty female volunteers with Fitzpatrick skin types I-III, classes I-II rhytids...... evaluations at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Adverse effects were evaluated by blinded clinical on-site evaluations. Results: Telangiectasia improved from LPDL and IPL treatments with superior vessel clearance from LPDL treatments (postoperative side-to-side evaluations, patient self-assessments, P

  15. Low-Level Laser Therapy in Enhancing Wound Healing and Preserving Tissue Thickness at Free Gingival Graft Donor Sites: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustaoglu, Gulbahar; Ercan, Esra; Tunali, Mustafa

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on wound healing at free gingival graft (FGG) donor sites. Forty patients requiring FGG were selected for this randomized, controlled, and double-blinded prospective clinical trial. The FGG donor sites were treated with LLLT and compared with an untreated control group. The Wound-Healing Index (WHI), tissue consistency, color match, and H2O2 bubbling test for the evaluation of complete wound epithelialization were recorded on the 3rd, 7th, 14th and 21st days. The pain-burning level, number of analgesics, and bleeding were recorded for 7 days. Donor area soft tissue thickness (TT) was measured at baseline and at the first month. The prevalence of Complete Wound Epithelization was higher in the LLLT group than in the control group on the 14th day (p FGG donor site wound healing and preserves TT at palatinal donor sites.

  16. Effect of manual therapy and neurodynamic techniques vs ultrasound and laser on 2PD in patients with CTS: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolny, Tomasz; Saulicz, Edward; Linek, Paweł; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Saulicz, Mariola

    2016-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial. Two-point discrimination (2PD) test can be used to assess both clinical condition and the effects of therapy in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients. To determine whether there are specific differences in 2PD between symptomatic and asymptomatic hands in CTS patients and to evaluate the impact of 2 therapy regimes on 2PD in patients with CTS. Therapy for the neurodynamic mobilization group was based on manual therapy and neurodynamic techniques. Therapy for the electrophysical modalities group was based on red and infrared laser and ultrasound therapy using a contact method applied in the transverse ligament area. Therapeutic cycle consisted of 20 therapy sessions delivered at twice-weekly intervals. After therapy, 2PD in the symptomatic limbs in the neurodynamic mobilization and electrophysical modalities groups significantly improved (p therapy programs used in this study were beneficial for improving 2PD. 2. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of adding oral calcium dobesilate to laser photocoagulation on the macular thickness in patients with diabetic macular edema: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feghhi, Mostafa; Farrahi, Fereydoun; Abbaspour, Mohammadreza; Takhtaeian, Akbar

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral calcium dobesilate (Doxium) on macular thickness in clinically significant macular edema (CSME). Overall, 71 eyes of 40 patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and clinically significant macular edema were included. All patients were received laser treatment for macular edema. Coherence optical tomography was used to determine the retinal thickness. Patients were randomized into two groups: group A received three Doxium capsule daily and group B received three placebo capsule daily for six months. The mean macular thickness before and after treatment in the group A was 340 and 257 micrometers respectively (24.5% reduced), and in the group B was 336 micrometers and 263 micrometers respectively (21.5% reduced). Macular thickness significantly decreased after treatment in both groups and the reduction in group A is higher but the difference of reduction between the two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05). In respect to the effect of adding oral Doxium to Laser Photocoagulation on the macular thickness in patients with diabetic macular edema, this study showed no statistically significant difference between Doxium and placebo.

  18. Effect of Adding Oral Calcium Dobesilate to Laser Photocoagulation on the Macular Thickness in Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Feghhi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of oral calcium dobesilate (Doxium on macular thickness in clinically significant macular edema (CSME. Methods: Overall, 71 eyes of 40 patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and clinically significant macular edema were included. All patients were received laser treatment for macular edema. Coherence optical tomography was used to determine the retinal thickness. Patients were randomized into two groups: group A received three Doxium capsule daily and group B received three placebo capsule daily for six months. Results: The mean macular thickness before and after treatment in the group A was 340 and 257 micrometers respectively (24.5% reduced, and in the group B was 336 micrometers and 263 micrometers respectively (21.5% reduced. Macular thickness significantly decreased after treatment in both groups and the reduction in group A is higher but the difference of reduction between the two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Conclusion: In respect to the effect of adding oral Doxium to Laser Photocoagulation on the macular thickness in patients with diabetic macular edema, this study showed no statistically significant difference between Doxium and placebo.

  19. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy with/without diode laser modulates metabolic control of type 2 diabetics with periodontitis: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, Emrah; Sağlam, Mehmet; Kayış, Seyit Ali; Dündar, Niyazi; Kebapçılar, Levent; Loos, Bruno G; Hakkı, Sema S

    2016-02-01

    In order to evaluate whether nonsurgical periodontal treatment with/without diode laser (DL) decontamination improves clinical parameters, the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) in gingival crevicular fluid and metabolic control (HbA1c) in chronic periodontitis (CP) patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). Sixty patients with DM2 and CP were randomly assigned into two groups to receive scaling and root planing (SRP, n = 30) or SRP followed by diode laser application (SRP + DL, n = 30). Clinical periodontal and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) parameters were assessed at baseline, 1, and 3 months after periodontal treatment. HbA1c levels were evaluated at baseline and 3 months post-therapy. Total amounts of cytokines and molecules were analyzed by ELISA. Nonsurgical periodontal treatment with/without DL appeared to improve clinical, biochemical parameters, and glycemic control in DM2 patients (BMI 25 kg/m(2)) with CP. The SRP + DL group provided better reductions in probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) parameters compared to the SRP group (P treatment (P treatment (P 22 %, P < 0.05). SRP, especially in combination with DL, shows improvement of glycemic control for DM2 patients with CP.

  20. Low-Level Laser Therapy at 635 nm for Treatment of Chronic Plantar Fasciitis: A Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, David M; Coughlin, Michael J; Zang, Kerry; Stevens, Faustin R; Jastifer, James R; Doty, Jesse F

    2015-01-01

    Plantar fasciitis affects nearly 1 million persons in the United States at any one time. Conservative therapies have been reported to successfully treat 90% of plantar fasciitis cases; however, for the remaining cases, only invasive therapeutic solutions remain. This investigation studied newly emerging technology, low-level laser therapy. From September 2011 to June 2013, 69 subjects were enrolled in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study that evaluated the clinical utility of low-level laser therapy for the treatment of unilateral chronic fasciitis. The volunteer participants were treated twice a week for 3 weeks for a total of 6 treatments and were evaluated at 5 separate time points: before the procedure and at weeks 1, 2, 3, 6, and 8. The pain rating was recorded using a visual analog scale, with 0 representing "no pain" and 100 representing "worst pain." Additionally, Doppler ultrasonography was performed on the plantar fascia to measure the fascial thickness before and after treatment. Study participants also completed the Foot Function Index. At the final follow-up visit, the group participants demonstrated a mean improvement in heel pain with a visual analog scale score of 29.6 ± 24.9 compared with the placebo subjects, who reported a mean improvement of 5.4 ± 16.0, a statistically significant difference (p plantar fasciitis. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The prevention of induced oral mucositis with low-level laser therapy in bone marrow transplantation patients: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Geisa Badauy Lauria; Mendonça, Elismauro Francisco; Bariani, Cesar; Antunes, Heliton Spindola; Silva, Maria Alves Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Patients who have received high doses of chemotherapy, either alone or in combination with total body irradiation often cite oral mucositis (OM) as the most debilitating side effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the prevention of conditioning-induced OM in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We randomized 42 patients who underwent autologous or allogeneic HSCT. A low-level InGaAlP diode laser was used, emitting light at 660 nm, 40 mW, and 4 J/cm(2). An evaluation of OM was carried out using the World Health Organization scale. In the LLLT group, 57.1% of patients had an OM grade 0, 9.6% had grade 1, and 33.3% had grade 2, whereas in the control group, only 4.8% of patients were free of OM (grade 0). Our results indicate that the preventive use of LLLT in patients who have undergone HSCT is a powerful instrument in reducing OM incidence.

  2. Small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) versus laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK): study protocol for a randomized, non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Marcus; Tan, Donald; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2012-05-31

    Small incision lenticule extraction or SMILE is a novel form of 'flapless' corneal refractive surgery that was adapted from refractive lenticule extraction (ReLEx). SMILE uses only one femtosecond laser to complete the refractive surgery, potentially reducing surgical time, side effects, and cost. If successful, SMILE could potentially replace the current, widely practiced laser in-situ keratomileusis or LASIK. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether SMILE is non-inferior to LASIK in terms of refractive outcomes at 3 months post-operatively. Single tertiary center, parallel group, single-masked, paired-eye design, non-inferiority, randomized controlled trial. Participants who are eligible for LASIK will be enrolled for study after informed consent. Each participant will be randomized to receive SMILE and LASIK in each eye. Our primary hypothesis (stated as null) in this non-inferiority trial would be that SMILE differs from LASIK in adults (>21 years old) with myopia (> -3.00 diopter (D)) at a tertiary eye center in terms of refractive predictability at 3 months post-operatively. Our secondary hypothesis (stated as null) in this non-inferiority trial would be that SMILE differs from LASIK in adults (>21 years old) with myopia (> -3.00 D) at a tertiary eye center in terms of other refractive outcomes (efficacy, safety, higher-order aberrations) at 3 months post-operatively. Our primary outcome is refractive predictability, which is one of several standard refractive outcomes, defined as the proportion of eyes achieving a postoperative spherical equivalent (SE) within ±0.50 D of the intended target. Randomization will be performed using random allocation sequence generated by a computer with no blocks or restrictions, and implemented by concealing the number-coded surgery within sealed envelopes until just before the procedure. In this single-masked trial, subjects and their caregivers will be masked to the assigned treatment in each eye. This novel

  3. A pilot randomized trial evaluating low-level laser therapy as an alternative treatment to manual lymphatic drainage for breast cancer-related lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridner, Sheila H; Poage-Hooper, Ellen; Kanar, Collin; Doersam, Jennifer K; Bond, Stewart M; Dietrich, Mary S

    2013-07-01

    To examine the impact of advanced practice nurse (APN)-administered low-level laser therapy (LLLT) as both a stand-alone and complementary treatment for arm volume, symptoms, and quality of life (QOL) in women with breast cancer-related lymphedema. A three-group, pilot, randomized clinical trial. A private rehabilitation practice in the southeastern United States. 46 breast cancer survivors with treatment-related lymphedema. Patients were screened for eligibility and then randomized to either manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) for 40 minutes, LLLT for 20 minutes, or 20 minutes of MLD followed by 20 minutes of LLLT. Compression bandaging was applied after each treatment. Data were collected pretreatment, daily, weekly, and at the end of treatment. Independent variables consisted of three types of APN-administered lymphedema treatment. Outcome variables included limb volume, extracellular fluid, psychological and physical symptoms, and QOL. No statistically significant between-group differences were found in volume reduction; however, all groups had clinically and statistically significant reduction in volume. No group differences were noted in psychological and physical symptoms or QOL; however, treatment-related improvements were noted in symptom burden within all groups. Skin improvement was noted in each group that received LLLT. LLLT with bandaging may offer a time-saving therapeutic option to conventional MLD. Alternatively, compression bandaging alone could account for the demonstrated volume reduction. APNs can effectively treat lymphedema. APNs in private healthcare practices can serve as valuable research collaborators. Lasers may provide effective, less burdensome treatment for lymphedema. APNs with lymphedema certification can effectively treat this patient population with the use of LLLT. In addition, bioelectrical impedance and tape measurements can be used to assess lymphedema.

  4. Fractional nonablative 1,540-nm laser resurfacing of atrophic acne scars. A randomized controlled trial with blinded response evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedelund, Lene; Moreau, Karen Estell R; Beyer, Ditte M

    2010-01-01

    on-site clinical evaluations were performed before treatment, and at 4 and 12 weeks after the final treatment. End-points were overall change in scar texture (from score 0, even texture, to 10, worst possible scarring), adverse effects, change in skin colour (from score 0, absent, to 10, worst...... possible), and patient satisfaction (from score 0, no satisfaction, to 10, best imaginable satisfaction). Before treatment, scars were moderately atrophic and uneven in texture on both treated and untreated sides (median score 6.5, interquartile range 4.5-8; P=1). After treatment, laser-treated scars...

  5. Intense pulsed light vs. pulsed-dye laser in the treatment of facial acne: a randomized split-face trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y S; Suh, H S; Yoon, M Y; Min, S U; Lee, D H; Suh, D H

    2010-07-01

    Various laser and light therapy have been increasingly used for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Twenty patients with facial acne were treated using intense pulsed light (IPL) on one side of the face and pulsed dye laser (PDL) on the other to compare the efficacy and safety of IPL and PDL. Treatment was performed 4 times at 2-week intervals. Treatment effectiveness was determined using lesion counts, acne severity, patient subjective self-assessments of improvement, and histopathological examinations, which included immunohistochemical staining for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Numbers of total acne lesions decreased following both treatments. For inflammatory lesions such as papules, pustules and nodules, IPL-treated sides showed an earlier and more profound improvement than PDL-treated sides. However, at 8 weeks after the 4th treatment, a rebound aggravation of acne was observed on IPL-treated sides. On the contrary, PDL produced gradual improvements during the treatment sessions and these improvements lasted 8 weeks after the 4th treatment. Non-inflammatory lesions as open and closed comedones also showed improvement following both treatments and PDL-treated sides showed better improvement as the study proceeded. Histopathological examinations showed amelioration in inflammatory reactions and an increase in TGF-beta expression after both treatments, which were more prominent for PDL-treated sides. Both PDL and IPL were found to treat acne effectively, but PDL showed a more sustained effect. TGF-beta might play a key role in the resolution of inflammatory acne lesions.

  6. Reconsidering Sequential Double Running Suture Removal After Penetrating Keratoplasty: A Prospective Randomized Study Comparing Excimer Laser and Motor Trephination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Berthold; Hager, Tobias; Langenbucher, Achim; Naumann, Gottfried O H

    2017-12-14

    We assessed the impact of sequential double running suture removal on corneal curvature after penetrating keratoplasty (PK), comparing mechanical and nonmechanical excimer laser trephination. PK was performed in 134 patients (mean age 51 ± 18 yrs) using either the excimer laser [excimer, n = 60 (37 keratoconus and 23 Fuchs dystrophy)] or motor trephination [control, n = 74 (44 keratoconus and 30 Fuchs dystrophy)] and a double running cross-stitch suture. Refractometry, Zeiss keratometry, and Tomey corneal topography were performed before removal of the first suture (15.2 ± 4.2 mo) and immediately before and at least 6 weeks after removal of the second suture (21.4 ± 5.6 mo). Keratometry before removal of the first (-1.7 ± 2.3 D vs. -3.1 ± 2.8 D) and second (-2.3 ± 2.6 D vs. -3.8 ± 2.8 D) sutures showed that the change in the corneal base curve was significantly smaller in the excimer group than the control group (P control groups, respectively, resulting in significantly lower astigmatism in the excimer (3.1 ± 2.1 D) group compared with the control group (6.2 ± 2.9 D) with "all-sutures-out" (P vector-corrected astigmatism (Jaffe) was significantly smaller in the excimer group (4.3 ± 3.5 D) than in the control group (6.9 ± 4.5 D; P motor trephination.

  7. Transurethral holmium laser enucleation of the prostate compared with transvesical open prostatectomy: 18-month follow-up of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Rainer M; Lehrich, Karin; Ahyai, Sascha

    2004-03-01

    This ongoing randomized study aims to find out whether transurethral holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) could be an alternative to open transvesical prostatectomy in patients with prostates >100 g. A series of 120 urodynamically obstructed patients were randomized to HoLEP or open prostatectomy, 60 patients to each group. The HoLEP was performed with high-powered Ho:YAG lasers at 80 to 100 W (2.0 J, 40-50 Hz) and 550-nm bare laser fibers. The American Urological Association Symptom Scores, peak urinary flow rates, and postvoiding residual urine volumes were evaluated preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months postoperatively. All complications were noted. By the Mann-Whitney test, there was no significant difference between the HoLEP and open surgery groups in patient age (69.0 years HoLEP v 71.0 years open surgery), prostate volume (115 cc [range 100-230 cc] v 113 cc [100-230 cc], or weight of resected tissue (94 g [range 57-220 g] v 96 g [range 61-220 g]). There were significant differences in the mean operative time (136 v 91 minutes; P< 0.0001), mean hemoglobin loss (1.9 v 2.8 g/dL; P< 0.0001), median catheter time (1 day v 6 days; P< 0.0001), and median hospital stay (2 days v 10 days; P< 0.0001). Both HoLEP and open prostatectomy resulted in pronounced and lasting postoperative improvements in Symptom Scores, peak urinary flow rates, and postvoiding residual volumes (P< 0.0001). The differences between HoLEP and open prostatectomy were not significant at any interval for any parameter. Blood transfusions were required in 0 HoLEP patients v 8 open surgery patients. Arterial bleeding occurred in three patients in each group. Secondary apical resection was required in two HoLEP patients and no open surgery patients. Bladder neck contracture occurred in none of the HoLEP patients and two of those having open surgery. Thus, the total number of patients having complications was 7 with HoLEP and 13 with open surgery. There were no deaths in

  8. A Topical Anti-inflammatory Healing Regimen Utilizing Conjugated Linolenic Acid for Use Post-ablative Laser Resurfacing of the Face: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Douglas C; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2017-10-01

    Background: Fractionated, ablative lasers are usually associated with post-treatment erythema, edema, and crusting, which can last from 5 to 14 days. Conjugated linolenic acid, an omega-5 fatty acid, has significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and has been shown to stimulate keratinocyte proliferation and epidermal regeneration. By modulating the early inflammatory milieu and directly affecting skin structure and function, conjugated linolenic acid might therefore shorten downtime following fractionated ablative laser resurfacing of the face. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and subject satisfaction of a topical regimen containing conjugated linolenic acid derived from pomegranate seed extract in accelerating wound healing and improving skin quality following fractionated ablative laser resurfacing of the face. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four subjects were enrolled and received fractionated CO2 laser resurfacing. Subjects were randomized to use the test healing regimen (n=24) or 1% dimethicone ointment (n=10) post-procedure. The primary endpoint was the degree of erythema, edema, crusting, and exudation evaluated by a blinded clinician at post-treatment Days 1,3,7,10, 14, and 30. Secondary endpoints included a blinded evaluator assessment of the degree of wrinkling and elastosis using the Fitzpatrick-Goldman Wrinkle and Elastosis Scale; subject-assessed degree of pain, itching, tightness, oozing, and crusting; and subject overall satisfaction. Results: Subjects who applied the topical conjugated linolenic acid healing regimen experienced significantly reduced edema on post-procedure Day 3 ( p =0.04), and itching on Days 1 and 3 ( p =0.03 and p =0.04). Both regimens produced significant improvements in wrinkling and elastosis at Days 14 and 30 post-treatment, with conjugated linolenic acid outperforming placebo in improvements in wrinkling at Day 14. Both regimens were well tolerated with no statistical differences in adverse events or

  9. Analgesic effects of preinjection low-level laser/light therapy (LLLT) before third molar surgery: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuk, Jacco G C; van Wijk, Arjen J; Mertens, Ine C; Keleş, Zühal; Lindeboom, Jérôme A H; Milstein, Dan M J

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on preinjection sites in patients scheduled for third molar removal. This double-blind randomized controlled trial included 163 healthy patients undergoing third molar extractions. The study participants were randomly divided into an LLLT and a placebo group. Objective and subjective data sets were obtained from physiologic feedback (heart rate and sweat response) and a questionnaire, respectively. In the LLLT group, each targeted injection site was irradiated twice with 198 mW continuous wave for 30 seconds with a 0.088 cm(2) focal spot at an applied energy of 5.94 J and fluence of 67.50 J/cm(2). Measurements were recorded from 4 time-points during data acquisition. There was no significant difference between the LLLT and placebo groups in pain experience scores associated with the injected sites for maxillary or mandibular third molar extractions. Mean heart rates before and during injection were lower in the LLLT group than in the placebo group for both maxillary and mandibular regions. No statistically significant differences were observed for any remaining parameters. The present data indicated that preinjection LLLT did not effectively decrease the pain felt during local anesthetic injections before third molar surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Morphine delays and attenuates ticagrelor exposure and action in patients with myocardial infarction: the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled IMPRESSION trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubica, Jacek; Adamski, Piotr; Ostrowska, Małgorzata; Sikora, Joanna; Kubica, Julia Maria; Sroka, Wiktor Dariusz; Stankowska, Katarzyna; Buszko, Katarzyna; Navarese, Eliano Pio; Jilma, Bernd; Siller-Matula, Jolanta Maria; Marszałł, Michał Piotr; Rość, Danuta; Koziński, Marek

    2016-01-14

    The currently available data indicate a drug-drug interaction between morphine and oral P2Y12 receptor inhibitors, when administered together. The aim of this trial was to assess the influence of infused morphine on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ticagrelor and its active metabolite (AR-C124910XX) in patients with acute myocardial infarction. In a single-centre, randomized, double-blind trial, patients were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive intravenously either morphine (5 mg) or placebo, followed by a 180 mg loading dose of ticagrelor. Pharmacokinetics was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and ticagrelor antiplatelet effects were measured with up to three different platelet function tests: vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation assay, multiple electrode aggregometry and VerifyNow. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessment was performed in 70 patients (35 in each study group). Morphine lowered the total exposure to ticagrelor and its active metabolite by 36% (AUC(0-12): 6307 vs. 9791 ng h/mL; P = 0.003), and 37% (AUC(0-12): 1503 vs. 2388 ng h/mL; P = 0.008), respectively, with a concomitant delay in maximal plasma concentration of ticagrelor (4 vs. 2 h; P = 0.004). Multiple regression analysis showed that lower AUC(0-12) values for ticagrelor were independently associated with the administration of morphine (P = 0.004) and the presence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (P = 0.014). All three methods of platelet reactivity assessment showed a stronger antiplatelet effect in the placebo group and a greater prevalence of high platelet reactivity in patients receiving morphine. Morphine delays and attenuates ticagrelor exposure and action in patients with myocardial infarction. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02217878. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  11. Raman fiber lasers

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book serves as a comprehensive, up-to-date reference about this cutting-edge laser technology and its many new and interesting developments. Various aspects and trends of Raman fiber lasers are described in detail by experts in their fields. Raman fiber lasers have progressed quickly in the past decade, and have emerged as a versatile laser technology for generating high power light sources covering a spectral range from visible to mid-infrared. The technology is already being applied in the fields of telecommunication, astronomy, cold atom physics, laser spectroscopy, environmental sensing, and laser medicine. This book covers various topics relating to Raman fiber laser research, including power scaling, cladding and diode pumping, cascade Raman shifting, single frequency operation and power amplification, mid-infrared laser generation, specialty optical fibers, and random distributed feedback Raman fiber lasers. The book will appeal to scientists, students, and technicians seeking to understand the re...

  12. Evaluation of effect of low-level laser therapy on adolescents with temporomandibular disorder: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Camila Haddad Leal; Silva, Paula Fernanda da Costa; de Araujo, Deise Sales; Motta, Lara Jansiski; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; Politti, Fabiano; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Albertini, Regiane; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2013-07-22

    A number of problems involving the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and associated structures can lead to temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The aim of the proposed study is to assess the effect of low-level laser therapy on occlusal contacts, mandibular movements, electromyography activity in the muscles of mastication and pain in adolescents with TMD. A randomized, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial will be carried out involving 85 male and female adolescents between 15 and 18 years of age. The research diagnostic criteria for TMD will be used to assess all individuals who agree to participate. All participants will be submitted to a clinical examination and electromyographic analysis of the masseter muscles and anterior bundle of the temporal muscles bilaterally, to determine TMD. Based on the clinical findings, the participants will be classified as having or not having TMD. Those with TMD will be divided into four groups, three of which will receive low-level laser therapy and one of which will receive a placebo treatment. The treatments will involve the TMJ region alone, the masseter and temporal muscles alone, or both these regions together. The data will be submitted to descriptive statistical analysis. The chi-square test and Fisher's exact test will be used to determine associations among the categorical variables. The Student's t test and analysis of variance will be used for the comparison of mean electromyographic signals. Pearson's correlation coefficients will be calculated for the analysis of correlations among the continuous variables. The protocol for this study has been submitted to Clinical Trials - registration number NCT01846000.

  13. Five-day, low-level laser therapy for sports-related lower extremity periostitis in adult men: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Chiang; Ku, Chih-Hung; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Hu, Yu-An; Shyu, Jia-Fwu; Chang, Shin-Tsu

    2014-07-01

    Periostitis in the lower leg caused by overexercise is a universal problem in athletes and runners. The purpose of this study was to observe the functional improvement of the lower limbs upon rehabilitation low-level laser therapy (LLLT). All medical data were gathered from enrolled adults with sports-related lower leg pain. A total of 54 patients underwent triple-phase bone scans using skeletal nuclear scintigraphy, which confirmed periostitis in their lower limbs. The patients were then randomly divided into two groups: one group received laser therapy (N = 29) and the other group (N = 25) received an equivalent placebo treatment (a drug or physical therapy). Treatment protocol commenced with rehabilitation intervention and LLLT was performed three times daily for 5 days at a dosage of 1.4 J/cm(2). A Likert-type pain scale was used to evaluate the severity of pain. Balance function, including postural stability testing (PST) and limits of stability (LOS), was also performed to evaluate the function outcome. Patients experienced a significant improvement in pain by day 2 or day 5 after starting LLLT, but here was no significant difference in pain scale between the measurements before (baseline) and after LLLT. Comparing the PST, the group differences of dynamic vs. static testings ranged from -18.54 to -50.22 (compared 12, 8, 4, 3, 2, 1 to 0, all p periostitis. Larger, better controlled studies are needed to determine what specific effects LLLT has on the function of proprioception.

  14. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial evaluating the ability of low-level laser therapy to improve the appearance of cellulite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert F; Roche, Gregory C; Shanks, Steven C

    2013-03-01

    Cellulite is present in 90% of post-adolescent women. Several technologies have been developed for treating cellulite; however, they all involve some degree of massage or mechanical manipulation. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a low-level laser light device employing green 532 nm diodes as a stand-alone procedure without massage or mechanical manipulation for improving the appearance of cellulite in the thighs and buttocks. This double-blind study randomized subjects to undergo treatment with the LLLT device (N = 34) or sham treatment (N = 34). During a 2-week treatment phase, each subject received three weekly treatment sessions 2-3 days apart. During each session, the front and back of the hips, thighs, and waist were exposed for 15 minutes (30 minutes total). Nineteen subjects in the LLLT group achieved a decrease of one or more stages on the Nurnberger-Muller grading scale (55.88%) versus three subjects (8.82%) in the sham-treated group (P cellulite (P cellulite they received versus 25.8% of sham-treated subjects. There were no reports of adverse events. Low-level laser therapy using green 532 nm diodes is safe and effective for improving the appearance of cellulite in the thighs and buttocks. In contrast with other technologies, LLLT is effective as a stand-alone procedure without requiring massage or mechanical manipulation. Future studies will assess the long-term benefits of LLLT for the treatment of cellulite. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effect of GaAIAs low-level laser therapy on the healing of human palate mucosa after connective tissue graft harvesting: randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Stephanie Botti Fernanandes; Fonseca, Marcus Vinícius Alves; Dos Santos, Nídia Cristina Castro; Mathias, Ingrid Fernandes; Martinho, Frederico Canato; Junior, Milton Santamaria; Jardini, Maria Aparecida Neves; Santamaria, Mauro Pedrine

    2015-08-01

    Among the available techniques to treat gingival recession, connective tissue graft (CTG) presents more foreseeability and better results in the long term. However, this technique causes morbidity and discomfort in the palatine region due to graft removal at that site. The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate the influence of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the healing of the donor palatine area after CTG. Thirty-two patients presenting buccal gingival recession were selected and randomly assigned to receive LLLT irradiation (test group) or LLLT sham (control group) in the palatine area after connective graft removal. A diode laser (AsGaAl, 660 nm) was applied to test the sites immediately after surgery and every other day for 7 days. The evaluated parameters were wound remaining area (WRA), scar and tissue colorimetry (TC), tissue thickness (TT), and postoperative discomfort (D). These parameters were evaluated at baseline and 7, 14, 45, 60, and 90 days after surgery. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used for analysis. The test group presented statistically significant smaller wounds at days 14 and 45. None of the patients presented a scar at the operated area, and colorimetry analysis revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between groups (p > 0.05). Patients reported mild to moderate discomfort, with low consumption of analgesic pills. We concluded that LLLT irradiation can accelerate wound healing on palatine mucosa after connective tissue removal for root coverage techniques (ClinicalTrial.org NCT02239042).

  16. Color speckle in laser displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-07-01

    At the beginning of this century, lighting technology has been shifted from discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and electric bulbs to solid-state lighting. Current solid-state lighting is based on the light emitting diodes (LED) technology, but the laser lighting technology is developing rapidly, such as, laser cinema projectors, laser TVs, laser head-up displays, laser head mounted displays, and laser headlamps for motor vehicles. One of the main issues of laser displays is the reduction of speckle noise1). For the monochromatic laser light, speckle is random interference pattern on the image plane (retina for human observer). For laser displays, RGB (red-green-blue) lasers form speckle patterns independently, which results in random distribution of chromaticity, called color speckle2).

  17. Holmium laser enucleation versus transurethral resection of the prostate: 3-year follow-up results of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahyai, Sascha A; Lehrich, Karin; Kuntz, Rainer M

    2007-11-01

    To report 3-yr follow-up results of a randomised clinical trial comparing holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). A total of 200 patients with urodynamic obstruction and a prostate volume of less than 100 cc were prospectively randomised and assigned to HoLEP or TURP. All patients were assessed preoperatively and followed at 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 mo postoperatively. American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUA SS), maximum flow rate (Q(max)), and postvoid residual (PVR) [urine] volume were obtained at each follow-up. Perioperative data and postoperative outcome were compared. All complications were recorded. AUA SS were significantly better 2 yr postoperatively in the HoLEP group (1.7 vs. 3.9, p<0.0001) and similar at 3 yr (2.7 vs. 3.3, p=0.17). PVR volume was significantly better 2 yr (5.6 vs. 19.9 ml, p<0.001) and 3 yr (8.4 vs. 20.2 ml, p=0.012) postoperatively in HoLEP patients. Q(max) was similar in the HoLEP and TURP groups at 2 yr (28.0 vs. 29.1 ml/s, p=0.83) and at 3 yr (29.0 vs. 27.5 ml/s, p=0.41) postoperatively. Late complications consisted of urethral strictures, bladder-neck contractures, and BPH recurrence; reoperation rates were 7.2% in the HoLEP and 6.6% in the TURP group (p=1.0). After 2 and 3 yr of follow-up, HoLEP micturition outcomes compare favourably with TURP. Late complications are equally low. HoLEP may be a real alternative to TURP.

  18. Laser Processing and Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bäuerle, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    This book gives an overview of the fundamentals and applications of laser-matter interactions, in particular with regard to laser material processing. Special attention is given to laser-induced physical and chemical processes at gas-solid, liquid-solid, and solid-solid interfaces. Starting with the background physics, the book proceeds to examine applications of lasers in “standard” laser machining and laser chemical processing (LCP), including the patterning, coating, and modification of material surfaces. This fourth edition has been enlarged to cover the rapid advances in the understanding of the dynamics of materials under the action of ultrashort laser pulses, and to include a number of new topics, in particular the increasing importance of lasers in various different fields of surface functionalizations and nanotechnology. In two additional chapters, recent developments in biotechnology, medicine, art conservation and restoration are summarized. Graduate students, physicists, chemists, engineers, a...

  19. Thulium laser enucleation (ThuLEP) versus transurethral resection of the prostate in saline (TURis): A randomized prospective trial to compare intra and early postoperative outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzini, G; Seveso, M; Melegari, S; de Francesco, O; Buffi, N M; Guazzoni, G; Provenzano, M; Mandressi, A; Taverna, G

    2017-06-01

    To compare clinical intra and early postoperative outcomes between thulium laser transurethral enucleation of the prostate (ThuLEP) and transurethral bipolar resection of the prostate (TURis) for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in a prospective randomized trial. The study randomized 208 consecutive patients with BPH to ThuLEP (n=102) or TURis (n=106). For all patients were evaluated preoperatively with regards to blood loss, catheterization time, irrigation volume, hospital stay and operative time. At 3 months after surgery they were also evaluated by International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), maximum flow rate (Qmax), and postvoid residual urine volume (PVR). The patients in each study arm each showed no significant difference in preoperative parameters. Compared with TURIS, ThuLEP had same operative time (53.69±31.44 vs 61.66±18.70minutes, P=.123) but resulted in less hemoglobin decrease (0.45 vs 2.83g/dL, P=.005). ThuLEP also needed less catheterization time (1.3 vs 4.8 days, P=.011), irrigation volume (29.4 vs 69.2 L, P=.002), and hospital stay (1.7 vs 5.2 days, P=.016). During the 3 months of follow-up, the procedures did not demonstrate a significant difference in Qmax, IPSS, PVR, and QOLS. ThuLEP and TURis both relieve lower urinary tract symptoms equally, with high efficacy and safety. ThuLEP was statistically superior to TURis in blood loss, catheterization time, irrigation volume, and hospital stay. However, procedures did not differ significantly in Qmax, IPSS, PVR, and QOLS through 3 months of follow-up. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Algorithm for Reconstruction of 3D Images of Nanorice Particles from Diffraction Patterns of Two Particles in Independent Random Orientations with an X-ray Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Soon Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The method of angular correlations recovers quantities from diffraction patterns of randomly oriented particles, as expected to be measured with an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL, proportional to quadratic functions of the spherical harmonic expansion coefficients of the diffraction volume of a single particle. We have previously shown that it is possible to reconstruct a randomly oriented icosahedral or helical virus from the average over all measured diffraction patterns of such correlations. We point out in this paper that a structure of even simpler particles of 50 Å or so in diameter and consisting of heavier atomic elements (to enhance scattering that has been used as a test case for reconstructions from XFEL diffraction patterns can also be solved by this technique. Even though there has been earlier work on similar objects (prolate spheroids, one advantage of the present technique is its potential to also work with diffraction patterns not only due to single particles as has been suggested on the basis on nonoverlapping delta functions of angular scattering. Accordingly, we calculated from the diffraction patterns the angular momentum expansions of the pair correlations and triple correlations for general particle images and reconstructed those images in the standard way. Although the images looked pretty much the same, it is not totally clear to us that the angular correlations are exactly the same as different numbers of particles due to the possibility of constructive or destructive interference between the scattered waves from different particles. It is of course known that, for a large number of particles contributing to a diffraction parttern, the correlations converge to that of a single particle. It could be that the lack of perfect agreement between the images reconstructed with one and two particles is due to uncancelling constructive and destructive conditions that are not found in the case of solution scattering.

  1. Generation of multi-channel high-speed physical random numbers originated from two chaotic signals of mutually coupled semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X.; Wu, Z. M.; Wu, J. G.; Deng, T.; Fan, L.; Zhong, Z. Q.; Chen, J. J.; Xia, G. Q.

    2015-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel technique to generate multi-channel high-speed physical random numbers (PRNs) by taking two chaotic signal outputs from mutually coupled semiconductor lasers (MC-SLs) as entropy sources. First, through controlling the operation parameters of the MC-SL system, two time-delay signature (TDS) suppressed chaotic signals can be obtained. Next, each of these two chaotic signals is sampled by an 8 bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with a sampling rate of 10 GHz, and then a bitwise exclusive-OR (XOR) operation on the corresponding bits in samples of the chaotic signal and its time delayed signal is implemented to obtain 8 bit XOR data. Furthermore, through selecting the five least significant bits (LSBs) of 8 bit XOR data to form 5 bit Boolean sequences, two sets of PRN streams with a rate up to 50 Gbits s-1 are generated and successfully pass the NIST statistical tests. Finally, merging these two sets of 50 Gbits s-1 PRN streams by an interleaving operation, another set of the 100 Gbits s-1 PRN stream, which meets all the quality criteria of NIST statistical tests, is also acquired.

  2. A prospective, randomized comparison of a 1940 nm and a 2013 nm thulium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser device for Thulium VapoEnucleation of the prostate (ThuVEP: First results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Tiburtius

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We report the early postoperative results of the first prospective, randomized comparison of two commercially available thulium lasers with different wavelengths for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction (BPO. Materials and Methods: From January to June 2013, 80 consecutive patients were randomized for Thulium VapoEnucleation of the prostate (ThuVEP with a 2013 nm (RevoLix ® (n = 39 or a 1940 nm (Vela ® XL (n = 41 thulium laser. Preoperative status, surgical details and the immediate outcome were recorded for each patient. The perioperative complications were assessed and classified according to the modified Clavien classification system. Results: Median operation time, resected tissue, percentage of resected tissue, catheter time, overall operation efficiency and Hb loss differed nonsignificantly between both devices (P > 0.05. At discharge, the median maximum urinary flow rate and postvoiding residual (PVR urine improved significantly in both groups (P < 0.001. The PVR was lower in the 1940 nm ThuVEP group (P ≤ 0.034. Perioperative complications occurred in 18 (22.5% patients (Clavien 1: 12.5%; Clavien 2: 5%, Clavien 3b: 2.5%, Clavien 4a: 2.5%, with no differences between the groups (P = 0.5. Conclusions: The 1940 nm and the 2013 nm thulium lasers are both safe and effective for the treatment of BPO with ThuVEP. Both lasers give equivalent and satisfactory immediate micturition improvement with low perioperative morbidity.

  3. Biochemical Changes in Saliva of Patients with Chronic Generalized Parodontitis under Combined Action of Alternating Running Magnetic Field and Laser Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Yu. Guseva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical changes in oral fluid of patients with chronic generalized parodontitis were investigated; the most informative indices were found out, they were used for estimating complex therapy effectiveness by means of low intensive helium — neon laser radiation and alternating running magnetic field

  4. Effect of optical waveguiding mechanism on the lasing action of chirped InAs/AlGaInAs/InP quantum dash lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2013-03-04

    We report on the atypical emission dynamics of InAs/AlGaInAs/InP quantum dash (Qdash) lasers employing varying AlGaInAs barrier thickness (multilayer-chirped structure). The analysis is carried out via fabry-perot (FP) ridge (RW) and stripe waveguide (SW) laser characterization corresponding to the index and gain guided waveguiding mechanisms, respectively, and at different current pulse width operations. The laser emissions are found to emerge from the size dispersion of the Qdash ensembles across the four Qdash-barrier stacks, and governed by their overlapping quasi-zero dimensional density of states (DOS). The spectral characteristics demonstrated prominent dependence on the waveguiding mechanism at quasi-continuous wave (QCW) operation (long pulse width). The RW geometry showed unusual spectral split in the emission spectra on increasing current injection while the SW geometry showed typical broadening of lasing spectra. These effects were attributed to the highly inhomogeneous active region, the nonequilibrium carrier distribution and the energy exchange between Qdash groups across the Qdash-barrier stacks. Furthermore, QCW operation showed a progressive red shift of emission spectra with injection current, resulted from active region heating and carrier depopulation, which was observed to be minimal in the short pulse width (SPW) operation. Our investigation sheds light on the device physics of chirped Qdash laser structure and provides guidelines for further optimization in obtaining broad-gain laser diodes. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  5. Oral Mucositis Prevention By Low-Level Laser Therapy in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Undergoing Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy: A Phase III Randomized Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouvea de Lima, Aline [Departamento de Radiologia, Disciplina de Oncologia, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Villar, Rosangela Correa [Instituto de Radiologia, Servico de Radioterapia, Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Castro, Gilberto de, E-mail: gilberto.castro@usp.br [Department of Clinical Oncology, Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Antequera, Reynaldo [Divisao de Odontologia, Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gil, Erlon; Rosalmeida, Mauro Cabral [Instituto de Radiologia, Servico de Radioterapia, Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Federico, Miriam Hatsue Honda; Snitcovsky, Igor Moises Longo [Departamento de Radiologia, Disciplina de Oncologia, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Oral mucositis is a major complication of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in head-and-neck cancer patients. Low-level laser (LLL) therapy is a promising preventive therapy. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of LLL therapy to decrease severe oral mucositis and its effect on RT interruptions. Methods and Materials: In the present randomized, double-blind, Phase III study, patients received either gallium-aluminum-arsenide LLL therapy 2.5 J/cm{sup 2} or placebo laser, before each radiation fraction. Eligible patients had to have been diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, or metastases to the neck with an unknown primary site. They were treated with adjuvant or definitive CRT, consisting of conventional RT 60-70 Gy (range, 1.8-2.0 Gy/d, 5 times/wk) and concurrent cisplatin. The primary endpoints were the oral mucositis severity in Weeks 2, 4, and 6 and the number of RT interruptions because of mucositis. The secondary endpoints included patient-reported pain scores. To detect a decrease in the incidence of Grade 3 or 4 oral mucositis from 80% to 50%, we planned to enroll 74 patients. Results: A total of 75 patients were included, and 37 patients received preventive LLL therapy. The mean delivered radiation dose was greater in the patients treated with LLL (69.4 vs. 67.9 Gy, p = .03). During CRT, the number of patients diagnosed with Grade 3 or 4 oral mucositis treated with LLL vs. placebo was 4 vs. 5 (Week 2, p = 1.0), 4 vs. 12 (Week 4, p = .08), and 8 vs. 9 (Week 6, p = 1.0), respectively. More of the patients treated with placebo had RT interruptions because of mucositis (6 vs. 0, p = .02). No difference was detected between the treatment arms in the incidence of severe pain. Conclusions: LLL therapy was not effective in reducing severe oral mucositis, although a marginal benefit could not be excluded. It reduced RT interruptions in these head-and-neck cancer patients, which might

  6. Long-term results of a randomized trial comparing holmium laser enucleation of the prostate and transurethral resection of the prostate: results at 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilling, Peter J; Wilson, Liam C; King, Colleen J; Westenberg, Andre M; Frampton, Christopher M; Fraundorfer, Mark R

    2012-02-01

    To assess the durability of holmium laser enucleation of prostate in comparison to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Patients were enrolled in the present study between June 1997 and December 2000 and followed per protocol. All patients were urodynamically obstructed with a prostate volume of between 40 and 200 mL. At long-term follow-up, variables assessed included Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index (BPHII), International Continence Society Short Form Male questionnaire (ICSmale-SF) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Adverse events, including the need for retreatment, were specifically assessed. Thirty-one (14 holmium laser enucleation of the prostate [HoLEP] and 17 TURP) of the initial 61 patients were available, with 12 deceased and 18 lost to follow-up. The mean (range) follow-up was 7.6 (5.9-10.0) years and the mean (±sd) age at follow-up was 79.8 (±6.2) years. The mean (±sd) values (HoLEP vs TURP) were as follows: maximum urinary flow rate (Q(max)), 22.09 ± 15.47 vs 17.83 ± 8.61 mL/s; American Urological Association (AUA) symptom score, 8.0 ± 5.2 vs 10.3 ± 7.42; quality of life (QOL) score 1.47 ± 1.31 vs 1.31 ± 0.85; BPHII, 1.53 ± 2.9 vs 0.58 ± 0.79; IIEF-EF (erectile function), 11.6 ± 7.46 vs 9.21 ± 7.17; ICSmale Voiding Score (VS), 4.2 ± 3.76 vs 3.0 ± 2.41; ICSmale Incontinence Score (IS), 3.07 ± 3.3 vs 1.17 ± 1.4. There were no significant differences in any variable between the two groups beyond the first year. Of the assessable patients, none required re-operation for recurrent BPH in the HoLEP arm and three (of 17) required re-operation in the TURP arm . The results of this randomized trial confirm that HoLEP is at least equivalent to TURP in the long term with fewer re-operations being necessary. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  7. Oral mucositis prevention by low-level laser therapy in head-and-neck cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy: a phase III randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvêa de Lima, Aline; Villar, Rosângela Correa; de Castro, Gilberto; Antequera, Reynaldo; Gil, Erlon; Rosalmeida, Mauro Cabral; Federico, Miriam Hatsue Honda; Snitcovsky, Igor Moisés Longo

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucositis is a major complication of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in head-and-neck cancer patients. Low-level laser (LLL) therapy is a promising preventive therapy. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of LLL therapy to decrease severe oral mucositis and its effect on RT interruptions. In the present randomized, double-blind, Phase III study, patients received either gallium-aluminum-arsenide LLL therapy 2.5 J/cm(2) or placebo laser, before each radiation fraction. Eligible patients had to have been diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, or metastases to the neck with an unknown primary site. They were treated with adjuvant or definitive CRT, consisting of conventional RT 60-70 Gy (range, 1.8-2.0 Gy/d, 5 times/wk) and concurrent cisplatin. The primary endpoints were the oral mucositis severity in Weeks 2, 4, and 6 and the number of RT interruptions because of mucositis. The secondary endpoints included patient-reported pain scores. To detect a decrease in the incidence of Grade 3 or 4 oral mucositis from 80% to 50%, we planned to enroll 74 patients. A total of 75 patients were included, and 37 patients received preventive LLL therapy. The mean delivered radiation dose was greater in the patients treated with LLL (69.4 vs. 67.9 Gy, p = .03). During CRT, the number of patients diagnosed with Grade 3 or 4 oral mucositis treated with LLL vs. placebo was 4 vs. 5 (Week 2, p = 1.0), 4 vs. 12 (Week 4, p = .08), and 8 vs. 9 (Week 6, p = 1.0), respectively. More of the patients treated with placebo had RT interruptions because of mucositis (6 vs. 0, p = .02). No difference was detected between the treatment arms in the incidence of severe pain. LLL therapy was not effective in reducing severe oral mucositis, although a marginal benefit could not be excluded. It reduced RT interruptions in these head-and-neck cancer patients, which might translate into improved CRT efficacy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier

  8. Effect of low-level laser therapy on pain, quality of life and sleep in patients with fibromyalgia: study protocol for a double-blinded randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Carvalho Paulo de Tarso Camillo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-level laser therapy (LLLT has been widely used as adjuvant strategy for treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. The light-tissue interaction (photobiostimulation promotes analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and improves tissue healing, which could justify the recommendation of this therapy for patients with fibromyalgia, leading to an improvement in pain and possibly minimizing social impact related to this disease. The present study proposes to evaluate the effect of LLLT on tender points in patients with fibromyalgia, correlating this outcome with quality of life and sleep. Methods/design One hundred and twenty patients with fibromyalgia will be treated at the Integrated Health Center and the Sleep Laboratory of the Post Graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences of the Nove de Julho University located in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. After fulfilling the eligibility criteria, a clinical evaluation and assessments of pain and sleep quality will be carried out and self-administered quality of life questionnaires will be applied. The 120 volunteers will be randomly allocated to an intervention group (LLLT, n = 60 or control group (CLLLT, n = 60. Patients from both groups will be treated three times per week for four weeks, totaling twelve sessions. However, only the LLLT group will receive an energy dose of 6 J per tender point. A standardized 50-minute exercise program will be performed after the laser application. The patients will be evaluated regarding the primary outcome (pain using the following instruments: visual analog scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire and pressure algometry. The secondary outcome (quality of life and sleep will be assessed with the following instruments: Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Berlin Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and polysomnography. ANOVA test with repeated measurements for the time factor will be performed to

  9. A randomized prospective long-term (>1 year) clinical trial comparing the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation to 980 nm laser ablation of the great saphenous vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydnor, Malcolm; Mavropoulos, John; Slobodnik, Natalia; Wolfe, Luke; Strife, Brian; Komorowski, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Purpose To compare the short- and long-term (>1 year) efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation (ClosureFAST™) versus endovenous laser ablation (980 nm diode laser) for the treatment of superficial venous insufficiency of the great saphenous vein. Materials and methods Two hundred patients with superficial venous insufficiency of the great saphenous vein were randomized to receive either radiofrequency ablation or endovenous laser ablation (and simultaneous adjunctive therapies for surface varicosities when appropriate). Post-treatment sonographic and clinical assessment was conducted at one week, six weeks, and six months for closure, complications, and patient satisfaction. Clinical assessment of each patient was conducted at one year and then at yearly intervals for patient satisfaction. Results Post-procedure pain ( p ablation group. Improvements in venous clinical severity score were noted through six months in both groups (endovenous laser ablation 6.6 to 1; radiofrequency ablation 6.2 to 1) with no significant difference in venous clinical severity score ( p = 0.4066) or measured adverse effects; 89 endovenous laser ablation and 87 radiofrequency patients were interviewed at least 12 months out with a mean long-term follow-up of 44 and 42 months ( p = 0.1096), respectively. There were four treatment failures in each group, and every case was correctable with further treatment. Overall, there were no significant differences with regard to patient satisfaction between radiofrequency ablation and endovenous laser ablation ( p = 0.3009). There were no cases of deep venous thrombosis in either group at any time during this study. Conclusions Radiofrequency ablation and endovenous laser ablation are highly effective and safe from both anatomic and clinical standpoints over a multi-year period and neither modality achieved superiority over the other.

  10. Effects of short-term isokinetic training with reciprocal knee extensors agonist and antagonist muscle actions: A controlled and randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that preloading an antagonist muscle may increase the acute agonist neuromuscular performance. In addition, studies have suggested that very short-term resistance exercise (RE programs may also be useful to increase strength and muscular performance. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of three days of RE using a reciprocal action method on the muscular performance of healthy men and to compare these effects with those of a traditional RE group. METHOD: Thirty-three men (21.1 ± 2.3 years were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1 reciprocal (REC; knee flexion immediately followed by a knee extension exercise; 2 traditional (TRA; non-preload; a concentric knee extension exercise; and 3 control (CON; no exercise. The REC and TRA subjects performed four sets of 10 repetitions at 60º/s with one minute of rest. The pre- and post-RE tests included two sets of four maximal concentric repetitions at 60º/s and 180º/s. A 3x2 ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc was used to analyze the differences in peak torque (PT, rating of acceleration development (RAD and time to peak torque (TIMEtorque. RESULTS: A significant PT increase was found for REC and TRA (p CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Estudos demonstraram que a pré-ativação de músculos antagonistas pode aumentar o desempenho neuromuscular agonista. Além disso, estudos sugerem que programas de exercício resistido (ER de curta duração podem ser úteis para aumentar a força muscular e o desempenho. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os efeitos de três sessões de ER por meio do método de ações recíprocas no desempenho muscular de homens sadios e comparar com um grupo de ER tradicional. MÉTODO: Trinta e três homens (21,1 ± 2,3 anos foram randomicamente alocados em três grupos: Recíproco (REC: uma repetição de flexão do joelho imediatamente seguida por uma de extensão do joelho; Tradicional (TRA: exercício concêntrico de extensão do joelho e Controle (CON: não realizaram

  11. Clinical and morphologic evaluation of Er:YAG laser action at the front of cervical dentinal hypersensitivity; Avaliacao clinica e morfologica da acao do laser de Er:YAG frente a hipersensibilidade dentinaria cervical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Dalva Maria

    2001-07-01

    This work was achieved in vivo and in vitro to evaluate the efficiency of Er:YAG laser in the cervical dentinal hypersensitivity treatment (HSDC). The Clinical study was achieved in patients with HSDC. The treatment was realized in five sessions: the first for selection, the second for exams (clinic and X-Ray) and trying to remove the etiologic factors that could cause the HSDC. The third and fourth sessions were subjected to the radiation with that protocol: 60 mJ energy ,2 Hz frequency, 6 mm out of focus, under air cooling, 20 seconds each application which the same was repeated four times with one minute breaks, which scanning movements and without using anaesthetics. The fifth was evaluation. The patients were evaluated and registered in a subject scale of pain 0 to 3, in the beginning and end of each session of irradiation, and one month after the last session. The results showed that for the irradiated group occurs significant differences in the beginning of each session and between. For the control group did not occur significant differences in the beginning and after each session, but did show a difference between the sessions. As the control group as the irradiated group, had reduction of sensibility between the session. For the morphologic study nine teeth were selected, 7 molars and 2 pre-molars from operative dentistry discipline. Half of the surface was irradiated with Er:YAG laser, the same protocol used in vivo, and the other half was used as a control without receiving any laser irradiation. Subsequently, specimens were prepared for SEM examinations. The results showed that laser treated surfaces showed a reduction of dentine tubular diameter with partial or total closure of the dentine tubules. For the control group, it was observed bigger amounts smear layer and open dentine tubular. The results obtained indicated that the Er:YAG laser can contribute to the HSDC treatment. (author)

  12. Physics of semiconductor laser devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, G.H.B.

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of laser design and development are considered along with semiconductor materials for lasers, problems of device fabrication, crystal growth, the degradation of lasers, and the integration of semiconductor lasers with other optical components. A description is presented of light emission processes and laser action in semiconductors, taking into account electronic radiative transitions, the relation between emission and absorption processes, transition probabilities, the density of electron states in the highly doped semiconductor, carrier recombination and spontaneous emission, the gain/current relation, light-current characteristics, optical modes, and the evolution of mode spectrum and intensity with current. Attention is given to laser heterostructures and the properties of heterojunctions, optical waveguides, the performance of heterostructure lasers, stripe geometry lasers, and the dynamic response of lasers. Lasers with distributed feedback and Bragg reflectors are also discussed.

  13. Effects of low-level laser therapy on performance, inflammatory markers, and muscle damage in young water polo athletes: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; de Lira, Fábio Santos; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Álvaro Brandão; de Paiva Carvalho, Rodrigo Leal

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of 5 days of 810-nm low-level laser therapy (LLLT) intervention on inflammatory and muscle damage markers and performance in young water polo players. Twenty young male water polo players participated in the study, which was designed as a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Active LLLT or an identical placebo LLLT were delivered to eight points on the adductor muscle region immediately after each training day. Performance was measured by a 200-m maximal swimming (P200) and a 30-s crossbar jump test (30CJ) which was performed every day before training, and blood samples were drawn pre and post the final LLLT intervention to measure interleukins (IL) and muscle damage markers. There was no significant change in the P200 exercise in the LLLT group compared with the placebo group but there was a moderate improvement in the 30CJ (8.7 ± 2.6 %). IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-alpha presented increased (P < 0.016) concentration within group 48 h after the last LLLT intervention compared to pre, 0, and 24 h, but did not differ between groups. IL-10 increased over time in the placebo group and reached a moderate effect compared to the LLLT group. The creatine kinase decreased significantly (P = 0.049) over the time within the LLLT treatment group, but there was no significant change in lactate dehydrogenase (P = 0.150). In conclusion, LLLT resulted in a non-significant, but small to moderate effect on inflammatory and muscle damage markers and a moderate effect on performance in water polo players. In addition, the lack of positive results could be due to the small area covered by irradiation and this should be considered in future studies.

  14. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate versus transurethral resection of the prostate: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lei; Teng, Jingfei; Huang, Chien-Jung; Zhang, Xiangmin; Xu, Danfeng

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) versus transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for relief of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A systematic literature search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing HoLEP and TURP in several databases from 1996 to 2011 were performed. Meta-analysis was conducted with the Review Manager Software. Of 248 potential citations, 6 RCTs were included into our meta-analysis. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) and international prostate symptom score (IPSS) at 1 month (p=0.41 and p=0.87) or 6 months (p=0.07 and p=0.37) after treatment. However, at 12 months postoperatively, the Qmax and IPSS in the HoLEP group were significantly better than those in the TURP group (p<0.0001 and p=0.01). The results also suggested a benefit of HoLEP over TURP in blood loss (p=0.001), catheterization time (p<0.0001), hospital stay (p=0.001), and blood transfusion rate (p=0.04), while the results favored TURP over HoLEP for operative time (p=0.001) and the incidence of postoperative dysuria (p=0.003). Comparing with TURP, HoLEP showed slightly better postoperative results in Qmax and IPSS during 12-month follow-up, as well as significantly better perioperative results and similarly low complication rates. However, the operative time and the incidence of postoperative dysuria favor TURP. Generally, HoLEP is a promising minimal invasive alternative to TURP for treatment of BPH.

  15. Stability of dental implants after irradiation with an 830-nm low-level laser: a double-blind randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Joelle Marie; Tortamano-Neto, Pedro; Todescan, Francisco Fernando; de Andrade, José Carlos Silva; Marotti, Juliana; Zezell, Denise Maria

    2012-07-01

    Little is known about the benefits of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on improvement of stability of dental implants. The aim of this randomized clinical study was to assess the LLLT effect on implants stability by means of resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Thirty implants were distributed bilaterally in the posterior mandible of eight patients. At the experimental side, the implants were submitted to LLLT (830 nm, 86 mW, 92.1 J/cm(2), 0.25 J, 3 s/point, at 20 points), and on the control side, the irradiation was simulated (placebo). The first irradiation was performed in the immediate postoperative period, and it was repeated every 48 h in the first 14 days. The initial implant stability quotient (ISQ) of the implants was measured by means of RFA. New ISQ measurements were made after 10 days, 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks. The initial ISQ values ranged from 65-84, with a mean of 76, undergoing a significant drop in stability from the 10th day to the 6th week in the irradiated group, and presenting a gradual increase from the 6th to the 12th week. The highest ISQ values were observed on the 10th day in the irradiated group, and the lowest in the 6th week in both groups. Under the conditions of this study, no evidence was found of any effect of LLLT on the stability of the implants when measured by RFA. Since high primary stability and good bone quality are of major relevancy for a rigid bone-implant interface, additional LLLT may have little impact macroscopically.

  16. Comparative study of the action of two different types of bleaching agents activated by two different types of irradiation fonts: xenon plasma arc lamp and 960 nm diode laser; Avaliacao da cor e estudo comparativo da acao de dois tipos diferentes de agentes clareadores ativados pelo laser de diodo e lampada xenonio plasmatica, na superficie do esmalte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walverde, Debora Ayala

    2001-07-01

    This in vitro study compares two different types of tooth bleaching agents stimulated with two different irradiation fonts. These fonts accelerate the action of the bleaching agents upon the enamel surface by heating up the materials. We used the xenon plasma arc lamp and a 960 nm fiber-coupled diode laser to irradiate the two materials containing 35% of hydrogen peroxide (Opus White and Opalescence extra). The color of the teeth was measured with a spectrophotometer using the CIELAB color system that gives the numeric values of L{sup *}a{sup *}b{sup *}. (author)

  17. Placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of the effect two different low-level laser therapies (LLLT)--intraoral and extraoral--on trismus and facial swelling following surgical extraction of the lower third molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Mutan Hamdi; Güngörmüş, Metin

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of extraoral and intraoral low-level laser therapies (LLLT) on postoperative trismus and oedema following the removal of mandibular third molars. Forty-eight patients who were to undergo surgical removal of their lower third molars were studied. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups: extraoral LLLT, intraoral LLLT, or placebo. In the study, a Ga-Al-As diode laser device with a continuous wavelength of 808 nm was used, and the laser therapy was applied by using a 1 x 3-cm handpiece. The flat-top laser beam profile was used in this therapy. For both of the LLLT groups, laser energy was applied at 100 mW (0.1 W) for a total of 120 s (0.1 W x 120 s = 12 J). Patients in the extraoral-LLLT group (n = 16) received 12-J (4 J/cm(2)) low-level laser irradiation, and the laser was applied at the insertion point of the masseter muscle immediately after the operation. Patients in the intraoral-LLLT group (n = 16) received 12-J (4 J/cm(2)) low-level laser irradiation intraorally at the operation site 1 cm from the target tissue. In the placebo group (n = 16), the handpiece was inserted intraorally at the operation site and then was touched extraorally to the masseter muscle for 1 min at each site (120 s total), but the laser was not activated. The size of the interincisal opening and facial swelling were evaluated on the second and seventh postoperative days. At the second postoperative day, trismus (29.0 +/- 7.6 mm [p = 0.010]) and swelling (105.3 +/- 5.0 mm [p = 0.047]) in the extraoral-LLLT group were significantly less than in the placebo group (trismus: 21.1 +/- 7.6 mm, swelling: 109.1 +/- 4.4 mm). Trismus (39.6 +/- 9.0 mm [p = 0.002]) in the extraoral-LLLT group at the seventh postoperative day was also significantly less than in the placebo group (29.0 +/- 6.2 mm). However, at the seventh postoperative day in the intraoral-LLLT group, only trismus (35.6 +/- 8.5 [p = 0.002]) was significantly less than

  18. Adjunctive clinical effect of a water-cooled Nd: YAG laser in a periodontal maintenance care programme: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, D.E.; Timmerman, M.F.; Versteeg, P.A.; van der Velden, U.; van der Weijden, F.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Various laser systems are currently available for intra-oral use. Neodymium:Yttrium-Aluminium Garnet lasers(Nd:YAG) have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for soft tissue treatment in the oral cavity. Objectives The aim of this study was to test whether the use of a

  19. Perioperative effects of oral midazolam premedication in children undergoing skin laser treatment. A double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shoroghi, Mehrdad; Arbabi, Shahriyar; Farahbakhsh, Farshid; Sheikhvatan, Mehrdad; Abbasi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate and compare the efficacy of oral midazolam with two different dosages in orange juice on perioperative hemodynamics and behavioral changes in children who underwent skin laser treatment in an academic educational Hospital. Methods: Ninety children, candidates for skin laser

  20. A prospective randomized multicenter trial of amnioreduction versus selective fetoscopic laser photocoagulation for the treatment of severe twin–twin transfusion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombleholme, Timothy M.; Shera, David; Lee, Hanmin; Johnson, Mark; D’Alton, Mary; Porter, Flint; Chyu, Jacquelyn; Silver, Richard; Abuhamad, Alfred; Saade, George; Shields, Laurence; Kauffman, David; Stone, Joanne; Albanese, Craig T.; Bahado-Singh, Ray; Ball, Robert H.; Bilaniuk, Larissa; Coleman, Beverly; Farmer, Diana; Feldstein, Vickie; Harrison, Michael R.; Hedrick, Holly; Livingston, Jeffrey; Lorenz, Robert P.; Miller, David A.; Norton, Mary E.; Polzin, William J.; Robinson, Julian N.; Rychik, Jack; Sandberg, Per L.; Seri, Istvan; Simon, Erin; Simpson, Lynn L.; Yedigarova, Larisa; Wilson, R. Douglas; Young, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of selective fetoscopic laser photocoagulation (SFLP) versus serial amnioreduction (AR) on perinatal mortality in severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Study Design 5-year multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome variable was 30-day postnatal survival of donors and recipients. Results There is no statistically significant difference in 30-day postnatal survival between SFLP or AR treatment for donors at 55% (11/20) vs 55% (11/20) (p=1, OR=1, 95%CI=0.242 to 4.14) or recipients at 30% (6/20) vs 45% (9/20) (p=0.51, OR=1.88, 95%CI=0.44 to 8.64). There is no difference in 30-day survival of one or both twins on a per pregnancy basis between AR at 75% (15/20) and SFLP at 65% (13/20) (p=0.73, OR=1.62, 95%CI=0.34 to 8.09). Overall survival (newborns divided by the number of fetuses treated) is not statistically significant for AR at 60% (24/40) vs SFLP 45% (18/40) (p=0.18, OR=2.01, 95%CI=0.76 to 5.44). There is a statistically significant increase in fetal recipient mortality in the SFLP arm at 70% (14/20) versus the AR arm at 35% (7/20) (p=0.25, OR=5.31, 95%CI=1.19 to 27.6). This is offset by increased recipient neonatal mortality of 30% (6/20) in the AR arm. Echocardiographic abnormality in recipient twin Cardiovascular Profile Score is the most significant predictor of recipient mortality (p=0.055, OR=3.025/point) by logistic regression analysis. Conclusions The outcome of the trial does not conclusively determine whether AR or SFLP is a superior treatment modality. TTTS cardiomyopathy appears to be an important factor in recipient survival in TTTS. PMID:17904975

  1. A randomized control trial to evaluate the effect of adjuvant selective laser trabeculoplasty versus medication alone in primary open-angle glaucoma: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JWY

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jacky WY Lee,1,2 Catherine WS Chan,2 Mandy OM Wong,3 Jonathan CH Chan,3 Qing Li,2 Jimmy SM Lai2 1The Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre, 2The Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Hong Kong, 3The Department of Ophthalmology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of adjuvant selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT versus medication alone on intraocular pressure (IOP control, medication use, and quality of life in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.Methods: This prospective, randomized control study recruited 41 consecutive primary open-angle glaucoma subjects with medically-controlled IOP ≤21 mmHg. The SLT group (n=22 received a single 360-degree SLT treatment. The medication-only group (n=19 continued with their usual treatment regimen. In both groups, medication was titrated to maintain a target IOP defined as a 25% reduction from baseline IOP without medication, or <18 mmHg, whichever was lower. Outcomes, which were measured at baseline and at 6 months, included the Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 (GQL-15 and Comparison of Ophthalmic Medications for Tolerability (COMTOL survey scores, IOP, and the number of antiglaucoma medicines. Results: The baseline IOP was 15.8±2.7 mmHg and 14.5±2.5 mmHg in the SLT and medication-only groups, respectively (P=0.04. Both groups had a comparable number of baseline medication (P=0.2, GQL-15 (P=0.3 and COMTOL scores (P=0.7. At 6 months, the SLT group had a lower IOP (P=0.03 and required fewer medications compared with both baseline (P<0.0001 and with the medication-only group (P=0.02. There was no statistically significant difference in the 6-month GQL-15 or COMTOL score as compared to baseline (P≥0.4 or between the two treatment groups (P≥0.2.Conclusion: A single session of adjuvant SLT provided further reductions in IOP and medication without substantial changes in quality of life or medication tolerability at 6

  2. [The combined treatment of patients with digestive tract diseases by the action of the enterosorbent Enterosgel and of the intravascular laser irradiation of the blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Iu N; Osypenko, N I; Zlochevskaia, L L; Kocherga, T V; Komarnitskaia, N I

    1998-08-01

    Rehabilitative, medical treatment involved a combined use of enterosorption (the drug Enterosgel) and intravascular laser irradiation of blood (ILIB). The results obtained showed the adopted combined mode of treatment (Enterosgel + ILIB) to have a positive effect on the patients' body. The above alternative while eliminating the remainder from the body promotes an increase in the content of large granule-containing lymphocytes, which events result in restoration of those morphology of those leucocytes having undergone degeneration, with crystallization of saliva getting back to normal. Considering the present health-hazard conditions, negative environmental effects on human organism, the above treatment option is indicated not only to patients having disorders of the alimentary canal but also to those presenting with other pathologies, as well as for preventive and health-promoting purposes.

  3. Study of morphological changes in breast cancer cells MCF-7 under the action of pro-apoptotic agents with laser modulation interference microscope MIM-340

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebogatikov, V.; Nikitiuk, A.; Konysheva, A.; Ignatyev, P.; Grishko, V.; Naimark, O.

    2017-09-01

    Quantitative phase microscopy is a new method to measure and evaluate the microlevel processes characterized by the high resolution and providing ample opportunities to quantitatively analyze various parameters, including specimens from biological matter. In this study, a laser interference microscope was used to evaluate the state of cancer cells (living and apoptotic). Apoptotic cancer cells were obtained by treatment of MCF-7 cells with the use of betulin-based α-bromomethyl ketone (BMK) derivative. When using the microscope, the main differences in the morphometric parameters of living and apoptotic cells such as height, diameter, perimeter, area and volume were appraised. The criteria that can be used as markers of apoptosis activation were identified.

  4. Effectiveness of percutaneous laser disc decompression versus conventional open discectomy in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation; Design of a prospective randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Brouwer (Patrick); W.C. Peul (Wilco); R. Brand (René); M.P. Arts (Mark); B.W. Koes (Bart); A.A. van den Berg (Annette); M.A. van Buchem (Mark)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground. The usual surgical treatment of refractory sciatica caused by lumbar disc herniation, is open discectomy. Minimally invasive procedures, including percutaneous therapies under local anesthesia, are increasingly gaining attention. One of these treatments is Percutaneous Laser

  5. Long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser vs. intense pulsed light for hair removal in dark skin: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, S A

    2012-02-01

    Although several lasers meet the wavelength criteria for selective follicular destruction, the treatment of darker skin phototypes is particularly challenging because absorption of laser energy by the targeted hairs is compromised by an increased concentration of epidermal melanin. To compare satisfaction level, safety and effectiveness of a long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser and intense pulsed light (IPL) in axillary hair reduction in subjects with dark skin. The study design was a within-patient, right-left, assessor-blinded, comparison of long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser and IPL. Fifty women (skin phototypes IV-VI) volunteered for removal of axillary hair. Five sessions at 4- to 6-week intervals were performed. Hair counts at both sides were compared at baseline and 6months after the last session. Final overall evaluations were performed by subjects and clinician at the end of the study. Satisfaction was scored for both devices. Thirty-nine women completed the study. At 6months, the decrease in hair counts on the laser side (79·4%, PIPL side (54·4%, P<0·01 vs. pretreatment). Only temporary adverse effects were reported at both sides. Higher pain scores and more inflammation were reported with Nd:YAG laser; however, it was preferred by 29 volunteers (74%). Volunteers reported higher satisfaction score with Nd:YAG laser (P<0·01). Dark skin can be treated by both systems safely and effectively; however, long-pulsed (1064 nm) Nd:YAG laser is more effective as reported by both subjects and clinician. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) versus laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK): study protocol for a randomized, non-inferiority trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ang Marcus; Tan Donald; Mehta Jodhbir S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Small incision lenticule extraction or SMILE is a novel form of ‘flapless’ corneal refractive surgery that was adapted from refractive lenticule extraction (ReLEx). SMILE uses only one femtosecond laser to complete the refractive surgery, potentially reducing surgical time, side effects, and cost. If successful, SMILE could potentially replace the current, widely practiced laser in-situ keratomileusis or LASIK. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether SMILE is non-infe...

  7. Effect of single-dose low-level helium-neon laser irradiation on orthodontic pain: a split-mouth single-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobouti, Farhad; Khatami, Maziar; Chiniforush, Nasim; Rakhshan, Vahid; Shariati, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Pain is the most common complication of orthodontic treatment. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been suggested as a new analgesic treatment free of the adverse effects of analgesic medications. However, it is not studied thoroughly, and the available studies are quite controversial. Moreover, helium neon (He-Ne) laser has not been assessed before. This split-mouth placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was performed on 16 male and 14 female orthodontic patients requiring bilateral upper canine retraction. The study was performed at a private clinic in Sari, Iran, in 2014. It was single blind: patients, orthodontist, and personnel were blinded of the allocations, but the laser operator (periodontist) was not blinded. Once canine retractor was activated, a randomly selected maxillary quarter received a single dose of He-Ne laser irradiation (632.8 nm, 10 mw, 6 j/cm(2) density). The other quarter served as the placebo side, treated by the same device but powered off. In the first, second, fourth, and seventh days, blinded patients rated their pain sensed on each side at home using visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaires. There was no harm identified during or after the study. Pain changes were analyzed using two- and one-way repeated-measures ANOVA, Bonferroni, and t-test (α = 0.01, β > 0.99). This trial was not registered. It was self-funded by the authors. Sixteen males and 11 females remained in the study (aged 12-21). Average pain scores sensed in all 4 intervals on control and laser sides were 4.06 ± 2.85 and 2.35 ± 1.77, respectively (t-test P < 0.0001). One-way ANOVA showed significant pain declines over time, in each group (P < 0.0001). Two-way ANOVA showed significant effects for LLLT (P < 0.0001) and time (P = <0.0001). Single-dose He-Ne laser therapy might reduce orthodontic pain caused by retracting maxillary canines.

  8. [Effects of Education about Action Plans according to Self-Monitoring on Self-Management Adherence, Knowledge, Symptom Control, and Quality of Life among Adult Asthma Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ja Yun; Kweon, Young Ran

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted to identify the effects of education regarding action plans according to a self-monitoring program on self-management adherence, knowledge, symptom control, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adults with asthma. Thirty-four patients were randomly assigned to the intervention group and thirty-two to the control group in this study. A tailored 50-minute intervention based on the contents of self-monitoring and action plans developed by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute was provided to the intervention group. Structured and well developed questionnaires were used to measure the dependent variables. There were no differences in all general and clinical characteristics, and the dependent variables between two groups in the pre-test. In the post-test, there were differences in the level of self-management adherence (t=4.41, pcontrol (t=-2.56, p=.013), and total HRQoL (t=2.14, p=.036) between the two groups, although there was a difference only in the sub-domain of emotion (t=2.03, p=.047) in HRQoL. This study found that action plans according to self-monitoring that enhance a participatory interaction in the treatment and care could help patients with moderate to severe asthma to engagead equately in self-care, to control their symptoms, and to improve their HRQoL. Further studies are still needed to identify longitudinal effects of this program.

  9. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  10. Photoemission and photo-field-emission from photocathodes with arrays of silicon tips under continuous and pulsed lasers action; Photoemission et photoemission de champ a partir de photocathodes a reseaux de pointes de silicium sous l`action de lasers continus et pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguna, M.

    1995-11-01

    The electron machines`s development and improvement go through the discovery of new electron sources of high brightness. After reminding the interests in studying silicon cathodes with array of tips as electron sources, I describe, in the three steps model, the main phenomenological features related to photoemission and photoemission and photo-field-emission from a semi-conductor. the experimental set-ups used for the measurements reported in chapter four, five and six are described in chapter three. In chapter three. In chapter four several aspects of photo-field-emission in continuous and nanosecond regimes, studied on the Clermont-Ferrand`s test bench are tackled. We have measured quantum efficacies of 0.4 percent in the red (1.96 eV). Temporal responses in the nanoseconds range (10 ns) were observed with the Nd: YLF laser. With the laser impinging at an oblique angle we obtained ratios of photocurrent to dark current of the order of twenty. The issue of the high energy extracted photocurrent saturation is addressed and I give a preliminary explanation. In collaboration with the L.A.L. (Laboratoire de l`Accelerateur Lineaire) some tests with shortened pulsed laser beam (Nd: YAG laser 35 ps) were performed. Satisfactory response times have been obtained within the limitation of the scope (400 ps). (authors). 101 refs. 93 figs., 27 tabs., 3 photos., 1 append.

  11. A randomized, controlled, double-blind study evaluating melanin-encapsulated liposomes as a chromophore for laser hair removal of blond, white, and gray hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Michael; Bechara, Falk Georges; Sand, Daniel; Altmeyer, Peter; Hoffmann, Klaus

    2007-05-01

    Laser hair removal of blond and white hair is a complicated task with often unsatisfactory results as a result of a lack of laser-absorbing chromophore. In the present study, we investigated if repetitive external application of liposomal melanin (Lipoxome; Dalton Medicare B.V., Zevenbergschen Hoek, The Netherlands) enables removal of blond/white and gray hair with a diode laser. Forty-two areas of blond, gray, or white facial and body hair of 16 patients were treated with a liposomal melanin spray (Lipoxome) and 3 cycles of 800 nm diode laser at intervals of 8 weeks (28-40 J/cm). A control group of 16 patients applied physiological saline spray before diode laser treatment. Hair regrowth was measured 8 weeks after each cycle and additionally 6 months after the last treatment by counting the number of terminal hairs compared with baseline pretreatment values. Complications and treatment outcomes were documented. Mean regrowth in the liposomal melanin group was 83% after 3 treatment cycles. Six months after therapy, average terminal hair count compared with baseline pretreatment showed 14% reduction. Although significant difference was seen compared with the control group showing a 10% reduction of hair growth after 6 months (P hair compared with a control group. However, the clinically observed hair reduction was so weak that additional effort as well as higher costs argues against the application of the tested formulation.

  12. Eficácia a curto prazo do laser de baixa intensidade em pacientes com osteoartrite do joelho: ensaio clínico aleatório, placebo-controlado e duplo-cego Short-term efficacy of low-level laser therapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ovanessian Fukuda

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo foi designado para avaliar a eficácia a curto prazo da laserterapia de baixa intensidade (LBI na melhora da dor e função em pacientes portadores de osteoartrite (OA do joelho. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste ensaio clínico aleatório, duplo-cego e controlado 47 pacientes (79 joelhos de ambos os sexos portadores de OA do joelho, que foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos; grupo laser com 25 pacientes (41 joelhos e grupo placebo com 22 pacientes (38 joelhos. A LBI foi realizada três vezes por semana totalizando nove sessões, com uso do laser AsGa de 904nm, 60mW de potência média e 0,5cm² de área do feixe, sendo irradiados nove pontos no joelho com energia de 3,0J por ponto. O grupo placebo foi tratado com o mesmo aparelho de laser, porém com uma caneta selada. As avaliações Lequesne, escala visual numérica (EVN, Timed Up and Go (TUG, goniometria e dinamometria foram realizadas antes do início do tratamento e após as nove sessões da LBI. RESULTADOS: Foi encontrada melhora significante da dor e função para todas as avaliações aplicadas no grupo laser. Quando comparado o grupo laser ao grupo placebo encontrou-se diferença significante para as avaliações EVN-Repouso e Lequesne. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento com a LBI melhora a dor e função a curto prazo de pacientes portadores de OA do joelho.OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the short-term efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT for improving pain and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: Forty-seven patients with knee osteoarthritis (79 knees, of both genders, participated in this randomized controlled double-blind clinical trial. They were randomly allocated to two groups: laser group with 25 patients (41 knees and placebo group with 22 patients (38 knees. LLLT was performed three times a week, totaling nine sessions, using a AsGa 904 nm laser with mean power of 60 mW and beam area of 0.5 cm². Nine points were

  13. Quantum random number generator based on ‘Fermi–Dirac’ statistics of photocounts of faint laser pulses with a 75 Mbit s‑1 rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balygin, K. A.; Zaitsev, V. I.; Klimov, A. N.; Kulik, S. P.; Molotkov, S. N.; Popova, E.; Vinogradov, S.

    2017-12-01

    We implemented experimentally a quantum random number generator, based on the registration of quasi-single-photon light by a silicon photo-multiplier, which allows one to reliably achieve the Poisson statistics of photocounts. The use of the optimal grouping of photocounts and a polynomial-length sequence of the method for extracting the random sequence 0 and 1 made it possible to achieve the output rate of a provably random sequence up to 75 Mbit s-1 .

  14. Femtosecond laser surface structuring technique for making human enamel and dentin surfaces superwetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyev, A. Y.; Guo, Chunlei

    2013-12-01

    It is known that good wettability of enamel and dentin surfaces is a key factor in enhancing adhesion of restorative materials in dentistry. Here, we report on a femtosecond laser surface texturing approach that makes both the enamel and dentine surfaces superwetting. In contrast to the traditional chemical etching that yields random surface structures, this new approach produces engineered surface structures. The surface structure engineered and tested here is an array of femtosecond laser-produced parallel microgrooves that generates a strong capillary force. Due to the powerful capillary action, water is rapidly sucked into this engineered surface structure and spreads even on a vertical surface.

  15. Fractional CO2 laser treatment of caesarean section scars-A randomized controlled split-scar trial with long term follow-up assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karmisholt, Katrine E; Taudorf, Elisabeth H; Wulff, Camilla B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Caesarean section (c-section) scars can be pose functional and cosmetic challenges and ablative fractional laser (AFXL) treatment may offer benefit to patients. We evaluated textural and color changes over time in AFXL-treated versus untreated control scars. MATERIALS......-treated scars. At 6 months follow-up, a majority of patients (64%) favored subsequent AFXL-treatment of their untreated control scar tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Scar remodeling is initiated 1 month after AFXL treatment, but overall scar improvement is concealed until laser-induced color changes resolve. At 6 months...

  16. Tunability of optofluidic distributed feedback dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Kristensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the tunability of optofluidic distributed feedback (DFB) dye lasers. The lasers rely on light-confinement in a nano-structured polymer film where an array of nanofluidic channels constitutes a third order Bragg grating DFB laser resonator with a central phase-shift. The lasers...... are operated by filling the DFB laser resonator with a dye solution by capillary action and optical pumping with a frequency doubled Nd: YAG laser. The low reflection order of the DFB laser resonator yields low out-of-plane scattering losses as well as a large free spectral range (FSR), and low threshold...

  17. Evaluation of adjunctive effect of low-level laser Therapy on pain, swelling and trismus after surgical removal of impacted lower third molar: A double blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Farrokh; Eslami, Hosein; Majidi, Alireza; Fakhrzadeh, Vahid; Ghanizadeh, Milad; KhademNeghad, Sahar

    2017-09-30

    Wisdom teeth remains impacted in the jaw due to several reasons and surgery of impacted wisdom teeth is one of the most common surgeries in dental clinics. Pain, swelling and trismus are the common complications after this surgery which affect quality of life. In articles, various methods are introduced to control immediate inflammatory-response associated with third-molar surgery. The aim of this study is to evaluate the adjunctive effect of low-level laser Therapy on pain, swelling and trismus after surgical removal of impacted lower third molar. This double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted on two groups of 24 patients (age range of 18-35) that had referred to surgical ward of Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences for surgery of their mandibular third molar(2015-16). All the subjects were systemically healthy and had at least one impacted mandibular third molar. After surgery, in experimental group, the laser was applied intraorally (inside the tooth socket) and extraorally (at the insertion point of the masseter muscle) immediately after surgery in contact with the target area for 25 seconds each. The laser energy was 2.5 J per area with an energy density of 5 J/ cm2 at the surface of the probe (spot size= 0.5 cm2). In the other group, as the control group, it was pretended to radiate. Trismus, pain, and swelling were evaluated on the first and seventh days after surgery. The obtained data were evaluated using SPSS 16 software and independent samples T-test. In the group where LLLT had been used, P> 0.05 was calculated for pain, swelling, and trismus on days 1 and 7 after surgery that was not statistically significant. Under limitations of this study, using low-power laser with mentioned parameters, clinically reduces pain, swelling and trismus after surgical removal of impacted mandibular wisdom, but not statistically significant.

  18. Evaluation of low-level laser therapy in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced mucositis: a double-blind randomized study in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P A G; Jaguar, G C; Pellizzon, A C; Prado, J D; Lopes, R N; Alves, F A

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the effect of the low-level laser in the prevention and treatment of mucositis in head and neck cancer patients. A total of 70 patients with malignant neoplasms in the oral cavity or oropharynx were evaluated. The patients were randomized into two low-level laser therapy groups: Group 1 (660nm/15mW/3.8J/cm(2)/spot size 4mm(2)) or Group 2 (660nm/5mW/1.3J/cm(2)/spot size 4mm(2)) starting on the first day of radiotherapy. Oral mucositis was assessed daily and weekly using the NCI and WHO scales. Oral pain was scored daily with a visual analogue scale before laser application. The patients in Group 1 had a mean time of 13.5days (range 6-26days) to present mucositis grade II, while the patients in Group 2 had a mean time of 9.8days (range 4-14days) (both WHO and NCI p=0.005). In addition, Group 2 also presented a higher mucositis grade than Group 1 with significant differences found in weeks 2 (p=0.019), 3 (p=0.005) and 4 (p=0.003) for WHO scale and weeks 2 (p=0.009) and 4 (p=0.013) for NCI scale. The patients in Group 1 reported lower pain levels (p=0.004). Low-level laser therapy during radiotherapy was found to be effective in controlling the intensity of mucositis and pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Synergistic action of protease-modulating matrix and autologous growth factors in healing of diabetic foot ulcers. A prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakagia, Despoina D; Kazakos, Konstantinos J; Xarchas, Konstantinos C; Karanikas, Michael; Georgiadis, George S; Tripsiannis, Gregory; Manolas, Constantinos

    2007-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that addition of a protease-modulating matrix enhances the efficacy of autologous growth factors in diabetic ulcers. Fifty-one patients with chronic diabetic foot ulcers were managed as outpatients at the Democritus University Hospital of Alexandroupolis and followed up for 8 weeks. All target ulcers were > or = 2.5 cm in any one dimension and had been previously treated only with moist gauze. Patients were randomly allocated in three groups of 17 patients each: Group A was treated only with the oxidized regenerated cellulose/collagen biomaterial (Promogran, Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, NJ), Group B was treated only with autologous growth factors delivered by Gravitational Platelet Separation System (GPS, Biomet), and Group C was managed by a combination of both. All ulcers were digitally photographed at initiation of the study and then at change of dressings once weekly. Computerized planimetry (Texas Health Science Center ImageTool, Version 3.0) was used to assess ulcer dimensions that were analyzed for homogeneity and significance using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, Version 13.0. Post hoc analysis revealed that there was significantly greater reduction of all three dimensions of the ulcers in Group C compared to Groups A and B (all P<.001). Although reduction of ulcer dimensions was greater in Group A than in Group B, these differences did not reach statistical significance. It is concluded that protease-modulating dressings act synergistically with autologous growth factors and enhance their efficacy in diabetic foot ulcers.

  20. GreenLight HPS 120-W laser vaporization versus transurethral resection of the prostate for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Boxin; Zang, Yachen; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yang, Dongrong; Gao, Jie; Sun, Chuanyang; Cui, Yong; Zhu, Jin; Liu, Xiaolong; Shan, Yuxi

    2013-01-01

    The most recent advance in laser treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the introduction of a high-performance system (HPS) 120-W laser. The HPS laser beam at a wavelength of 532~nm is highly absorbed by oxyhemoglobin in the tissue and maintains focus with negligible divergence up to 3 mm from the fiber and with limited divergence at 5 mm. This study is designed to evaluate the three-year clinical efficacy and safety of photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP, n=100 cases) with GreenLight HPS laser compared with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP, n=100 cases) for treatment of BPH. The results showed that the mean operating time, catheterization time and admission time were significantly shorter in the PVP group, respectively. There were dramatic improvements in International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (Qol), maximum flow rate (Qmax) and postvoid residual (PVR) compared with preoperative values and the degree of improvements was comparable in both groups. The intraoperative complications were lower in PVP group. In summary, PVP is an effective technique in patients with BPH, when compared to TURP, producing equivalent improvements in IPSS, Qmax, Qol and PVR with the advantages of markedly reduced catheterization time, admission time and adverse events.

  1. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy with/without diode laser modulates metabolic control of type 2 diabetics with periodontitis: a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koçak, E.; Sağlam, M.; Kayış, S.A.; Dündar, N.; Kebapçılar, L.; Loos, B.G.; Hakki, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate whether nonsurgical periodontal treatment with/without diode laser (DL) decontamination improves clinical parameters, the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) in gingival crevicular fluid and metabolic

  2. Combination of ablative fractional laser and daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis in organ transplant recipients – a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Lei, Ulrikke; Erlendsson, A M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) for actinic keratoses (AK) is hampered by pain during illumination and inferior efficacy in organ-transplant recipients (OTR). OBJECTIVES: We assessed ablative fractional laser (AFL)-assisted daylight photodynamic therapy (PDT) (AFL-dPDT) compared...

  3. Complementary Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person. Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i to simulate another person’s movements, (ii to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.

  4. Oral soft tissue wound healing after laser surgery with or without a pool of amino acids and sodium hyaluronate: a randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Umberto; Libotte, Fabrizio; Palaia, Gaspare; Galanakis, Alexandros; Gaimari, Gianfranco; Tenore, Gianluca; Del Vecchio, Alessandro; Polimeni, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare secondary intention healing of oral soft tissues after laser surgery with and without the use of a compound containing amino acids and sodium hyaluronate. Sodium hyaluronate has been successfully used in medicine to promote healing. It has not been studied in the healing of laser-produced wounds. Excisional biopsy was performed in oral soft tissues with a potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser (532 nm, SmartLite, DEKA, Florence, Italy) in 49 patients divided into two groups. In the study group (SG), 31 patients received a compound gel containing four amino acids and sodium hyaluronate (Aminogam(®), Errekappa, Italy) after laser surgery; in the control group (CG), 18 subjects received no treatment involving a drug or gel. Numeric rating scale (NRS) was used to evaluate pain experienced after surgery [pain index (PI)]. Using a grid as a benchmark and computer software, the lesion area was measured after surgery (T0) and after 7 days (T1). A percentage healing index (PHI) was calculated indicating healing extension in 7 days. SG cases showed an average PHI of 64.38±26.50, whereas the average PHI in the CG was 47.88%±27.84. Mean PI was 2.67±0.96 for SG and 2.75±0.86 for CG. A statistically significant difference was detected between the groups for PHI (p=0.0447), whereas no difference was detectable for PI (p=0.77). The use of a gel containing amino acids and sodium hyaluronate can promote faster healing via secondary intention in laser-induced wounds, although it does not seem to affect pain perception.

  5. Fractional Erbium laser in the treatment of photoaging: randomized comparative, clinical and histopathological study of ablative (2940nm) vs. non-ablative (1540nm) methods after 3 months*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Juliano; Cuzzi, Tullia; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Manela-Azulay, Mônica

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fractional non-ablative lasers keep the epidermis intact, while fractional ablative lasers remove it, making them theoretically more effective. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the clinical and histological alterations induced by fractional photothermolysis for treating photoaging, comparing the possible equivalence of multiple sessions of 1540nm Erbium, to one session of 2940nm Erbium. METHODS Eighteen patients (mean age 55.9) completed the treatment with three sessions of 1540nm fractional Erbium laser on one side of the face (50 mJ/mB, 15ms, 2 passes), and one session of 2940nm on the other side (5mJ/mB, 0.25ms, 2 passes). Biopsies were performed before and 3 months after treatment. Clinical, histological and morphometric evaluations were carried out. RESULTS All patients presented clinical improvement with no statistically significant difference (p> 0.05) between the treated sides. Histopathology revealed a new organization of collagen and elastic fibers, accompanied by edema, which was more evident with the 2940nm laser. This finding was confirmed by morphometry, which showed a decrease in collagen density for both treatments, with a statistical significance for the 2940nm laser (p > 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Three 1540nm sessions were clinically equivalent to one 2940nm session. The edema probably contributed to the positive results after three months, togheter with the new collagen and elastic fibers organization. The greater edema after the 2940nm session indicates that dermal remodeling takes longer than with 1540nm. It is possible that this histological superiority relates to a more prolonged effect, but a cohort longer than three months is needed to confirm that supposition. PMID:24770501

  6. The inter-play between facilitation and context in the promoting action on research implementation in health services framework: A qualitative exploratory implementation study embedded in a cluster randomized controlled trial to reduce restraint in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekki, Tone Elin; Øye, Christine; Kristensen, Bodil; Dahl, Helen; Haaland, Astrid; Nordin, Kristin Aas; Strandos, Marta; Terum, Toril Marie; Ydstebø, Arnt Egil; McCormack, Brendan

    2017-11-01

    To explore the inter-play between external facilitation and nursing home contexts relative to intervention outcomes. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework is frequently used to theoretically inform implementation and research in nursing and recent reviews indicate high face validity for health services. However, the inter-play and relationship between framework sub-elements of evidence, context and facilitation and the prospective utility in non-English speaking contexts warrant further illumination. In an overarching single-blind cluster-randomized controlled trial, we applied participatory action research and ethnography from August 2011-June 2015 to evaluate a standardized education intervention to reduce restraint and agitation in nursing home residents living with dementia. The trial results are published elsewhere. Prospectively informed by the PARIHS framework, a research team and eight facilitators participating in dual roles as action researchers designed, implemented, and evaluated the intervention. How contextual factors influenced the facilitation processes were explored in focus group interviews (1), reflection notes (84) written by the facilitators' after each education session, ethnographic field studies (6 homes), and co-analysis workshops (5). Directed content analysis was used to analyse data. Clinical leaders taking roles of internal facilitator influenced the success of implementation, while complex and fluctuating context elements determined whether restraint use was reduced- or not. The PARIHS framework was found to be relevant in a non-English nursing home setting, albeit some elements merit further conceptualization. Our findings confirm the prospective utility of the PARIHS framework for implementation in a non-English context, particularly the notion of implementation processes as dynamic and multifaceted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Cognitive therapy as an early treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents: a randomized controlled trial addressing preliminary efficacy and mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Smith, Patrick; McKinnon, Anna; Dixon, Clare; Trickey, David; Ehlers, Anke; Clark, David M; Boyle, Adrian; Watson, Peter; Goodyer, Ian; Dalgleish, Tim

    2017-05-01

    Few efficacious early treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents exist. Previous trials have intervened within the first month post-trauma and focused on secondary prevention of later post-traumatic stress; however, considerable natural recovery may still occur up to 6-months post-trauma. No trials have addressed the early treatment of established PTSD (i.e. 2- to 6-months post-trauma). Twenty-nine youth (8-17 years) with PTSD (according to age-appropriate DSM-IV or ICD-10 diagnostic criteria) after a single-event trauma in the previous 2-6 months were randomly allocated to Cognitive Therapy for PTSD (CT-PTSD; n = 14) or waiting list (WL; n = 15) for 10 weeks. Significantly more participants were free of PTSD after CT-PTSD (71%) than WL (27%) at posttreatment (intent-to-treat, 95% CI for difference .04-.71). CT-PTSD yielded greater improvement on child-report questionnaire measures of PTSD, depression and anxiety; clinician-rated functioning; and parent-reported outcomes. Recovery after CT-PTSD was maintained at 6- and 12-month posttreatment. Beneficial effects of CT-PTSD were mediated through changes in appraisals and safety-seeking behaviours, as predicted by cognitive models of PTSD. CT-PTSD was considered acceptable on the basis of low dropout and high treatment credibility and therapist alliance ratings. This trial provides preliminary support for the efficacy and acceptability of CT-PTSD as an early treatment for PTSD in youth. Moreover, the trial did not support the extension of 'watchful waiting' into the 2- to 6-month post-trauma window, as significant improvements in the WL arm (particularly in terms of functioning and depression) were not observed. Replication in larger samples is needed, but attention to recruitment issues will be required. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  8. NONDAMAGING RETINAL LASER THERAPY FOR TREATMENT OF CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY: What is the Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Edward H; Karth, Peter A; Sanislo, Steven R; Moshfeghi, Darius M; Palanker, Daniel V

    2017-06-01

    To summarize the literature addressing subthreshold or nondamaging retinal laser therapy (NRT) for central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) and to discuss results and trends that provoke further investigation. Analysis of current literature evaluating NRT with micropulse or continuous wave lasers for CSCR. Sixteen studies including 398 patients consisted of retrospective case series, prospective nonrandomized interventional case series, and prospective randomized clinical trials. All studies but one evaluated chronic CSCR, and laser parameters varied greatly between studies. Mean central macular thickness decreased, on average, by ∼80 μm by 3 months. Mean best-corrected visual acuity increased, on average, by about 9 letters by 3 months, and no study reported a decrease in acuity below presentation. No retinal complications were observed with the various forms of NRT used, but six patients in two studies with micropulse laser experienced pigmentary changes in the retinal pigment epithelium attributed to excessive laser settings. Based on the current evidence, NRT demonstrates efficacy and safety in 12-month follow-up in patients with chronic and possibly acute CSCR. The NRT would benefit from better standardization of the laser settings and understanding of mechanisms of action, as well as further prospective randomized clinical trials.

  9. A Split Mouth Randomized Clinical Comparative Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Gingival Depigmentation Procedure Using Conventional Scalpel Technique or Diode Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Suragimath, Girish; Lohana, Mohini Hemant; Varma, Siddhartha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dark or black coloured gingiva is an esthetic concern especially in subjects with high lip line or gummy smile. Gingival depigmentation procedure is a type of perioplastic surgery where the gingival epithelium is excised with various techniques to lighten the colour of the gingiva. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of gingival depigmentation procedure with conventional scalpel technique and diode laser application.

  10. Lasers technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Lasers Technology Program of IPEN is committed to the development of new lasers based on the research of optical materials and new technologies, as well to laser applications in several areas: Nuclear, Medicine, Dentistry, Industry, Environment and Advanced Research. The Program is basically divided into two main areas: Material and Laser Development and Laser Applications.

  11. Effect of low-level laser therapy on patient reported measures of oral mucositis and quality of life in head and neck cancer patients receiving chemoradiotherapy--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Ajay Prashad; Fernandes, Donald J; Vidyasagar, Mamidipudi S; Maiya, Arun G; Nigudgi, Shantling

    2013-05-01

    Chemoradiotherapy (CRT)-induced oral mucositis (OM) adversely affects a patient's oral functions and quality of life (QOL). Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) showed some preventive and curative effects against clinically reported objective measures of OM in few trials including our recently published study. There is dearth of evidence regarding the effects of LLLT on patient's subjective experience of OM and QOL. Hence, we did this study to evaluate the effects of LLLT on a patient's reported measures of OM and QOL in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients receiving CRT. This triple blinded study randomized 220 HNC patients scheduled for CRT (three weekly Cisplatin + RT = 66 Gray (2 Gy/session), five fractions/week for 6.5 weeks, total 33 fractions) into laser (110) and placebo (110) groups. The laser group received LLLT (Technomed Electronics Advanced Laser Therapy 1000, He-Ne, λ = 632.8 nm, power density = 24 mW/cm(2), dosage = 3.0 J at each point, total dose/session = 36-40 J, spot size 1 cm(2), irradiation time/point 125 s) before each radiation session, while the placebo group did not receive laser therapy. Methodology was similar to our recently published study (Gautam et al. Radiother Oncol 104:349-354, 2012). In this part of our study, a blinded assessor collected subjective outcomes of the patient's reported measures of OM using Oral Mucositis Weekly Questionnaire-Head and Neck (OMWQ-HN) and QOL using Functional Assessment of Cancer Treatment-Head and Neck (FACT-HN) Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA through general linear model. Statistical significance was kept at p < 0.05. Results analysis revealed that OMWQ-HN (F = 12.199, df = 6,1314, p < 0.001) and FACT-HN (p < 0.05) scores were significantly lower in LLLT than placebo group patients. Also, a significant reduction (p < 0.001) in incidence of severe OM, need for opioid analgesics, and total parenteral nutrition was observed. LLLT was

  12. Efficacy and safety of a low-level laser device in the treatment of male and female pattern hair loss: a multicenter, randomized, sham device-controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Joaquin J; Wikramanayake, Tongyu C; Bergfeld, Wilma; Hordinsky, Maria; Hickman, Janet G; Hamblin, Michael R; Schachner, Lawrence A

    2014-04-01

    Male and female pattern hair loss are common, chronic dermatologic disorders with limited therapeutic options. In recent years, a number of commercial devices using low-level laser therapy have been promoted, but there have been little peer-reviewed data on their efficacy. To determine whether treatment with a low-level laser device, the US FDA-cleared HairMax Lasercomb®, increases terminal hair density in both men and women with pattern hair loss. Randomized, sham device-controlled, double-blind clinical trials were conducted at multiple institutional and private practices. A total of 146 male and 188 female subjects with pattern hair loss were screened. A total of 128 male and 141 female subjects were randomized to receive either a lasercomb (one of three models) or a sham device in concealed sealed packets, and were treated on the whole scalp three times a week for 26 weeks. Terminal hair density of the target area was evaluated at baseline and at 16- and 26-week follow-ups, and analyzed to determine whether the hypothesis formulated prior to data collection, that lasercomb treatment would increase terminal hair density, was correct. The site investigators and the subjects remained blinded to the type of device they dispensed/received throughout the study. The evaluator of masked digital photographs was blinded to which trial arm the subject belonged. Seventy-eight, 63, 49, and 79 subjects were randomized in four trials of 9-beam lasercomb treatment in female subjects, 12-beam lasercomb treatment in female subjects, 7-beam lasercomb treatment in male subjects, and 9- and 12-beam lasercomb treatment in male subjects, compared with the sham device, respectively. Nineteen female and 25 male subjects were lost to follow-up. Among the remaining 122 female and 103 male subjects in the efficacy analysis, the mean terminal hair count at 26 weeks increased from baseline by 20.2, 20.6, 18.4, 20.9, and 25.7 per cm2 in 9-beam lasercomb-treated female subjects, 12-beam

  13. Combined Fractional Treatment of Acne Scars Involving Non-ablative 1,550-nm Erbium-glass Laser and Micro-needling Radiofrequency: A 16-week Prospective, Randomized Split-face Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuck Hoon Kwon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An optimized therapeutic regimen involving a non-ablative fractionated laser or radiofrequency therapy for acne scars has not yet been established. To evaluate whether the combination of a non-ablative fractional laser (NAF and fractional micro-needling radiofrequency (FMR has clinical advantages for the treatment of atrophic acne scars compared with NAF alone, a 16-week prospective, randomized split-face study was performed. Each facial side of a patient was treated with 3 sessions of either NAF with FMR or NAF alone, with a 4-week interval between each session. Although both sides demonstrated significant decreases in the échelle d’évaluation clinique des cicatrices d’acné (ECCA score, the facial side treated using the combination regimen demonstrated greater improvement in ECCA score regarding degree and onset time than the NAF-treated side. Histopathological and immunohistochemical results confirmed the clinical findings. This study demonstrated that a combination regimen involving NAF and FMR could be a viable option with satisfactory efficacy.

  14. Photobiological effects of helium neon laser on hematologic and biochemical factors of rabbit blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rahmani Kahnamoei

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-level helium neon laser has many applications due to its photobiostimulatory effects. Although the therapeutic effects of low-level laser radiation of different wavelengths and doses are well known, but the exact mechanism of action of the laser radiation on living cells is not yet determined. The present study is designed to evaluate the photobiological effects of 2 mw helium neon laser with wavelength of 632.8 nm on hematologic and biochemical factors of rabbit blood for this purpose, 30 male New Zealand white rabbits with the body weight of 1/5-2 kg were randomly allocated into two groups of control and laser treatment. Animals of both groups were anesthetized and those of laser treatment group were subjected to irradiation with helium neon laser at a                        wavelength of 632.8 nm and output 2 mw for 30 minutes. Finally blood samples were collected from all animals and the biochemical and hematologic factors evaluated. Significant difference (p

  15. 75 FR 76015 - Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 393.200 Laser(s) as Medical Devices for Facelift, Wrinkle Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 393.200 Laser(s) as Medical... AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; withdrawal. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the withdrawal of Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 393.200 Laser(s) as Medical...

  16. Low level laser therapy/photobiomodulation in the management of side effects of chemoradiation therapy in head and neck cancer: part 1: mechanisms of action, dosimetric, and safety considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecha, Judith A. E. M.; Raber-Durlacher, Judith E.; Nair, Raj G.; Epstein, Joel B.; Sonis, Stephen T.; Elad, Sharon; Hamblin, Michael R.; Barasch, Andrei; Migliorati, Cesar A.; Milstein, Dan M. J.; Genot, Marie-Thérèse; Lansaat, Liset; van der Brink, Ron; Arnabat-Dominguez, Josep; van der Molen, Lisette; Jacobi, Irene; van Diessen, Judi; de Lange, Jan; Smeele, Ludi E.; Schubert, Mark M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There is a large body of evidence supporting the efficacy of low level laser therapy (LLLT), more recently termed photobiomodulation (PBM), for the management of oral mucositis (OM) in patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer (HNC). Recent advances in PBM technology, together with a better understanding of mechanisms involved, may expand the applications for PBM in the management of other complications associated with HNC treatment. This article (part 1) describes PBM mechanisms of action, dosimetry, and safety aspects and, in doing so, provides a basis for a companion paper (part 2) which describes the potential breadth of potential applications of PBM in the management of side-effects of (chemo)radiation therapy in patients being treated for HNC and proposes PBM parameters. Methods This study is a narrative non-systematic review. Results We review PBM mechanisms of action and dosimetric considerations. Virtually, all conditions modulated by PBM (e.g., ulceration, inflammation, lymphedema, pain, fibrosis, neurological and muscular injury) are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of (chemo)radiation therapy-induced complications in patients treated for HNC. The impact of PBM on tumor behavior and tumor response to treatment has been insufficiently studied. In vitro studies assessing the effect of PBM on tumor cells report conflicting results, perhaps attributable to inconsistencies of PBM power and dose. Nonetheless, the biological bases for the broad clinical activities ascribed to PBM have also been noted to be similar to those activities and pathways associated with negative tumor behaviors and impeded response to treatment. While there are no anecdotal descriptions of poor tumor outcomes in patients treated with PBM, confirming its neutrality with respect to cancer responsiveness is a critical priority. Conclusion Based on its therapeutic effects, PBM may have utility in a broad range of oral, oropharyngeal, facial, and neck

  17. Low level laser therapy/photobiomodulation in the management of side effects of chemoradiation therapy in head and neck cancer: part 1: mechanisms of action, dosimetric, and safety considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecha, Judith A E M; Raber-Durlacher, Judith E; Nair, Raj G; Epstein, Joel B; Sonis, Stephen T; Elad, Sharon; Hamblin, Michael R; Barasch, Andrei; Migliorati, Cesar A; Milstein, Dan M J; Genot, Marie-Thérèse; Lansaat, Liset; van der Brink, Ron; Arnabat-Dominguez, Josep; van der Molen, Lisette; Jacobi, Irene; van Diessen, Judi; de Lange, Jan; Smeele, Ludi E; Schubert, Mark M; Bensadoun, René-Jean

    2016-06-01

    There is a large body of evidence supporting the efficacy of low level laser therapy (LLLT), more recently termed photobiomodulation (PBM), for the management of oral mucositis (OM) in patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer (HNC). Recent advances in PBM technology, together with a better understanding of mechanisms involved, may expand the applications for PBM in the management of other complications associated with HNC treatment. This article (part 1) describes PBM mechanisms of action, dosimetry, and safety aspects and, in doing so, provides a basis for a companion paper (part 2) which describes the potential breadth of potential applications of PBM in the management of side-effects of (chemo)radiation therapy in patients being treated for HNC and proposes PBM parameters. This study is a narrative non-systematic review. We review PBM mechanisms of action and dosimetric considerations. Virtually, all conditions modulated by PBM (e.g., ulceration, inflammation, lymphedema, pain, fibrosis, neurological and muscular injury) are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of (chemo)radiation therapy-induced complications in patients treated for HNC. The impact of PBM on tumor behavior and tumor response to treatment has been insufficiently studied. In vitro studies assessing the effect of PBM on tumor cells report conflicting results, perhaps attributable to inconsistencies of PBM power and dose. Nonetheless, the biological bases for the broad clinical activities ascribed to PBM have also been noted to be similar to those activities and pathways associated with negative tumor behaviors and impeded response to treatment. While there are no anecdotal descriptions of poor tumor outcomes in patients treated with PBM, confirming its neutrality with respect to cancer responsiveness is a critical priority. Based on its therapeutic effects, PBM may have utility in a broad range of oral, oropharyngeal, facial, and neck complications of HNC treatment. Although

  18. Predicting stem total and assortment volumes in an industrial Pinus taeda L. forest plantation using airborne laser scanning data and random forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Alberto Silva; Carine Klauberg; Andrew Thomas Hudak; Lee Alexander Vierling; Wan Shafrina Wan Mohd Jaafar; Midhun Mohan; Mariano Garcia; Antonio Ferraz; Adrian Cardil; Sassan Saatchi

    2017-01-01

    Improvements in the management of pine plantations result in multiple industrial and environmental benefits. Remote sensing techniques can dramatically increase the efficiency of plantation management by reducing or replacing time-consuming field sampling. We tested the utility and accuracy of combining field and airborne lidar data with Random Forest, a supervised...

  19. Laser principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan Allemann, Inja; Kaufman, Joely

    2011-01-01

    Since the construction of the first laser in the 1960s, the role that lasers play in various medical specialities, including dermatology, has steadily increased. However, within the last 2 decades, the technological advances and the use of lasers in the field of dermatology have virtually exploded. Many treatments have only become possible with the use of lasers. Especially in aesthetic medicine, lasers are an essential tool in the treatment armamentarium. Due to better research and understanding of the physics of light and skin, there is now a wide and increasing array of different lasers and devices to choose from. The proper laser selection for each indication and treatment requires a profound understanding of laser physics and the basic laser principles. Understanding these principles will allow the laser operator to obtain better results and help avoid complications. This chapter will give an in-depth overview of the physical principles relevant in cutaneous laser surgery. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. YAG Laser or bur

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-23

    5 days ago ... (erbium, chromium: yttrium aluminum garnet) laser and two different adhesive systems. Materials and Methods. Sample Preparation and Study Groups. A total of 25 freshly extracted restoration- and caries- free primary molar teeth were selected randomly for the study. The teeth were cleaned of calculus, ...

  1. Random lasing in dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystal film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rina; Shi, Rui-xin; Wu, Xiaojiao; Wu, Jie; Dai, Qin

    2016-09-01

    A dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film was designed and fabricated, and random lasing action was studied. A mixture of laser dye, nematic liquid crystal, chiral dopant, and PVA was used to prepare the dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film by means of microcapsules. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that most liquid crystal droplets in the polymer matrix ranged from 30 μm to 40 μm, the size of the liquid crystal droplets was small. Under frequency doubled 532 nm Nd:YAG laser-pumped optical excitation, a plurality of discrete and sharp random laser radiation peaks could be measured in the range of 575-590 nm. The line-width of the lasing peak was 0.2 nm and the threshold of the random lasing was 9 mJ. Under heating, the emission peaks of random lasing disappeared. By detecting the emission light spot energy distribution, the mechanism of radiation was found to be random lasing. The random lasing radiation mechanism was then analyzed and discussed. Experimental results indicated that the size of the liquid crystal droplets is the decisive factor that influences the lasing mechanism. The surface anchor role can be ignored when the size of the liquid crystal droplets in the polymer matrix is small, which is beneficial to form multiple scattering. The transmission path of photons is similar to that in a ring cavity, providing feedback to obtain random lasing output. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61378042), the Colleges and Universities in Liaoning Province Outstanding Young Scholars Growth Plans, China (Grant No. LJQ2015093), and Shenyang Ligong University Laser and Optical Information of Liaoning Province Key Laboratory Open Funds, China.

  2. Placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial on the immunomodulating activities of low- and high-dose bromelain after oral administration - new evidence on the antiinflammatory mode of action of bromelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Silke; März, Reinhard; Schmolz, Manfred; Drewelow, Bernd; Eschmann, Klaus; Meiser, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Bromelain has been used for treatment of inflammatory diseases for decades. However, the exact mechanism of action remains poorly understood. While in vitro investigations have shown conflicting effects on the release of various cytokines, no in vivo data were available. In this study, the effects on inflammation-related cytokines of two doses of bromelain were tested in a single dose placebo-controlled 3 × crossover randomized clinical trial. Cytokine circadian profiles were used to investigate the effects of bromelain on the human immune system by using stimulated whole-blood leukocytes. The effects seen in these cultures demonstrated a significant shift in the circadian profiles of the Th1 cell mediator interferon gamma (IFNγ; p bromelain 3000 FIP (Fédération Internationale Pharmaceutique) units, and trends in those of the Th2-type cytokine IL-5 as well as the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. This suggests a general effect on the antigen-specific (T cell) compartment of the human immune system. This is the first time that bromelain has been shown to modulate the cellular responses of lymphocyte after oral use. It is postulated that the immunomodulating effect of bromelain observed in this trial is part of its known antiinflammatory activities. Further investigations will be necessary to verify the relevance of these findings to a diseased immune system. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Precise laser gyroscope for autonomous inertial navigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, A G; Molchanov, A V; Izmailov, E A [Joint Stock Company ' Moscow Institute of Electromechanics and Automatics' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Chirkin, M V [Ryazan State Radio Engineering University (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-31

    Requirements to gyroscopes of strapdown inertial navigation systems for aircraft application are formulated. The construction of a ring helium – neon laser designed for autonomous navigation is described. The processes that determine the laser service life and the relation between the random error of the angular velocity measurement and the surface relief features of the cavity mirrors are analysed. The results of modelling one of the promising approaches to processing the laser gyroscope signals are presented. (laser gyroscopes)

  4. Hemodynamic Effect of Laser Therapy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Tomimura

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH is considered to be the greatest risk factor for the development of neuro-cardiovascular pathologies, thus constituting a severe Public Health issue in the world. The Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT, or laser therapy, activates components of the cellular structure, therefore converting luminous energy into photochemical energy and leading to biophysical and biochemical reactions in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The LLLT promotes cellular and tissue photobiomodulation by means of changes in metabolism, leading to molecular, cellular and systemic changes. The objective of this study was to analyze the action of low-level laser in the hemodynamic modulation of spontaneously hypertensive rats, in the long term. Animals (n = 16 were randomly divided into the Laser Group (n = 8, which received three weekly LLLT irradiations for seven weeks, and into the Sham Group (n = 8, which received three weekly simulations of laser for seven weeks, accounting for 21 applications in each group. After seven weeks, animals were cannulated by the implantation of a catheter in the left carotid artery. On the following day, the systemic arterial pressure was recorded. The Laser Group showed reduced levels of mean blood pressure, with statistically significant reduction (169 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 182 ± 4 mmHg from the Sham Group and reduced levels of diastolic pressure (143 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 157 ± 3 mmHg from the Sham Group, revealing a 13 and 14 mmHg decrease, respectively. Besides, there was a concomitant important decline in heart rate (312 ± 14 bpm vs. 361 ± 13 bpm from the Sham Group. Therefore, laser therapy was able to produce hemodynamic changes, thus reducing pressure levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  5. Hemodynamic Effect of Laser Therapy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomimura, Suely, E-mail: suelytomimura@uol.com.br [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biofotônica em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE) (Brazil); Silva, Bianca Passos Assumpção [Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE (Brazil); Sanches, Iris Callado [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional da UNINOVE (Brazil); Canal, Marina [Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE (Brazil); Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda [Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE (Brazil); Unidade de Hipertensão e Central Médica de Laser do Instituto do Coração - Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (InCor/HC-FMUSP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Conti, Felipe Fernandes; Angelis, Katia De [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional da UNINOVE (Brazil); Chavantes, Maria Cristina [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biofotônica em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE) (Brazil); Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE (Brazil); Unidade de Hipertensão e Central Médica de Laser do Instituto do Coração - Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (InCor/HC-FMUSP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) is considered to be the greatest risk factor for the development of neuro-cardiovascular pathologies, thus constituting a severe Public Health issue in the world. The Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT), or laser therapy, activates components of the cellular structure, therefore converting luminous energy into photochemical energy and leading to biophysical and biochemical reactions in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The LLLT promotes cellular and tissue photobiomodulation by means of changes in metabolism, leading to molecular, cellular and systemic changes. The objective of this study was to analyze the action of low-level laser in the hemodynamic modulation of spontaneously hypertensive rats, in the long term. Animals (n = 16) were randomly divided into the Laser Group (n = 8), which received three weekly LLLT irradiations for seven weeks, and into the Sham Group (n = 8), which received three weekly simulations of laser for seven weeks, accounting for 21 applications in each group. After seven weeks, animals were cannulated by the implantation of a catheter in the left carotid artery. On the following day, the systemic arterial pressure was recorded. The Laser Group showed reduced levels of mean blood pressure, with statistically significant reduction (169 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 182 ± 4 mmHg from the Sham Group) and reduced levels of diastolic pressure (143 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 157 ± 3 mmHg from the Sham Group), revealing a 13 and 14 mmHg decrease, respectively. Besides, there was a concomitant important decline in heart rate (312 ± 14 bpm vs. 361 ± 13 bpm from the Sham Group). Therefore, laser therapy was able to produce hemodynamic changes, thus reducing pressure levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  6. Action perception predicts action performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Heather R; Kurby, Christopher A; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hair removal in hirsute women with normal testosterone levels: a randomized controlled trial of long-pulsed diode laser vs. intense pulsed light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, C S; Nymann, P; Pedersen, A T; Clausen, H V; Feldt Rasmussen, U; Rasmussen, A K; Main, K; Haedersdal, M

    2010-11-01

    Hirsutism is a common disorder in women of reproductive age, and androgen disturbances may aggravate the condition. Limited evidence exists regarding efficacy of hair removal in this specific population and no data are available for patients with verified normal testosterone levels. To compare efficacy and safety of intense pulsed light (IPL) vs. long-pulsed diode laser (LPDL) in a well-defined group of hirsute women with normal testosterone levels. Thirty-one hirsute women received six allocated split-face treatments with IPL (525-1200 nm; Palomar Starlux IPL system) and LPDL (810 nm; Asclepion MeDioStar XT diode laser). Testosterone levels were measured three times during the study period. Patients with intrinsically normal or medically normalized testosterone levels throughout the study were included in efficacy assessments (n = 23). Endpoints were reduction in hair counts assessed by blinded photoevaluations at baseline and 1, 3 and 6 months after final treatment, patient-evaluated reduction in hairiness, patient satisfaction, treatment-related pain and adverse effects. IPL and LPDL reduced hair counts significantly, with median reductions from baseline of 77%, 53% and 40% for IPL and 68%, 60% and 34% for LDPL at 1, 3 and 6 months, respectively. At 6 months follow-up, there was no significant difference between treatments in terms of hair reduction (P = 0·427), patient assessment of hairiness (P = 0·250) and patient satisfaction (P = 0·125). Pain scores were consistently higher for IPL [median 6, interquartile range (IQR) 4-7] than LPDL (median 3, IQR 2-5) (P IPL and LPDL treatments of facial hairiness, but the efficacy declined over 6 months. © 2010 The Authors. BJD © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Local cooling effect on perforation rates comparing the 980-1470 nm laser wavelengths used with endovenous laser ablation: double blind in vitro experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarhan, I A; Dumantepe, M; Yurdakul, I; Kehlibar, T; Ozler, A

    2014-03-01

    Endovenous laser treatment (EVLA) is fast gaining acceptance as an alternative to open surgery for the treatment of saphenous vein incompetence. The method of action of these techniques is based on heat, making tumescence anaesthesia necessity. Heat-induced complications may occur with inadequate application of tumescent anaesthesia. Our hypothesis was, local cooling effect of tumescent anaesthesia on tunica adventitia might be kept undamaged from disruption due to the thermal injury. We experimented with two popular laser wavelengths (980 and 1470 nm) and with two different thermal media (+4 and +24) in vitro for perforation. Twenty different 12 cm length vein pieces were numbered randomly to set up four groups of the experiment. Endovenous laser procedures were applied in same manner in a unique design test tube with same energy density per pieces on same duration (10 W/second) (linear endovenous energy density 60 J/cm). Procedure video was recorded for macroscopic perforations. All postprocedure vein segments were examined microscopically. Activities of both wavelengths were much better in cold medium (P laser was better than that of 980 nm in cold environment (P = 0.0136). It can be commented that reducing the ambient temperature is more beneficial than modifying the laser wavelength on perforation rates. Therefore we suppose tumescent anaesthesia temperature is effective on perforation independently from the wavelengths or type of the laser fibre.

  9. Early individualised manipulative rehabilitation following lumbar open laser microdiscectomy improves early post-operative functional disability: A randomized, controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byungho J; Ahn, Junghoon; Cho, Heecheol; Kim, Dongyun; Kim, Taeyeong; Yoon, Bumchul

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar open laser microdiscectomy has been shown to be an effective intervention and safe approach for lumbar disc prolapse. However early post-operative physical disability affecting daily activities have been sporadically reported. To evaluate the feasibility of using early individualised manipulative rehabilitation to improve early post-operative functional disability following lumbar discectomy. Randomised controlled pilot trial. Setting at a major metropolitan spine surgery hospital. Twenty-one patients aged 25-69 years who underwent lumbar microdiscectomy were randomised to either the manipulative rehabilitation treatment group or the active control group. Rehabilitation was initiated 2-3 weeks after surgery, twice a week for 4 weeks. Each session was for 30 minutes. Primary outcomes were the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire and the visual analogue pain scale. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Early post-operative physical disability was improved with a 55% reduction by early individualised manipulative rehabilitation, compared to that of control care with a 5% increase. Early post-operative residual leg pain decreased with rehabilitation (55%) and control care (9%). This pilot study supports the feasibility of a future definitive randomised control trial and indicates this type of rehabilitation may be an important option for post-operative management after spinal surgery.

  10. Predicting Stem Total and Assortment Volumes in an Industrial Pinus taeda L. Forest Plantation Using Airborne Laser Scanning Data and Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in the management of pine plantations result in multiple industrial and environmental benefits. Remote sensing techniques can dramatically increase the efficiency of plantation management by reducing or replacing time-consuming field sampling. We tested the utility and accuracy of combining field and airborne lidar data with Random Forest, a supervised machine learning algorithm, to estimate stem total and assortment (commercial and pulpwood volumes in an industrial Pinus taeda L. forest plantation in southern Brazil. Random Forest was populated using field and lidar-derived forest metrics from 50 sample plots with trees ranging from three to nine years old. We found that a model defined as a function of only two metrics (height of the top of the canopy and the skewness of the vertical distribution of lidar points has a very strong and unbiased predictive power. We found that predictions of total, commercial, and pulp volume, respectively, showed an adjusted R2 equal to 0.98, 0.98 and 0.96, with unbiased predictions of −0.17%, −0.12% and −0.23%, and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE values of 7.83%, 7.71% and 8.63%. Our methodology makes use of commercially available airborne lidar and widely used mathematical tools to provide solutions for increasing the industry efficiency in monitoring and managing wood volume.

  11. Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend; Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.; Smolka, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter, we give a comprehensive overview of the research results in the field of action refinement during the past 12 years. The different approaches that have been followed are outlined in detail and contrasted to each other in a uniform framework. We use two running examples to discuss

  12. Greenlight high-performance system (HPS) 120-W laser vaporization versus transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a meta-analysis of the published results of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Xue, Boxin; Mohammad, Nadeem Ahmed; Chen, Dong; Sun, Xiaofei; Yang, Jinhui; Dai, Guangcheng

    2016-04-01

    To assess the efficacy and the safety of Greenlight(TM) high-performance system (HPS) 120-W laser photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) compared with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The related original studies only including randomized controlled trials were searched by databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register. The databases were updated till July 2014. The risk ratio, mean difference, and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Risk of bias of the enrolled trials were assessed according to Cochrane Handbook. A total of four trials involving 559 patients were enrolled. Statistical analysis was performed by software Review Manager (V5.3.3). There was no significant difference in International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and maximum flow rate (Qmax) between PVP and TURP at 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up. Patients in the PVP group were associated with significantly lower risk of capsule perforation (risk ratio (RR) = 0.06, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 0.01 to 0.46; p = 0.007), significantly lower transfusion requirements (RR = 0.12, 95%CI = 0.03 to 0.43; p = 0.001), a shorter catheterization time (mean difference (MD) = -41.93, 95%CI = -54.87 to -28.99; p < 0.00001), and a shorter duration of hospital stay (MD = -2.09, 95%CI = -2.58 to -1.59; p < 0.00001) than that in the TURP group. In the TURP group, the patients were associated with a lower risk of re-operation (RR = 3.68, 95%CI = 1.04 to 13.00; p = 0.04) and a shorter operative time (MD = 9.28, 95%CI = 2.80 to 15.75; p = 0.005) than those in the PVP group. In addition, no statistically significant differences were detected between groups in terms of the rates of transurethral resection syndrome, urethral stricture, bladder neck contracture, incontinence, and infection. Greenlight(TM) 120-W

  13. Application of laser radiation and magnetostimulation in therapy of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubsik, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Robert; Janczewska, Katarzyna; Klimkiewicz, Paulina; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is one of the most common neurological disorders. It is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS, whose etiology is not fully understood. Application of new rehabilitation methods are essential to improve functional status. The material studied consisted of 120 patients of both sexes (82 women and 38 men) aged 21-81 years. The study involved patients with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of laser radiation and other therapies on the functional status of patients with multiple sclerosis. Patients were randomly divided into four treatment groups. The evaluation was performed three times - before the start of rehabilitation, immediately after rehabilitation (21 days of treatment) and subsequent control - 30 days after the patients leave the clinic. The following tests were performed for all patients to assess functional status: Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of Kurtzke and Barthel Index. Results of all testing procedures show that the treatment methods are improving the functional status of patients with multiple sclerosis, with the significant advantage of the synergistic action of laser and magneto stimulation. The combination of laser and magneto stimulation significantly confirmed beneficial effect on quality of life. The results of these studies present new scientific value and are improved compared to program of rehabilitation of patients with multiple sclerosis by laser radiation which was previously used. This study showed that synergic action of laser radiation and magneto stimulation has a beneficial effect on improving functional status, and thus improves the quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis. The effects of all methods of rehabilitation are persisted after cessation of treatment applications, with a particular advantage of the synergistic action of laser radiation and magneto stimulation, which indicates the possibility to elicitation in these

  14. Low level laser therapy associated with a strength training program on muscle performance in elderly women: a randomized double blind control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Renata Luri; Vassão, Patrícia Gabrielli; Assis, Livia; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2016-08-01

    The aging process leads to a gradual loss of muscle mass and muscle performance, leading to a higher functional dependence. Within this context, many studies have demonstrated the benefits of a combination of physical exercise and low level laser therapy (LLLT) as an intervention that enhances muscle performance in young people and athletes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combination of LLLT and strength training on muscle performance in elderly women. For this, a hundred elderly women were screened, and 48 met all inclusion criteria to participate in this double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Volunteers were divided in three groups: control (CG = 15), strength training associated with placebo LLLT (TG = 17), and strength training associated with active LLLT (808 nm, 100 mW, 7 J) (TLG = 16). The strength training consisted of knee flexion-extension performed with 80 % of 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) during 8 weeks. Several outcomes related to muscle performance were analyzed through the 6-min walk test (6-MWT), isokinetic dynamometry, surface electromyography (SEMG), lactate concentration, and 1-RM. The results revealed that a higher work (p = 0.0162), peak torque (p = 0.0309), and power (p = 0.0223) were observed in TLG compared to CG. Furthermore, both trained groups increased the 1-RM load (TG vs CG: p = 0.0067 and TLG vs CG: p strength training was able to improve muscle performance in elderly people.

  15. Laser therapy for onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Simpson, Fiona C

    2013-01-01

    Laser therapy is a rapidly expanding new treatment modality for onychomycosis. To review current and prospective laser systems for the treatment of onychomycosis. We searched the PubMed database, the Food and Drug Administration 510(k) database, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Google Scholar for in vitro studies, peer-reviewed clinical trials, manufacturers' white papers, and registered clinical trials of laser systems indicated for the treatment of onychomycosis. All published clinical trials were assessed on a 20-point methodological quality scale. We identified three basic science articles, five peer-reviewed articles, three white papers, and four pending clinical trials, as well as numerous gray literature documents. The overall methodological score for the clinical trials was 9.1 ± 1.1, with peer-reviewed studies showing a higher score (9.8 ± 1.5) than white papers (7.5 ± 0.7). We also identified 11 commercial laser device systems of varying global availability. Laser therapy has been tested and approved as a cosmetic treatment only for onychomycosis. It cannot be recommended as a therapeutic intervention to eradicate fungal infection at this time as more rigorous randomized, controlled trials are required to determine if laser therapy is efficacious on par with oral and topical interventions.

  16. Solvent-free fluidic organic dye lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Young; Mager, Loic; Cham, Tran Thi; Dorkenoo, Kokou D; Fort, Alain; Wu, Jeong Weon; Barsella, Alberto; Ribierre, Jean-Charles

    2013-05-06

    We report on the demonstration of liquid organic dye lasers based on 9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole (EHCz), so-called liquid carbazole, doped with green- and red-emitting laser dyes. Both waveguide and Fabry-Perot type microcavity fluidic organic dye lasers were prepared by capillary action under solvent-free conditions. Cascade Förster-type energy transfer processes from liquid carbazole to laser dyes were employed to achieve color-variable amplified spontaneous emission and lasing. Overall, this study provides the first step towards the development of solvent-free fluidic organic semiconducting lasers and demonstrates a new kind of optoelectronic applications for liquid organic semiconductors.

  17. Resonant Laser Incisions: Molecular Targets Using the Free Electron Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Lou; Bryant, Grady; Ossoff, Robert H.

    1996-03-01

    Laser ablation of tissue for medical incisions is normally concerned with the energy absorption and the subsequent vaporization of intracellular water. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, we have identified specific non-water resonances within tissues. Then, using the Vanderbilt Free Electron Laser (wavelength tunable from 2 to 10 microns) and our Computer Assisted Surgical Techniques program (to standardize the laser delivery), we have targeted specific molecular resonances for laser incisions and tissue removal. Using both acute and chronic studies, we can map out the resonant action spectrum to improve surgical outcomes. We have modeled these ablation mechanisms and working to establish the link between these ablation mechanisms and wound healing. This work has been supported, in part, by a grant from the Department of Defense, Medical Free Electron Laser Program, ONR Grant #N000149411023.

  18. Actionable Nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Smith, Karen; McColl, Alexander; Green, Michael; Godwin, Marshall; Birtwhistle, Richard; Norman, Kathleen; Brankston, Gabrielle; Schaub, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice. Design Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets’ effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility. Setting Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia. Participants Forty-nine primary care physicians. Methods Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants’ opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews. Main findings With Actionable Nuggets, participants’ knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians’ practices was 72%. Participants’ awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent. Conclusion Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian

  19. Lasers technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Laser Technology Program of IPEN is developed by the Center for Lasers and Applications (CLA) and is committed to the development of new lasers based on the research of new optical materials and new resonator technologies. Laser applications and research occur within several areas such as Nuclear, Medicine, Dentistry, Industry, Environment and Advanced Research. Additional goals of the Program are human resource development and innovation, in association with Brazilian Universities and commercial partners.

  20. Laser handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bass, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Volume 4 of the Laser Handbook continues the high standard set by the first three volumes which were widely acclaimed by numerous reviewers in Science, Optical Spectra and Laser Technology, as presenting an outstanding contribution to the field of laser technology.

  1. Microchip Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-31

    USA E-mail: zayhowski@ll.mit.edu Abstract Microchip lasers are a rich family of solid-state lasers defined by their small size, robust integration...reliability, and potential for low-cost mass production. Continuous-wave microchip lasers cover a wide range of wavelengths, often operate single

  2. Lasers (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1969-01-01

    A laser is an instrument that produces an enormously intense pencil-thin beam of light. In this booklet we shall learn what there is about the laser that gives it so much promise. We shall investigate what it is, how it works, and the different kinds of lasers there are.

  3. WITHDRAWN: Low level laser therapy (Classes III) for treating osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, L; Robinson, V; Wells, G; Debie, R; Gam, A; Harman, K; Morin, M; Shea, B; Tugwell, P

    2007-07-18

    scales used in these seven trials, a statistically significant difference in favor of laser treatment was found with a SMD of -0.28 (95% CI: -0.48 to -0.09). One of these studies also measured pain during movement and found a statistically significant difference in favor of laser treatment with a WMD of -1.16 (95% CI: -2.02 to -0.30). Two studies found significant results for increased knee range of motion. Two others studies found a statistically significant difference in favor of laser treatment for patient-assessed global disease activity with laser compared to placebo (RR 1.70, 95%CI: 1.1. to 2.63). One trial evaluated the effectiveness of laser treatment in temporomandibular joint OA and found a statistically significant difference (WMD 38.69, 95% CI: 29.25 to 48.13) using the change in VAS score to measure pain. One study found a statistically significant difference in favor of laser treatment at the end of treatment and at 4 and 8 weeks post-treatment for morning stiffness. Other outcome measures of joint tenderness and strength did not yield significant differences. Five trials included in this review showed a statistically significant difference favoring laser treatment when compared to placebo for at least one outcome measure. Three trials did not report beneficial effects. The varying results of these trials may be due to the method of laser application and/or other features of LLLT application. Clinicians and researchers should consistently report the characteristics of LLLT devices and application techniques used. New trials on LLLT should make use of standardized, validated outcomes. There is clearly a need to investigate the effects of different dosages on LLLT effectiveness for OA in future randomized, controlled clinical trials. Also, more studies should be done to investigate the anti-inflammatory action of laser as well as the appropriate parameters needed to achieve an anti-inflammatory effect.

  4. A comparative study of diode laser and plasmakinetic in transurethral enucleation of the prostate for treating large volume benign prostatic hyperplasia: a randomized clinical trial with 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Hong, Zhe; Li, Chao; Bian, Cuidong; Huang, Shengsong; Wu, Denglong

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of diode laser enucleation of the prostate (DiLEP) with plasmakinetic enucleation of the prostate (PKEP) for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients with large prostate (volume > 80 ml). From January 2013 to June 2014, 80 consecutive patients were randomized treated with DiLEP (n = 40) or PKEP (n = 40). Perioperative and postoperative outcome data were assessed during a 1-year follow-up. There were no significant preoperative differences between the two surgical groups. The mean prostate volumes in the DiLEP and PKEP groups were 98.6 and 93.3 ml, respectively. DiLEP was equivalent to PKEP in improvement in International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life scores, and maximum flow rate. Compared with PKEP, patients treated with DiLEP showed a lower risk of blood loss (P  80 ml). Compared with PKEP, DiLEP provides a decreased risk of hemorrhage, reduced bladder irrigation, and catheterization times, as well as shorter hospital stays.

  5. Recent developments in laser glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, M.J.

    1983-01-10

    The past decade has witnessed a proliferation of new glass-forming compositions including oxides, halides, oxyhalides, and chalcogenides. Many of these glasses are applicable to lasers and have greatly expanded the range of optical properties and spectroscopic parameters available to the laser designer. Our knowledge and understanding of many properties of interest for laser action - transparency, linear and nonlinear refractive indices, and damage threshold of the host glass and the absorption spectrum, radiative and nonradiative transition probabilities, fluorescence wavelength, stimulated emission cross section, and spectroscopic inhomogeneities of the lasing ion Nd/sup 3 +/ - are reviewed.

  6. Fs-laser processing of polydimethylsiloxane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasov, Petar A., E-mail: paatanas@ie.bas.bg; Nedyalkov, Nikolay N. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Shose, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Valova, Eugenia I.; Georgieva, Zhenya S.; Armyanov, Stefan A.; Kolev, Konstantin N. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Amoruso, Salvatore; Wang, Xuan; Bruzzese, Ricardo [CNR-SPIN, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Sawczak, Miroslaw; Śliwiński, Gerard [Photophysics Department, The Szewalski Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, 14 Fiszera St, 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland)

    2014-07-14

    We present an experimental analysis on surface structuring of polydimethylsiloxane films with UV (263 nm) femtosecond laser pulses, in air. Laser processed areas are analyzed by optical microscopy, SEM, and μ-Raman spectroscopy. The laser-treated sample shows the formation of a randomly nanostructured surface morphology. μ-Raman spectra, carried out at both 514 and 785 nm excitation wavelengths, prior and after laser treatment allow evidencing the changes in the sample structure. The influence of the laser fluence on the surface morphology is studied. Finally, successful electro-less metallization of the laser-processed sample is achieved, even after several months from the laser-treatment contrary to previous observation with nanosecond pulses. Our findings address the effectiveness of fs-laser treatment and chemical metallization of polydimethylsiloxane films with perspective technological interest in micro-fabrication devices for MEMS and nano-electromechanical systems.

  7. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  8. Early bronchodilator action of glycopyrronium versus tiotropium in moderate-to-severe COPD patients: a cross-over blinded randomized study (Symptoms and Pulmonary function in the moRnING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin JM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jose M Marin,1 Kai M Beeh,2 Andreas Clemens,3 Walter Castellani,4 Lennart Schaper,5 Dinesh Saralaya,6 Anthony Gunstone,7 Ricard Casamor,8 Konstantinos Kostikas,3 Maryam Aalamian-Mattheis3 1University Hospital Miguel Servet, IISAragón, CIBERES, Zaragoza, Spain; 2Insaf Respiratory Research Institute, Wiesbaden, Germany; 3Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 4Hospital Piero Palagi, Fiorenze, Italy; 5Research Institute and Practice, Berlin-Brandenburg, Germany; 6Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Bradford, UK; 7Staploe Medical Center, Soham, Cambridge, UK; 8Novartis Farmaceutica SA, Barcelona, Spain Background: Morning symptoms associated with COPD have a negative impact on patients’ quality of life. Long-acting bronchodilators with rapid onset may relieve patients’ symptoms. In the Symptoms and Pulmonary function in the moRnING study, we prospectively compared the rapid onset bronchodilator profile of glycopyrronium (GLY and tiotropium (TIO during the first few hours after dosing in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD.Methods: Patients were randomized (1:1 to receive either once-daily GLY (50 µg or TIO (18 µg and corresponding placebos in a cross-over design for 28 days. The primary objective was to demonstrate the superiority of GLY versus TIO in area under the curve from 0 to 4 hours (AUC0-4h forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 after the first dose. The secondary objective was to compare GLY versus TIO using the patient reported outcomes Morning COPD Symptoms Questionnaire 3 hours post-inhalation.Results: One-hundred and twenty-six patients were randomized (male 70.2%; mean age 65.7 years and 108 patients completed the study. On Day 1, GLY resulted in significantly higher FEV1 AUC0-4h after the first dose versus TIO (treatment difference [Δ], 0.030 L, 95% confidence interval 0.004–0.056, P=0.025. Improvements in morning COPD symptoms from baseline at Days 1 and 28 were similar between GLY and TIO. Post hoc

  9. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser coagulation; Laser eye surgery; Photocoagulation; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic eye disease; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic retinopathy; Focal photocoagulation; Scatter (or pan retinal) photocoagulation; Proliferative ...

  10. Coherent laser vision system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastion, R.L. [Coleman Research Corp., Springfield, VA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  11. Thermal dynamics-based mechanism for intense laser-induced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser material processing involving welding, ablation and cutting involves interaction of intense laser pulses of nanosecond duration with a condensed phase. ... the vaporization process and consequent non-linear multiple thermal phase transitions under the action of laser plasma is the subject matter of the present work.

  12. Coilable Crystalline Fiber (CCF) Lasers and their Scalability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    highly power scalable, nearly diffraction-limited output laser. 37 References 1. Snitzer, E. Optical Maser Action of Nd 3+ in A Barium Crown Glass ...Electron Devices Directorate Helmuth Meissner Onyx Optics Approved for public release; distribution...lasers, but their composition ( glass ) poses significant disadvantages in pump absorption, gain, and thermal conductivity. All-crystalline fiber lasers

  13. Recent progress of laser metrology in chemically reacting flows at onera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, A.; Dorval, N.; Vilmart, G.; Orain, M.; George, R.; Scherman, M.; Nafa, M.; Bresson, A.; Attal-Tretout, B.; Lefebvre, M.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents some of the development actions performed these last years at ONERA using laser spectroscopic techniques to probe chemically reacting flows. Techniques like laser absorption, laser induced fluorescence (LIF), and Raman scattering will be described with focus on present drawbacks as well as expectations from new laser technologies (Interband Cascade Lasers (ICL) diodes, Optical Parametrical Oscillators (OPO), frequency comb, and femto/picosecond lasers) before showing some results of recent applications in ground facilities.

  14. Effects of low-level laser therapy on collagen expression and neutrophil infiltrate in 5-fluorouracil-induced oral mucositis in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Nilza Nelly Fontana; Plapler, Hélio; Lalla, Rajesh V; Chavantes, Maria Cristina; Yoshimura, Elisabeth Mateus; da Silva, Marco Antonio Bastos; Alves, Maria Teresa Seixas

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have suggested that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can ameliorate oral mucositis; however, the mechanisms involved are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of action of LLLT on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis, as related to effects on collagen expression and inflammation. A hamster cheek pouch model of oral mucositis was used with all animals receiving intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil, followed by surface irritation. Animals were randomly allocated into three groups, and treated with an InGaAIP diode laser at a wavelength of 660 nm and output power of 35 or 100 mW laser, or no laser. Clinical severity of mucositis was assessed at four time-points by a blinded examiner. Buccal pouch tissue was harvested from a subgroup of animals in each group at four time-points. Collagen was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated after picrosirius staining. The density of the neutrophil infiltrate was also scored. Peak clinical severity of mucositis was reduced in the 35 mW laser group as compared to the 100 mW and control groups. The reduced peak clinical severity of mucositis in the 35 mW laser group was accompanied by a decrease in the number of neutrophils and an increase in the proportion of mature collagen as compared to the other two groups. The total quantity of collagen was significantly higher in the control (no laser) group at the day 11 time-point, as compared to the 35 mW laser group, consistent with a more prolonged inflammatory response in the control group. This study supports two mechanisms of action for LLLT in reducing mucositis severity. The increase in collagen organization in response to the 35 mW laser indicates that LLLT promotes wound healing. In addition, LLLT also appears to have an anti-inflammatory effect, as evidenced by the reduction in neutrophil infiltrate. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Empirical microeconomics action functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson

    2015-06-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).

  16. Low level laser therapy/photobiomodulation in the management of side effects of chemoradiation therapy in head and neck cancer: part 1: mechanisms of action, dosimetric, and safety considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zecha, Judith A. E. M.; Raber-Durlacher, Judith E.; Nair, Raj G.; Epstein, Joel B.; Sonis, Stephen T.; Elad, Sharon; Hamblin, Michael R.; Barasch, Andrei; Migliorati, Cesar A.; Milstein, Dan M. J.; Genot, Marie-Thérèse; Lansaat, Liset; van der Brink, Ron; Arnabat-Dominguez, Josep; van der Molen, Lisette; Jacobi, Irene; van Diessen, Judi; de Lange, Jan; Smeele, Ludi E.; Schubert, Mark M.; Bensadoun, René-Jean

    2016-01-01

    There is a large body of evidence supporting the efficacy of low level laser therapy (LLLT), more recently termed photobiomodulation (PBM), for the management of oral mucositis (OM) in patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer (HNC). Recent advances in PBM technology, together with a

  17. Dermatologisk laser- og lysbehandling af ar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karmisholt, Katrine; Borch, Jakob E; Omland, Silje Haukali

    2016-01-01

    the highest available level of evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and introduces a guideline for laser treatment of scars. Twelve RCTs documented effect on acne, burn and surgical scars. It is recommended that laser- and light-based treatments are considered according to the scar type....

  18. Spectroscopic study of laser irradiated chromatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Liliana; Mihailescu, I.; Gazdaru, Doina; Preoteasa, V.

    2013-04-01

    The effects of three UV excimer laser radiations, with wavelengths of 193, 248 and 282 nm respectively, on the structure of chromatin (the complex of deoxyribonucleic acid with proteins that exists in eukaryotic cells nuclei) were investigated. The chromatin was extracted from livers of Winstar rats. The spectroscopic methods used are: fluorescence (Förster) resonance energy transfer (FRET), time resolved fluorescence and steady-state fluorescence. A chromatin deoxyribonucleic acid radiolysis, a chromatin proteins damage and a change of the global chromatin structure on lasers action were indicated by this study. It exists some small differences between the actions of these three laser radiations.

  19. Spectroscopic study of laser irradiated chromatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, Liliana, E-mail: liliana1radu@gmail.com [V. Babes National Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics and Radiobiology (Romania); Mihailescu, I. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Lasers (Romania); Gazdaru, Doina [Faculty of Physics, Bucharest University, Department of Biophysics (Romania); Preoteasa, V. [V. Babes National Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics and Radiobiology (Romania)

    2013-04-15

    The effects of three UV excimer laser radiations, with wavelengths of 193, 248 and 282 nm respectively, on the structure of chromatin (the complex of deoxyribonucleic acid with proteins that exists in eukaryotic cells nuclei) were investigated. The chromatin was extracted from livers of Winstar rats. The spectroscopic methods used are: fluorescence (Foerster) resonance energy transfer (FRET), time resolved fluorescence and steady-state fluorescence. A chromatin deoxyribonucleic acid radiolysis, a chromatin proteins damage and a change of the global chromatin structure on lasers action were indicated by this study. It exists some small differences between the actions of these three laser radiations.

  20. Photoselective vaporization of the prostate with GreenLight 120-W laser versus transurethral resection of the prostate for benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Ya-Chen; Deng, Xin-Xi; Yang, Dong-Rong; Xue, Bo-Xin; Xu, Li-Jun; Liu, Xiao-Long; Zhou, Yi-Bin; Shan, Yu-Xi

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the overall efficacy and safety of photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) with GreenLight 120-W laser versus transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for treating patients of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). We performed a literature search of The Cochrane Library and the electronic databases, including Embase, Medline, and Web of Science. Manual searches were conducted of the conference proceedings, including European Association of Urology and American Urological Association (2007 to 2012). Outcomes reviewed included clinical baseline characteristics, perioperative data, complications, and postoperative functional results, such as postvoid residual (PVR), international prostate symptom score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), and maximum flow rate (Qmax). Six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were enrolled. Three hundred and forty-seven patients undergone 120-W PVP, and 350 patients were treated with TURP in the RCTs. There were no significant differences for clinical characteristics in these trials. In perioperative data, catheterization time and length of hospital stay were shorter in the PVP group. However, the operation time was shorter in the TURP group. Capsular perforation, blood transfusion, clot retention, and macroscopic hematuria were markedly less likely in PVP-treated subjects. The other complications between PVP and TURP did not demonstrate a statistic difference. There were no significant differences in QoL, PVR, IPSS, and Qmax in the 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months of postoperative follow-up. There was no significant difference at postoperation follow-up of functional outcomes including IPSS, PVR, Qmax, and QoL between the TURP-treated subjects and PVP-treated subjects. Owing to a shorter catheterization time, reduced hospital duration and less complication, PVP could be used as an alternative and a promising minimal invasive surgical procedure for the

  1. Low-Level Laser and Light-Emitting Diode Therapy for Pain Control in Hyperglycemic and Normoglycemic Patients Who Underwent Coronary Bypass Surgery with Internal Mammary Artery Grafts: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study with Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Andréa Conceição Gomes; Fernandes, Gilderlene Alves; Gonzaga, Isabel Clarisse; de Barros Araújo, Raimundo; de Oliveira, Rauirys Alencar; Nicolau, Renata Amadei

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for reducing pain in hyperglycemic and normoglycemic patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery with internal mammary artery grafts. This study was conducted on 120 volunteers who underwent elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The volunteers were randomly allocated to four different groups of equal size (n = 30): control, placebo, LLLT [λ = 640 nm and spatial average energy fluence (SAEF) = 1.06 J/cm(2)], and LED (λ = 660 ± 20 nm and SAEF = 0.24 J/cm(2)). Participants were also divided into hyperglycemic and normoglycemic subgroups, according to their fasting blood glucose test result before surgery. The outcome assessed was pain during coughing by a visual analog scale (VAS) and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. The patients were followed for 1 month after the surgery. The LLLT and LED groups showed a greater decrease in pain, with similar results, as indicated by both the VAS and the McGill questionnaire (p ≤ 0.05), on the 6th and 8th postoperative day compared with the placebo and control groups. The outcomes were also similar between hyperglycemic and normoglycemic patients. One month after the surgery, almost no individual reported pain during coughing. LLLT and LED had similar analgesic effects in hyperglycemic and normoglycemic patients, better than placebo and control groups.

  2. Er:YAG ablative fractional laser-primed photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinate as an alternative treatment option for patients with thin nodular basal cell carcinoma: 12-month follow-up results of a randomized, prospective, comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S H; Kim, K H; Song, K H

    2016-05-01

    Surgical excision is conventionally regarded as the treatment of choice for nodular basal cell carcinoma (nBCC), and methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) has relatively low efficacy for nBCC. However, Er:YAG ablative fractional laser (AFL)-primed MAL-PDT (Er:YAG AFL-PDT) may offer enhanced efficacy for nBCC, especially thin nBCC (thickness ≤2 mm). We compared Er:YAG AFL-PDT with conventional MAL-PDT for thin facial nBCC in Korean patients. Thirty-nine patients (42 lesions) with primary, histologically proven thin nBCCs were randomized to Er:YAG AFL-PDT (single session, n = 20) or conventional MAL-PDT (two sessions, 7 days apart, n = 19). Efficacy, recurrence rate, cosmetic outcomes and safety were assessed 1 week, 3 months and 12 months after the last treatment. Three months after the final treatment, overall complete response rates were 84.2% with Er:YAG AFL-PDT and 50% with MAL-PDT (P = 0.026). The recurrence rate was significantly lower with Er:YAG AFL-PDT (6.3%) than with MAL-PDT (55.6%) at 12 months (P = 0.006). Er:YAG AFL-PDT and MAL-PDT did not differ significantly with respect to cosmetic outcomes or safety. Er:YAG AFL-PDT can be used as an alternative treatment option for patients who have thin nBCC and are not suitable for surgical treatment. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  3. Lasers use in dental implantology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanos, Georgios E; Gupta, Bhumija; Yunker, Mike; Romanos, Enisa Begic; Malmstrom, Hans

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the present use of different laser systems in implant dentistry. A literature search of MEDLINE-PubMed for articles published, describing the use of lasers in implant dentistry, was performed and articles were critically reviewed by the investigators to determine the strength of evidence. The literature review reveals a limited number of randomized clinical trials with regard to laser use in dentistry. Although many case studies indicate extensive use of lasers and promising results in dental implantology, lasers may be used for uncovering submerged implants atraumatically to prevent crestal bone loss, recontouring periimplant soft tissues and sculpting emergence profile for prosthetic components, raising surgical flaps, osseous recontouring, and creating parabolic tissue architecture. Additionally, bone harvesting of block grafts, window preparation in sinus lift procedures, ridge splitting, and debridement of extraction sockets for immediate implant placement were described. Aside from the many benefits associated with the use of lasers in implant-related procedures, there are also risks to consider from the laser irradiation on the implant surface and the periimplant tissues. Therefore, an appropriate training on laser use is mandatory to increase the clinical outcome and to control the potential of complications.

  4. Biocavity Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourley, P.L.; Gourley, M.F.

    2000-10-05

    Laser technology has advanced dramatically and is an integral part of today's healthcare delivery system. Lasers are used in the laboratory analysis of human blood samples and serve as surgical tools that kill, burn or cut tissue. Recent semiconductor microtechnology has reduced the size o f a laser to the size of a biological cell or even a virus particle. By integrating these ultra small lasers with biological systems, it is possible to create micro-electrical mechanical systems that may revolutionize health care delivery.

  5. Dynamic laser piercing of thick section metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocorni, Jetro; Powell, John; Frostevarg, Jan; Kaplan, Alexander F. H.

    2018-01-01

    Before a contour can be laser cut the laser first needs to pierce the material. The time taken to achieve piercing should be minimised to optimise productivity. One important aspect of laser piercing is the reliability of the process because industrial laser cutting machines are programmed for the minimum reliable pierce time. In this work piercing experiments were carried out in 15 mm thick stainless steel sheets, comparing a stationary laser and a laser which moves along a circular trajectory with varying processing speeds. Results show that circular piercing can decrease the pierce duration by almost half compared to stationary piercing. High speed imaging (HSI) was employed during the piercing process to understand melt behaviour inside the pierce hole. HSI videos show that circular rotation of the laser beam forces melt to eject in opposite direction of the beam movement, while in stationary piercing the melt ejects less efficiently in random directions out of the hole.

  6. Photoinduced charge carriers' accumulation and its impact on random lasing in Nd3+ doped (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Caixia; Zhang, Jingwen; Xu, Long; Ma, Xinyan; Zhao, Hua

    2017-06-01

    To pinpoint the driving forces behind the random lasing in Nd3+ doped lanthanum lead zirconate titanate (Nd:PLZT) ceramic plates, a combinatorial cavity with two gain media (Nd:YVO4 and Nd:PLZT) was used to study the switching feature between conventional lasing and random lasing oscillations. The complex laser output dynamics observed hinted that the photo-induced charge accumulation on the plate surface and the grain boundaries of Nd:PLZT is responsible for the lasing action switching, which was confirmed by a series of experiments, including strong electro-induced scattering, remarkable photoinduced currents, and light transmission reduction, along with measured single-pass-gain over the theoretical limit. It was found that the charge accumulation results in optical energy storage and nonuniform refractive index and hence strong scattering, which give rise to the random walks and weak localization of photons and long lasting lasing action and mode switching.

  7. High power lasers & systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chatwin, Chris; Young, Rupert; Birch, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Some laser history;\\ud Airborne Laser Testbed & Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL);\\ud Laser modes and beam propagation;\\ud Fibre lasers and applications;\\ud US Navy Laser system – NRL 33kW fibre laser;\\ud Lockheed Martin 30kW fibre laser;\\ud Conclusions

  8. Probing cell activity in random access modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacconi, L.; Crocini, C.; Lotti, J.; Coppini, R.; Ferrantini, C.; Tesi, C.; Yan, P.; Loew, L. M.; Cerbai, E.; Poggesi, C.; Pavone, F. S.

    2013-06-01

    We combined the advantage of an ultrafast random access microscope with novel labelling technologies to study the intra- and inter-cellular action potential propagation in neurons and cardiac myocytes with sub-millisecond time resolution. The random accesses microscopy was used in combination with a new fluorinated voltage sensitive dye with improved photostability to record membrane potential from multiple Purkinje cells with near simultaneous sampling. The RAMP system rapidly scanned between lines drawn in the membranes of neurons to perform multiplex measurements of the TPF signal. This recording was achieved by rapidly positioning the laser excitation with the AOD to sample a patch of membrane from each cell in <100 μs for recording from five cells, multiplexing permits a temporal resolution of 400 μs sufficient to capture every spike. The system is capable to record spontaneous activity over 800 ms from five neighbouring cells simultaneously, showing that spiking is not temporally correlated. The system was also used to investigate the electrical properties of tubular system (TATS) in isolated rat ventricular myocytes.

  9. Laser vaccine adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Satoshi; Brauns, Timothy; Gelfand, Jeffrey; Poznansky, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    Immunologic adjuvants are essential for current vaccines to maximize their efficacy. Unfortunately, few have been found to be sufficiently effective and safe for regulatory authorities to permit their use in vaccines for humans and none have been approved for use with intradermal vaccines. The development of new adjuvants with the potential to be both efficacious and safe constitutes a significant need in modern vaccine practice. The use of non-damaging laser light represents a markedly different approach to enhancing immune responses to a vaccine antigen, particularly with intradermal vaccination. This approach, which was initially explored in Russia and further developed in the US, appears to significantly improve responses to both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines administered to the laser-exposed tissue, particularly the skin. Although different types of lasers have been used for this purpose and the precise molecular mechanism(s) of action remain unknown, several approaches appear to modulate dendritic cell trafficking and/or activation at the irradiation site via the release of specific signaling molecules from epithelial cells. The most recent study, performed by the authors of this review, utilized a continuous wave near-infrared laser that may open the path for the development of a safe, effective, low-cost, simple-to-use laser vaccine adjuvant that could be used in lieu of conventional adjuvants, particularly with intradermal vaccines. In this review, we summarize the initial Russian studies that have given rise to this approach and comment upon recent advances in the use of non-tissue damaging lasers as novel physical adjuvants for vaccines. PMID:25424797

  10. Port wine stains: laser treatment and nursing management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, P S

    In 1960, an American physicist Theodore Maiman observed the first laser in action. Since then laser technology has progressed at an extraordinary rate. This article shows how one type of laser has touched the lives of thousands of people. The Candela tunable dye laser has given hope to people with port wine stain birthmarks. It also shows the duties and responsibilities of the nurse working with lasers and the possibility of the extended role of the nurse in the field of skin laser therapy.

  11. Comparison of lidocaine/tetracaine cream and lidocaine/prilocaine cream for local anaesthesia during laser treatment of acne keloidalis nuchae and tattoo removal: Results of two randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Greveling (Karin); E.P. Prens (Errol); ten Bosch, N.; M.B.A. van Doorn (Martijn)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Pain is a common adverse effect of dermatological laser procedures. Currently, no standard topical anaesthetic cream exists for deeper dermal laser procedures. Objectives: To compare the efficacy of lidocaine/tetracaine cream and lidocaine/prilocaine cream in reducing

  12. Laser ablation studies of nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Mkrtychev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The first experimental measurements of the threshold energy density values for the laser ablation of glass nanocomposites with nanodimensional coatings have been carried out under the action of the YAG–Nd laser power pulse radiation. The coatings in question were of different compositions and had been created by the sol–gel technology. The procedure for determining the laser ablation threshold energy density values was worked out on the base of the breakdown probability level of 0.5. The statistical processing of the measurement data over all the samples allowed obtaining the dependence of the ablation destruction threshold energy parameters on the coating physical and chemical properties such as the sample transmission in the visible region of the spectrum, coating thickness, the chemical composition of the film-forming solution, and on the pulse duration of laser radiation.

  13. The action of NIR (808nm) laser radiation and gold nanorods labeled with IgA and IgG human antibodies on methicillin-resistant and methicillin sensitive strains of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchina, Elena S.; Petrov, Pavel O.; Ratto, Fulvio; Centi, Sonia; Pini, Roberto; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2015-03-01

    The effect of NIR laser radiation (808 nm) on methicillin-sensitive and methicillin resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus incubated with gold nanorods is studied. Nanorods having length of 44 (± 4) nm and diameter of 10 (± 3) nm with the absorption maximum in the NIR (800 nm), functionalized with human immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, were synthesized and used in the studies. The killing ability up to 97% of the microorganism populations by using this nanotechnology was shown.

  14. Lasers technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The Lasers Technology Program of IPEN is strongly committed to the study of Laser Applications on several areas: Nuclear, Medicine and Dentistry, Industry, Environment and Advanced research, aiming not only research but diffusion and innovation in association with Brazilian universities and commercial partners.

  15. Laser device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2008-08-19

    A laser device includes a virtual source configured to aim laser energy that originates from a true source. The virtual source has a vertical rotational axis during vertical motion of the virtual source and the vertical axis passes through an exit point from which the laser energy emanates independent of virtual source position. The emanating laser energy is collinear with an orientation line. The laser device includes a virtual source manipulation mechanism that positions the virtual source. The manipulation mechanism has a center of lateral pivot approximately coincident with a lateral index and a center of vertical pivot approximately coincident with a vertical index. The vertical index and lateral index intersect at an index origin. The virtual source and manipulation mechanism auto align the orientation line through the index origin during virtual source motion.

  16. Laser instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, R.J.; Eagar, T.W.

    1986-04-08

    An instrument is described for intercepting a carbon dioxide incident laser beam after it has energized a desired surgical target site but before it energizes material adjacent to the surgical target site. The instrument consists of: a substrate means for transmitting energy received from a laser beam away from a surgical target site, the substrate means having a high thermal conductivity and an exterior surface; a coating means for absorbing laser energy at the wavelength of a carbon dioxide laser, the coating means covering substantially the entirety of the exterior surface of the substrate means and having a high absorptivity for energy at the wavelength of the incident laser beam; and, the coating means having thickness which is large enough to provide high absorptivity but small enough to permit absorbed energy to be readily transferred to the high conductivity substrate means, and the thickness of the coating means being not greater than 0.001 inch.

  17. Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Eric W.; Zelten, J. Peter; Wiseman, Benjamin A.

    1988-06-01

    We report on the development of a laser scanning fluorescence microscope possessing several features which facilitate its application to biological and biophysical analyses in living cells. It is built around a standard inverted microscope stand, enabling the use of standard optics, micromanipulation apparatus, and conventional (including video) microscopy in conjunction with laser scanning. The beam is scanned across the specimen by a pair of galvanometer-mounted mirrors, driven by a programmable controller which can operate in three modes: full raster scan, region of interest, and random-access. A full 512x512 pixel image can be acquired in one second. In region of interest mode, several subareas of the field can be selected for more rapid or detailed analysis. For those cases where the time scale of the observed phenomenon precludes full-field imaging, or where a full-field image is unnecessary, the random access mode enables an arbitrary pattern of isolated points to be selected and rapidly sequenced through. Via a graphical user interface implemented on the system's host computer, a user will be able to take a scout image either with video or a full-field laser scan, select regions or points on the scout image with a mouse, and set up experimental parameters such as detector integration times with a window-style menu. The instrument is designed to be a flexible testbed for investigating new techniques, without compromising its utility as a tool for biological research.

  18. Perioperative effects of oral midazolam premedication in children undergoing skin laser treatment: a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial Efeitos peroperatórios da premedicação oral de midazolam em crianças submetidas a tratamento de pele por laser: estudo duplo-cego randomizado e controlado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Shoroghi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate and compare the efficacy of oral midazolam with two different dosages in orange juice on perioperative hemodynamics and behavioral changes in children who underwent skin laser treatment in an academic educational Hospital. METHODS: Ninety children, candidates for skin laser treatment were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups of 30 each: the placebo group received 0.1 ml/kg orange flavored juice, group 2 and 3 receiving 0.5 and 1 mg/kg of injectable midazolam mixed with an equal volume of orange juice, respectively. The main outcome measures included the mask acceptance, patients' behavioral scales and postoperative events. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in heart rate, respiratory rate, and systolic blood pressure among the three groups. However, arterial oxygen saturation was significantly reduced in those given 1 mg.kg-1 midazolam. The median scores of anxiety, separation from parent, preparing an intravenous line, acceptance of the oxygen mask, good sedation, crying reduction and consciousness level were better in midazolam group. Postoperative agitation and re-crying were also more frequent in placebo receivers. Those given 1 mg.kg-1 midazolam were significantly more optimal for sedation, crying, consciousness, preparing an intravenous line, and postoperative re-crying compared with 0.5 mg.kg-1 midazolam receivers. CONCLUSION: As a preanaesthetic medication, the 1 mg.kg-1 dose of orally given midazolam especially in a volume of orange juice and can optimize the children's behavior during skin laser treatment with no serious adverse effects, enhancing their parents' satisfactions about the sedative protocol.OBJETIVO:Investigar e comparar a eficácia do uso oral de midazolam com duas diferentes doses de suco de laranja na hemodinâmica peropeatória e mudanças de desempenho em crianças submetidas tratamento de pele por laser em Hospital educacional e acadêmico. MÉTODOS:Noventa crianças candidatas a

  19. Quantum random flip-flop and its applications in random frequency synthesis and true random number generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stipčević, Mario, E-mail: mario.stipcevic@irb.hr [Photonics and Quantum Optics Research Unit, Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials and Sensing Devices, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2016-03-15

    In this work, a new type of elementary logic circuit, named random flip-flop (RFF), is proposed, experimentally realized, and studied. Unlike conventional Boolean logic circuits whose action is deterministic and highly reproducible, the action of a RFF is intentionally made maximally unpredictable and, in the proposed realization, derived from a fundamentally random process of emission and detection of light quanta. We demonstrate novel applications of RFF in randomness preserving frequency division, random frequency synthesis, and random number generation. Possible usages of these applications in the information and communication technology, cryptographic hardware, and testing equipment are discussed.

  20. Dermatologisk laser- og lysbehandling af ar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karmisholt, Katrine; Borch, Jakob E; Omland, Silje Haukali

    2016-01-01

    Many patients struggle with tender, rigid and erythematous scars. Various modalities are used to treat cutaneous scars and in recent years, laser treatments are emerging as promising procedures. This article describes laser systems used for scar treatment according to scar type, evaluates...... the highest available level of evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and introduces a guideline for laser treatment of scars. Twelve RCTs documented effect on acne, burn and surgical scars. It is recommended that laser- and light-based treatments are considered according to the scar type....

  1. Dermatologisk laser- og lysbehandling af ar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karmisholt, Katrine; Borch, Jakob E; Omland, Silje Haukali

    2016-01-01

    the highest available level of evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and introduces a guideline for laser treatment of scars. Twelve RCTs documented effect on acne, burn and surgical scars. It is recommended that laser- and light-based treatments are considered according to the scar type.......Many patients struggle with tender, rigid and erythematous scars. Various modalities are used to treat cutaneous scars and in recent years, laser treatments are emerging as promising procedures. This article describes laser systems used for scar treatment according to scar type, evaluates...

  2. Physics and Applications of Laser Diode Chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Sciamanna, Marc

    2015-01-01

    An overview of chaos in laser diodes is provided which surveys experimental achievements in the area and explains the theory behind the phenomenon. The fundamental physics underpinning this behaviour and also the opportunities for harnessing laser diode chaos for potential applications are discussed. The availability and ease of operation of laser diodes, in a wide range of configurations, make them a convenient test-bed for exploring basic aspects of nonlinear and chaotic dynamics. It also makes them attractive for practical tasks, such as chaos-based secure communications and random number generation. Avenues for future research and development of chaotic laser diodes are also identified.

  3. High throughput laser processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

    2016-12-27

    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  4. Simulation of bubbly flow in vertical pipes by coupling Lagrangian and Eulerian models with 3D random walks models: Validation with experimental data using multi-sensor conductivity probes and Laser Doppler Anemometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Cobo, Jose L., E-mail: jlcobos@iqn.upv.es [Instituto de Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Chiva, Sergio [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Universitat Jaume I, Castellon (Spain); Essa, Mohamed Ali Abd El Aziz [Instituto de Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Mendes, Santos [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have simulated bubbly flow in vertical pipes by coupling a Lagrangian model to an Eulerian one, and to a 3D random walk model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A set of experiments in a vertical column with isothermal co-current two phase flow have been performed and used to validate the previous model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have investigated the influence of the turbulence induced by the bubbles on the results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of experimental and computed results has been performed for different boundary conditions. - Abstract: A set of two phase flow experiments for different conditions ranging from bubbly flow to cap/slug flow have been performed under isothermal concurrent upward air-water flow conditions in a vertical column of 3 m height. Special attention in these experiments was devoted to the transition from bubbly to cap/slug flow. The interfacial velocity of the bubbles and the void fraction distribution was obtained using 2 and 4 sensors conductivity probes. Numerical simulations of these experiments for bubbly flow conditions were performed by coupling a Lagrangian code with an Eulerian one. The first one tracks the 3D motion of the individual bubbles in cylindrical coordinates (r, {phi}, z) inside the fluid field under the action of the following forces: buoyancy, drag, lift, wall lubrication. Also we have incorporated a 3D stochastic differential equation model to account for the random motion of the individual bubbles in the turbulent velocity field of the carrier liquid. Also we have considered the deformations undergone by the bubbles when they touch the walls of the pipe and are compressed until they rebound. The velocity and turbulence fields of the liquid phase were computed by solving the time dependent conservation equations in its Reynolds Averaged Transport Equation form (RANS). The turbulent kinetic energy k, and the dissipation rate {epsilon} transport equations

  5. Power spectra for laser-extinction measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze, B; Chabert, M

    2006-06-26

    Recent laser technology provides accurate measures of the dynamics of fluids and embedded particles. For instance, the laser-extinction measurements (LEM) uses a laser beam passing across the fluid and measures the residual laser light intensity at the fluid output. The particle concentration is estimated from this measurement. However, the particle flow is submitted to random time-varying fluctuations. This study thus proposes to model the received intensity by an appropriate random process. This paper first models the particle flow by a queueing process. Second, the measured intensity power spectrum is derived according to this random model. Finally, the simple case of a constant particle velocity is developped. The proposed model allows to generalize results previously obtained in the litterature with simplified models. Moreover, the particle celerity estimate is provided.

  6. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., frequency doubling in external cavities, reliable cw-parametric oscillators, tunable narrow-band UV sources, more sensitive detection techniques, tunable femtosecond and sub-femtosecond lasers (X-ray region and the attosecond range), control of atomic and molecular excitations, frequency combs able to synchronize independent femtosecond lasers, coherent matter waves, and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  7. Current and long-term technologies of laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulashcyk, Vladimir S.; Volotovskaya, Anna V.

    2007-06-01

    Laser therapy, using low-energy laser radiation, is being more and more applied. The most applied technology is transcutaneous radiation of tissues by laser radiation. Originally, a direct action on a pathological site was mostly used, but recently more attention is given to reflexogenic areas, acupuncture points, and endocrine organ projection sites. The development of light-conductive engineering made it possible to practically apply intraorgan laser therapy. This technology is widely spread in gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, urology, gastroenterology, etc. Close to it are different versions of intratissue laser therapy (intraosteal, periosteal, myofascial). A special kind of laser therapy is laser hemotherapy. Depending on the techniques and protocol of its application, there are extracorporeal, intravascular, and supravenous ways of action. According to our comparative investigations, supravenous hemotherapy by its therapeutic efficacy and major medicinal effects can be well compared with intravascular laser hemotherapy. With good prospects and efficiency is laser therapy as a combination of laser and other physical factors. Magnetolaser therapy has been scientifically substantiated and practically applied so far. Theoretically and experimentally substantiated is a combined application of laser radiation and physical factors such as ultrasound, direct current field, vacuum, cryotherapy, etc. Experimental research and few so far clinical observations are indicative of prospects of a complex application of laser radiation and drugs. To improve light absorption, laser radiation is combined with different dyes. Photodynamic therapy, originally used in oncology, is applied today in treating different diseases. We showed a possibility of using a number of drugs possessing simultaneously photosensitizing properties to this end. Laser radiation significantly influences pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs, which gives reason to practically implement laser

  8. Laser endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvein, R B

    1981-11-01

    A carbon dioxide laser operating in the invisible infrared range (10.6 mu) generates a beam of energy that is almost completely absorbed by biological tissue with release of intense heat and rapid destruction. A laser attached to a rigid bronchoscope has been used in 18 patients ranging in age from 21 to 62 years to treat a variety of causes of airway obstruction. These include tracheal stenosis and granulation tissue (6 patients), adenoma (1), web (2), and carcinoma (9). The results were good in 15 and poor in 3 patients. However, all patients had an improved airway after laser treatment with the best results occurring in patients with benign, inflammatory disease. The advantages of the laser are a lack of bleeding, minimal edema after treatment, and minimal scar formation. The disadvantages are the expense of the machine, and the need for general anesthesia and direct visualization of the lesion.

  9. Laser Refractography

    CERN Document Server

    Rinkevichyus, B.S; Raskovskaya, I.L

    2010-01-01

    This book describes the basic principles of laser refractography, a flexible new diagnostic tool for measuring optically inhomogeneous media and flows. Laser refractography is based on digital imaging and computer processing of structured laser beam refraction (SLR) in inhomogeneous transparent media. Laser refractograms provide both qualitative and quantitative measurements and can be used for the study of fast and transient processes. In this book, the theoretical basis of refractography is explored in some detail, and experimental setups are described for measurement of transparent media using either 2D (passed radiation) or 3D (scattered radiation) refractograms. Specific examples and applications are discussed, including visualization of the boundary layer near a hot or cold metallic ball in water, and observation of edge effects and microlayers in liquids and gases. As the first book to describe this new and exciting technique, this monograph has broad cross-disciplinary appeal and will be of interest t...

  10. Il laser

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, William V

    1974-01-01

    Verso il 1960, il laser era ancora "una soluzione alla ricerca di un problema", ma fin dagli anni immediatamente successivi si è rivelato uno strumento insostituibile per le applicazioni più svariate.

  11. Randomized, Double-Blind, Split-Face Study Evaluating Fractional Ablative Erbium:YAG Laser-Mediated Trans-Epidermal Delivery of Cosmetic Actives and a Novel Acoustic Pressure Wave Ultrasound Technology for the Treatment of Skin Aging, Melasma, and Acne Scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiades, Macrene

    2015-11-01

    Fractional laser resurfacing enhances trans-epidermal delivery (TED), however laser penetration depths >250- μm fail to substantively increase drug delivery. Evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel acoustic pressure wave ultrasound device following fractional ablative Er:YAG 2940-nm laser (FELR) and topical agents for rhytids, melasma, and acne scars. Randomized, blinded, parallel group split-face side-by-side, controlled study evaluating FELR and topical anti-aging and anti-pigment agents to entire face succeeded by ultrasound to randomized side. Fifteen subjects were enrolled to three treatment arms:rhytids, melasma, and acne scars. Two monthly treatments were administered with 1, 3, and 6 month follow-up. Efficacy was assessed by Comprehensive Grading Scale of Rhytids, Laxity, and Photoaging by Investigator and two blinded physician evaluators. Subject assessments, digital photographs, and reflectance spectroscopic analyses were obtained. Rhytid severity was reduced from a mean of 3.25 to 2.60 on the 4-point grading scale. Spectrophotometric analysis demonstrated increases in lightness (L*) and reductions in redness (a*) and pigment (b*), with greater improvements on the ultrasound side as compared to FELR and topicals alone. Moderate erythema post-treatment resolved in 7 days and no serious adverse events were observed. In this randomized, paired split-face clinical study, FELR-facilitated TED of topical anti-aging actives with ultrasound treatment is safe and effective with improvement in rhytids, melasma, and acne scars. Statistically significant greater improvement in pigment levels was observed on the ultrasound side as compared to FELR-TED and topical agents alone.

  12. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  13. Laser weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsipis, K.

    1981-12-01

    The potential for deploying lasers as an effective antimissile system is assessed. High intensity and precise collimation are noted as essential for lasers as weapons, although size and material properties determine the actual performance. Gas-dynamic, electron, and chemical lasers are reviewed as prime weapons candidates. Space-, ground-, and ship-based uses are considered; each demands precision pointing, involving movable mirrors, target tracking and condition sensors, and central processing for target choice, along with large capacity power generation and storage. Laser propagation in the atmosphere is degraded by absorption, scattering, thermal blooming, turbulence (causes diffraction), and plasma formation ahead of the beam. Different modes of damaging missiles are reviewed, and it is found that mirrored surfaces, ablative coatings, and fluid layers have significant abilities to protect a missile in-flight. Destroying an ICBM in the boost phase is calculated to require a one million MW generator, far beyond current power engineering capabilities. Conventional weapons are viewed as more effective than lasers, although high energy laser research may have definite applications in areas such as chemical engineering

  14. Givental action and trivialisation of circle action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsenko, V.; Shadrin, S.; Vallette, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the Givental group action on genus zero cohomological field theories, also known as formal Frobenius manifolds or hypercommutative algebras, naturally arises in the deformation theory of Batalin-Vilkovisky algebras. We prove that the Givental action is equal to an action

  15. Efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma combined with fractional ablative carbon dioxide resurfacing laser in treatment of facial atrophic acne scars: A split-face randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Gita; Keyvan, Shima; Asilian, Ali; Nouraei, Saeid; Behfar, Shadi; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohamad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Autologous platelet-rich plasma has recently attracted significant attention throughout the medical field for its wound-healing ability. This study was conducted to investigate the potential of platelet-rich plasma combined with fractional laser therapy in the treatment of acne scarring. Sixteen patients (12 women and 4 men) who underwent split-face therapy were analyzed in this study. They received ablative fractional carbon dioxide laser combined with intradermal platelet-rich plasma treatment on one half of their face and ablative fractional carbon dioxide laser with intradermal normal saline on the other half. The injections were administered immediately after laser therapy. The treatment sessions were repeated after an interval of one month. The clinical response was assessed based on patient satisfaction and the objective evaluation of serial photographs by two blinded dermatologists at baseline, 1 month after the first treatment session and 4 months after the second. The adverse effects including erythema and edema were scored by participants on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 15 and 30 after each session. Overall clinical improvement of acne scars was higher on the platelet-rich plasma-fractional carbon dioxide laser treated side but the difference was not statistically significant either 1 month after the first treatment session (P = 0.15) or 4 months after the second (P = 0.23). In addition, adverse effects (erythema and edema) on the platelet-rich plasma-fractional carbon dioxide laser-treated side were more severe and of longer duration. Small sample size, absence of all skin phototypes within the study group and lack of objective methods for the evaluation of response to treatment and adverse effects were the limitations. This study demonstrated that adding platelet-rich plasma to fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment did not produce any statistically significant synergistic effects and also resulted in more severe side effects and longer downtime.

  16. Efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma combined with fractional ablative carbon dioxide resurfacing laser in treatment of facial atrophic acne scars: A split-face randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Faghihi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autologous platelet-rich plasma has recently attracted significant attention throughout the medical field for its wound-healing ability. Aims: This study was conducted to investigate the potential of platelet-rich plasma combined with fractional laser therapy in the treatment of acne scarring. Methods: Sixteen patients (12 women and 4 men who underwent split-face therapy were analyzed in this study. They received ablative fractional carbon dioxide laser combined with intradermal platelet-rich plasma treatment on one half of their face and ablative fractional carbon dioxide laser with intradermal normal saline on the other half. The injections were administered immediately after laser therapy. The treatment sessions were repeated after an interval of one month. The clinical response was assessed based on patient satisfaction and the objective evaluation of serial photographs by two blinded dermatologists at baseline, 1 month after the first treatment session and 4 months after the second. The adverse effects including erythema and edema were scored by participants on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 15 and 30 after each session. Results: Overall clinical improvement of acne scars was higher on the platelet-rich plasma-fractional carbon dioxide laser treated side but the difference was not statistically significant either 1 month after the first treatment session (P = 0.15 or 4 months after the second (P = 0.23. In addition, adverse effects (erythema and edema on the platelet-rich plasma-fractional carbon dioxide laser-treated side were more severe and of longer duration. Limitations: Small sample size, absence of all skin phototypes within the study group and lack of objective methods for the evaluation of response to treatment and adverse effects were the limitations. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that adding platelet-rich plasma to fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment did not produce any statistically significant synergistic effects

  17. Random Raman lasing

    CERN Document Server

    Hokr, Brett H; Mason, John D; Beier, Hope T; Rockwll, Benjamin A; Thomas, Robert J; Noojin, Gary D; Petrov, Georgi I; Golovan, Leonid A; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2013-01-01

    Propagation of light in a highly scattering medium is among the most fascinating optical effect that everyone experiences on an everyday basis and possesses a number of fundamental problems which have yet to be solved. Conventional wisdom suggests that non-linear effects do not play a significant role because the diffusive nature of scattering acts to spread the intensity, dramatically weakening these effects. We demonstrate the first experimental evidence of lasing on a Raman transition in a bulk three-dimensional random media. From a practical standpoint, Raman transitions allow for spectroscopic analysis of the chemical makeup of the sample. A random Raman laser could serve as a bright Raman source allowing for remote, chemically specific, identification of powders and aerosols. Fundamentally, the first demonstration of this new light source opens up an entire new field of study into non-linear light propagation in turbid media, with the most notable application related to non-invasive biomedical imaging.

  18. Comparative study of upper lip frenectomy with the CO2 laser versus the Er, Cr: YSGG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pié-Sánchez, Jordi; España-Tost, Antonio J.; Arnabat-Domínguez, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To compare upper lip frenulum reinsertion, bleeding, surgical time and surgical wound healing in frenectomies performed with the CO2 laser versus the Er, Cr:YSGG laser. Study design: A prospective study was carried out on 50 randomized pediatric patients who underwent rhomboidal resection of the upper lip frenulum with either the CO2 laser or the Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Twenty-five patients were assigned to each laser system. All patients were examined at 7, 14, 21 days and 4 months after the operation in order to assess the surgical wound healing. Results: Insertion of the frenulum, which was preoperatively located between the upper central incisors, migrated to the mucogingival junction as a result of using both laser systems in all patients. Only two patients required a single dose of 650 mg of paracetamol, one of either study group. CO2 laser registered improved intraoperative bleeding control results and shorter surgical times. On the other hand, the Er,Cr:YSGG laser achieved faster healing. Conclusions: Upper lip laser frenectomy is a simple technique that results in minimum or no postoperative swelling or pain, and which involves upper lip frenulum reinsertion at the mucogingival junction. The CO2 laser offers a bloodless field and shorter surgical times compared with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser. On the other hand, the Er,Cr:YSGG laser achieved faster wound healing. Key words:Frenectomy, upper lip frenulum, CO2 laser, Er,Cr:YSGG laser, laser. PMID:22143683

  19. Prophylactic laser treatment hastens choroidal neovascularization in unilateral age-related maculopathy: final results of the drusen laser study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Sarah L; Bunce, Catey; Brannon, Alan J; Xing, Wen; Chisholm, Iain H; Gross, Mirjam; Guymer, Robyn H; Holz, Frank G; Bird, Alan C

    2006-02-01

    The Drusen Laser Study evaluated macular laser to prevent choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and vision loss in high-risk age-related maculopathy (ARM). Prospective, interventional, randomized, controlled clinical trial in five hospital centers. Patients in the unilateral group had neovascular ARM and drusen in the study eye. Study eyes were randomized to laser-treated or no-laser groups. For patients in the bilateral drusen group, eyes were randomized to right eye, laser or no laser; and left eye, alternative. Laser treatment comprised 12 argon spots. Outcome was best-corrected visual acuity and CNV signs, which were monitored for 3 years. In the unilateral group, vision loss occurred in 21 (28.8%) of 73 patients in laser vs 13 (19.7%) of 66 no-laser patients (P=.214). Incidence of CNV was 27 (29.7%) of 91 in laser vs 15 (17.65%) of 85 no-laser patients (P=.061). CNV onset was approximately 6 months earlier in laser-treated compared with no-laser patients (P=.05). In the bilateral group, vision loss occurred in six (8.3%) of 72 laser-treated vs 10 (13.9%) of 72 fellow eyes (P=.3877). CNV incidence was 12 (11.6%) of 103 in laser-treated vs seven (6.8%) of 103 fellow eyes (P=.225). There was no difference in onset of CNV. Results do not support prophylactic laser of the fellow eye of patients with neovascular ARM. Its role in patients with bilateral drusen remains unclear.

  20. Laser therapy for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000905.htm Laser therapy for cancer To use the sharing features on ... Lasers are also used on the skin. How Laser Therapy is Used Laser therapy can be used to: ...

  1. Laser material processing

    CERN Document Server

    Steen, William

    2010-01-01

    This text moves from the basics of laser physics to detailed treatments of all major materials processing techniques for which lasers are now essential. New chapters cover laser physics, drilling, micro- and nanomanufacturing and biomedical laser processing.

  2. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  3. Oral tranexamic acid enhances the efficacy of low-fluence 1064-nm quality-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser treatment for melasma in Koreans: a randomized, prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung U; Park, Jihun; Oh, Sang Ho; Lee, Ju Hee

    2013-03-01

    Tranexamic acid (TA) has recently gained in popularity in the treatment of pigmentary disorders. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of oral TA combined with low-fluence 1064-nm quality-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (QSNY) laser for the treatment of melasma. Forty-eight patients with melasma were enrolled in the study and subsequently divided into two groups: a combination group and a laser treatment group. All patients were treated with two sessions of low-fluence QSNY laser, and patients in the combination group took 8 weeks of oral TA. Two blinded dermatologists evaluated patients using the Modified Melasma Area and Severity Index (mMASI) and a clinical improvement scale. Mean mMASI score 4 weeks after the second treatment decreased significantly in both groups from base line. Based on overall clinical improvement, a greater number of patients scored as grade 3 and more in the combination group; no patients were scored as grade 4 in the laser-alone group. Oral TA may prove a safe and efficient treatment option for melasma in combination with low-fluence QSNY laser therapy. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Laser acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  5. Nearly-octave wavelength tuning of a continuous wave fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Huawei; Yang, Xuezong; Pan, Weiwei; Cui, Shuzhen; Feng, Yan

    2017-02-01

    The wavelength tunability of conventional fiber lasers are limited by the bandwidth of gain spectrum and the tunability of feedback mechanism. Here a fiber laser which is continuously tunable from 1 to 1.9 μm is reported. It is a random distributed feedback Raman fiber laser, pumped by a tunable Yb doped fiber laser. The ultra-wide wavelength tunability is enabled by the unique property of random distributed feedback Raman fiber laser that both stimulated Raman scattering gain and Rayleigh scattering feedback are available at any wavelength. The dispersion property of the gain fiber is used to control the spectral purity of the laser output.

  6. Efficacy of scaling and root planning with and without adjunct Nd:YAG laser therapy on clinical periodontal parameters and gingival crevicular fluid interleukin 1-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels among patients with periodontal disease: A prospective randomized split-mouth clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduljabbar, Tariq; Vohra, Fahim; Kellesarian, Sergio Varela; Javed, Fawad

    2017-04-01

    Limited evidence exists regarding the role of scaling and root planning (SRP) with adjunct neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser therapy in reducing periodontal parameters (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP] and probing pocket depth [PPD]) and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) among patients with periodontal disease (PD). The aim was to assess the effect of SRP with and without adjunct Nd:YAG laser therapy on clinical periodontal parameters and GCF interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels among patients with PD. Demographic data was collected using a questionnaire. Mandibular right and left quadrants were randomly divided into test- (SRP+Nd:YAG laser) and control-sites (SRP alone). PI, BOP and PPD were assessed and GCF IL-1β and TNF-α levels were measured at baseline and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. Level of significance was set at Pperiodontal inflammatory parameters and GCF IL-1β and TNF-α levels compared with SRP alone. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Low–Threshold and High Intensity Random Lasing Enhanced by MnCl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen Shang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy transfer is known to have a significant influence on random lasers. However, the study about the effect of energy transfer between metallic salt and dye molecules on random lasers is still lacking at present. Here, we investigate random lasing actions in Pyrromethene-597 (PM597, PM597-doped MnCl2 (manganese (II chloride, PM597-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC and PM597-doped PDLC with MnCl2 capillary systems. We find that random lasing of the systems with MnCl2 exhibits lower threshold, higher intensity, sharper peak and variable resonance wavelength in comparison with the systems without MnCl2. This behavior is closely related to the decrease of fluorescence quenching effect and the enhancement of local field induced by energy transfer between MnCl2 and PM597. Red-shift of wavelength is observed with increasing dosage concentration of MnCl2 in the PM597-doped PDLC with MnCl2 system. Through the analysis of single-shot emission spectra of PM597-doped PDLC without and with MnCl2 systems, the role of MnCl2 in the coupling of lasing modes is confirmed. Lengths of laser oscillation cavities of the PM597-doped PDLC without and with MnCl2 systems are calculated by a power Fourier transform (PFT analysis of their emission spectra. It well accounts for the effect of MnCl2 on the variation of the oscillation cavity.

  8. Clinical evaluation of the low intensity laser antialgic action of GaAlAs ({lambda}=785 nm) in the treatment of the temporomandibular disorders; Avaliacao clinica da acao antialgica do laser em baixa intensidade de arseneto de galio e aluminio ({lambda}=785 nm) no tratamento das disfuncoes da articulacao temporo-mandibular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanseverino, Nelly Tichauer Maluf

    2001-07-01

    The therapy with laser emitting low intensity has been currently used in the most diverse fields of medicine as therapeutic conduct for pain. It is a non invasive, painless, non-thermal and aseptic type therapy, without any collateral effects, having a good cost/benefit relationship. However, for the therapy with low-intensity laser to result in positive effects, a correct diagnosis is fundamental, as well as a protocol of adequate application. n odontology, the majority of patients diagnosed with temporomandibular disorders (TMD), present pain and limitations in the movements of the jaw. In this work, a GaAlAs laser emitting low intensity, was used, {lambda}=785 nm, in patients having a dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint with a complaint of pain. Twenty patients were divided into two groups. The group treated received laser therapy in the temporomandibular articulations and in the muscles affected. The dose applied was 45 J/cm{sup 2}, while the ten patients in the control group received 0 J/cm{sup 2}, in a total of nine applications, carried out three times a week, during three weeks. he evaluation of the patients was made through clinical examinations of manual palpation of the masseter, temporal, cervical, posterior neck and sternocleidomastoid muscles, and measurements of opening and laterality of the mouth. The results obtained showed a diminishing of the pain and an increase of the mandibular mobility in the patients treated, when compared to the control group. These results point to this therapy as being an important tool in the treatment of pain in patients with a dysfunction in the TMJ, indicating this therapeutic modality as a co-adjuvant in these treatments. (author)

  9. Laser barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Kevin R.; Shiels, David; Rash, Tim

    2001-02-06

    A pressure measuring instrument that utilizes the change of the refractive index of a gas as a function of pressure and the coherent nature of a laser light to determine the barometric pressure within an environment. As the gas pressure in a closed environment varies, the index of refraction of the gas changes. The amount of change is a function of the gas pressure. By illuminating the gas with a laser light source, causing the wavelength of the light to change, pressure can be quantified by measuring the shift in fringes (alternating light and dark bands produced when coherent light is mixed) in an interferometer.

  10. Laser Heterodyning

    CERN Document Server

    Protopopov, Vladimir V

    2009-01-01

    Laser heterodyning is now a widespread optical technique, based on interference of two waves with slightly different frequencies within the sensitive area of a photo-detector. Its unique feature – preserving phase information about optical wave in the electrical signal of the photo-detector – finds numerous applications in various domains of applied optics and optoelectronics: in spectroscopy, polarimetry, radiometry, laser radars and Lidars, microscopy and other areas. The reader may be surprised by a variety of disciplines that this book covers and satisfied by detailed explanation of the phenomena. Very well illustrated, this book will be helpful for researches, postgraduates and students, working in applied optics.

  11. Laser optical information recording in photosensitive silver-containing glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbyak, V. V.; Sidorov, A. I.

    2017-11-01

    It is shown experimentally that laser action on silver-containing photosensitive glasses can be used for optical information recording in octal code. The change of irradiation dose results in the change of luminescence or absorption intensity in irradiated zones.

  12. Laser yellowing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    References. [1] P Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki et al, Appl. Surf. Sci. 148, 92 (1999). [2] Th Skoulikidis et al, LACONA, Workshop on Lasers in Conservation of Artworks,. (1995). [3] Veronique Verges-Belmin et al, J. Cultural Heritage 4, 238s (2003). [4] V Zafiropulos et al, LACONA V Springer Proceedings in Physics 100, 313 (2003).

  13. Mirrorless lasers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Experimental realization of mirrorless lasers in the last decade have resulted in hectic activity in this field, due to their novelty, simplicity and ruggedness and their great potential for application. In this article, I will review the various developments in this field in roughly chronological order, and discuss some possible ...

  14. Dye lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuder, J.E.; McGinnis, J.L.; Goldberg, H.A.; Hart, T.R.; Che, T.M.

    1989-10-31

    This patent describes a dye laser. It consists of a composite composition of an inorganic oxide glass monolith with a microporous structure containing an incorporated solution comprising a solvent component and a lasable dye component. Wherein the glass monolith has sealed outer surfaces.

  15. Laser Dyes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tions to be treated with laser radiation. They are congenital malformations consisting of superficial and deep dilated capillar- ies in the skin. The swollen blood vessels cause a reddish discol- oration of the skin. Although PWS can appear in any part of the body, they occur more often on the face and persist throughout life. N.

  16. Laser Dyes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 9. Laser Dyes. G S Shankarling K J Jarag. General Article Volume 15 Issue 9 September ... Author Affiliations. G S Shankarling1 K J Jarag1. Dyestuff Technology, Department Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga Mumbai 400 019, India.

  17. Laser device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides a light source for light circuits on a silicon platform. A vertical laser cavity is formed by a gain region arranged between a first mirror structure and a second mirror structure, both acting as mirrors, by forming a grating region including an active material in a...

  18. Laser yellowing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... Author Affiliations. M B Sai Prasad1 Salvatore Siano2. Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India; CNR-IFAC, Polo Scientifico di Sesto Fiorentino, Via Madonna del Piano, 10, Sesto Fiorentino (FI)-50019, Italy ...

  19. excimer laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-07

    Jan 7, 2014 ... Excimer laser; krypton chloride; UV pre-ionization; gas circulation. PACS No 42.55.Lt. 1. ... active discharge volume is by spark UV radiation created adjacent to both sides of the. Figure 4. Output ... HV electrode, all along its length and spatially modulated to ensure uniform irradiation of the gas volume.

  20. Randomized comparison of ticagrelor versus prasugrel in patients with acute coronary syndrome and planned invasive strategy--design and rationale of the iNtracoronary Stenting and Antithrombotic Regimen: Rapid Early Action for Coronary Treatment (ISAR-REACT) 5 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stefanie; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Antoniucci, David; Bernlochner, Isabell; Hamm, Christian; Jaitner, Juliane; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Mayer, Katharina; von Merzljak, Barbara; Morath, Tanja; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Richardt, Gert; Ruf, Judith; Schömig, Gisela; Schühlen, Helmut; Schunkert, Heribert; Kastrati, Adnan

    2014-02-01

    In acute coronary syndromes (ACS), a dual antiplatelet regimen with an adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonist plus aspirin has become the cornerstone of treatment. The third-generation thienopyridine prasugrel and the cyclopentyl-triazolo-pyrimidine ticagrelor provide a greater, more rapid and consistent platelet inhibition compared to their predecessor clopidogrel. Based on their advantages over clopidogrel in two landmark studies, both drugs received a class I recommendation for their use in ACS patients with and without ST segment elevation. Due to differences in ACS populations and conditions investigated, the relative merits of ticagrelor versus prasugrel in the treatment of ACS patients with planned invasive strategy cannot be reliably estimated from independent trials. To date, no direct head-to-head comparison of ticagrelor and prasugrel in terms of clinical outcome exists. The aim of this multicenter, randomized, open-label trial is to assess whether ticagrelor is superior to prasugrel in ACS patients with planned invasive strategy.

  1. Comparative study of upper lip frenectomy with the CO2 laser versus the Er, Cr: YSGG laser

    OpenAIRE

    Pié-Sánchez, Jordi; España-Tost, Antonio J.; Arnabat-Domínguez, Josep; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare upper lip frenulum reinsertion, bleeding, surgical time and surgical wound healing in frenectomies performed with the CO2 laser versus the Er, Cr:YSGG laser. Study design: A prospective study was carried out on 50 randomized pediatric patients who underwent rhomboidal resection of the upper lip frenulum with either the CO2 laser or the Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Twenty-five patients were assigned to each laser system. All patients were examined at 7, 14, 21 days and 4 months aft...

  2. Comparative study of upper lip frenectomy with the CO 2 laser versus the Er, Cr:YSGG laser

    OpenAIRE

    Pié Sánchez, J.; España Tost, Antonio Jesús; Arnabat Domínguez, Josep; Gay Escoda, Cosme

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To compare upper lip frenulum reinsertion, bleeding, surgical time and surgical wound healing in frenectomies performed with the CO 2 laser versus the Er, Cr:YSGG laser. Study design: A prospective study was carried out on 50 rand