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Sample records for rando pikner roman

  1. Dosimeter placement in the Rando phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, B.R.; Glaze, S.; North, L.B.; Bushong, S.C.

    1977-07-01

    Each section of the Alderson Rando phantom contains a tissue-equivalent plastic coating layer approximately 2 mm thick, applied to both faces. This compensates for material removed in the sawing process. Conventional use of thermoluminescent dosimeters positions them totally or partially within the coating layer. Analysis shows that, in the lung region, dosimeters placed in this layer received a dose averaging 39% lower than those placed at midsection. Where bony structures interfere, some dosimeters in the coating layer received an 18% higher dose than those at midsection. Therefore, positioning dosimeters at the center of a section is recommended.

  2. Roman Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Saddington

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    ROTH, Jonathan P 2009. Roman Warfare. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pbk. R250. ISBN 978-0-521-53726-1.

    Jonathan Roth of San Jose State University, known as an expert on military logistics, has written this attractive Cambridge Introduction to Roman Civilization volume on Roman Warfare. The series is designed for students with no prior knowledge of Roman antiquity. The book comprises an Introduction on Sources and Methods (pp. 1-6 and 15 chapters on Roman warfare from the beginnings to the fall of the Western Empire in AD 476, using a chronological approach. There are 68 illustrations and maps, a Timeline, a Glossary, a Glossary of People, a Bibliography (which includes several websites and an Index.

  3. Instituutide areng saab paika / Paavo Kaimre, Rando Värnik, Illar Lemetti, Ants Soon...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Koostatavaid arengukavasid tutvustavad Metsandus- ja maaehitusinstituudi direktor Paavo Kaimre, Majandus- ja sotsiaalinstituudi direktor Rando Värnik, Põllumajandus- ja keskkonnainstituudi direktor Illar Lemetti, Tehnikainstituudi direktor Ants Soon ja Veterinaarmeditsiini ja loomakasvatuse instituudi direktor Toomas Tiirats

  4. Preparing a voxel-simulator of Alderson Rando physical phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boia, Leonardo S.; Martins, Maximiano C.; Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: lboia@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.br [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ). Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Salmon Junior, Helio A., E-mail: heliosalmon@coinet.com.br [COI - Clinicas Oncologicas Integradas, MD.X Barra Medical Center, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Soares, Alessandro F.N.S., E-mail: afacure@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Engenharia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    There are, nowadays, sorts of anthropomorphycal phantoms which are used for simulation of radiation transport by the matter and also the deposition of energy in such radiation in human tissues and organs, because an in-vitro dosimetry becomes very either complicated or even impossible in some cases. In the present work we prepared a computational phantom in voxels based on computational tomography of Rando-Alderson. This phantom is one of the most known human body simulators on the scope of ionizing radiation dosimetry, and it is used for radioprotection issues and dosimetry from radiotherapy and brachytherapy treatments as well. The preparation of a voxel simulator starts with the image acquisition by a tomograph found at COI/RJ (Clinicas Oncologicas Integradas). The images were generated with 1mm cuts and collected for analysis. After that step the images were processed in SAPDI (Sistema Automatizado de Processamento Digital de Imagem) in order to amplify the images regions intending to facilitate the task in their segmentation. SAPDI is based on parameters described by Hounsfield scale. After that, it has begun discretization of elements in IDs voxels using Scan2MCNP software - which converts images to a sequential text file containing the voxels' IDs ready to be introduced into MCNPX input; however, this set can be turned to a voxel's IDs matrix and used in other Monte Carlo codes, such as Geant4, PENELOPE and EGSnrc. Finished this step, the simulator is able to simulate with accurate geometry the physical phantom. It's possible to study a large number of cases by computational techniques of geometry's insertions of tumors and TLDs, which makes this simulator a research material useful for a lot of subjects. (author)

  5. Roman historique et Histoire dans le roman

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    Christine Di Benedetto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Engager une réflexion sur le « roman historique » dans l’Espagne de l’après-transition démocratique conduit ici à aborder les questions, plus vastes, d’Histoire dans le roman et de roman de la mémoire. Mais les notions de passé et de présent et leurs rapports se définissent au regard de la situation particulière de l’Espagne. L’interprétation de la place qu’occupe le roman historique dans le panorama romanesque espagnol s’enrichit alors des perspectives issues de la philosophie et de la sociologie.Au confluent de ces démarches, des exemples tirés de la littérature contemporaine et étayés par des éléments d’analyse fictionnelle et narrative figurent trois niveaux d’intégration de l’Histoire récente dans le roman espagnol. Et une identité en devenir se dessine, alors que la mémoire historique arrive clairement sur la scène littéraire en même temps qu’elle s’insinue dans les problématiques qui occupent la société espagnole de la fin du millénaire.Adentrarse en una reflexión sobre “la novela histórica” en la España de la post- transición democrática lleva aquí a acercarse a los temas, más amplios, de Historia en la novela y de novela de la memoria. Pero las nociones de pasado y de presente se definen en el ámbito de la situación peculiar de España, y de allí el vínculo cualitativo entre las dos. La interpretación del puesto que ocupa en la narrativa española se enriquece entonces de las perspectivas que proceden de la filosofía y de la sociología.En el confluente de estas modalidades reflexivas, unos ejemplos, sacados de la literatura contemporánea y estudiados gracias a elementos de análisis de la ficción y de la narración destacan tres niveles de integración de la Historia reciente en la novela española. De modo que una búsqueda identitaria se define, mientras la memoria histórica llega claramente al escenario literario, al mismo tiempo que se cuela dentro de las

  6. Greco-Roman Astrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Roger

    Astrology was entrenched in the culture of the Roman Empire. The system and its influence is described as well as its relationship to mathematical astronomy at the time. The material remains are of two sorts: papyrus horoscopes and coins with astrological motifs.

  7. Greek and Roman Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Fredella; Faggionato, Michael

    Designed for use with the text "Greek and Roman Myths," this junior high school learning activity packet introduces students to mythology and examines the influence of myths on contemporary culture. Over 20 exercises, tagged to specific readings in the text, cover identification of the major gods, the Prometheus myth, the Atlas myth, Pandora's…

  8. Lead and the Romans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Aravind; Braun, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning has been a problem since early history and continues into modern times. An appealing characteristic of lead is that many lead salts are sweet. In the absence of cane and beet sugars, early Romans used "sugar of lead" (lead acetate) to sweeten desserts, fruits, and sour wine. People most at risk would have been those who…

  9. Greek and Roman Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Fredella; Faggionato, Michael

    Designed for use with the text "Greek and Roman Myths," this junior high school learning activity packet introduces students to mythology and examines the influence of myths on contemporary culture. Over 20 exercises, tagged to specific readings in the text, cover identification of the major gods, the Prometheus myth, the Atlas myth,…

  10. Greek & Roman Mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Alma

    Activities and background information on Greek and Roman mythology are presented. The unit is designed for eighth graders, but many of the activities can be modified for other grade levels. The unit includes: (1) a content outline; (2) a list of instructional materials including suggested textbooks, teacher-prepared materials, and resource…

  11. "Super Roman Pots"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    Remotely controlled re-entrant vacuum vessels, with very thin (0.17 mm) central windows, that will be installed in each downstream arm of intersection I-8. Detectors for a coming physics experiment, placed inside these "Super Roman Pots", can be moved very close to the circulating ISR beams.

  12. Lead and the Romans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Aravind; Braun, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning has been a problem since early history and continues into modern times. An appealing characteristic of lead is that many lead salts are sweet. In the absence of cane and beet sugars, early Romans used "sugar of lead" (lead acetate) to sweeten desserts, fruits, and sour wine. People most at risk would have been those who consumed the…

  13. A Super Roman Pot

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    Remotely controlled re-entrant vacuum vessels, with very thin (0.17 mm) central windows, that were installed in each downstream arm of the ISR intersection I-8. Detectors placed inside these Super Roman Pots could be moved very close to the circulating ISR beams. (See Annual Report 1974 p. 110.)

  14. Optimisation need of dental radiodiagnostic procedures: results of effective dose evaluation from Rando phantom measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borio, R.; Chiocchini, S.; Cicioni, R.; Degli Esposti, P.; Rongoni, A.; Sabatini, P.; Saetta, D.M.S. (Perugia Univ. (Italy). Health Physics Lab. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Perugia (Italy)); Regi, L.; Caprino, G. (Perugia Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Radiology)

    1994-01-01

    Radiological examinations of different types are needed in dental practice both to make a correct diagnosis and to carry out an adequate therapy. Particularly in orthodentic practices, because of the youth of the majority of the patients, an assessment of the detriment to health (through the effective dose equivalent) caused by medical diagnostic exposure to ionising radiation is needed to make decisions about the optimisation of dental radiodiagnostic procedures. Experimental data from measurements on a Rando phantom were collected for the radiological examinations required for dental and for orthodontic practices (with and without protective apron and collar). The results show the effectiveness of the leaded apron and collar in all the examinations carried out, particularly in reducing thyroid dose. (author).

  15. Greco-Roman Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

    2008-09-01

    Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

  16. The Roman Bazaar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Peter Fibiger

    The Roman bazaar et et komparativt studie af handels og markedsforhold i Romerriget. Det er bogens tese, at vi bedre forstår den økonomiske udvikling i Romerriget hvis vi skifter vores sammenligningsgrundlag fra den tidligt moderne, europæiske kapitalisme til store agrare eller tributære imperier......, som fx Mogulernes rige i Indien. Hovedemner er den imperiale mobilisering af den agrare produktion og markedernes ofte fragmenterede karakter. Det sidste punkt understøttes vha. Clifford Geertz' analyse af Bazaar-markeder....

  17. Greek and roman calendars

    CERN Document Server

    Hannah, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The smooth functioning of an ordered society depends on the possession of a means of regularising its activities over time. That means is a calendar, and its regularity is a function of how well it models the more or less regular movements of the celestial bodies - of the moon, the sun or the stars. Greek and Roman Calendars examines the ancient calendar as just such a time-piece, whose elements are readily described in astronomical and mathematical terms. The story of these calendars is one of a continuous struggle to maintain a correspondence with the regularity of the seasons and the sun, d

  18. An Assessment of Spinal Cord Dose Following Radiotherapy of Nasopharyngeal Cancer by TLD and Rando Phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies in the head and neck region and radiotherapy is its treatment of choice. In spite of the fact that it is widely used, due to the presence of many sensitive organs or tissues in this region, patients may suffer from a wide range of side effects. One such sensitive tissue is the spinal cord. If the absorbed dose to spinal cord is greater than its tolerance dose, then myelopathy and Lhermitte’s sign are not avoidable. Material and Methods: Thehead and neck of a Rando phantom (reference man was employed as a hypothetical patient suffering from nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The full course of treatment consisted of three phases. At the beginning of every phase, an oncologist used a simulator to delineate the surface of the Rando Phantom for treatment. TLD chips (TLD-100 were employed for dose measurement. TLD chips were inserted in the previously made holes on the surface of selected slices adjacent to second cervical to fourth thoracic vertebra. Absorbed dose by TLDs were read by a Harshaw 3500 TLD reader. Results: Total measured dose (in Gy of various parts of spinal cord adjacent to second cervical to fourth thoracic vertebra varied widely and were as follows respectively: 15.24±1.31, 50.31±1.06, 49.15±2.77, 47.48±1.42, 54.56±2.6, 48.92±0.6, 45.1±0.45. In other words, the range of doses received by different segments of the spinal cord could be as wide as 15.24 to 54.56 Gy. Conclusion: Although the spinal cord was excluded at the end of the first phase, a significant change in the absorbed dose at the end of the first and second phases was not observed. In phase three, the anterior neck field was replaced by a lateral field and the spinal cord absorbed dose was reduced considerably. According to our results, absorbed doses of the spinal cord segments corresponding to the region confined between the third cervical to third thoracic vertebra were more than the 47 Gy

  19. The Romans and ritual murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Celia E

    2010-01-01

    The Roman abhorrence of human sacrifice presented by ancient literary sources stands in contrast to the frequency of rites requiring the death of a human being performed by the Romans during the Republic (509-44 BCE). After examining the ways our sources talk about ritual murder, especially as it was practiced by foreign peoples and subversive or tyrannical elements within Roman society, this discussion turns to the issue of the forms of ritual murder performed by the Romans. Of these various rites, the only one clearly identified by them as human sacrifice, that is, as an offering to the gods of a human life, is the live interment of Gauls and Greeks. Other forms of ritual murder-the burial of unchaste Vestal Virgins and the drowning of hermaphroditic children-were not, in Roman opinion, sacrifice. This distinction made the disposal of Vestal Virgins and hermaphrodites acceptable.

  20. Roman iron axes manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrena, M.I. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: ibarrena@quim.ucm.es; Gomez de Salazar, J.M. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: gsalazar@quim.ucm.es; Soria, A. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: asoria@quim.ucm.es

    2008-03-15

    The results of metallographic, chemical and mechanical analysis of two Roman axes are presented. Insights into the technologies used by the Romans are considered. These axes were buried in a Roman village in La Olmeda, Palencia, Spain, which was built around the first century BC and it was later abandoned and destroyed in the fifth century AD. It has been observed that some artefacts, specifically axes show that the technology existed to increase hardness by solid-state welding of sheet steel of different carbon contents.

  1. Restrained roman domination in graphs

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    Roushini Leely Pushpam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A Roman dominating function (RDF on a graph G = (V,E is defined to be a function satisfying the condition that every vertex u for which f(u = 0 is adjacent to at least one vertex v for which f(v = 2. A set S V is a Restrained dominating set if every vertex not in S is adjacent to a vertex in S and to a vertex in . We define a Restrained Roman dominating function on a graph G = (V,E to be a function satisfying the condition that every vertex u for which f(u = 0 is adjacent to at least one vertex v for which f(v = 2 and at least one vertex w for which f(w = 0. The weight of a Restrained Roman dominating function is the value . The minimum weight of a Restrained Roman dominating function on a graph G is called the Restrained Roman domination number of G and denoted by . In this paper, we initiate a study of this parameter.

  2. Dose Measurements of Parotid Glands and Spinal Cord in Conventional Treatment of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Using RANDO Phantom and Thermoluminescent Dosimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Radiotherapy is regarded as the first treatment of choice for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Despite the advantages of radiotherapy, patients may suffer from a wide range of side-effects due to the presence of many sensitive normal tissues in these regions. If the absorbed dose exceeds the tolerance level in parotid glands and the spinal cord, myelopathy, Lhermitte's sign and xerostomia cannot be avoided. Materials and Methods The head and neck of a RANDO phantom (reference man, which was regarded as a hypothetical patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma was evaluated. The full course of treatment consisted of three phases. At the beginning of each phase, an oncologist marked conventional fields on the RANDO phantom using a simulator. For measuring the absorbed dose, Thermoluminescent Dosimeters(TLD chips (TLD-100 were utilized.The absorbed dose by TLDs was read by Harshaw 3500 TLD reader. Results The total absorbed dose was calculated by measuring the absorbed dose in each phase, multiplied by the fraction numbers of each phase; the obtained values were summed up. The results showed that the received doses by spinal cord ranged from 15.24 to 54.56 Gy. Also, the absorbed dose of parotid glands was approximately 39.23 Gy. Conclusion Considering the minimum tolerance dose the absorbed doses in the spinal cord and parotid glands were above the tolerance level. The incidence rate of xerostomia and myelopathy were higher in patients, treated by conventional methods.

  3. Biopolitics rudiments in Roman Law

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    Miguel Régio de Almeida

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a jurisprudential and philosophical reflection on Biopolitics in Roman Law, based on juridical figures such as sacred men, aliens, slaves and iustitium. Working at the edge of roman society, they represent a relation of inclusion or tolerance in a World centred on its citizens, which led to a state of exception or to integration modes of this marginality. Lessons for the present time can still be learned from this dynamic, when a new ius commune is proposed.http://dx.doi.org/10.14195/2183-1718_66_11

  4. Celtiberian metrology and its romanization

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    Leonard A. CURCHIN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Celtiberian metrology has scarcely been investigated until now, with the exception of coin weights. On the basis of measurements of pre-Roman mud bricks, a Celtiberian foot of 24 cm is proposed. With regard to weights, we can accept a module of 9 g for silver jewelry and some bronze coins; however, loom weights do not conform to any metrological system. Over time, Roman measures of length (as indicated by the dimensions of bricks, tiles and architectural monuments and weight were adopted.

  5. Roman Bondage Numbers of Some Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Fu-Tao

    2011-01-01

    A Roman dominating function on a graph $G=(V,E)$ is a function $f: V\\to \\{0,1,2\\}$ satisfying the condition that every vertex $u$ with $f(u)=0$ is adjacent to at least one vertex $v$ with $f(v)=2$. The weight of a Roman dominating function is the value $f(G)=\\sum_{u\\in V} f(u)$. The Roman domination number of $G$ is the minimum weight of a Roman dominating function on $G$. The Roman bondage number of a nonempty graph $G$ is the minimum number of edges whose removal results in a graph with the Roman domination number larger than that of $G$. This paper determines the exact value of the Roman bondage numbers of two classes of graphs, complete $t$-partite graphs and $(n-3)$-regular graphs with order $n$ for any $n\\ge 5$.

  6. The TOTEM Roman Pot Motherboard

    CERN Document Server

    Antchev, G; Snoeys, W

    2008-01-01

    The TOTEM Roman Pot Motherboard (RPMB) is the interface between the hybrids with silicon detectors and front end chips in the Roman Pots, and the outside world. The RPMB is glued in the vacuum flange which separates the vacuum chamber containing the detector hybrids, and forms the feed through between vacuum and atmosphere. The hybrids have a flexible part with on-board connector for connection to the motherboard. The motherboard is equipped with connectors to the detector hybrids from one side and front panel with connectors to the patch panel form the other side. The RPMB needs to provide power and control, clock and trigger information to the 10 hybrids. It acquires tracking and triggers data from the hybrids, performs data conversion from electrical to optical format and transfers the data to the next level of the system [1]. It also collects information like temperature, pressure and radiation dose inside the pot. This paper presents the TOTEM RPMB in detail.

  7. ROMANIC EQUIVALENTS FOR LATIN IDIOMS

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    Dr. Stefan DUMITRU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we set forth to present several of the most important aspects regarding the contrastive analysis of a well-defined number of Latin idioms in parallel with their Romanic counterparts (in French, Italian, Spanish and Romanian. Our intent was not to discover, in the Romanic space, all the equivalents of the phrases that form the corpus we work with, for reasons pertaining to material restrictions, but to discuss, based on a certain number of units, the different types of issues they may point to. The most important is to establish the relation between the idiomatic expressions in Latin and their correspondents in the above mentioned languages, regarding their inner form, their meaning and their structure.

  8. "Roman Pot" at the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    "Roman pots" are stainless steel containers, which can be moved from outside the vacuum chamber towards the beam. They house detectors which are conveniently at atmospheric pressure and can still be brought close to the limit of the circulating beam, to detect particles emanating at very small angles from the intersection of two colliding beams. Eifionydd Jones was the inventor of this device, highly successful at the ISR and now used again at the TOTEM experiment at the LHC. This particular Roman Pot, with a thickness of 0.2 mm, was built in 1980 for experiment R210 in intersection I-2, in preparation for proton-antiproton collisions in 1981. See also 7501065.

  9. Analytical Plan for Roman Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mueller, Karl T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Roman glasses that have been in the sea or underground for about 1800 years can serve as the independent “experiment” that is needed for validation of codes and models that are used in performance assessment. Two sets of Roman-era glasses have been obtained for this purpose. One set comes from the sunken vessel the Iulia Felix; the second from recently excavated glasses from a Roman villa in Aquileia, Italy. The specimens contain glass artifacts and attached sediment or soil. In the case of the Iulia Felix glasses quite a lot of analytical work has been completed at the University of Padova, but from an archaeological perspective. The glasses from Aquileia have not been so carefully analyzed, but they are similar to other Roman glasses. Both glass and sediment or soil need to be analyzed and are the subject of this analytical plan. The glasses need to be analyzed with the goal of validating the model used to describe glass dissolution. The sediment and soil need to be analyzed to determine the profile of elements released from the glass. This latter need represents a significant analytical challenge because of the trace quantities that need to be analyzed. Both pieces of information will yield important information useful in the validation of the glass dissolution model and the chemical transport code(s) used to determine the migration of elements once released from the glass. In this plan, we outline the analytical techniques that should be useful in obtaining the needed information and suggest a useful starting point for this analytical effort.

  10. Roman Empire and Central Asia

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    Ubaldo Lugli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at retracing the interrelations of ancient Roman and Asian civilizations; a key focus is made on Asian cultural heritage. The commercial and trade commercial relations are considered, which led the way to development of both as well as military clashes and claiming territories by both civilizations. A due attention is paid to the influence of different ancient establishments on the Asian territory, converting thereafter Rome into a truly multicultural and cosmopolitan empire.

  11. Flaubert lecteur de romans historiques

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    Bernard Gendrel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Les notes de lectures de Flaubert dans sa correspondance permettent de dégager deux types de romans historiques : le roman à sujet ancien, qui se doit, pour être vraisemblable, d'éloigner les personnages en réduisant la part d'explications psychologiques, et le roman à sujet contemporain, qui au contraire allie prise de distance (historique ou sociale et rapprochement (psychologique. Victor Hugo excellerait dans le premier mais pas dans le second. Quant à Flaubert, son obsession sera de réussir dans les deux.Flaubert’s reading notes in his correspondence allow us to identify two types of historical novels: the novel with an ancient subject, which, to be plausible, must keep characters at a distance and limit psychological explanations, and the novel with a contemporary subject which, on the contrary, both keeps aloof from historical or social questions and draws nearer to psychological questions. Victor Hugo excelled in the first but not in the second posture.  As for Flaubert, his obsession was be to be successful in both.

  12. Aventures radiophoniques du Nouveau Roman

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    Beatrice Nickel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  Aventures radiophoniques du Nouveau Roman Colloque international organisé par l’Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier, en partenariat avec l’Université de Stuttgart 19-20 novembre 2015   Organisateurs :  Pierre-Marie Héron, Annie Pibarot, Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier, centre de recherche Rirra21. Françoise Joly, Beatrice Nickel, Universität Stuttgart 

  13. Laser cleaning on Roman coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Karydas, A. G.; Klinkenberg, B.; Kokkoris, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Stavrou, E.; Vlastou, R.; Zarkadas, C.

    Ancient metal objects react with moisture and environmental chemicals to form various corrosion products. Because of the unique character and high value of such objects, any cleaning procedure should guarantee minimum destructiveness. The most common treatment used is mechanical stripping, in which it is difficult to avoid surface damage when employed. Lasers are currently being tested for a wide range of conservation applications. Since they are highly controllable and can be selectively applied, lasers can be used to achieve more effective and safer cleaning of archaeological artifacts and protect their surface details. The basic criterion that motivated us to use lasers to clean Roman coins was the requirement of pulsed emission, in order to minimize heat-induced damages. In fact, the laser interaction with the coins has to be short enough, to produce a fast removal of the encrustation, avoiding heat conduction into the substrate. The cleaning effects of three lasers operating at different wavelengths, namely a TEA CO2 laser emitting at 10.6 μm, an Er:YAG laser at 2.94 μm, and a 2ω-Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm have been compared on corroded Romans coins and various atomic and nuclear techniques have also been applied to evaluate the efficiency of the applied procedure.

  14. Single Finds. The case of Roman Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Survery of single or stray finds from Roman Egypt and discussion of them as evidence for the circulation and use of coins......Survery of single or stray finds from Roman Egypt and discussion of them as evidence for the circulation and use of coins...

  15. Modern Perceptions of Roman-Scandinavian Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grane, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the modern research history of connections between Scandinavian Iron Age societies and the Roman Empire focusing more or less on the last half century. In this time, there has been a significant increase in Danish excavations of Roman Iron Age sites, of which several have p...

  16. Maestro Roman Toi kodumaal / Tiiu Pikkur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pikkur, Tiiu, 1947-

    2007-01-01

    Helilooja ja koorijuht Roman Toi osalemisest muuseumiõhtul "Kaunimad laulud pühendan Sul!" 21. mail Eesti Teatri- ja Muusikamuuseumis, helilooja 90. sünnipäevale pühendatud kontserdist 23. mail Tallinna Toomkirikus ja Roman Toi nimelisest kirikulaulude konkursist

  17. Maestro Roman Toi kodumaal / Tiiu Pikkur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pikkur, Tiiu, 1947-

    2007-01-01

    Helilooja ja koorijuht Roman Toi osalemisest muuseumiõhtul "Kaunimad laulud pühendan Sul!" 21. mail Eesti Teatri- ja Muusikamuuseumis, helilooja 90. sünnipäevale pühendatud kontserdist 23. mail Tallinna Toomkirikus ja Roman Toi nimelisest kirikulaulude konkursist

  18. A Roman Dodecahedron for measuring distance

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Here I am discussing a possible use of a Roman Dodecahedron, a bronze artifact of gallo-roman origin, for measuring distance. A dodecahedron, found at Jublains, the ancient Nouiodunum, dating from the 2nd or 3rd century AD, is used to create a model. Looking through the model, it is possible to test it for measurements of distance based on similar triangles.

  19. Traversable wormholes the Roman ring

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, M

    1997-01-01

    In this brief report I introduce a yet another class of geometries for which semi-classical chronology protection theorems are of dubious physical reliability. I consider a ``Roman ring'' of traversable wormholes, wherein a number of wormholes are arranged in a ring in such a manner that no subset of wormholes is near to chronology violation, though the combined system can be arbitrarily close to chronology violation. I show that (with enough wormholes in the ring) the gravitational vacuum polarization (the expectation value of the quantum stress-energy tensor) can be made arbitrarily small. In particular the back-reaction can be kept arbitrarily small all the way to the ``reliability horizon''---so that semi-classical quantum gravity becomes unreliable before the gravitational back reaction becomes large.

  20. "Roman Baths" in Contemporary Spa Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Merc

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The commercialisation of images and symbols from antiquity, so characteristic of Slovenia since its independence, has been reflected over the last decade in spa tourism as well. Since the great crises in the sixties, and especially since the eighties, fifteen Slovene natural health resorts have concentrated on developing wellness and activities programs. This change in orientation has been accompanied by renovations, an expansion of the water surfaces and capacities, and new wellbeing, wellness, spirituality and beauty programs. An analysis of Slovene spas, wellness centres and hotel web pages shows that they frequently offer rooms, usually saunas, which are imitations of the Roman baths. These rooms are usually called "Roman saunas", "Tepidarium", "Caldarium", and "Roman-Irish baths". At Terme Ptuj, Zdravilišče Laško, Šmarješke Toplice, Grand Hotel Palace in Portorož, and Terme Čatež, saunas have been built or renovated in the Roman style. This trend of Roman rooms is a novelty, less than a decade old in Slovenia. The first sauna with a Roman theme, a Roman-Irish bath, was opened in 1997 in the Health and Beauty Centre at Terme Čatež. Modern Roman saunas are very popular, found not only in Slovenia but also in other parts of Europe, especially Germany and Austria. Their popularity has spread from the areas formerly occupied by the Romans to other parts of world, for example the USA and the Republic of South Africa. An analysis of Slovene saunas and wellness centres reveals a well-established trend to recreate certain parts of the Roman baths. This is attempted not only through Roman-style decorations, but also through certain structures particular to the Roman baths, such as the caldarium, tepidarium, and in one case even a laconicum. The approach, however, is highly eclectic, blending Roman, Greek and, above all, modern elements. The purpose of such rooms is to increase the appeal of the spas, while their design is mostly based on

  1. Experimental Validation of Monte Carlo Simulations Based on a Virtual Source Model for TomoTherapy in a RANDO Phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiankui; Zheng, Yiran; Wessels, Barry; Lo, Simon S; Ellis, Rodney; Machtay, Mitchell; Yao, Min

    2016-12-01

    A virtual source model for Monte Carlo simulations of helical TomoTherapy has been developed previously by the authors. The purpose of this work is to perform experiments in an anthropomorphic (RANDO) phantom with the same order of complexity as in clinical treatments to validate the virtual source model to be used for quality assurance secondary check on TomoTherapy patient planning dose. Helical TomoTherapy involves complex delivery pattern with irregular beam apertures and couch movement during irradiation. Monte Carlo simulation, as the most accurate dose algorithm, is desirable in radiation dosimetry. Current Monte Carlo simulations for helical TomoTherapy adopt the full Monte Carlo model, which includes detailed modeling of individual machine component, and thus, large phase space files are required at different scoring planes. As an alternative approach, we developed a virtual source model without using the large phase space files for the patient dose calculations previously. In this work, we apply the simulation system to recompute the patient doses, which were generated by the treatment planning system in an anthropomorphic phantom to mimic the real patient treatments. We performed thermoluminescence dosimeter point dose and film measurements to compare with Monte Carlo results. Thermoluminescence dosimeter measurements show that the relative difference in both Monte Carlo and treatment planning system is within 3%, with the largest difference less than 5% for both the test plans. The film measurements demonstrated 85.7% and 98.4% passing rate using the 3 mm/3% acceptance criterion for the head and neck and lung cases, respectively. Over 95% passing rate is achieved if 4 mm/4% criterion is applied. For the dose-volume histograms, very good agreement is obtained between the Monte Carlo and treatment planning system method for both cases. The experimental results demonstrate that the virtual source model Monte Carlo system can be a viable option for the

  2. The ALFA Roman Pot Detectors of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel Khalek, S.

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Roman Pot system is designed to determine the total proton-proton cross-section as well as the luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) by measuring elastic proton scattering at very small angles. The system is made of four Roman Pot stations, located in the LHC tunnel in a distance of about 240~m at both sides of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station is equipped with tracking detectors, inserted in Roman Pots which approach the LHC beams vertically. The tracking detectors consist of multi-layer scintillating fibre structures readout by Multi-Anode-Photo-Multipliers.

  3. How did the ancient Roman Theatres sound?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Lisa; Rindel, Jens Holger; Gade, Anders Christian;

    2005-01-01

    state and as they presumably were built in the Roman era; the reconstructed parts of acoustical interest are the stage wall and top colonnade in the open-air theatres and the roof and windows in the Odea. The irregular absorption distribution in these rooms makes them challenging for acoustical......The Roman theatre follows a natural evolution from the Greek theatre combining the acting area and the seating area into a single structure. Modifications of stage, orchestra and seating area have resulted in a considerable improvement in the quality of the acoustics. As a part of the ERATO project......, the acoustics in Roman theatres and Odea (roofed theatres) have been recreated through computer simulations using the Odeon software. Computer models of five Roman theatres have been created based on data from archaeologists, architects and measurements in situ. The theatres have been modelled in their present...

  4. LHC Report: a Roman potpourri

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    The last couple of weeks of operation have been a mixed bag, with time dedicated to TOTEM and ALFA, a floating machine development period and luminosity calibration runs. These special running periods were interleaved with some standard proton running where we’ve struggled a little to recover previous highs. The LHC has now returned to more routine operation.   The TOTEM and ALFA run required the development of special optics to produce large beam sizes and smaller angular spread at the interaction points in ATLAS and CMS. These special optics produce shallower angled proton-proton collisions than normal and thus allow experiments to probe the very small angle scattering regime. (For more information visit the TOTEM and ALFA websites.) The qualification of the new set-up at 4 TeV went well, paving the way for a 13-hour physics run for both TOTEM and ALFA with their Roman pots in position. Highlights from the 48-hour machine development period included the injection of high intensity bun...

  5. Translating Romans: some persistent headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. du Toit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Translating Romans: some persistent headaches Gone are the days when it was axiomatic that expertise in biblical languages automatically qualified one as a Bible translator. In 1949, Ronald Knox, who for nine years conscientiously struggled with translating the Bible for his generation, published a booklet under the title The trials of a translator. At that stage Bible translation as the subject of scientific study was still in its infancy. Since then, research into the intricacies of communicating the biblical message in an authentic but understandable manner, has made significant progress (cf. Roberts, 2009. However, the frustrations of Bible translators, first of all to really understand what the biblical authors wanted to convey to their original addressees, and then to commu-nicate that message to their own targeted readers in a meaningful way, have not disappeared. In fact, the challenge to meet the vary-ing requirements of the multiple kinds of translation that are present-ly in vogue, has only increased.

  6. Marius and Trajan: Two Great Roman Strategists

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    Encyclopedia of World Biography, Vol VII. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1973. 8. McGraw-Hill. The Encyclopedia of World ...Roman Soldier. Ithaca, New York: Cornell Uni- versity Press, 1969. 15. Webster, Graham. The Roman Imperial Army. New York, New York: Funk and Wagnalls ...Illinois: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 1952. 11. Robinson, Charles Alexander, Jr. Ancient History. New York, New York: The Macmillan

  7. Design of a head phantom produced on a 3D rapid prototyping printer and comparison with a RANDO and 3M lucite head phantom in eye dosimetry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolka, Peter; Figl, Michael; Wartak, Andreas; Glanzer, Mathias; Dünkelmeyer, Martina; Hojreh, Azadeh; Hummel, Johann

    2017-02-13

    An anthropomorphic head phantom including eye inserts allowing placement of TLDs 3 mm below the cornea has been produced on a 3D printer using a photo-cured acrylic resin to best allow tissue equivalence. Thus Hp(3) can be determined in radiological and interventional photon radiation fields. Eye doses and doses to the forehead have been compared to an Alderson RANDO head and a 3M Lucite skull phantom in terms of surface dose per incident air kerma for frontal irradiation since the commercial phantoms do not allow placement of TLDs 3 mm below the corneal surface. A comparison of dose reduction factors (DRFs) of a common lead glasses model has also been performed. Eye dose per incident air kerma were comparable between all three phantoms (printed phantom: 1.40, standard error (SE) 0.04; RANDO: 1.36, SE 0.03; 3M: 1.37, SE 0.03). Doses to the forehead were identical to eye surface doses for the printed phantom and the RANDO head (ratio 1.00 SE 0.04, and 0.99 SE 0.03, respectively). In the 3M Lucite skull phantom dose on the forehead was 15% lower than dose to the eyes attributable to phantom properties. DRF of a sport frame style leaded glasses model with 0.75 mm lead equivalence measured were 6.8 SE 0.5, 9.3 SE 0.4 and 10.5 SE 0.5 for the RANDO head, the printed phantom, and the 3M Lucite head phantom, respectively, for frontal irradiation. A comparison of doses measured in 3 mm depth and on the surface of the eyes in the printed phantom revealed no difference larger than standard errors from TLD dosimetry. 3D printing offers an interesting opportunity for phantom design with increasing potential as printers allowing combinations of tissue substitutes will become available. Variations between phantoms may provide a useful indication of uncertainty budgets when using phantom measurements to estimate individual personnel doses.

  8. Plaadid / Rando Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Rando

    2003-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Back in the ESSR "From the Archives of Eesti raadio 1966-1982", The Donnas "Spend the Night", "Furure Sounds of Jazz vol. 9", Dino Saluzzi "Responsorium", The Clash "Essential Clash", Sly & Family Stone "Essential", Madonna "American Life", Louis Armstrong & Ella Fitzgerald "Ella & louis Again"

  9. Plaadid / Rando Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Rando

    2003-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Back in the ESSR "From the Archives of Eesti raadio 1966-1982", The Donnas "Spend the Night", "Furure Sounds of Jazz vol. 9", Dino Saluzzi "Responsorium", The Clash "Essential Clash", Sly & Family Stone "Essential", Madonna "American Life", Louis Armstrong & Ella Fitzgerald "Ella & louis Again"

  10. Magna Carta And The Roman Law Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmeti Sami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magna Carta is one of the most important illustrations of the exceptionalism of English common law. Within a completely feudal framework it gave the clearest possible articulation to the concept of the rule of law and at the same time it also showed that there were certain basic rights which every freeman enjoyed without any specific conferment by the king. From English perspective, continental European law after the process of the reception of Roman law was commonly regarded to be apart and different from the English legal tradition, as well as being perceived to pose a continual threat. The English Parliament constantly turned down royal attempts to emulate the continental reception of Roman law by characterizing it as something entirely foreign to English law. Roman law was supposed to promote an authoritarian and absolutist vision of the relationship between rule and subjection and this was expressed in the famous phrases 'princeps legibus solutus' and 'quod principi placuit legis habet vigorem'. Roman law was also anti-feudal, because one of its main principles that all power originated from one central source was the antithesis of the distribution of power over multiple centers, which was a crucial element of the feudal society. Many English historians have held the view that the English law is democratic, whereas the continental tradition is undemocratic and authoritarian, and this is why the Roman law succeeded on the Continent and failed in England.

  11. L’internationalisation du roman arabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Dalia Khraibani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available La littérature arabe est presque invisible dans l’espace littéraire mondiale pour des raisons diverses. Pourtant, des écrivains réussissent à s’imposer sur la scène littéraire internationale et leurs œuvres deviennent des chefs d’œuvre de la littérature mondiale. Parmi ces écrivains, nous citons Tayeb Saleh qui connaît un succès international surtout avec la parution de son second roman "Saison de migration vers le Nord". Notre étude vise à montrer comment ce roman par son contenu et sa forme, occupe une place de choix dans la littérature mondiale. En effet, nous allons examiner le contexte historique de l’émergence du roman qui joue un rôle dans sa diffusion au niveau mondial. L’une des clés de réussite du roman est la technique narrative qui retient l’haleine du lecteur dès la première page. De plus, le roman répond à l’horizon d’attente du lectorat occidental en représentant des images particulières de la société arabo-africaine qui correspondent aux stéréotypes et clichés du public occidental vis-à-vis des Arabes.

  12. Panorama du roman policier au Mexique

    OpenAIRE

    Lara-Alengrin, Alba

    2013-01-01

    Malgré sa diffusion depuis les années quarante par des collections de poche autochtones, le roman policier fut longtemps, au Mexique, un genre méprisé par la critique et les écrivains. Paco Ignacio Taibo II est le premier écrivain mexicain a légitimer et valoriser le genre policier, en particulier le roman noir, qui connaît simultanément un regain d’intérêt critique et commercial. Ce changement de perception vis-à-vis du roman noir s’accompagne de la création d’un nouveau terme pour le qualif...

  13. The lost Roman calendars of ancient Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Mantarakis, P.

    2006-08-01

    As a result of the conquests of Alexander the Great, the lunisolar Macedonian calendar became the most widely circulated among all the lunisolar Greek calendars. However, despite its spread, two Roman calendars, generally unknown in the scientific community, were developed and used inside Macedonia itself during the Roman occupation of Greece. The older calendar used the so-called ‘Macedonian year’. This system started in 148 BC to emphasize the importance of the victory of the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus against Pseudo-Philippus Andriscus, King of Macedonia. The newer calendrical system, which absorbed the older system, used the ‘Augustian or respectable year’ bearing its name from Octavius Augustus; its starting point was the date of the catalytic victory of Octavius over Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra at Actium (31 BC). The solar Octavian calendar survived until the sixth or seventh century in the Macedonian Territory.

  14. Panorama du roman policier au Mexique

    OpenAIRE

    Lara-Alengrin, Alba

    2013-01-01

    Malgré sa diffusion depuis les années quarante par des collections de poche autochtones, le roman policier fut longtemps, au Mexique, un genre méprisé par la critique et les écrivains. Paco Ignacio Taibo II est le premier écrivain mexicain a légitimer et valoriser le genre policier, en particulier le roman noir, qui connaît simultanément un regain d’intérêt critique et commercial. Ce changement de perception vis-à-vis du roman noir s’accompagne de la création d’un nouveau terme pour le qualif...

  15. Deux sociologues et deux cents romans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspard Turin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage interdisciplinaire, utilisant le roman français des trente dernières années dans une perspective de compréhension sociologique du contemporain, s’adresse à la fois aux littéraires et aux sociologues. Il fournira aux premiers de nombreuses pistes de lecture d’un roman contemporain qui, du fait de sa jeunesse, peine encore à trouver sa place au sein de l’institution universitaire. Aux seconds, il ouvrira un champ entier de recherches potentielles, grâce à une approche ...

  16. Nogle britiske romaner i 2007 - og en nobelpris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgård, Ebbe

    2008-01-01

    Genanmeldelse af Dorris Lessing, The Golden Notebook, nyanmeldelse af romaner af Anne Enright, Graham Swift, Ian McEwan og Jonathan Coe. Vurdering af den britiske romans "state of the arts" 2007. Udgivelsesdato: februar......Genanmeldelse af Dorris Lessing, The Golden Notebook, nyanmeldelse af romaner af Anne Enright, Graham Swift, Ian McEwan og Jonathan Coe. Vurdering af den britiske romans "state of the arts" 2007. Udgivelsesdato: februar...

  17. Roman Bondage Number of a Graph

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Fu-Tao

    2011-01-01

    The Roman dominating function on a graph $G=(V,E)$ is a function $f: V\\rightarrow\\{0,1,2\\}$ such that each vertex $x$ with $f(x)=0$ is adjacent to at least one vertex $y$ with $f(y)=2$. The value $f(G)=\\sum\\limits_{u\\in V(G)} f(u)$ is called the weight of $f$. The Roman domination number $\\gamma_{\\rm R}(G)$ is defined as the minimum weight of all Roman dominating functions. This paper defines the Roman bondage number $b_{\\rm R}(G)$ of a nonempty graph $G=(V,E)$ to be the cardinality among all sets of edges $B\\subseteq E$ for which $\\gamma_{\\rm R}(G-B)>\\gamma_{\\rm R}(G)$. Some bounds are obtained for $b_{\\rm R}(G)$, and the exact values are determined for several classes of graphs. Moreover, the decision problem for $b_{\\rm R}(G)$ is proved to be NP-hard even for bipartite graphs.

  18. Greek and Roman Mythology: English, Mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargraves, Richard; Kenzel, Elaine

    The aim of the Quinmester course "Greek and Roman Mythology" is to help students understand mythological references in literature, art, music, science and technology. The subject matter includes: creation myths; myths of gods and heroes; mythological allusions in astrology, astronomy, literature, science, business, puzzles, and everyday…

  19. Roman Polanski Ameerika unelm / Ian Buruma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Buruma, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Mõtteid demokraatiast ja õigusemõistmisest Prantsusmaal ja Ameerika Ühendriikides seoses filmirežissöör Roman Polanski vahistamisega Zürichis 30 aastat vana USA võimude poolt väljaantud arreteerimisorderi põhjal

  20. Kuulus Roman Viktjuki Teater Tallinnas / Meelis Kapstas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kapstas, Meelis, 1963-

    2000-01-01

    26. ja 27. mail Vene Kultuurikeskuses Roman Viktjuki Teatri külalisetendused. Mängitakse R. Viktjuki lavastust "Kellavärgiga apelsin" Anthony Burgessi romaani järgi ja Viktjuki versiooni Oscar Wilde'i kurbmängust "Salomé"

  1. Roman Jakobson's Semiotic Theory of Communication. [Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Richard L.

    For most of the 20th century, Roman Jakobson's name will have been synonymous with the definition of communication as a human science, i.e., communicology. Jakobson is the modern source of most of what communication scholars theorize about and practice as human communication, and he will be the source of how communication scholars shall come to…

  2. Co-Roman domination in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Arumugam; Karam Ebadi; Martín Manrique

    2015-02-01

    Let $G = (V,E)$ be a graph and let $f:V→ \\{0, 1, 2\\}$ be a function. A vertex is said to be protected with respect to if $f(u)> 0$ or $f(u)=0$ and is adjacent to a vertex with positive weight. The function is a co-Roman dominating function (CRDF) if: (i) every vertex in is protected, and (ii) each $v \\in V$ with $f(v) > 0$ has a neighbor $u\\in V$ with $f(u)=0$ such that the function $f_{vu}: V→ \\{0,1,2\\}$, defined by $f_{vu}(u)=1$, $f_{vu}(v)=f(v)-1$ and $f_{vu}(x)=f(x)$ for $x\\in V\\backslash \\{u,v\\}$ has no unprotected vertex. The weight of is $w(f)=_{v\\in V} f(v)$. The co-Roman domination number of a graph , denoted by $_{cr}(G)$, is the minimum weight of a co-Roman dominating function on . In this paper we initiate a study of this parameter, present several basic results, as well as some applications and directions for further research. We also show that the decision problem for the co-Roman domination number is NP-complete, even when restricted to bipartite, chordal and planar graphs.

  3. Perspectives on Greek and Roman catapults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hassall

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Both the Greeks and the Romans showed great ingenuity in developing catapults as artillery weapons. Evidence of how these complicated machines worked comes from surviving descriptions, experimental reconstructions and archaeological remains. Ancient technical drawings are a valuable but relatively neglected source of information about catapult design, and one that poses challenging problems of interpretation.

  4. Kuulus Roman Viktjuki Teater Tallinnas / Meelis Kapstas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kapstas, Meelis, 1963-

    2000-01-01

    26. ja 27. mail Vene Kultuurikeskuses Roman Viktjuki Teatri külalisetendused. Mängitakse R. Viktjuki lavastust "Kellavärgiga apelsin" Anthony Burgessi romaani järgi ja Viktjuki versiooni Oscar Wilde'i kurbmängust "Salomé"

  5. Characterization of the Roman curse tablet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Zhang, Boyang; Fu, Lin

    2017-08-01

    The Roman curse tablet, produced in ancient Rome period, is a metal plate that inscribed with curses. In this research, several techniques were used to find out the physical structure and chemical composition of the Roman curse tablet, and testified the hypothesis that whether the tablet is made of pure lead or lead alloy. A sample of Roman Curse Tablet from the Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum was analyzed using several different characterization techniques to determine the physical structure and chemical composition. The characterization techniques used were including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Because of the small sample size, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) cannot test the sample. Results from optical microscopy and SEM, enlarged images of the sample surface were studied. The result revealed that the sample surface has a rough, non-uniform, and grainy surface. AFM provides three-dimensional topography of the sample surface, studying the sample surface in atomic level. DSC studies the thermal property, which is most likely a lead-alloy, not a pure lead. However, none of these tests indicated anything about the chemical composition. Future work will be required due to the lack of measures finding out its chemical composition. Therefore, from these characterization techniques above, the Roman curse tablet sample is consisted of lead alloy, not pure lead.

  6. How did the ancient Roman Theatres sound?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Lisa; Rindel, Jens Holger; Gade, Anders Christian

    2005-01-01

    The Roman theatre follows a natural evolution from the Greek theatre combining the acting area and the seating area into a single structure. Modifications of stage, orchestra and seating area have resulted in a considerable improvement in the quality of the acoustics. As a part of the ERATO project...

  7. Penalties for official and military crimes in Roman criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uliya Pershina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the system of penalties for official and military crimes in the Roman criminal law. Most of the official crimes against public order in Ancient Rome was punished by exile outside the Roman state and penalties. Military discipline in the Roman army was supported by severe sanctions. They ranged from the death penalty to the imposition of special duties.

  8. "Cost in Transliteration": The Neurocognitive Processing of Romanized Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chaitra; Mathur, Avantika; Singh, Nandini C.

    2013-01-01

    Romanized transliteration is widely used in internet communication and global commerce, yet we know little about its behavioural and neural processing. Here, we show that Romanized text imposes a significant neurocognitive load. Readers faced greater difficulty in identifying concrete words written in Romanized transliteration (Romanagari)…

  9. Une balle blanche dans un roman noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Vallas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En 1982, Paul Auster fit paraître, sous le pseudonyme de Paul Benjamin, un roman noir intitulé Squeeze Play. Ce roman présente la particularité d’appartenir également au genre du baseball novel, l’intrigue se déroulant en partie dans le monde du base-ball et sa résolution intervenant grâce à une manœuvre rare et spectaculaire (un double suicide squeeze qui éclaire l’enquête sous un jour nouveau. Cet article se propose d’analyser la place du base-ball dans Squeeze Play : élément essentiel de la structuration du roman, le base-ball permet également à Auster d’étudier le mythe du héros américain déchu dans une société dont toutes les dimensions (sportive, politique, privée sont gangrenées par la corruption et la perversion. La relation particulière qu’Auster tisse entre roman noir et baseball novel est également étudiée.In 1982 Paul Auster published a roman noir entitled Squeeze Play under the pseudonym of Paul Benjamin. The novel is also a “baseball novel”: its plot essentially deals with a baseball New York team and its former, fallen star, and the final resolution of the mystery intervenes thanks to a revelation brought by a baseball game in which a rather rare and spectacular maneuver (the double suicide squeeze is used by one of the teams to turn the tables and win the game. This paper analyzes the place of baseball in Squeeze Play: it first appears as an essential element in the very structure of the plot, but it is also, for Auster, a way of questioning the myth of the hero in an American society whose main aspects (sports, politics, private life are eaten up by corruption and perversion. The links Auster establishes between roman noir and baseball novel are also dealt with.

  10. Societal resilience to hydroclimatic change in the Roman World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermody, Brian; van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc; Dekker, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The Romans were masters of water resource management. They employed sophisticated irrigation techniques alongside a highly integrated food redistribution system that provided stable food supplies under the variable hydroclimatic regime within the Roman World. However, a number of paleoclimate studies have demonstrated hydroclimatic changes during the Roman Period that exceeded the amplitude and persistence of normal climate variability. In particular, there was a shift from warmer and more stable hydroclimatic conditions in the Roman Warm Period (c.250 BC - 250 AD) to cooler and more variable conditions in Late Roman Period (after c.250 AD). In this study we use a socio-hydrological model of the Roman world to explore the impact of hydroclimatic changes between the Roman Warm Period and Late Roman Period on the Roman food production and redistribution system. We calculate crop yields based on temperature and water resource availability using PC Raster Global Water Balance model (PCR-GLOBWB). PCR-GLOBWB is forced with reanalysis climate fields reflecting reconstructions of Roman Warm Period to the Late Roman climate patterns. Cropland areas and settlement patterns are derived from a database of 14,700 Roman settlement sites and crop suitability maps. We simulate food redistribution using a multi-agent food redistribution network with link weights based on Orbis: The Stanford Geospatial Network of the Roman World. Our analysis indicates a reduction in crop yields during the Late Roman Period compared with the Roman Warm Period owing to cooler temperatures. In addition, our simulations indicate that increased hydroclimatic variability decreased the stability of yields in the Late Roman period. Crop yields in the Western Empire are simulated to have been impacted most by the change in climate owing to cooler average temperatures and greater hydroclimatic variability compared with the Eastern part of the Empire. The food redistribution network was essential to buffer

  11. Wanted and desired: looks about Roman Polanski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Raphael Bertassi da Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available With this paper, we interpret, in the light of theoretical framework from French Discourse Analysis, discursive ruptures and regularities present in the controversial episode involving the sentencing, imprisonment and escape of the film director Roman Polanski and the effects of meaning inscribed in one of his films, Repulsion (1965. We are interested in understanding the meanings of patriarchy, violence against women, female sexual freedom and the memory that holds the words of/about the controversy about the filmmaker and his work. To enrich the analysis, we also mobilize blogs clippings and excerpts from the documentary Roman Polanski: Wanted and Desired (2008, thus paving the range of possible interpretations of our corpus.

  12. Were the ancient Romans art forgers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Casemen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A popularly held tenet in the historical record on art is that the practice of forgery began in ancient Rome, where sculptures made by craftsmen of the day were passed off as classical Greek antiquities. However, revisionist scholars in recent decades have challenged this perspective. One line of criticism denies that forgery was present in Rome, asserting that the evidence for it has been misunderstood. A softer line suggests that while the traditional view overstates the case, there is still reason to accept that the culture of Rome harbored art forgery. This article assesses the competing claims in light of literary references by Roman authors, physical evidence including inscriptions on sculptures, the phenomenon of Corinthian bronze, the nature of Roman copying, social and economic conditions necessary for art forgery to arise, and what art forgery consists of by definition.

  13. THE EQUITES LEGIONIS AND THE ROMAN CAVALRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Zehetner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A view on the Roman cavalry forces, especially the equites legionis. The article describes a possible organizational chart of the legionary cavalry formation in imperial times. By analyzing primary sources the organization, command and manpower of the equiges legionis will be described in a new manner.There is also given a view on auxiliary cavalry organization and command to demonstrate differences between auxiliary cavalry, legionary horsemen and equites singulares Augusti.As primary sources often times contradict each other and epigraphy or papyrology only can give snapshots of situations, it is not an easy work to take a look on the legionary cavalry in Roman imperial times. But combining all sources gives a proper view on the subject and so this article will give a new examination. Because of the discrepancies, which already are given by primary sources the article only can be a try to open more discussions in this special subject.

  14. Magna Carta And The Roman Law Tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmeti Sami

    2015-01-01

    Magna Carta is one of the most important illustrations of the exceptionalism of English common law. Within a completely feudal framework it gave the clearest possible articulation to the concept of the rule of law and at the same time it also showed that there were certain basic rights which every freeman enjoyed without any specific conferment by the king. From English perspective, continental European law after the process of the reception of Roman law was commonly regarded to be apart and ...

  15. First roman pot tested by TOTEM

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    TOTEM, one of the smaller experiments of the LHC, successfully tested its first 'roman pot' detectors on 3 November. A total of eight will be installed in the LHC near the CMS cavern. Marco Oriunno, project engineer of TOTEM (right), with Jean-Michel Lacroix from TS/MME (Mechanical and Materials Engineering) (left), standing behind one of the roman pot detectors. There is a small tribe in the land of CERN. Among its artefacts you may find colourfully painted rocks, a totem made of cardboard boxes, and a few roman pots. Known by the name of TOTEM, or 'TOTal, Elastic and diffractive cross-section Measurement' (not a tribe motto), they are a relatively small collaborative group in comparison to the main LHC experiments, with approximately 50 'tribe members'. Unlike the four larger experiments that will analyse new particles produced as a result of the collisions, TOTEM will investigate the ones that almost missed each other. When two beams of protons travelling in opposite di...

  16. The Roman State and Genetic Pacification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Frost

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 10,000 years, the human genome has changed at an accelerating rate. The change seems to reflect adaptations to new social environments, including the rise of the State and its monopoly on violence. State societies punish young men who act violently on their own initiative. In contrast, non-State societies usually reward such behavior with success, including reproductive success. Thus, given the moderate to high heritability of male aggressiveness, the State tends to remove violent predispositions from the gene pool while favoring tendencies toward peacefulness and submission. This perspective is applied here to the Roman state, specifically its long-term effort to pacify the general population. By imperial times, this effort had succeeded so well that the Romans saw themselves as being inherently less violent than the “barbarians” beyond their borders. By creating a pacified and submissive population, the empire also became conducive to the spread of Christianity—a religion of peace and submission. In sum, the Roman state imposed a behavioral change that would over time alter the mix of genotypes, thus facilitating a subsequent ideological change.

  17. Acoustical measurements in ancient Roman theatres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnetani, Andrea; Fausti, Patrizio; Pompoli, Roberto; Prodi, Nicola

    2001-05-01

    The Greek and Roman theatres are among the most precious and spectacular items of cultural heritage in the Mediterranean countries. The theatres are famous not only for their impressive architecture, but also for the acoustic qualities. For this reason it is important to consider these theatres as an acoustical heritage and to study their sound field. Within the activities of the ERATO (identification Evaluation and Revival of the Acoustical heritage of ancient Theatres and Odea) project, acoustical measurements were taken in well-preserved ancient Roman theatres at Aspendos (Turkey) and Jerash (Jordan). Roman theatres have an impressive stage building that forms a back wall in the orchestra area, and it was found that, from the analysis of the acoustical parameters, the reverberation time (e.g., 1.7 s at middle frequencies in the theatre of Aspendos) is quite long compared not only with other open-space theatres but also with closed spaces. Contrary to modern halls the clarity is high and this fact, together with a low sound level in most of the seats, gives the sound field a unique character.

  18. Roman Inns and Roman Culture%旅馆与古罗马文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯定雄

    2011-01-01

    Inns were the crucial components of Roman society. Roman inns dispersed in all parts of Rome, but most of them were bad conditioned and terrible for life. Inns' social position was very low because they always were censured by Roman government, law and moralists. Though their position was very bad, it was the favorite place for Roman elite. It was the upper-class' haunt that worsened the Roman inns'reputation.%旅馆是罗马社会的重要组成部分。罗马的旅馆遍布罗马全境,大多数的条件都很简陋,旅馆生活也很糟糕。旅馆在罗马社会中的地位极其低下,国家政策、法律规定、社会评价都竭力限制它的发展。尽管罗马旅馆地位的低下,但它却也是自视高贵的罗马上层社会精英们乐此不疲光顾的地方,而正是这些精英们在旅馆中的龌龊表现,更加剧了旅馆的恶劣名声。

  19. The Roman k-domatic Number of a Graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Mahmoud SHEIKHOLESLAMI; Lutz VOLKMANN

    2011-01-01

    Let k be a positive integer.A Roman k-dominating function on a graph G is a labeling f:V(G) → {0,1,2} such that every vertex with label 0 has at least k neighbors with label 2.A set {f1,f2,...,fd} of distinct Roman k-dominating functions on G with the property that ∑di=1 fi(v) ≤ 2for each v ∈ V(G),is called a Roman k-dominating family (of functions) on G.The maximum number of functions in a Roman k-dominating family on G is the Roman k-domatic number of G,denoted by dkR(G).Note that the Roman 1-domatic number d1R(G) is the usual Roman domatic number dR(G).In this paper we initiate the study of the Roman k-domatic number in graphs and we present sharp bounds for dkR(G).In addition,we determine the Roman k-domatic number of some graphs.Some of our results extend those given by Sheikholeslami and Volkmann in 2010 for the Roman domatic number.

  20. Dea Computrix - another deity for the Roman Pantheon? Journeys in the Roman Empire CD-Rom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sam N. Moorhead

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines a personal view on the content and production of a CD-Rom on the Roman world produced by The British Museum, Channel 4, Verulamium Museum and Braunarts: Journeys in the Roman Empire. I discuss some of the benefits of and problems with multimedia production and outline feedback from various evaluation projects of the CD-Rom. I also briefly discuss the future of CD-Roms in the face of a rapidly expanding internet with reference to other multimedia projects at The British Museum.

  1. Vie Physarale: Evaluation of Roman roads with slime mould

    CERN Document Server

    Strano, Emanuele; Jones, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Roman Empire is renowned for sharp logical design and outstanding building quality of its road system. Many roads built by Romans are still use in continental Europe and UK. The Roman roads were built for military transportations with efficiency in mind, as straight as possible. Thus the roads make an ideal test-bed for developing experimental laboratory techniques for evaluating man-made transport systems using living creatures. We imitate development of road networks in Iron Age Italy using slime mould Physarum polycephalum. We represent ten Roman cities with oat flakes, inoculate the slime mould in Roma, wait till slime mould spans all flakes-cities with its network of protoplasmic tubes, and analyse structures of the protoplasmic networks. We found that most Roman roads, apart of those linking Placentia to Bononia and Genua to Florenzia are represented in development of Physarum polycephalum. Transport networks developed by Romans and by slime mould show strong affinity of planar proximity graphs, and par...

  2. Residual strain mapping of Roman styli from Iulia Concordia, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvemini, Filomena, E-mail: floriana.salvemini@fi.isc.cnr.it [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Università degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra (Italy); Grazzi, Francesco [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Angelini, Ivana [Università degli Studi di Padova, Dipartimento di Geoscienze (Italy); Davydov, Vadim; Vontobel, Peter [Paul Scherrer Institut, SINQ Spallation Neutron Source, Villigen (Switzerland); Vigoni, Alberto [Dedalo s.n.c., Vicolo dei Conti 6, I-35122 Padua (Italy); Artioli, Gilberto [Università degli Studi di Padova, Dipartimento di Geoscienze (Italy); Zoppi, Marco [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Iulia Concordia is an important Roman settlement known for the production of iron objects and weapons during the Roman Empire. A huge number of well-preserved styli were found in the past century in the bed of an old channel. In order to shed light about the production processes used by Roman for stylus manufacturing, a neutron diffraction residual strain analysis was performed on the POLDI materials science diffractometer at the Paul Scherrer Institut in Switzerland. Here, we present results from our investigation conducted on 11 samples, allowing to define, in a non-invasive way, the residual strain map related to the ancient Roman working techniques. - Highlights: • We examined 11 Roman styli from the settlement of Iulia Concordia, Italy. • We performed a neutron diffraction residual strain analysis on POLDI at PSI (CH). • We identified the production processes used by Roman for stylus manufacturing. • We clarified the way and direction of working applied for different classes of styli.

  3. On the orientation of Roman towns in Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Magli, G

    2007-01-01

    As is well known, several Roman sources report on the existence of a town foundation ritual, inherited from the Etruscans, which allegedly included astronomical references. However, the possible existence of astronomical orientations in the layout of Roman towns has never been tackled in a systematic way. As a first step in this direction, the orientation of virtually all Roman towns in Italy (38 cities) is studied here. Non-random orientation patterns emerge from these data, aiming at further research in this field.

  4. XRF analysis of Roman Imperial coins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorghinian, Astrik, E-mail: astrik.gorghinian@lnf.infn.it [INFN-LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Esposito, Adolfo [INFN-LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Ferretti, Marco [CNR-ITABC, via Salaria Km 29.300, c.p. 10, Monterotondo (Rome) (Italy); Catalli, Fiorenzo [National Archeological Museum, 9B Santissima Annunziata Square, 50121 Florence (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    X-ray Fluorescence analysis has been applied on 477 ancient coins, issued in different mints active during the First Roman Emperor’s reign Augustus. The study of the different denominations has been related to their composition and place/date of struck. The alloys studied were based on gold, silver and copper. The X-ray micro-beam supplied by a polycapillary optics has been often extremely precious in the analysis of very small coin’s spot with no patina due to usage.

  5. Flavius Vegetius Renatus: Great Roman Thinker

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    Graham The Roman Imperial Army. New York, N.Y.i Funk & Wagnalls , 1969. 22 0𔃻"o - *" . s C * ’~ a ’ *’ **~* j q . 77 71 v V7 ’ J. ___ __CONTINUED 13. Zook...A World Atlas of Military History, Vol I. New York, N.Y.: Hippocrene Book, Inc., 1973. 3. Claxton, Bernard D. Military History and Theory Maxwell Air...Methods From the Earliest Times. Washington# D.C.: Infantry Journal Press, 1937. 9. Steinberg, S. H. Cassell’s Encyclopedia of World Literature, Vol

  6. Historisk roman fra det gamle Rom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaarsted, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Er historikere de bedst egnede til at skrive historiske romaner? Spørgsmålet er relevant i forbindelse med den på Fyn bosiddende Jo Hermann. Hun er fagperson per excellence, latin-og klassiskkyndig over en kam, og hendes " Kejserens klarsyn" om kejser Domitian, der i et længe opsparet anfald af r...... realpolitisk paranoia vil sin familie til livs, udspiller sig år 95-96 i det antikke Rom med alle de politiske og personlige intriger, man kan forestille sig....

  7. Roman Engineering, Public Works and Importance of Public Objects in Roman Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ponte-Arrebola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The skill and ability of the Romans in civil engineering and public works largely contributed to the establishment and success of their civilization. Many of the constructed works were built for the possibility of public use and enjoyment by its citizens, known as res publicae in usu publico.

  8. Comparison of the calculated absorbed dose using the Cadplan™ treatment planning software and Tld-100 measurements in an Alderson-Rando phantom for a bronchogenic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutiérrez Castillo, J. G., E-mail: jggc59@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Hospital de Oncología, IMSS, CMN Siglo XXI, Cuauhtémoc 330 Col. Doctores (Mexico); Álvarez Romero, J. T., E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.mx, E-mail: fisarmandotorres@gmail.com, E-mail: victor.tovar@inin.gob.mx; Calderón, A. Torres, E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.mx, E-mail: fisarmandotorres@gmail.com, E-mail: victor.tovar@inin.gob.mx; M, V. Tovar, E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.mx, E-mail: fisarmandotorres@gmail.com, E-mail: victor.tovar@inin.gob.mx [SSDL, Departamento de Metrología ININ, Salazar, Estado de México 15245 (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    To verify the accuracy of the absorbed doses D calculated by a TPS Cadplan for a bronchogenic treatment (in an Alderson-Rando phantom) are chosen ten points with the following D's and localizations. Point 1, posterior position on the left edge with 136.4 Gy. Points: 2, 3 and 4 in the left lung with 104.9, 104.3 and 105.8 Gy, respectively; points 5 and 6 at the mediastinum with 192.4 and 173.5 Gy; points 7, 8 and 9 in the right lung with 105.8, 104.2 and 104.7 Gy, and 10 at posterior position on right edge with 143.7 Gy. IAEA type capsules with TLD 100 powder are placed, planned and irradiated. The evaluation of the absorbed dose is carried out a curve of calibration for the LiF response (nC) {sup vs} {sup DW}, to several cavity theories. The traceability for the DW is obtained with a secondary standard calibrated at the NRC (Canada). The dosimetric properties for the materials considered are determined from the Hounsfield numbers reported by the TPS. The stopping power ratios are calculated for nominal spectrum to 6 MV photons. The percent variations among the planned and determined D in all the cases they are < ± 3%.

  9. The Core Competencies: a Roman Catholic critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Elliott Louis

    2011-09-01

    This article critically examines, from the perspective of a Roman Catholic Healthcare ethicist, the second edition of the Core Competencies for Healthcare Ethics Consultation report recently published by the American Society for Humanities and Bioethics. The question is posed: can the competencies identified in the report serve as the core competencies for Roman Catholic ethical consultants and consultation services? I answer in the negative. This incongruence stems from divergent concepts of what it means to do ethics consultation, a divergence that is rooted in each perspective's very different visions of autonomy. Furthermore, because of the constitutive elements of Catholic ethics consultation, such as the Ethical and Religious Directives for Health Care Services, the tradition needed to apply those directives, and the Catholic facility's membership in the institutional Church, the competencies needed for its practice differ in kind from those identified by the report. While there are many practical points of convergence, the competencies identified by the report should not be adopted uncritically by Catholic healthcare institutions as core competencies for ethical consultation services.

  10. [Roman medical instruments from Lower Moesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparaschivei, D; Matei, I

    2010-01-01

    To elucidate the evolution of society over time, ancient medicine is a very interesting and important researching field. Archaeological discoveries, such as the objects described by this article, but other ancient sources, also, are able to provide a complex framework of medical practice in Roman times. The geographic area that we have like target in this material is the province of Lower Moesia, which includes the territory between Danube and Black Sea (Romanian Dobrodja) and northern Bulgaria. In the present study we present nine ancient medical instruments, from a private collection: two tweezers, two ear probes, a probe-spatula, a probe-spoon, a spoon for pharmacy and two fragments of some kind of hooks used in surgical operations. Most likely, we have a mixed medical kit with tools used in general medicine, surgery, in preparation of the pharmaceutical treatments, but very possible, also, in cosmetic practices. Publication of these archaeological materials is, in addition to an extra page in the history of ancient medicine, a pretext for stepping up in a research field that, in other regions of the former Roman Empire, it is a great interest for researchers.

  11. Chinese-Mandarin: Wade-Giles Romanization Drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    Lessons are presented on Mandarin Chinese concerning how to convert from the Yale romanization system to the Wade-Giles romanization system. The Yale system is the one most widely studied in the United States. Since biographical and geographical names in newspapers, magazines, books, and maps are still spelled out in the Wade-Giles romanization…

  12. How to romanize Korean characters in international journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Huh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available For editors and manuscript editors, the romanization of Korean characters is a topic that should be understood thoroughly, because Korean proper nouns have become more widely used worldwide due to phenomena such as Hallyu (the Korean wave. In this report, I describe the 2 major romanization systems used in Korea: the Korean government’s romanization system and the McCune-Reischauer system. I also describe the transliteration guidelines presented in a variety of reference styles, such as the CSE (Council of Science Editors, ACS (American Chemical Society, AMA (American Medical Association, APA (American Psychological Association, IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers styles and the NLM (National Library of Medicine style guide. I found that 2 journals have adopted the Korean government’s romanization system, while 10 use the McCune-Reischauer system. Other journals do not specifically mention a romanization system. Editors should select a romanization system and use it consistently. When presenting a reference that includes romanized text, the journal’s house style should be followed, based on international reference citation styles. Chinese characters in documents published in Korea should be romanized according to the Korean pronunciation.

  13. English Vocabularies Derived from Greek and Roman Mythology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪桥; 赵孔银

    2012-01-01

    1. introduction 1.1 the current situation of greek and roman mythology in english study The backgrounds knowledge of Greek and Roman mythology are so familiar to native English speakers, but so unfamiliar to us Non-English-speaking country English learners. Until now, we are not concentrated on those backgrounds knowledge but on listening,

  14. Doctors in ancient Greek and Roman rhetorical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Craig A

    2013-10-01

    This article collects and examines all references to doctors in rhetorical exercises used in ancient Greek and Roman schools in the Roman Empire. While doctors are sometimes portrayed positively as philanthropic, expert practitioners of their divinely sanctioned art, they are more often depicted as facing charges for poisoning their patients.

  15. Griezelig gewoon : Gotieke verschijningen in Nederlandse romans, 1980-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andeweg, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Hedendaagse Nederlandse auteurs putten naar hartenlust uit het repertoire van de gothic novel. In dit boek analyseert Agnes Andeweg zes van zulke gotieke romans van auteurs als Frans Kellendonk, Gerard Reve, Thomas Rosenboom en Renate Dorrestein. Deze romans laten zich lezen als een commentaar op de

  16. Roman contre roman dans l’organisation du manuscrit du Vatican, Regina Latina 1725

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Gingras

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Alors que les développements structuralistes et post-structuralistes ont favorisé la “textualisation” de la littérature médiévale, l’auteur suggère que la recontextualisation de la réception du roman médiéval passe par un retour aux manuscrits. Appliquée au manuscrit du Vatican, Regina Latina 1725, cette hypothèse de recherche révèle une technique de contrepoint que permet la juxtaposition de différents romans et dont, en dernier recours, le lecteur est toujours un peu juge.

  17. Stone mortars in Roman Cisalpine: new specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caffini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The mortar, made of stone or marble, represents artifact in Cisalpine widespread elsewhere in the Roman world. the morphologies are substantially grouped into two basic shapes: type 1 presents a hemispherical bowl more or less flattened, Type 2 is characterized by a conical reverse body, more or less flared. In the mortars were subjected to pounding and grinding, using a pestle driven by hand, raw materials of various origin. The fields of application were mainly three: alimentary, officinal and cosmetic. In some cases the generic definition of mortar is applied improperly to marble containers probably only be used for ornamental. It 'also demonstrated the use of artifacts attributable to type 2 as a function of urns. Therefore, in reference to decontextualized pieces, you should use a definition not unique, reflecting the different possible meanings of the artifact.

  18. The signed Roman domatic number of a digraph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmoud Sheikholeslami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Let $D$ be a finite and simple digraph with vertex set $V(D$.A {\\em signed Roman dominating function} on the digraph $D$ isa function  $f:V (D\\longrightarrow \\{-1, 1, 2\\}$ such that$\\sum_{u\\in N^-[v]}f(u\\ge 1$ for every $v\\in V(D$, where $N^-[v]$ consists of $v$ andall inner neighbors of $v$, and every vertex $u\\in V(D$ for which $f(u=-1$ has an innerneighbor $v$ for which $f(v=2$. A set $\\{f_1,f_2,\\ldots,f_d\\}$ of distinct signedRoman dominating functions on $D$ with the property that $\\sum_{i=1}^df_i(v\\le 1$ for each$v\\in V(D$, is called a {\\em signed Roman dominating family} (of functions on $D$. The maximumnumber of functions in a signed Roman dominating family on $D$ is the {\\em signed Roman domaticnumber} of $D$, denoted by $d_{sR}(D$. In this paper we initiate the study of signed Romandomatic number in digraphs and we present some sharp bounds for $d_{sR}(D$. In addition, wedetermine the signed Roman domatic number of some digraphs.  Some of our results are extensionsof well-known properties of the signed Roman domatic number of graphs.

  19. Roman domination in Cartesian product graphs and strong product graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Yero, Ismael G

    2011-01-01

    A set $S$ of vertices of a graph $G$ is a dominating set for $G$ if every vertex outside of $S$ is adjacent to at least one vertex belonging to $S$. The minimum cardinality of a dominating set for $G$ is called the domination number of $G$. A map $f : V \\rightarrow \\{0, 1, 2\\}$ is a Roman dominating function on a graph $G$ if for every vertex $v$ with $f(v) = 0$, there exists a vertex $u$, adjacent to $v$, such that $f(u) = 2$. The weight of a Roman dominating function is given by $f(V) =\\sum_{u\\in V}f(u)$. The minimum weight of a Roman dominating function on $G$ is called the Roman domination number of $G$. In this article we study the Roman domination number of Cartesian product graphs and strong product graphs. More precisely, we study the relationships between the Roman domination number of product graphs and the (Roman) domination number of the factors.

  20. Has the architectural process of public buildings changed since the romans?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink Rasmussen, Mai; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Fisker, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    Have the architectural process of public buildings changed as much as the society since the Romans? This paper compares the Roman approach of public buildings with the Danish approach today.......Have the architectural process of public buildings changed as much as the society since the Romans? This paper compares the Roman approach of public buildings with the Danish approach today....

  1. Nets, Boats and Fishing in the Roman World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2002-01-01

    Ithas been claimed that in Roman times, net fishing was a shore-based technology, but a study of literary sources and pictorial evidence, mainly mosaics, show that net fishing from boats was widespread throughout the first four centuries AD....

  2. Kerttu Wagner. Die historischen romane von Jaan Kross / Wolfgang Drechsler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Drechsler, Wolfgang, 1963-

    2001-01-01

    Arvustus: Wagner, Kerttu. Die historischen Romane von Jaan Kross : am Beispiel einer Untersuchung der deutschen und englischen Übersetzungen von "Professor Martensi ärasõit" (1984). Frankfurt am Main [etc.] : P. Lang, 2001.

  3. Roman digit naming: evidence for a semantic route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyck, Wouter; Lagrou, Evelyne; Gevers, Wim; Fias, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Earlier research with monolinguals and bilinguals showed that numbers may be named through both a semantic and a phonological route, depending on the number's language and format (Arabic or verbal), task demands, and naming language. The present study investigated the importance of the semantic route for the processing of a third representation of magnitude, namely Roman digits. Using an interference paradigm, we showed that the processing of Roman target digits is influenced by Arabic digit distractors, both in a naming task and a parity judgment task. Roman digits were processed faster if the target and distractor were of the same magnitude. If this was not the case, processing speed slowed down as the numerical distance between target and distractor increased. This strongly suggests that semantic access is mandatory when naming Roman digits. Implications are discussed for the number processing domain and for models of translation in bilinguals.

  4. Kerttu Wagner. Die historischen romane von Jaan Kross / Wolfgang Drechsler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Drechsler, Wolfgang, 1963-

    2001-01-01

    Arvustus: Wagner, Kerttu. Die historischen Romane von Jaan Kross : am Beispiel einer Untersuchung der deutschen und englischen Übersetzungen von "Professor Martensi ärasõit" (1984). Frankfurt am Main [etc.] : P. Lang, 2001.

  5. Poetics of Resistance in Roman Antiquity: A Reading in Neronian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANDCORPgh changing the world

    symptomatic of governments characterized by oppressive policies and brutal ..... However, in spite of this disgust felt by the Roman nobility for actors, accounts ..... verse passages, which appear critical of contemporary versifiers: his didactic ...

  6. tumours and cancers in graeco-roman times 1. introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Graeco-Roman times all tumours (Greek: onkoi, abnormal swellings) were consi- dered to be of ... of tumours is a more recent concept, barely two centuries old. In Hippocratic litera- ..... Ancient and medieval chemotherapy for cancer.

  7. El pensamiento cinematográfico de Roman Jakobson

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Puyal, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    .... The hypothesis that raises Roman Jakobson is the transposition of the literary features to the cinematographic mean, until rising what the Russian formalists came in calling “Poetics of Cinema” ( Poetika Kino...

  8. Trade and Transport in Late Roman Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Christopher

    Despite the relative notoriety and miraculous level of preservation of the Dead Cities of Syria, fundamental questions of economic and subsistence viability remain unanswered. In the 1950s Georges Tchalenko theorized that these sites relied on intensive olive monoculture to mass export olive oil to urban centers. Later excavations discovered widespread cultivation of grains, fruit, and beans which directly contradicted Tchalenko's assertion of sole reliance on oleoculture. However, innumerable olive presses in and around the Dead Cities still speak to a strong tradition of olive production. This thesis tests the logistical viability of olive oil transportation from the Dead Cities to the distant urban centers of Antioch and Apamea. Utilization of Raster GIS and remote sensing data allows for the reconstruction of the physical and social landscapes of Late Roman Syria. Least Cost Analysis techniques produce a quantitative and testable model with which to simulate and evaluate the viability of long distance olive oil trade. This model not only provides a clearer understanding of the nature of long distance trade relationships in Syria, but also provides a model for investigating ancient economic systems elsewhere in the world. Furthermore, this project allows for the generation of new information regarding sites that are currently inaccessible to researchers.

  9. Roman Jakobson论文学文本

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建国

    2015-01-01

    Roman Jakobson是20世纪最杰出的学者之一,他把文学文本设想为一个存在于三维空间之中,有着明确的外部边界和内部结构的“有形之物”,提出了一些迥异于前人的见解,包括:1)强调文学文本的非个性化;2)确定文学文本的边界;3)确立文学文本价值的内在取向;4)确立文学文本的立体模式;5)确立文学文本的功能观和关系论;6)确立文学文本的整体观和系统论;7)肯定文学文本中符号的非线性分布;8)追寻文学文本中的关系性常量。同他的诗学一样,雅各布森所建立的文学文本理论是对20世纪文学理论的重要贡献。

  10. Wall painting in the Roman empire: colour, design and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Pye

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Roman wall paintings are frequently admired by visitors to such famous sites as Pompeii and Herculaneum, and traces of them also survive in the remains of many towns and villas throughout the lands of the former empire, but the technological skill of the Roman painters is less widely appreciated. Here the sources of the pigments used and the methods the painters employed to plaster and paint the walls are described.

  11. Halloween - vallatu karneval / Rando Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Rando

    2003-01-01

    Rooma katoliku kiriku poolt 835. aastal välja kuulutatud kõikide pühakute päev (halloween) on läbi ajaloo muutunud tänapäevaseks massikultuuri pidustuseks. Sisaldab ka artikleid "Novembriga algas keltide uus aasta" ja "Eesti maarahva hingedeaeg"

  12. The continuity of Roman water supply systems in post-Roman Spain: the case of Valentia, a reliable example?

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Jiménez, Javier (Archaeologist)

    2011-01-01

    Even if the general assumption is that Roman water supply systems (aqueducts in particular) ceased to function during the late Roman period, and that these were not present in medieval cities, recent archaeological research is proving that this was not always the case. Several cities in Spain show archaeological continuity in their water supply systems into the Visigothic period, and one of these seems to be Valencia. There is archaeological evidence to suggest a functioning aqueduct until th...

  13. Feeding behaviour of artificially reared Romane lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, I; Bouvier, F; Ricard, E; Ruesche, J; Weisbecker, J-L

    2014-06-01

    A consequence of increasing litter size in sheep is that a portion of the lambs have to be reared artificially. Detailed information about the pattern of milk consumption of artificially reared lambs would help improve their management. The purpose of this study is to describe the individual and group feeding behaviour of 94 Romane artificially reared lambs from 5 to 28 days of age using an electronic automatic lamb feeder. Animals were located in four pens of 8 to 15 lambs of similar age with one teat per pen. They were fed ad libitum. In our experimental situation (group rearing, continuous lightning) on average a lamb made 1.4±0.7 visits to the teat per meal and 9.5±3 meals per day. Mean meal duration was 247±158 s and the mean daily time spent feeding was 38±25 min. The mean quantity of milk intake was 176±132 ml per meal and 1.68±0.8 l per day. With age, the number of daily meals and their duration decreased while the quantity of milk consumed per meal and per day increased. Females tended to make more visits to the teat per meal and perform more meals per day but their milk consumption per meal was lower. The feed conversion ratio was 1.36±0.2. Synchrony in feeding (group meal) was estimated as the percentage of lambs that wanted to access the teat within the same short period (relative group meal size). On average 65% of lambs in the pen wanted to access the teat within the same period, but for 35% of group meals the relative group meal size was >90%. There was no consistency in the order in which lambs accessed the teat during a group meal. Our evaluation suggested that electronic automatic lamb feeders are tools that can provide, on a large scale, data describing the feeding behaviour of artificially reared lambs. It is then possible to study factors influencing these traits in order to improve the outcome of artificially reared lambs.

  14. On the Roman bondage number of a graph

    CERN Document Server

    Bahremandpour, A; Sheikholeslami, S M; Xu, Jun-Ming

    2012-01-01

    A Roman dominating function on a graph $G=(V,E)$ is a function $f:V\\rightarrow\\{0,1,2\\}$ such that every vertex $v\\in V$ with $f(v)=0$ has at least one neighbor $u\\in V$ with $f(u)=2$. The weight of a Roman dominating function is the value $f(V(G))=\\sum_{u\\in V(G)}f(u)$. The minimum weight of a Roman dominating function on a graph $G$ is called the Roman domination number, denoted by $\\gamma_{R}(G)$. The Roman bondage number $b_{R}(G)$ of a graph $G$ with maximum degree at least two is the minimum cardinality of all sets $E'\\subseteq E(G)$ for which $\\gamma_{R}(G-E')>\\gamma_R(G)$. In this paper, we first show that the decision problem for determining $b_{\\rm R}(G)$ is NP-hard even for bipartite graphs and then we establish some sharp bounds for $b_{\\rm R}(G)$ and characterizes all graphs attaining some of these bounds.

  15. Astronomy in towns? An archaeoastronomical approach to the Roman urbanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Antón, A.; Belmonte, J. A.; González-García, A. C.

    2017-03-01

    Although the final definition of Archaeoastronomy is still under debate, what is clear is that this discipline offers a different approach to the knowledge of ancient cultures than traditional archaeology has done so far. Archaeoastronomy considers the sky as an inseparabe part of the environment and thus an element of the transformed landscape with highly symbolic content. In the case of the Roman culture, the great colonizing activity involved continuous spatial transformations and the skyscape should be considered as a piece of the created urbanized spaces. For this reason, a number of fieldwork campaigns were conducted in several Roman cities across different regions of the ancient Roman Empire in order to study the configuration of those landscapes and the possible integration of the sky during the buiding processes. At the present, our group has the largest sample of orientations of Roman settlements so far, and here it is shown the preliminary results of an statistical analysis which may offer new answers to the various still open questions in Roman urbanism, often faced from conservative views.

  16. RF Measurements of the New TOTEM Roman Pot

    CERN Document Server

    Berrig, O; Caspers, F; Danisi, A; Eberhardt, J; Kuczerowski, J; Minafra, N; Salvant, B; Vollinger, C

    2015-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment has been designed to measure the total proton-proton cross section and to study the elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC energy. The measurement requires detecting protons at distances as small as 1 mm from the beam center: TOTEM uses Roman Pots, movable beam pipe insertions, hosting silicon detectors. In the first period of LHC operation no relevant problems were detected with Roman Pots retracted or inserted during special runs. However, when operating the LHC with high intensity beams, impedance induced heating has been observed during the Roman Pots insertion. In order to be compatible with the higher LHC beam current foreseen after the LS1, a new version of the Roman Pot has been proposed and optimized with respect to the beam coupling impedance. In this work we present the bench impedance measurements carried out on the new Roman Pot prototype. Single and double wire measurements, as well as probe measurements, were performed in order to detect possible harmful resonant mod...

  17. Welcome to Romans. FBFC and CERCA; Bienvenue a Romans. FBFC et CERCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Franco-Belge de Fabrication de Combustibles (FBFC) and the Compagnie pour l'Etude et la Realisation de Combustibles Atomiques (CERCA) are companies located in the site of Romans sur Isere (France) and involved in the manufacturing of nuclear fuels and fuel elements for PWR and research reactors. Framatome is the industrial operator of both companies which have the same shareholders. This booklet presents the activities of both companies: the role of FBFC in the fuel cycle (UF{sub 6}-UO{sub 2} conversion, recycling, pelletizing, loading of fuel rods, assembly, machining, manufacturing of mixing grids and rod cluster control assemblies), and the activities of CERCA (manufacturing of the Triga fuel for research reactors, manufacturing of superconducting cavities, neutronmultidetectors and radiation sources). (J.S.)

  18. Comparative investigation of mortars from Roman Colosseum and cistern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, D.A. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 725 Davis Hall 94720-1710, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)]. E-mail: denise@ecv.ufsc.br; Wenk, H.R. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, 497 McCone 94720-4767, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Monteiro, P.J.M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 725 Davis Hall 94720-1710, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Mortar from the Roman Colosseum and a Roman cistern from Albano Laziale were characterized with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)). The different techniques provided consistent results that the mortar of the Colosseum is mainly calcareous lime, while the mortar of the cistern is pozzolanic siliceous material. The study highlights the capabilities of the different methods for the analysis of cement. For routine analysis XRD is adequate but for characterization of poorly crystalline phases FT-IR and TGA have definite advantages.

  19. Military Degeneration and Decline of the Roman Empire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江静

    2013-01-01

    The cause of the decline of Roman Empire is a mystery to many historians of western civilization. Political and social weakness, or economic retroversion are conceived to be contributable factors. This issue, however, is approached here from the perspective of military degeneration, which closely relates to political anarchy, economic depression and barbarian invasions, and therefore, makes it for the most part convenient for the third-century Persian Sassanids and Germanic peoples to invade into the Empire, and wipes Romans out on the historical stage.

  20. Putting Roman Dams in Context: a Virtual Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, M. J.; Du Vernay, J. P.; Mcleod, J. B.

    2017-08-01

    Water resources and management have become a critical global issue. During the half-millennium of its existence, the Roman Empire developed numerous strategies to cope with water management, from large-scale urban aqueduct systems, to industrial-scale water mills designed to cope with feeding growing city populations. Roman engineers encountered, adopted, and adapted indigenous hydraulic systems, and left lasting imprints on the landscape of the Mediterranean and temperate Western Europe by employing a range of water technologies. A recent academic study has enabled the identification of remains of and references to seventy-two dams from the Roman era, constructed in Spain between the 1st and 4th century AD. Such unique heritage, without comparisons in the Mediterranean makes Spain an emblematic case study for the analysis of Roman hydraulic engineering and water management policies. Fifty dams have been located and detailed. The twenty-two outstanding, although identified on the ground, have not been able to be acceptably characterized, due in some cases to their being ruins in a highly degraded state, others due to their being masked by repairs and reconstructions subsequent to the Roman era. A good example of such neglected dams is the buttress dam of Consuegra , in Toledo province (Castilla-La Mancha). Dating to the 3rd - 4th century AD, the Dam of Consuegra, on the basin of the Guadiana, with its over 600 metres length and 4,80 metres height, is a remarkable case of Roman engineering mastery. It had a retaining wall upstream, numerous buttresses and perhaps an embankment downstream, of which no remains are left. The application of 3D digital imaging technique to create a high quality virtual model of such monuments has proved to be successful especially for the study of the technological aspects related its construction. The case study of the Roman dam of Muel (Zaragoza) has shown, in fact, as best practices in digital archaeology can provide an original and

  1. A Directed Network of Greek and Roman Mythology

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yeon-Mu; Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2005-01-01

    We study the Greek and Roman mythology using the network theory. We construct a directed network by using a dictionary of Greek and Roman mythology in which the nodes represent the entries listed in the dictionary and we make directional links from an entry to other entries that appear in its explanatory part. We find that this network is clearly not a random network but a directed scale-free network. Also measuring the various quantities which characterize the mythology network, we analyze t...

  2. The Gordian Knot of Interpretation: Roman written sources, the idea of socio-cultural evolution and the concept of Romanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir D. Mihajlović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Roman Empire, under the Greek influences, authors shared the idea of “the degree of humanity”, according to which the Romans formed value judgements about the “barbarian” societies. The framework of reference was constituted by the Roman society itself, taken as superior and predestined as the centre of the known world. The criteria for comparison were based upon the natural and climatic environment, socio-political organization, economy, religion, ways of life, warfare, marital practices, certain kinds of material culture and cultural practices in general. According to this view, the Mediterranean societies were “the most human”, and the level of humanity declined in direct relation to the geographical remoteness and other differences as compared to the centre. Although these speculations were not organized into a unified interpretive framework, like the modern social theories, they nevertheless were implicit assumptions of the Roman elite. This „naive“ or “common-sense anthropology” has had a strong impact on the formation of the premises of the modern anthropological theories, due to the general role of the ancient written sources in the processes of knowledge formation in modern Europe. It is therefore possible to assume that the ancient ideas, along with the later ones, played an important role in the shaping of the postulates of the early theory of socio-cultural evolution – the implicit base of interpretation of human societies during the 19th century. Consequently, the written sources have played a double role in the processes of formation of the concept of Romanization – directly, as well as through socio-cultural evolution, onto which the concept itself relied. In this way, the prejudices stemming from the discourse of Romanization gained the air of scientific interpretations, verified by two seemingly independent reference systems.

  3. the influence of christianity on graeco-roman medicine up to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Church and rational medicine (as represented by Graeco-Roman me- dical concepts) during ... At the time of Christ the ancient Egyptian Isis-religion was still .... victims of the epidemics (probably mostly smallpox) which ravaged the. Roman ...

  4. 76 FR 14115 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Assorted Greek and Roman...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Assorted Greek and Roman Objects... Greek and Roman Objects'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are...

  5. Thrilleriklassik Roman Polanski võitis kulla / Jaak Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Jaak

    2002-01-01

    Cannes'i 55. rahvusvahelise filmifestivali Kuldne Palmioks läks Roman Polanski filmile "Pianist", Aki Kaurismäki filmile "Minevikuta mees" anti grand prix' ja parima naisnäitleja auhind (Kati Outinen). Žürii preemia sai Palestiina režissööri Elia Suleimani komöödia "Jumalik interventsioon". Lisatud auhinnasaajate nimekiri

  6. Eratosthenes and Pliny, Greek geometry and Roman follies

    CERN Document Server

    Boyadzhiev, Khristo N

    2010-01-01

    Supportive attitudes can bring to a blossoming science, while neglect can quickly make science absent from everyday life and provide a very primitive view of the world. We compare one important Greek achievement, the computation of the earth meridian by Eratosthenes, to its later interpretation by the Roman historian of science Pliny.

  7. The Roman Hannibal: Remembering the Enemy in Silius Italicus' Punica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stocks, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a new reading of Hannibal in Silius Italicus' Punica and provides fresh insight into how the Romans remembered their past. Silius Italicus' Punica, the longest surviving epic in Latin literature, has seen a resurgence of interest among scholars in recent years. A celebration of Rom

  8. The ecclesiastical situation of the first generation Roman Christians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. du Toit

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Forming pan of a trilogy about the first generation Roman Christians, this anicle concentrates on the ecclesiastical aspect. From some scattered and relatively small groups, the numbers of Roman Christians increased markedly in the second half of the first century. According to Romans 16, Jewish Christians played a significant role in the initial period, although Gentile Christians were in the majority. Friction between these groups may have been a problem, but was not Paul's main concern. The Gentile Christians were mainly from a foreign background. Thus the first Christian community had a strongly cosmopolitan character. The plurality of house-churches was mainly due to practical factors, but social differentiation might have played a role. Meetings most probably took place in the ordinary rented apanments of insulae. Romans 16 renders a vivid picture of the leadership activities of Christian women and of Paul's enlightened position in this regard.

  9. Jan Mukaržovskij i Roman Jakobson

    OpenAIRE

    Sládek, O. (Ondřej)

    2014-01-01

    In this study the author focuses mainly on three questions: What is the relationship between Jan Mukařovský and Roman Jakobson? Are there any similarities between their conceptions of poetics and aesthetics? What are the main principles of their poetics?

  10. Neural Correlates for Learning to Read Roman Numerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masataka, Nobuo; Ohnishi, Takashi; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Hirakata, Makiko; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the neuronal correlates of reading Roman numerals and the changes that occur with extensive practice. Subjects were scanned by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) three times the first day of the experiment and once following two to three months of practice. This allowed comparison of brain activations with varying…

  11. Correlated Behavioral Traits in Rats of the Roman Selection Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, Caroline M.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Steimer, Thierry; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Maxson, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The current theories of animal personality are based on the observation that individual variation in behavior and physiology appears to be consistent across contexts. Rats of the Roman selection lines have been originally selected for differences in shuttle-box behavior. Besides differences in activ

  12. THE DIFFERENTIAL AND THE ROMAN DOMINATION NUMBER OF A GRAPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bermudo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Let $G=(V,E$ be a graph of order $n$ and let $B(S$ be the set of vertices in $V \\setminus S$ that have a neighbor in the vertex set $S$. The differential of a vertex set $S$ is defined as $\\partial (S= |B(S|-|S|$ and the maximum value of $\\partial(S$ for any subset $S$ of $V$ is the differential of $G$. A Roman dominating function of $G$ is a function $f : V \\rightarrow \\{0, 1, 2\\}$ such that every vertex $u$ with $f(u = 0$ is adjacent to a vertex $v$ with $f(v = 2$. The weight of a Roman dominating function is the value $f(V =\\sum\\limits_{u\\in V} f(u$. The minimum weight of a Roman dominating function of a graph $G$ is the Roman domination number of $G$, written $\\gamma_R(G$. We prove that $\\gamma_R(G=n-\\partial(G$ and present several combinatorial, algorithmic and complexity-theoretic consequences thereof.

  13. Language Choice, Expectation, and the Roman Notion of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Craig R.; Prince, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Describe the Roman concepts of "decorum" and "ornatus." Analyzes a speech from Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet," showing how these concepts advance plot, deepen character, and create expectations. Demonstrates how these concepts are useful in the criticism of American public address by applying them to Ronald Reagan's eulogy for the Challenger…

  14. Edith Wharton's "Roman Fever": A Rune of History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Dale M.

    1988-01-01

    Asserts that "Roman Fever" responds to a reactionary political climate, demonstrating an anti-reactionary thrust to Edith Wharton's fiction. Argues that Wharton deserves credit for articulating the destructive character of a cultural misogyny that led quickly to what she saw in 1933 as "a world whizzing ... crazily to the…

  15. Emperors and Ancestors. Roman Rulers and the Constraints of Tradition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekster, O.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ancestry played a continuous role in the construction and portrayal of Roman emperorship in the first three centuries AD. Emperors and Ancestors is the first systematic analysis of the different ways in which imperial lineage was represented in the various 'media' through which images of emperors co

  16. The Rhetorical Case: Its Roman Precedent and the Current Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Reviews a debate among Roman rhetoricians over declamation, an early case study method. Appraises contemporary concerns about the value of case study as a stimulant to problem-solving skills, its ability to imitate realistic circumstances of business and technical writing, and its emphasis on persona and audience along with its deemphasis of the…

  17. Emperors and Ancestors. Roman Rulers and the Constraints of Tradition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekster, O.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ancestry played a continuous role in the construction and portrayal of Roman emperorship in the first three centuries AD. Emperors and Ancestors is the first systematic analysis of the different ways in which imperial lineage was represented in the various 'media' through which images of emperors co

  18. On the acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnetani, Andrea; Prodi, Nicola; Pompoli, Roberto

    2008-09-01

    The interplay of architecture and acoustics is remarkable in ancient Greek and Roman theaters. Frequently they are nowadays lively performance spaces and the knowledge of the sound field inside them is still an issue of relevant importance. Even if the transition from Greek to Roman theaters can be described with a great architectural detail, a comprehensive and objective approach to the two types of spaces from the acoustical point of view is available at present only as a computer model study [P. Chourmouziadou and J. Kang, "Acoustic evolution of ancient Greek and Roman theaters," Appl. Acoust. 69, re (2007)]. This work addresses the same topic from the experimental point of view, and its aim is to provide a basis to the acoustical evolution from Greek to Roman theater design. First, by means of in situ and scale model measurements, the most important features of the sound field in ancient theaters are clarified and discussed. Then it has been possible to match quantitatively the role of some remarkable architectural design variables with acoustics, and it is seen how this criterion can be used effectively to define different groups of ancient theaters. Finally some more specific wave phenomena are addressed and discussed.

  19. [Contribution to the history of pharmacology (the early Roman empire)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesařová, Drahomíra

    2014-01-01

    This article is a contribution to the history of pharmacology in the early Roman empire. It contains texts mainly written in Latin: the works of Aulus Cornelius Celsus, Scribonius Largus and Plinius Maior (Pliny the Elder). It describes their structure and contributions to the history of medicine and gives examples of some prescriptions and drugs in the original language and in Czech.

  20. Den historiske roman for børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyggebjerg, Anna Karlskov

    Bogen indeholder en redegørelse for den historiske roman som børnelitterær genre. Genren diskuteres i et teoretisk, historisk og analytisk perspektiv. Bogen afsluttes med en række principielle didaktiske overvejelser. Bogen er henvendt til alle, der beskæftiger sig professionelt med børnelitteratur...

  1. Acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theaters in use today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian; Angelakis, Konstantinos

    2006-01-01

    In the Mediteranan area a large number of open, ancient Greek and Roman theatres are still today facing a busy schedule of performances including both classical and contemporary works of dance, drama, concerts, and opera. During the EU funded ``Erato'' project and a subsequent master thesis project...

  2. Josephus' Antiquities 1-11 and Greco-Roman Historiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Martin

    The dissertation Josephus’ Antiquities 1-11 and Greco-Roman historiography provides an extensive study in five chapters of the various ways in which Josephus presents himself as an historian in the first eleven books of the Antiquities. From this analysis, it emerges that his manner of self...

  3. Roman impact on the landscape near castellum Fectio, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, V.; Brinkkemper, O.; Bull, I.D.; Engels, S.; Hakbijl, T.; Schepers, M.; Dinter, M.; van Reenen, G.; van Geel, B.

    2014-01-01

    Castellum Fectio was one of the largest fortifications along the Limes, the northern border of the Roman Empire. The castellum, situated 5 km southeast of Utrecht, the Netherlands, was occupied from around the start of our Era to ca. a.d. 260. It was situated along a river bend of the Rhine that was

  4. Slavonic Names in Greek and Roman Antiquities. Onomastica, Number 37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiroff, G.

    Listed in this pamphlet are 22 place and personal names of Slavic origin which appear in Greek and Roman documents. Following a brief introduction in which the criteria for selection of these names is given, a section discusses the inconsistent systems of transliteration employed by classical authors. Then, the actual annotated listing of names…

  5. 'Cost in transliteration': the neurocognitive processing of Romanized writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chaitra; Mathur, Avantika; Singh, Nandini C

    2013-03-01

    Romanized transliteration is widely used in internet communication and global commerce, yet we know little about its behavioural and neural processing. Here, we show that Romanized text imposes a significant neurocognitive load. Readers faced greater difficulty in identifying concrete words written in Romanized transliteration (Romanagari) compared to L1 and L2. Functional neuroimaging revealed that the neural cost of processing transliterations arose from significantly greater recruitment of language (left precentral gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule) and attention networks (left mid-cingulum). Additionally, transliterated text uniquely activated attention and control areas compared to both L1 (cerebellar vermis) and L2 (pre-supplementary motor area/pre-SMA). We attribute the neural effort of reading Romanized transliteration to (i) effortful phonological retrieval from unfamiliar orthographic forms and (ii) conflicting attentional demands imposed by mapping orthographic forms of one language to phonological-semantic representations in another. Finally, significant brain-behaviour correlation suggests that the left mid-cingulum modulates cognitive-linguistic conflict.

  6. Benoit Mandelbrot (1924 - 2011 ) : A Greek among Romans

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Posthumous tributes to Benoit Mandelbrot (1924-2010) have highlighted his remarkable influence on the natural sciences, from geometry to meteorology, to theories with non-Euclidean spaces and geospatial models approach. Mandelbrot culminates a series of major thinkers going back to classical Greece: a Greek among Romans

  7. The Gate of Heaven: Revisiting Roman Mithraic Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assasi, R.

    2016-01-01

    The definition and origins of Roman Mithraism remain highly problematic and controversial among modern scholars. The majority of research on Roman Mithraism focuses on interpreting the physical evidence because no considerable written narratives or theology from the religion survive. The most important Mithraic artifact is a repeated bull-slaying scene, which leaves no doubt that this figure conveys the core divine message of the cult. There is also another important Mithraic character that seems to be as important as the bull-slayer. This figure is a lion-headed man entwined by a snake. The author suggests that these figures represent the north ecliptic pole and argues for the importance of this astronomical reference in the Mithraic iconography and mythology. The author also demonstrates the possible relation of his proposed astrological model to the geocentric understanding of the axial precession around the ecliptic pole, where the Roman bull-slaying Mithras could be visualized in the form of a Mithraic constellation. This astrological model also is proposed to be the architectural design concept of Roman Mithraeum. The author also points to the core Christian symbols as possible contemporaneous parallels or derivatives of the Mithraic iconography and theology.

  8. Barbarians in the Norteh - the Greatest Concentration of Roman Weaponry in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulla Lund

    2007-01-01

    Presentation and discussion af the great amount of weaponry in the Danish bogs and lakes dated to the Roman Iron Age (0-400 AD). The paper discuss the character of the weaponofferings, the Roman imported weaponry in the offerings, the influence at the Germanic weapons from the Roman army, and pos...

  9. Hidden Lives: Public Personae: Women and Civic Life in the Roman West

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemelrijk, E.A.

    2015-01-01

    Roman cities have rarely been studied from the perspective of women, and studies of Roman women mainly focus on the city of Rome. Studying the civic participation of women in the towns of Italy outside Rome and in the numerous cities of the Latin-speaking provinces of the Roman Empire, this books

  10. Roman Toi kaks suurt armastust : muusika ja Eesti / Elle Puusaag ; foto: V. Sarapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puusaag, Elle, 1945-2017

    2007-01-01

    Toronto Eesti Maja kristallsaalis toimunud pidulikust õhtust 5. detsembril: maestro Roman Toi mälestusteraamatu esitlusest. Rets. rmt.: Toi, Roman. Kaunimad laulud pühendan sull' : Roman Toi mälestused/toimetaja Tiina Sarv. Toronto : Viljandi : T. Sarv, 2007

  11. Roman Toi kaks suurt armastust : muusika ja Eesti / Elle Puusaag ; foto: V. Sarapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puusaag, Elle, 1945-2017

    2007-01-01

    Toronto Eesti Maja kristallsaalis toimunud pidulikust õhtust 5. detsembril: maestro Roman Toi mälestusteraamatu esitlusest. Rets. rmt.: Toi, Roman. Kaunimad laulud pühendan sull' : Roman Toi mälestused/toimetaja Tiina Sarv. Toronto : Viljandi : T. Sarv, 2007

  12. Romans-mass-driven flows on the D2-brane

    CERN Document Server

    Guarino, Adolfo; Varela, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    The addition of supersymmetric Chern-Simons terms to ${\\cal N}=8$ super-Yang-Mills theory in three-dimensions is expected to make the latter flow into infrared superconformal phases. We address this problem holographically by studying the effect of the Romans mass on the D2-brane near-horizon geometry. Working in a consistent, effective four-dimensional setting provided by $D=4$ ${\\cal N}=8$ supergravity with a dyonic $\\textrm{ISO(7)}$ gauging, we verify the existence of a rich web of supersymmetric domain walls triggered by the Romans mass that interpolate between the (four-dimensional description of the) D2-brane and various superconformal phases. We also construct domain walls for which both endpoints are superconformal. While most of our results are numerical, we provide analytic results for the $\\textrm{SU}(3)\\times \\textrm{U}(1)$-invariant flow into an ${\\cal N}=2$ conformal phase recently discovered.

  13. Romans-mass-driven flows on the D2-brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarino, Adolfo [Nikhef Theory Group,Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tarrío, Javier [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxellesand International Solvay Institutes,ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Varela, Oscar [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut),Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Department of Physics, Utah State University,Logan, UT 84322 (United States)

    2016-08-30

    The addition of supersymmetric Chern-Simons terms to N=8 super-Yang-Mills theory in three-dimensions is expected to make the latter flow into infrared superconformal phases. We address this problem holographically by studying the effect of the Romans mass on the D2-brane near-horizon geometry. Working in a consistent, effective four-dimensional setting provided by D=4N=8 supergravity with a dyonic ISO(7) gauging, we verify the existence of a rich web of supersymmetric domain walls triggered by the Romans mass that interpolate between the (four-dimensional description of the) D2-brane and various superconformal phases. We also construct domain walls for which both endpoints are superconformal. While most of our results are numerical, we provide analytic results for the SU(3)×U(1)-invariant flow into an N=2 conformal phase recently discovered.

  14. Greco-Roman ethics and the naturalistic fantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Brooke

    2014-09-01

    To modern scholars, the naturalistic fallacy looks out of place in Greco-Roman antiquity owing to the robust associations between nature, especially human nature, and moral norms. Yet nature was understood by ancient authors not only as a norm but also as a form of necessity. The Greco-Roman philosophical schools grappled with how to reconcile the idea that human nature is given with the idea that it is a goal to be reached. This essay looks at the Stoic concept of oikeiōsis as one strategy for effecting such a reconciliation. Drawing on natural history, these Stoic sources used examples of animal behavior to illustrate a process whereby nature "entrusts" all animals, including humans, with the care of their own survival. Nature is thus both what is given to the animal and what the animal achieves in a powerful but also problematic synthesis here called the "naturalistic fantasy".

  15. Macedonian Calendars in Macedonia during the Roman Occupation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Danezis, E.; Grammenos, Th.; Stathopoulou, M.

    Two calendrical sye parallely used in Macedonia during the Roman occupation. Both systems had kept the ancient greek names of the months as they were given in the ancient greek Macedonian Calendar. Also, both systems started with the same month Dios but they differed in the starting year. The older one started with the "Macedonian year" in 148 B.C., the year of the victory of the Roman Consul Q.C.Metellus against the revolution of Pseudo-Phillipus Andriscus. The second one started in 31 B.C., which was known as the "respectful" year. This year indicates the victory of Octavian Augustus over Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra in Aktion on September 2 of the year 31 B.C.

  16. Forensic Metaphors in Romans and their soteriological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B du Toit

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on legal references in Paul concentrated almost exclusively on matters of civil law. A study� of� five� important� passages� in Romans and an overview of the rest of Romans� indicate� that� this� letter contains an unusual number of forensic metaphors and� that� Paul,� in Romans, packaged his soteriology within a forensic setting. This� suggests that he deliberately created an implicature, inviting his readers to compare the iustitia Dei with the iustitia romana. Contrary to the latter, which was� expected� to function on the basis of equity and with which Paul�s addressees were all too well acquainted, the iustitia Dei proves to be astonishingly unconventional. This judge operates with grace. Ironical as it may seem, exactly by using� forensic� imagery, Paul completely delegalized the Christian message.

  17. Diet, social differentiation and cultural change in Roman Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheung, Christina; Schroeder, Hannes; Hedges, R. E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses stable isotope analyses (d 13 C and d 15 N) of human bone collagen to reconstruct the diet of three Romano-British (first to early fifth century AD) populations from Gloucestershire in South West England. Gloucestershire was an important part of Roman Britain with two major admini...... sensitive, if settlement-specific, indicator of social differentiation and culture change.......This study uses stable isotope analyses (d 13 C and d 15 N) of human bone collagen to reconstruct the diet of three Romano-British (first to early fifth century AD) populations from Gloucestershire in South West England. Gloucestershire was an important part of Roman Britain with two major...

  18. State Ownership of the praeda bellica during the Roman Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Piquer-Marí

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From a Public Law perspective, and with particular regards to the subject of public property, this paper examines the praeda bellica as an asset belonging to the Roman people during the times of the Republic. Through an analysis of the ownership of the praeda bellica, the research intends to provide an in depth understanding of legal and proprietary relationships shaping the Public branch of the Law.

  19. Roman Coarse Ware from Bavaria, Austria and Northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluegel, Ch. [Landesstelle fuer die nichtstaatlichen Museen in Bayern (Germany); Fluegel, E. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institut fuer Palaontologie (Germany); Haeusler, W. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department E15 (Germany); Joachimski, M. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institut fuer Geologie und Mineralogie (Germany); Koller, J.; Baumer, U. [Doerner-Institut (Germany); Wagner, U. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department E15 (Germany)

    2004-06-15

    This interdisciplinary study focuses on a specific type of Roman coarse ware that was widely distributed in Bavaria, Austria and northern Italy during the 1st half of the 1st century AD. Various physical methods were applied to study the provenance of this characteristic marble tempered blackware and to assess its production techniques. The blackware found in large numbers on the Auerberg and at other sites in southern Germany can be identified as imported from East Tyrol, Austria.

  20. Early Roman military fortifications and the origin of Trieste, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Federico; Vinci, Giacomo; Horvat, Jana; De Min, Angelo; Forte, Emanuele; Furlani, Stefano; Lenaz, Davide; Pipan, Michele; Zhao, Wenke; Sgambati, Alessandro; Potleca, Michele; Micheli, Roberto; Fragiacomo, Andrea; Tuniz, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    An interdisciplinary study of the archaeological landscape of the Trieste area (northeastern Italy), mainly based on airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and archaeological surveys, has led to the discovery of an early Roman fortification system, composed of a big central camp (San Rocco) flanked by two minor forts. The most ancient archaeological findings, including a Greco–Italic amphora rim produced in Latium or Campania, provide a relative chronology for the first installation of the structures between the end of the third century B.C. and the first decades of the second century B.C. whereas other materials, such as Lamboglia 2 amphorae and a military footwear hobnail (type D of Alesia), indicate that they maintained a strategic role at least up to the mid first century B.C. According to archaeological data and literary sources, the sites were probably established in connection with the Roman conquest of the Istria peninsula in 178–177 B.C. They were in use, perhaps not continuously, at least until the foundation of Tergeste, the ancestor of Trieste, in the mid first century B.C. The San Rocco site, with its exceptional size and imposing fortifications, is the main known Roman evidence of the Trieste area during this phase and could correspond to the location of the first settlement of Tergeste preceding the colony foundation. This hypothesis would also be supported by literary sources that describe it as a phrourion (Strabo, V, 1, 9, C 215), a term used by ancient writers to designate the fortifications of the Roman army. PMID:25775558

  1. Dido: Power and Indulgence in Le Roman d’Eneas

    OpenAIRE

    McGregor, Muriel

    2009-01-01

    During the twelfth century, medieval Western Europe experienced a revival of interest in classical literature. Key Greek and Latin texts had been preserved in Rome’s public and private libraries during the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West. In the sixth and seventh centuries, monastic Christian scholars such as Cassiodorus (born ca. 485 AD) and Benedict of Nursia (480 – 547 AD) established scriptoria, places for copying manuscripts, in their monasteries. There they transcribed and stor...

  2. Bone tuberculosis in Roman Period Pannonia (western Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Hajdu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse a skeleton (adult female, 25-30 years that presented evidence of tuberculous spondylitis. The skeleton, dated from the Roman Period (III-VI centuries, was excavated near the town of Győr, in western Hungary. The skeleton was examined by gross observation supplemented with mycolic acid and proteomic analyses using MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. The biomolecular analyses supported the morphological diagnosis.

  3. Domino et fraturi: An unpublished graffito from roman Sirmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Vojin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Regional Museum of Srem in Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia, a Roman brick is preserved, containing an inscription (Inv. A/5342. Originating from any of the numerous Roman structures in the capital city of Sirmium - most probably from Site 4 (Villa or Site 1a (Palace - the brick exhibits a graffito in Latin which reads as follows: Domino et fraturi Maxime salutem Valerus Januarius Written before the brick was baked, this greeting obviously went from somebody present at the brick plant to another person engaged locally in the business of construction. To address the recipient of a message as dominus frater is a well-attested style in Roman military circles, especially between equals, from the early 2nd century on. Phonologically, the spelling fraturi (for fratri is a remarkable instance of anaptyxis, vulgar, but only rarely occurring in the sources. The pendent vocative Maxime is probably due to the actual formula being a contamination of two known types, Maximo salutem and Maxime vale. Judging by their cognomenta, both men, Januarius and Maximus, may very well have been of indigenous origin, whereas the nomen Valerius may have been acquired through service in the imperial army or administration under the Tetrarchs.

  4. On the Secularization of Roman Law in the Early Roman Republic%论共和国前期罗马法的“世俗化”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒

    2012-01-01

    罗马法的世俗化是罗马法历史发展演进的结果。世俗化的本质是去宗教化,反映的是人对神的驱逐。罗马共和国前期发生的罗马法走出神龛、为平民所知悉并不是“世俗化”的表现,而是大众化过程。因为当时不具有“去宗教”的社会意识形态。%The connotation of secularization of Roman law means that Roman law excluded religious intervention step by step, which reflects man against God. In the two centuries during the early Roman Republic, the secularization of Roman law did not happen. Because the Roman State had no ideology of removed religion.

  5. Identification of green pigments from fragments of Roman mural paintings of three Roman sites from north of Germania Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debastiani, Rafaela; Simon, Rolf; Goettlicher, Joerg; Heissler, Stefan; Steininger, Ralph; Batchelor, David; Fiederle, Michael; Baumbach, Tilo

    2016-10-01

    Roman mural green pigment painting fragments from three Roman sites in the north of the Roman province Germania Superior: Koblenz Stadtwald Remstecken (KOSR), Weißenthurm " Am guten Mann" (WEIS) and Mendig Lungenkärchen (MELU), dating from second and third centuries AD were analyzed. The experiments were performed nondestructively using synchrotron-based scanning macro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-MA-XRF), synchrotron-based scanning micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-μ-XRF), synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Correlation between SR-MA-XRF, SR-μ-XRF elemental map distributions and optical images of scanned areas was mainly found for the elements Ca, Fe and K. With XRF, Fe and K were identified correlated with green pigment, but in samples from two sites, Mendig Lungenkärchen and Weißenthurm " Am guten Mann", also Cu was detected in minor concentration. The results of SR-XRD and Raman spectroscopy were limited to one sample from Weißenthurm " Am guten Mann". In this sample, green earth and calcium carbonate were identified by SR-XRD and, additionally, malachite by Raman spectroscopy.

  6. developing of antique olympic plays in a roman period at board of different emperors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasianenko O.G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Researched the questions of development the Ancient Olympic Games, after the capture Greece territory by the Roman army. This condition and development in future fully depended on the social and political phenomena in Roman society preferring more aggressive types of «spectacles». The direction of quickly changing emperors was represented on status of the competitions. Positive relation authorities to competitions brought to achievement the second «bloom» of the Olympic Games in the Roman period.

  7. Medications and their use in the Graeco-Roman era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Retief

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available As from the 6th century BC Graeco-Roman medical therapy comprised three components, viz. diet and healthy lifestyle (regimen, surgery and medicaments (pharmacotherapy, of which the latter was the oldest. Although the Corpus Hippocraticum (5th century BC, with minor Egyptian influence, contained no text of medicines as such, and seemed to prefer regimen to medicaments, it nevertheless laid the foundation for the empirical use of pharmacotherapy (free of superstition and magic for the next millennium. The first Greek herbal was produced by Diocles in the 4th century BC, when the botanist Theophrastus also wrote his classic works on plants which contained a significant contribution on herbal medicines. The Alexandrian Medical School systematized and expanded Hippocratic medicine, and Herophilus introduced compound preparations. The concept that medicaments cure illness by restoring the bodily balance of humours and primary properties was largely perpetuated, but new views on physiology were gradually emerging. Unfortunately the bulk of original contributions from Hellenistic doctors are lost to posterity and only known to us through the writings of for example Celsus and Galen in Roman times. The interesting history of theriac, the so-called universal antidote, is reviewed. In the 1st century Dioscorides produced his Materia Medica which remained an authoritative pharmacopoeia up to modern times. Galen’s empiric views on pharmacotherapy (2nd century, still largely based on Hippocrates, became dogma in Medieval times, but mysticism and superstition gradually swept back into medicine. Retrospectively it is clear that with the exception of certain analgesics and narcotics like opium, Graeco-Roman medicaments were pharmacologically inert (even toxic and obtained positive results largely through a placebo effect.

  8. Professor "Nonlinear": Obituary and memoir for Roman Juszkiewicz (1952-2012)

    CERN Document Server

    Hellwing, Wojciech A

    2013-01-01

    On 28th and 29th of January 2013 we held an international meeting in Zielona G\\'ora (Poland) honouring the first anniversary of premature passing away^(1) of Professor Roman Juszkiewicz. We have celebrated an opening of a new seminar room at the University of Zielona G\\'ora commemorated to the memory of Roman Juszkiewicz and we have shared our anecdotes and memories of this great scientist and friend. Here we want to present a limited and short memoir and obituary for Roman Juszkiewicz. 1: Roman Juszkiewicz passed away on 28th of January 2012

  9. PIXE-PIGE analysis of late roman glass fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Tubio, B. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Escuela de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)]. E-mail: tubio@us.es; Ontalba Salamanca, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain); Ortega-Feliu, I. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Thomas A. Edison s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Respaldiza, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Thomas A. Edison s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Amores Carredano, F. [Departamento de Prehistoria y Arqueologia, Universidad de Sevilla, C/Dona Maria de Padilla s/n, 41010 Sevilla (Spain); Gonzalez-Acuna, D. [Departamento de Geografia, Historia y Filosofia, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. de Utrera Km 1, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    A set of Roman glass fragments, excavated at Sevilla and dated in the 5th century A.D., has been analysed by PIXE and PIGE techniques using the external beam set-up of the 3 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator of the CNA at the University of Sevilla. Using a simple quantification method, based on the indirect charge calculation on the sample by monitoring the X-ray induced by the proton beam on the exit window, the composition of the glasses has been determined. From the obtained results, the use of soda as flux has been inferred and colouring manufacture procedures have been identified.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF RELIGION ON THE ROMAN LEGAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea RÎPEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The origins of the science of Roman law are closely related to traditional religious practices. In the old era, it was reduced to knowing forms, kept secret by pontiffs, like religious rites. It is in fact the consequence of the confusion existent between ius, honestum and fas. Therefore, both the juridical consultations, and the religious ones were strictly provided individually and confidentially, considering the secret contents thereof, with a view to maintain the influence of a closed caste over population. All this period, when it was perpetuated a tradition taken over from prestate period, lasted until the year 301 before Christ, under the name of sacred or religious jurisprudence.

  11. The semantics of pain in Greco-Roman antiquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The semantics of pain are an important and interesting aspect of any language. Ancient Greek and Latin had multiple words for pain, which makes scrutinizing different meanings problematic. The ancient physician Galen approached this issue through the use of adjectives to describe the qualities for pain, instead of the words for pain themselves. The medical texts of Celsus and Caelius Aurelianus reveal that Latin also vested particular significance in qualifiers to distinguish between different types of pain. This article looks at the qualifying terms used for pain in the ancient Greek and Latin languages to reveal a sophisticated Greco-Roman vocabulary for pain.

  12. Analysis of metals with luster: Roman brass and silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajfar, H., E-mail: helena.fajfar@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Rupnik, Z. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Šmit, Ž. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-11-01

    Non-destructive PIXE analysis using in-air proton beam was used for the studies of earliest brass coins issued during the 1st century BC by Greek cities in Asia Minor, Romans and Celts, and for the studies of plated low grade silver coins of the 3rd century AD. The analysis determined the levels of zinc and important trace elements, notably selenium, which confirms spread of selenium-marked copper from the east. For plating, combined tinning and silvering was identified by the mapping technique for the mid 3rd century AD, which evolved into mere plating by 270 AD.

  13. Women’s teaching in the Roman Hispania: Guess unfounded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José SEGUÍ MARCO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In Mérida remains a nice funerary stela dedicated to a young girl. For many years the interpretation was that it means a dedication of a teacher to her disciple and therefore a unique example of women teaching in Hispania was imposed. Although this view is still ruled today remains in various studies that false belief. The reality is that there is no evidence that women, except of certain situations associated with the formation of the slaves, developed an educational activity in Rome. This circumstance remained with the triumph of Christianity. Hispania was no exception in the Roman world.

  14. Looking for Colour on Greek and Roman Sculpture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Claridge

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Vinzenz Brinkmann, Oliver Primavesi, Max Hollein, (eds, Circumlitio. The Polychromy of Antique and Medieval Sculpture. Liebighaus Skulpturensammlung, Frankfurt am Main, 2010. New scientific methods now being applied to the analysis of traces of pigments and gilding on ancient Greek and Roman marble statuary, and other marble artefacts, have the potential to revolutionise our understanding of the relationship between form and colour in antiquity. At present the enquiry is still in its infancy, but the papers delivered at a conference held in Frankfurt in 2008, reviewed here, provide a general introduction to the subject and to a wide range of work in progress.

  15. Analysis of Roman wall paintings found in Verona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocchin, Gian Antonio; Rudello, Danilo; Murgia, Emanuela

    2007-09-01

    The present paper deals with the analysis of roman wall paintings fragments recovered from twelve buildings of Verona, Italy. The analytical techniques used were Optical Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) equipped with an EDS microanalysis detector, Xray powder diffraction (XRD) Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman Spectroscopy. The wall preparation generally consisted of three layer: the pictorial layer, an intonachino layer of hydrated lime and a plaster one made of slaked lime and sand. The pigments found in the studied domus are different reflecting the taste and culture of Xa Regio of Italy but also the economical possibilities of the dominus and the building period.

  16. Greek or Roman historical personages in the Quixote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio López Férez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the presence of Greek or Roman historical personages in Don Quixote, offering the passages with the pertinent commentary and notes. Following a chronological order, and indicating in brackets the number of mentions, we have: Lycurgus (1; Tulia, Servius Tulius daughter (1; Lucretia (2; Horatius Cocles (1; Caius Mucius Scevola (1; Artemisia-Mausolus (1; Alexander the Great (13; Hannibal (2; Publius Cornelius Scipio, Africanus (1; Viriatus (1; Sulla-Marius-Catillina (1; Julius Caesar (6; Portia (1; Augustus (2; Nero (2; Traianus-Hadrianus (1.

  17. Qu’est ce que le Nouveau Roman?

    OpenAIRE

    Arguedas Rojas, César; Ulloa Aguilar, Renato

    2013-01-01

     Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar el contexto histórico y literario así como las características de la nueva novela: un personaje casi anónimo, una descripción simple, un contenido sin profundidad. El inicio de la nueva novela comienza sobre todo con las obras de Alain Robbe-Grillet. Cet article a pour but d’analyser le contexte historique et littéraire ainsi que les caractéristiques du nouveau roman : un personnage quasi anonyme, une description simple, un contenu sans profondeu...

  18. Opportunistic Ports and Spaces of Exchange in Late Roman Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidwanger, Justin

    2013-12-01

    Ports served not only as interfaces between land and sea, but as central gathering spaces for economic and cultural exchange. Drawing on case studies from the eastern Mediterranean island of Cyprus, this paper situates opportunistic ports lacking built facilities within a broader socioeconomic context of diverse maritime communications, expanding rural settlement, and increased agricultural productivity during late antiquity. Though simple, these sites served as active agents in the development of new maritime networks as well as local markets throughout their hinterlands, adding flexibility and dynamism to the economic ties between city, countryside, and the wider late Roman world.

  19. La Litterature Objective A Travers Les Gommes Le Voyeur La Jalousie Trois Romans D’alain Robbe Grillet

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLBEYAZ, Arş.Gör.Nazik

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dans ce travail on va d’abord essayer de faire une définition du roman et puis on va mettre en évidence le roman traditionnel et le Nouveau Roman On va comparer le roman traditionnel et le Nouveau Roman à travers trois Nouveaux Romans de Robbe Grillet: Les Gommes Le Voyeur La Jalousie Dans ce but on va dégager les particularités des éléments romanesques comme le temps l’espace les personnages l’action récit l’objet la description le narrateur dans les deux types de ...

  20. Visiones del África Romana = Views of Roman Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gozalbes Cravioto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudia la evolución de los estudios sobre el África romana. La investigación se realiza a partir de la consideración de diversas etapas, así como de su relación con la evolución política de los países del Magreb. En estas etapas se tienen en cuenta aspectos diversos analizados por los investigadores: la perduración del mundo púnico, la vida urbana, la relación con el mundo indígena, la romanización, la cultura, el papel del ejército, etc.In this paper we analyze the evolution of the studies of Roman Africa. Our research is conducted from the consideration of various stages, and its relation to political developments in the countries of the Maghreb. In these stages are considered various aspects analyzed by the researchers: the persistence of Punic World, the urban life, the relationship with the indigenous World, the Romanization, the Culture, the role of the Army, etc.

  1. Ancient DNA: genomic amplification of Roman and medieval bovine bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Valentini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cattle remains (bones and teeth of both roman and medieval age were collected in the archaeological site of Ferento (Viterbo, Italy with the aim of extracting and characterising nucleic acids. Procedures to minimize contamination with modern DNA and to help ancient DNA (aDNA preservation of the archaeological remains were adopted. Different techniques to extract aDNA (like Phenol/chloroform extraction from bovine bones were tested to identify the method that applies to the peculiar characteristics of the study site. Currently, aDNA investigation is mainly based on mtDNA, due to the ease of amplification of the small and high-copied genome and to its usefulness in evolutionary studies. Preliminary amplification of both mitochondrial and nuclear aDNA fragments from samples of Roman and medieval animals were performed and partial specific sequences of mitochondrial D-loop as well as of nuclear genes were obtained. The innovative amplification of nuclear aDNA could enable the analysis of genes involved in specific animal traits, giving insights of ancient economic and cultural uses, as well as providing information on the origin of modern livestock population.

  2. The Letter of Jude and Graeco-Roman Invective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia J. Batten

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many have attempted to identify the opponents in Jude and have addressed the manner in which the author characterises this group. Moreover, scholars have expended considerable energy on the analysis and explication of Jude’s rhetorical structure and style, and there is wide consensus that as a text, Jude is a sophisticated letter. However, less work has attended to the evaluation of Jude within the tradition of Graeco-Roman invective. In comparing verses from Jude to some examples from such literature, we find similar themes. In particular, the letter of Jude and some Graeco-Roman moralists engage in a particular tactic to undermine, even destroy, the character of their opponents. They both present them as effeminates, which, although a stereotype, is one of the worst insults a writer or orator could wage against an adversary. This article argues that Jude engages in such character assassination, invoking effeminacy in the manner that he describes his opponents’ behaviour, and placing them in a long line of debauched and condemned figures from ages past.

  3. Robert G Edwards and the Roman Catholic Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Carrara, Sabina; Filippi, Valentina

    2011-06-01

    The Roman Catholic Church reacted negatively to the announcement that the Nobel Prize for Medicine had been awarded to Robert G Edwards. Thirty-three years ago, Cardinal Albino Luciani, on the eve of his election to become Pope, stated that, whereas progress is certainly a beautiful thing, mankind has not always benefited from progress. Catholic criticism has raised seven points: (i) God wants human life to begin through the 'conjugal act' and not artificially; (ii) artificial interventions at the beginning of human life are dangerous and ethically unacceptable; (iii) limits can be imposed even upon an individual's freedom to achieve a legitimate goal, such as having a child within marriage; (iv) the massive loss of preimplantation embryos characterizing IVF must be considered as a tragic loss of 'nascent' human persons; (v) Edwards bears a moral responsibility for all subsequent developments in assisted reproduction technology and for all 'abuses' made possible by IVF; (vi) there can be deleterious consequences for offspring of assisted reproduction technology; and (vii) Edwards' discovery did not eliminate the causes of infertility. This article elaborates from the Roman Catholic perspective on each of these points, some of which are found to be more substantial than others.

  4. 75 FR 1680 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Roman Art”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Roman Art'' SUMMARY: Notice is... included in the exhibition ``Roman Art,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United... the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, from on or about January 2010 until on or about...

  5. Psychological Type Preferences of Roman Catholic Priests in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Charlotte L.; Duncan, Bruce; Francis, Leslie J.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the psychological type profile of Roman Catholic priests. A sample of 79 priests completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Form G). The study shows that Roman Catholic priests tend to prefer introversion over extraversion, feeling over thinking and judging over perceiving. Near equal preferences are shown for sensing and…

  6. Measuring the Contribution of Roman Catholic Secondary Schools to Students' Religious, Personal and Social Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, Andrew; Francis, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    Roman Catholic schools have been part of the state-funded system of education in England and Wales since the 1850s. Currently, Roman Catholic schools provide places for around 10% of students attending state-maintained primary and secondary schools. The present study employed data collected during the 1990s to compare a range of religious, social,…

  7. Psychological Type Preferences of Roman Catholic Priests in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Charlotte L.; Duncan, Bruce; Francis, Leslie J.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the psychological type profile of Roman Catholic priests. A sample of 79 priests completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Form G). The study shows that Roman Catholic priests tend to prefer introversion over extraversion, feeling over thinking and judging over perceiving. Near equal preferences are shown for sensing and…

  8. Tikuvõileivaduell / Roman Zaštšerinski ; interv. Jaanus Kulli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zaštšerinski, Roman, 1978-

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu kokk Roman Zaštšerinskiga, kes valmistas koos Imre Kosega ette Vabariigi Presidendi iseseisvuspäeva vastuvõtu menüü. Vt. samas: Roman Zaštšerinski menüü vabariigi presidendi vastuvõtul

  9. Public land in the Roman Republic : a social and economic history of the ager publicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roselaar, Saskia Tessa

    2009-01-01

    This thesis discusses ager publicus, a kind of public land specific to the Roman Republic. Although many works have been devoted to this kind of land, there is as yet no book which investigates in depth its role in the society, economy, and politics of the Roman Republic. Many aspects of the history

  10. Kazuo Ishiguros romaner i helteperspektiv, specielt An Artist of the Floating World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgård, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    På baggrund af en forfatterskabskarakteristik behandles Kazuo Ishiguros romaner i helteperspektiv og i forlængelse heraf foretages en romananalyse af An Artist of the Floating World fra 1986.......På baggrund af en forfatterskabskarakteristik behandles Kazuo Ishiguros romaner i helteperspektiv og i forlængelse heraf foretages en romananalyse af An Artist of the Floating World fra 1986....

  11. Analysis of the Design Criteria for Ancient Greek and Roman Catapults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    This paper will give a short overview of use of COMSOL Multiphysics for analyzing ancient Greek and Roman catapults with the main focus on the energy storing torsion springs. Catapults have been known and used in the Greek and Roman world from around 399 BC and a fully standardized design...

  12. Kazuo Ishiguros romaner i helteperspektiv, specielt An Artist of the Floating World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgård, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    På baggrund af en forfatterskabskarakteristik behandles Kazuo Ishiguros romaner i helteperspektiv og i forlængelse heraf foretages en romananalyse af An Artist of the Floating World fra 1986.......På baggrund af en forfatterskabskarakteristik behandles Kazuo Ishiguros romaner i helteperspektiv og i forlængelse heraf foretages en romananalyse af An Artist of the Floating World fra 1986....

  13. (Re)Constructing Arguments: Classical Rhetoric and Roman Engineering Reflected in Vitruvius'"De Architectura."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Bernadette

    2000-01-01

    Notes that much had changed in the Roman's social order at the end of the Republic. Claims both Vitruvius and Cicero used writing to persuade Roman citizens to reclaim their heritage: of building arts in Vitruvius' case; and of philosophy and meaningful public oratory in Cicero's case. (NH)

  14. Tikuvõileivaduell / Roman Zaštšerinski ; interv. Jaanus Kulli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zaštšerinski, Roman, 1978-

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu kokk Roman Zaštšerinskiga, kes valmistas koos Imre Kosega ette Vabariigi Presidendi iseseisvuspäeva vastuvõtu menüü. Vt. samas: Roman Zaštšerinski menüü vabariigi presidendi vastuvõtul

  15. Geophysical investigations of the Olonium Roman site (Northern Como Lake)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlsan, Ermanno; Biella, Giancarlo; Boniolo, Graziano; Caporusso, Donatella; de Franco, Roberto; Lozej, Alfredo; Veronese, Luigi

    1999-03-01

    The study area is located at S. Agata (Gera Lario), a small center at the northern end of Como Lake, near the junction of Valchiavenna and Valtellina Valleys. This site played a strategic role since ancient times, providing the control on the communications routes to both the Como Lake and the Spluga and Septimer alpine passes. Since the end of the last century archaeological findings are reported in literature, also supported, from the early XI century, by archival documents confirming the existence of the `Olonium' settlement, an administrative and fiscal center of primary importance, as well as a parish amongst the most influential in the Como Lake area. Within an area of 45,000 m 2 an electrical survey has been carried out in conjunction with magnetic and GPR investigations. These studies have indicated the presence of a number of sub-areas characterized by significant anomalies defined by the overlapping of the results obtained from two or more geophysical methods. In two of such sub-areas, excavation tests have been conducted, which have brought to light a number of archaeological findings of interest. In one of the two sub-areas, which is characterized by the superimposition of electrical and radar anomalies, a deposit of large pebbles has been found. The origin of this deposit has not been ascertained, whether it is of fluvial origin, related to the deviation of the Adda river in the Pian di Spagna region in Roman times, or it is part of reclamation works, still of Roman times, of paleolacustrine marshes. The overlapping stratigraphy, however, suggests the development of fluvial channels between Roman and Low-Medieval times. In the other sub-area, excavations were carried out on sites defined by electrical and radar anomalies, and confirmed by the results from magnetic survey. The excavations brought to light, below the fluvial deposits, a large medieval edifice, which could be identified as the S. Stefano church abandoned in 1444. The church is built on

  16. Roman cadastres, land registers and instrumentum venditionis: The elements of modern land registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sič Magdolna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The reason for this research is the opinion of Civilists that Roman law did not make any contribution in the area of lend recording. It is true that during the Roman history registration was not a necessary condition of acquiring ownership, as was the case in the German system of land registers, neither did Roman law contain all the principles of modern land registers. Nevertheless, it cannot be claimed that the modern land registry system is completely original. Elements of modern land registries existed already in Roman times. These were: the cadastres, the public (censor's books and the requirement for written documents in transactions related to immovable property, especially in sales contract. It is not easy to reconstruct the elements of modern land registries in ancient Rome as available sources are in fragments; however there is sufficient basis to claim that modern land registries have their predecessor in Roman law.

  17. Intelligence as the plasticity of instinct: George J. Romanes and Darwin's earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganti, Federico

    2011-01-01

    In the following article I provide a brief analysis of George J. Romanes' conception of intelligence and its relationship with instincts. Through a careful reading of some key-passages from Mental Evolution in Animals (1883)--Romanes' chief work on the subject--I endeavour to show how the very notion of intelligence was related, in Romanes' thought, to individual adaptation to the environmental novelty. Also, I attempt to clarify in what sense, according to Romanes, this capacity was to be included among the factors of organic evolution. Lastly, I compare Romanes' view with that expressed in Darwin's last book, i.e. The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms (1881). I contend that the two scientists basically shared the same conception of the relationship between instincts and intelligence, which accounted not only for the need of phylogenetic continuity, but also for that of discontinuity due to adaptive divergence.

  18. An unpublished Roman inscription from Cortinal de San Juan (Salvatierra de Tormes, Salamanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica PÉREZ DE DIOS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented a slate with a Roman inscription found in archaeological survey work conducted in September 2014 in Cortinal de San Juan (Salvatierra de Tormes. This site has been, since its discovery and cataloging, a place of reference for the late Roman and Visigothic settlement Southeast Salamanca. Currently, this archaeological site is partially flooded by the Santa Teresa swamp. The main feature of this Roman inscription is that the slate support isn’t usual in the chronology proposed for such inscription. Despite the fact that other archaeological materials of Cortinal de San Juan are associated with late Roman or Visigothic chronocultural context, the type of capital letter, the large size of the letter, and the parallels established with other finds of similar chronology suggest this inscription could be part of a Roman anthroponym as the most successful interpretive hypothesis.

  19. Vague/roman : quoi de neuf ?

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Mythologie ? Je commencerai par vous demander une « momentanée suspension volontaire de l’incrédulité », reprenant à mon compte la célèbre requête de Samuel Taylor Coleridge, « Willing suspension of disbelief for the moment, which constitutes pœtic faith », car les lignes qui suivent doivent reposer sur un liminaire « comme si ». En effet, pour la bonne intelligence de mon propos, il nous faut faire comme si l’entité baptisée Nouveau Roman avait existé, en dehors du cadre pédagogique des stru...

  20. The Roman Law Tradition and Its Future Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhenmin

    2006-01-01

    In Late Qing Dynasty,the Chinese Law Family was disintegrated and the Western Law was introduced into China.Finally,China adopted the European continental Roman law tradition.This paper analyzes the reason for China's borrowing of such legal system and probes its development and reform in the later years.It also tries to answer the question of what will be the possible impact upon the current Chinese legal system since China now implements the policy of "one country two systems" in order to realize its reunification with Hong Kong,Macau and Taiwan.In addition,it will make some prediction upon the future development of Chinese legal system.

  1. Design and prototype studies of the TOTEM Roman pot detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriunno, Marco; Battistin, Michele; David, Eric; Guglielmini, Paolo; Joram, Christian; Radermacher, Ernst; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Wu, Jihao; Vacek, Vaclav; Vins, Vaclav

    2007-10-01

    The Roman pots of the TOTEM experiment at LHC will be equipped with edgeless silicon micro-strip detectors. A detector package consists of 10 detector planes cooled at -15C in vacuum. The detector resolution is 20 μm, the overall alignment precision has to be better than 30 μm. The detector planes are composed of a kapton hybrid glued on a substrate made of low expansion alloy, CE07 with 70% Si and 30% Al. An evaporative cooling system based on the fluorocarbon C3F8 with oil-free compressors has been adopted. The throttling of the fluid is done locally through capillaries. A thermo-mechanical prototype has been assembled. The results fully match the requirements and the expectations of calculations. They show a low thermal gradient on the cards and a uniform temperature distribution over the 10 planes.

  2. Design and prototype studies of the TOTEM Roman pot detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Oriunno, M; David, E; Guglielmini, P; Joram, C; Radermacher, E; Ruggiero, G; Wu, J; Vacek, V; Vins, V

    2007-01-01

    The Roman pots of the TOTEM experiment at LHC will be equipped with edgeless silicon micro-strip detectors. A detector package consists of 10 detector planes cooled at in vacuum. The detector resolution is , the overall alignment precision has to be better than . The detector planes are composed of a kapton hybrid glued on a substrate made of low expansion alloy, CE07 with 70% Si and 30% Al. An evaporative cooling system based on the fluorocarbon C3F8 with oil-free compressors has been adopted. The throttling of the fluid is done locally through capillaries. A thermo-mechanical prototype has been assembled. The results fully match the requirements and the expectations of calculations. They show a low thermal gradient on the cards and a uniform temperature distribution over the 10 planes.

  3. Roman Ingarden’s theory of intentional musical work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stęszewski Jan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Roman Ingarden (1893-1970 is a representative of the phenomenological trend in philosophy. He pursued his ontological interests in his fundamental treatise Das literarische Kunstwerk that was the starting point for his studies of other areas of art including music. For Ingarden, direct musical experience is a starting point for philosophical reflection, which should be free from any theoretical prejudice. He considers the essence of the musical work in such dimensions as ontological, the work’s structure, its perception and axiology (aesthetics. Ingarden formulates a thesis about a single layer of the musical work, an aspect which distinguishes music from other works of art. A musical work is for him a purely intentional object whose origins spring from creative acts of composers and whose ontological basis rests directly in the score.

  4. Sleep and dreaming in Greek and Roman philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Joseph

    2008-12-01

    Theories as to the function of sleep and dreaming have been with us since the beginning of recorded history. In Ancient Greece and Rome the predominant view of dreams was that they were divine in origin. This view was held not only in theory but also in practice with the establishment of various dream-oracles and dream interpretation manuals (Oneirocritica). However, it is also in the Greek and Roman writings, paralleling advances in philosophy and natural science, that we begin to see the first rationalistic accounts of dreaming. This paper reviews the evolution of such rational accounts focusing on the influence of Democritus, who provides us with the first rationalistic account of dreaming in history, and Aristotle, who provides us with the most explicit account of sleep and dreaming in the ancient world.

  5. A directed network of Greek and Roman mythology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeon-Mu; Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2007-08-01

    We construct a directed network using a dictionary of Greek and Roman mythology in which the nodes represent the entries listed in the dictionary and we make directional links from an entry to other entries that appear in its explanatory part. We find that this network is clearly not a random network but a directed scale-free network in which the distributions of out-degree and in-degree follow a power-law with exponents γout≈3.0 and γin≈2.5, respectively. Also we measure several quantities which describe the topological properties of the network and compare it to that of other real networks.

  6. LACTATE PROFILE DURING GRECO-ROMAN WRESTLING MATCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjen Uljevic

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine and compare lactate profile of two groups of Greco-Roman wrestlers with different competences and training experience. Study was conducted on 10 wrestles that were members of Croatian national team and 10 wrestlers that were members of Wrestling club Split. Lactate samples were collected at four intervals during control fights that were held according to international wrestling rules of World wrestling federation FILA. Values of lactate increased as competition progressed, and they were highest at the end of the match for both groups of wrestlers. According to this study there were no significant differences in lactate between two groups at the end of the match, while significant differences were noted during the match. The information about lactate profile presented in this study can be used by coaches and wrestlers to develop condition programs

  7. Virtual Reconstruction of Roman Household Furniture Using Ancient Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Moreno Alcaide

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the recreation of the various domestic environments of the Romandomus, with particular attention to the furniture and dishes that are linked very closely with each one of the rooms within it. First, there has been a collection of ancient sources, with particular attention to the inscriptions, wall paintings and mosaics, then there has been a catalog of parts in response to various aspects such as the type of object or stay they occupied.Secondly we have proceeded to the digitization of images for late reconstruction using SketchUp8. In conclusion, we intend to virtually rebuild the Roman household furniture to make it understandable to these spaces.

  8. Noviodunum Roman Fortress. a Survey on a City Wall Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodor, A.; Teodor, E. S.; Florea, M. S.; Popescu, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    The paper presents in detail the method used to acquire 2D and 3D representations for the Large Tower of the Roman fortress from Noviodunum (Isaccea, Tulcea County). The available implements were a total station, a digital camera and some software for handling data. The method is not new by any rate, but well fitted to the aims - recording archaeological data on ruined but massif walls, with rough surfaces - and with a limited budget. Lately considered as a low cost procedure, laser scanning is still costly and rare in some East-European countries. Our method, as simple as it is, provides reliable data as a 3D survey, along texture details, at the lowest price, on unfinished fieldwork, preserving and picturing a stage of knowledge about the site and the architectural bodies.

  9. Des hommes de Laurent Mauvignier : un roman de filiation ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manet van Montfrans

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Des hommes de Laurent Mauvignier est centré sur deux cousins, qui après avoir fait leur service militaire en Algérie, entre 1960 et 1962, sont rentrés dans leur village, marqués à vie par leurs expériences de la guerre. Un incident amène l’un d’eux, narrateur dans la majeure partie du récit, à reconstruire la vie de l’autre, sombré dans la déchéance, et à se remémorer peu à peu leur passé commun. On pourrait considérer ce texte comme « un roman de filiation » même s´il résiste, par le dispositif narratif mis en place par Mauvignier, à cette catégorie générique.

  10. Investigation on a Roman copper alloy artefact from Pompeii (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraldi, Pietro; Baraldi, Cecilia; Ferrari, Giorgia; Foca, Giorgia; Marchetti, Andrea; Tassi, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    A selection of samples, obtained from a particular copper-alloy domestic artefact of Roman style from Pompeii, has been analysed by using different techniques (IR, Raman, SEM-EDX, FAAS), in order to investigate the chemical nature and composition of the metals utilised for such manufacturing pieces. The surface analysis of the bright red metallic microfragments conducted by different analytical techniques, emphasises the presence of pure unalloyed copper and confirms the absence of other metallic species on the upper layers. On the contrary, the mapping analysis of the section of the laminar metal of the investigated sample shows a consistent enrichment in tin content. Finally, destructive analysis by FAAS confirms that the artefact looks like a bronze metal alloy, with a medium Sn content of about 6.5%.

  11. O mito fascista da romanidade The fascist myth of romanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giardina

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio procura analisar como o mito de Roma foi utilizado por Mussolini para criar uma "especificidade" fascista que coincidisse com uma "especificidade" da nação italiana. Práticas rituais, gestos, valores, símbolos foram retomados, de forma variamente arbitrária, para construir um mito que gerava novas ambigüidades, e que constituiu, à diferença do nazismo, um empecilho para a própria sobrevivência da "romanidade" após Mussolini.This essay aims to analyze how the myth of Rome was used by Mussolini to create a fascist specificity that coincided with a specificity of the Italian nation. Ritual practices, gestures, values and symbols were retaken, sometimes arbitrarily, in order to build a myth that generated new ambiguities and that, different from Nazism, constituted a hindrance to the survival of "romanity" after Mussolini.

  12. THE SOUTHWESTERN LIMES OF ROMAN DACIA AND BEYOND - NEW SURVEYS AND EXCAVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Nemeth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research project on the southwestern frontier of Roman Dacia, which was an external frontier of the Roman Empire in this area. The research aimed to investigate and locate on the ground all Roman military sites with modern devices (GPS and establish the elements of the ancient landscape that had an influence on the choice of particular locations for the Roman forts. Also, the Roman military sites have been placed on geo-referenced maps. Another goal was to locate and investigate the great earth ramparts from nowadays southwestern Romania (so-called "Roman walls" and try to see whether there is a relation between them and the forts on one side and the many sites (cemeteries and settlements of the Sarmatian Iazyges. This people, that lived to the west from Roman Dacia, penetrated the marshy plains east of the river Tisza much earlier than the researchers previously supposed, that is right after the Marcomannic wars (after 180 AD and not only at the end of the 3rd century AD.

  13. Carbonation kinetics in roman-like lime mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Moral, S.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic parameterisation of lime mortar carbonation is a useful technique for understanding ancient building methods and the long-lived physical-chemical stability of roman monuments. Portlandite (Ca(OH2 binders harden in the air on contact with atmospheric CO2, producing CaCO3. Water evaporation and the presence of silicate aggregates have a three-fold effect: prompting the development of a pore system that permits CO2, self-diffusion, reducing shrinkage and cracking during drying and (possibly giving rise to subsequent pozzolanic reactions. The present survey involved air-hardening a series of roman-like lime mortars which differed in terms of: (i type of aggregate, volcanic tephra and arkose; (ii aggregate/binder ratio, 1:2 as used in the catacombs and 1:4 as found in standard roman construction and (iii temperature, the 17 ºC prevailing in underground environments and the 30 ºC typical of warm Mediterranean areas. The analyses that provided the most useful information were performed in a classic X-ray diffractometer adapted to accommodate an author-designed chamber in which temperature control was achieved by an internal refrigerant and a PID-governed electrical heater Additional data were obtained with DTA and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM. The tests conducted on the Roman-like lime mortars manufactured for the experiment showed that the hardening temperature is a critical factor in the initial phases of carbonation. Calcite precipitation rates and total mineral precipitation increased with temperature, but fell very quickly as calcite precipitated. In theoretical calculations assuming an open reactor with continuous CO2, input, total calcitisation time was found to be 156 m in. at 30 ºC and 175 min. at 17 ºC, whilst in the mortars actually hardened in the experimental part of the study, calcitisation gradually blocked the flow or CO2, gas into the

  14. Maritime trade contacts of Odisha, east coast of India with the Roman world: An appraisal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Patnaik, S.K.; Pradhan, G.C.

    with the Arrentine ware belonging to the first half of the first century CE. The notable iron objects of Sisupal- garh were caltrops. These were used by the Roman military sites of the early centuries CE in western Europe. Kautilya in his Arthashastra also mentions.... Besides pottery, iron objects and clay bullae resembling Silenus’s head imitated from those of Roman coins, a unique gold coin depicting a Kushana design of a standing king and a Brahmi legend of third century CE on the obverse and Roman bust with legend...

  15. Recommended Locations of Beam Loss Monitors for the ATLAS Roman Pots

    CERN Document Server

    Hall-Wilton, R J; Talanov, V

    2007-01-01

    This note suggests suitable locations to position beam loss monitors to observe losses on the ATLAS Roman Pot station located close to 240m from IP1. This monitoring is envisaged to help to avoid quenches of the super- conducting magnets downstream of the roman pots and to avert damage to either the LHC machine elements or the roman pot detectors. The results presented in this note indicate the locations where the BLMs should be installed. The recommended locations are determined using previous simulation results on BLM response to losses; therefore these results should be considered in conjunction with the previous results. A more detailed note on the topic will follow later.

  16. Recommended locations of beam-loss monitors for the ATLAS Roman pots

    CERN Document Server

    Hall-Wilton, R J; Talanov, V

    2007-01-01

    This note suggests suitable locations to position beam loss monitors to observe losses on the ATLAS Roman Pot station located close to 240m from IP1. This monitoring is envisaged to help to avoid quenches of the super- conducting magnets downstream of the roman pots and to avert damage to either the LHC machine elements or the roman pot detectors. The results presented in this note indicate the locations where the BLMs should be installed. The recommended locations are determined using previous simulation results on BLM response to losses; therefore these results should be considered in conjunction with the previous results. A more detailed note on the topic will follow later.

  17. Paetus, it does not hurt: altruistic suicide in the Greco-Roman world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooff, Anton

    2004-01-01

    Emile Durkheim, a student of classical education, studied altruistic suicide through an exploration of ancient culture. He associated the concept to civilizations in which people have not reached a sufficient degree of individuation and held that the Greek and Roman civilizations had already developed and were not strongly integrated, a precondition for frequent altruistic suicide. Yet, studies of Greeks and Romans show ample examples. Loyalty and devotion appear to be especially powerful motives. It is concluded that altruistic suicide had its place inside the Greco-Roman world.

  18. Actualité du roman archéologique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Dufour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Salammbô a beau se passer au IIIe siècle avant Jésus-Christ, Flaubert a beau y voir une ressource pour fuir le monde moderne, le roman antique n’en pense pas moins l’Histoire contemporaine, au moins par intermittence. On essaie de le montrer à propos d’un court fragment rescapé du chapitre explicatif, la description des assemblées des Syssites. Loin de démarquer simplement telle ou telle source (comme l’analyse aristotélicienne de la constitution carthaginoise dans La Politique, le paragraphe décrivant le banquet des Riches pendant que les Barbares entourent la ville évoque en surimpression la fête impériale sur fond de peur sociale. Des images relais (Les Romains de la décadence de Thomas Couture, Les Châtiments de Victor Hugo incitent le premier public à une lecture allégorique. Le chronotope de l’assemblée dénonce l’illusion d’un pouvoir et figure le devenir historique. Flaubert s’approprie ainsi de façon originale le genre du roman archéologique tel que l’abbé Barthélemy l’inventa ou tel que Henryk Sienkiewick le prolongera. S’y vérifie sa définition de l’histoire comme réflexion du présent sur le passé.Some scholars like Anne Green have shown that Flaubert in his historical novel, Salammbô, frequently alludes to contemporary history in spite of the obvious difference between the Carthaginian civilization and the modern world. In this essay I will try to grasp the shift in referenciality through a small description (a meeting between the wealthy, inspired by Aristotle’s Politics: Hugolian images of decadence from Les Châtiments appear superimposed on it, so that the archeological novel turns into an allegorical satire on the Second Empire.

  19. Le défi du nouveau roman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Valle Arbex

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Neste trabalho, trata-se de expor alguns aspectos essenciais da obra de Alain Robbe-Grillet como exemplo de abordagem da narrativa contemporânea. Tendo publicado recentemente três livros, o escritor francês atravessou o século XX deixando uma influência efetiva em toda uma geração marcada pelo nouveau roman. Desta forma, uma etapa importante da história da literatura francesa pode ser retraçada a partir do estudo de seus textos, cuja renovação das formas literárias é uma constante. Além disso, o autor se interessa por diversas categorias de imagens, permitindo abordar a relação entre escrita e outros sistemas semióticos como o cinema e a pintura.Palavras-chave: Literatura francesa; Alain Robbe-Grillet; semiótica; imagem; cinema; pintura.Résumé: Dans ce travail, il s’agira d’exposer quelques uns des aspects essentiels de l’oeuvre d’Alain Robbe-Grillet, comme un exemple d’approche possible du récit contemporain. Ayant récemment publié trois ouvrages, l’écrivain a traversé le XXème siècle en laissant une influence durable sur tourte une génération marquée par le nouveau roman. C’est ainsi qu’une étape importante de l’histoire de la littérature française peut être retracée à partir de l’étude des ses textes, dont le renouvellement de formes est une constante. En outre, l’auteur s’intéresse à différentes catégories d’images, ce qui permet d’envisager le rapport entre l’écriture et d’autres systèmes sémiotiques comme le cinéma et la peinture.Mots-clés: Littérature française; Alain Robbe-Grillet; sémiotique; image; cinéma; peinture.Keywords: French literature; Alain Robbe-Grillet; semiotics; image; cinema; peinture.

  20. Graeco-Roman Astro-Architecture: The Temples of Pompeii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiede, Vance R.

    2014-01-01

    Roman architect Marcus Vetruvius Pollio (ca. 75-15 BC) wrote, “[O]ne who professes himself as an architect should be…acquainted with astronomy and the theory of the heavens…. From astronomy we find the east, west, south, and north, as well as the theory of the heavens, the Equinox, Solstice and courses of the Stars.” (De Architectura Libri Decem I:i:3,10). In order to investigate the role of astronomy in temple orientation, the author conducted a preliminary GIS DEM/Satellite Imaging survey of 11 temples at Pompeii, Italy (N 40d 45', E 14d 29'). The GIS survey measured the true azimuth and horizon altitude of each temple’s major axis and was field checked by a Ground Truth survey with theodolite and GPS, 5-18 April 2013. The resulting 3D vector data was analyzed with Program STONEHENGE (Hawkins 1983, 328) to identify the local skyline declinations aligned with the temple major axes. Analysis suggests that the major axes of the temples of Apollo, Jupiter and Venus are equally as likely to have been oriented to Pompeii’s urban grid, itself oriented NW-SE on Mt. Vesuvius’ slope and hydraulic gradient to optimize urban sewer/street drainage (cf. Hodge 1992). However, the remaining nine temples appear to be oriented to astronomical targets on the local horizon associated with Graeco-Roman calendrics and mythology. TEMPLE/ DATE/ MAJOR AXIS ASTRO-TARGET (Skyline Declination in degrees) Public Lares/AD 50/ Cross-Quarter 7 Nov/3 Feb Sun Set, Last Gleam (-16.5) Vespsian/ AD 69-79/ Cross-Quarter 7 Nov/3 Feb Sun Set, LG (-16.2) Fortuna Augusta/ AD 1/ Winter Solstice Sun Set, LG (-22.9) Aesculapius/ 100 BC/ Perseus Rise (β Persei-Algol = +33.0) & Midsummer Moon Major Stand Still Set, LG (-28.1) Isis/ 100 BC/ Midwinter Moon Major Stand Still Rise, Tangent (+28.5) & Equinox Sun Set, Tangent (-0.3) Jupiter/ 150 BC/ Θ Scorpionis-Sargas Rise (-38.0) Apollo/ 550 (rebuilt 70 BC)/ α Columbae-Phact Rise (-37.1) Venus/ 150 BC (rebuilt 70 BC)/ α Columbae-Phact Rise (-37

  1. A possible Roman Period sword from Grzybowo (Grzybowen, Masuria, NE Poland. The archaeological and technological context

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    Grzegorz Żabiński

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a recent stray find of a sword fragment with a possible stamp from Masuria in NE Poland. It was found close to a Roman Period cemetery of the Bogaczewo Culture. On typological grounds, the sword can be classified as a Roman Period weapon. However, the results of metallographic examinations suggest that the find may have been made either from very clean bloomery steel (or hypoeutectoid crucible steel or from mass-made Industrial Age steel (Bessemer, Thomas, Siemens-Martin, etc.. On the other hand, the chemical composition of the sword would rather imply a pre-Industrial Period steel. In conclusion, it is carefully suggested that the weapon may be a genuine Ancient sword, although its final recognition as a Roman Period weapon could only be verified by finds made from similar metal in undoubted Roman Period contexts.

  2. WILLIAM GURNEE SINNIGEN - 20TH CENTURY CLASSICIST AND ROMAN HISTORIAN: BIOGRAPHY & BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Gray Marsh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available William Gurnee Sinnigen was a Classicist and Roman historian, active in the mid-to-late 20th century. Trained at the University of Michigan by noted Roman administrative historian Arthur E. R. Boak, Sinnigen continued his mentor’s work in administrative history, producing several articles on different aspects of Roman and Byzantine administrative topics.  Sinnigen was also responsible for the revision and update of Boak’s acclaimed textbook on Roman history, as well as Charles Alexander Robinson’s textbook on Ancient history.  This article will provide a brief biography of Professor Sinnigen, along with a bibliography of his published works and reviews by other scholars of his work.

  3. Tänavuse Roman Tavasti nimelise stipendiumi... / Kadri Mälk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mälk, Kadri, 1958-

    2008-01-01

    2007. aasta Roman Tavasti nimelise stipendiumi pälvis Eesti Kunstiakadeemia ehtekunsti eriala üliõpilane Linda al-Assi, kes on sündinud Alzheerias, kasvanud Pärnus. Linda al-Assi ehteseeriast teemal "Andestus"

  4. Word level Script Identification from Bangla and Devanagri Handwritten Texts mixed with Roman Script

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Ram; Basu, Subhadip; Kundu, Mahantapas; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar

    2010-01-01

    India is a multi-lingual country where Roman script is often used alongside different Indic scripts in a text document. To develop a script specific handwritten Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system, it is therefore necessary to identify the scripts of handwritten text correctly. In this paper, we present a system, which automatically separates the scripts of handwritten words from a document, written in Bangla or Devanagri mixed with Roman scripts. In this script separation technique, we first, extract the text lines and words from document pages using a script independent Neighboring Component Analysis technique. Then we have designed a Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) based classifier for script separation, trained with 8 different wordlevel holistic features. Two equal sized datasets, one with Bangla and Roman scripts and the other with Devanagri and Roman scripts, are prepared for the system evaluation. On respective independent text samples, word-level script identification accuracies of 99.29% and 98....

  5. Roman et surréalisme : histoire d’un (mauvais) genre

    OpenAIRE

    Baudry, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Le surréalisme contre le roman, ou, plus précisément, contre le roman réaliste : l’attaque ne semble concerner qu’un genre littéraire en tant que genre. Mais de quelle façon pourrait-elle aussi concerner les liens particuliers entre le genre (littéraire) et le genre (sexué) ? Cet article a pour intention de montrer qu’en dépit d’un discours en apparence neutre sur le roman en tant que genre (et plus précisément en tant que genre légitime en ce qui concerne le roman réaliste), à chaque fois qu...

  6. The Traditional Egyptian Antecedents of Graeco-Roman Post-Mortem Ascent

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    Eliezer Gonzalez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the greater antiquity of Egyptian civilisation, when we refer to Egyptian and Graeco-Roman cultures, we are generally referring to cultures that were contiguous, and the profound impact that Egyptian ideas had upon the Graeco-Roman world cannot be denied. In key respects, Egyptian views of the afterlife foreshadowed Graeco-Roman, Jewish, and early Christian conceptions, particularly in terms of the motif of post-mortem ascent. Although the channels of transmission have been lost in antiquity, the motif may still be sketched clearly enough in both cultures to suggest that Egypt was an important source for its expression. After some methodological considerations, this essay will trace the motif of ascent as it was manifested in Graeco-Roman culture, and then analyze the nature of the ancient Egyptian evidence in order to suggest the existence of key elements of this same motif from the earliest times in ancient Egypt.

  7. The ‘enemy within’ the post-Vatican II Roman Catholic Church

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    Graham A. Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Second Vatican Council (1962–1965 is regarded as one of the most significant processes in the ecumenical church history of the 20th century. At that time, a younger generation of Roman Catholic theologians began to make their mark in the church and within the ecumenical theological scene. Their work provided an ecumenical bridge between the Reforming and the Roman Catholic ecclesiastical traditions, notwithstanding the subsequent negative response of the Roman church hierarchy. Despite important advances, recent pontificates significantly altered the theological landscape and undermined much of the enthusiasm and commitment to unity. Roman Catholic theological dissent provided common ground for theological reflection. Those regarded as the ‘enemy within’ have become respected colleagues in the search for truth in global ecclesiastical perspective. This article will use the distinction between the history and the narratives of Vatican II.

  8. Production Within and Beyond Imperial Boundaries: Goods, Exchange, and Power in Roman Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S. Wells

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available After Rome had conquered much of temperate Europe, the administration directed the establishment of industries important to the maintenance of military and economic control of the new provinces. These included stone quarries, pottery manufactures, and metal industries. Recent research shows that much production was not as centralized as has been believed; diverse industrial sites throughout the provincial landscapes indicate a variety of arrangements for supplying the needs of the empire. In many instances, Roman production systems relied upon indigenous traditions of manufacturing. The provincial economies depended also upon materials collected and processed beyond the imperial frontiers. Analysis of Roman imports in Germany, Scandinavia, and eastern Europe, and of the contexts in which they occur, suggesta that goods produced outside of the empire played a major role in the imperial economy. These commercial links, over which Roman authorities had no effective control, contributed to substantial changes in economics and in social and political configurations in societies beyond the Roman frontier.

  9. Roman et censure : le cas du Gascon extravagant

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    Filippo D’Angelo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Le Gascon extravagant permet d’envisager sous un angle inattendu le rapport entre roman et censure au xviie siècle. Les stratégies discursives et narratives mises en œuvre par Claireville visent moins à contourner qu’à dénoncer le principe de la répression institutionnelle. À l’instar de L’Autre Monde de Cyrano ou des Aventures de Dassoucy, Le Gascon extravagant confirme ainsi la thèse de Louis Marin selon laquelle le véritable pouvoir du récit résiderait, au xviie siècle, dans sa capacité à tendre un piège au pouvoir lui-même.Novel and Censorship : the case of the Gascon extravagant : Le Gascon extravagant allows us to view from an original angle the relationship between the novel and censorship. Claireville’s discursive and narrative strategies aim less to get around than to denounce the principle of institutional repression. Like Cyrano’s L’Autre Monde or Dassoucy’s Aventures, Le Gascon extravagant confirms Louis Marin’s argument that in the seventeenth century the real power of narrative would be its ability to entrap power itself.

  10. Suicidal behaviour in the ancient Greek and Roman world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykouras, L; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Tsiamis, C; Ploumpidis, D

    2013-12-01

    We attempt to present and analyze suicidal behaviour in the ancient Greek and Roman world. Drawing information from ancient Greek and Latin sources (History, Philosophy, Medicine, Literature, Visual Arts) we aim to point out psychological and social aspects of suicidal behaviour in antiquity. The shocking exposition of suicides reveals the zeitgeist of each era and illustrates the prevailing concepts. Social and legal reactions appear ambivalent, as they can oscillate from acceptance and interpretation of the act to punishment. In the history of these attitudes, we can observe continuities and breaches, reserving a special place in cases of mental disease. The delayed emergence of a generally accepted term for the voluntary exit from life (the term suicidium established during the 17th century), is connected to reactions triggered by the act of suicide than to the frequency and the extent of the phenomenon. The social environment of the person, who voluntary ends his life usually dictates the behaviour and historical evidence confirms the phenomenon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Liver abscess in ancient Greek and Greco-Roman texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavramidou, Niki; Samara, Anastasia; Christopoulou-Aletra, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents liver abscesses, as studied in the ancient Greek and Greco-Roman bibliography. Numerous references concerning this entity can be found in the writings of the Hippocratic doctors (5th cent. B.C.), Archigenes of Apamea (1st cent. A.D.), Galen (2nd cent. A.D.), Aretaeus of Cappadocia (2nd cent. A.D), Oribasius (4th cent. A.D.), Theophilus Protospatharius (7th cent. A.D.), and Paulus Nicaeensis (7th-10th cent. A.D.). In most cases the clinical manifestations, the prognosis and the method of treatment are presented. In all ancient writings we studied, the rupture of a liver abscess is also part of the main theme. In specific, the path that the fluid would follow after a rupture was considered to be a main prognostic factor, i.e. if the fluid "coursed into the stomach", the patient would definitely die. In this work, an attempt is also made to correlate the ancient descriptions to modern medical entities, such as amebic or pyogenic liver abscess.

  12. The Roman Catholic parish in Poland as the local community

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    Mariański Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Roman Catholic Church a parish is the smallest legal unit and it is the milieu for religious, social, and cultural activities for a group of people joined together in a geographical area. The purpose of this article is a sociological study examining the Catholic parish in Poland as a local community. Today a parish along with its community is exposed to social change and to myriad forces characteristic of the postmodern culture. In Poland two opposite forces characterize the life of a parish community: on the one side, secularization and individualization, and on the other side, socialization and evangelization. The subjective dimension of a local community, which is related to identification of people with a local parish, along with social bonds with the parish as a local community, are discussed in the first two sections of the article. In subsequent sections some issues related to common activities, membership in movements, religious communities, and Catholic associations within the parish will be presented. While the agency of people in the parish community is theoretically acknowledged, it is still not fully implemented. The discussion is based on the data obtained from major public opinion institutes in Poland.

  13. a Procedural Solution to Model Roman Masonry Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, V.; Saleri, R.; Stefani, C.; Nony, N.; De Luca, L.

    2013-07-01

    The paper will describe a new approach based on the development of a procedural modelling methodology for archaeological data representation. This is a custom-designed solution based on the recognition of the rules belonging to the construction methods used in roman times. We have conceived a tool for 3D reconstruction of masonry structures starting from photogrammetric surveying. Our protocol considers different steps. Firstly we have focused on the classification of opus based on the basic interconnections that can lead to a descriptive system used for their unequivocal identification and design. Secondly, we have chosen an automatic, accurate, flexible and open-source photogrammetric pipeline named Pastis Apero Micmac - PAM, developed by IGN (Paris). We have employed it to generate ortho-images from non-oriented images, using a user-friendly interface implemented by CNRS Marseille (France). Thirdly, the masonry elements are created in parametric and interactive way, and finally they are adapted to the photogrammetric data. The presented application, currently under construction, is developed with an open source programming language called Processing, useful for visual, animated or static, 2D or 3D, interactive creations. Using this computer language, a Java environment has been developed. Therefore, even if the procedural modelling reveals an accuracy level inferior to the one obtained by manual modelling (brick by brick), this method can be useful when taking into account the static evaluation on buildings (requiring quantitative aspects) and metric measures for restoration purposes.

  14. Fin de siecle, Beat Generation / Rando Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Rando

    2002-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilm kolmest biitnikute ideoloogist-kirjanikust Jack Kerouac'ist, William S. Burroughs'st ja Allen Ginsburgist "Hipid ja biitnikud" ("The Source") : režissöör Chuck Workman : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1998

  15. "Matrix" sobitub iga filosoofiaga / Rando Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Rando

    2003-01-01

    Andy ja Larry Wachowski ulmefilmide triloogia "Matrix" fenomeni analüüsist ajakirja "Vikerkaar" 2003. aasta 9. numbris, kus sellele on pühendatud nelja filosoofi artiklid ( Slavoj Zhizhek, Jüri Eintalu, Bruno Mölder, Tanel Tammet)

  16. Fin de siecle, Beat Generation / Rando Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Rando

    2002-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilm kolmest biitnikute ideoloogist-kirjanikust Jack Kerouac'ist, William S. Burroughs'st ja Allen Ginsburgist "Hipid ja biitnikud" ("The Source") : režissöör Chuck Workman : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1998

  17. "Matrix" sobitub iga filosoofiaga / Rando Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Rando

    2003-01-01

    Andy ja Larry Wachowski ulmefilmide triloogia "Matrix" fenomeni analüüsist ajakirja "Vikerkaar" 2003. aasta 9. numbris, kus sellele on pühendatud nelja filosoofi artiklid ( Slavoj Zhizhek, Jüri Eintalu, Bruno Mölder, Tanel Tammet)

  18. Geoarchaeological research for Roman waterworks in the Rhine-Meuse river delta, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Jan; Kluiving, Sjoerd; van Leeuwen, Liz; Anker, Emiel

    2015-04-01

    It is known that Romans in the Low Countries at the northern margin of their empire were practicing diverse systems of water state management to maintain economic and above all strategic stability. In early Roman period Romans created a shipping route from the Rhine towards the north by digging canals and constructing dams. This was done in order to submit the northern part of Germania through the Waddenzee and the German rivers Eems, Weser and Elbe. During the middle Roman period the Romans had canceled their efforts to submit Germania. In that period we know the River Rhine as the limes, which not only was a borderline of the Roman empire, but can also be seen as a guarded transport route. The research area is situated in the eastern part of the Rhine-Meuse river valley/delta system. The area represents a highly dynamic geological history of erosion and deposition close to the river system's equilibrium point. In order to reconstruct the former landscape and investigate whether traces of Roman waterworks could be indicated or disproved geoarchaeological coring campaigns have been carried out with lithological, textural and palaeoecological analyses. The results of the research presented in this poster will be: 1) Assessment of the condition of the covered Pleistocene sediments in the area, 2) Identification of the buried gullies and levees in the vicinity of the remains of the Roman castellum 'Carvium ad molem', which should have been built at the bifurcation of the delta branches of Rhine and Waal, 3) Chronological control of gullies and levees, 4) Landscape reconstruction in different time periods. Finally based on the geoarchaeological results a comment will be made on the location of the Drusus dam in the study area, the landscape context of the castellum and its position on the apex of the Insula Batavorum.

  19. The Influence of Greco-Roman and the Judeo-Christian On Western Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷华

    2010-01-01

    western culture itself is a part of world culture. It is made up of many elements, which has gone through changes over the centuries. The more enduring are: the Greco-Roman element, and the Judeo-Christian element. This paper briefly analyzes the origin and foundation of western culture: ancient Greek culture, ancient Roman culture and Christianity which have decisive influence on the shape of western culture. It is expected that this paper helps us better understand western culture.

  20. Roman Ways: The Endurance of Patterns in Travel and Hospitality from Antiquit

    OpenAIRE

    Bradford T. Hudson, Ph.D.

    2014-01-01

    Although it seems clear that multi-unit hotel and restaurant brands proliferated in the United States during the twentieth century, historical research demonstrates that the phenomenon is actually much older. The origins of hospitality chains can be traced back to the Roman Empire. Organizational systems and travel behaviors have remained remarkably similar throughout Western civilization during the past two millennia. The Roman relay station, the medieval post house, the New England inn, the...

  1. Camels on the Northeastern Frontier of the Roman Empire

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    Weronika Tomczyk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ample iconographic, written, and osteological evidence for the occurrence of both dromedary ('Camelus dromedarius' and Bactrian camels ('Camelus bactrianus' is known from many Roman provinces. In contrast to the western provinces, osteological material from the northeastern frontier of the Empire has not yet been discussed collectively. There is a lack of information in the literature concerning which species of camel was widely spread, for what purposes they were used, and whether the camel, as an animal introduced artificially by humans, was treated in a unique way. Camel bones have been found at Ajdovščina – Casta (Slovenia, Hrusica – Ad Pirum (Slovenia, Viminacium (Serbia, Vranj (Serbia, Novae (Bulgaria and Tanais (Russia. The earliest (1st century AD and the largest assemblages of bones derive from the easternmost sites of Tanais and Novae. Identification of species was possible at 4 out of the 6 sites. In all assemblages, the majority of the bones belonged to Bactrian camels. It is noteworthy that the dromedary species occurred only in the west of the study region; this indicates a gradual increase in the importance of Bactrian camels in the next eastern provinces. This is supported by the work of other researchers (Pigiére and Henrotay 2012. None of the bones in this study were isolated or intentionally buried. The incomplete dataset collected from these different sites did not confirm whether camels were bred there. It can be generally assumed that camels were used mainly as pack animals, probably in the army, and that they were rarely consumed.

  2. Battista Grassi entomologist and the Roman School of Malariology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capanna, E

    2008-12-01

    Grassi's entomological researches go back to his early years of university study, initially being concerned with agriculture pests. After working in Heidelberg, Grassi's interests turned to basic problems of entomology, such as the evolutionary origin of Miriapoda and Insecta, and termite caste determination. His first investigations into medical entomology related to the problem of bird malaria, which he studied only in relation to the hematic parasites. In 1895, Grassi was appointed Professor of Comparative Anatomy at Rome University, and initiated his entomological collaboration with the Roman malariologists, Amico Bignami, Giuseppe Bastianelli and Ettore Marchiafava. At the end of 1898, they announced, at the session of the Accademia dei Lincei on December 4th, that a healthy man in a non-malarial zone had contracted tertian malaria after being bitten by an experimentally infected Anopheles claviger. Following his disappointment at being excluded from the Nobel prize, Grassi devoted his attention to another important insect related to the transmission of parasitic disease, the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasii. After World War I malaria had flared up with renewed vigour, so that the social importance of the disease convinced Grassi to resume his studies in 1918. The problem he faced in these years was "Anophelism without malaria" which was to be solved a year after his death by his pupil Falleroni, who demonstrated that there are six cryptic species of Anopheles of which only four bite humans and transmit malaria. Battista Grassi died on 4 May 1925, working to the end: he was reading the proofs of his last paper, Lezione sulla malaria.

  3. Magnetic and electromagnetic prospections at the Roman city of Hadrianopolis, southern Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Antonio; Perna, Roberto; Pierantoni, Pietro Paolo; Ghezzi, Annalisa; Tassi, Luca; Sforzini, David

    2017-04-01

    We report on a combined magnetic-GPR survey performed in 2015-2017 at the ancient Roman city of Hadrianopolis, located in southern Albania, in the context of the project Teatri Antichi Riuniti (TAU). The collected data supplemented previous archaeological surveys performed by the University of Macerata with the aim of promoting the valley and starting the realization of an archaeological park. Hadrianopolis was founded through a reorganization of a previous Hellenistic settlement. Starting from 2015, magnetic and GPR surveys were carried out in Hadrianopolis in order to determine the urban framework. The collected data revealed the existence of structures organized along two main different patterns, which have been interpreted as due to the superposition of Roman buildings and Late Antiquity structures. In fact, the arrangement of structures in the studied area shows a regular urban organization of Roman type separated by a less regular disposition of the buildings that can be attributed to the Byzantine age. The latter arrangement is superimposed on the previous Roman structures. A stone wall, clearly identified by the combination of magnetic anomalies and GPR images, separates the Byzantine seattlement from the genuine Roman sector.

  4. Composition and microstructure of Roman metallic artefacts of Southwestern Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valério, P.; Voráčová, E.; Silva, R. J. C.; Araújo, M. F.; Soares, A. M. M.; Arruda, A. M.; Pereira, C.

    2015-10-01

    The Roman invasion introduces new alloys and metallurgical practices in Iberian Peninsula. The southwestern end of this region has many evidences of connections with the Roman World, but there are no studies about the manufacture and use of copper-based artefacts during this period. Therefore, a set of about 20 ornaments, tools and small attachments recovered at the Roman sites of Monte Molião and Cidade das Rosas was studied by an analytical approach combining micro-EDXRF, optical microscopy, SEM-EDS and Vickers microhardness testing. The artefact composition shows a good correlation with function, namely pure copper for nails and rivets, low-tin bronze (2-6 wt% Sn) for basic tools, high-tin bronze (14 wt% Sn) for fibulae and high-lead bronze (19 wt% Pb) for a decorated jug handle. The manufacture also depends on function because most artefacts were subjected to thermomechanical processing, except the ornaments that would not benefit from post-casting work. Brass and gunmetal were only present in the site with a later chronology. A metallurgy visibly ruled by economical, aesthetical and technological concerns reinforces the evidences about the total integration of Southwestern Iberian Peninsula in the Roman World, but further studies will be essential to determine the evolution of copper-based alloys in Lusitania under Roman influence.

  5. CITY PLANNING IN GRAECO-ROMAN TIMES WITH EMPHASIS ON HEALTH FACILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cilliers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this overview of city planning in Graeco-Roman times, starting with Greek gridiron street planning and functional city zoning in the 9th century BC, emphasis is placed on those aspects related to urban health and recreational activities. Etruscan-Roman expertise in hydraulic engineering facilitated the availability of ample water supplies, e.g. for public baths and latrines, and for efficient drainage systems, which had been problematic in the earlier Greek era. The Pax Romana obviated the need for defensive city walls and also potentiated the establishment and maintenance of long distance water supplies. Before the xenodocheia of the Christian era the only hospitals were Roman military institutions (valetudinaria and some latifundia for sick slaves on large farms. Doctors practiced from very basic consulting facilities (iatreia, later tabernae. Graeco-Roman concepts of “death pollution” restricted structural burial facilities to a minimum, and situated outside the city walls. Greek recreation revolved around athletic sports practiced in stadia, gymnasia and occasionally in urban agoras; dramas were performed in open air theatres. The Romans preferred horse races and blood-thirsty sports in huge amphitheatres in which gladiators fought each other to the death.

  6. Human parasites in the Roman World: health consequences of conquering an empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Piers D

    2017-01-01

    The archaeological evidence for parasites in the Roman era is presented in order to demonstrate the species present at that time, and highlight the health consequences for people living under Roman rule. Despite their large multi-seat public latrines with washing facilities, sewer systems, sanitation legislation, fountains and piped drinking water from aqueducts, we see the widespread presence of whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) and Entamoeba histolytica that causes dysentery. This would suggest that the public sanitation measures were insufficient to protect the population from parasites spread by fecal contamination. Ectoparasites such as fleas, head lice, body lice, pubic lice and bed bugs were also present, and delousing combs have been found. The evidence fails to demonstrate that the Roman culture of regular bathing in the public baths reduced the prevalence of these parasites. Fish tapeworm was noted to be widely present, and was more common than in Bronze and Iron Age Europe. It is possible that the Roman enthusiasm for fermented, uncooked fish sauce (garum) may have facilitated the spread of this helminth. Roman medical practitioners such as Galen were aware of intestinal worms, explaining their existence and planning treatment using the humoural theory of the period.

  7. [Assumption of medical risks and the problem of medical liability in ancient Roman law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váradi, Agnes

    2008-11-01

    The claim of an individual to assure his health and life, to assume and compensate the damage from diseases and accidents, had already appeared in the system of the ancient Roman law in the form of many singular legal institutions. In lack of a unified archetype of regulation, we have to analyse the damages caused in the health or corporal integrity of different personal groups: we have to mention the legal interpretation of the diseases or injuries suffered by serves, people under manus or patria potestas and free Roman citizens. The fragments from the Digest od Justinian do not only demonstrate concrete legal problems, but they can serve as a starting point for further theoretical analyses. For example: if death is the consequence of a medical failure, does the doctor have any kind of liability? Was after-care part of the healing process according to the Roman law? Examining these questions, we should not forget to talk about the complex liability system of the Roman law, the compensation of the damages caused in a contractual or delictual context and about the lex Aquilia. Although these conclusions have no direct relation with the present legal regulation of risk assumption, we have to see that analysing the examples of the Roman law can be useful for developing our view of a certain theoretical problem, like that of the modern liability concept in medicine as well.

  8. Suitable classification of mortars from ancient Roman and Renaissance frescoes using thermal analysis and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassetti, Mauro; Marini, Federico; Campanella, Luigi; Positano, Matteo; Marinucci, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Literature on mortars has mainly focused on the identification and characterization of their components in order to assign them to a specific historical period, after accurate classification. For this purpose, different analytical techniques have been proposed. Aim of the present study was to verify whether the combination of thermal analysis and chemometric methods could be used to obtain a fast but correct classification of ancient mortar samples of different ages (Roman era and Renaissance). Ancient Roman frescoes from Museo Nazionale Romano (Terme di Diocleziano, Rome, Italy) and Renaissance frescoes from Sistine Chapel and Old Vatican Rooms (Vatican City) were analyzed by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Principal Component analysis (PCA) on the main thermal data evidenced the presence of two clusters, ascribable to the two different ages. Inspection of the loadings allowed to interpret the observed differences in terms of the experimental variables. PCA allowed differentiating the two kinds of mortars (Roman and Renaissance frescoes), and evidenced how the ancient Roman samples are richer in binder (calcium carbonate) and contain less filler (aggregate) than the Renaissance ones. It was also demonstrated how the coupling of thermoanalytical techniques and chemometric processing proves to be particularly advantageous when a rapid and correct differentiation and classification of cultural heritage samples of various kinds or ages has to be carried out. Graphical abstractPCA analysis of TG data allows differentiating mortar samples from different ages (Roman era and Renaissance).

  9. Locating the timacum maius station on the roman road lissus-naissus-ratiaria: New archaeological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vladimir P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As the exact location of two Timacum stations remains an open issue, the results of the latest archaeological investigations in the environs of Svrljig, southeast Serbia, seem to offer some corroborative evidence for the hypothesis proposed in our previous contribution that this might be the location of Roman Timacum Maius. A small-scale trial excavation was undertaken on the Roman site at Kalnica in the Niševac village area in July 2008. A trench 4 by 2m was opened in the zone of the site that had yielded plentiful fragments of building debris as well as small finds. A massive wall over 1m thick was found immediately beneath the surface. Built of bro­ken limestone and pebbles bound with lime mortar, it obviously was part of a larger structure. To the northeast of the wall was an area covered with fragmented roof tiles. The discovery of two ceramic tumuli embedded in the wall, indicating a wall-heating system so far unregistered on the representative Roman urban and settlement sites in Serbia, gives additional grounds to presume that this was a larger Roman settlement extending over an area of more than 5ha, possibly Timacum Maius, a station on the Roman road Lissus-Ratiaria-Naissus.

  10. A Method for Recognizing Noisy Romanized Japanese Words in Learner English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Ryo; Kakegawa, Jun-Ichi; Sugimoto, Hiromi; Yabuta, Yukiko

    This paper describes a method for recognizing romanized Japanese words in learner English. They become noise and problematic in a variety of systems and tools for language learning and teaching including text analysis, spell checking, and grammatical error detection because they are Japanese words and thus mostly unknown to such systems and tools. A problem one encounters when recognizing romanized Japanese words in learner English is that the spelling rules of romanized Japanese words are often violated. To address this problem, the described method uses a clustering algorithm reinforced by a small set of rules. Experiments show that it achieves an F-measure of 0.879 and outperforms other methods. They also show that it only requires the target text and an English word list of reasonable size.

  11. The Recovery and Restoration of Roman Wall Paintings in Southeast Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Santiago Godos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of the Roman wall painting in the southeast Spanish is done, by a party's own excavations in the archaeological site, where you can find this mural in two ways, still located in the walls of Roman villas or at the foot of these walls collapsed, fragmented and even buried, making it necessary cooperation in the recovery work of the archaeologist and restorer. You can also recall Roman wall paintings in the collections of archaeological museums, as many boxes remain innumerable multitude of fragments of mural pieces found in excavations and record stored there pending further study, grading and restoration. Examples of the above are discussed.

  12. The nonagon as a tool for the drawing of the Roman Theatre of Lecce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampiero Mele

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available  The signs of the Roman city of Lupiae, current Lecce, are many and among them the most noteworthy is the Roman Theatre. The monument has been accidentally discovered during the excavations for the foundations of a house in 1929  and it is located short distance from another landmark of the Roman Lecce: the amphitheatre. The chance of utilizing a the latest threedimensional technology for the detection of the  ruins was an opportunity to study the model of the survey obtained. The analysis of the latter reveals a mismatch with the instructions in “De Architectura” by Vitruvius and shows a particular use of the nonagon for the  design of its iconography. This study aims to compare the hypothesis obtained from the analysis of the metrological survey with the rules explained in the work of Vitruvio to underline similarities and differences between theory and practice.

  13. Searching for schizophrenia in ancient Greek and Roman literature: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, K; McGrath, J; Milns, R

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically examine ancient Roman and Greek texts to identify descriptions of schizophrenia and related disorders. Material from Greek and Roman literature dating from the 5th Century BC to the beginning of the 2nd Century AD was systematically reviewed for symptoms of mental illness. DSM IV criteria were applied in order to identify material related to schizophrenia and related disorders. The general public had an awareness of psychotic disorders, because the symptoms were described in works of fiction and in historical accounts of malingering. There were isolated instances of text related to psychotic symptoms in the residents of ancient Rome and Greece, but no written material describing a condition that would meet modern diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia. In contrast to many other psychiatric disorders that are represented in ancient Greek and Roman literature, there were no descriptions of individuals with schizophrenia in the material assessed in this review.

  14. El pensamiento cinematográfico de Roman Jakobson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puyal, Alfonso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article turns on the film theory outlined by the Russian linguist from three contributions: the essay “Is the Film in Decline?” (1933; the interview on cinema realized in 1967; and some comments disseminated in its writings. The hypothesis that raises Roman Jakobson is the transposition of the literary features to the cinematographic mean, until rising what the Russian formalists came in calling “Poetics of Cinema” (Poetika Kino. In this sense, the most revealing contribution is the study of the metonimic and metaphorical functions that the cinema unfolds from the segmentation and the assemblage. A panoramic one by the relations that maintained Jakobson with the poets and painters of the Czech and Russian avant-garde, their culture in film matter (movies, filmmakers, or the theoretical references that handled in film questions are some of the themes undertaken with the aim to contextualize the vision that Jakobson had of cinematographic medium. The thickness of the article will be centered in its article of 1933 on movies, writing as a result of the consequences of the sound in the film language, as well as of a small experience in the making of the movies during its stay in the Czech Republic.

    El artículo versa sobre la teoría cinematográfica esbozada por el lingüista ruso a partir de tres aportaciones: el ensayo “¿Decadencia del cine?” (1933; la entrevista sobre cine realizada en 1967; y algunos comentarios diseminados en sus escritos. La hipótesis que plantea Jakobson es la transposición de los recursos literarios al medio cinematográfico, hasta levantar lo que los formalistas denominaron “poética del cine” (Poetika kino. En este sentido, la aportación más reveladora es el estudio de las funciones metonímicas y metafóricas que el cine despliega a partir de la planificación y el montaje. Una panorámica por las relaciones que mantuvo Jakobson con los poetas y pintores de la vanguardia rusa

  15. Preliminary remarks on the Roman military equipment from the war booty sacrifice of Viemose, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauli Jensen, Xenia

    2007-01-01

    The article deals with the war booty sacrifice of Vimose, Denmark, where a vast amount of Roman military equipment was found. The Ring Pommel swords are discussed, especially the possible (or not so possible) link with the Marcomannic Wars 166-180 AD.......The article deals with the war booty sacrifice of Vimose, Denmark, where a vast amount of Roman military equipment was found. The Ring Pommel swords are discussed, especially the possible (or not so possible) link with the Marcomannic Wars 166-180 AD....

  16. An entire universe of the Roman world's architecture found in the human skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turliuc, Dana; Turliuc, Șerban; Cucu, Andrei; Dumitrescu, Gabriela; Costea, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Today's neuroanatomical terminology has its origins in the Romans' way of life, in their civil and military house architecture, as well as in the fields of engineering and technology. Despite the fact that they did not know how the nervous system worked and what the role of each neuroanatomic structure was, over time, especially in Renaissance and early modern times, the anatomists sought descriptive names for the nervous structures they have identified by way of similarity with some ancient items. This study aims to briefly review the influence of Roman architecture, engineering, and technology on neuroanatomic nomenclature, the precursor of modern neuroanatomical terminology.

  17. Roman Ways: The Endurance of Patterns in Travel and Hospitality from Antiquit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford T. Hudson, Ph.D.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although it seems clear that multi-unit hotel and restaurant brands proliferated in the United States during the twentieth century, historical research demonstrates that the phenomenon is actually much older. The origins of hospitality chains can be traced back to the Roman Empire. Organizational systems and travel behaviors have remained remarkably similar throughout Western civilization during the past two millennia. The Roman relay station, the medieval post house, the New England inn, the railroad restaurant, and the highway hotel all share a common heritage.

  18. Roman Roads in Gaul: How Lines of Communication and Basing Support Operational Reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    A Note on the Peutinger Table and the Fifth and Ninth Iters,” The Journal of Roman Studies 14 (1924): 137–141; José Luis Vicente González, “ GIS and...red-viaria-romana-de-hispania- mediante-tecnologias-sig- gis -and-roman-ways-research-in-hispania/; A.N. Sherwin-White, “The Tabula of Banasa and the...Civilization: Cartography in Culture and Society, Second ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 3. 51 Brian Campbell, “Shaping the Rural

  19. From res publica to Imperium: Power and subjectivity in Roman Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Barrassús Herrero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to characterize the first imperial roman power and the different ways in which subjectivity turns out to be during the princedom. Elements of continuity and rupture in political thought and subjectivity will also be researched. Key texts to understand such institutional and intellectual break are to be found in the writings of the last ‘convinced’ republican thinkers as well as in a first Roman Empire political literature which looks to their republican past with nostalgia and veneration

  20. Le Cap en noir ? La Mother City dans les romans policiers de Deon Meyer

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Parmi les auteurs sud-africains de romans policiers, Deon Meyer est celui dont les œuvres ont fait l’objet de la diffusion internationale la plus large. À travers huit romans, publiés entre 1996 et 2012 et comportant des personnages récurrents, il dresse un tableau de l’Afrique du Sud à une période charnière de son histoire. Ses intrigues, qui ont pour cadre principal la ville du Cap, conduisent le lecteur dans une grande diversité de quartiers et de milieux sociaux. Dressant un panorama des ...

  1. Multidisciplinary investigations on the Roman aqueduct of Grumentum (Basilicata, Southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mucciarelli; S. I. Giano; D. Chianese; M. Bavusi

    2004-01-01

    The Romans built the ancient town of Grumentum during the 3rd century B.C. in the southern part of the Agri high Valley (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy) near the confluence of the Sciaura stream in the Agri River. Now it is one of the most important archaeological sites of Southern Italy. In fact, after a period of wars in this area between Romans and Carthaginians, a great deal of restoration was started in 57 B.C. These works affected the city walls, public buildings ...

  2. Representation and the vocabulary of adultery in Roman satire in their social, historical and cultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović-Pajević Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At all the stages of European history, adultery has been considered a serious offence that jeopardizes the basic cell of society - family. As society has evolved, significance and the role of the family within it changed, as well as the attitudes towards marriage and adultery. This article aims to demonstrate, by analysis of Horace's and Juvenal's satires, how the emancipation of Roman women altered the vision of the adultery in Roman satire and how these changes have reflected on the language of this genre. .

  3. From res publica to Imperium: Power and subjectivity in Roman Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Barrassús Herrero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to characterize the first imperial roman power and the different ways in which subjectivity turns out to be during the princedom. Elements of continuity and rupture in political thought and subjectivity will also be researched. Key texts to understand such institutional and intellectual break are to be found in the writings of the last ‘convinced’ republican thinkers as well as in a first Roman Empire political literature which looks to their republican past with nostalgia and veneration

  4. A multi-technique approach for the characterization of Roman mural paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschi, Francesco; Paladini, Alessandra; Colosi, Francesca; Cafarelli, Patrizia; Valentini, Veronica; Falconieri, Mauro; Gagliardi, Serena; Santoro, Paola

    2013-11-01

    In the frame of an ongoing archeological study on the Sabina area, a countryside close to Rome, white and red samples of roman wall paintings have been investigated by combining X-ray diffraction and different spectroscopic methodologies, namely laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, μ-Raman and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy. The used multi-technique approach has allowed the unambiguous identification of the red pigment as red ochre and has provided insight on the provenance of both the pigment and the material used for the realization of the wall paintings. The experimental results have confirmed some assumptions on the use of local materials in roman rural architecture.

  5. The Concept of Romanization and its Role in the Constitution of the Classical Archaeologies of the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko A. Janković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The traditional concept of Romanization has heavily influenced the methodology of research of the Roman monuments in Europe. The basic principles of the concept have been laid out by Theodor Mommsen, the German historian and an expert in epigraphy, who was the first to define the relationships between the Roman "civilization" and the local populations in his book The History of Rome. Mommsen presents a process in which two different political, economic and technological communities meet, and the inferior one is inevitably assimilated. Through the adoption of language, script, customs and material culture, the local communities become more Roman, i.e. they are romanized. This paradigm framework has fundamentally changed the way in which the researchers approach the Roman past. This was the first time that the material culture was explained inside archaeology as the discipline associated to history. The introduction of the concept of Romanization enabled the scholars to analyze the material culture in the context of everyday activities, regardless of their artistic value. Although this concept is a largely simplified view of the past, it has marked the Roman archaeology throughout the 20th century. At the moment when Mommsen's ideas are accepted and elaborated in Western Europe, the discipline of archaeology is formed in the Balkans, the first researchers are trained and the first modern archaeological researches are launched. The paper analyses the influence of his ideas upon the formation of Classical archaeology in Croatia and Serbia, two significantly different political contexts.

  6. On the origin of patterning in movable Latin type : Renaissance standardisation, systematisation, and unitisation of textura and roman type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokland, F.E.

    2016-01-01

    This PhD-research is conducted to test the hypothesis that Gutenberg and consorts developed a standardised and even unitised system for the production of textura type, and that this system was extrapolated for the production of roman type in Renaissance Italy. For roman type, Humanistic handwriting

  7. On the origin of patterning in movable Latin type : Renaissance standardisation, systematisation, and unitisation of textura and roman type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokland, F.E.

    2016-01-01

    This PhD-research is conducted to test the hypothesis that Gutenberg and consorts developed a standardised and even unitised system for the production of textura type, and that this system was extrapolated for the production of roman type in Renaissance Italy. For roman type, Humanistic handwriting

  8. Remo cum fratre Quirinus: Metamorphoses of the Roman Foundation Myth from its Beginnings to Horace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Tomažinčič

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available From the first reference to Romulus by Alcimus, a historian from the mid-fourth century BC, where the hero appears alone, down to the age of Augustus, the story of the foundation of Rome underwent considerable plot changes. The two most important are, firstly, Romulus' later role not merely as a conditor urbis, but – in keeping with the Hellenistic tradition of ktiseis poleon – mainly as a creator gentis and a model of the new Roman, who can subsequently embody a new ethnic identity; and, secondly, the later dichotomy of the founders. The interpretation of the Roman foundation myth must be therefore closely associated with the symbolism of numbers – one founder as opposed to twin founders – as it is reflected in different socio-political and historical contexts. In addition to shaping society, myth also documents all its changes. In the context of replacing a single founder with twin founders, Romulus and Remus, the first critical change is the introduction of Remus. The twin founders imply a double community, a notion which becomes meaningful in Rome only after the plebeian achievement of political equality between 367 and 342 BC. The second significant change is the death of Remus, involving the notion of a foundation sacrifice, for which the evidence points to the crisis of 296 BC. The foundation story also serves as an explanation model for the events in the Late Roman Republic. Horace's pessimistic Seventh Epode evokes the foundation crime of fratricide to explain the tragic pattern of civil wars. As Romulus' successors, the Romans are also heirs to his crime, to the scelus fraternae necis, from which they cannot escape. Moreover, Romulus as a creator gentis represents a potential source for the Roman change of identity, which was regarded as coincidental with the foundation act. This recurring theme is elaborated first in Ennius' Annals and later in Vergil's Aeneid and Horace's Third ‘Roman Ode’. The central motif is Ennius

  9. The Shortage of Roman Catholic Priests in the United States Navy Chaplain Corps: Addressing the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Doubleday Press, 1995 Center for Applied Research in the Apostolate , Statistics for Roman Catholic Priests in the United States, http...2002), iii. 15 Center for Applied Research in the Apostolate , http://cara.georgetown.edu/bulletin/index.htm#faq, accessed 30 DEC 2008

  10. Romans 12 Motivational Gifts and College Professors: Implications for Job Satisfaction and Person-Job Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Jon C.; Winston, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    This study builds on earlier work by DellaVecchio and Winston (2004) and McPherson (2008). They addressed the seven motivational gifts Paul wrote about in Romans 12:3-8 as a means for addressing job satisfaction and person-job fit among college professors. Using a snowball sampling method, 89 college professors completed the online survey…

  11. The Holy Roman Empire, the Schmalkald League, and the Idea of Confessional Nation-Building1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriele Haug-Moritz

    2008-01-01

      The process is expressed in the change of the empire's very name. Since the Middle Ages, the empire was called "holy" and "Roman," because it was considered as the last of the four empires of the biblical prophet Daniel's vision...

  12. Kuues üritus tõi Roman Šebrlele maailmameistritiitli / Raigo Pajula, Peep Pahv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pajula, Raigo, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    32-aastane tšehh Roman Šeberle on nüüd mitmevõistlejana triumfeerinud kõikidel tiitlivõistlustel. Jaapanis Osakas sai ta MMi kuldmedali. Esimest korda suurvõistlusel osalenud Andres Raja sai 16. koha

  13. Remembering or Concealing Mythical and Historical Events in the Cityscape of Early Roman Ephesus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The cityscape of early Roman Ephesus incorporated and referenced narratives from the city’s past. But there are some gaps in the stories being told. Do these gaps in the narratives demonstrate an intentional concealment of segments of the city’s history? This article discusses the meanings of the...

  14. Legal regulation of the obligations in old romanian law, greek and roman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Tutuianu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal history shows that those who are defined obligation Romans definition valid today as a relationship as we submit to a benefit from a third party. Their importance lies in the fact that although rooted in ancient as it spread in all legal systems, across time and still keeping the same legal and economic importance.

  15. Kuues üritus tõi Roman Šebrlele maailmameistritiitli / Raigo Pajula, Peep Pahv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pajula, Raigo, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    32-aastane tšehh Roman Šeberle on nüüd mitmevõistlejana triumfeerinud kõikidel tiitlivõistlustel. Jaapanis Osakas sai ta MMi kuldmedali. Esimest korda suurvõistlusel osalenud Andres Raja sai 16. koha

  16. Presidendi peolaua katavad Roman Zaštšerinski ja Imre Kose / Kristi Leppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leppik, Kristi

    2008-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 14. veebr. 2008, lk. 2. Eesti Vabariigi aastapäeva presidendi vastuvõtu peakokad on restorani Ö peakokk Roman Zaštšerinski ja Imre Kose. Vt. samas: Retseptisoovitus 24. veebruariks

  17. Framing Egypt : Roman literary perceptions of Egypt from Cicero to Juvenal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemreize, M.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of Roman literary references to Egypt without preference for one particular period, author or subject, in contrast to most previous scholarship. In doing so, it shows that these references vary greatly, are context-dependent, and cannot be rightly understood when

  18. Presidendi peolaua katavad Roman Zaštšerinski ja Imre Kose / Kristi Leppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leppik, Kristi

    2008-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 14. veebr. 2008, lk. 2. Eesti Vabariigi aastapäeva presidendi vastuvõtu peakokad on restorani Ö peakokk Roman Zaštšerinski ja Imre Kose. Vt. samas: Retseptisoovitus 24. veebruariks

  19. The Use of Interactive Whiteboards in Teaching Non-Roman Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozcu, Anjel

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the use of the interactive whiteboards in teaching the non-Latin based orthographies of Hindi, Pashto, Dari, Persian (Farsi), and Hebrew. All these languages use non-roman scripts, and except for Hindi, they are cursive. Thus, letters within words are connected and for beginners the script may look quite complicated,…

  20. Internal Order, Public Safety and Secret Service in the Roman Public Administrative Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernández de Buján

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The first instance of organized police can be found in the time of the Roman Republic, being tasked with looking after public security and internal order. A gradual evolution would thenceforth see it become the bureaucratic and specialized system of vigilance and internal as well as external security of the Late Empire.

  1. Romans 1:18-32 amidst the gay-debate: Interpretative options

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    ... women from civil and human rights; viewing their abuse at the hands of .... not the contemporary “committed, loving homosexual relationships” (cf Stott .... superiority for Jewish culture by the standards of the dominant culture itself” ..... of abuse and exploitation” may be different, requiring a re-evaluation of Romans1 –.

  2. New radiocarbon data to study the history of roman and medieval Florence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnoldus-Huyzendveld, A. [Dipartimento di Archeologia e Storia delle Arti, Universita di Siena, via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Fedi, M.E., E-mail: fedi@fi.infn.i [INFN Sezione di Firenze, via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Cantini, F.; Bruttini, J. [Dipartimento di Archeologia e Storia delle Arti, Universita di Siena, via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Cartocci, A. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Firenze, via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Calabrisotto, C. Scire [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Firenze, via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    Florence is a town worldwide known for its Renaissance masterpieces. It is often forgotten that it was founded during Roman times and remained a small village until the end of the early Middle Ages, practically confined within the ancient Roman boundaries. Since 2003, an extended archaeological research executed by the University of Sienna has studied the most ancient layers in the centre of Florence with the aim to enhance both the archaeological and paleo-environmental reconstruction of this area. One of the peculiarities of these excavations is that the early medieval layers were poor in datable ceramics, thus charcoals were sampled from different stratigraphic layers in order to contribute to the dating. Several data have already been published; here we focus on the excavation site of Palazzo Vecchio, now the seat of the municipality of Florence. This area is located close to the Arno river, along the eastern margin of the slightly elevated height upon which the Roman town was founded; actually, in the layers beneath the surface, the Roman theatre is still preserved. Radiocarbon dating of charcoals was performed in the LABEC laboratory in Florence, at the AMS beam line of the AMS-IBA 3 MV Tandetron accelerator. Comparison of these new data with the former ones and with the archaeological and geological data adds new information especially on natural phenomena like floods and on the human occupation of this area in the past.

  3. New radiocarbon data to study the history of roman and medieval Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldus-Huyzendveld, A.; Fedi, M. E.; Cantini, F.; Bruttini, J.; Cartocci, A.; Calabrisotto, C. Scirè

    2010-04-01

    Florence is a town worldwide known for its Renaissance masterpieces. It is often forgotten that it was founded during Roman times and remained a small village until the end of the early Middle Ages, practically confined within the ancient Roman boundaries. Since 2003, an extended archaeological research executed by the University of Sienna has studied the most ancient layers in the centre of Florence with the aim to enhance both the archaeological and paleo-environmental reconstruction of this area. One of the peculiarities of these excavations is that the early medieval layers were poor in datable ceramics, thus charcoals were sampled from different stratigraphic layers in order to contribute to the dating. Several data have already been published; here we focus on the excavation site of Palazzo Vecchio, now the seat of the municipality of Florence. This area is located close to the Arno river, along the eastern margin of the slightly elevated height upon which the Roman town was founded; actually, in the layers beneath the surface, the Roman theatre is still preserved. Radiocarbon dating of charcoals was performed in the LABEC laboratory in Florence, at the AMS beam line of the AMS-IBA 3 MV Tandetron accelerator. Comparison of these new data with the former ones and with the archaeological and geological data adds new information especially on natural phenomena like floods and on the human occupation of this area in the past.

  4. Vulnerabilities induced by relief in the location of the roman geosites in Drobeta area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Irimus

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of numerous evidence of anthropogenic interventions in the proximity of Drobeta, during II-VI centuries, were the starting points for developing a strategy for interdisciplinary research of the valences of sites / targets with historic and archaeological potential of this area defined as geosites.The initiative to combine geographical and geomorphological arguments, with the historical and archeological one to envisage the reception of these values in terms of interdisciplinarity, has as a final aim the valuing and enhancement of the geosites in this location.Research results lead to an easier perception of the dependence of human activities of area morphology and of the relief role in locating and arranging Roman geosites. Using specific methods for geomorphology I identified landforms preferred by the Romans for sites location (settlements, fortifications, roads, cemeteries etc., but also the vulnerability of the geosites and geomorfosites at contemporary geomorphological processes.The analyze performed on the roman architectural ensemble from Drobeta shows a number of impediments or vulnerabilities due to location morphology in the development and settlement of Roman geosite.

  5. Do as the Romans: Construct an Aqueduct! Grades 6-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    In this activity, students work with specified materials to create aqueduct components to transport two liters of water across a short distance in the classroom. The goal is to build an aqueduct that will supply Aqueductis, a Roman city, with clean water for private homes, public baths, and glorious fountains. By introducing various ideas and…

  6. ASPECTS OF A RHETORIC OF THE BODY AND THE LETTER TO THE ROMANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes N. Vorster

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the expansion of New Testament Studies to formal studies in Early Christianity and Late Antiquity have significantly changed modi of interpretation concerning Pauline material, the Cartesian effect has not been laid to rest. In addition, despite the problematisation of knowledge production which was initiated during the eighties of the twentieth century, the subject as primary originator of knowledge, born during the nineteenth century, is still haunting the production of knowledge within the field of Pauline studies, with little concern for the variety of diverse discursive practices compelling and enabling the production of a writing. Both these tendencies have infused the rhetorical paradigm within which Pauline letters have been read. I argue that a rhetoric of the body, functioning within the implicit tradition of Rhetorical Criticism, can enable the detection of discursive traces constituting a rhetoric of the body in the Graeco-Roman world. If a rhetoric of the body is used as interpretative framework for the letter to the Romans, no resistance against the Roman Empire can be discerned but rather an identification with a habitus that made a radicalisation of the Roman regulatory body possible. doi: 10.7833/108-1-4

  7. Le roman de l’adultère : du mythe littéraire au palimpseste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye NDiaye

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Malgré la distance temporelle et spatiale, les romans du XIXe siècle traitant de l'adultère et Le Roman de Tristan et Iseut (12e siècle entretiennent un rapport d'analogie et de contiguïté tel que l'analyse révèle des aspects que le palimpseste éclaire par ses propriétés. Le roman du 12e siècle constitue l'hypotexte et prend ainsi toute la part du mythe fondateur. Despite the temporal and spatial distance , the novels of the nineteenth century dealing with adultery and Le Roman de Tristan et Iseut (12th century maintain a relationship of analogy and contiguity such as analysis shows aspects that the palimpsest enlighten through its properties. The 12e century novel makes up the subtext and so takes on the part of the founding myth.

  8. The Embassy of Cardinal Troiano Acquaviva D’Aragona before the Roman Court (1735-1747

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano BARRIO GOZALO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the eighteenth century, the Embassy of Spain in Rome still continued to be of great importance given the multiplicity of interests that were at stake, but in this article I will confine myself to examining the figure of the ambassador and his ministerial function in the Roman Court, to then analyze some aspects of the embassy of Cardinal Troiano Acquaviva.

  9. Suggestions on the Transcription of Sephardic Texts into the Roman Alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, George K.

    Difficulties in transcription from the Hebrew to the Roman alphabet are discussed. The resolution of some of the problems in Judeo-Spanish texts using the "aljamiado" writing system are reviewed, including the use of some Hebrew consonants as vowels, representation of Judeo-Spanish sounds non-existent in Hebrew, and phonetic variations…

  10. The Use of Interactive Whiteboards in Teaching Non-Roman Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozcu, Anjel

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the use of the interactive whiteboards in teaching the non-Latin based orthographies of Hindi, Pashto, Dari, Persian (Farsi), and Hebrew. All these languages use non-roman scripts, and except for Hindi, they are cursive. Thus, letters within words are connected and for beginners the script may look quite complicated,…

  11. Phenotypic features of the domestic pigs bred in the Roman settlements of Pompeii and Caralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Paolo; Farina, Vittorio; Gadau, Sergio; Lepore, Gianluca; Genovese, Angelo; Zedda, Marco

    2004-01-01

    A reconstruction of the morphological features of domestic pigs from two Roman settlements is here suggested by means of the study of skeletal and dental remains, with the aim at evaluating their degree of selection in comparison with wild boars. Material was formed by 111 bone and tooth fragments and was uncovered during the excavations of Polybius' House in Pompeii and of Roman buildings in the neighbourhood of Caralis harbour (Sardinia). The remains underwent morphological examination. The eruption of permanent teeth and ossification of epiphyseal cartilages let us establish that most animals were over 18-20 months. When possible, the determination of sex was made by detecting tusk features. The presence of anthropic signs on the bone surface provides some information about slaughtering and cooking procedure in the Roman period and supports the hypothesis that the animal remnants were food remains. Osteometric analysis was carried out on long and short bones and teeth through suitable multiplicative parameters, leading to the assessment of the withers height and other main phenotypic features. Logarithmic deviation pointed out the significant osteometric differences between the domestic pigs from the two Roman settlements. These data were also compared with those from wild boars and modern crossbred wild boars X non-selected pigs. In conclusion, our data show that pigs from Caralis bear much resemblance to wild boars, whereas those from Pompeii appear to be improved, so sharing some phenotypic features of modem improved breeds.

  12. The Distribution of Visual Information in the Vertical Dimension of Roman and Hebrew Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimron, Joseph; Navon, David

    1980-01-01

    English and Hebrew native speakers read texts mutilated by removing strips at the top or bottom of lines. Reading English texts was impaired more by mutilating the top, but the reverse was found for Hebrew texts, due to the different ways information is distributed along the vertical axis of Roman and Hebrew letters. (Author/GT)

  13. Compositional variation in Roman colourless glass objects from the bocholtz burial (the Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, D.J.; Groot, T. de; Pols, S.; Os, B.J.H. van; Degryse, P.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the major and trace element composition and Pb and Sr isotope characteristics of a series of about 20 colourless glass objects from a single high-status Roman burial from the Netherlands (Bocholtz). The major elements show a relatively homogeneous group, with one outlier. This is cor

  14. Degradation processes in colourless Roman glass: cases from the Bocholtz burial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, D.J.; Pols, S.; Joosten, I.; Os, B.J.H. van; Smit, A.

    2008-01-01

    A group of Roman glass objects from the Bocholtz burial in the SW of Limburg (The Netherlands) was found to have been subject to varying degrees of degradation. Many of the 25 colourless glass objects were fragmented to pieces <0.1 cm ("sugared"), whereas the three transparent blue-green glass objec

  15. Trade, Strategy and Communications on the Roman North-East Frontier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2016-01-01

    The reorganisation of Pontos that Pompey carried out after defeating Mithradates VI Eupator has traditionally been seen as an example of enlightened Roman policy towards the provincials, which included the introduction of civic self-government and the promotion of commercial life. These goals...

  16. Romanization of Referencing Styles for Arts & Humanities Science Journals in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Huei Lin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on Big Three referecing styles guides, namely APA, Chicago (Turabian and MLA Style, this study discusses the citation formats in which have been applied and specified for scholarly references in non-English languages, especially in Chinese language scholarly writing. This study targets on those Taiwan journals, indexed by TSSCI, THCI Core, A&HCI, SSCI and Scopus, that use the Romanization of references in Chinese journal. By analyzing their notes for contributors and the real situation of application in the Chinese cited works. In respect of the aforementioned three major referencing styles and the rules made by journals themselves, the findings are as follows: the APA, Chicago, and MLA Styles should be revised according to the practical needs of citing non-English references; academic journal publishers need to specify and provide the guidelines and templates of romanizing references in respect of contributed articles; international citation index databases providers should stipulate and provide their description style for romanizing references, and the government and major academic institutes should put more efforts to assist local scholarly journals to cope with the reference romanization problems, even at promoting a kind of consistent Pinyin principle for referencing styles for Chinese journal publishing in Taiwan.

  17. Leadership Development Experiences of Exemplary Roman Catholic Parish Priests: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Rosemarie A.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study addressed the research question: How do exemplary Roman Catholic parish priests perceive and describe their leadership development experience? The study explored experiences considered important in developing leadership, including how they occurred, the meaning provided, the definition of exemplary…

  18. Framing Egypt : Roman literary perceptions of Egypt from Cicero to Juvenal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemreize, M.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of Roman literary references to Egypt without preference for one particular period, author or subject, in contrast to most previous scholarship. In doing so, it shows that these references vary greatly, are context-dependent, and cannot be rightly understood when interp

  19. Les variations diasystématiques et leurs interdépendances dans les langues romanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le présent volume contient un choix des actes du Colloque DIA II sur la variation linguistique dans les langues romanes. Ce colloque organisé par l'Université de Copenhague en collaboration avec l’Académie Royale des Sciences et Belles-lettres du Danemark du 19 au 21 novembre 2012 était consacré ...

  20. Healing Gods, Heroes and Rituals in the Graeco-Roman World

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    Panayotis Pachis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This editorial introduces the articles published within the OLH Special Collection, ‘Healing Gods, Heroes and Rituals in the Graeco-Roman World’. The first two articles in this collection interrogate the figures of specific healing gods. Olympia Panagiotidou’s article ‘Asclepius’ Myths and Healing Narratives: Counter-Intuitive Concepts and Cultural Expectations’ focuses on the curative features that defined the image of Asclepius, the most famous of the healing gods. The next article in the collection, ‘The Fate of a Healing Goddess: Ocular Pathologies, the Antonine Plague, and the Ancient Roman Cult of Bona Dea’ by Leonardo Ambasciano, interrogates the religious figure of another healing agent: the Italian goddess Bona Dea who was particularly venerated in Rome and in the region of Latium and whose cult reveals the way in which ancient Roman androcentric control over women was institutionalised through religious figures.  The third article in the collection, Audrey Ferlut’s ‘Goddesses as Consorts of the Healing Gods in 'Gallia Belgica' and the 'Germaniae': Forms of Cult and Ritual Practices’ considers the impact that cults dedicated to gods and goddesses had on populations in the wider area of the Roman Empire, focusing on the Northern provinces of the Western Roman Empire ('Gallia Belgica' and the 'Germaniae'. The collection’s final article, ‘From Textual Reception to Textual Codification: Thessalos and the Quest for Authenticity’ by Spyros Piperakis, moves the discussion from the question of cult practices to ‘alternative’ healing therapies in antiquity. Piperakis deals with astrological medicine, one of many alternative therapeutic methods that became popular during the Hellenistic and Roman period.  Taken together, the articles in ‘Healing Gods, Heroes and Rituals in the Graeco-Roman World’ demonstrate that we need to approach the study of ancient myths and cults within their socio-cultural context

  1. Proconsuls and CINCs from the Roman Republic to the Republic of the United States of America: Lessons for the Pax Americana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    2000, sec. A, p. 18. 4 Dana Priest, "Standing up to State and Congress." Washington Post, 30 September 2000, sec. A, p. 1. 5 Isaac Asimov , The Roman...108 Cronin, 1. 49 BIBLIOGRAPHY Roman Sources Asimov , Isaac . The Roman Republic. Boston: Houghton Mifflin

  2. The Concept of ‘Due Performance’ (solutio of Civil Obligations in Classic Roman Law: Content and Scope

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    Paula Natalia Robles Bacca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article displays a chronological journey of some of the sources of Roman Law that allows us to establish the concept of the “due performance” in Rome. To this extent, we proceed to a reflection of the modifications and adjustments occurred regarding the concept of solutio, during archaic and classical Roman law. Therefore, we will focus on the exegetical study of some other Roman sources, which contains references to solutio, solvere and satisfactio, in order to establish through this path, the structural antecedent of the current notion of “due performance of obligations”.

  3. Lucile Desblache, La plume des bêtes. Les animaux dans le roman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachele Branchini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nel suo nuovo studio critico, La plume des bêtes. Les animaux dans le roman, Lucile Desblache affronta una questione che le è cara: il valore della rappresentazione letteraria dell’animalità, indagata sia nel rapporto simbolico che questa intesse con l’opposta sfera dell’umano sia nel ruolo semiotico che assume all’interno della narrazione romanzesca. Già nel 2002, infatti, la studiosa aveva dato alle stampe un lavoro simile, il Bestiaire du roman contemporain d’expression française, un lemmario animale che esplorava i valori simbolici del mondo ferino nell’opera di un numero consistente di romanzieri francofoni contemporanei (Gary, Grangé, Moinot, Nourissier etc..

  4. Analysis of Roman glass from Albania by PIXE–PIGE method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šmit, Ž., E-mail: ziga.smit@fmf.uni-lj.si [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Jadranska 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O. Box 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tartari, F. [Institute of Archaeology, Tirana (Albania); Stamati, F. [Institute of Folk Culture, Laboratories of Conservation, Kont Urani 3, Tirana (Albania); Vevecka Priftaj, A. [Polytechnic University of Tirana, Sheshi Nene Tereza 4, Tirana (Albania); Istenič, J. [National Museum of Slovenia, Prešernova 20, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-02-01

    A series of 31 Roman glasses dated to the 1st–4th c. AD from the present Albania was analyzed by the combined PIXE–PIGE method. The analysis shows typical natron-based glass of the Roman period, though statistical treatment using principal component analysis and bivariate plots reveals four distinct groups, which are qualified by increased levels of potassium, magnesium and titanium–manganese–iron oxides, respectively. MgO content may exceed 2% and reach the level commonly accepted for halophytic plant-ash glass. The groups are formed on account of mineral impurities in the sand, which gives support to the thesis of multiple production centers of raw glass in the imperial age.

  5. Analytical characterisation of ancient mortars from the archaeological Roman city of Pollentia (Balearic Islands, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genestar, C. [Department of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands (UIB), 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)]. E-mail: nina.genestar@uib.es; Pons, C. [Department of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands (UIB), 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Mas, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands (UIB), 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2006-01-31

    Analytical characterisation of historic mortars from the Roman city of Pollentia (Mallorca) has been carried out by means of thermal analysis (thermogravimetry (TG) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG)), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The aim of this research is to provide useful information about the construction mode of the mortars which served for lining purposes in duct drains, cisterns, swimming pools, flooring mortars and wall renderings. The reported results converge to reveal the hydraulic nature of the majority of the mortars used for several hundred years to cover the diverse needs of the inhabitants of Pollentia. A fair correlation between the chemical characteristics of the studied mortars and the results of ancient Roman mortars from other archaeological sites has been established.

  6. Prekarisering og prekært arbejdsliv i Helle Helles roman, Ned til hundene (2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Helle Helle er en af dansk samtidslitteraturs vigtigste stemmer, og hun finder mange læsere både inden for og uden for akademiet. Hendes romaner befolkes af personer, som kan forbindes med prekariatet, og en analyse af hendes værk leder til en bedre og mere nuanceret forståelse af levevilkårene...... for prekære mennesker i den neoliberale samtid. I en litterær tekstanalyse af Helle Helles nyklassiske roman, Ned til hundene (2008), vises det, hvordan den gennem en særlig prekær stil giver læseren indsigt i det at være sårbar og udsat, dels som et menneskeligt eksistentielt grundvilkår, dels som en...

  7. Sources for the study of the romanization in the Plateau North

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pérez Martín

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Roman conquest of the peninsular interior will modify the formsof life in this territory to all the levels, in a process that the historiography has given in calling romanization and that will last more than two centuries. Inside this historical and geographicalcontext, we will centre on the importance of the different sources exposing significant examples of each one of them with which we will indicate the abundant information that they us contribute, the different methods of work that we use on having handled them and some of the difficulties that us can arise in his study. All this with the aim to show the need of the investigator in a detailed study of the same ones combining and realizing them, in order to obtain a correct interpretation of the past.

  8. Roman settlement pattern and LCP modelling in ancient North-Eastern Pannonia (Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bence Simon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Roman times are known as an epoch when man subdued nature all over the \\textit{orbis terrarum}, however all humans were and are still bound by certain environmental conditions, therefore in settling a special dichotomy can be observed. In my present study I am analysing the Roman settlement patterns of the North-Eastern part of Pannonia by evaluating field-walking material and results of excavations. The classification of the sites is mainly based on building material and pottery collected on the field. After examining the structure of settlements with the assistance of GIS technologies, I assess how the least cost paths calculated from the relief of terrain influenced settling.

  9. Greek and Roman patients under Galen's gaze: a doctor at the crossroads of two cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon-Millot, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Born in Pergamum in 129 A.D., Galen received his first medical training in his native city and then continued his studies in Smyrna, Corinth, and Alexandria. He began his medical career in Asia Minor, treating peasants and performing surgery on the gladiatorial troupe that worked as slaves under the high priest upon his return to Pergamum in 157. Subsequently, he settled in Rome, where he lived most of his life and treated many prominent patients. The aim of this paper is to explore how Galen viewed his Asian and Roman patients and how he adapted his practice and medical procedures based not only on each patient's social and economic status, but on his or her intellectual acumen and customs as well, through proposing an intelligent and original synthesis of Asian and Roman lifestyles.

  10. Properties of Roman bricks and mortars used in Serapis temple in the city of Pergamon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkaya, Ozlem Aslan [Architectural Restoration Department, Izmir Institute of Technology, 35430 Izmir (Turkey); Boeke, Hasan, E-mail: hasanboke@iyte.edu.tr [Architectural Restoration Department, Izmir Institute of Technology, 35430 Izmir (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    Serapis temple, which was constructed in the Roman period in the city of Pergamon (Bergama/Turkey), is one of the most important monuments of the world heritage. In this study, the characteristics of bricks and mortars used in the temple have been determined in order to define the necessary characteristics of the intervention materials, which will be used in the conservation works of the temple. Several analyses were carried out to determine their basic physical properties, raw material compositions, mineralogical and microstructural properties using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope and a Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer. Analysis results indicated that the mortars are stiff, compact and hydraulic due to the use of natural pozzolanic aggregates. The Roman bricks are of low density, high porosity and were produced from raw materials containing calcium poor clays fired at low temperatures.

  11. 'A vehicle of symbols and nothing more'. George Romanes, theory of mind, information, and Samuel Butler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsdyke, Donald R

    2015-09-01

    Today's 'theory of mind' (ToM) concept is rooted in the distinction of nineteenth-century philosopher William Clifford between 'objects' that can be directly perceived and 'ejects', such as the mind of another person, which are inferred from one's subjective knowledge of one's own mind. George Romanes, a founder with Charles Darwin of the discipline of comparative psychology, considered the minds of animals as ejects, an idea that could be generalized to 'society as eject' and, ultimately, 'the world as an eject' - mind in the universe. Yet, Romanes and Clifford only vaguely connected mind with the abstraction we call 'information', which needs 'a vehicle of symbols' - a material transporting medium. However, Samuel Butler was able to address, in informational terms depleted of theological trappings, both organic evolution and mind in the universe. This view harmonizes with insights arising from modern DNA research, the relative immortality of 'selfish' genes, and some startling recent developments in brain research.

  12. Analysis of Roman glass from Albania by PIXE-PIGE method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmit, Ž.; Tartari, F.; Stamati, F.; Vevecka Priftaj, A.; Istenič, J.

    2013-02-01

    A series of 31 Roman glasses dated to the 1st-4th c. AD from the present Albania was analyzed by the combined PIXE-PIGE method. The analysis shows typical natron-based glass of the Roman period, though statistical treatment using principal component analysis and bivariate plots reveals four distinct groups, which are qualified by increased levels of potassium, magnesium and titanium-manganese-iron oxides, respectively. MgO content may exceed 2% and reach the level commonly accepted for halophytic plant-ash glass. The groups are formed on account of mineral impurities in the sand, which gives support to the thesis of multiple production centers of raw glass in the imperial age.

  13. Analytical Investigation Of Pigments, Ground Layer And Media Of Cartonnage Fragments From Greek Roman Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Hala. A. M.

    Some cartonnage fragments from Hawara, Fayoum Excavation were examined to identify pigments, media and grounds. It belonged to the Greek-Roman period. They were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X ray analysis (EDS) equipped with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). These techniques were used to identify the composition and morphology of grounds, nature of pigments and media used in cartonnage fragments. The coarse ground layer was composed of calcite and traces of quartz. The fine ground layer used under the pigments directly was composed of calcite only. Carbon black was used as black pigment while lead oxide as red pigment, showing the influence of Roman and Greek pigments on Egyptian art in these later periods. Blue colorant was identified as cuprorivaite and yellow pigment was goethite. Animal glue was used in the four pigments as medium colored.

  14. Was the fetal alcohol syndrome recognized by the Greeks and Romans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, E L

    1999-01-01

    Ancient Greek and Roman philosophers/scientists are frequently quoted as expressing an awareness of potential harm associated with drinking during pregnancy. However, the statements attributed to these authors were not made by them. Instead, they are interpretations, presented in the form of verbatim statements, of their views relating to procreation. Although they did have something to say about the role of alcohol in procreation, it was the effects of drinking on the male body at the time of conception, and especially alcohol's effects on male body temperature, that concerned them. A cold body at the time of conception was believed to enhance the likelihood of conceiving a female, which to the Greeks and Romans was a 'deformity'.

  15. The main Differences of the Roman Administrative Organization in the Republican and the Imperial Eras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Guzmán-Brito

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The so-called “public administration” of the Roman Republican era was characterized by its adaptation to the following rules: limited periods in the exercise of public office, popular election of their holders, gratuity for their performance, plurality of holders for the same office and collegiality among them, lack of hierarchy and autonomy and independence of each holder, and personal responsibility for expenses incurred in the exercise of public office. The imperial regime introduced rules which were exactly the opposite. If we bear in mind that these contrary rules continue to govern the administrative organization of modern States, it follows that the foundations of modern Public Administration thus derive from the Roman Empire.

  16. The Alcántara roman bridge: new archaeological documentation and preconstruction evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pizzo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents part of the results in two research projects about the architecture of the Roman Lusitania. The bridge of Alcantara (Cáceres has been object of an exhaustive study, which includes new graphic documentation and the analysis of historical and structural transformations of the monument. Different evidences support the hypothesis of an existing architectural project for an earlier bridge, which probably was never finished. Two external arches and a vault of a structure underneath the Trajan bridge indicates the existence of a very different construction to the monument that can be seen nowadays. That first bridge, crucial for the economic exploitation of the surrounding areas since the early Roman period, might not have been an architectonical type suitable for the topography of the river Tajo area.

  17. Roman Travertine: proposed as a candidate for "Global Heritage Stone Resource" designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavori, Piero

    2017-04-01

    Roman Travertine is one of the most long-standing and famous stones, used since the times of the Roman Empire. Together with Carrara and Botticino marbles, it is probably the most worldwide well-known and diffused Italian dimension stone. Travertine derives its name from the former town, known as Tibur in ancient Roman times; the ancient name for the stone was Lapis Tiburtinus, meaning Tibur Stone, which was gradually corrupted to Travertino (travertine). The Roman Travertine is geographically located circa 25 km to the east of Rome, Central Italy, in the hilly area of Guidonia-Montecelio and Tivoli. Its deposit, formed during late Pleistocene time over an active strike-slip fault nearby the Colli Albani quiescent volcano, is about 20 km2 wide and 60 m thick on average; the thickness is over 85 m toward its western N-S-elongated side, where thermal springs and large sinkholes occur in an aligned pattern. The first quarries date back to pre-Roman times; nowadays three main productive sub-zones can be recognized within the extractive basin: "Valle Pilella", "Barco" and "Le Fosse", where more than fifty quarries are in operation, together with a relevant number of processing plants and artisanal laboratories. Lithological and stratigraphical features allow the distinction of an extensive number of commercial varieties, being the most renowned the Classic, the Bianco, the Noce, the Paglierino, the Navona. Used since more than 2.500 years, the Roman Travertine has deeply characterized the architecture of Rome and its history, with the realization of villas, palaces, artistic and monumental buildings, and masterpieces with unmistakable features, such as the Anfiteatro Flavio (the Colosseum), the Theatre of Marcellus, the St. Peter's Basilica and Colonnade, the Tritone Fountain, the Adriana Villa, the Trevi Fountain, and many others. From Renaissance times on, the travertine has been extensively used to build an innumerable amount of churches, common buildings and houses

  18. Comparative analysis: 'Civil rights' in the Roman state and contemporary 'human rights'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deretić Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on exploring the roots of 'civil rights' dating from the times before the Roman civilization and the term of 'human rights', which is a comparatively new concept for what was once understood as 'the right of men'. There is no doubt that the character of the Roman society which was based on slavery made the notion of 'man' restricted and exclusive, since it was based on the dominant form of dependence and use of another person (a slave. Slaves did not have the status of 'men'; they were treated as 'speaking tools' (instrumentum vocale, as well as possessions owned by the person treated like a 'man', primarily a free citizen of Rome. The slave's master could dispose of him just like any other object and decide upon his life and death. Given the fact that the Roman Empire did not create the necessary prerequisites for every person to use what they were naturally given: the right to life and liberty - from which all other rights are derived - it may appear irrelevant to study the issue of the rights of individuals and the treatment they received. But this is only a first glance impression, because the conditions in Rome ensured the basic 'rights of men' exclusively for the Roman citizens, whereas in the case of others (women, children, and slaves these rights were 'systematically violated'. In all the stages of the Roman state (as kingdom, republic, principate, and dominate there was awareness among the Romans of the classes constituting their society. Every person was regarded in the function of two essential criteria: his origin and wealth. It is therefore said that the Roman society in all its stages, except the initial one, was a society of conflicts. There were always conflicting classes, the superior ones and the inferior ones. Having been determined as either a free citizen or a slave, the 'man' was further positioned within the society and the family according to his affiliation to liberated persons, peregrines, and the

  19. “Homme obscur” : un roman "autre" dans l'oeuvre de M. Yourcenar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Douspis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Dans son roman Un homme obscur, Marguerite Yourcenar paraît renier les valeurs de la culture antique et du livre, qu’elle avait révérées jusque-là ; en effet, le personnage principal, Nathanaël, semble fort bien se passer des livres et son jugement n’en est pas moins extrêmement juste et pertinent. Peut-on vraiment parler de reniement de la part de la romancière ? La lecture attentive et l’étude d’Un homme obscur font apparaître de multiples références aux grands romans de la littérature française et cette œuvre de Marguerite Yourcenar - originale et inattendue certes - n’est pas radicalement différente des précédentes.

  20. 'Rome was not built in a day'. Legal Sources and Reuse in roman times (I century BC - VI century AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri A. Marano

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The number and complexities of the legal texts from the Roman world far surpass anything we have from other ancient societies, and this huge body of evidence allows chance to investigate how Roman jurists wished to regulate public and private construction activity. In particular, this paper aims at exploring how Roman authorities coped with salvage and reuse of buildings materials, focussing on the economic and organizational aspects of this practice. Proceeding chronologically and exploiting legal texts, literary and epigraphic sources and archaeology as complementary evidence, it will demonstrate how recycling has been an important feature of Roman building industry through the Republican and Imperial periods as a source of cheap building materials and a solution to problems related to the recycling and disposal of urban waste. At the same time, reuse will be considered as a crucial aspect of the general Imperial policy of exercising control over civic finances and patrimony.

  1. Historical Precedents on the Protection or Defense of Natural Resources and salubritas in Rome. Towards an Administrative Environmental Roman Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Ruiz-Pino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses certain situations involving the protection of natural resources by the Roman Law itself, some of which contain ancient environmental protections that today fall under a branch of Administrative Law, now known as Environmental Law.

  2. Il formalismo russo, Roman Jakobson e la linguistica nella prima metà del Novecento

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetta Baldi; Leonardo M. Savoia

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the relation between Russian Formalism and linguistic thought in the first decades of the twentieth century. The theory of literary language proposed by the Formalist School assigns a central role to the linguistic devices that characterize a text as poetic or literary; the basic idea is that these devices work as a system, a notion derived from Saussurean linguistics. The leading figure we consider is Roman Jakobson, a key interpreter of Formalism, and, at the same tim...

  3. Imperial Policy and the Integration of Gaul into the Roman Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    tolerated the growth of Gallic production , its taste for Gallic wine transferred additional wealth from the capital to Gallic producers, as Gaul became an...6. AUTHOR(S) MAJ Colin J. Pascal 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...state, since Roman law in Gaul existed only so long as the empire lived. It is not clear if this by- product of Rome’s occupation empowered a new

  4. Balzac et la ténébreuse naissance du roman policier

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    André Vanoncini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Avec Balzac, et plus encore avec Une ténébreuse affaire, on touche à certaines des figures originaires de ce qui prendra bien plus tard l’identité générique du roman policier. Aussi les conditions épistémologiques qui ont pu favoriser l’émergence de ce type de récit ont-elles fait l’objet de commentaires substantiels et stimulants.Plus récemment, les chercheurs spécialisés ont précisé ce statut innovateur du roman. Il ressort de ces études que Balzac y combine et réinterprète plusieurs modes romanesques de son époque, tels que les registres historique, noir, sentimental, politique ou judiciaire. Or, s’il est indéniable que l’œuvre se réfère à une multiplicité de genres contemporains à sa création, il paraît de même fort probable qu’elle renvoie par anticipation à plus d’une seule variante du roman policier. C’est l’hypothèse qu’il s’agit de vérifier d’abord.Que Balzac finisse par exposer à l’issue d’une histoire passablement obscure les interdépendances équivoques entre une intrigue et une représentation complexes, n’a pas échappé à Jean Amila. Ce maître du roman de critique sociopolitique, qui a illustré la grande époque de la « Série noire », a repris le sujet d’Une ténébreuse affaire dans son œuvre intitulée Terminus Iéna (1973.

  5. Romanization of Referencing Styles for Arts & Humanities Science Journals in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Huei Lin; Jeong-Yeou Chiu

    2016-01-01

    Based on Big Three referecing styles guides, namely APA, Chicago (Turabian) and MLA Style, this study discusses the citation formats in which have been applied and specified for scholarly references in non-English languages, especially in Chinese language scholarly writing. This study targets on those Taiwan journals, indexed by TSSCI, THCI Core, A&HCI, SSCI and Scopus, that use the Romanization of references in Chinese journal. By analyzing their notes for contributors and the real situation...

  6. The Claustrophobic poetics of the Non-Homes in Repulsion (Roman Polanski, 1965)

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla Díaz, Alberto Román

    2017-01-01

    The link between closed and claustrophobic scenery and the twisted mind of the female main characters and their unbalanced psyches is a constant feature in psychological terror movies. Nevertheless, in Roman Polanski’s films, it becomes an obsession which is commonplace throughout his movies. A type of original style is created based on resettings, dark lightings and other architectural transformations of great interest and some semiology, which we might label claustrophobic poetics. The purp...

  7. Impulsore Chresto. Opposition to Christianity in the Roman Empire c. 50-250 AD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jakob

    Impulsore Chresto reassesses opposition to Christianity AD 50-250. The Roman authorities' persecutions have caught the attention of both the public, intrigued by martyrs, and scholars, arguing that executions were relatively rare. The latter is not challenged, but the executions are placed in con......, spectators or local officials were crucial. There were as many reasons for opposition as opponents, but some motives reappear in clusters: Christians were perceived as superstitious and ungodly, as endangering peace with the gods and social order....

  8. Museum of the Romanization of Calahorra (La Rioja: educational activities 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Aurora Luezas Pascual

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We presents the activities related to the teaching of Social Sciences designed by the Educational Department of the Museum of the Romanization of Calahorra in order to bring in a clear and comprehensive content. These have been organized around visits to schools and four types of workshops, courses on the first cycle of primary education for children. For them there has been a teaching material and adapted to each of the activities.

  9. Maniple to Cohort: An Examination of Military Innovation and Reform in the Roman Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    state to conquer the entire Mediterranean basin, and create an empire stretching from current day Portugal to the Rhine River, Persia , and North...except an ancient family lineage. He compensated, in part, for this deficiency by marrying into the Juilii family. Marius enjoyed an abundance of...Publishing, 2007. Secondary Sources Consulted Billing, Jessica A. “The Military Standards of the Roman Legions.” Ancient Warfare Magazine

  10. Arts en conflit : chanson et roman en Allemagne de Thomas Mann à Wolfgang Koeppen

    OpenAIRE

    Genton, François

    2011-01-01

    " Arts en conflit : chanson et roman en Allemagne de Thomas Mann à Wolfgang Koeppen ", dans " La Haine de la musique ", Recherches et travaux, n° 78, 2011 p. 153-167. http://recherchestravaux.revues.org/458; International audience; German music has established itself internationally faster and easier than the German novel and both arts have maintained conflictual relationships that this text focusses on, dealing mainly with songs, from the opera arias to folksongs passing through commercial p...

  11. From Roman Times to Middle Ages. Settlement evolution and landscape archaeology in the territory of Salamanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique ARIÑO GIL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study we gave the results of intensive survey in the Armuña area. In this new study a detailed interpretation is made of the data. After the field work it was observed that there no traces of pre-Roman occupation. The Roman settlement was developed suddenly in the area from the Flavian era onwards and maintained with few changes throughout the whole of the Empire. Aerial photography and the surface material make it possible to detect the presence of two villas (Aldealhama y Prado de Abajo with their attached dependencies. From the fifth century on the habitat points multiplied, although the quality of the buildings was inferior. The eighth-ninth centuries were a period with a gap in information which neither archaeological materials nor the sources can fill. From the eleventh century onwards the settlement was definitively established in the present-day towns. Data on settlement are complemented with those provided by a drilling for the extraction of a pollen record. During the Roman period forest cover was still important, although cereal crops were already present. From the fifth century on it is observed that preferential attention was given to livestock raising, which entails greater pressure on the forest. This process was interrupted around the eighth century, when livestock activity was withdrawn, although farming activity continued. The eleventh century offered greater agricultural diversity with the wine making its first appearance, as is corroborated by written documents of the era.

  12. The impact of the roman agriculture on the territory of Savaria

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    András Bödőcs

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The first reconstruction of the centuriatio of Savaria was attempted by András Mócsy, who tried to draw itwith the utilization of mid-scale topographical maps. Since his publication there were no archaeological at-tempt in the last 40 years to prove his theory. In the last recent years we tried to continue the survey of theSavarian centuriatio’s existence with support of GIS methods. Fortunately, an interesting relationship wasnoted between the informations of some archaeological excavations and the aerial archaeological phenom-ena, thus, we were able to build a predictive model-network of the assumed centuriatio. The new grid totallydiffers from the previous reconstruction. The predictive model’s agglomeration of the assumed centuriatio-traces could be refined, and the refined model was controlled with the use of archaeological field survey andgeophysical survey as well. The new reconstruction resulted new opportunities in the interpretation of exca-vated sites or former known roman roads and aqueducts, discovered in the last decades. An other interestingrelationship could be found between the water courses that ran on the former territory of the colonia andthe roman field boundary system: the probable impact of the roman agriculture on the landscape that af-fected the “premodern” (prior to the modern stream regulations watercourse system.

  13. The Ethics and Aesthetics of Architecture: The Anglican Reception of Roman Baroque Churches

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    Anne-Francoise Morel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For Anglican travellers in Italy, Rome had an ambiguous status. It was the seat both of high culture and of ‘superstitious’ Roman Catholic practices, including art and architecture. These extremes culminated in church buildings. This article studies the perception and reaction of English travellers in Rome towards architecture of the Roman Catholic Church and its influence on English church architecture. It will reveal the church building as an aesthetic object, in addition to possessing religious qualities, through the analysis of printed travelogues and engravings that circulated amongst the English Grand Tour travellers. By analyzing the travelogue discourse — with particular attention to descriptions of specific church buildings and any intentional omissions in these descriptions — and examining the relationship between these discourses and contemporary English aesthetic theories, I will demonstrate how a certain appreciation for Roman Baroque church architecture was made acceptable and could even inspire the design of English church architecture. As will become clear, the process of travel included the separation of moral and artistic values in aesthetic appreciation. This separation made the cultural transfer between Italy and England possible in the 17th and early 18th centuries.

  14. Ways to improve the technical and tactical skills wrestlers Greco-Roman style of different manners of conducting a duel

    OpenAIRE

    Sergiy Iermakov; Yurij Tropin; Viktor Ponomaryov

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: develop and validate complex training tasks to improve the technical and tactical skills wrestlers Greco-Roman style of different manners of conducting fight. Material and Methods: identified current problems of the individualization of training in wrestling based on the analysis of scientific and methodological literature, modern competitive activity and synthesis of best practices. Results: the analysis of 75 highly skilled labor Greco-Roman style. The features of the technical and...

  15. Multidisciplinary investigations on the Roman aqueduct of Grumentum (Basilicata, Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mucciarelli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Romans built the ancient town of Grumentum during the 3rd century B.C. in the southern part of the Agri high Valley (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy near the confluence of the Sciaura stream in the Agri River. Now it is one of the most important archaeological sites of Southern Italy. In fact, after a period of wars in this area between Romans and Carthaginians, a great deal of restoration was started in 57 B.C. These works affected the city walls, public buildings and finally endowed the Roman colony with important infrastructures, such as the new aqueduct. In this work, we attempt to reconstruct the ancient layout of the Roman aqueduct of Grumentum. As a starting point, we followed some descriptions from the 19th century, when the structure was still well preserved. Then, we performed a multidisciplinary geophysical approach to the best preserved remains of the aqueduct. In particular, the geophysical investigation started with the use of a portable GPS allowing us to acquire the co-ordinates of the outcropping rests of the ancient structure. Then, we used an optical pumping magnetometer to perform seven gradiometric maps over a broad area of about 8000 m2. From the literature descriptions, dating to the first part of the 19th century, we can deduce that the state of preservation of the Roman aqueduct was much better than the present one. Thus we can hypothesise as the cause of its fast involution the fact that it was located in the epicentral area of the large destructive earthquake which occurred in the Basilicata Region in 1857 (Mallet, 1862. To this aim, we performed a first attempt to correlate the state of preservation of the aqueduct remains with the local seismic amplification by means of the HVSR (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio technique. This survey allowed us to obtain the site amplification spectra along the aqueduct layout and assess the fundamental vibration frequency of the investigated structure

  16. Mössbauer and XRD studies of Roman amphorae buried in the sea for two millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F. E.; Wagner, U.; Häusler, W.; Costa, B. F. O.; Blot, J.-Y.; Silva, A. J. M.; Bombico, S.

    2016-12-01

    During the years 2004-2007 many Roman amphora sherds were found in the sea near Cortiçais, off the southern coast of the Peniche peninsula on the Atlantic coast of Portugal. The amphorae are of the Haltern 70 type and stem from a shipwreck that has been dated to the time of the emperor Augustus, between about 15 BC and 15 AD. They were produced in the Roman Province of Baetica in the south of Spain and used to transport wine and other staple foods by sea to other Roman settlements. We have studied several fragments of these amphorae by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction in order to look for changes in the ceramic material caused by two millennia of exposure to sea water. For comparison Mössbauer data on a Haltern 70 type amphora handle excavated on land at the site of Castro do Vieito in the north of Portugal were used. The fragments on which we report here are a body sherd and two handles. The sherds show a visible layer structure. The different layers were studied separately. The Mössbauer spectra of the buff surface layers indicate that up to about 60 % of the iron is present as very fine goethite particles, which are superparamagnetic at RT but exhibit magnetically split spectra at 4.2 K. Their blocking temperature is around or even below 50 K. The goethite is too fine grained to be detected by X-ray diffraction. Re-firing experiments confirm the presence of goethite, which is found to convert to hematite between 300 and 600 ∘C. The results show that the iron in the silicate matrix of the ceramic material converts to goethite under the prolonged influence of the sea water, mainly in the outermost several millimetres and apparently depending on the nature of the ceramic material.

  17. Mapping archaeological sites using digital cartography. Roman settlements from Potaissa to Napoca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN FODOREAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mapping archeological sites using digital cartography. Roman settlements from potaissa to Napoca. We aim to analyze and correct several archaeological and historical data regarding some settlements included in an official document, issued by the Ministry of Culture from Romania, entitled the List of Historical Monuments (Lista Monumentelor Istorice / LMI. We focused our attention on the Roman road from Potaissa to Napoca, the main imperial road of Dacia. We described the route of the Roman road and corrected the old information in the list of historical monuments regarding the discoveries within the territory of the village of Aiton. Methodologically, we used data from the old literature, the modern Austro-Hungarian maps from the XVIIIth and the XIXth centuries, information from regional gazetteers and different journals. We aimed to offer new insights regarding the accurate location of these settlements and to debate upon the spatial relations of these settlements and their position within the landscape of Dacia. At the beginning of the study, we presented the present situation concerning the databases in Romania covering archaeological sites. The second part of our study discusses how the archaeological sites are recorded in the list of historical monuments. Then we offered several case studies This type of methodological approach will be applied in the future for other areas, in order to reconstruct the former landscape of the province of Dacia, as accurately as possible, using digital tools and modern maps. Our contribution also improved the quality of the data sets used for the topographical descriptions of archaeological sites in Romania.

  18. Characterization of concrete from Roman theatre and amphitheater in Emerita Augusta (Mérida, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota-Lopez, Maria Isabel; Fort, Rafael; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Pizzo, Antonio; Maderuelo-Sanz, Ruben; Meneses-Rodríguez, Juan Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The restoration of historical buildings is very important for the history and culture of the cities and their population. It requires an advanced knowledge of the building materials used for the construction of these structures. Previously to any intervention in historical buildings, it is necessary a historic-scientific study of the original material. Historic mortars or concretes can reveal us different composition and the dependence on the geographical location and the time period of its construction. Historical concretes are complex systems that contain aerial or hydraulic binders or a blend of them, with aggregates, not always crystalline, and others elements that interact with the binder. The use of different techniques for microstructural characterization of materials, like optical microscopy, X-ray diffractometry or petrophysical analysis, allows the determination of the composition and some properties of these concretes. However, each technique has its own limits and, in many cases, several characterization techniques must be used to obtain coherent and reliable results. The present study focuses on the compositional characterization of Roman concrete from Roman buildings for public spectacles of Emerita Augusta, Mérida, Spain. An advanced knowledge of the Roman concrete composition is required to get a reliable restoration and preservation of these ancient monuments. Various samples of concrete were extracted from different zones from this archaeological site. The concrete was studied through mineralogical analysis (petrographic microscope and XRD) and petrophysical properties determination (bulk and real density, open porosity, mercury porosimetry intrusion, compressive strength and Ultrasound propagation velocity). The results obtained allow us to know the original composition of the concrete and the provenance of the aggregates used in it. Acknowledgements: Community of Madrid for financing Geomateriales2 program (P2013/MIT2914), to the funding

  19. Mössbauer and XRD studies of Roman amphorae buried in the sea for two millennia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, F. E., E-mail: fwagner@tum.de; Wagner, U.; Häusler, W. [Technical University of Munich, Physics Department E15 (Germany); Costa, B. F. O. [University of Coimbra, CFisUC, Physics Department (Portugal); Blot, J.-Y. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, CHAMFCSH (Portugal); Silva, A. J. M. [University of Coimbra, FCT/Centro de Estudos Arqueológicos das Universidades de Coimbra e do Porto (Portugal); Bombico, S. [University of Evora, CIDEHUS (Portugal)

    2016-12-15

    During the years 2004–2007 many Roman amphora sherds were found in the sea near Cortiçais, off the southern coast of the Peniche peninsula on the Atlantic coast of Portugal. The amphorae are of the Haltern 70 type and stem from a shipwreck that has been dated to the time of the emperor Augustus, between about 15 BC and 15 AD. They were produced in the Roman Province of Baetica in the south of Spain and used to transport wine and other staple foods by sea to other Roman settlements. We have studied several fragments of these amphorae by {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction in order to look for changes in the ceramic material caused by two millennia of exposure to sea water. For comparison Mössbauer data on a Haltern 70 type amphora handle excavated on land at the site of Castro do Vieito in the north of Portugal were used. The fragments on which we report here are a body sherd and two handles. The sherds show a visible layer structure. The different layers were studied separately. The Mössbauer spectra of the buff surface layers indicate that up to about 60 % of the iron is present as very fine goethite particles, which are superparamagnetic at RT but exhibit magnetically split spectra at 4.2 K. Their blocking temperature is around or even below 50 K. The goethite is too fine grained to be detected by X-ray diffraction. Re-firing experiments confirm the presence of goethite, which is found to convert to hematite between 300 and 600 {sup ∘}C. The results show that the iron in the silicate matrix of the ceramic material converts to goethite under the prolonged influence of the sea water, mainly in the outermost several millimetres and apparently depending on the nature of the ceramic material.

  20. HORTICULTURE IN ANTIQUITY, WITH EMPHASIS ON THE GRAECO-ROMAN ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cilliers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of horticulture (gardening in antiquity, as distinct from largescale agriculture and forestry, is traced from its humble origins in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, to the Graeco-Roman era. Little is known about horticulture in the Greek Bronze Age and Homeric period, but from the 5th century onwards, public rather than private gardens became popular. In Athens a market garden was planted on the agora, and public parks (containing trees without flowers or decorative shrubs like the Academy and Lyceum, appeared on the outskirts of the cities. Orchards and vegetable gardens were usually placed outside city walls and domestic gardening in and around homes were virtually unknown. The Greeks used wild flowers rather than cultivated flowers. Graveyards were planted with trees, and sacred groves, often in idyllic settings, were associated with shrines and divinity. During the Hellenistic era, exotic gardens based on the Persian paradeisos, were introduced by the affluent. The Romans made extensive use of private and domestic horticulture. In their homes (domus built on the Greek model, the peristyle in particular, was converted into a garden containing trees, shrubs, flowers and vegetables. Further walled gardens were often attached to the domus. In large cities where the majority of citizens lived in multi-storied apartments (cenaculae, domestic gardening was restricted to occasional climbing plants and potted flowers decorating pillars, balconies and window sills. Wealthy Romans erected villas on country estates where indoor gardens and outside horticultural projects often included large orchards, gardens and vegetables shrubs and flowers, as well as tree-lined walking lanes, shrines, statues and water features. Facilities for horse riding were common, as well as pleasure gardens on the paradeisos model.

  1. Identification and impacts of earthquakes on the Roman Town of Patras- Archaeological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamati, Alexandra-Venetia; Stiros, Stathis

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we examine the interactions between earthquakes and inhabitation history of the town of Patras (NW Peloponnese, Greece), flourishing during the Roman period. Instrumental seismicity data and the seismic history of the last two centuries indicate that the wider area is among the most seismically active parts of Europe. But surprisingly, for older periods no historical evidence of ancient earthquakes exists. If this absence of evidence of ancient earthquakes is indicative of a real absence of earthquakes, this may be important for different disciplines. For Seismology, it may perhaps indicate clusters of seismicity separated by intervals of quiescence, each at least several thousand years long. It may also indicate that the inhabitation history of Patras town was not interrupted by major natural catastrophic events, and some destruction observed in ancient remains can be assigned to anthropogenic effects. In order to contribute in the solution of this problem, we made a systematic Archaeoseismological investigation of Patras and examined for the first time several hundreds of reports of archaeological excavations that have been made during period of reconstruction of the city (1972-2004). Among these, about 100 reports provide evidence of destruction layers, some of which satisfy the criteria for identification of earthquakes from archaeological data. A further correlation of this evidence in space and time was made, and permitted to identify with certainty a few major seismic events which marked the history of Roman Patras (1st-6th century AD). In spite of their catastrophic effects, these earthquakes have not led to the abandonment of the ancient town (inhabitation hiatus), but have certainly left their marks in the urban and perhaps social and economic history of this Roman town. Some certain uniformity in the frequency of earthquakes in Patras was also inferred.

  2. Roman Domination Number and Domination Number of a Tree%树的罗马控制数和控制数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓新; 王晓凤

    2006-01-01

    A Roman dominating function on a graph G = (V, E) is a function f:V →{0, 1, 2} satisfying the condition that every vertex u for which f(u) = 0 is adjacent to at least one vertex v for which f(v) = 2. The weight of a Roman dominating function is the value f(V) = ∑u∈Vf(u). The minimum weight of a Roman dominating function on a graphG, denoted by γR(G), is called the Roman dominating number of G. In this paper, we will characterize a tree T with γR(T) = γ(T) + 3.

  3. Le roman social dans l’œuvre d’Emyr Humphreys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie VANUXEEM

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Le romancier Emyr Humphreys écrivain gallois d’expression anglaise, est un Gallois qui écrit ses romans sur le pays de Galles en langue anglaise. Dans la littérature anglo-galloise, “Anglo-WeIsh writing” (Mathias, Anglo-Welsh Literature, 102-3, Emyr Humphreys est classé comme écrivain d’après guerre appartenant au “second movement” (98 ou au “second flowering” (Jones, Profiles, introduction, xxx. Cependant, il ne se considère pas comme un écrivain anglo-gallois dans le sens où il favorise ...

  4. The Prodigies of The Albano Lake During Roman Age and Natural Hazard Assessment At Roma, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funiciello, R.; Giordano, G.; de Rita, D.

    Roma is built just 20 km to the northwest of the Pleistocene Colli Albani volcano, but is believed not exposed to relevant natural hazards, except for the Tiber river flood- ings, and local amplification of seismic waves from distal earthquakes. This belief has generally induced modern historians and geologists to discard as SmythologicalT the & cedil;many references to natural prodigies that are reported by many Roman-age historians. Recent studies have demonstrated that the Albano maar, the youngest volcanic cen- tre of the Colli Albani volcano and presently filled by a 175 m deep lake, protracted its activity to the Holocene triggering several catastrophic lahar events, likely related to lake withdrawal, the deposits of which are exposed to the southwest of Roma and reach its periphery. This finding youngs the history of the volcano and makes it rele- vant to pre-historic settlements, which ScarefullyT avoided the Albano maar slopes up & cedil;to the Bronze age. What is still unknown, though, is whether the lake experienced such fluctuations and overspills during historic times. Several Roman authors such as Ti- tus Livius, Dionigi d'Alicarnasso, Plutarco, Germanico, and many others wrote about the then well known 398 BC prodigious event, when, during the war between Roma and the Etruscan city of Veio, the gods anger caused the sudden rise and overspill of the Albano lake, reported as unrelated to climatic events, and the destructive flooding of the countryside. After that event Romans actually built a tunnel-drain which still operates regulating the lake level at 293 m a.s.l., 70 m below the maar rim elevation. Should those chronicles be truthful, we can join the geologic observation of Holocene lahar deposits from lake withdrawal with historical lake withdrawals, reassessing the natural hazard for the city of Roma under a point of view never explored before. This paper carefully explores the historical credibility of the 398 BC lake overspill event and its

  5. INTERCOMPRENSIONE: LA STRADA DEL DIALOGO INTERCULTURALE ATTRAVERSO L’ANALISI DI ITINERAIRES ROMANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Proserpi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available L'Unione Europea ha posto il multilinguismo come elemento centrale della propria politica linguistica e aspira al raggiungimento di una situazione in cui ciascun cittadino conosca almeno due lingue comunitarie oltre alla propria madrelingua. Per raggiungere questo obiettivo esiste una vasta gamma di modelli di educazione plurilingue. L'articolo prende in considerazione l'intercomprensione, ossia l'apprendimento  ricettivo di più lingue attraverso lo sviluppo di strategie che facilitino la trasferibilità di meccanismi cognitivi, conoscenze e abilità già acquisite da una lingua all'altra e analizza Itinéraires Romans un progetto realizzato dall'Unione latina, un'organizzazione fondata per valorizzare l'eredità culturale e le identità del mondo latino. Itinéraires Romans è un progetto didattico on line rivolto ai ragazzi della scuola primaria di secondo grado che riunisce una serie di sei moduli su tematiche diverse aventi come obiettivo la stimolazione dei giovani internauti a scoprire i legami che esistono tra le lingue neolatine. Le lingue coinvolte sono: il catalano, lo spagnolo, l'italiano, il francese, il portoghese e il rumeno.   The European Union has made multilingualism a central element of its linguistic policy and it aspires to create the conditions so that every citizen knows at least two EU languages besides their mother tongue.  To reach this goal, there is a vast range of models for plurilingual education. This paper focuses on intercomprehension, or the receptive learning of several languages through the development of strategies which facilitate the transferability of cognitive mechanisms, knowledge and skills already mastered from one language to another.  It analyzes Itinéraires Romans, a project implemented by the Latin Union.  This organization was founded to enhance the cultural inheritance and the identity of the Latin world. Itinéraires Romans is an on-line didactic project for 3rd,4th and 5th grade students

  6. A female burial with grave goods at the Roman villa of Almenara de Adaja (Valladolid

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    C. GARCÍA MERINO

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent works in an area placed North from the pars urbana of the late imperial roman villa at Almenara de Adaja (Valladolid, Spain have uncovered a female burial with grave goods. These finds suggest the likely situation of a necropolis corresponding to the villa lifetime period. We study the artifacts found in the burial. Results of an analysis on the content of a ceramic vessel found there are also given. This finding complements the available data on the distribution and organization of contemporary habitat and adds up to the known information on cemeteries dating from this time period in the Spanish north inner plateau.

  7. Designing a serious game for historical heritage: a case study of Heerlen Roman bathhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wen

    2014-01-01

    The advances of computer games have shown their potentials for developing edutainment content and services. Current cultural heritages often make use of games in order to complement existing presentations and to create a memorable exhibition. It offers opportunities to reorganize and conceptualize historical, cultural and technological information about the exhibits. To demonstrate the benefits of serious games in terms of facilitating the learning activities in a constructive and meaningful way, we designed a video game about the Heerlen bathhouse heritage. This paper explains the design considerations of this Roman bathhouse game, with a particular focus on the link between game play and learning.

  8. Hippocrates in the pseudo-Galenic Introduction: or how was medicine taught in Roman times?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    The Pseudo-Galenic Introduction (Introductio Sive medicus, 14.674-797 K.), a medical handbook of the Roman period, witnesses the importance of Hippocrates in medical teaching at the time. Numerous quotations, allusions and reminiscences from the Hippocratic Corpus illustrate Hippocrates' authority for Pseudo-Galen. In the light of the first critical edition of the text (C. Petit, Les Belles Lettres, Paris, 2009), this article discusses the function of Hippocrates, and the various reminiscences of the Hippocratic Corpus, in order to assess Pseudo-Galen's quotation technique and, ultimately, his reliability as a source for the history of medicine.

  9. Quantification of sodium in ancient Roman glasses with ion beam analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Climent-Font, A. [Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada C-XII, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Munoz-Martin, A. [Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ynsa, M.D. [Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Fundacion Parque Cientifico de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Zucchiatti, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)], E-mail: zucc@ge.infn.it

    2008-02-15

    Concentrations of light elements (Na, Al, Si) in glass have been profiled by comparing the PIGE yields as a function of beam energy to those of a glass standard in combination with PIXE measurements which are used to determine the specific energy loss of protons in the unknown glasses. The technique has been tested on a known sample and applied to a few Roman natron glasses giving results compatible with the morphology of the archaeological samples, as deduced from microscopy. The results have suggested some considerations on the systematic use of the PIGE technique in the determination of bulk sodium concentration in ancient materials.

  10. The agreement to exchange (permutatio in roman, Byzantine and Serbian mediaeval law

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    Šarkić Srđan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper is dedicated to the definition of the agreement to exchange (permutatio and emphasizes the difference, made by Roman lawyers, between exchange (barter and sale (emptio-venditio. The second part analyses Byzantine legal sources that mention this old contract, while the third part is dedicated to Serbian legal documents. In Serbian legal documents the exchange was mentioned as the agreement between a monarch and a monastery or a natural person (individual, concerning donations that were given to the Church.

  11. The Claustrophobic poetics of the Non-Homes in Repulsion (Roman Polanski, 1965

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    Alberto Román PADILLA DÍAZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The link between closed and claustrophobic scenery and the twisted mind of the female main characters and their unbalanced psyches is a constant feature in psychological terror movies. Nevertheless, in Roman Polanski’s films, it becomes an obsession which is commonplace throughout his movies. A type of original style is created based on resettings, dark lightings and other architectural transformations of great interest and some semiology, which we might label claustrophobic poetics. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the significance of the scenographicpsychological device of the French director throughout his second film, Repulsion (1965.

  12. Coinage and Collapse? The contribution of numismatic data to understanding the end of Roman Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Walton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coinage forms one of the most recognisable categories of material culture dating to the late fourth and early fifth centuries. As a result, it has played a pivotal role in dating the ‘end’ of Roman Britain. This article summarises key numismatic evidence for the period and tries to go beyond chronology, illustrating how hoards and site finds can be used to explore the nature of coin use throughout the diocese of Britannia and to provide some insight into its apparent collapse in the fifth century AD.

  13. Representations of the cinaedus in Roman art: Evidence of "gay" subculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John R

    2005-01-01

    Whereas analysis of ancient Roman texts reveals signs of a possible homosexual subculture, their interpretation is difficult. This article analyzes the content and context of visual representations of male-male intercourse, including wall paintings at Pompeii, a silver cup, and an engraved agate gemstone. Whether presenting negative stereotypes (Tavern of Salvius, Pompeii; Suburban Baths, Pompeii), or positive ones (Warren Cup, British Museum; Leiden gemstone), these representations reveal the presence of well-developed social attitudes toward the practice ofmale-male sex and the practitioners themselves.

  14. [An archaelogical contribution to hygienical principles in the Roman town-planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilici Gigli, S

    1995-01-01

    Greek and Roman ancient medical writers suggest hygienical rules which are strictly dependent on the orientation of towns, the direction of winds and the quality of waters. According to Vitruvius, architects and builders should have some medical knowledge, together with a strong new interest towards the improvement of enviromental conditions. Norba, a little city never built up again after the Sillan distruction in 81 B.C., and Civitas Artena, quitted in the first century B.C., have been studied as significant exemples of this architectural behaviour. The construction of Villae - big country houses nearby the city - was conditioned by economics, easily available water, sunshine light and proximity to fruitful soils.

  15. Non-invasive chemical and phase analysis of Roman bronze artefacts from Thamusida (Morocco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gliozzo, Elisabetta, E-mail: gliozzo@unisi.i [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Siena, via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); Arletti, Rossella, E-mail: rarletti@unimore.i [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Largo S. Eufemia 19, 41100 Modena (Italy); Cartechini, Laura, E-mail: laura@thch.unipg.i [Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari del CNR (CNR-ISTM), c/o Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Imberti, Silvia, E-mail: Silvia.Imberti@stfc.ac.u [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Kockelmann, Winfried A., E-mail: Winfried.Kockelmann@stfc.ac.u [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Memmi, Isabella, E-mail: memmi@unisi.i [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Siena, via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); Rinaldi, Romano, E-mail: rrinaldi@unipg.i [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Tykot, Robert H., E-mail: rtykot@cas.usf.ed [Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    A repertory of Roman military bronze equipment (1st- 3rd century AD) found at the archaeological site of Thamusida (Rabat, Morocco) was analysed by non-destructive X-ray fluorescence and time of flight neutron diffraction (TOF-ND). Most objects are made of leaded alloys, where copper is combined with tin and/or zinc and, in six cases, to arsenic as well. A mixed technology was employed, making a limited use of 'pure' semi-finished materials if compared with the large utilization of recycled materials (brass and bronze).

  16. Analytical and multivariate study of roman age architectural terracotta from northeast of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Rosario García; Villa, Raquel Vigil de la; Rosa, Paloma Recio de la; Domínguez, María Dolores Petit; Rucandio, María Isabel

    2005-02-28

    Roman culture employed architectural terracotta made from baked clay as original material to manufacture ceramic pieces. It was often used as a basis for construction of functional and/or decorative elements in roofs, such as plane and curve tiles as well as antefixes with their corresponding "imbrexes". Some of them are conserved nowadays. They were collected in Roman quarries discovered in old cities and villages sited in the Hispania Citerior (northeast of Spain in Roman age). A study of the origin and manufacturing process (moulding, baking, touching up and painting) of these terracotta pieces has been made on the basis of the data obtained from a physicochemical characterization of samples. The used techniques were mainly flame absorption and emission spectrometry for the elemental analysis (major and minor elements), dilatometry for the study of thermal behaviour, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for observation of thin layers and X-ray diffraction spectrometry (XRD) for mineralogical composition. In addition, a supervised pattern recognition programme was applied to the results for a selected group of 85 samples and five variables (chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc contents). Dilatometry and SEM results showed baking temperatures of these materials below 900 degrees C and the existence of zones with very different porosity in the same ceramic piece. Results obtained from multielemental analysis and multivariate statistical study by linear discriminant analysis lead us to the following conclusions: (i) the high content of lead found in a large number of antefixes demonstrates the use of lead oxide as an additive in the lime grout treatment, (ii) different contents of Cu, Zn, Cr, and Ni were indicative of the use of varied clay types in the manufacture process (even in the same production centre) as well as of the existence of a pigmentation process, although this last affirmation is not corroborated by the presence of remains of evident painting in

  17. Roman chamomile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of appetite, and intestinal gas (flatulence) due to mental stress. Women use it for morning sickness and ... a painkiller. In foods and beverages, the essential oil and extract are used as flavor components. In ...

  18. Location of quarries of magnesian lime used as raw material of Roman plasters in western Lombardy (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bugini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lime as building material was widely diffused in Roman architecture of western Lombardy. The presence of magnesite (magnesium carbonate was detected in painted plasters coming from roman sites of Milano: magnesite indicates the use of dolomite to make the lime. Dolomite rocks widely outcrop in the Lombard Prealps: light grey dolomites and dolomitic limestones (Dolomia del Salvatore, Ladinian-Anisian; grey dolomites, sometimes with cyclothemes (Dolomia Principale, Norian. There is no evidence of Roman lime quarries or kilns in this area; the Romans probably exploited the same dolomite outcrops, located along the eastern shore of lake Maggiore, where lime was produced from the Middle Ages onwards. The glacio-fluvial deposits of the middle course of the river Adda (cobbles, pebbles of siliceous limestone together with limestone and dolomite outcropping in the river basin were another medieval and modern source of raw material, mainly to make a moderately hydraulic lime (called “calce forte”, but this kind of lime is lacking in Roman plasters.

  19. Analysis of the performance of national teams in Greco-Roman wrestling at the World Cup 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Tropin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the performance of national teams in Greco-Roman wrestling at the World Cup in 2015. Material and Methods: the analysis of 118 wrestlers highly Greco-Roman style. Results: 10 basic technical actions that is most more often used by wrestlers. Analysis of competitive activity wrestlers Greco-Roman style on the KW-2015 showed that more technical actions carried out in the front – 199 receptions than on the ground – 135 receptions. Wrestlers have a high-end high efficiency performance of reception throughout the bout. Conclusions: it was found that in the competitive technology dominated the offensive, the fight is ongoing at a fast pace, techniques are performed after prior training and if the athlete is confident that the reception will be executed.

  20. Garcin J.C. , (dir., Lectures du Roman de Baybars, Marseille, Éditions Parenthèses- MMSH, 2003.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Guinle

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans un recueil d’articles parus dans L’Orient au cœur en l’honneur d’André Miquel, Jean-Claude Garcin écrivait le « Récit d’une recherche sur les débuts du Roman de Baybars », en forme de résumé de communications proposées à un séminaire qu’il diriga à Aix-en-Provence sur Le Roman de Baybars en 1998-1999. Le présent volume, Lectures du Roman de Baybars, est le fruit direct de ce séminaire et nous propose d’aborder ce texte sous différents aspects. Le volume de 318 pages est donc ainsi divisé...

  1. Literary and Documentary Evidence for Lay Medical Practice in the Roman Republic and Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draycott, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The majority of surviving ancient medical literature was written by medical practitioners and produced for the purpose of ensuring the effective diagnosis and treatment of their patients, suggesting an audience of medical professionals ranging from instructors to students. This has led historians to concentrate on the professional medical practitioner and their theories, methods and practices, rather than on lay medical practitioners, or even patients themselves. This chapter seeks to redress this imbalance, and examine the ancient literary and documentary evidence for lay medical theories, methods and practices in the Roman Republic and Empire in an attempt to reconstruct the experiences of lay medical practitioners and their patients. The Roman agricultural treatises of Cato, Varro and Columella, papyri and ostraca from Egypt, and tablets from Britain are investigated, and it is established that the individual's personal acquisition of knowledge and expertise, not only from medical professionals and works of medical literature, but also from family members and friends, and through trial and error, was considered fundamental to domestic medical practice.

  2. X-Ray Fluorescence and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy analysis of Roman silver denarii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardini, L. [Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici del CNR, Research Area of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); El Hassan, A. [National Institute for Laser- Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo University Giza (Egypt); Ferretti, M. [Istituto per le Tecnologie Applicate ai Beni Culturali, Area della Ricerca del CNR di Montelibretti Roma (Italy); Foresta, A.; Legnaioli, S.; Lorenzetti, G. [Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici del CNR, Research Area of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Nebbia, E. [Universita degli Studi di Torino (Italy); Catalli, F. [Monetiere di Firenze, Museo Archeologico Nazionale Firenze (Italy); Harith, M.A. [National Institute for Laser- Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo University Giza (Egypt); Diaz Pace, D. [Institute of Physics ' Arroyo Seco' , Faculty of Science, Tandil (Argentina); Anabitarte Garcia, F. [Photonics Engineering Group, University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Scuotto, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Archeologiche, Via Galvani 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Palleschi, V., E-mail: vincenzo.palleschi@cnr.it [Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici del CNR, Research Area of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Archeologiche, Via Galvani 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    In this paper we present the results of a study performed on a large collection of silver Roman republican denarii, encompassing about two centuries of history. The joint use of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy allowed for an accurate determination of the coins' elemental composition; the measurements, performed mostly in situ at the 'Monetiere' in Florence, revealed a striking connection between the 'quality' of the silver alloy and some crucial contemporary events. This finding was used to classify a group of denarii whose dating was otherwise impossible. The comparison with other contemporary denarii disproves a recent theory on the origin of the so called 'serrated' denarii (denarii showing notched chisel marks on the edge of the coin). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied a large collection of Roman republican silver denarii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XRF and LIBS allowed to determine the precious metal content of the coins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A correlation of the 'quality' of the alloy with some contemporary events was found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study allowed to controvert a recent theory on the so called 'serrated' denarii.

  3. Observations on the rejection of physician-assisted suicide: a Roman Catholic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnahan, James F

    1995-12-01

    Roman Catholic moral theology follows a centuries-old tradition of moral reflection. Contemporary Roman Catholic moral theory applies these traditional arguments to the realm of medical ethics, including the issues of active euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. Unavoidable moral limits on licit medical intervention sometimes require that the moral duty to treat cede to the duty to cease treatment when measures become more harmful than beneficial to the patient. This does not reduce the need for the compassionate use of palliative care in response to suffering. However, it does mean that rather than being excessively committed to maintaining mere biological human life, or actively seeking death, that we learn a sober realism about the limits of human life. Catholic moral analysis examines an act objectively, both in its relation to the agent and as a material event in the world. This allows both the virtuous or vicious intentions of the agent and the effects of the action to be included in its moral evaluation. Thus, Catholic moral analysis is both quasi-deontological and quasi-consequentialist. Objectively, active euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, as acts of deliberate killing, are seen as repugnant, in that they fail to incarnate a benign inner intention or to form an agent in virtue. Catholic moral theology is extremely skeptical that an act of intending death directly can be consonant with a sincere compassion for the dying, suffering person and views it as a direct negation of the precious gift of human life.

  4. The breakdown of Galileo's Roman network: Crisis and community, ca. 1633.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlen, Paula; Marcus, Hannah

    2016-12-01

    Rome has long been central to the story of Galileo's life and scientific work. Through an analysis of the metadata of Galileo's surviving letters, combined with a close reading of the letters themselves, we discuss how Galileo used correspondence to build a Roman network. Galileo initially assembled this network around the members of the Lincean Academy, a few carefully nurtured relationships with important ecclesiastics, and the expertise of well positioned Tuscan diplomats in the Eternal City. However, an analysis of Galileo's correspondence in the aftermath of the trial of 1633 provides us with a unique opportunity to interrogate how his altered circumstances transformed his social relations. Forced to confront the limitations on his activities imposed by Catholic censure and house arrest, Galileo experienced the effects of these restrictions in his relationships with others and especially in his plans for publication. In the years following 1633, Galileo turned his epistolary attention north to the Veneto and to Paris in order to publish his Two New Sciences. While Galileo's Lincean network and papal contacts in Rome were defunct after 1633, we see how Rome remained important to him as the site of a number of Roman disciples who would continue his intellectual project long after his own death.

  5. Timing Measurements in the Vertical Roman Pots of the TOTEM Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    The TOTEM Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The TOTEM upgrade programme focusses on improving the experiment's capability to explore and measure new physics in Central Diffractive processes in two complementary projects, both based on the installation of proton-time-of-flight detectors in Roman Pots to reconstruct the longitudinal vertex position and thus to assign the proton vertex to the correct central CMS tracker vertex in the presence of event pileup. The present TDR discusses the instrumentation developments, physics potential and performance for operation with a $\\beta^{*}$ = 90 m beam optics, for which the vertical Roman Pots will be equipped with timing detectors with ~50ps resolution. In this scenario, the leading proton acceptance covers all diffractive masses, provided that the protons' four-momentum transfer |t| > ~ 0.01 GeV$^{2}$. In contrast, the second project, the CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer (CT-PPS) for standard LHC fills at low $\\beta^{*}$ targeting processes with high diffractive masses (> 300 GeV) and leading protons in...

  6. Learning historical heritage with a serious game: a user study of Heerlen Roman bathhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wen

    2015-03-01

    The advances of computer games have shown their potentials for developing edutainment content and services. Current cultural heritages often make use of games in order to complement existing presentations, to create a memorable exhibition. It offers opportunities to reorganize and conceptualize historical, cultural and technological information or knowledge about the exhibits. To demonstrate the benefits of serious games in terms of facilitating the learning activities, we designed a video game about the Heerlen Roman bathhouse heritage. This paper explains the design considerations of this Roman bathhouse game, with a particular focus on the link between game play and learning. In addition, we have carried out a user study to observe and measure the learning effects of this game. Both quantitative and qualitative data are collected to analyze the performance of the learners. The results have shown that this game indeed can help learners understand the important historical facts and the related knowledge of the heritage being studied. Further directions include converting the first-person game into a third-person or multiple players' game.

  7. The Conclusion of the Roman-Gothic Peace Treaty in 382

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    Alenka Cedilnik

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Seeking to call attention to the possibilities raised by the available sources but so far left unexamined, the author indicates some possible interpretations, which, however, can be proved with no more certainty than the prevailing view. Assuming that they might be correct, the course of events which led to the peace treaty of 382 may be summarised as follows. After the crushing defeat suffered by the Roman army in the Battle of Adrianople on August 9th, 378, Emperor Gratian attempted to stem the hostile rampages of the Goths, Huns, and Alans by offering them a truce in the same year. Since he was unsuccessful, the appointment of Theodosius as the new Emperor in the eastern part of the Roman Empire implied that the latter, at the head of a reorganised eastern army, would bear the main burden and responsibility in the Gothic war. In keeping with this plan, Illyricum, previously annexed to the West in its entirety, was divided into the western and eastern parts. The eastern part with the dioceses of Dacia and Macedonia, perceived as more prone to invasions by the Goths and their associates, the Huns and Alans, was annexed to Theodosius’ East, while the western part remained subject to the western administrative structures. If the campaigns of Theodosius’ army proved successful, the West was presumably no longer expected to come under attack, so the troops stationed there were, in the unlikely event of an attack, meant to stop the enemy’s progress only if Theodosius’ army should fail to carry out its basic plan. Since the year 379 was marked by Roman successes, owing to the disorganised warfare of the enemy troops, the attack of Alatheus and Saphrax’ group on Pannonia in the spring of 380 came as a surprise, probably no longer seriously contemplated. The surprise may have been still enhanced if the members of the triethnic group did not invade Pannonia from the south, across the Sava River, as might have been expected from their sojourn

  8. Wavelet modeling and prediction of the stability of states: the Roman Empire and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroshenko, Tatyana Y.; Krysko, Dmitri V.; Dobriyan, Vitalii; Zhigalov, Maksim V.; Vos, Hendrik; Vandenabeele, Peter; Krysko, Vadim A.

    2015-09-01

    How can the stability of a state be quantitatively determined and its future stability predicted? The rise and collapse of empires and states is very complex, and it is exceedingly difficult to understand and predict it. Existing theories are usually formulated as verbal models and, consequently, do not yield sharply defined, quantitative prediction that can be unambiguously validated with data. Here we describe a model that determines whether the state is in a stable or chaotic condition and predicts its future condition. The central model, which we test, is that growth and collapse of states is reflected by the changes of their territories, populations and budgets. The model was simulated within the historical societies of the Roman Empire (400 BC to 400 AD) and the European Union (1957-2007) by using wavelets and analysis of the sign change of the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents. The model matches well with the historical events. During wars and crises, the state becomes unstable; this is reflected in the wavelet analysis by a significant increase in the frequency ω (t) and wavelet coefficients W (ω, t) and the sign of the largest Lyapunov exponent becomes positive, indicating chaos. We successfully reconstructed and forecasted time series in the Roman Empire and the European Union by applying artificial neural network. The proposed model helps to quantitatively determine and forecast the stability of a state.

  9. Roman Criminal Law. Contributions to Current Problems in Connection with “Crimes against Public Administration”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Espitia Garzón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The secular and detailed study of Roman Private Law institutions has, for centuries, diverted the attention to institutions pertaining to the Public Law sphere. Such studies were a consequence of the triumph of bourgeois ideas from the Enlightenment, which were structured on a set of principles (separation of powers, the principle of legality both considered absolute truths, even though today they seem more like myths. This understanding shifted during the second half of the twentieth century, when scholars of Roman Law began to more comprehensively analyze Rome’s constitutional institutions as well as its criminal repression. This paper begins with a review of some of the most important works and articles produced since the fifties until present day about the so called ‘general ’and ´special’ Criminal Law, and the Law of Criminal Procedure, it then focuses on how useful those texts are in order to solve actual problems, taking as an example the subject of crimes against public administration, given the actual need to pursue the assets obtained from such activities, despite the perpetrator’s death, which means going beyond the principle of the individual nature of penalties.

  10. Roman coins in mediaeval female burials from the territory of Serbia: Possible interpretations

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    Gordana Ćirić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the phenomenon of secondary usage of Roman coins (2nd to 4th century in medieval necropolises (10th to 15th century in the territory of Serbia. The research is focused upon the graves in which the coins are used as ornaments on the costume of the deceased, most frequently reshaped as pendants. This type of secondary usage is only registered in female graves. The paper aims to suggest the interpretation of this phenomenon via the analysis of value and importance of secondarily used coins in the formation of family treasures, defined in important and critical moments of the social life. The possibility is explored of the graves in which female individuals were buried with parts of their dowry. The construction of meaning of these objects is analysed through their exchange in the customs linked to marriage and, finally, funerary practices. Since the Roman coins are scarce and exclusively made of bronze, it may be concluded that the definition of their value and importance is based upon the symbolic and representational levels. The starting point of the paper is the concept of the social biography of objects, in order to further investigate the link between the Serbian medieval social structure and evaluation of the coins in rural communities of the Central Balkans.

  11. Terra-cotta figurines from the Roman theatre of Malaga (Spain): An archaeometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compana, J. M.; Cabeza, M. A.; Leon-Reina, L.; Corrales, M.; Corrales, M. P.

    2014-10-01

    A series of 22 figured Phoeno-Punic and Roman terra-cottas, of high relevant archaeological and patrimonial values, have been studied. The samples were recovered in the Roman Theatre of Malaga (Spain). A thorough analysis including stereomicroscopy, elemental analysis by WDXRF, mineralogical analysis by XRPD coupled with the Rietveld method, and SEM, has been carried out. Highly diluted fused glass beads probed to be enough for the X-ray fluorescence analyses, minimizing the damage to the samples. For selected samples, in addition to the classical use of the Rietveld method, the G-factor external-standard approach has been employed to get full quantitative crystalline and amorphous phase analysis. The analytical results allow proposing a local/regional provenance for the main part of the samples, being a relevant data for several artifacts, not contextualized due to stratigraphic alterations in the site. In addition, some relevant samples, for instance a theatrical mask fragment (TRC005), are likely foreign. The overall amorphous is not negligible in phase quantification, accounting for up to 50 wt %. Technologically, all terra-cotta samples are similar, made of calcareous clays, fired at ∼700-950 degree centigrade. (Author)

  12. Octulosonic acid derivatives from Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) with activities against inflammation and metabolic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Shabana I; Wang, Mei; Vasquez, Yelkaira; Yang, Min Hye; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Avonto, Cristina; Smillie, Troy J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-03-28

    Six new octulosonic acid derivatives (1-6) were isolated from the flower heads of Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic interpretation. The biological activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated toward multiple targets related to inflammation and metabolic disorder such as NAG-1, NF-κB, iNOS, ROS, PPARα, PPARγ, and LXR. Similar to the action of NSAIDs, all the six compounds (1-6) increased NAG-1 activity 2-3-fold. They also decreased cellular oxidative stress by inhibiting ROS generation. Compounds 3, 5, and 6 activated PPARγ 1.6-2.1-fold, while PPARα was activated 1.4-fold by compounds 5 and 6 only. None of the compounds showed significant activity against iNOS or NF-κB. This is the first report of biological activity of octulosonic acid derivatives toward multiple pathways related to inflammation and metabolic disorder. The reported anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, antiedemic, and antioxidant activities of Roman chamomile could be partly explained as due to the presence of these constituents.

  13. Dictature et chaos dans le roman du dictateur hispano-américain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Brochard

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Le chaos est l’adversaire de la dictature : celle-ci recherche l’ordre et l’unité, incarnés par le dictateur. Pourtant, loin de reproduire l’idéologie autoritaire, le roman du dictateur hispano-américain choisit le désordre et inscrit la confusion au cœur de la dictature : l’identité du chef, soumise à la duplicité, se fractionne et la parole unique est concurrencée par la polyphonie. Ainsi le roman du dictateur se développe-t-il en contrepoint de la dictature.Chaos is the enemy of dictatorship, which searches for order and unity, materialized by the dictator. Nevertheless, far from reproducing this authoritative ideology, the Hispano-American dictator novel chooses disorder and inserts confusion at the heart of dictatorship : the leader’s identity, subject to duplicity, splits and his speech competes with polyphony. Thus, the dictator novel is written and built as a counterpoint to dictatorship itself.

  14. Roman wall paintings from «Caesaraugusta» (Zaragoza: a workshop in the middle Ebro valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen GUIRAL PELEGRÍN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a set of fragments of Roman paintings. The fragments of Roman paintings that we present come from the excavation carried out in the street Dr. Palomar n.º 4. They appeared out of original context, in a secondary deposit, and its relation with a specific space of housing can not be established. However, two walls with the characteristic compositional systems of the 2nd century can be reconstituted. First of them is composed by white wall panels articulated by bands and fillets red and yellow bands and fillets, arranged on a speckled white base. The second set also has a speckled base, with a pink background, and in the middle there are panels decorated with marble imitations alternating with columns. A third group, composed of few fragments that don’t allow a restitution, decorated a starry ceiling on a white background, characteristic of the roofs of thermal and religious buildings, especially lararios. They are made by a provincial workshop whose footprint is found in other cities in the middle valley of the Ebro.

  15. Computed tomography of a medium size Roman bronze statue of Cupid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettuzzi, M.; Casali, F.; Morigi, M. P.; Brancaccio, R.; Carson, D.; Chiari, G.; Maish, J.

    2015-03-01

    Diagnostics based on X-ray computed tomography (CT) are becoming increasingly important, not only in the medical field but in industry and cultural heritage. CT devices typical for medical applications, however, can seldom be used on art objects because both they are not easily transportable and they often present high X-ray absorption. It is therefore necessary to make use of portable instrumentation and/or to develop tomographic systems optimized to the characteristics of the objects under examination. This work describes the computed tomography of a first century A.D. Roman bronze statue of Cupid (96.AB.53) in the collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum, within the collaborative framework between the Getty Conservation Institute and the Department of Physics and Astronomy (DIFA) of the University of Bologna (Italy). The tomography performed at the Getty facilities employed a 450 kV X-ray tube and a detection system developed at DIFA. The study highlighted the casting and construction techniques used by Roman foundry workers and provided information on the status of conservation of the statue. A 3D virtual reconstruction allowed the user to define different cross-sections enabling the study of the internal features.

  16. Analysis of Roman age wall paintings found in Pordenone, Trieste and Montegrotto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocchin, G A; Agnoli, F; Salvadori, M

    2004-10-20

    The aim of the present work is the study of many fragments of wall painting from archaeological excavations in three different Roman age sites dating back to the I Century before Common Era: Pordenone (località Torre); Trieste (Crosada) and Padova (Montegrotto). The techniques used were optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), equipped with a EDS microanalysis detector, X-rays powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The identified pigments were: cinnabar, hematite, celadonite, glauconite, cuprorivaite (Egyptian blue), yellow and red ochre, calcite, limonite, coal black. In general, the mortar preparation did not correspond to the complex procedure suggested by Vitruvius (De Architectura), but generally showed a porous layer, with crushed grains under the pigment layer. In some cases, two superimposed pigment layers were found: yellow superimposed on both red and pink, black on pink, green on black. The slight differences we found in the use of the pigments in the three studied sites might show that the same technology, culture and taste spread all over the Roman Empire in North Eastern Italy (X(a) Regio Venetia et Histria).

  17. Characteristics of edgeless silicon detectors for the Roman Pots of the TOTEM experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    G. Ruggiero, G; Antchev, G; Deile, M; Eggert, K; Eremin, V; Kaspar, J; Niewiadomski, H; Petäjäjärvi, J; Radicioni, E; Ravotti, F; Radermacher, E; Snoeys, W; Spearman, W; Wu, J

    2009-01-01

    TOTEM Roman Pot (RP) microstrip edgeless silicon detectors, fabricated with standard planar technology, reach full sensitivity within 50 μm from the cut edge and can operate with high bias voltage at room temperature. These detectors use a newly developed terminating structure, which prevents breakdown and surface current injection at high bias, while simultaneously providing extremely reduced dead zones at the edges. Moreover, radiation hardness studies indicate that when operated under moderate cooling, the detectors remain fully efficient up to a fluence of about 1.5×1014 p cm−2. The mass production of these detectors for the TOTEM Experiment is being completed and their installation in the Roman Pots is ongoing. When the installation is complete and the LHC will be operational, these detectors will allow the TOTEM Experiment to detect leading protons at distance of 1 mm from the beam centre at the LHC. This work presented here is a survey of this recently developed device and its most up-to-date chara...

  18. Geomorphological and geophysical investigations for the characterization of the Roman Carsulae site (Tiber basin, Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, C.; Aringoli, D.; Carluccio, R.; Castellano, C.; D'Ajello Caracciolo, F.; Gasperini, M.; Materazzi, M.; Nicolosi, I.; Pambianchi, G.; Pieruccini, P.; Sepe, V.; Urbini, S.; Varazi, F.

    2017-08-01

    This paper aims to bring to light the possible linkage between karstic phenomena and the human occupation of the Roman site of Carsulae (Tiber basin, Central Italy). Dolines are a typical morphological expression of karst rocks' dissolution and collapse and, usually, they represent a potential hazard for human activities and, in particular, in the care and maintenance of cultural heritage sites. In this study, we observed that the development of a subsidence doline caused severe damage to some archaeological structures at the Carsulae monumental site. According to the results obtained in our investigation, three sites at least with karst dissolution phenomena in the shallow calcareous tufa layer have been identified. One of them subsided probably in Roman times and produced a sharp deformation of the decumanus. In order to understand the evolution of this territory an integrated geomorphological and geophysical survey was carried out. The combination between the information derived from different geophysical techniques, such as: Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Frequency-Domain Electromagnetism (FDEM), and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) clearly pointed out that the calcareous tufa layer is characterized by an irregular geometry and this resulted in the investigated area being affected by karst dissolution in several parts. Four boreholes opportunely located, provided direct information about the depth and the alteration of the calcareous tufa basement and precious calibration data for the geophysical methods. This study contributes to improving our knowledge on the evolution of the Carsulae archaeological site providing a new insight into the adaptation of ancient human societies in this problematic territory.

  19. What the ancient Greeks and Romans knew (and did not know) about seasickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Doreen; Oldelehr, Hermann; Krammling, Benedikt; Benson, Judy; Brandt, Thomas

    2016-02-09

    To find and analyze descriptions in ancient Greek and Roman literature that reveal what was known at the time about seasickness. A systematic search was made in the original literature beginning in the Greek period with Homer in ca 800 bc and extending up to Aetios Amidenos in the late Roman period in ca 600 ad. Rough seas and unpleasant odors were recognized as the major triggers; susceptibility was greater in persons not adapted to sea travel, of a labile mental state, or with anxiety; nausea, emesis, vertigo, anorexia, faintness, apathy, headache, and impending doom were frequently reported symptoms. Preventive and therapeutic measures included habituation to sea travel, looking at stationary contrasts on the coast, fasting or certain diets, inhaling pleasant fragrances, medicinal plants, and ingesting a mixture of wine and wormwood. The triggers, symptoms, and preventive measures of seasickness were well-known in antiquity. The implications for transport of troops and military actions were repeatedly described, e.g., by Livius and Caesar. At that time, the pathophysiologic mechanism was explained by the humoral theory of Empedokles and Aristoteles. Seneca Minor localized the bodily symptoms in various organs such as stomach, gullet, and esophagus, and also attributed them to an imbalance of bile. Recommended medication included ingestion of the plant white hellebore, a violent gastrointestinal poison. This remedy contains various alkaloids but not scopolamine, which today is the most effective anti-motion-sickness drug. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Roman road pollution assessed by elemental and lead isotope geochemistry in East Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renson, Virginie [U.R. Argiles et Paleoclimats, University of Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, B18, Sart Tilman, 4000 Liege (Belgium)], E-mail: vrenson@vub.ac.be; Fagel, Nathalie [U.R. Argiles et Paleoclimats, University of Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, B18, Sart Tilman, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Mattielli, Nadine [Departement des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, CP160/02, Avenue F.D. Roosevelt, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Nekrassoff, Serge [Station Scientifique des Hautes Fagnes 137, Rue de Botrange, 4950 Robertville (Belgium); Streel, Maurice [U.R.P.P.M., University of Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, B18, Sart Tilman, 4000 Liege (Belgium); De Vleeschouwer, Francois [U.R. Argiles et Paleoclimats, University of Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, B18, Sart Tilman, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2008-12-15

    The ability of inorganic geochemistry to record environmental change and especially human impact has been evidenced by several studies across Europe, especially in peat, where it is possible to record the impact of agriculture, mining and other industries. However, despite the numerous investigations on the impact of ancient human activities such as ore mining and smelting, little attention has been paid to geochemistry as a tool to solve problems of palaeopollution in the surroundings of archaeological sites. This paper presents geochemical evidence of the impact of a possible early Roman road built in SE Belgian peatland. Increased Zn and Pb concentrations suggest that Pb-Zn ores were transported on the road. Lead isotope analyses suggest that these ores are locally derived, being compatible with those found in the nearby Pb-Zn ore deposits from East Belgium. Present results provide direct evidence that East Belgian Pb-Zn ores were already being mined during Roman times, i.e. earlier than previously suspected (i.e. 14th century) and that Zn appears to be relatively immobile here. On a broader scale, it also demonstrates that such an early road already had an impact on the environment in terms of metal pollution. This paper enlarges on the range of possibilities offered by geochemistry in the field of geoarchaeology.

  1. Comments on what the Romans knew about Alpine Landforms and Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Acolat

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Le vocabulaire géographique spécifique au relief montagnard n’existe pas ou peu dans l’Antiquité. Les Romains connaissaient-ils pour autant les glaciers, les crevasses, les avalanches, les éboulements de rochers, les érosions torrentielles saisonnières ? Savaient-ils chiffrer la hauteur des Alpes ? Si les auteurs grecs et latins du monde romain décrivent un processus ou un danger géomorphologique alpin, c’est surtout pour ses conséquences sur le voyageur, dans la perspective utilitaire du passage.During Antiquity times there existed little specific vocabulary pertaining to mountainous relief. Did Romans know what glaciers, crevasses, avalanches, rock falls, seasonal torrential erosion were? Could they estimate the height of the Alps? The phenomenon and dangers of alpine geomorphology were described by Greek and Latin authors of the Roman World mostly to warn the traveller of its consequences, in an attempt to ensure safe passage.

  2. Computed tomography of a medium size Roman bronze statue of Cupid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettuzzi, M.; Brancaccio, R. [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bologna (Italy); Casali, F.; Morigi, M.P. [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bologna (Italy); Centro Fermi, Rome (Italy); Carson, D.; Chiari, G. [Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Maish, J. [The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Diagnostics based on X-ray computed tomography (CT) are becoming increasingly important, not only in the medical field but in industry and cultural heritage. CT devices typical for medical applications, however, can seldom be used on art objects because both they are not easily transportable and they often present high X-ray absorption. It is therefore necessary to make use of portable instrumentation and/or to develop tomographic systems optimized to the characteristics of the objects under examination. This work describes the computed tomography of a first century A.D. Roman bronze statue of Cupid (96.AB.53) in the collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum, within the collaborative framework between the Getty Conservation Institute and the Department of Physics and Astronomy (DIFA) of the University of Bologna (Italy). The tomography performed at the Getty facilities employed a 450 kV X-ray tube and a detection system developed at DIFA. The study highlighted the casting and construction techniques used by Roman foundry workers and provided information on the status of conservation of the statue. A 3D virtual reconstruction allowed the user to define different cross-sections enabling the study of the internal features. (orig.)

  3. The 'International' and the 'Global' as Complementary Power Strategies within Corporate Roman Catholicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Houston

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The putative resurgence of religious belief and its reinvigorated socio-political importance – or at least prominence – has prompted critical reflection on religion, broadly defined, as a new force in politics. This paper examines the ‘global’ and ‘international’ role of Roman Catholicism. Roman Catholicism has manifested itself as an actor on the international stage and as a trans-national and global ‘community’. Frequently the conceptual dividing line between these is ambiguous. Vatican City and the Holy See have both been accorded international status, the former since the conclusion of the Lateran Treaty by Italy’s fascist leader, Benito Mussolini, in 1929, the latter since the mid nineteenth century following the absorption of the Papal States into the newly unified Italian Republic. The Holy See also enjoys a special status position within the United Nations system as a non-member observer state. Following revelations of clerical child abuse the Holy See was put on the defensive in several national contexts in a public controversy that resonated much more widely. This trans-nationally organised religion has mobilised both nationally and internationally to defend its institutional interests. Through an examination of empirical instances the study sidesteps the question of whether religions are ‘global’ or ‘international’ phenomena, and draws attention to the distinct power modalities operative at the level of both international politics and in transnational or global organisation.

  4. WHEN THE PROVINCE TAKE CARE OF ITS OWN COIN SUPPLY. THE CASE OF THE TOWN OF DROBETA IN ROMAN DACIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Anton Gazdac

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using comparative analysis and the most recent coin site-finds publication from the Roman site of Drobeta in Roman Dacia (nowadays Drobeta-Turnu Severin, Romania, the present paper demonstrates that when a site from a province is closed to an official mint from another province (e.g. Viminacium in Moesia Superior the coin supply comes mainly from this mint. However, the recent coin evidence from the site of Drobeta proves that the official mint of Dacia, which produced the series of ‘PROVINCIA DACIA’ type was still a main supplier of Drobeta especially after AD 250.

  5. The principle of Merit in the Law of Roman Administration. Historical-Comparative Reflections about Careers in Public Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Trisciuoglio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article makes a comparison between the laws of the Roman authorities, particularly those of the late empire based on the constitutions of the emperors, and constitutional and Italian administrative law (including the most recent legislation on the issue of access and promotion in public administration. In the article it is observed how in both laws the principle of meritocracy emerges, and proposals are made, in the light of the Roman experience, on how such a principle, which we can all agree with, can be concretely implemented.

  6. Geochemistry and mineralogy approaches to characterize brick and its lake sediments sources: Antioch Roman City (Southern Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    El Ouahabi, Meriam; Hubert, Aurelia; Benjelloun, Yacine; Chene, Grégoire; Strivay, David; De Sigoyer, Julia; Pamir, Hatice; Karabacak, Volkan; Fagel, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    The Roman aqueduct of Antioch-on-the-Orontes (Southern Turkey) is situated close to the Antioch city. This last is located near the Amik Lake (Lake of Antioch) and close to the junction between the active Dead Sea fault and the East Anatolian fault. During the Roman period, the Amik Plain was more densely occupied than at any time in its history [1]. The study focuses on the bricks and the lake sediments characterization in order to determine the source area as well as the technical productio...

  7. Chemins de traverse d’Ignacio Martínez de Pisón, roman de l’absence, roman de l’amour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André-Alain Morello

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemins de traverse d’Ignacio Martínez de Pisón se présente comme la pseudo autobiographie d’un adolescent, Felipe, qui, à la mort de sa mère, est condamné à vivre avec un père marginal. Le texte est aussi la conversion d’un récit de type picaresque en un roman qui débouche sur la découverte mutuelle d’un père et d’un fils. L’errance des deux personnages, chemin de fuite destiné à compenser la disparition de Cecilia, conduit à une sorte d’assomption de l’amour.Caminos secundarios, de Ignacio Martínez de Pisón, se presenta como la supuesta autobiografía de un adolescente, Felipe, quien, a la muerte de su madre, se ve forzado a vivir con un padre marginal. El texto es también la evolución de una narración de carácter picaresco hacia una novela que desemboca en el descubrimiento mutuo entre padre e hijo. El vagabundeo de ambos personajes, escape y consuelo por la desaparición de Cecilia, lleva a una forma de exaltación amorosa.

  8. Petrophysical behaviour and durability of the Miocene sandstones used in the architectural heritage of Tunisia (Roman aqueduct of Oued Miliane and Uthina Roman site)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghlami, K.; Gómez-Gras, D.

    2009-09-01

    SummaryIn the present work, the relationship between intrinsic factors, mechanical properties and durability of Miocene sandstones used in the architectural heritage of Tunisia, specifically in the Roman aqueduct of Oued Miliane and Uthina site, are studied. The petrographic study and the characterisation of porous network have been carried out using optical microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry and laser scanner confocal microscopy (LSCM). The hygric behaviour has also been determined from water absorption under vacuum, drying, capillary water absorption and water vapour permeability. The mechanical properties have been assessed from compressive strength and abrasion tests. Rock durability has been evaluated from salt crystallization (sodium sulphate) accelerated aging tests. The results show good hygric behaviour characterised by a high evaporation rate and almost no retention of water; due to the macroporous character of the rock and the good connectivity of the pore network. Because of the poor lithification, the stone has a very low mechanical strength which makes it very vulnerable to the salt crystallization effects. The absence of chemically unstable minerals preserves the rock from chemical alteration. The durability of the building stone is mainly conditioned by salt loading of the monument.

  9. Prepulse inhibition and latent inhibition deficits in Roman high-avoidance vs. Roman low-avoidance rats: Modeling schizophrenia-related features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnal, Aitor; Sánchez-González, Ana; Río-Álamos, Cristóbal; Oliveras, Ignasi; Cañete, Toni; Blázquez, Gloria; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain further evidence supporting the validity of a new genetically-based rat model for the study of schizophrenia-relevant symptoms. The Roman high- (RHA-I) and low-avoidance (RLA-I) inbred rats have been psychogenetically selected for their rapid versus extremely poor acquisition of the two-way avoidance task in the shuttle box and present two well-differentiated profiles regarding several traits related to anxiety, impulsivity and sensitivity to (dopaminergic) psychostimulants. In this study we have tested animals from both strains in two behavioral paradigms that are related to schizophrenia, i.e. prepulse inhibition (PPI) and latent inhibition (LI) of fear-potentiated startle (FPS). The results show that while RLA-I rats display good PPI and LI to the context, RHA-Is show an impairment of PPI and no sign of an LI effect, which goes in the direction of the results obtained in schizophrenic patients. Therefore, although further behavioral and psychopharmacological work needs to be done, the present findings and previous studies carried out in our laboratory and others allow us to propose the RHA-I rat strain as a putative genetic rat model of differential schizophrenia-related features.

  10. Arada Kalanların Romanı: Araf The Novel Of Purgatory: Araf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa AYDEMİR

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The postmodern novel, that arises after the sixties in world literature, after the eighties in Turkish literature, vary from traditional novel concept in every respect. Characteristics of this trend are seen in most of the authors of the last period of Turkish literature. Here, the effective is that post-modern novel reflects value judgments and perceptions of the changing world more successfully. In today's literaryworks’ having more than one semantic layer takes the reader differentreadings and shows that he has the right to an equal voice with theauthor. Thus, the author presents his/her reader the opportunity andhe/she fades from the scene and the reader complete the background tothe text.Elif Şafak’s Araf is a narrative which reflects postmodern novelconception. The outstanding features in this study have been analyzedunder some headings and postmodern conception of narrative has beenpointed out. However, on the one hand the postmodern novel featureshave been focused on; on the other hand elements of a classic novelsuch as the plot, time, place, characters have been evaluated with apostmodern approach. In addition, on the occasion of some names,which are often emphasized in the novel, a number of evaluations havebeen done and the meaning of these names, added into the novel, hasbeen focused on.Araf has been fictionalised with a complex plot in order to makethe reader think. The time, as usual in postmodern texts, is scatteredand fragmented. The place in narrative is sometimes used functionallyeven though it is identified with the reader and dominates them. On thecontrary to giving importance to idealized and noncontradictory personin modern novel, the importance is given to the subject, who hasparadoxes and can change according to circumstances. Intertextualityand image form the key features of the novel. Dünya edebiyatında altmışlardan, Türk edebiyatındaysa seksenlerden sonra ortaya çıkan postmodern roman, hemen her a

  11. Kūno prasmės Jeano Paulio Sartre’o romane Šleikštulys | Le sens du corps dans le roman de Jean-Paul Sartre La nausée

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    Vytautas Bikulčius

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans son roman La Nausée Jean-Paul Sartre voulait montrer l’absurde de l’existence. Le protagoniste du roman Antoine Roquentin éprouve la nausée qui devient l’expression de cet absurde. Dans cet article on constate que l’apparition de la nausée est liée avec le corps humain. Quoique dans le roman soient mentionnées plusieurs parties du corps humain: la tête, le visage, les mains, les jambes, les yeux, les joues, le nez, même les ongles, etc., ce sont les mains qui jouent le rôle principal dans le roman parce que grâce à elles Antoine Roquentin commence à êprouver la nausée. Les mains possèdent même une fonction du goût. Ainsi on peut dire que l’identité d’Antoine Roquentin est exprimée le plus souvent par les mains. Les autres parties du corps humain qui jouent un rôle important sont le visage et les yeux.

  12. The causes of the Roman civil war, 49 B.C.: Julia and Crassus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Koval

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The title of the article is ‘The Causes of the Roman Civil War, 49 B.C.: Julia and Crassus’. The purpose of the article was to examine the theory, provided by ancient writers, according to which deaths of Julia and Marcus Licinius Crassus are interpreted as one of the causes of the Roman Civil war in 49 B.C. This theory wasn’t an object of the special research and many modern scholars take on trust accounts of the ancient writers, following Mommsen’s view. According to the sources, Julia was the «pledge of consent» between Pompey and Caesar, while Crassus was their mediator. In contrast, E. Gruen believed, that the deaths of Julia and Crassus had not been so ruinous for relations of Pompey and Caesar. For example, Julia had died in 54 B.C., but the Civil war started in 49 B.C. – according to the sources, it should have been started immediately after Julia’s death. The study tested, that the main source of such interpretation of Julia’s and Crassus’ deaths was Lucan’s ‘Pharsalia’. Such characterization of those is the most full in his poem. Textual analysis proves, that Lucan’s poem was a source of this theory for many other ancient writers. For example, Plutarch’s and Appian’s characterizations of Julia and Crassus are the same, as in ‘Pharsalia’, considering the translation from Latin to Greek. Further examination established that Lucan was the main propagandist of such characterization, but he wasn’t its author. Julia was described as the «pledge of consent» in writings of Velleius Paterculus and Valerius Maximus that had been written in a few decades before ‘Pharsalia’. However, there is no such characterization in writings of Cicero and Livius, who were the eyewitnesses of the Civil war. As a result, it was concluded, that such characterization had been formed among Roman writers of the early principate and retailed by Lucan. As a conclusion it must be emphasized, that close study of the ancient

  13. Rebirth of the Nouveau Roman: 9/11 as a Crisis of Confidence in American Literary Aesthetics

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    Daniel Davis Wood

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that 9/11 created a crisis of confidence amongst writers of American fiction by problematizing literary realism’s claims to verisimiltude and so undermining it as a plausible and credible mode of fiction. Surveying the post-9/11 debate over the merits and shortcomings of realism, this article suggests that the unlikely beneficiary of this crisis of confidence has been the contemporary nouveau roman, a mode of fiction that originates from within the literary traditions of continental Europe. The emergence of writers, publishers, reviewers, and readers attracted to the nouveau roman as a mode of literature in opposition to realism—and engaged in its production, evaluation, promotion, and dissemination—seems to signify a widespread dissatisfaction with the predominant American literary response to the crisis of 9/11. Providing a brief history of the emergence of this post-9/11 institutional support for the nouveau roman, this article contends that the nouveau roman requires a place in literary histories of post-9/11 American fiction even if it does not explicitly address the subject of 9/11 itself.

  14. Could the local population of the Lower Rhine delta supply the Roman army? Part 1: The archaeological and historical framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.I. Kooistra; M. van Dinter; M.K. Dütting; P. van Rijn; C. Cavallo

    2013-01-01

    For a long time, historical sources and the marginal landscape have led to the assumption that the Roman army in the Rhine delta was mainly supplied with products transported over medium and long distances. In a diptych of articles, we will investigate whether this assumption is tenable for wood and

  15. Best travel options : modelling Roman and early-medieval routes in the Netherlands using a multi-proxy approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lanen, Rowin J.; Kosian, Menne C.; Groenewoudt, Bert .J.; Spek, Mattheus; Jansma, Esther

    2015-01-01

    During the Roman and early-medieval period in the Netherlands, an extensive network of routes connected settlements on the local, regional and supraregional scale. The orientation of these route networks in part was determined by settlement locations, and in part by environmental factors (e.g. soil

  16. The Jewish War and the Roman Civil War of 68-69 C.E. : Jewish, Pagan, and Christian Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, Geurt-Henk; Popovic, M

    2011-01-01

    George H. van Kooten, “The Jewish War and the Roman Civil War of 68-69 C.E.: Jewish, Pagan, and Christian Perspectives,” in The Jewish Revolt against Rome: Interdisciplinary Perspectives (ed. Mladen Popović; Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism 154; Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2011), 41

  17. Officium, munus, honor…: Roman Precedents of the Term “Official” and Other Legal and Administrative Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Quintana-Orive

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines some terms such as officium, munus, honor, etc., used in Roman legal and literary sources and which correspond broadly with its terms employed in modern Administrative Law such as public service, public office or employment or competence.

  18. Seismically induced liquefaction structures in La Magdalena archaeological site, the 4th century AD Roman Complutum (Madrid, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pascua, M. A.; Silva, P. G.; Perucha, M. A.; Giner-Robles, J. L.; Heras, C.; Bastida, A. B.; Carrasco, P.; Roquero, E.; Lario, J.; Bardaji, T.; Pérez-López, R.; Elez, J.

    2016-10-01

    The ancient Roman city of Complutum (Alcalá de Henares, Madrid), founded in the 1st century AD, was one of the most important cities of Hispania. The old Roman city was destroyed, abruptly abandoned, relocated close by and rebuilt during the late 4th century AD. Destruction of the city and its relocation has not yet been explained by archaeologists. In this paper, with our multidisciplinary approach, we identify and characterize earthquake archaeological effects (EAEs) affecting the archaeological site, the La Magdalena, an agricultural holding 4 km from the core of Complutum. The most important EAEs in the site are liquefactions (sand dikes and explosive sand-gravel craters) affecting Roman structures, such as water tanks (cisterns), houses and graves. Ground liquefaction generated significant ground cracks, explosive craters and folds in foundations of buildings. Several other Roman sites throughout the valley were also abandoned abruptly during the 4th century AD, in some cases with EAEs of similar origin. This suggests the occurrence of a 5.0-6.6 Mw seismic event in the zone, in accordance with the minimum empirical limit of seismically-induced liquefaction and the maximum surface rupture length of the Henares fault.

  19. The High Speed Projection Technique for Teaching the Reading of Korean & Japanese or Other Non-Roman Witing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchfield, Theodore M.

    High Speed Projection (HiSP) is a classroom technique that employs a standard carousel slide projector to induce conditioned oral responses by students to unfamiliar symbols. HiSP enables active teaching of Japanese, Korean, and other non-Roman languages, drastically reducing the time and effort students must devote to learning the pronunciation…

  20. THE HEREDITARY STATUS OF DAUGHTERS ACCORDING TO THE COMMUNAL STATUTES OF PIRAN - RECEPTION OR CONTINUITY OF ROMAN LAW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kambic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    The reception of Roman law should be understood as a renewed and, in principle, subsidiary application of the Justinian's Codification as defined by methods of medieval and later on, modern legal science. The concept of continuity is, on the contrary, based on the notion that despite the fall of the

  1. The social and economic message of Benedict XVI's Caritas in Veritate in the perspective of Roman Catholic social doctrine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puggioni, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the encyclical Caritas in veritate as a new encyclical in the ongoing development of the ‘social doctrine’ of the Roman Catholic Church. In this regard, the research questions are: to what extent is Caritas in veritate continuous with earlier pronouncements? To what extent is it

  2. Egypt in material and mind : the use and perception of Aegyptiaca in Roman domestic contexts of Pompeii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Eva Martine

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation was written within the NWO VIDI project ‘Cultural innovation in a globalising society, Egypt in the Roman world’, (Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden University) directed by dr. Miguel John Versluys. The general aim of this project is devoted to the understanding of the different conte

  3. Britons abroad : the mobility of Britons and the circulation of British-made objects in the Roman Empire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivleva, Tatiana Alexandrovna

    2012-01-01

    Britons abroad is a contribution to the study of ancient mobility in the Roman Empire with the focus on the mobility of materials and people and the ways objects and people interact dialectically when brought to a new environment. This study looks at Britons who, voluntarily or forcedly, moved

  4. The social and economic message of Benedict XVI's Caritas in Veritate in the perspective of Roman Catholic social doctrine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puggioni, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the encyclical Caritas in veritate as a new encyclical in the ongoing development of the ‘social doctrine’ of the Roman Catholic Church. In this regard, the research questions are: to what extent is Caritas in veritate continuous with earlier pronouncements? To what extent is it

  5. Ancient earthquakes in the Roman city of Baelo Claudia (Cadiz, South of Spain): Fifteen years of archaeosimology research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.G.; Giner-Robles, J.L.; Reicherter, K.; Rodriguez-Pascua, J.L.; Gruetzner, C.; Garcia-Jimenez, I.; Carrasco Garcia, P.; Bardaji, T.; Santos, G.; Roquero, E.; Roez, J.; Perucha, M.A.; Perez-Lopez, R.; Fernandez Macarro, B.; Martinez-Grana, A.; Goy, J.L.; Zazo, C.

    2016-07-01

    This work illustrates the state of the art on archaeoseismology of the ancient Roman city of Baelo Claudia (Tarifa, Cádiz) after nearly fifteen years of research. This ancient Roman site was affected by two earthquakes in the years AD 40–60 and AD 260–290 which promoted important urban and architectural changes and eventually the destruction and further abandonment of the city in AD 365–390. Earthquake Archaeoseismological Effects (EAEs) are catalogued, described and mapped in the entire monumental sector of the city mainly witnessing the last earthquake which occurred in AD 260–290. Mapping of oriented EAEs illustrate damage distribution all over the lower sector of the city, as well as the occurrence of suspect coseismic landslide and tsunami events. The structural analysis of oriented EAEs throughout the entire mapped sector suggests that the intervening ground motion was preferentially oriented in a SW to NE direction. The geoarchaeological analysis and some relevant archaeological anomalies, strongly suggest the occurrence of coeval tsunami events during both ancient earthquakes, pointing to the occurrence of an offshore seismic source SSW of the city. Several N-S normal faults have been identified around the Bolonia Bay area and some of them continue offshore SSW of Baelo Claudia. These faults with clear Quaternary activity can be considered as the more probable seismic sources for the events affecting the ancient Roman site and they are consistent with the mapped damage orientation displayed by the structural analysis of EAEs within the old Roman city. (Author)

  6. Rock physics of fibrous rocks akin to Roman concrete explains uplifts at Campi Flegrei Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanorio, Tiziana; Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn

    2015-08-01

    Uplifts in the Campi Flegrei caldera reach values unsurpassed anywhere in the world (~2 meters). Despite the marked deformation, the release of strain appears delayed. The rock physics analysis of well cores highlights the presence of two horizons, above and below the seismogenic area, underlying a coupled process. The basement is a calc-silicate rock housing hydrothermal decarbonation reactions, which provide lime-rich fluids. The caprock above the seismogenic area has a pozzolanic composition and a fibril-rich matrix that results from lime-pozzolanic reactions. These findings provide evidence for a natural process reflecting that characterizing the cementitious pastes in modern and Roman concrete. The formation of fibrous minerals by intertwining filaments confers shear and tensile strength to the caprock, contributing to its ductility and increased resistance to fracture.

  7. Ancient discipline: Roman example in Iberian Military Treatises, c. 1560-1600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Martínez Bermejo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The military history and the imperial image of Rome offered an essential framework for conceiving the strategic role of the army in the early modern Portuguese and Spanish monarchies. “Disciplina” (discipline was a key element of the military thought of the epoch. The term referred not only to the growing professionalization and standardization of military practices (such as drill itself, but also to the development of a specific field of knowledge regarding war. This article analyses the works of several Portuguese and Spanish military authors of the period and the importance of Rome in their reflections and proposals. The article's objective is twofold: to identify and analyse a particular kind of "Roman" discourse and to contextualize the literary genre of martial arts as a cultural phenomenon whose significance goes considerably beyond the limits of military history.

  8. Finding the distance between the Roman Pot floor and the AFP Silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Han Gyeol; Trzebinski, Maciej Marek; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detectors are designed for tagging of forward protons and located inside Roman Pots (RP). My task as summer student is a data analysis to measure the distance between Silicon detectors and the RP floor. For this task there are three suggested methods: tracks pointing to the floor, slope range, and shadow of station. I tried first two methods with data from AFP run 30539. The result from tracking method is 0.7mm, however the unexpected result has to be explained to fully trust this result. In the result of the slope range method, there is an impossible result. Therefore, my code for range method needs debugging in future work.

  9. Vers une mélancolie des premiers romans ?

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Johan Faerber :Je vais peut-être tout d’abord présenter brièvement ton premier roman, Le Black Note afin de t’interroger sur les questions rétrospectives qu’il suscite en toi et chercher ainsi à apercevoir ta propre lecture de ce moment inaugural de ton œuvre. Il s’agit, on le sait, du récit d’un groupe de jazz amateur taraudé par un modèle écrasant, celui de John Coltrane. Ce groupe sombre progressivement dans la drogue et disparaît à la mort de son leader, Paul, brûlé vif dans l’incendie de...

  10. Physical-Chemical characterization of roman mortars in El Ruedo at Almedinillay Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Rodríguez, J. Mª.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the analysis of Roman mortars in two rooms of a villa at El Ruedo, Almedinilla, Cordoba. The techniques or procedures used included grain size distribution analysis and X ray diffraction. The decorative materials used in the various environments in the villa were found to differ in composition and therefore to have been taken from different sites (different quarries.

    En el presente trabajo se ha procedido al análisis de los morteros de dos estancias de la villa de El Ruedo (Almedinilla, Córdoba. Se han utilizado diferentes técnicas, tales como análisis granulométrico y difracción de rayos X. Se ha podido constatar que los materiales de las diferentes decoraciones presentan diferentes composiciones y por tanto provienen de sitios diferentes (canteras diferentes.

  11. Image and Interpretation: Using Artificial Intelligence to Read Ancient Roman Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Terras

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The ink and stylus tablets discovered at the Roman Fort of Vindolanda are a unique resource for scholars of ancient history. However, the stylus tablets have proved particularly difficult to read. This paper describes a system that assists expert papyrologists in the interpretation of the Vindolanda writing tablets. A model-based approach is taken that relies on models of the written form of characters, and statistical modelling of language, to produce plausible interpretations of the documents. Fusion of the contributions from the language, character, and image feature models is achieved by utilizing the GRAVA agent architecture that uses Minimum Description Length as the basis for information fusion across semantic levels. A system is developed that reads in image data and outputs plausible interpretations of the Vindolanda tablets.

  12. Cutting for stone: Roman lithotomy instruments in the Museo Nazionale Romano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Bladder stones, one of the scourges of the past, have been recorded as far back as 6,500 BC. Lithotomy was famously proscribed in the Hippocratic Oath, but it was certainly being undertaken in Hellenistic Alexandria by the 3rd century BC. However, the earliest surviving description of the operation is that of Celsus in the early 1st century AD, while identifiable instrumentation currently dates between the 2nd and early 5th century AD. Finds from Rimini, Marcianopolis, Ephesus and Cyrene illustrate how widespread the operation was at the time of the Roman Empire, but the majority of lithotomy instruments, of which those in the Museo Nazionale Romano are an important part, have been discovered in Rome itself doubtless a reflection of the size of the city's medical 'market'.

  13. Romans and Ostrogoths between integration and separation. The contribution of archeology to a historical debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aimone

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with issues of integration between the Roman population and new immigrants, known from the sources with the collective name of “Ostrogoths”, in the Italian kingdom of Theoderic. Earlier scholarship has focused mostly on the written sources, leading to conflicting conclusions. In this study the material evidence takes the forefront as main data to reconstruct trends of contacts and acculturation among natives and immigrants. The survey of the extant sites showing the possible presence of Ostrogothic groups around the end of the fifth century CE is here limited to modern Piedmont and Valle d'Aosta. The emerging picture is quite complex:  while it is possible to identify interrelations and exchanges between the two groups at different levels of the social life, there are also clear signs of exclusions and separation attesting to a social and economic milieu in rapid transformation.

  14. Il formalismo russo, Roman Jakobson e la linguistica nella prima metà del Novecento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Baldi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the relation between Russian Formalism and linguistic thought in the first decades of the twentieth century. The theory of literary language proposed by the Formalist School assigns a central role to the linguistic devices that characterize a text as poetic or literary; the basic idea is that these devices work as a system, a notion derived from Saussurean linguistics. The leading figure we consider is Roman Jakobson, a key interpreter of Formalism, and, at the same time, an original and influential linguist. In his work the interpretation of poetic language is related to an overall linguistic theory, where the properties of natural languages, crucially phonology, and the use (functions of language have a theoretical characterization.

  15. LHC Optics Measurement with Proton Tracks Detected by the Roman Pots of the TOTEM Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00062364; Aspell, P; Atanassov, I; Avati, V; Baechler, J; Berardi, V; Berretti, M; Bossini, E; Bottigli, U; Bozzo, M; Brücken, E; Buzzo, A; Cafagna, F S; Catanesi, M G; Covault, C; Csanád, M; Csörgö, T; Deile, M; Doubek, M; Eggert, K; Eremin, V; Ferro, F; Fiergolski, A; Garcia, F; Georgiev, V; Giani, S; Grzanka, L; Hammerbauer, J; Heino, J; Hilden, T; Karev, A; Kašpar, J; Kopal, J; Kundrát, V; Lami, S; Latino, G; Lauhakangas, R; Leszko, T; Lippmaa, E; Lippmaa, J; Lokajíček, M V; Losurdo, L; Lo Vetere, M; Lucas Rodríguez, F; Macrí, M; Mäki, T; Mercadante, A; Minafra, N; Minutoli, S; Nemes, F; Niewiadomski, H; Oliveri, E; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Österberg, K; Palazzi, P; Peroutka, Z; Procházka, J; Quinto, M; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Ravotti, F; Robutti, E; Ropelewski, L; Ruggiero, G; Saarikko, H; Scribano, A; Smajek, J; Snoeys, W; Sziklai, J; Taylor, C; Turini, N; Vacek, V; Welti, J; Whitmore, J; Wyszkowski, P; Zielinski, K

    2014-10-28

    Precise knowledge of the beam optics at the LHC is crucial to fulfil the physics goals of the TOTEM experiment, where the kinematics of the scattered protons is reconstructed with the near-beam telescopes -- so-called Roman Pots (RP). Before being detected, the protons' trajectories are influenced by the magnetic fields of the accelerator lattice. Thus precise understanding of the proton transport is of key importance for the experiment. A novel method of optics evaluation is proposed which exploits kinematical distributions of elastically scattered protons observed in the RPs. Theoretical predictions, as well as Monte Carlo studies, show that the residual uncertainty of this optics estimation method is smaller than 0.25 percent.

  16. Sandrine Sorlin : La défamiliarisation linguistique dans le roman anglais contemporain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth MENZIES

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Si les utopies linguistiques et les langues imaginaires de l’époque classique ont fait l’objet de nombreuses études, tel n’est pas vraiment le cas des textes littéraires plus récents qui mettent en scène des langues inventées. L’ouvrage de Sandrine Sorlin – fruit d’une thèse soutenue en 2006 – se propose d’examiner les romans de cinq auteurs anglophones (Anthony Burgess, William Golding, Russel Hoban, George Orwell et Will Self dans lesquels l’anglais est si altéré qu’il nous paraît radicale...

  17. Moral philosophy and theology: why is there so little difference for Roman Catholics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, H Tristram

    2003-01-01

    The cardinal question in Christian moral theory and bioethics is whether the knowledge that Christians have (1) by grace and (2) by revelation (e.g., regarding the character of human and cosmic history as reaching from creation through the Incarnation and the Redemption to the Second Coming and the restoration of all things) makes a crucial contribution to understanding morality, as for example issues such as the good death and the morality of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia. This article argues that such a contribution is made by grace and revelation. The reduction of Roman Catholic moral theology and bioethics to secular bioethics is explored, as well as the necessity of the unique knowledge possessed by Christians for adequate end-of-life decision-making.

  18. Physiological and performance adaptations of elite Greco-Roman wrestlers during a one-day tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbas, Ioannis; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Douroudos, Ioannis I; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Michailidis, Yiannis; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Parotsidis, Charalabos; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Katrabasas, Ioannis; Margonis, Konstantinos; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Taxildaris, Kyriakos

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a simulated one-day Greco-Roman wrestling tournament on selected performance and inflammatory status indices. Twelve competitive wrestlers (22.1 ± 1.3 years) completed five matches according to the official Olympic wrestling tournament regulations following a ~6% weight loss. Performance measurements, muscle damage assessment, and blood sampling were performed before and following each match. Performance and inflammatory markers were not affected by weight loss. Mean wrestling heart rate reached ~85% of maximal and lactate concentration exceeded 17 mM. Fatigue rating demonstrated a progressive rise (P physiological demands on wrestlers that may adversely affect their performance and inflammatory status especially during the later stages of the tournament.

  19. Contribution to the Study of the State Transport Service in Roman Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Escutia-Romero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cursus publicus was the government transportation system in the Roman Empire. It made government communication, travel by government officials and the transport of certain State goods such as tax money, metals (gold and silver and army equipment possible. This work seeks to illustrate the origin of this official service, the highways used, the infrastructure (mansiones and mutationes, the animals and wagons exchanged periodically along the way, the authorization for the use of cursus publicus administration, the extremely restricted issue of warrants for the use of the cursus publicus (evectiones, the funding of services and the irregularities and abuse of the system and the necessary legislation to avoid and condemn such acts.

  20. [The use of opium in Roman society and the dependence of Princeps Marcus Aurelius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trancas, Bruno; Borja Santos, Nuno; Patrício, Luís D

    2008-01-01

    Opium was known and frequently used in Roman society. Medical practice recognized its usefulness as an analgesic, soporific, anti-tussic or anti-diarrheic agent, as well as other currently unsupported uses with quasi-magical properties. It was additionally used as an ingredient in antidotes, panaceas and poisons. The authors present a non-exhaustive compilation of opium use according to medical doctors, writers and encyclopaedists of the time. Mythological and literary representations of the opium poppy reflected its diverse roles, being associated with prosperity and fertility, sleep, death and the underworld and with the art of medicine. Despite its free and routine use, there is no solid evidence of addiction, except the putative case of emperor Marcus Aurelius, consistently reported as one of the most likely cases of addiction to opium.

  1. Virtual Restoration of the Roman wall of León: a diachronic view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Morillo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Roman wall, of rectangular plan and rounded corners, following the canonical military model, is the major evidence of the fortress built by the Legion VII Gemina in León in 74 AD. The archaeological interventions developed throughout the decades have confirmed that the defensive system consists of two adjacent walls: the first one dates back to the Low Empire, while the other, attached to the previous one by its external face, is dated Late Third to Early Fourth century AD. We, too, must add an internal rampart (agger corresponding to a previous defensive system. The 3D virtual restitution we have undertaken allows us to contemplate, with further detail, the features of this almost 20 meters wide constructive complex that has conditioned the urban development of the city of León.

  2. A Gazetteer of Sub-Roman Britain (AD 400-600: the British Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Snyder

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available "The darkest of the Dark Ages" might be an apt description of the fifth and sixth centuries in Britain, a time commonly referred to as the sub-Roman period. Not dark in the sense that this era lacked character or achievement: there are certainly enough real (St Patrick and legendary (Arthur and Merlin associations to attract modern interests. Anyone who has investigated the history of the period behind these figures, however, soon discovers the exasperating dearth of contemporary written records. Further study only leads to historical agnosticism, and indeed it may be that we will never be able to write a narrative hitory of sub-Roman Britain. The slack has fortunately been taken up by archaeologists. The material culture of the fifth and sixth centuries, though itself not extensive, is in many ways more accessible than the problematic written sources. At first, archaeology was used merely to supplement historical models which relied chiefly on the testimony of writers like Gildas, Bede and Nennius (see Collingwood and Myres 1936; Frere 1967; Alcock 1971. For a thorough survey of this archaeological tradition see Snyder 1994. After a profusion of source criticism began to shake these foundations (see Dumville 1977 and Snyder forthcoming many archaeologists felt free to ignore the written record entirely and treat sub-Roman Britain as a prehistoric subject. For an example of this see Arnold 1984 and for a critique of this school of thought see Alcock 1988. The pendulum now seems to be swinging back toward the middle, with the most recent archaeological surveys of the period, such as those by Higham 1992 and Dark 1994a, attempting a balance between speculative archaeological models and careful use of the written sources. These latest surveys are notable contributions and will undoubtedly influence the direction of future archaeological speculation. Yet there is something noticeably missing from this body of scholarship. Kenneth Dark 1994b, 67 puts

  3. The virtual reconstruction of the ancient Roman concert hall in Aphrodisias, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Gade, Anders Christian; Nielsen, Martin Lisa

    2006-01-01

    About two thousand years ago one of the world’s earliest and most beautiful concert halls were built in the city Aphrodisias, named after the goddess Aphrodite. It was a rich society, renowned for its marble and mastery in sculptures. Like many other cities in the Roman Empire there was an open......-air theatre for plays and a roofed theatre, Odeon, for concerts. In the framework of an EU-project the Odeon or concert hall has been reconstructed in a virtual environment, visually and acoustically. The capacity of the hall was around 1000 in the audience. There has been some uncertainty about the original...... with reconstructed music, has been made with the ODEON room acoustic modelling program. From January 2006 the reconstructed concert hall will be open for visitors, although in a virtual environment. The address is: http://www.at.oersted.dtu.dk/~erato....

  4. Mass spectrometric methods prove the use of beeswax and ruminant fat in late Roman cooking pots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimpe, K; Jacobs, P A; Waelkens, M

    2002-08-30

    Lipid extracts of sherds of archaeological late Roman cooking pots were analysed using high temperature-gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer and liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer detection (LC-APCI-MS). With these advanced techniques the use of beeswax was shown through identification of the constituting alkanes, mono and diesters. The detection of high amounts of saturated triacylglycerols (TAGs) further indicated that animal fat was processed in these pots. Part of the animal fat was characterised as originating from ruminants due to the presence of trans-fatty acids. The distribution of saturated TAGs and the higher concentration of stearic acid compared to palmitic acid in the transesterified lipid extract indicated that this was sheep fat. The results illustrate how complex mixtures can be unravelled and original contents of ancient ceramic vessels can be determined using specialised analytical equipment.

  5. MICROSCANNING XRF, XANES, AND XRD STUDIES OF THEDECORATED SURFACE OF ROMAN TERRA SIGILLATA CERAMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirguet, C.; Sciau, P.; Goudeau, P.; Mehta, A.; Pianetta, P.; Liu, Z.; Tamura, N.

    2008-10-24

    Different microscanning synchrotron techniques were used to better understand the elaboration process and origins of Terra Sigillata potteries from the Roman period. A mixture Gallic slip sample cross-section showing red and yellow colors was studied. The small (micron) size of the X-ray beam available at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) and Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron sources, coupled with the use of a sample scanning stage allowed us to spatially resolve the distribution of the constitutive mineral phases related to the chemical composition. Results show that red color is a result of iron-rich hematite crystals and the yellow part is a result of the presence of Ti-rich rutile-type phase (brookite). Volcanic-type clay is at the origin of these marble Terra Sigillata.

  6. The juspuniendi at the roman home and the humanization of the family relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Garcé García y Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The family is one of the legal institutions that has most evolved through the time. Its historical tracking allows not only the comprehension of its transformation as an institute, but much of the general process of humanization of the Law. The family evolution is due to the modification in kinship systems. Gradually, blood links have been incorporated as a basic element and has been developed a legal regulation that aims parity inside the home. Under the growing influence of Christianity, the Roman law was attenuating the disciplinary powers of the paterfamilias, in particular the right to freely arrange the death of the wife and children without the intervention of judges (jus vitae necisque. In this historical context, this paper summarizes the development of private jus puniendi and the ethical and legal progress associated to the transformation of the family.

  7. Mission of evangelization of the Roman Catholic Church in the information era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyyak Maksym Tarasovich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Radical changes that are taking place in the media sphere lead to a significant cultural and social development. New technologies not only change the way we communicate, but communication itself so that we can state that we live in times of great cultural transformations. Modern media not only transform the existing system of values but also form new axiological space. Media nowadays has turned into an effective modelling tool of value orientation of society. By the level of impact on the value system, society media can be compared with religion today. Along with the development of the information society, as well as with the development of the Internet, appears a new virtual reality. The Roman Catholic Church after the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965 is characterized by its dynamism and modernity; it has many benefits from that era which is called informational, especially in its evangelistic mission.

  8. Parallelisms and revelatory concepts of the Johannine Prologue in Greco-Roman context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno Zuiddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article builds on the increasing recognition of divine communication and God’s plan as a central concept in the prologue to the Fourth gospel. A philological analysis reveals parallel structures with an emphasis on divine communication in which the Logos takes a central part. These should be understood within the context of this gospel, but have their roots in the Old Testament. The Septuagint offers parallel concepts, particularly in its wisdom literature. Apart from these derivative parallels, the revelatory concepts and terminology involved in John 1:1–18, also find functional parallels in the historical environment of the fourth gospel. They share similarities with the role of Apollo Phoebus in the traditionally assigned geographical context of the region of Ephesus in Asia Minor. This functional parallelism served the reception of John’s biblical message in a Greco-Roman cultural setting.Keywords: John's Gospel; Apollo Phoebus; Logos; Revelation; Ephesus

  9. Dabarties rekonstrukcija Marguerite’os Yourcenar romane Hadriano memuarai | La reconstruction du present dans le roman de Marguerite Yourcenar Memoires d’Hadrien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Bikulčius

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article on analyse la reconstruction du présent dans le roman de Marguerite Yourcenar Mémoires d’Hadrien. La définition de cette oeuvre comme une biographie imaginaire est la plus courante. Entre le II siècle et XX siècle il existe une distance énorme, néanmoins M. Yourcenar a su trouver ce qui lie ces deux époques. Quoiqu’elle s’intéresse à l’empereur Hadrien et à son ambiance, de façon paradoxale elle reconstruit le présent où elle vit, c’est–à–dire, les années qui suivent la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Hadrien présente pour M. Yourcenar l’idéal d’un homme politique. Ses anticipations reflètent les réalités de l’après-guerre. Ainsi l’empereur entrevoit la possibilité des Nations Unies, de l’OTAN, le rôle du pape dans la politique mondiale, les idées de la globalisation. Hadrien n’est pas lié avec un homme de politique concret. Cette reconstruction du présent dans Mémoires d’Hadrien est assez importante, car elle modifie le genre de cette oeuvre d’une „autobiographie imaginaire“ en „autobiographie imaginaire intellectuelle“.

  10. ROMAN MARKS TO EUROPEAN LAW OF THE CONTRACTS GOOD – FAITH

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    LIVIA MOCANU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Beyond its political destinations, Europe is a civilization that each of its constituent parts has contributed its genius, over time. Or Rome, its original matrix, has sent her fundamental right. To what extent can it be another tool for reflection, for mutual understanding, sometimes of harmony, here's what seems to be necessarily raised, albeit briefly, by this favored means of communication and exchange, that it has always been the contract. Since then the issue is explained by the need to have a contractual law in the middle of this community adapted to the needs of this new burning community, in Europe of the beginning of the third millennium. In fact, market opening has led to considerable development of trade between the EU-counties and this is exactly cross-border flow through contracts. In this context we aimed to determine the role that it has one of the most important and current principles of law, that of good - faith in European contract law building.It is known that good - faith is experiencing a very special embodiment in the contract, where it assumes many functions. She is the subject of many studies and analysis and is likely to grow rapidly in national and supranational rights.Although contract law has evolved considerably, the theme is present and justified, under conditions which the Roman foundations remain. European contractual universe and its possible developments do not exclude but require an approach in terms of Roman law. Methodologically, the paper is structured as follows: good - faith in contracts, the birth and evolution of the concept (ancient Rome, Middle Ages, modern and contemporary and contemporary applications - abuse of right, information requirements, hardship principle.

  11. Digit recognition for Arabic/Jawi and Roman using features from triangle geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Mohd Sanusi; Omar, Khairuddin; Nasrudin, Mohamad Faidzul; Idrus, Bahari; Wan Mohd Ghazali, Khadijah

    2013-04-01

    A novel method is proposed to recognize the Arab/Jawi and Roman digits. This new method is based on features from the triangle geometry, normalized into nine features. The features are used for zoning which results in five and 25 zones. The algorithm is validated by using three standard datasets which are publicly available and used by researchers in this field. The first dataset is HODA that contains 60,000 images for training and 20,000 images for testing. The second dataset is IFHCDB. This dataset has 52,380 isolated characters and 17,740 digits. Only the 17,740 images of digits are used for this research. For the roman digit, MNIST are chosen. MNIST dataset has 60,000 images for training and 10,000 images for testing. Supervised (SML) and Unsupervised Machine Learning (UML) are used to test the nine features. The SML used are Neural Network (NN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). Whereas the UML uses Euclidean Distance Method with data mining algorithms; namely Mean Average Precision (eMAP) and Frequency Based (eFB). Results for SML testing for HODA dataset are 98.07% accuracy for SVM, and 96.73% for NN. For IFHCDB and MNIST the accuracy are 91.75% and 93.095% respectively. For the UML tests, HODA dataset is 93.91%, IFHCDB 85.94% and MNIST 86.61%. The train and test images are selected using both random and the original dataset's distribution. The results show that the accuracy of proposed algorithm is over 90% for each SML trained datasets where the highest result is the one that uses 25 zones features.

  12. Some notes on the Roman domination number and Italian domination number in graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajibaba, Maryam; Jafari Rad, Nader

    2017-09-01

    An Italian dominating function (or simply, IDF) on a graph G = (V, E) is a function f : V → {0, 1, 2} that satisfies the property that for every vertex v ∈ V, with f(v) = 0, Σ u∈N(v) f(u) ≥ 2. The weight of an Italian dominating function f is defined as w(f) = f(V ) = Σ u∈V f(u). The minimum weight among all of the Italian dominating functions on a graph G is called the Italian domination number of G, and is denoted by γI (G). A double Roman dominating function (or simply, DRDF) is a function f : V → {0, 1, 2, 3} having the property that if f(v) = 0 for a vertex v, then v has at least two adjacent vertices assigned 2 under f or one adjacent vertex assigned 3 under f, and if f(v) = 1, then v has at least one neighbor with f(w) ≥ 2. The weight of a DRDF f is defined as the sum f(V) = Σ v∈V f(v), and the minimum weight of a DRDF on G is the double Roman domination number of G, denoted by γdR (G). In this paper we show that γdR (G)/2 ≤ γI (G) ≤ 2γdR (G)/3, and characterize all trees T with γI (T) = 2γdR (T)/3.

  13. 1000 Years of Usage: The Life Story of a Roman Aqueduct Provides Tectonic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootes, P. M.; Nadeau, M.; Roth, S.; Andersen, N.; Huels, M.; Meghraoui, M.; Sbeinati, R.

    2006-12-01

    The history of the Roman aqueduct of Al Harif, Syria, was reconstructed from information contained in the tufa deposits precipitated on its walls. The aqueduct was placed directly across a branch of the northern extension of the tectonically active Dead Sea Fault System (Missyaf Segment) and its disruption by earth quakes was recorded in its tufa deposits. Today the parts across the fault are offset by 13.5 m. As the aqueduct itself carried the tufa precipitating waters, the tufa precipitating system at the walls is directly dependent on a functioning aqueduct. Any damage to the aqueduct modified the carbonate factory at the walls; destruction of aqueduct sections stopped precipitation completely at those parts, which were cut-off from the water flow. Four tufa cores to bedrock from different sections of the aqueduct were sampled in detail for radiocarbon dating and stable isotope analysis, following core stratigraphy based on computer X-ray tomography and core sedimentology. From the radiocarbon dates and a climate-stratigraphic correlation of the tufa oxygen isotope records with the Greenland ice cores we derived the following conclusions. The aqueduct was built between BC 64, the Roman conquest of Syria and AD 65 and functioned for approx. thousand years. Two earth quake events seriously damaged the structure and stopped water flow across the fault in AD 600+/-50 and AD 975+/- 75. After the AD 600+/-50 earthquake the aqueduct was repaired; the AD 975+/-75 quake tore apart the aqueduct such that it was never rebuilt. A minor event can be inferred between 100 and 350 AD. After ca. AD 1100 water flow to the aqueduct stopped. In combination with stratigraphic information on tectonic movements from nearby trenches the results imply an earthquake recurrence during the lifetime of the aqueduct of approximately every 300 to 400 years.

  14. Tapatumo problema Marie Ndiaye romanuose | Le probleme d’identite dans les romans de Marie Ndiaye

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    Eglė Kačkutė

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available L’article traite le problème de l’identité féminine dans les deux derniers romans de l’auteur française Marie Ndiaye La Sorcière et Rosie Carpe. La notion d’identité est abordée à travers des théories contemporaines d’identité, résumées par Calvin O. Schrag dans le livre The Self After Postmodernity (Le Soi après la Postmodernité, et celle de Judith Butler. Nous nous concentrons sur trois aspects d’identité : discursif, actif et communautaire. L’auteur de l’article se pose pour but de prouver que la résolution du problème d’identité dans la littérature des femmes a changé dans les dix dernières années. Les écrivains femmes des années 70 et 80 posent le problème d’identité féminine de point de vue du genre, tandis que Ndiaye présente le problème du point de vue universel, c’est-à-dire, communautaire et social. L’identité chez Ndiaye ne peut pas être établie qu’à travers la communauté sociale représentée par la famille. Nous parvenons à la conclusion que les personnages des romans analysés, étant à la recherche perpétuelle de leur identité ne parviennent quand même pas à la créer.

  15. Virgil re-purposed in the Old French «Roman d’Eneas»

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    Raymond Cormier

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In these pages, I deal with three “sticky bits” in the twelfth-century Roman d’Eneas (vv. 483-496, 534-539, and 9792-9814. These are vernacular “marvels” that have stumped concerned philologists for at least one hundred years (beginning with Edmond Faral, 1913. The first segment deals with the crocodiles found in the waters of “Libya” (i.e., Dido’s Carthage; mysteriously, they have no bowels. Next, the Capitol building in Carthage possesses special acoustics, we are told, that make distant whispers audible. Finally, Pallas’ baldric (ripped off by Turnus once he slays the youth is changed by the anonymous Old French poet to a finger ring. I attempt to offer suggested explanations for the three non-Virgilian embellishments. In questo contributo mi occupo di tre “divagazioni” che l’autore del Roman d’Eneas compie rispetto alla fonte latina (vv. 483-496, 534- 539 e 9792-9814, tre elementi del “meraviglioso” che hanno disorientato, per un centinaio d’anni (a partire da Edmond Faral, nel 1913 i filologi che se ne sono occupati. Il primo segmento tratta dei coccodrilli trovati nelle acque della “Libia” (ovvero, la Cartagine di Didone: misteriosamente, essi sono privi di viscere. Nel segmento successivo è descritto il Campidoglio di Cartagine, la cui speciale acustica consente – cosí ci dice l’autore – di ascoltare i sospiri anche a distanza. Infine, il bàlteo di Pallante (sottratto da Turno nel momento in cui egli uccide il giovane è sostituito dall’anonimo poeta antico-francese con un anello. Per ciascuno di questi abbellimenti non virgiliani, tento di offrire una spiegazione convincente. 

  16. VAiRoma: A Visual Analytics System for Making Sense of Places, Times, and Events in Roman History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Isaac; Dou, Wewnen; Wang, Derek Xiaoyu; Sauda, Eric; Ribarsky, William

    2016-01-01

    Learning and gaining knowledge of Roman history is an area of interest for students and citizens at large. This is an example of a subject with great sweep (with many interrelated sub-topics over, in this case, a 3,000 year history) that is hard to grasp by any individual and, in its full detail, is not available as a coherent story. In this paper, we propose a visual analytics approach to construct a data driven view of Roman history based on a large collection of Wikipedia articles. Extracting and enabling the discovery of useful knowledge on events, places, times, and their connections from large amounts of textual data has always been a challenging task. To this aim, we introduce VAiRoma, a visual analytics system that couples state-of-the-art text analysis methods with an intuitive visual interface to help users make sense of events, places, times, and more importantly, the relationships between them. VAiRoma goes beyond textual content exploration, as it permits users to compare, make connections, and externalize the findings all within the visual interface. As a result, VAiRoma allows users to learn and create new knowledge regarding Roman history in an informed way. We evaluated VAiRoma with 16 participants through a user study, with the task being to learn about roman piazzas through finding relevant articles and new relationships. Our study results showed that the VAiRoma system enables the participants to find more relevant articles and connections compared to Web searches and literature search conducted in a roman library. Subjective feedback on VAiRoma was also very positive. In addition, we ran two case studies that demonstrate how VAiRoma can be used for deeper analysis, permitting the rapid discovery and analysis of a small number of key documents even when the original collection contains hundreds of thousands of documents.

  17. The Danube and the Sava in Strabo’s Geography and in Roman Inscriptions

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    Marjeta Šašel Kos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Danube, once considered the most important river of Europe, is referred to by Strabo in several passages. Of the greatest interest is the information recorded in his Book 7, which is largely dedicated to the Balkan peninsula and to the adjacent regions. The Danube as an important boundary river is mentioned at the very beginning of the book, which defines the geographical extent of the area. The importance of the Danube as one of the largest rivers was already perceived by Herodotus, who describes the Ister as the most important of all rivers known to him and locates its source somewhere in the west. Its sources are a day’s walk away from Lake Constance and were discovered by Tiberius only in 15 B.C. – another fact recorded by Strabo. A similar evaluation of the Danube’s importance was made c. 150 years later by the historian Appian, who provides a surprising amount of geographical data. He broaches the subject in his very introduction, stating that the Roman Empire is largely circumscribed by two European rivers, the Rhine and the Ister: the Rhine flows into the northern ocean, and the Ister into the Black Sea. But there are peoples who are under Roman control even beyond these rivers: some groups of Celts beyond the Rhine, and some groups of the Getae named ‘Dacians’ beyond the Ister (Fig. 1.  Strabo generally refers to the river by its Thracian name, Ister, fully established among the Greeks. In Book 7, however, he explains that it has two names and that the upper section is usually called Danuvius.Danuvius/Danubius is probably a Celtic name, which referred to the river down to the cataracts at the so-called Železna vrata (‘Iron Gates’ under Singidunum (Belgrade. It was only towards the end of the 1st century B.C., when their conquering campaigns finally reached these parts, that the Romans realised it was a single river. The Scythian name for the Danube was Matoas. In Roman times, the Danube was worshipped and

  18. Traditional and New Enhancing Human Cybernetic and Nanotechnological Body Modification Technologies: A Comparative Study of Roman Catholic and Transhumanist Ethical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiuri, Michael J.

    Advances in cybernetic and nanotechnological body modifications currently allow for enhancements to human physical and mental function which exceed human species-based norms. This thesis examines body modification and human enhancement from two perspectives---Roman Catholicism and Transhumanism--- in order to contribute to bioethical deliberations regarding enhancement technologies. Roman Catholicism has a longstanding tradition of bioethical discourse, informing the healthcare directives of Roman Catholic institutions. Transhumanism is more recent movement that endorses body modifications and human enhancements as a means of individual betterment and social evolution. The thesis first considers definitions of human enhancement and levels of normalcy in connection to cybernetic and nanotechnological bionic implants, and outlines a series of criteria to assess a technology's potential bioethical acceptability: implantability, permanency, power, and public interaction. The thesis then describes Roman Catholicism's response to non-enhancing decorative body modifications (cosmetic surgeries, common decorative modifications such as tattoos and piercings, and uncommon modifications such as scarifications and brandings) in order to establish a basis for possible Roman Catholic responses to enhancing cybernetic and nanotechnological modifications. This is followed by an analysis from a Roman Catholic perspective of the major social issues brought forward by enhancement technologies: commodification, eugenics, vulnerability, and distributive justice. Turning to Transhumanism, the thesis describes the origins and philosophy of the movement, and then discusses the bioethical principles it advances with regard to human enhancement. The thesis concludes by locating points of convergence between Transhumanism and Roman Catholicism that could be the basis of more widely accepted ethical guidelines regarding modification technologies.

  19. Late Holocene lowland fluvial archives and geoarchaeology: Utrecht's case study of Rhine river abandonment under Roman and Medieval settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dinter, Marieke; Cohen, Kim M.; Hoek, Wim Z.; Stouthamer, Esther; Jansma, Esther; Middelkoop, Hans

    2017-06-01

    Fluvial lowlands have become attractive human settling areas all around the world over the last few millennia. Because rivers kept changing their course and networks due to avulsion, the sedimentary sequences in these areas are archives of both fluvial geomorphological and archaeological development. We integrated geological and archaeological datasets to demonstrate the concurrence of the gradual abandonment of a major Rhine channel (Utrecht, The Netherlands), the development of human habitation in the area, and the interactions between them. The Utrecht case study highlights the stage-wise abandonment of a natural river channel, due to avulsion, coincident with intensifying human occupation in Roman and Early Medieval times (1st millennium AD). The analyses make maximum use of very rich data sets available for the study area and the tight age control that the geo-archaeological dataset facilitates, offering extra means of time-control to document the pacing of the abandonment process. This allows us to quantify change in river dimensions and meander style and to provide discharge estimates for successive stages of the abandonment phase over a 1000-year period of abandonment succession, from mature river to eventual Late Medieval overbuilt canal when the Rhine branch had lost even more discharge. Continued geomorphic development during this period - which includes the 'Dark Ages' (450-1000 AD) - appears to have been crucial in the development of Utrecht from Roman army fortress to Medieval ecclesial centre. The settlement dynamics in and around the city of Utrecht changed during the various phases of abandonment. In the bifurcating network of river branches forming the Rhine-Meuse delta, the main Rhine branch hosted the Roman limes military border and transport route. The Rhine- Vecht bifurcation at Utrecht provided an excellent location to raise a Roman fort. Continued geomorphic activity during abandonment in Early Medieval times was characterised by enhanced

  20. Characterization of Mineral Assemblages in Ancient Roman Maritime Concrete with Synchrotron X-ray Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meral, C.; Jackson, M. D.; Monteiro, P. J.; Wenk, H.

    2012-12-01

    Romans used lime and aluminosilicate-rich volcanic ash to bind tuff aggregates in concrete structures that have remained durable for 2000 years. A major accomplishment of Roman engineers was to construct enduring coastal underwater structures in seawater, which were important to long-distance trade and military endeavors. Two millennia later, the reasons for the extraordinary durability of the maritime structures remain enigmatic. The concretes are highly complex composites composed of relict lime, tuff and pumice clasts and pozzolanic reaction products. Calcium-chloroaluminates and sulfoaluminates occur in certain relict voids. Further understanding of their mineralogical components would provide guidelines in designing future structures. Here, we use synchroton radiation applications to characterize certain phases within a Roman maritime mortar specimen from a breakwater in Pozzuoli Bay, Baianus Sinus, near Naples. We performed X-ray computed micro-tomography (μ-XCT) at beamline 8.3.2 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories to segment the complex composite without damaging the specimen. We isolated certain relict sub-spherical voids and illustrated crystal morphologies with 3-D reconstructions. We then used beamline 12.3.2 at the ALS to provide highly accurate identifications of diverse crystal phases in various mortar components - relict lime clasts, tuff or pumice clasts, cementitious matrix and relict voids - in sites previously identified and characterized with petrogaphic techniques. X-ray micro-fluorescence (μ-XRF) mapping provided calcium and iron maps of the sites, which were useful in selecting fine-scale areas for scanning transmission X-ray micro-diffraction (μ-XRD) mapping at high spatial resolution, about 1 micron. The μ-XRD analyses utilized both monochromatic and polychromatic light measurements. Polychromatic light was more appropriate for phases with grain sizes larger than the doubly focused X-ray beam, about 1 x

  1. Kultuuriministeerium jättis parima harrastusteatri toetuseta / Rando Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Rando

    2003-01-01

    Kultuuriministeerium loobus toetamast harrastusteatri sõitu Ülemaailmsele amatöörteatrite festivalile Kanadas. Tegemist on Eestit Harrastusteatrite Liidu, Teoteatri, Tallinna Toomklubi ja Botaanikaaia ühisprojektiga - A. Alegria "Niagaara" (lavastaja Jaan Urvet), mille rahvusvaheline žürii valis 300 hulgast 14 parima hulka

  2. Reps tahab koolidele veel 500 miljonit krooni / Rando Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Rando

    2006-01-01

    Haridus- ja teadusministri Mailis Repsi sõnul kuluks praegu kiirelt vananevale õpetajaskonnale piisava järelkasvu meelitamiseks ja maakoolide võrgu säilitamiseks vähemalt 400-500 miljonit krooni

  3. Valgast saab konkurent Tallinnale / Rando Kängsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kängsepp, Rando

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 1. märts lk. 8. SA Valgamaa Arenguagentuur soovib projektiga Baltic Tangent hoogustada Lõuna-Eesti kaubatranspordi elavnemist ning Valga kujunemist logistikakeskuseks Ida ja Lääne vahel

  4. La captatio illusionis du roman contemporain. Volodine, Echenoz, Makine et Dickner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrée Mercier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose un examen des stratégies d’instauration et de contestation de l’autorité narrative dans quatre romans contemporains. L’hypothèse avancée est que les modes d’adhésion au romanesque sont tributaires des entorses, plus ou moins explicites, aux codes de vraisemblance (générique, pragmatique, empirique et diégétique qui sous-tendent tout récit. Dans les romans étudiés, le romanesque, en effet, apparaît moins comme une adhésion naïve aux rebondissements de la péripétie ou aux passions des personnages que comme une exploration consciente des conventions, génériques ou autres, qui déterminent cette adhésion. L’analyse des modalités de l’autorité narrative conduit à distinguer quatre configurations spécifiques parmi les possibles du pacte romanesque, selon que l’autorité se voit dissoute chez Volodine, renforcée chez Echenoz, problématisée chez Makine et déléguée chez Dickner. Saisir ainsi les enjeux de crédibilité dans ces fictions invite à poursuivre l’histoire de la vraisemblance à la lumière de ses avatars contemporains. This article analyzes the strategies involved in establishing and contesting narrative authority in four contemporary novels. It proposes the hypothesis that modes of compliance with the novelistic are dependent upon the more or less explicit alteration of the codes of verisimilitude (generic, pragmatic, empirical and diegetic underpinning every story. In the novels studied, the novelistic aspect appears less as the result of a naïve obedience to plot twists or to the impetus of the characters than as a conscious exploration of the conventions, generic or otherwise, that shape this obedience. This analysis of forms of narrative authority leads to the distinction of four specific configurations among the possibilities of the novelistic pact, depending on whether this authority finds itself dissolved (in Volodine’s work, reinforced (in Echenoz’s work

  5. Petrology of the most recent ultrapotassic magmas from the Roman Province (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, M.; Freda, C.; Marra, F.; Di Rocco, T.; Gozzi, F.; Arienzo, I.; Giaccio, B.; Scarlato, P.

    2011-11-01

    We report on the newly discovered lava flow that erupted in the Colli Albani Volcanic District, which is the most recent and, geochemically the most peculiar effusive event recognised in the entire ultrapotassic Roman Province (Central Italy). This lava flow is associated with the Monte Due Torri scoria cone, located approximately 5 km south of the Albano hydromagmatic centre (69-36 ka). The Monte Due Torri scoria cone displays well-preserved morphological characteristics and the 40 ± 7 ka age determined for the associated lava flow indicates that its activity was nearly contemporaneous to the most recent, explosive activity that occurred at the Albano centre from 41 to 36 ka. By comparing chemical and petrological features of the Monte Due Torri lava flow, Albano products, and older products (> 69 ka), we show that the youngest Colli Albani eruptions were fed by two new batches of parental magmas that originated in a phlogopite-bearing metasomatised mantle, each one feeding one of the two youngest eruptive cycles (at 69 ka and 41-36 ka). The trace element signature, e.g., very low Pb content, of primitive (MgO > 3 wt.%) magmas feeding the initiation of the hydromagmatic activity at Albano (69 ka) and the subsequent effusive activity at Monte Due Torri (40 ka) indicates that a magma chamber located in the deep anhydrite-bearing dolomite formation was tapped. However, the polygenic activity, the changes in magma composition, and the variable thermometamorphic clasts occurring in the hydromagmatic deposits (recording variable substrata) suggest, particularly for the Albano eruptive centre, a more complex plumbing system consisting of at least two more magma chambers at a shallower depth, i.e., in the Mesozoic limestone and Pliocene pelite formations. The large amount of stratigraphic, volcanological, and geochemical data collected for the Colli Albani Volcanic District, one of the main districts in the ultrapotassic Roman Province, enable us to contribute insights

  6. Unlocking the secrets of Al-tobermorite in Roman seawater concrete

    KAUST Repository

    Jackson, Marie D.

    2013-10-01

    Ancient Roman syntheses of Al-tobermorite in a 2000-year-old concrete block submerged in the Bay of Pozzuoli (Baianus Sinus), near Naples, have unique aluminum-rich and silica-poor compositions relative to hydrothermal geological occurrences. In relict lime clasts, the crystals have calcium contents that are similar to ideal tobermorite, 33 to 35 wt%, but the low-silica contents, 39 to 40 wt%, reflect Al3+ substitution for Si4+ in Q 2(1Al), Q3(1Al), and Q3(2 Al) tetrahedral chain and branching sites. The Al-tobermorite has a double silicate chain structure with long chain lengths in the b [020] crystallographic direction, and wide interlayer spacing, 11.49 Å. Na+ and K+ partially balance Al3+ substitution for Si4+. Poorly crystalline calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate (C-A-S-H) cementitious binder in the dissolved perimeter of relict lime clasts has Ca/(Si+Al) = 0.79, nearly identical to the Al-tobermorite, but nanoscale heterogeneities with aluminum in both tetrahedral and octahedral coordination. The concrete is about 45 vol% glassy zeolitic tuff and 55 vol% hydrated lime-volcanic ash mortar; lime formed <10 wt% of the mix. Trace element studies confirm that the pyroclastic rock comes from Flegrean Fields volcanic district, as described in ancient Roman texts. An adiabatic thermal model of the 10 m2 by 5.7 m thick Baianus Sinus breakwater from heat evolved through hydration of lime and formation of C-A-S-H suggests maximum temperatures of 85 to 97 °C. Cooling to seawater temperatures occurred in two years. These elevated temperatures and the mineralizing effects of sea-water and alkali- and alumina-rich volcanic ash appear to be critical to Al-tobermorite crystallization. The long-term stability of the Al-tobermorite provides a valuable context to improve future syntheses in innovative concretes with advanced properties using volcanic pozzolans.

  7. Deformation of a Roman Aqueduct (II-III Century A.D.) near Rome, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montone, P.; Florindo, F.; Marra, F.

    2002-12-01

    Along the modern trace of the Tiburtina road, approximately 20 km north-east of the city of Rome, recent archaeological diggings have brought to light a system of aqueduct galleries constructed by roman engineers (II-III century A.D). Two narrow water channels (A and B) of this aqueduct system were strongly deformed by tectonic movement that occurred subsequent to their construction. The archaeological site falls inside the Acque Albule basin (AAB): a travertine plateau, upper Pleistocene in age with a medium thickness of approximately 60 m. The AAB has been interpreted as a rhomb-shaped pull-apart basin (7 km long, 4 km wide) created by strike-slip faulting within a N-S shear zone that crosses the Rome area. Its evolution is attributed to Middle-Upper Pleistocene times. The principal N-S water channel (A) evidences both brittle (extensive) and ductile (compressive) deformations, whereas the shorter channel (B) to the south-west reveals predominantly ductile deformations associated with compression. A detailed survey of the A channel indicates a segmented course along the length of the entire structure, with orientations ranging between N10°E and N10°W, and with one section oriented at N35°W. The smaller B channel situated to the south-west of the principal excavation indicates that deformation can be linked to transverse compression resulting in a restriction and rotation of the structure. The geometry of the deformation pattern and the brittle structures affecting the surrounding rock, the presence of sections deformed in a ductile manner, the segmentation of the two channels into tracts rotated in different directions, the narrowing of an internal section of the B channel orientated N15°W, are all elements compatible with strike-slip tectonics. To provide additional quantitative support for these observations, 3 sites (35 samples) were drilled, for paleomagnetic and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility analyses, in the "Pozzolane Rosse" Formation (457

  8. Roman vs. Arabic Computistics in Twelfth-Century England: A Newly Discovered Source (Collatio Compoti Romani et Arabici).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothaft, C Philipp E

    2015-01-01

    A frequently overlooked aspect of the knowledge transfer from Arabic into Latin in the twelfth century is the introduction of the Islamo-Arabic calendar, which confronted Western computists with a radically different scheme of lunar reckoning that was in some ways superior to the 19-year lunar cycle of the Roman Church. One of the earliest sources to properly discuss this new system and compare it to the old one is the anonymous Collatio Compoti Romani et Arabici, found in a manuscript from Tewkesbury Abbey, Gloucestershire. This article contains the first edition and translation of this previously unknown text, preceded by an analysis of its content and sources. As will be argued, the text was written in the second quarter of the twelfth century as a reaction to the astronomical tables of al-Khwāizmī, recently translated by Adelard of Bath, as well as to eclipse observations that had exposed the flaws of the 'Roman' computation.

  9. Involvement of dopamine in the differences in sexual behaviour between Roman high and low avoidance rats: an intracerebral microdialysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Fabrizio; Piludu, Maria Antonietta; Corda, Maria Giuseppa; Melis, Maria Rosaria; Giorgi, Osvaldo; Argiolas, Antonio

    2015-03-15

    Outbred Roman high- (RHA) and low-avoidance (RLA) rats are selected for respectively rapid vs. poor acquisition of the active avoidance response and display different copulatory patterns when exposed to a sexually receptive female, with RHA rats showing more robust sexual motivation and better performance than RLA rats also after repeated sexual activity. Here we show that the distinct patterns of sexual behaviour of the Roman lines are correlated with differences in the activity of the dopaminergic mesolimbic system, which plays a key role in sexual motivation and copulatory performance. Thus, differential increases in the concentrations of dopamine and its main metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, occurred in dialysates obtained from the nucleus accumbens shell of naïve and sexually experienced Roman rats during the anticipatory and consummatory phases of sexual activity. These differences were particularly evident between sexually naïve RHA and RLA rats and tended to diminish but still persisted between sexually experienced rats, as did the differences in sexual behaviour. Analysis of the biochemical and behavioural findings showed that, while in RHA rats sexual experience caused a shift in the changes in both the dopaminergic activity and copulation towards the first period of the sexual test, in RLA rats sexual experience increased dopaminergic activity and copulation throughout the entire test. Therefore, this study adds experimental support to the view that the different sexual patterns of the Roman lines are due, at least in part, to a more robust functional tone of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system of RHA rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A double-voiced reading of Romans 13:1–7 in light of the imperial cult

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-31

    Mar 31, 2015 ... completely anti-colonial figure undermining such power. Alternatively, we can ..... Caesar accepted 'the novel and excessive honours' (ταῖς τε καινότησι καὶ ..... to support their exercise of power over the ruled. As noted earlier ... to those performing 'bad conduct' (τῷ κακῷ) (Romans 13:3). Put otherwise ...

  11. Following Roman waterways from a computer screen: GIS-based approaches to the analysis of Barcino’s aqueducts

    OpenAIRE

    Orengo, Hèctor A.; Miró, Carme

    2011-01-01

    From the 1950's until today the Roman colony of Barcino (modern Barcelona) has been believed to posses two aqueducts. One was transporting water from the Montcada mountains and the other one from the Collserola range. In this article, GIS-based least-cost route analysis (LCR) in combination with more traditional archaeological techniques is applied to analyse these aqueduct’s routes. The results obtained suggest Barcino had only one aqueduct: the one carrying water from Montcada. The aqueduct...

  12. The complex of wabet and court in temples of the Thirtieth Dynasty and the Ptolemaic and Roman period

    OpenAIRE

    Coppens, Filip

    2009-01-01

    The study at hand focuses on an architectural complex or ensemble that regularly occurs in temples of the Thirtieth Dynasty and the Ptolemaic and Roman period. This ensemble generally combines an open court with an elevated and covered chapel, and is referred to as 'court' and wabet, respectively. The present study aims to bring together the common characteristics and essential components of all ensembles of wabet and court in order to get a better understanding of the ensemble's role in the ...

  13. Johann P. Arnason & Kurt A. Raaflaub, The Roman Empire in Context: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (Chichester: Wiley & Sons, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gibbons

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arnason and Raaflaub’s edited volume, The Roman Empire in Context: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, is the fifth volume in a series entitled The Ancient World: Comparative Histories. The overarching aim of the series is to bring a comparative perspective to studies of ancient histories, and earlier titles focus either on content or geography. This is the only volume to date that focuses on a specific civilization, and Rome is of course significant enough to merit its own volume.

  14. Sirius in Ancient Greek and Roman Literature: From the Orphic Argonautics to the Astronomical Tables of Georgios Chrysococca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijevi, Milan S.; Mantarakis, Peter Z.

    2011-11-01

    The brightest star of the night sky, is Sirius, Alpha Canis Majoris (α CMa). Due to its intense brightness, Sirius had one of the dominant positions in ancient mythology, legends and traditions. In this paper the references of the many ancient classical Greek and Roman authors and poets who wrote about Sirius are examined, and the problem of its 'red' color reported in some of these references is discussed.

  15. Relational responsibility, and not only stewardship, a Roman Catholic view on voluntary euthanasia for dying and non-dying patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Paul T

    2003-01-01

    The Roman Catholic theological approach to euthanasia is radically prohibitive. The main theological argument for this prohibition is the so-called "stewardship argument": Christians cannot escape accounting to God for stewardship of the bodies given them on earth. This contribution presents an alternative approach based on European existentialist and philosophical traditions. The suggestion is that exploring the fullness of our relational responsibility is more apt for a pluralist--and even secular--debate on the legitimacy of euthanasia.

  16. OLIVE OIL PRODUCTION IN A SEMI-ARID AREA: EVIDENCE FROM ROMAN TELL ES-SUKHNAH, JORDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Olive cultivation and oil pressing can be considered as cultural phenomenon characteriz-ing the Mediterranean area. With special reference to the southern Levant, the culture –history of olive cultivation can be traced back as far as to the Late Neolithic\\ Chalcolithic Pe-riod. Meanwhile, oil pressing began later on, especially during the Bronze Ages and has last-ed until the present time. During the Roman period, olive pressing flourished as indicated by the uncovering of several oil p...

  17. Traducció i reescriptura de la cansó occitana al Roman de la Rose de Jean Renart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simó, Meritxell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ever since its inception, the French roman narrative genre has experienced several processes of integration of fin’amors vocabulary and of themes and topics from troubadour lyric. The influence of Occitan troubadour poetry on medieval French narrative accentuates during the thirteenth century, occasionally materialising in lyric quotations within narrative texts. The aim of this work is to analyse the adaptation of troubadour love ethics to the pro-marriage and monarchic ideals of the twelfth and thirteenth-century French roman. This purpose will be served by the study of translation and resemantisation of fin’amors words carried out by Jean Renart, the first author to introduce lyric quotations in French narrative.[ct] La penetració del lèxic de la fin’amors i de temes i motius procedents de la lírica trobadoresca en la narrativa francesa és palesa des dels orígens mateixos del gènere roman. La influència del moviment trobadoresc occità sobre la narrativa francesa medieval s’accentua al segle XIII i es concreta en alguns casos en la presència de cites líriques en textos narratius. La intenció del nostre treball és analitzar l’adaptació de l’ideari amorós trobadoresc a l’ètica matrimonialista i monàrquica que caracteritza el roman francès dels segles XII i XIII a través de l’estudi de la traducció i la resemantització del lèxic de la fin’amors a mans de Jean Renart, el primer a introduir cites líriques a la narrativa francesa.

  18. Fearfulness in a large F2 progeny of the Roman Rats: paving the way for QTL's genes localisation

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Heras, Raúl

    2002-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: 13 novembre 2002 Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada In the present doctoral dissertation a series of studies dealing with the psychogenetics of fearfulness are reported. In Study 1, the correlative effects of selective inbreeding on an array of fearful behaviours in the Roman rat strains were investigated. In Study 2, we determined whether a brief removal from the homecage partner (i.e. cohort removal procedure) could differentia...

  19. Construction materials used in the historical Roman era bath in Myra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Cem; Turker, Fikret; Kockal, Niyazi Ugur

    2014-01-01

    The physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of mortars and bricks used in the historical building that was erected at Myra within the boundaries of Antalya Province during the Roman time were investigated. The sample picked points were marked on the air photographs and plans of the buildings and samples were photographed. Then petrographic evaluation was made by stereo microscope on the polished surfaces of construction materials (mortar, brick) taken from such historical buildings in laboratory condition. Also, microstructural analyses (SEM/EDX, XRD), physical analyses (unit volume, water absorption by mass, water absorption by volume, specific mass, compacity, and porosity), chemical analyses (acid loss and sieve analysis, salt analyses, pH, protein, fat, pozzolanic activity, and conductivity analyses), and mechanical experiments (compressive strength, point loading test, and tensile strength at bending) were applied and the obtained results were evaluated. It was observed that good adherence was provided between the binder and the aggregate in mortars. It was also detected that bricks have preserved their originality against environmental, atmospheric, and physicochemical effects and their mechanical properties showed that they were produced by appropriate techniques.

  20. In-situ XRF and LIBS analysis of roman silver denarii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, A. El; Harith, M.A. [National Institute for Laser- Enhanced Science (NILES), Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Ferretti, M. [Istituto per le Tecnologie Applicate ai Beni Culturali, Area della Ricerca del CNR di Montelibretti, Roma (Italy); Foresta, A.; Legnaioli, S.; Lorenzetti, G.; Palleschi, V.; Pardini, L., E-mail: incenzo.palleschi@cnr.it [Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici del CNR. Area della Ricerca del CNR di Pisa (Italy); Nebbia, E. [Universita degli Studi di Torino (Italy); Catalli, F. [Monetiere di Firenze, Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Firenze (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In this paper we present the result of a study performed on a large collection of silver roman republican denarii, encompassing about two centuries of history. The joint use of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy allowed for an accurate determination of the coins' elemental composition; the measurements, performed mostly in situ at the 'Monetiere' in Florence, revealed a striking correlation of the 'quality' of the silver alloy with some crucial contemporary events. This finding was used for classifying a group of denarii whose dating was otherwise impossible. The results reported demonstrate the possibility of analyzing in short time and in situ a statistically significant number of coins. Useful information can be obtained about the coin composition, both for main components and traces that could be used for classifying the coins in groups, according to different levels of concentrations of the detected elements. The comparison with other contemporary denarii allowed also to controvert a recent theory on the origin of the so called 'serrated' denarii (denarii showing notched chisel marks on the edge of the coin). (author)

  1. Review Article: Ancient Galilee and the realities of the Roman Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Cromhout

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This review article summarises and delivers comment on Religion, ethnicity and identity in Ancient Galilee: A region in transition, edited by Jürgen Zangenberg, Harold W. Attridge and Dale B. Martin and published by Mohr Siebeck in 2007. The majority of the articles in this volume testify of a ‘Jewish’ or rather Judean Galilee in the 1st century. It was a region that had cultural, economic, social, political and religious contact with surrounding areas and was thoroughly integrated into the realities of the Roman Empire. Whilst interregional contact and trade occurred freely, resistance and conflict occurred due to the proximity of ‘the Other’ that threatened the cultural and religio-political sensitivities of the Galileans. The Galileans also had strong attachments to aspects of their Judean identity, as evidenced by their enhanced musical culture, conservative epigraphic habit, participation in the revolt and the following of cultural practices also found in Judea. Based on this collection of articles, there are a few areas that need further investigation: how and when did the region fall under Hasmonean control and what was the exact nature of the local population at that time? At the time of Antipas, were Galilean peasants generally experiencing harsh economic conditions, or did his rule allow for economic participation to flourish? The exact context of Jesus’ ministry, therefore, is still a matter to be decided and invites further investigation.

  2. Sproget poesi eller poesiens sprog. Et essay om og med Roman Jakobson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Götzsche

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay contemplates the question of whether human languages have some especially poetic features and what the special features of poetry are – as conceived of by Roman Jakobson. As is well known, Jakobson says that one of the linguistic functions is the poetic function, and to him poetry emerges out of unexpected combinations of syntax, lexical semantics, phonology and prosody underpinned by the musical features of the human voice. On the background of Jakobson’s insight that some words, i.e. mama and papa, may have a 'natural origin' in that the sounds the newborn baby will produce spontaneously are often m (also during breastfeeding and a (when crying, I claim that the emotional bonds established in early childhood associated with these sounds may be the experiences founding the later aesthetic perception of poetry. The way I see it the musical features may arouse emotional responses effected by these ASSOCIATIVE (semiotic characteristics in connection with the emotional and intellectual responses effected by the REFERENTIAL (semantic characteristics of the words. Accordingly, I claim that Jakobson’s conceptual framework is an adequate way of bringing together linguistics proper and poetry.

  3. Psychopathology and the essence of language: the interpretation of aphasia by Kurt Goldstein and Roman Jakobson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Janette

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the research on aphasia carried out by the linguist Roman Jakobson and the neuropsychiatrist Kurt Goldstein. The linguistic theory of aphasia advocated by Jakobson in the 1950s and 1960s is based on clinical case studies reported by Goldstein at the beginning of the 1930s. However, Jakobson used Goldstein's clinical observations without taking into account his theoretical work on language pathology. In particular, Jakobson fed the symptoms described by Goldstein into a structuralist model, allowing him to predict different types of aphasia deductively. Goldstein, however, saw the clinical manifestations of aphasia as a particular way of being in the world. By studying the changes associated with the patient's reaction to the disease, Goldstein wanted to reach an understanding of language functioning in the normal subject. He distinguished between an instrumental use and a symbolic use of language, the latter mainly characteristic of language use in the normal subject. Only a symbolic use reveals the essence of language by showing its intimate nature, the psychic link tying the subject to the world.

  4. External-beam PIXE characterization of volcanic material used in ancient Roman mortars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonck-Koota, P. [Department of Geology and Mineralogy, Abo Akademi University, Tuomiokirkontori 1, FI-20500 Turku (Finland)], E-mail: pia.sonck-koota@abo.fi; Lindroos, A. [Department of Geology and Mineralogy, Abo Akademi University, Tuomiokirkontori 1, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Lill, J.-O. [Turku PET Centre, Accelerator Laboratory, Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Rajander, J. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Viitanen, E.-M. [Institute for Cultural Research, Archaeology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Marra, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy); Pehkonen, M.H.; Suksi, J. [Laboratory of Radiochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki (Finland); Heselius, S.-J. [Turku PET Centre, Accelerator Laboratory, Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland)

    2008-05-15

    Volcanic deposits from two volcanic districts, Monti Sabatini (MSVD) and Colli Albani (CAVD), NW and SE of Rome, were analyzed using the particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique, in order to obtain chemical fingerprints that can be used for provenance studies of filler materials in ancient Roman mortars. The rock samples were mounted on an X-Y stage enabling scanning over the sample surface and irradiated in air with a collimated 3 MeV proton beam. The samples were either analyzed by scanning the beam over a polished surface or they were crushed, ground and homogenized prior to the irradiation. However, scanning over polished sample surfaces avoiding heterogeneities gave quite similar results as scanning over pellet surfaces, especially for the minor and trace elements. This study shows that the deposits of MSVD and CAVD can be distinguished from each other. Several elements or elemental ratios can be used to characterize the districts. Even the individual volcanic deposits of CAVD can be identified.

  5. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for analysis and characterization of degradation pathologies of Roman glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomar, T. [Instituto de Historia, Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, C/Albasanz 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain); Oujja, M., E-mail: m.oujja@iqfr.csic.es [Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano, CSIC, C/Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); García-Heras, M.; Villegas, M.A. [Instituto de Historia, Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, C/Albasanz 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain); Castillejo, M. [Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano, CSIC, C/Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-09-01

    The feasibility and possibilities of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in the full study of non-destructible historic glasses have been explored in the present work. Thirteen Roman glass samples, including seven entire glass beads, from the ancient town of Augusta Emerita (SW Spain) were characterized by LIBS in combination with other conventional techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. LIBS stratigraphic analysis, carried out by the application of successive laser pulses on the same spot, has been mainly targeted at characterizing particular features of non-destructible historic glasses, such as bulk chemical composition, surface degradation pathologies (dealkalinization layers and deposits), chromophores, and opacifying elements. The obtained data demonstrate that LIBS can be a useful and alternative technique for spectroscopic studies of historical glasses, especially for those conserved under burial conditions and when it deals with studying non-destructible samples. - Highlights: • Determination of chromophores and opacifiers in non-destructible glass by LIBS • Manganese is determined as principal component of dark deposits. • Antimony appears in all decorations while lead is only present in yellow ones. • Stratigraphic analysis enables the identification of dealkalinization layers.

  6. Material and elastic properties of Al-tobermorite in ancient roman seawater concrete

    KAUST Repository

    Jackson, Marie D.

    2013-05-28

    The material characteristics and elastic properties of aluminum-substituted 11 Å tobermorite in the relict lime clasts of 2000-year-old Roman seawater harbor concrete are described with TG-DSC and 29Si MAS NMR studies, along with nanoscale tomography, X-ray microdiffraction, and high-pressure X-ray diffraction synchrotron radiation applications. The crystals have aluminum substitution for silicon in tetrahedral bridging and branching sites and 11.49(3) Å interlayer (002) spacing. With prolonged heating to 350°C, the crystals exhibit normal behavior. The experimentally measured isothermal bulk modulus at zero pressure, K0, 55 ±5 GPa, is less than ab initio and molecular dynamics models for ideal tobermorite with a double-silicate chain structure. Even so, K0, is substantially higher than calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate binder (C-A-S-H) in slag concrete. Based on nanoscale tomographic study, the crystal clusters form a well connected solid, despite having about 52% porosity. In the pumiceous cementitious matrix, Al-tobermorite with 11.27 Å interlayer spacing is locally associated with phillipsite, similar to geologic occurrences in basaltic tephra. The ancient concretes provide a sustainable prototype for producing Al-tobermorite in high-performance concretes with natural volcanic pozzolans. © 2013 The American Ceramic Society.

  7. Alexander von Humboldt und Carl Friedrich Gauß – im Roman und in Wirklichkeit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Knobloch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung Daniel Kehlmanns Roman „Die Vermessung der Welt“ wird hoch gepriesen und streng kritisiert. Kehlmanns Kritiker lesen seine Satire als eine verfälschte Biographie von Gauss und Humboldt, obwohl der Autor wiederholt selbstironische Bemerkungen eingestreut hat, die sein wahres Ziel offenbaren. Der Aufsatz bemüht sich, Kehlmanns fiktiven Roman angemessen zu beurteilen und einige der wirklichen Aktivitäten und Errungenschaften von Gauss und Humboldt zu charakterisieren, indem Kehlmanns erzählte mit den historischen Tatsachen verglichen werden. Beide Wissenschaftler waren stark am Erdmagnetismus interessiert, was zeitweise zu einigen Spannungen zwischen ihnen führte. Humboldts Messmethoden und seine Überzeugung, dass alles Wechselwirkung ist, waren zwei Seiten derselben Medaille. Nur numerische Elemente konnten helfen, die Gesetze zu finden, die die Natur regieren. Humboldts wissenschaftliche Techniken und Ziele (Methode der Mittelwerte waren gut begründet. Humboldts Reisen und Forschen bildeten eine untrennbare Einheit. Humboldts Naturbegriff schloss beide Möglichkeiten ein, das heißt die natura naturans und die natura naturata, die schaffende und herrschende Natur und die Natur, die von bestimmten Gesetzen beherrscht war. Sein überragendes Interesse an Naturgesetzen gründete auf der Überzeugung, dass sie ewig waren und dass sie die Ordnung und Ewigkeit der Welt garantierten. Résumé Le roman de Daniel Kehlmann „Le mesurage du monde“ est célébré et critiqué fortement en même temps. Les critiques de Kehlmann lisent sa satire comme une biographie détériorée de Gauss et de Humboldt quoique l’auteur ait inséré à maintes reprises des remarques autoironiques qui révèlent sa vraie fin. L’article s’efforce de juger justement le roman fictif de Kehlmann et de caractériser quelques-unes des activités et conquêtes réelles de Gauss et de Humboldt en comparant les faits racontés par Kehlmann avec les

  8. Cognitive mediational deficits and the role of coping styles in pedophile and ephebophile Roman Catholic clergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Gregory P; Baerwald, Jeffrey P; McGlone, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to examine hypothesized differences between sex offending and nonoffending Roman Catholic clergy on cognitive mediation abilities as measured by the Rorschach Inkblot Test (H. Rorschach, 1921/1942). This study compared 78 priest pedophiles and 77 priest ephebophiles with 80 nonoffending priest controls on the Inkblot test using J. E. Exner's (2003) Comprehensive System. The three groups were compared on seven variables that constitute Exner's Cognitive Mediation cluster. Additionally, the groups' coping styles were compared to examine the interaction of coping style and cognitive mediational abilities. We found interactions between coping style and offending status across most of the cognitive variables indicating impairment in the mild to pathological ranges. Moreover, significantly higher unusual thinking styles (Xu%) and significantly lower conventional thinking styles (X+%) in offenders compared to nonoffenders. Those with an Extratensive style (n=31) showed significantly higher distorted thinking when compared to the Introversive (n=81), Ambitent (n=73), and Avoidant (n=50) coping styles. This study suggests that offenders display significantly higher distorted thinking styles than do nonoffenders. Possible reasons for these discrepancies and the role of coping styles in abusive behaviors were discussed.

  9. Factors Affecting the Incidence of Angel Wing in White Roman Geese: Stocking Density and Genetic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M J; Chang, S C; Lin, T Y; Cheng, Y S; Lee, Y P; Fan, Y K

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated stocking density and genetic lines, factors that may alter the severity and incidence of angel wing (AW), in White Roman geese. Geese (n = 384) from two genetically selected lines (normal- winged line, NL, and angel-winged line, AL, respectively) and one commercial line (CL) were raised in four pens. Following common commercial practice, low-stocking-density (LD), medium-stocking-density, and high-stocking-density treatments were respectively administered to 24, 32, and 40 geese per pen at 0 to 3 weeks (1.92 m(2)/pen) and 4 to 6 weeks (13.2 m(2)/pen) of age and to 24, 30, and 36 geese at 7 to 14 weeks (20.0 m(2)/pen) of age. The results revealed that stocking density mainly affected body weight gain in geese younger than 4 weeks, and that geese subjected to LD had a high body weight at 2 weeks of age. However, the effect of stocking density on the severity score of AW (SSAW) and incidence of AW (IAW) did not differ significantly among the treatments. Differences were observed among the genetic stocks; that is, SSAW and IAW were significantly higher in AL than in NL and CL. Genetic selection generally aggravates AW, complicating its elimination. To effectively reduce IAW, stocking density, a suspected causal factor, should be lower than that presently applied commercially.

  10. Hilasterion and imperial ideology: A new reading of Romans 3:25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Wilson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Paul uses the hapax legomenon  ίλαστήριον in Romans 3:25. Pauline scholars have discussed the background for Paul’s use of the word, whether from the LXX, Second Temple practice or pagan inscriptions. Two altars were found in the Asian city of Metropolis in the early 1990s with the dedication Καίσαρος ἱλαστηρίου. This article discusses their discovery, the history of Metropolis and the possible relationship of Paul to the city. It explores the date of the erection of the altars by establishing a viable sitz im leben early in the reign of Augustus. It then traces the semantic history of the  ίλαστήριον and attempts to establish its possible meaning within Pauline theology. Finally, the question whether ίλαστήριον should be added to the vocabulary of imperial ideology in Paul’s writings is addressed.

  11. Gender Equality in Death? The Normative Dimension of Roman Catholic Ossuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Katharina Höpflinger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender seems to be so important for social orientation that it does not end with death, but forms practices and ideas around death. In Roman Catholic regions across Europe we find charnel houses and ossuaries, where the bones of the deceased have been collected. The exposed mortal remains reminded the living of death and warned them to live a ‘good’ life. To explain the interrelation between such normative demands and the material representation of death, a gender-based perspective is useful: in their material representations, ossuaries offer gendered ideas of death. For example we find murals of masculine and feminine personifications of death as the Reaper. But ossuaries also posit the ungendered equality of all humans in death: girls, boys, women and men are nothing more than bones, arranged side by side. I argue that ossuaries can be understood as in-between spaces for gender concepts: they support a gendered social order, but they also blur gender differences.

  12. In vivo antibacterial and wound healing activities of Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemian, Hossein; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Badakhsh, Behzad; Heidari, Hamid; Taji, Asieh; Shavalipour, Aref; Mohebi, Reza; Ebrahim-Saraie, Hadi Sedigh; Houri, Hamidreza; Houshmandfar, Reza

    2016-12-30

    Today considerable number of drugs are produced from plants. Several plants with antibacterial and healing applications are used in medicine such as Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile L.). Wound infection is one of the most prevalent infections among infectious disease around the world. Due to appearance of drug resistance, researchers are now paying attention to medicinal plants. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial and wound healing properties of C. nobile against Pseudomonas aeruginosa using in vivo conditions. Ethanolic extract of C. nobile was provided using standard method. The 5% C. nobile ointment was prepared by dissolving lyophilized extract in eucerin. Forty five male rats were obtained from Ilam university. After anesthetization and wound creation, wounds were infected by P. aeruginosa. The rats were divided into three groups, group I was treated with C. nobile ointment, group II was treated with tetracycline ointment and the third group was treated with base gel as control group. Antibacterial and wound healing activities of C. nobile ointment was more than tetracycline ointment significantly. Our results indicated that extract of C. nobile had effective antibacterial activity and accelerates the progression of wound healing. Our study indicated that antibacterial and wound healing activities of C. nobile ointment was notable. C. nobile therapy in combination with antibiotics can also be useful because medicinal plants contents operate in synergy with antibiotics. These results revealed the value of plant extracts to control antibiotic resistant bacteria in wound infection.

  13. Nutrients, phytochemicals and bioactivity of wild Roman chamomile: a comparison between the herb and its preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-01-15

    Roman chamomile, Chamaemelum nobile L. (Asteraceae), has been used for medicinal applications, mainly through oral dosage forms (decoctions and infusions). Herein, the nutritional characterisation of C. nobile was performed, and herbal material and its decoction and infusion were submitted to an analysis of phytochemicals and bioactivity evaluation. The antioxidant activity was determined by free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation, the antitumour potential was tested in human tumour cell lines (breast, lung, colon, cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas), and the hepatotoxicity was evaluated using a porcine liver primary cell culture. C. nobile proved to be an equilibrated valuable herb rich in carbohydrates and proteins, and poor in fat, providing tocopherols, carotenoids and essential fatty acids (C18:2n6 and C18:3n3). Moreover, the herb and its infusion are a source of phenolic compounds (flavonoids such as flavonols and flavones, phenolic acids and derivatives) and organic acids (oxalic, quinic, malic, citric and fumaric acids) that showed antioxidant and antitumour activities, without hepatotoxicity. The most abundant compounds in the plant extract and infusion were 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and an apigenin derivative. These, as well as other bioactive compounds, are affected in C. nobile decoction, leading to a lower antioxidant potential and absence of antitumour potential. The plant bioactivity could be explored in the medicine, food, and cosmetic industries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. VISUALIZATION OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROMAN BUILDINGS IN OSTIA USING POINT CLOUD DATA

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    Y. Hori

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of laser scanning in the field of archaeology provides us with an entirely new dimension in research and surveying. It allows us to digitally recreate individual objects, or entire cities, using millions of three-dimensional points grouped together in what is referred to as "point clouds". In addition, the visualization of the point cloud data, which can be used in the final report by archaeologists and architects, should usually be produced as a JPG or TIFF file. Not only the visualization of point cloud data, but also re-examination of older data and new survey of the construction of Roman building applying remote-sensing technology for precise and detailed measurements afford new information that may lead to revising drawings of ancient buildings which had been adduced as evidence without any consideration of a degree of accuracy, and finally can provide new research of ancient buildings. We used laser scanners at fields because of its speed, comprehensive coverage, accuracy and flexibility of data manipulation. Therefore, we “skipped” many of post-processing and focused on the images created from the meta-data simply aligned using a tool which extended automatic feature-matching algorithm and a popular renderer that can provide graphic results.

  15. Chemical and Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Roman and Late Antique Glass from Northern Greece

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    Alberta Silvestri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper emphasizes the importance of measuring the oxygen isotopic and chemical compositions of ancient glass, in order to constrain some features such as age, raw materials, and production technologies and to identify the “fingerprint” of local productions. In this context, thirty-nine Roman and late Antique glass samples and eight chert samples from northern Greece were selected and analysed for their oxygen isotopic and chemical compositions. Results show that the majority of glass samples are produced using natron as flux and have δ18O values of about 15.5‰, plus or minus a few tenths of one per mil, suggesting that raw materials probably come from Levantine area. Four samples are heavily enriched in 18O, and their chemical composition clearly shows that they were made with soda plant ash as flux. Isotopic and chemical data of Greek chert samples support the hypothesis of local production of the above samples. About half of the glass samples have chemical compositions, which allow their age to be constrained to the late Antique period. For the remaining glass, similarities with literature compositional groups are reported and discussed.

  16. Characterization of Bricks Used in the External Casing of Roman Bath Walls "Gadara Jordan".

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gohary, A. M.; Al Naddaf, M. M.

    The use of sub-soil materials have been used in buildings long time ago, for more than 10,000 years. This study investigates the different characteristics of brick units used in one of the Roman baths in Gadara archaeological site. This is achieved by studying the raw materials and the different technological measurements of brick units: shapes,dimensions and visual description. Moreover, it studies the construction techniques and deterioration problems, by using some scientific techniques and analytical procedures such as EDX for defining the elemental and chemical characteristics of brick samples,Polarizing microscope and XRD for studying the mineralogical components, in addition to the use of SEM that was used for studying the morphological characteristics of the samples. Furthermore, this study determines the different physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the collected samples according to different scientific techniques and standard tools such as digital camera, magnifying glass and mechanical sieves. The results of the study prove that the brick units are divided into two types cubit square and rectangular shapes which are used as external casing layers. They are characterized by homogeneous chemical characteristics and different visual appearances according to the firing degrees and firing conditions (oxidizing or reduction). On the other hand the differences of these physical properties play specific roles in the deterioration cycles,and their mechanisms affect the brick units. Finally, the study provides a definition of the effective methods, materials and preservation measurements for restoring and maintaining the investigated monument.

  17. Petro-chemical features and source areas of volcanic aggregates used in ancient Roman maritime concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, F.; Anzidei, M.; Benini, A.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Gaeta, M.; Ventura, G.; Cavallo, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present and discuss data from petrographic observation at the optical microscope, electron microprobe analyses on selected glass shards, and trace-element analyses on 14 mortar aggregates collected at the ancient harbors and other maritime structures of Latium and Campania, spanning the third century BCE through the second CE, aimed at identify the volcanic products employed in the concretes and their area of exploitation. According to Latin author Vitruvius assertion about the ubiquitous use of Campanian pozzolan in the ancient Roman sea-water concretes, results of this study show a very selective and homogeneous choice in the material employed to produce the concretes for the different investigated maritime structures, evidencing three main pumice compositions, all corresponding to those of the products of the post-Neapolitan Yellow Tuff activity of the Phlegraean Fields, and a systematic use of the local Neapolitan Yellow Tuff to produce the coarse aggregate of these concretes. However, mixing with local products of the Colli Albani volcanic district, located 20 km east of Rome, has been evidenced at two fishponds of Latium, in Punta della Vipera and Torre Astura. Based on these petrographic and geochemical data, we conclude that the selective use of pozzolan from Campania, rather than of unproved different chemical properties, was the consequence of a series of logistic, economic, industrial and historical reasons.

  18. Medicinal use of leeches in the texts of ancient Greek, Roman and early Byzantine writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavramidou, N; Christopoulou-Aletra, H

    2009-09-01

    Blood-letting was a common therapeutic method in antiquity; many means were used to draw blood, including the application of leeches. In this paper, ancient Greek, Roman and Byzantine authors up to the 7th century AD were studied, a research that provided us with references that may be divided into two groups: those related to the medicinal use of leeches, and those related to cases in which leeches were swallowed and had to be removed. In the first group, detailed descriptions of the method of usage and of the diseases requiring leeching were found. In the second group, brief reference is made to the problems caused by swallowing leeches, and to the methods used to expel them from the human organism. The earliest references to the medicinal use of leeches may be found in the writings of Theocritus (3rd century BC), Nicander (2nd century BC) and Horace (1st century BC, while the phenomenon of swallowing a leech is first mentioned in one of the Epidaurian 'iamata' dating to the 4th century BC.

  19. Geophysical prospection of the Roman city of Pollentia, Alcúdia (Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, G.; Godio, A.; Loddo, F.; Stocco, S.; Casas, A.; Capizzi, P.; Messina, P.; Orfila, M.; Cau, M. A.; Chávez, Mª. E.

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of the geophysical investigation carried out in the Roman city of Pollentia, in the island of Mallorca. The ancient city was identified in the 19th century. Old and new archaeological excavations have helped to uncover a residential area, a theatre, the forum, several necropolises and other remains of the city, but a large unexplored area has still to be investigated. For instance, the limits of the ancient town and the presence of harbour structures are still unknown. The geophysical survey has covered an area of more than 20.000 m2 by integrating magnetic, electromagnetic, electrical and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods. Many unseen archaeological features were clearly revealed by the interpretation of the resistivity maps and GPR time slices. A new method for the visualisation of the geophysical evidence based on VRML (Virtual Reality Markup Language) 3D data representation provides promising results to drive future excavations. The VRML shows a great potentiality for the digital visualization of the site aimed at its exploitation and usability even without the archaeological excavation.

  20. Investigating the use of Egyptian blue in Roman Egyptian portraits and panels from Tebtunis, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganio, Monica; Salvant, Johanna; Williams, Jane; Lee, Lynn; Cossairt, Oliver; Walton, Marc

    2015-11-01

    The use of the pigment Egyptian blue is investigated on a corpus of fifteen mummy portraits and Roman-period paintings from Tebtunis, Egypt, housed in the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley. Egyptian blue has a strong luminescence response in the near infrared that can be exploited to created wide-field images noninvasively showing the distribution of the pigment on a work of art. A growing body of publications in the last decade highlights the increasing use of this tool and its sensitive detection limits. However, the technique is not wavelength specific. Both excitation and emission occur in a broad range. Although Egyptian blue has a strong emission in the NIR, a myriad of other compounds may emit light in this spectral region when excited in the visible. The limited number of studies including complementary analysis to verify the presence of Egyptian blue does not allow its identification on the basis of NIR luminescence alone. Through the use of in situ X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy of cross sections, this paper confirms the identification of Egyptian blue by NIR luminescence in unexpected areas, i.e., those not blue in appearance.

  1. Text as Locus, Inscription as Identity: On Barbara Honigmann's Roman von einem Kinde

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    Marilyn Sibley Fries

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Barbara Honigmann's Roman von einem Kinde (1986 constitutes the author's attempt at narrative self-definition. In this and other regards, it is similar to Christa Wolf's Kindheitsmuster (1976; Patterns of Childhood, 1980 , with which it is briefly compared. Honigmann's slim collection of stories, conceived by her as "sketches for self-portraits and landscapes," depicts the absolute isolation ofthe female Jewish narrator in the GDR and her search for community ( Heimat via language. Simultaneously, it records that narrator's desire to identify "places of transition," "boundaries at which conditions change" without fixing these in a static prison of text. The narrator-mother merges with the child born in the first story as, in the following ones, she comprehends the insignificance of her social (context, finally to simulate her own birth and the envied preverbal infant stage by means of self-expulsion—from the GDR via a "threefold salto mortale into the "Judaism of the Thora" in Strasbourg—into a "foreign language among foreign people." The narrator/author's position at a transitional boundary, underscored by the self-portrait that adorns the book's dust jacket, acknowledges the territory between two illegible texts and her reluctance to sacrifice "true reality" ( wahre Wirklichkeit by transforming "human being" into "text" ( Mensch into Schrift —a reluctance engendered by her meeting with Gershom Scholem in the central story of the volume.

  2. Intraskeletal Chemical Variation Related to Diagenetic Processes: A Late Roman Necropolis Case

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    Gianni Gallello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to define a methodological strategy for understanding how post- mortem degradation in bones caused by the environment affects different skeletal parts and for selecting better preserved bone samples employing rare earth elements (REEs analysis and multivariate statistics. It is the first time that REEs are used to evaluate diagenesis impact in archaeological bones. To test our methodological proposal the samples selected belong to adult and young individuals and were obtained from the late-ancient roman necropolis of the c / En Gil (35 samples, located in the downtown area of ?? Valencia City. Therefore, a method for the determination of major elements, trace elements and REEs in bone remains has been developed employing Inductively-Coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES. Bone samples, mainly rib and femur, from 8 individuals have been studied. Principal Component Analysis (PCA was employed to facilitate the interpretation of the results. Zn/Ca and Sr/Ca parameters show that diet profiles of a population could change depending on the class of bones analyzed.

  3. Three-dimensional reconstruction of Roman coins from photometric image sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lindsay; Moitinho de Almeida, Vera; Hess, Mona

    2017-01-01

    A method is presented for increasing the spatial resolution of the three-dimensional (3-D) digital representation of coins by combining fine photometric detail derived from a set of photographic images with accurate geometric data from a 3-D laser scanner. 3-D reconstructions were made of the obverse and reverse sides of two ancient Roman denarii by processing sets of images captured under directional lighting in an illumination dome. Surface normal vectors were calculated by a "bounded regression" technique, excluding both shadow and specular components of reflection from the metallic surface. Because of the known difficulty in achieving geometric accuracy when integrating photometric normals to produce a digital elevation model, the low spatial frequencies were replaced by those derived from the point cloud produced by a 3-D laser scanner. The two datasets were scaled and registered by matching the outlines and correlating the surface gradients. The final result was a realistic rendering of the coins at a spatial resolution of 75 pixels/mm (13-μm spacing), in which the fine detail modulated the underlying geometric form of the surface relief. The method opens the way to obtain high quality 3-D representations of coins in collections to enable interactive online viewing.

  4. BRIDGE AS A DOMINATE TECHNICAL STRUCTURE IN THE WRESTLING OF GREEK AND ROMAN AND FREE STYLE

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    Mališa Radović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Wrestling belongs to the group of very complex, semistructual, non-rhytmical sports. Process of achieving the top sport’s results is more and more based on scientifi c methods of researching by discovering an establishing the factors from those the success in sport is depended, and from the other side establishing the effects of sports on structure of person. The objective guarantee in achieving the top of sports results is possible only with maximum connections between sport and factors of persons, as also as discovering the measure instruments which are used to fi nd out the development of these factors. The wrestling is specifi c for differences and many technical elements, strategy, movements of body which use the complex physical capabilities. Including the questionnaire of great sportsmen and trainers, there are opinions which are connected with wrestling bridge as important technical for realization of results. Using the questionnaire paper, we collected the opinions of 218 wrestlers and 98 trainers for Greece -roman and Free Style. These opinions and attitude of sportsmen and trainers give basis for next researching when it is talk about the importance of wrestling bridge

  5. Roman Pot Insertions in High-Intensity Beams for the CT-PPS Project at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Deile, Mario; Mereghetti, Alessio; Mirarchi, Daniele; Redaelli, Stefano; Salvachua, Belen; Salvant, Benoit; Valentino, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    The CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer (CT-PPS) at the LHC IP5 aims at exploring diffractive physics at high luminosity in standard LHC fills. It is based on 14 Roman Pots (RPs), designed to host tracking and time-of-flight detectors for measuring the kinematics of leading protons. To reach the physics goals, the RPs will finally have to approach the beams to distances of 15 beam σs (i.e. ~1.5 mm) or closer. After problems with showers and impedance heating in first high-luminosity RP insertions in 2012, the LS1 of LHC was used for upgrades in view of impedance minimisation and for adding new collimators to intercept RP-induced showers. In 2015 the effectiveness of these improvements was shown by successfully inserting the RPs in all LHC beam intensity steps to a first-phase distance of ~25 σs. This contribution reviews the measurements of debris showers and impedance effects, i.e. the data from Beam Loss Monitors, beam vacuum gauges and temperature sensors. The dependences of the observables on the lu...

  6. Construction Materials Used in the Historical Roman Era Bath in Myra

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    Cem Oguz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of mortars and bricks used in the historical building that was erected at Myra within the boundaries of Antalya Province during the Roman time were investigated. The sample picked points were marked on the air photographs and plans of the buildings and samples were photographed. Then petrographic evaluation was made by stereo microscope on the polished surfaces of construction materials (mortar, brick taken from such historical buildings in laboratory condition. Also, microstructural analyses (SEM/EDX, XRD, physical analyses (unit volume, water absorption by mass, water absorption by volume, specific mass, compacity, and porosity, chemical analyses (acid loss and sieve analysis, salt analyses, pH, protein, fat, pozzolanic activity, and conductivity analyses, and mechanical experiments (compressive strength, point loading test, and tensile strength at bending were applied and the obtained results were evaluated. It was observed that good adherence was provided between the binder and the aggregate in mortars. It was also detected that bricks have preserved their originality against environmental, atmospheric, and physicochemical effects and their mechanical properties showed that they were produced by appropriate techniques.

  7. The ancient Romans knew that lead is a dangerous metal but they tolerated it: Is it happening even today?

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    Sič Magdolna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In ancient Rome lead was used frequently. The most exposed to the noxiousness of lead were the miners and the workers that were treating the metal. The Romans noticed the lead caused illness with miners, but they nevertheless thought that small amounts of lead do not jeopardize the life of the rest of the population. Moreover, they used lead even for medical treatments. The ancient Romans were not conscious enough about the level of harmfulness of this metal for everyone's health, even for the wealthiest. New scientific methods proved a high level of environmental lead pollution at the time of the Roman Empire. Today, as the harmfulness of lead is scientifically proved, and is therefore eliminated as an addition to petrol. Moreover, most developed countries strive towards further elimination of lead from the environment. Serbia is only at the beginning of this process. Having in mind that in taking actions for the protection of environment we stay behind many countries, we should not take it only as part of the harmonization process with EU law, but as a common task that is in the interests of all.

  8. The Gallo-Roman cremation cemeteries of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg - intial findings of current research

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    Michel Polfer

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper will present the first results of a research project which aims at: ◦the elaboration of a complete corpus of all individual Gallo-Roman graves and cemeteries, including funerary monuments and inscriptions ◦the analysis of the structures and objects (typology, chronology etc. as well as the study of the religious, cultural and social attitudes and their evolution during the Roman period. The geographic area for the study is the modern Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, a major part of the ancient civitas treverorum. The project covers the period from the second half of the first century AD to the fifth century AD. The paper is divided into three main parts: 1.a short history of Gallo-Roman funerary archaeology in Luxembourg 2.a short presentation of some of the first results of the study related to: ◦the geographic distribution of the sites ◦the relationship between rural settlements, cemeteries and funerary monuments ◦the internal organisation of rural cemeteries ◦depositional practice and social differentiation in rural cemeteries ◦cremation types and the relationship between cremation and inhumation 3.a presentation (through maps and a database of the current state of the corpus (which currently has records of 300 different archaeological sites

  9. Radiological and multi-element analysis of sediments from the Proserpina reservoir (Spain) dating from Roman times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, A; Guillén, J; Ontalba Salamanca, M A; Rodríguez, A; Ager, F J

    2009-10-01

    The Proserpina dam was built in Roman times to provide drinking water to Emerita Augusta (today's Mérida in SW Spain). During maintenance work, a sediment core was extracted, offering an excellent opportunity to analyze the historical environmental impacts of the dam and its reservoir over the 2000 years since Roman times. In order to establish an accurate chronology, (14)C ages were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Core samples were assayed for their content in uranium and thorium series isotopes, (40)K, and the anthropogenic radionuclides (137)Cs, (90)Sr, and (239+240)Pu. Potassium-40 presented the highest activity level and was not constant with depth. The uranium and thorium series were generally in equilibrium, suggesting there had been no additional input of natural radionuclides. The presence of (137)Cs was only found in relation with the global fallout in the early 1960s. Multi-element assays were performed using the PIXE and PIGE techniques. Some variations in the multi-element concentrations were observed with depth, but the sediment core could be considered as clean, and no presumptive anthropogenic pollutants were found. Nevertheless, an unusually high Zn content was detected at depths corresponding to pre-Roman times, due to geological anomalies in the area.

  10. Archaeoseismology in Algeria: observed damages related to probable past earthquakes on archaeological remains on Roman sites (Tel Atlas of Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumane, Kahina; Ayadi, Abdelhakim

    2017-04-01

    The seismological catalogue for Algeria exhibits significant lack for the period before 1365. Some attempts led to retrieve ancient earthquakes evidenced by historical documents and achieves. Archaeoseismology allows a study of earthquakes that have affected archaeological sites, based on the analysis of damage observed on remains. We have focused on the Antiquity period that include Roman, Vandal and Byzantine period from B.C 146 to A.D. 533. This will contribute significantly to the understanding of seismic hazard of the Tell Atlas region known as an earthquake prone area. The Tell Atlas (Algeria) experienced during its history many disastrous earthquakes their impacts are graved on landscape and archaeological monuments. On Roman sites such, Lambaesis (Lambèse), Thamugadi (Timgad) Thibilis (Salaoua Announa) or Thevest (Tebessa), damage were observed on monuments and remains related to seismic events following strong shacking or other ground deformation (subsidence, landslide). Examples of observed damage and disorders on several Roman sites are presented as a contribution to Archaeoseismology in Algeria based on effects of earthquakes on ancient structures and monuments. Keywords : Archaeoseismology. Lambaesis. Drop columns. Aspecelium. Ancient earthquakes

  11. THE MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE DEPOSITS OF THE ROMAN BASIN (LATIUM, ITALY:AN INTEGRATED APPROACH OF MAMMAL BIOCHRONOLOGY AND SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY

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    SALVATORE MILLI

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The biochronological setting proposed for the Plio-Pleistocene large mammal faunas of the Italian peninsula is based on the definition of faunal units (FUs and mammal ages (MAs. Many evidences suggest that a multidisciplinary approach could enable us to better understand the actual meaning of a given faunal assemblage taking into account sedimentological and physical stratigraphic studies of the sedimentary successions in which local mammal faunas occur. The Pleistocene deposits of the Roman Basin can be considered a significant model to test this integrated approach. The detailed study of this sedimentary succession, in terms of facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy, sets some physical and temporal constrains to the occurrence of faunal complexes because the allocyclic control (climate and eustatic variations on both landscape and stratigraphical evolution can affect the association type of mammal faunas. A correlation scheme between the Roman Pleistocene sequence-stratigraphic units and the mammal biochrons has been proposed; this approach constitutes a first tentative to connect the mammal fauna remains to the sedimentary processes which are responsible of their transport, stock and potential preservation in the depositional environments and to collocate this fauna in the systems tracts of the fourth-order depositional sequences recognised in the local Roman Basin Pleistocene succession.

  12. Sulfur isotope analysis of cinnabar from Roman wall paintings by elemental analysis/isotope ratio mass spectrometry--tracking the origin of archaeological red pigments and their authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Jorge E; Lavric, Jost V; Meisser, Nicolas; Serneels, Vincent

    2010-10-15

    The most valuable pigment of the Roman wall paintings was the red color obtained from powdered cinnabar (Minium Cinnabaris pigment), the red mercury sulfide (HgS), which was brought from mercury (Hg) deposits in the Roman Empire. To address the question of whether sulfur isotope signatures can serve as a rapid method to establish the provenance of the red pigment in Roman frescoes, we have measured the sulfur isotope composition (δ(34)S value in ‰ VCDT) in samples of wall painting from the Roman city Aventicum (Avenches, Vaud, Switzerland) and compared them with values from cinnabar from European mercury deposits (Almadén in Spain, Idria in Slovenia, Monte Amiata in Italy, Moschellandsberg in Germany, and Genepy in France). Our study shows that the δ(34)S values of cinnabar from the studied Roman wall paintings fall within or near to the composition of Almadén cinnabar; thus, the provenance of the raw material may be deduced. This approach may provide information on provenance and authenticity in archaeological, restoration and forensic studies of Roman and Greek frescoes.

  13. Heybridge: A late Iron Age and Roman settlement. Excavations at Elms Farm 1993-5. Volume 2

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    Mark Atkinson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Late Iron Age, Roman and early Saxon settlement at Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex was excavated in the mid-1990s, in advance of the construction of a large housing estate by Bovis Homes Ltd. The total development area comprised c. 29 hectares, of which some 18ha were subject to varying degrees of investigation by the Essex County Council Field Archaeology Unit (ECC FAU. The large-scale of the excavations is matched by the substantial and important artefact assemblage recovered, which included 6.4 tonnes of Late Iron Age and Roman pottery, 2,910 Roman coins and over 9000 animal bones. Together this has enabled an appreciation of the development of the settlement over time and space, of the changing functions, status and economy of individual areas and the settlement as a whole, and the issues of transition, change and finally decline. The site revealed evidence for activity from the Bronze Age to the post-medieval period. The evidence for the earliest settlement dates to the Late Iron Age period (mid 1st century BC and is rather fragmentary in nature. However a centrally located shrine, with a series of strip-plots to the north and south were tentatively identified. This settlement was remodelled around the mid 1st century AD, with the creation of a formal infrastructure of metalled roads, as well as a new temple precinct on the earlier sacred site and a reworking of the strip-plots into enclosures. This remodelling spanned the Late Iron Age/early Roman transition period, although the new road network is tentatively dated to the decade or two preceding the Roman conquest. To the north of the settlement area were a number of burials, pyre sites and pyre debris dumps. Early Roman cremations were added to this area slightly later. Some of the pyre sites exhibit higher-status elements, and at least one may have been 'aristocratic', suggesting the presence of a local elite. Reconstruction of settlement at Heybridge by Roger Massey-Ryan The later 1st

  14. Terra-cotta figurines from the Roman theatre of Malaga (Spain: An archaeometric study

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    Compaña, J. M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of 22 figured Phoeno-Punic and Roman terra-cottas, of high relevant archaeological and patrimonial values, have been studied. The samples were recovered in the Roman Theatre of Malaga (Spain. A thorough analysis including stereomicroscopy, elemental analysis by WDXRF, mineralogical analysis by XRPD coupled with the Rietveld method, and SEM, has been carried out. Highly diluted fused glass beads probed to be enough for the X-ray fluorescence analyses, minimizing the damage to the samples. For selected samples, in addition to the classical use of the Rietveld method, the G-factor external-standard approach has been employed to get full quantitative crystalline and amorphous phase analysis. The analytical results allow proposing a local regional provenance for the main part of the samples, being a relevant data for several artifacts, not contextualized due to stratigraphic alterations in the site. In addition, some relevant samples, for instance a theatrical mask fragment (TRC005, are likely foreign. The overall amorphous is not negligible in phase quantification, accounting for up to 50 wt %. Technologically, all terra-cotta samples are similar, made of calcareous clays, fired at ~700-950 ºC.Se han estudiado 22 terracotas figuradas feno-púnicas y romanas, de alto valor arqueológico y patrimonial. Las muestras proceden de las excavaciones del Teatro romano de Málaga (España. El análisis realizado incluye estereomicroscopía, análisis elemental mediante WDXRF, análisis mineralógico cuantitativo mediante el método de Rietveld de los datos de XRPD y SEM. Para minimizar el daño realizado a las muestras, se prepararon perlas muy diluidas, que han demostrado ser suficientes para los análisis de fluorescencia de rayos-X. Para muestras selectas, además del análisis usual mediante el método de Rietveld, se ha utilizado el método del estándar externo mediante el factor-G para obtener análisis cuantitativos de fases cristalinas y

  15. 3D Visualization of Sheath Folds in Roman Marble from Ephesus, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, Sebastian; Passchier, Cornelis W.; de Kemp, Eric A.; Ilhan, Sinan

    2013-04-01

    Excavation of a palatial 2nd century AD house (Terrace House Two) in the ancient city of Ephesus, Turkey in the 1970s produced 10.313 pieces of colored, folded marble which belonged to 54 marble plates of 1.6 cm thickness that originally covered the walls of the banquet hall of the house. The marble plates were completely reassembled and restored by a team of workers over the last 6 years. The plates were recognized as having been sawn from two separate large blocks of "Cipollino verde", a green mylonitized marble from Karystos on the Island of Euboea, Greece. After restoration, it became clear that all slabs had been placed on the wall in approximately the sequence in which they had been cut off by a Roman stone saw. As a result, the marble plates give a full 3D insight in the folded internal structure of 1m3 block of mylonite. The restoration of the slabs was recognized as a first, unique opportunity for detailed reconstruction of the 3D geometry of m-scale folds in mylonitized marble. Photographs were taken of each slab and used to reconstruct their exact arrangement within the originally quarried blocks. Outlines of layers were digitized and a full 3D reconstruction of the internal structure of the block was created using ArcMap and GOCAD. Fold structures in the block include curtain folds and multilayered sheath folds. Several different layers showing these structures were digitized on the photographs of the slab surfaces and virtually mounted back together within the model of the marble block. Due to the serial sectioning into slabs, with cm-scale spacing, the visualization of the 3D geometry of sheath folds was accomplished with a resolution better than 4 cm. Final assembled 3D images reveal how sheath folds emerge from continuous layers and show their overall consistency as well as a constant hinge line orientation of the fold structures. Observations suggest that a single deformation phase was responsible for the evolution of "Cipollino verde" structures

  16. Fiber-Reinforced Rocks Akin to Roman Concrete Help Explain Ground Deformation at Campi Flegrei Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanorio, Tiziana; Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn

    2016-04-01

    The caldera of Campi Flegrei is one of the active hydrothermal systems of the Mediterranean region experiencing notable unrest episodes in a densely populated area. During the last crisis of 1982-1984, nearly 40,000 people were evacuated for almost two years from the main town of Pozzuoli, the Roman Puteoli, due to the large uplifts (~2 m over two years) and the persistent seismic activity. The evacuation severely hampered the economy and the social make-up of the community, which included the relocation of schools and commercial shops as well as the harbor being rendered useless for docking. Despite the large uplifts, the release of strain appears delayed. Seismicity begins and reaches a magnitude of 4.0 only upon relatively large uplifts (~ 70-80 cm) contrary to what is generally observed for calderas exhibiting much lower deformation levels. Over and above the specific mechanism causing the unrest and the lack of identification of a shallow magmatic reservoir (concrete. The formation of fibrous minerals by intertwining filaments confers shear and tensile strength to the caprock, contributing to its ductility and increased resistance to fracture. The importance of the findings reported in this study lies not only on the fibrous and compositionally nature of the caprock but also on its possible physicochemical deterioration. Given the P-T-XCO2 conditions regulating the decarbonation reactions, the influx of new fluids into the Campi Flegrei system lowers the temperature of the decarbonation reaction and dilutes the existing CO2, thus triggering additional CO2, methane, and steam to form. As these gases rise toward the surface, the natural cement layer halts them, leading to pore pressure increase and subsequent ground deformations.

  17. Authigenic Mineral Cycling in Roman Seawater Concrete with Campi Flegrei Pumiceous Ash Pozzolan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M. D.; Mulcahy, S. R.; Chen, H.; Li, Q.; Cappelletti, P.; Carraro, C.; Wenk, H. R.

    2015-12-01

    Alteration of Campi Flegrei pumiceous ash in Roman concrete harbor structures along the central Italian coast produced zeolite and Ca-silicate minerals that have reinforced cementitious fabrics for >2000 years. X-ray microdiffraction experiments and electron microprobe analyses show that diverse alteration paths produced authigenic phillipsite and Al-tobermorite in the pyroclasts, pores, and cementing matrix of mortars in Romacons drill cores from Portus Cosanus, Portus Neronis, and Baianus Sinus. These minerals have cation exchange capabilities for some radionuclides and heavy metal cations and are candidate sorbents for concrete waste encapsulations. Compositions of phillipsite in certain Portus Cosanus and Portus Neronis pumice clasts are similar to those in the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff. Dissolution of this phillipsite and alkali feldspar produced new, authigenic phillipsite with less Si, greater Al and Ca, Al-tobermorite, and poorly-crystalline binder in pumice vesicles. Conversely, alteration of trachytic glass to clay mineral (nontronite) in a Baianus Sinus tuff clast is associated with new, authigenic phillipsite and Al-tobermorite in the tuff and cementing matrix. The Al-tobermorite has lower Al/(Si+Al) and Ca/(Si+Al) compared to Al-tobermorite in relict lime clasts. These more siliceous crystals, similar to those in hydrothermally-altered basalt, have 11.3 Å d-spacing in [001]. Raman spectra show symmetrical bending of Si-O-Si and Si-O-Al linkages, Si-O and Si-Al symmetrical stretching, and possible Q3 Si and Al tetrahedral peaks that suggest cross-linking of silicate chains-an important factor in cation exchange. The authigenic crystals refine pore space, contribute to binding in interfacial zones, and obstruct microcrack propagation. The well-constrained history of temperature variations and seawater immersion could provide further information for understanding alteration in volcanoclastic deposits and predicting regenerative processes in high performance

  18. Land Use and the Agrarian Economy in the Roman Dutch River Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Groot

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reconstruct agrarian land use for a rural community in the Roman frontier zone in the Netherlands. The Dutch River Area was characterised by a dynamic landscape. Rivers regularly flooded the surrounding low-lying land. Only the higher streamridges provided suitable places for habitation and arable agriculture. The limitations of the landscape dictated to a large extent both the types and quantities of crops and animals that could be produced. An interactive map of the micro-region of Tiel-Passewaaij shows how the land was used for agrarian production and sourced for other products. These symbols link to short texts that discuss the archaeological evidence for aspects such as growing cereals, raising livestock and the exploitation of wood and wild animals. The complex and dynamic geological situation of the Dutch River Area is also explained, and the consequences for agriculture discussed. We address three main research questions. How were the different elements of the riverine landscape used by rural inhabitants? How were arable agriculture and animal husbandry organised spatially, both within the settlement and in its immediate surroundings? Which natural resources were used and managed? Our research is mainly based on one large and well-excavated settlement complex (Tiel-Passewaaij, but we will use complementary data from several other settlements in the region. Our results show that the river landscape offered plenty of opportunities for agriculture. The interaction between arable and pastoral farming was essential, with livestock providing manure and agricultural labour, and the fields offering fodder and additional grazing (after harvest or during fallow years. The location of large enclosure ditches suggest that even minor differences in height, caused by older streamridges, may have made arable farming possible in the flood basin.

  19. Le stéréotype dans le roman policier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion François

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Le roman policier offre à l’étude du stéréotype une grande variété de redondances, lexicales et structurelles, qui permettent d’éclairer le concept même de genre, en fait issu du constat de stéréotypie. Il est également manifeste que contrairement aux idées reçues, les clichés font du texte policier un texte littéraire, parce qu’ils naissent d’images associées, distinctes de la réalité, qui révèlent d’ailleurs le cheminement même de l’écriture. Par ailleurs ces images jouent un rôle fondamental dans le plaisir du lecteur, comme dans les contes de fées de notre enfance. Les clichés ouvrent la porte des fantasmes : le stéréotype rejoignant l’archétype, les clichés policiers réactivent de nombreux mythes, le texte évoquant l’Autre Scène. Le constat de stéréotypie provoque l’écriture, en particulier parodique, et stimule le renouvellement et l’essaimage des clichés dans toutes sortes de textes, qui bénéficieront de la présence du déjà-lu, laquelle donne au lecteur une assise pour affronter l’inconnu et une expérience pour apprécier la nouveauté.

  20. Somatotype, body composition and proportionality in polish top greco-roman wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna L; Sterkowicz, Stanisław; Zarów, Ryszard T

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the paper was to determine body composition and somatotype of male Greco-Roman wrestlers grouped by different weight categories and level of competition. Twenty three contestants (aged 24.9±5.5 years, training experience 13.7±5.8 years) were examined during their competitive period. They were divided into heavier (n=12) and lighter weight categories (n=11).Twelve of them took part in Olympic Qualification Tournaments, whereas six others participated in the Olympic Games in Athens. An experienced evaluator performed 10 measurements necessary to designate Heath-Carter somatotypes and additional skinfolds to estimate the percentage of body fat and body composition. Heavier wrestlers (weight=92.4 kg) exhibited more endomorphy and mesomorphy than lighter wrestlers (weight=70.1 kg). Heavier wrestlers were characterized by higher BMI, fat mass, fat percentage and fat free mass index than wrestlers in lighter weight categories. Sports level was evaluated with discriminant analysis which revealed significant results (psomatotypes differed from those of untrained subjects (2.0-6.6-1.2 vs. 3.7-4.3-3.1). They were also characterized by lower adiposity (12.1 vs. 15.7%, t=7.84, p<0.001). In conclusion, body build and composition in wrestlers depend on their weight category. In heavier categories, characteristic type is endomorph-mesomorph, whereas lighter weight categories are dominated by balanced mesomorph. A considerable difference in endomorphy and indices of body composition can also be observed. Higher sport experience with lower endomorphy (tendencies for lower fat content) and Pelvis/Shoulder Ratio are interrelated with higher competition level presented by wrestlers.