WorldWideScience

Sample records for rana temporaria exposed

  1. Widespread bacterial infection affecting Rana temporaria tadpoles in mountain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Tiberti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Periodic mass die-offs of Rana temporaria tadpole populations have occurred in the ponds of prealpine mountain areas of Brescia (northern Italy since the early 2000s. The author reports some observational data and analytical results from three sites: tadpoles from mortality events had erythema, especially on the legs, suggestive of septicemia. Bacterial culture of these tadpoles revealed Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria, two organisms often associated with Red leg disease. Egg mass counts from 29 pastureland ponds did not revealed breeding activity declines over five years in the Monte Guglielmo area. Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria usually behave as opportunistic bacteria that can become pathogenic after suppression of the immune system by endogenous or exogenous stressors. Thus, a plurality of environmental factors may contribute to mortality events; some of them are discussed, including loss of high altitude breeding ponds resulting in overcrowding and poor water quality in remaining ponds and the presence of other pathogens.

  2. Sound and vibration sensitivity of VIIIth nerve fibers in the grassfrog, Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    thresholds from 0.02 cm/s2. The sound and vibration sensitivity was compared for each fiber using the offset between the rate-level curves for sound and vibration stimulation as a measure of relative vibration sensitivity. When measured in this way relative vibration sensitivity decreases with frequency from......We have studied the sound and vibration sensitivity of 164 amphibian papilla fibers in the VIIIth nerve of the grassfrog, Rana temporaria. The VIIIth nerve was exposed using a dorsal approach. The frogs were placed in a natural sitting posture and stimulated by free-field sound. Furthermore......, the animals were stimulated with dorso-ventral vibrations, and the sound-induced vertical vibrations in the setup could be canceled by emitting vibrations in antiphase from the vibration exciter. All low-frequency fibers responded to both sound and vibration with sound thresholds from 23 dB SPL and vibration...

  3. Long-Term United Kindrom Trends in the Breeding Phenology of the Common Frog, Rana temporaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scott, W.A.; Pithart, David; Adamson, J. K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2008), s. 89-96 ISSN 0022-1511 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Long-term * Common Frog * Breeding * Rana temporaria Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.888, year: 2008

  4. Mobile phone mast effects on common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles: the city turned into a laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmori, Alfonso

    2010-06-01

    An experiment has been made exposing eggs and tadpoles of the common frog (Rana temporaria) to electromagnetic radiation from several mobile (cell) phone antennae located at a distance of 140 meters. The experiment lasted two months, from the egg phase until an advanced phase of tadpole prior to metamorphosis. Measurements of electric field intensity (radiofrequencies and microwaves) in V/m obtained with three different devices were 1.8 to 3.5 V/m. In the exposed group (n = 70), low coordination of movements, an asynchronous growth, resulting in both big and small tadpoles, and a high mortality (90%) was observed. Regarding the control group (n = 70) under the same conditions but inside a Faraday cage, the coordination of movements was normal, the development was synchronous, and a mortality of 4.2% was obtained. These results indicate that radiation emitted by phone masts in a real situation may affect the development and may cause an increase in mortality of exposed tadpoles. This research may have huge implications for the natural world, which is now exposed to high microwave radiation levels from a multitude of phone masts.

  5. Effects of two endocrine disruptors Prochloraz and Ethinylestradiol on development of Rana Temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2009-01-01

    to complete phenotypic sex reversal. The effect of the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol and the aromatase-inhibiting fungicide prochloraz on sexual differentiation in Rana temporaria, a species exhibiting natural juvenile hermaphroditism, was investigated. Prochloraz caused an increase in the percentage......  Effects of Prochloraz and Ethinylestradiol on development in Rana temporaria   The ontogeny of most amphibians is characterized by a large degree of sexual plasticity and sex steroids play an important role in the final differentiation of the gonads. One consequence of this plasticity...

  6. Complex patterns of geographic variation in heat tolerance and Hsp70 expression levels in the common frog Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Pekkonen, Minna; Lindgren, Beatrice

    2009-01-01

    1. We tested for geographical variation in heat tolerance and Hsp70 expression levels of Rana temporaria tadpoles along a 1500 km long latitudinal gradient in Sweden.   2. Temperature tolerance of the hatchling tadpoles did not differ among populations, but they tolerated stressful hot temperatur...

  7. Response characteristics of vibration-sensitive neurons in the midbrain of the grassfrog, Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1989-01-01

    European grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) were stimulated with pulsed sinusoidal, vertical vibrations (10-300 Hz) and the responses of 46 single midbrain neurons were recorded in awake, immobilized animals. Most units (40) had simple V-shaped excitatory vibrational tuning curves. The distribution of ...... stimuli probably play a role in communication and detection of predators and the vibration-sensitive midbrain neurons may be involved in the central processing of such behaviorally significant stimuli.......European grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) were stimulated with pulsed sinusoidal, vertical vibrations (10-300 Hz) and the responses of 46 single midbrain neurons were recorded in awake, immobilized animals. Most units (40) had simple V-shaped excitatory vibrational tuning curves. The distribution...... of best frequencies (BF's) was bimodal with peaks at 10 and 100 Hz and the thresholds ranged from 0.02 to 1.28 cm/s2 at the BF. Twenty-three neurons showed phasic-tonic and 11 neurons phasic responses. The dynamic range of seismic intensity for most neurons was 20-30 dB. In contrast to the sharp phase...

  8. The response characteristics of vibration-sensitive saccular fibers in the grassfrog, Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1988-01-01

    The response characteristics of saccular nerve fibers in European grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) subjected to dorso-ventral, 10-200 Hz sinusoidal vibrations were studied. Only 4 fibers out of a total of 129 did not respond to the vibrations. 70 fibers had an irregular spontaneous activity of 2-48 s...... motion of the otolith relative to the macula is complex. No behavioral role of a vibration receptor has been demonstrated in the grassfrog.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)......The response characteristics of saccular nerve fibers in European grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) subjected to dorso-ventral, 10-200 Hz sinusoidal vibrations were studied. Only 4 fibers out of a total of 129 did not respond to the vibrations. 70 fibers had an irregular spontaneous activity of 2......-48 spikes/s. These fibers were very vibration-sensitive. The synchronization thresholds at 10-20 Hz varied from below 0.005 to 0.02 cm/s2. In contrast to earlier results, all these fibers had low-pass characteristics (with respect to acceleration) and responded maximally at 10 and 20 Hz. 55 fibers had...

  9. Basic response characteristics of auditory nerve fibers in the grassfrog (Rana temporaria)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B; Kanneworff, M

    1998-01-01

    -excitatory suppression (PS) of their spontaneous activity. The duration of PS increased with sound level, also in fibers showing a decrease in firing rate at high intensities. Most fibers showing one-tone suppression did not show PS at their best suppression frequencies. Strong suppression was observed also in very......Responses to free-field sound of 401 fibers from the VIIIth nerve of the grassfrog, Rana temporaria, are described. The spontaneous activities of the fibers ranged from 0 to 75 spikes/s, showing only weak correlation with frequency or sensitivity of the fibers. The highest spontaneous activities...... were approximately twice as high as reported previously for frogs. Best frequencies ranged from 100 to 1600 Hz and thresholds ranged from 21 to 80 dB SPL. The median dynamic range was 20 dB and the slopes of the rate-level curves ranged from 5 to 20 spikes/(s-dB). Most of the units showed post...

  10. Biospectroscopy reveals the effect of varying water quality on tadpole tissues of the common frog (Rana temporaria)

    OpenAIRE

    Strong, Becky; Halsall, Crispin James; Ferenčík, Martin; Jones, Kevin Christopher; Shore, Richard Francis; Martin, Francis Luke

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are undergoing large population declines in many regions around the world. As environmental pollution from both agricultural and urban sources has been implicated in such declines, there is a need for a biomonitoring approach to study potential impacts on this vulnerable class of organism. This study assessed the use of infrared (IR) spectroscopy as a tool to detect changes in several tissues (liver, muscle, kidney, heart and skin) of late-stage common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpol...

  11. Ranid Herpesvirus 3 and Proliferative Dermatitis in Free-Ranging Wild Common Frogs (Rana Temporaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origgi, F C; Schmidt, B R; Lohmann, P; Otten, P; Akdesir, E; Gaschen, V; Aguilar-Bultet, L; Wahli, T; Sattler, U; Stoffel, M H

    2017-07-01

    Amphibian pathogens are of current interest as contributors to the global decline of amphibians. However, compared with chytrid fungi and ranaviruses, herpesviruses have received relatively little attention. Two ranid herpesviruses have been described: namely, Ranid herpesvirus 1 (RHV1) and Ranid herpesvirus 2 (RHV2). This article describes the discovery and partial characterization of a novel virus tentatively named Ranid herpesvirus 3 (RHV3), a candidate member of the genus Batrachovirus in the family Alloherpesviridae. RHV3 infection in wild common frogs (Rana temporaria) was associated with severe multifocal epidermal hyperplasia, dermal edema, a minor inflammatory response, and variable mucous gland degeneration. Intranuclear inclusions were numerous in the affected epidermis together with unique extracellular aggregates of herpesvirus-like particles. The RHV3-associated skin disease has features similar to those of a condition recognized in European frogs for the last 20 years and whose cause has remained elusive. The genome of RHV3 shares most of the features of the Alloherpesviruses. The characterization of this presumptive pathogen may be of value for amphibian conservation and for a better understanding of the biology of Alloherpesviruses.

  12. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of lysozyme in renal proximal tubules of the frog Rana temporaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Seliverstova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of protein reabsorption in the kidney of lower vertebrates remains insufficiently investigated in spite of raising interest to the amphibian and fish kidneys as a useful model for physiological and pathophysiological examinations. In the present study, we examined the renal tubular uptake and the internalization rote of lysozyme after its intravenous injection in the wintering frog Rana temporaria using immunohisto- and immunocytochemistry and specific markers for some endocytic compartments. The distinct expression of megalin and cubilin in the proximal tubule cells of lysozyme-injected frogs was revealed whereas kidney tissue of control animals showed no positive immunoreactivity. Lysozyme was detected in the apical endocytic compartment of the tubular cells and colocalized with clathrin 10 min after injection. After 20 min, lysozyme was located in the subapical compartment negative to clathrin (endosomes, and intracellular trafficking of lysozyme was coincided with the distribution of megalin and cubilin. However, internalized protein was retained in the endosomes and did not reach lysosomes within 30 min after treatment that may indicate the inhibition of intracellular trafficking in hibernating frogs. For the first time, we provided the evidence that lysozyme is filtered through the glomeruli and absorbed by receptor-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis in the frog proximal tubule cells. Thus, the protein uptake in the amphibian mesonephros is mediated by megalin and cubilin that confirms a critical role of endocytic receptors in the renal reabsorption of proteins in amphibians as in mammals.

  13. Effect of sublethal doses of radiation and cystamine on the dynamics of Rana temporaria L. larvae development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    The longevity of Rana temporaria L. larvae in the 45th stage of development is studied after irradiation in sublethal doses (10.000-20.000 R) and irradiation with preliminary cystamine protection. It has been shown that the protective effect of cystamine is revealed in partial normalization of the larvae development rate but does not eliminate the typical anomalies of extremity development and does not prolong the time of animal survival. It has been found that LD 50/30 dose for R. temporaria tadpoles in the 45th stage of development is slightly higher than 10.000 R. The selective effect of X-radiation on the formative bonds at cornea induction in Anura larvae is concluded

  14. Directionality of auditory nerve fiber responses to pure tone stimuli in the grassfrog, Rana temporaria. II. Spike timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M B; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J

    1997-01-01

    We studied the directionality of spike timing in the responses of single auditory nerve fibers of the grass frog, Rana temporaria, to tone burst stimulation. Both the latency of the first spike after stimulus onset and the preferred firing phase during the stimulus were studied. In addition, the ...

  15. Effect of X-ray irradiation on morphophysiological reactions of epidermal melanophor cells in the larvae of Rana temporaria L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, D.V.; Kalistratova, E.N.; Kaluzhina, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    Dynamics of physiological reactions of epidermal melanophors of larvae Rana temporaria L.. adapted to white and black backgrounds and irradiated with a dose of 700 R has been investigated. Ouring the first day after irradiation no day changes of melanophor index characteristic of intact tadpoles were discovered in whitebackground animals; melanophors preserve the aggregation state. Comparison of black background irradiated and control larvae didn't show confident differences in changes of their melanophor indices. Irradiation affects differently epidermal melanophors in the state of pigment dispersion and aggregation. It is suggested that pigment dispersion and aggregation in melanophor is realized at the expense of different cellular structures. It is shown that by the end of the experiment (21-st day) the amount of epidermal melanophor per surface unit is two times larger in black-ground larvae. General biological signaficance of revealed facts from the point of view of ontogenesis evolution is discussed

  16. Geographical variation and sexual differences of body length and age composition in Rana temporaria: the ontogenetic development and phenotypic trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapkov Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of literature data on the mean values of age and body length of adult individuals of widespread species Rana temporaria from about 70 spatially separated populations, including our published data, was conducted. The evident trend in population mean age increase with the decrease of the of activity season length was revealed as well as the absence of that trend in the mean body length, with the maximal mean value in body length being near central part of the range. Our explanation of non-linear trend in the mean values of body length does not contradict other models of geographic variability explaining the correspondence and discrepance with the Bergman rule. In addition our explanation corresponds to the revealed features of interpopulation variation in growth rate. The revealed trend of variation in the mean body length is resulted from both growth rate decrease and mean age increase with the decrease in the length of activity season. The relatively low mean values of body length in populations from south and southern-west borders of the range are explained not only by low mean age but by lower growth rate despite high length of activity season. The interpopulation variation in body length is determined not only by body length but by age composition differences both between and within population. Therefore, the direction and intensity of sexual differences have not distinct trends, and the correspondence to Rensch rule (in contrast to Bergman rule is rarely observed.

  17. Differing long term trends for two common amphibian species (Bufo bufo and Rana temporaria in alpine landscapes of Salzburg, Austria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kyek

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the population trends of two widespread European anuran species: the common toad (Bufo bufo and the common frog (Rana temporaria. The basis of this study is data gathered over two decades of amphibian fencing alongside roads in the Austrian state of Salzburg. Different statistical approaches were used to analyse the data. Overall average increase or decrease of each species was estimated by calculating a simple average locality index. In addition the statistical software TRIM was used to verify these trends as well as to categorize the data based on the geographic location of each migration site. The results show differing overall trends for the two species: the common toad being stable and the common frog showing a substantial decline over the last two decades. Further analyses based on geographic categorization reveal the strongest decrease in the alpine range of the species. Drainage and agricultural intensification are still ongoing problems within alpine areas, not only in Salzburg. Particularly in respect to micro-climate and the availability of spawning places these changes appear to have a greater impact on the habitats of the common frog than the common toad. Therefore we consider habitat destruction to be the main potential reason behind this dramatic decline. We also conclude that the substantial loss of biomass of a widespread species such as the common frog must have a severe, and often overlooked, ecological impact.

  18. Amphibian population genetics in agricultural landscapes: does viniculture drive the population structuring of the European common frog (Rana temporaria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick P. Lenhardt

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Amphibian populations have been declining globally over the past decades. The intensification of agriculture, habitat loss, fragmentation of populations and toxic substances in the environment are considered as driving factors for this decline. Today, about 50% of the area of Germany is used for agriculture and is inhabited by a diverse variety of 20 amphibian species. Of these, 19 are exhibiting declining populations. Due to the protection status of native amphibian species, it is important to evaluate the effect of land use and associated stressors (such as road mortality and pesticide toxicity on the genetic population structure of amphibians in agricultural landscapes. We investigated the effects of viniculture on the genetic differentiation of European common frog (Rana temporaria populations in Southern Palatinate (Germany. We analyzed microsatellite data of ten loci from ten breeding pond populations located within viniculture landscape and in the adjacent forest block and compared these results with a previously developed landscape permeability model. We tested for significant correlation of genetic population differentiation and landscape elements, including land use as well as roads and their associated traffic intensity, to explain the genetic structure in the study area. Genetic differentiation among forest populations was significantly lower (median pairwise FST = 0.0041 at 5.39 km to 0.0159 at 9.40 km distance than between viniculture populations (median pairwise FST = 0.0215 at 2.34 km to 0.0987 at 2.39 km distance. Our analyses rejected isolation by distance based on roads and associated traffic intensity as the sole explanation of the genetic differentiation and suggest that the viniculture landscape has to be considered as a limiting barrier for R. temporaria migration, partially confirming the isolation of breeding ponds predicted by the landscape permeability model. Therefore, arable land may act as a sink habitat

  19. Biospectroscopy reveals the effect of varying water quality on tadpole tissues of the common frog (Rana temporaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Rebecca J; Halsall, Crispin J; Ferenčík, Martin; Jones, Kevin C; Shore, Richard F; Martin, Francis L

    2016-06-01

    Amphibians are undergoing large population declines in many regions around the world. As environmental pollution from both agricultural and urban sources has been implicated in such declines, there is a need for a biomonitoring approach to study potential impacts on this vulnerable class of organism. This study assessed the use of infrared (IR) spectroscopy as a tool to detect changes in several tissues (liver, muscle, kidney, heart and skin) of late-stage common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles collected from ponds with differing water quality. Small differences in spectral signatures were revealed between a rural agricultural pond and an urban pond receiving wastewater and landfill run-off; these were limited to the liver and heart, although large differences in body size were apparent, surprisingly with tadpoles from the urban site larger than those from the rural site. Large differences in liver spectra were found between tadpoles from the pesticide and nutrient impacted pond compared to the rural agricultural pond, particularly in regions associated with lipids. Liver mass and hepatosomatic indices were found to be significantly increased in tadpoles from the site impacted by pesticides and trace organic chemicals, suggestive of exposure to environmental contamination. Significant alterations were also found in muscle tissue between tadpoles from these two ponds in regions associated with glycogen, potentially indicative of a stress response. This study highlights the use of IR spectroscopy, a low-cost, rapid and reagent-free technique in the biomonitoring of a class of organisms susceptible to environmental degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Population and life-stage-specific effects of two herbicide formulations on the aquatic development of European common frogs (Rana temporaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Norman; Veith, Michael; Lötters, Stefan; Viertel, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Environmental contamination is suggested to contribute to amphibian population declines. However, the effects of a contaminant on a particular amphibian species can differ among populations. The authors investigated the toxic effects of 2 herbicide formulations on different populations and on representative developmental stages of the European common frog (Rana temporaria). Larvae from forest populations were more sensitive to a commonly used glyphosate-based herbicide compared with individuals from agrarian land. Median lethal concentrations correlated with measured glyphosate levels in the breeding ponds, which may be a sign of evolved tolerances. The reverse result was observed for a less commonly used cycloxydim-based herbicide. Effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide were stronger for earlier larval stages compared with later larval stages. Hence, applications in early spring (when early larvae are present in breeding ponds) pose greater risk concerning acute toxic effects on R. temporaria. With regard to late larval stages, short exposure (96 h) of prometamorphic larvae prolonged time to metamorphosis, but only at the highest test concentration that did not significantly induce mortality. This could be due to impairment of the thyroid axis. Notably, nearly all test concentrations of the 2 herbicides provoked growth retardation. Further research on how evolved or induced tolerances are acquired, actual contamination levels of amphibian habitats, and potential endocrine effects of glyphosate-based herbicides is necessary. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:190-200. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Spatial-ecological divergence of the common frog (Rana temporaria L. and the moor frog (Rana arvalis Nilss. within their geographic ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutenkov Anatoly

    2017-03-01

    It is only where there is the interpenetration of «core» landscapes of each species (large areas of the northern and western parts of the East European Plain, and a part of the West Siberian Plain contiguous to the Urals, one can observe the examples of real sympatry of R. arvalis and R. temporaria.

  2. Alimentación de las ranas pardas, Rana gr. temporaria, en el circo de Piedrafita, (Pirineos, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Vieites, D.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding of high Pyrenean mountain brown frogs were studied in the pre-wintering period. The main prey is beetles (44'97o, two-winged flies (12'9% and bees, wasps, ants, etc (11'4%. For the whole of the frogs, the most frequent prey size is the small (smaller than 10 mm. Big frogs tend to consume bigger prey in not ,o. many quantity, while small frogs consume more quantity of preys but smaller in size. From prey way of life, frogs eat mainly terrestrial and aerial preys, although capture of aquatic prey was observed (11'5% and these preys were eaten inside the water.

    Se ha estudiado la dieta de las ranas pardas en alta montaña pirenaica durante el periodo pre-invernal. Las ranas consumen principalmente coleópteros (44'9%, dípteros (12'9% e himenópteros (11'4%. Para el conjunto de todas las ranas estudiadas, las presas más consumidas son las de pequeño tamaño (menores de 10 mm. Las ranas de mayor talla tienden a consumir presas más grandes y en poca cantidad, mientras que las ranas pequeñas consumen más presas aunque de pequeño tamaño. En cuanto a forma de vida las presas más consumidas son terrestres y aéreas, aunque también se ha comprobado la captura de presas acuáticas (11'5% que son consumidas por las ranas dentro del agua.

  3. Sexual dimorphism of extensor carpi radialis muscle size, isometric force, relaxation rate and stamina during the breeding season of the frog Rana temporaria Linnaeus 1758.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Carlos A; James, Rob S

    2007-02-01

    Mating success of individual male frogs within explosive breeding species can depend on their ability to compete for a mate and to hold onto that mate during amplexus. Such importance of amplexus has resulted in the evolution of sexual dimorphism in the morphology and contractile characteristics of the anuran forelimb muscles used during amplexus. The aims of our study were to use an explosive breeding frog (Rana temporaria) during the breeding season to compare extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle length, mass, isometric activation times, relaxation times, absolute force, relative force (stress) and fatigue between male and female frogs. We found that ECR muscle mass and length were greater (tenfold and 1.4-fold, respectively), absolute tetanic muscle force and relative tetanic force (stress) were greater (16-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively) and relaxation times were slower in males than in females. Male ECR muscles incompletely relaxed during fatigue tests and showed less fatigue than female muscles. These sex differences are likely to be beneficial to the male frogs in allowing them to produce relatively high absolute muscle forces for prolonged periods of time to hold onto their mate during amplexus.

  4. How fast do amphibians disperse? Introductions, distribution and dispersal of the common frog Rana temporaria and the common toad Bufo bufo on a coastal island in Central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Dolmen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The common frog (Rana temporaria and the common toad (Bufo bufo were introduced successfully to the coastal island of Frøya in Central Norway several times during 1960–2012. There is still a very high degree of conformity between sites where they were introduced and the present distribution of the two species. However, in western Frøya, a release of frogs about 1996 was followed by a quick expansion of their distribution area; in 2012 and 2013, breeding was registered close to 7 km westwards and eastwards, respectively, i.e. a population dispersal speed of approximately 0.4 km/yr. On eastern Frøya and some small islands in the archipelago, area expansions at another four frog localities have been prevented by ecological barriers like unfavourable limnetic or terrestrial habitats or salty water. Two local common toad populations on eastern Frøya do not show any expansion either. However, an apparently isolated record of the species on western Frøya in 2011 can possibly be explained by the expansion westwards of a population in northern central Frøya, where toads were introduced around 1995. This stretch is about 9.9 km, i.e. an average population dispersal speed of 0.6 km/yr.

  5. The effect of the aluminum chloride – quercetin complex on Ca(2+,Mg(2+-ATPase activity and contraction dynamic properties of muscle tibialis anterior from Rana temporaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Nozdrenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Combined effect of aluminum chloride and quercetin solutions on the enzymatic activity and contraction dynamics of muscle fiber bundles of the Rana temporaria m. tibialis anterior was investigated. It was shown that these complexes inhibit muscle contraction. Linear reduction of Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase activity induced by all of the used concentrations of AlCl3 – quercetin was demonstrated. It was found that complex of quercetin with AlCl3 has a greater inhibitory effect on muscle contraction dynamic and causes greater reduction during all periods of stimulation in comparison to the separate effect of the investigated compounds. All the studied concentrations of AlCl3 and quercetin solutions (AlCl3: 10-4-10-2 M; quercetin: 10-6-10-5 M caused concentration depended contraction strengths and lengths reduction. The decrease in strength and length of muscle contractions was of constant and mostly linear nature within observed timeframe as well as within each periods of contraction. The changes were least pronounced within pretetanic period, but were profound within terminal period of muscle activity. The changes in dynamic contraction properties and Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum under effect of the investigated compounds was minimal in the beginning of the muscle’s response to stimulus, prior to muscle strength reaching stable contraction level.

  6. Rana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren Vissing

    and for visualization. As a tool Rana offers a graphic user interface for live event visualization, agent feedback and simulation configuration. To establish Rana as an end-user tool, it is evaluated against the existing state of the art for multi-agent systems simulation tools and three different Rana models...... interface for defining the nature of an events propagation. This provides an interface for determination of event relevance during a simulation, and for visualization of a simulations event-scape. Two different simulations are presented that demonstrate event-processing functionality in agent design...

  7. Acid-base regulation in tadpoles of Rana catesbeiana exposed to environmental hypercapnia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Morten; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Jensen, Frank B.

    1997-01-01

    Tadpoles of Rana catesbeiana were exposed to different levels of environmental hypercapnia. The acid-base regulatory response differed from that in adult amphibians in showing a high degree of pH compensation in the extracellular fluid (65-85%) and complete compensation in the intracellular fluid......-base equivalents marginally, suggesting that mobilisable CaCO3 stores were depleted during the first exposure to hypercapnia and that they were not refilled. The CaCO3 stores may normally be mobilised during the slowly developing internal hypercapnia that occurs during metamorphosis....

  8. Oxidative stress induced in PCB 126-exposed northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-W.; Hoffman, D.J.; Karasov, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Northern leopard frogs Rana pipiens exposed to PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) were examined for hepatic oxidative stress. In a dose-response study, northern leopard frogs were injected intraperitoneally with either PCB 126 in corn oil (0.2, 0.7, 2.3, or 7.8 mg/kg body weight) or corn oil alone. In a time-course study, frogs received 7.8 mg/kg or corn oil alone, and were examined at 1, 2, 3, and 4 wk after dosing. Hepatic concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and total sulfhydryls (total SH), as well as activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P), GSSG reductase (GSSG-R), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and glutathione S-transferase (GSH-S-T) were measured. In the dose-response experiment, few effects were apparent 1 wk after dosing. In the time-course experiment, significant changes were observed in the 7.8-mg/kg group at 2 wk or more posttreatment. Hepatic concentrations of GSH and TBARS were higher than in corresponding controls at wk 3 and 4; the activities of GSSG-R and GSH-S-T were higher than in controls at wk 2 and 4; and the activity of G-6-PDH was increased at wk 2 and 4. These data collectively indicate that altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress occurred and were indicative of both toxicity and induction of protective mechanisms in frogs exposed to PCB. A similar delay in response was reported in fish and may relate to lower metabolic rate and physiological reactions in ectothermic vertebrates

  9. Oxidative stress induced in PCB 126-exposed northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue-wern; Hoffman, David J; Karasov, William H

    2007-04-15

    Northern leopard frogs Rana pipiens exposed to PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) were examined for hepatic oxidative stress. In a dose-response study, northern leopard frogs were injected intraperitoneally with either PCB 126 in corn oil (0.2, 0.7, 2.3, or 7.8 mg/kg body weight) or corn oil alone. In a time-course study, frogs received 7.8 mg/kg or corn oil alone, and were examined at 1, 2, 3, and 4 wk after dosing. Hepatic concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and total sulfhydryls (total SH), as well as activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P), GSSG reductase (GSSG-R), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and glutathione S-transferase (GSH-S-T) were measured. In the dose-response experiment, few effects were apparent 1 wk after dosing. In the time-course experiment, significant changes were observed in the 7.8-mg/kg group at 2 wk or more posttreatment. Hepatic concentrations of GSH and TBARS were higher than in corresponding controls at wk 3 and 4; the activities of GSSG-R and GSH-S-T were higher than in controls at wk 2 and 4; and the activity of G-6-PDH was increased at wk 2 and 4. These data collectively indicate that altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress occurred and were indicative of both toxicity and induction of protective mechanisms in frogs exposed to PCB. A similar delay in response was reported in fish and may relate to lower metabolic rate and physiological reactions in ectothermic vertebrates.

  10. Influence of larval period on responses of overwintering green frog (Rana clamitans) larvae exposed to contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snodgrass, J.W.; Hopkins, W.A.; Jackson, B.P.; Baionno, J.A.; Broughton, J. [Towson State University, Towson, MD (US). Dept. of Biological Science

    2005-06-01

    Pond-breeding amphibians exhibit large intra- and interspecific differences in the duration of the aquatic larval phase. In contaminated aquatic environments, a prolonged larval phase means prolonged exposure to pollutants and, potentially, more severe toxic effects. In the laboratory, we tested this hypothesis by exposing green frog larvae (Rana clamitans) to commercial clean sand (control), sediment from an abandoned surface mine (mine), or sediment contaminated with coal combustion waste (CCW). By collecting eggs late in the breeding season, we obligated larvae to overwinter and spend a protracted amount of time exposed to contaminated sediments. The experiment was continued until all larvae either successfully completed metamorphosis or died (301 d). Larvae exposed to mine sediments accumulated significant levels of Pb and Zn, whereas larvae exposed to CCW-contaminated sediment accumulated significant levels of As, Se, Sr, and V. Larvae exposed to mine sediments suffered sublethal effects in the form of reduced growth and size at metamorphosis, but the proportion of larvae successfully completing metamorphosis (93%) was the same for both control and mine treatments. In contrast, larvae exposed to CCW-contaminated sediment suffered greatly reduced survival (13%) compared to both control and mine treatments. Moreover, among larvae in the CCW treatment, the majority of mortality occurred during the latter part the overwintering period (after day 205), corresponding to the onset of metamorphosis in the controls. Our results suggest that the length of the larval period may be one of many life-history or ecological characteristics that influence the sensitivity of aquatic breeding amphibians to environmental pollutants.

  11. Growth and developmental effects of coal combustion residues on Southern Leopard Frog (Rana sphenocephala) tadpoles exposed throughout metamorphosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.D.; Peterson, V.A.; Mendonca, M.T. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States). Dept. for Biological Science

    2008-09-15

    The effects of aquatic deposition of coal combustion residues (CCRs) on amphibian life histories have been the focus of many recent studies. In summer 2005, we raised larval Southern Leopard Frogs, Rana sphenocephala, on either sand or CCR substrate (approximately 1 cm deep within plastic bins) and documented effects of sediment type on oral disc condition, as well as time to, mass at, and total body length at key developmental stages, including metamorphosis (Gosner stages (GS) 37, 42, and 46). We found no significant difference in mortality between the two treatments and mortality was relatively low (eight of 48 in the control group and four of 48 in the CCR group). Ninety percent of exposed tadpoles displayed oral disc abnormalities, while no control individuals displayed abnormalities. Tadpoles raised on CCR-contaminated sediment had decreased developmental rates and weighed significantly less at all developmental stages, on average, when compared to controls. The CCR treatment group was also significantly shorter In length than controls at the completion of metamorphosis (GS 46). Collectively, these findings are the most severe sub-lethal effects noted for any amphibian exposed to CCRs to date. More research is needed to understand how these long term effects may contribute to the dynamics of local amphibian populations.

  12. A survey of blood and other tissue parasites of leopard frogs Rana pipiens in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, N D; Nye, R R

    1977-01-01

    In a survey of blood and other tissue parasites from 137 leopard frogs, Rana pipiens complex, purchased from 13 commercial vendors in 8 states in the United States, Trypanosoma pipientis was found in 2 R. p. berlandieri, Toxoplasma ranae in 1 R. pipiens, Isospora lieberkuehni in 1 leopard frog, Haemogregarina magna in 44, Lankesterella minima in 3, Leptotheca ohlmacheri in 3 and microfilariae of Foleyella sp. in 6. The report of I. lieberkuehni is presumably a new host record. Haemogregarina temporariae (Nöller,, 1920) nov. comb. is established as a new combination for Nematopsis temporariae.

  13. Assessment of thyroid system disruption in Rana pipiens tadpoles chronically exposed to UVB radiation and 4-tert-octylphenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, M.C., E-mail: maxinecroteau@hotmail.com [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Davidson, M., E-mail: mdavi089@uottawa.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Duarte-Guterman, P., E-mail: duarte.paula@gmail.com [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Wade, M., E-mail: mike_wade@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Popesku, J.T., E-mail: jpopesku@gmail.com [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Wiens, S., E-mail: susannawiens@hotmail.com [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Lean, D.R.S., E-mail: dlean@uottawa.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Trudeau, V.L., E-mail: trudeauv@uottawa.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2009-11-08

    Many studies have considered recent increases in ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR) and endocrine disrupting chemicals polluting the environment as possible contributing factors to the reduction in amphibian populations. It has been demonstrated that exposure of amphibians to estrogenic chemicals or UVBR can affect the timing of larval development and metamorphosis. However, amphibians in the wild are exposed to multiple environmental stressors simultaneously. Therefore, our study examines the effects of UVBR and the estrogenic chemical 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), alone and in combination, on the thyroid system of Rana pipiens tadpoles, which is the main regulator of amphibian metamorphosis. Results demonstrate that thyroid gland histomorphology measurements in Gosner stage 31 tadpoles continuously exposed to UVBR (0.21 W/m{sup 2}) were not different than those measured in animals from the control group. In a separate experiment, tadpoles exposed to environmentally relevant levels of UVBR (0.22 W/m{sup 2}) and/or OP (0.01 nM or 10 nM) exhibited significantly delayed development starting from Gosner stage 29, given that fewer tadpoles developed past stage 29 in these groups. In addition, significantly fewer UVBR-treated tadpoles developed past stage 34 and metamorphosed. Samples were collected from stages 29 and 34 tadpoles for gene expression analysis in tail tissue and measurements of T3 (triiodothyronine) whole body levels (minus tail). UVBR and/or OP exposure did not affect T3 levels in stages 29 and 34 tadpoles. However, a decrease in deiodinase type 2 (D2) or increase in deiodinase type 3 (D3) mRNA levels was observed in groups of tadpoles with slowed developmental rates at those developmental stages. Given that D2 activates and D3 inactivates thyroid hormones (TH), UVBR/OP mediated disruptions in development are likely caused by dysfunctions in the localized metabolism of THs through alterations in the expression of these enzymes in peripheral tissues. This is the

  14. Rana nigromaculata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ONLINE RESOURCES. Development and characterization of 13 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for the pond green frog (Rana nigromaculata). JIE GONG1,2, HONG LAN1,2, SHENG-GUO FANG1,2 and QIU-HONG WAN1,2∗. 1College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, People's Republic of ...

  15. El declive de una población costera cantábrica de Rana bermeja (Rana temporaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOSA, A.

    1998-01-01

    Algunas de las características reproductoras de la población son de notable alargamiento de su periodo de puesta, que comienza a primeros de noviembre y puede extenderse hasta febrero y primeros de marzo ; la baja fecundidad de las hembras (media de 1006 huevos por puesta y la permanencia de los machos en los charcos donde se reproducen(algunos pasan en ellos hasta dos meses y medio.El pico reproductor medio para el periodo de estudio se produce en la segunda decena de diciembre, fecha en la que ya se ha hecho el 60% de la puesta total.

  16. The role of desensititation in decay time of miniature endplate currents in frogs Rana ridibunda and Rana temporaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giniatullin, R. A.; Talantova, M. V.; Vyskočil, František

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 3 (2001), s. 287-292 ISSN 0168-0102 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7011902; GA MŠk VS97099; GA MŠk OK 267 Grant - others:RFBR(RU) 98-04-48044; INTAS(BE) 2000-1147 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : frog * desensitisation * miniature endplate potential Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.770, year: 2001

  17. Ugrizna rana lica

    OpenAIRE

    Knežević, Bojana; Knežević, Predrag; Uglešić, Vedran; Zubčić, Vedran

    2006-01-01

    Ugrizne rane jedne su od najčešćih ozljeda u ljudi. Najčešći su ugrizi pasa (više od 80%), mačaka i ljudi. U velikom postotku ugrizne rane locirane su na licu, osobito kod djece. Najčešće bakterije koje se mogu naći u ugriznoj rani su aerobi i anaerobi iz oralne flore napadača i aerobi s kože žrtve. Liječenje ugriznih rana lica je specifično u odnosu prema ostalim dijelovima tijela. Ugrizne rane lica primarno se šivaju, a zbog dobre prokrvljenosti komplikacije su rijetke, no ako se dogode mog...

  18. Peripheral origins and functional characteristics of vibration-sensitive VIIIth nerve fibers in the frog Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jøgensen, Morten Buhl; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    1991-01-01

    were studied. 2) Vibration-sensitive fibers were found in both the anterior and posterior branch of the VIIIth nerve. 3) No vibration-sensitive fibers were found in the lagenar nerve. 4) The vibration-sensitive fibers in the posterior branch probably innervated the amphibian papilla and many...... of these fibers also responded to low-frequency sound. 5) The vibration-sensitive fibers in the anterior branch probably innervated the sacculus and the utriculus. 6) Hence, the grassfrog has at least two, and probably three, vibration-sensitive organs in the inner ear. 7) All fibers had V-shaped vibrational...... tuning curves. In the posterior branch best frequencies (BFs) ranged from 10 to 300 Hz, in the anterior branch from 10 to 100 Hz. In the posterior branch spike-rate thresholds at BF ranged from 0.04 to 1.28 cm/s2, in the anterior branch from 0.02 to 1.28 cm/s2. All fibers showed strong synchronization...

  19. Estimation of the factors determining body size of youngs of the year of Rana temporaria L. before a hibernation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutenkov Anatoly Petrovich

    2013-10-01

    This equation and statistical analysis showed that the year-to-year morphological variability of juvenile frogs by the autumn depends on air temperature, rainfall, and the time of exposition (from the beginning of metamorphosis up to the end of foraging, rather than intrinsic properties of different groups of newly metamorphosed froglets.

  20. [The coiled bodies and satellite microbodies of the oocyte nuclei in hibernating Rana temporaria frogs contain actin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, A G; Kvasov, I D; Khaĭtlina, S Iu; Parfenov, V N

    1997-01-01

    Immunocytochemical analysis of preparation of dispersed nuclei content in oocytes of III-IV stages of oogenesis, in terms of Dumont (1972), from hibernating grass frogs using monoclonal antibodies against actin, revealed two types of intranuclear structures containing this protein: coiled bodies (CB) and satellite microbodies (SM). Staining of these preparations with Rhodamin-phalloidin, known specifically to interact with fibrillar actin, did not reveal it in these structures. Results of our biochemical studies, using protease ESP32 specifically cutting only globular actin, are suggesting that both CB and SM contain globular actin. Gall et al. (1975) proposed that CB may be involved in assembling and sorting of small nuclear RNA for the three main RNA processing pathways: pre-mRNA splicing, pre-rRNA processing, and histone pre-mRNA 3'-end formation. Our finding of actin in CB allows a suggestion on actin involvement in the transport of RNA processing complexes from CB to some actual places where processing of RNA takes place. According to our previous data (Tsvetkov, Parfenov., 1994), SM participate in the karyosphere capsule formation. This process is preceded by SM fusion triggered presumably by actin.

  1. Micronuclei induction in Rana catesbeiana tadpoles by the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin

    OpenAIRE

    Campana, Marcela Alejandra; Panzeri, Ana María; Moreno, Víctor Jorge; Dulout, Fernando Noel

    2003-01-01

    Pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin genotoxicity was evaluated using the micronucleus test in Rana catesbeiana tadpoles. The effects of concentration and exposure time on the micronuclei frequency were studied in blood smears obtained from tadpoles exposed to four concentrations (0.02, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/L) of the compound for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and 8, 15, 20 and 30 days. As a positive control, tadpoles were exposed to cyclophosphamide (5 mg/L). The micronucleated cell frequency was expressed per...

  2. Exposures to estradiol, ethinylestradiol and octylphenol affect survival and growth of Rana pipiens and Rana sylvatica tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Natacha S; Lean, David R S; Trudeau, Vance L

    2006-08-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are often detected in the aquatic environment and can negatively affect the health of wildlife populations. However, little is known about the sensitivity of native amphibians to EDCs. Wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) and Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were exposed to three estrogenic EDCs: estradiol (E2), ethinylestradiol (EE2), and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP). In addition, R. pipiens were exposed during two developmental stages (Gosner stages 26 and 36) to examine life-stage differences in sensitivity. Tadpoles were exposed for 2 wk to 8 nominal concentrations (0.25 microM-10 microM) of each compound. Individual mortality was recorded during the exposure period, while body weight was measured at the end of 2 wk. LC50 values were calculated, and differences in body weight between vehicle control and exposed groups were assessed. Rank order toxicity of the compounds for both R. pipiens stages and both species was OP > EE2 > E2. Gosner stage 26 tadpoles were more sensitive (LC50: E2 [5.57 microM], EE2 [3.01 microM], OP [1.36 microM]) to all three compounds when compared to stage 36 tadpoles (LC50: E2 [>10 microM], EE2 [4.17 microM], OP [2.80 microM]). Interspecies comparisons revealed R. sylvatica tadpoles (LC50: E2 [2.50 microM], EE2 [1.89 microM], OP [0.74 microM]) as being more sensitive to the three compounds than R. pipiens (LC50: E2 [4.56 microM], EE2 [2.75 microM], OP [1.42 microM]). Xenoestrogen exposure also affected tadpole body weight which may have long-term adverse effects on the rate of metamorphosis. These results provide toxicological data needed for assessing sublethal effects of estrogenic compounds on amphibian development and suggest that environmental levels of OP may pose a serious risk to the health of amphibian populations.

  3. In vitro and in vivo responses of saccular and caudal nucleus neurons in the grassfrog (Rana temporaria)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Walkowiak, W

    1999-01-01

    We present results from in vitro and in vivo studies of response properties of neurons in the saccular and caudal nuclei in the frog. In the in vitro studies the saccular nerve of the isolated brain was stimulated with electrical pulses. In the in vivo experiments, the neurons were stimulated...... by dorso-ventral vibrations of the intact animal. We identified six response types: (1) primary-like cells with short latencies and follow repetition rates up to 100 Hz; (2) phasic cells responding only to the first pulse in a train; (3) bursting cells firing several spikes in response to any stimulation......; (4) late responders with very long latencies; (5) integrator cells showing facilitated responses, and (6) inhibitory cells inhibited by saccular nerve stimulation.The cells have comparable sensitivity and frequency characteristics to the primary fibres (BF 10-80 Hz, thresholds from 0.01 cm/s2...

  4. Micronuclei induction in Rana catesbeiana tadpoles by the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Alejandra Campana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin genotoxicity was evaluated using the micronucleus test in Rana catesbeiana tadpoles. The effects of concentration and exposure time on the micronuclei frequency were studied in blood smears obtained from tadpoles exposed to four concentrations (0.02, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/L of the compound for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and 8, 15, 20 and 30 days. As a positive control, tadpoles were exposed to cyclophosphamide (5 mg/L. The micronucleated cell frequency was expressed per 1,000 cells. R. catesbeiana tadpoles exposed to increasing concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin showed an increase in the micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood. Tadpoles exposed to cyclophosphamide (CP also showed a significant increase in micronucleated erythrocytes which peaked after 15 days. These results suggest that R. catesbeiana tadpoles may provide a useful model for monitoring water pollution.

  5. Effects of lead-contaminated sediment on Rana sphenocephala tadpoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Krest, S.K.; Ortiz-Santaliestra, M.

    2006-01-01

    We exposed larval southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) to lead-contaminated sediments to determine the lethal and sublethal effects of this metal. Tadpoles were laboratory-raised from early free-swimming stage through metamorphosis at lead concentrations of 45, 75, 180, 540, 2360, 3940, 5520, and 7580 mg/kg dry weight in sediment. Corresponding pore water lead concentrations were 123, 227, 589, 1833, 8121, 13,579, 19,038, and 24,427 ug/L. Tadpoles exposed to lead concentrations in sediment of 3940 mg/kg or higher died within 2 to 5 days of exposure. At lower concentrations, mortality through metamorphosis ranged from 3.5% at 45 mg/kg lead to 37% at 2360 mg/kg lead in sediment. The LC50 value for lead in sediment was 3728 mg/kg (95% CI=1315 to 72,847 mg/kg), which corresponded to 12,539 ug/L lead in pore water (95% CI= 4000 to 35,200 ug/L). Early growth and development were depressed at 2,360 mg/kg lead in sediment (8100 ug/L in pore water) but differences were not evident by the time of metamorphosis. The most obvious effect of lead was its pronounced influence on skeletal development. Whereas tadpoles at 45 mg/kg lead in sediment did not display permanent abnormalities, skeletal malformations increased in frequency and severity at all higher lead concentrations. By 2360 mg/kg, 100% of surviving metamorphs displayed severe spinal problems, reduced femur and humerus lengths, deformed digits, and other bone malformations. Lead concentrations in tissues correlated positively with sediment and pore water concentrations.

  6. Morphometric variation in the Tunisian green frog, Rana saharica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rana saharica is the most widely distributed anuran in Tunisia. We examined morphological variation in 124 specimens as a function of their geographical origin, using univariate and multivariate statistics with traditional morphometrics. Our results supported the existence of three morphotypes of this species, correctly ...

  7. Foraging behaviour in tadpoles of the bronze frog Rana temporalis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The ability of bronze frog Rana temporalis tadpoles (pure or mixed parental lines) to ... less of whether they are siblings or non-siblings in a group, which correlates well with ..... Sutherland W J and Parker G A 1992 The relationship between.

  8. In vivo study of lens regeneration in Rana cyanophlyctis under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-12

    Mar 12, 2014 ... enhanced the percentage lens regeneration not only in young tadpoles but also in froglets. Lens regeneration ability ... Influence of vitamin A and ascorbic acid on lens regeneration in young, mature tadpoles and froglets of the frog Rana cyanophlyctis. Group .... ingested by macrophages. Dorsal iris cells ...

  9. Type I collagen from bullfrog ( Rana catesbeiana ) fallopian tube ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rana catesbeiana) with a yield of 16.4%, on a dry weight basis. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacylamide-gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that the PSC contained two alpha components (α1 and α2) and was classified as type I collagen ...

  10. Effects of exposure to ultraviolet light on the development of Rana pipiens, the northern leopard frog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.J.; Wofford, H.W.

    1996-01-01

    The increase in ultraviolet light intensity levels due to ozone depletion recently has been linked to the decline in amphibian population. In this experiment, eggs and larvae of Rana pipiens were subjected to differing amounts of ultraviolet radiation to determine the effects of ultraviolet light on the development of amphibian tadpoles. The total length, length of body without tail, and maximum width of each specimen was recorded for a month of the tadpoles' development, including several measurements after the ultraviolet exposures were concluded. It was found that ultraviolet exposure significantly reduced the size of the organisms in comparison with the control group in all three measured areas. Ultraviolet radiation altered the health and appearance of the exposed organisms and was lethal at large amounts. This experiment showed that ultraviolet radiation could cause many problems in developing amphibians. By slowing their development and physically weakening predation, thus contributing to a decline in overall population levels

  11. Helminth communities of two green frogs (Rana perezi and Rana saharica from both shores of the Alboran Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro P.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The helminth communities of two populations of green frogs from both shores of the Alborán Sea (Western Mediterranean were studied. Of the 79 frogs examined for helminths, 39 individuals of the species Rana saharica were collected from Bab-Taza (Morocco, and 40 of the species Rana perezi were collected from the Natural Park of the Sierra de Grazalema (Spain. Although the species richness of helminths was identical in the two sampled areas, the differences observed in the structure of the helminth infracommunities were quite important. Statistically, significant differences were found between the species richness and the diversity of the infracommunities of R. perezi female population and the other three studied statistical populations. The helminth component communities of these two green frogs can be considered as depauperate, although their infracommunities present interactive features.

  12. On the presence of Rana ridibunda ridibunda Pallas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Since long there has been a dispute whether in the Netherlands there occur one or two species of green frogs of the genus Rana. There has never been any doubt concerning the presence of Rana esculenta Linnaeus, a species widely distributed throughout the country (Van de Bund, 1964, 1968). The first

  13. Effects of agricultural pesticides on the immune system of Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christin, M.S.; Menard, L.; Gendron, A.D.; Ruby, S.; Cyr, D.; Marcogliese, D.J.; Rollins-Smith, L.; Fournier, M.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, there have been mass declines in diverse geographic locations among amphibian populations. Multiple causes have been suggested to explain this decline. Among these, environmental pollution is gaining attention. Indeed, some chemicals of environmental concern are known to alter the immune system. Given that amphibians are frequently exposed to agricultural pesticides, it is possible that these pollutants alter their immune system and render them more susceptible to different pathogens. In this study, we exposed two frog species, Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens, for a short period of time to a mixture of pesticides (atrazine, metribuzine, endosulfan, lindane, aldicarb and dieldrin) representative in terms of composition and concentrations to what it is found in the environment of the southwest region of the province of Quebec. The pesticides were known to be present in surface water of many tributaries of the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). Our results demonstrate that the mixture of pesticides could alter the cellularity and phagocytic activity of X. laevis and the lymphocyte proliferation of R. pipiens. Taken together, these results indicate that agricultural pesticides can alter some aspects of the immune response in frogs and could contribute to their global decline by rendering them more susceptible to certain infections

  14. Effects of agricultural pesticides on the immune system of Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christin, M.S.; Menard, L.; Gendron, A.D.; Ruby, S.; Cyr, D.; Marcogliese, D.J.; Rollins-Smith, L.; Fournier, M

    2004-03-30

    Over the last 30 years, there have been mass declines in diverse geographic locations among amphibian populations. Multiple causes have been suggested to explain this decline. Among these, environmental pollution is gaining attention. Indeed, some chemicals of environmental concern are known to alter the immune system. Given that amphibians are frequently exposed to agricultural pesticides, it is possible that these pollutants alter their immune system and render them more susceptible to different pathogens. In this study, we exposed two frog species, Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens, for a short period of time to a mixture of pesticides (atrazine, metribuzine, endosulfan, lindane, aldicarb and dieldrin) representative in terms of composition and concentrations to what it is found in the environment of the southwest region of the province of Quebec. The pesticides were known to be present in surface water of many tributaries of the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). Our results demonstrate that the mixture of pesticides could alter the cellularity and phagocytic activity of X. laevis and the lymphocyte proliferation of R. pipiens. Taken together, these results indicate that agricultural pesticides can alter some aspects of the immune response in frogs and could contribute to their global decline by rendering them more susceptible to certain infections.

  15. ULOGA DEBRIDMANA U LIJEČENJU KRONIČNIH RANA

    OpenAIRE

    HULJEV, DUBRAVKO; GAJIĆ, ALEKSANDAR; TRILLER, CIRIL; KECELJ LESKOVEC, NADA

    2013-01-01

    Debridement je proces uklanjanja mrtvog tkiva iz rane. Struktura, boja i neugodni mirisi devitaliziranog tkiva se razlikuju. osim toga, devitalizirano tkivo može biti suho ili sa secernacijom. Devitalizirano tkivo usporava ili u potpunosti onemogućuje zarastanje rane te je indicirano da ga se u okviru liječenja rana mora odstraniti. Cilj debridmana je pretvaranje kronične rane u stanje akutne rane i iniciranje procesa zaraštavanja. Debridement je osnovni postupak u liječenju svake rane, ali i...

  16. RANA, a real-time multi-agent system simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren Vissing; Demazeau, Yves; Hallam, John

    2016-01-01

    for individualisation and abstraction while retaining efficiency. Events are managed by the C++ simulator core. Full run state can be recorded for post-processed visualisation or analysis. The new tool is demonstrated in three different cases: a mining robot simulation, which is purely action based; an agent......-based setup that is verifies the high precision exhibited by RANAs simulation core; and a state-based firefly-like agent simulation that models real-time responses to fellow agents' signals, in which event propagation and reception affect the result of the simulation....

  17. Efectivos poblacionales de la Rana ágil (Rana dalmatina y uso del hábitat reproductor en Navarra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOSA, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La población navarra de Rana dalmatina se encuentra fragmentada en 4 núcleos incomunicados, con baja disponibilidad de humedales para la reproducción (entre 2 y 15 por área. La población de hembras adultas fluctúa anualmente entre 1000 y 1500 individuos, sin considerar de la La Barranca, todavía no investigada. La conservación de la especie depende de la gestión de las zonas húmedas.

  18. KARBOKSITERAPIJA – POTPORNA TERAPIJA U LIJEČENJU KRONIČNIH RANA

    OpenAIRE

    SINOŽIĆ, TAMARA; KOVAČEVIĆ, JADRANKA

    2014-01-01

    Karboksiterapija je potporna metoda liječenja kroničnih rana koja se provodi kutanim ili supkutanim ubrizgavanjem medicinskog ugljičnog dioksida (Co2). osnovni princip djelovanja ubrizganog plina Co2 je korekcija tkivne hipoksije temeljem bohrovog efekta. Djelujući na endotelne faktore rasta potiče neoangiogenezu te stimulirajući fibroblaste na sintezu kolagena što sve zajedno dovodi do boljeg zacjeljivanja rana. brojna su područja primjene karboksiterapije - od liječenja kroničnih rana, bole...

  19. Cadmium pollution and amphibians--Studies in tadpoles of Rana limnocharis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patar, Arabinda; Giri, Anirudha; Boro, Freeman; Bhuyan, Krishna; Singha, Utsab; Giri, Sarbani

    2016-02-01

    Cadmium is released into the environment in increasing amounts from different natural and anthropogenic activities contaminating the aquatic habitats. Amphibian tadpoles develop in water and hence are likely to be adversely affected by cadmium present in the aquatic environment. We have studied the toxic and genotoxic effects of CdCl2 on the tadpoles of Rana limnocharis. CdCl2 in the concentration range between 0.1 and 0.4 mg/L induced significant mortality in R. limnocharis tadpoles in a dose and time dependent manner. The 10-day LC50 which has more ecological relevance was far less than the 24-h LC50. Tadpoles exposed to CdCl2 metamorphosed at an early age possibly as a survival strategy to move out of the stressful environment. The body weight of the CdCl2 exposed animals at metamorphosis was lower compared to the control individuals which may affect survival and reproductive fitness in adult life. Besides, the average body length of the metamorphosed individuals in the CdCl2 exposed group was higher than the control group. CdCl2 was found to be genotoxic in micronucleus test and comet assay. The ambient concentration of Cd could reach up to 60 μg/L or more. Exposure to 18.5 μg/L of CdCl2 (1% of 24-h LC50) induced significant increase in DNA strand breaks as compared to the control. The present findings demonstrate that presence of cadmium in the aquatic environment can significantly alter the life history traits and cause DNA damage in amphibians and hence, could contribute towards their population decline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative toxicity of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion and their oxon derivatives to larval Rana boylii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparling, D.W.; Fellers, G.

    2007-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are ubiquitous in the environment and are highly toxic to amphibians. They deactivate cholinesterase, resulting in neurological dysfunction. Most chemicals in this group require oxidative desulfuration to achieve their greatest cholinesterase-inhibiting potencies. Oxon derivatives are formed within liver cells but also by bacterial decay of parental pesticides. This study examines the toxicity of chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and their oxons on the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii). R. boylii is exposed to agricultural pesticides in the California Central Valley. Median lethal concentrations of the parental forms during a 96 h exposure were 3.00 mg/L (24 h) for chlorpyrifos, 2.14 mg/L for malathion and 7.49 mg/L for diazinon. Corresponding oxons were 10 to 100 times more toxic than their parental forms. We conclude that environmental concentrations of these pesticides can be harmful to R. boylii populations. - Laboratory tests on the toxicity of OP insecticides and their oxons suggest that they may be acutely lethal to amphibians at ecologically relevant concentrations

  1. Comparative toxicity of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion and their oxon derivatives to larval Rana boylii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparling, D.W. [Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology and Center for Ecology, Southern Illinois University, LS II, MS6504, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)]. E-mail: dsparl@siu.edu; Fellers, G. [Western Ecology Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Point Reyes National Seashore, Point Reyes, CA 94956 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are ubiquitous in the environment and are highly toxic to amphibians. They deactivate cholinesterase, resulting in neurological dysfunction. Most chemicals in this group require oxidative desulfuration to achieve their greatest cholinesterase-inhibiting potencies. Oxon derivatives are formed within liver cells but also by bacterial decay of parental pesticides. This study examines the toxicity of chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and their oxons on the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii). R. boylii is exposed to agricultural pesticides in the California Central Valley. Median lethal concentrations of the parental forms during a 96 h exposure were 3.00 mg/L (24 h) for chlorpyrifos, 2.14 mg/L for malathion and 7.49 mg/L for diazinon. Corresponding oxons were 10 to 100 times more toxic than their parental forms. We conclude that environmental concentrations of these pesticides can be harmful to R. boylii populations. - Laboratory tests on the toxicity of OP insecticides and their oxons suggest that they may be acutely lethal to amphibians at ecologically relevant concentrations.

  2. Cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic responses to temperature and hypoxia of the winter frog Rana catesbeiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha P.L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of hypoxia and temperature on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and plasma glucose levels of the winter bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. Body temperature was maintained at 10, 15, 25 and 35oC for measurements of breathing frequency, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, metabolic rate, plasma glucose levels, blood gases and acid-base status. Reducing body temperature from 35 to 10oC decreased (P<0.001 heart rate (bpm from 64.0 ± 3.1 (N = 5 to 12.5 ± 2.5 (N = 6 and blood pressure (mmHg (P<0.05 from 41.9 ± 2.1 (N = 5 to 33.1 ± 2.1 (N = 6, whereas no significant changes were observed under hypoxia. Hypoxia-induced changes in breathing frequency and acid-base status were proportional to body temperature, being pronounced at 25oC, less so at 15oC, and absent at 10oC. Hypoxia at 35oC was lethal. Under normoxia, plasma glucose concentration (mg/dl decreased (P<0.01 from 53.0 ± 3.4 (N = 6 to 35.9 ± 1.7 (N = 6 at body temperatures of 35 and 10oC, respectively. Hypoxia had no significant effect on plasma glucose concentration at 10 and 15oC, but at 25oC there was a significant increase under conditions of 3% inspired O2. The arterial PO2 and pH values were similar to those reported in previous studies on non-estivating Rana catesbeiana, but PaCO2 (37.5 ± 1.9 mmHg, N = 5 was 3-fold higher, indicating increased plasma bicarbonate levels. The estivating bullfrog may be exposed not only to low temperatures but also to hypoxia. These animals show temperature-dependent responses that may be beneficial since during low body temperatures the sensitivity of most physiological systems to hypoxia is reduced

  3. A stockpile of ova in the grass frog Rana temporaria is established once for the life span. Do ovaries in amphibians and in mammals follow the same evolutionary strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogielska, Maria; Kotusz, Agnieszka; Augustyńska, Renata; Ihnatowicz, Jerzy; Paśko, Łukasz

    2013-04-01

    Most anuran amphibians produce high numbers of eggs during several consecutive breeding seasons. The question is still open whether oocytes are formed anew as a result of oogonial proliferation after each spawning or the definitive pool of oocytes is established during the juvenile period and is sufficient for the whole reproductive life span of a female. Our quantitative studies show that primary oogonia in adult female frogs can proliferate, but they fail to differentiate further and do not enter meiosis, and thereby there is no supplementation of new generations of oocytes after each spawning. Ovaries of one-year-old grass frogs contain (median) 53,447 diplotene oocytes, in two-years-old frogs this number decreased to 33,583 and eventually reached 25,679 in virgin mature females. More than 50% decrease in the total oocyte number was accompanied by massive degeneration (atresia) of oocytes. The final number of oocytes in a female forms a stock for 11-12 breeding seasons and exceeds the number of eggs produced during the potential reproductive life span of this species. The phylogenetic context of oocyte recruitment modes in the major clades of vertebrates is discussed in respect to their ability to replenish the stock (a renewable stock in ovaries named "open" vs. a non-renewable stock in ovaries named "closed"). Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Population size, survival, growth, and movements of Rana sierrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Miller, David A. W.; Halstead, Brian J.; Link, William

    2013-01-01

    Based on 2431 captures of 757 individual frogs over a 9-yr period, we found that the population of R. sierrae in one meadow–stream complex in Yosemite National Park ranged from an estimated 45 to 115 adult frogs. Rana sierrae at our relatively low elevation site (2200 m) grew at a fast rate (K = 0.73–0.78), had high overwintering survival rates (44.6–95%), lived a long time (up to 16 yr), and tended to be fairly sedentary during the summer (100% minimum convex polygon annual home ranges of 139 m2) but had low year-to-year site fidelity. Even though the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) has been present in the population for at least 13 yr, there was no clear downward trend as might be expected from reports of R. sierrae population declines associated with Bd or from reports of widespread population decline of R. sierrae throughout its range.

  5. Phylogenetic relationships of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens complex) from an isolated coastal mountain range in southern Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, E; Markow, T A

    2008-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the control region and 12S rRNA in leopard frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje of southern Sonora, Mexico, together with GenBank sequences, were used to infer taxonomic identity and provide phylogenetic hypotheses for relationships with other members of the Rana pipiens complex. We show that frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje belong to the Rana berlandieri subgroup, or Scurrilirana clade, of the R. pipiens group, and are most closely related to Rana magnaocularis from Nayarit, Mexico. We also provide further evidence that Rana magnaocularis and R. yavapaiensis are close relatives.

  6. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the testes of frog Rana limnocharis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hangjun; Cai Chenchen; Shi Cailei; Cao Hui; Han Ziliu; Jia Xiuying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cd can cause vacuoles and deformity of the spermatogenic cells in the frog testes. ► Cd can result in oxidative stress in the frog testes. ► Cd can induce significantly increase of ROS contents triggered DNA damages in the frog testes. ► Cd can cause apoptosis in the testes of male R. limnocharis. ► Apoptosis by Cd in the frog testes is related to Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 genes. - Abstract: This study explored the genetic damage induced by cadmium exposure in the testes of Rana limnocharis. Healthy adult frogs were exposed to 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 mg/L of cadmium solution for 14 days. The results showed that exposure to these concentrations increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content in the testes, clearly indicating a dose–effect relationship. Moreover, the same dosages of Cd 2+ solution increased glutathione (reduced) content, with the values being significantly different from those observed in the control group (P < 0.01). The comet assay results demonstrated that the DNA damage rate, tail length, and tail moment of samples obtained from frogs exposed to 2.5–7.5 mg/L of cadmium solution significantly increased compared with those of samples obtained from the control group (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that cadmium can induce free radical generation, followed by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Ultrastructural observation revealed vacuoles in the spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. Moreover, cadmium exposure induced significant down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3 expressions. Taken together, these data indicate that cadmium can induce testicular cell apoptosis in R. limnocharis. Exploring the effects of cadmium on the mechanism of reproductive toxicity in amphibians will help provide a scientific basis accounting for the global population decline in amphibian species.

  7. Trophic ecology and microhabitat utilization by the Bufo gargarizans, Rana guentheri, and Rana limnocharis in southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonglei Yu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the trophic ecology and microhabitat use of the Asiatic toad, Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842; Guentheri frog, Rana guentheri (Boulenger, 1882; and the Ricefield frog, Rana limnocharis (Boie, 1834. These three species are common around Nanchong City, in southwestern China, where they live in the same habitat before hibernation. The main objective of this study was to analyze the diets and patterns of coexistence relative to the microhabitat of each species. In the Asiatic toad, based on index of relative importance, the diet was dominated by adult Coleoptera, Isopoda, and Hymenoptera (29.53%, 22.07%, and 15.20%, respectively, while the Guenther's frog and Ricefield frog ingested predominantly Orthoptera (67.44% and 40.94%, respectively. The standardized feeding niche breadth of the Asiatic toad (0.277 was wider than that of the Guentheri frog (0.177 and Ricefield frog (0.269. The overlap in the trophic niche (prey proportion between the toad and two species of frog was low (toad vs. Guentheri frog, C H = 0.526; toad vs. Ricefield frog, C H = 0.521, while this was high for the two species of frogs (C H = 0.942. The three species also differed in microhabitat use. Asiatic toads showed strong preference for small roads close to shrubs or pre-harvest corn, while Guenther's frogs preferred bare surfaces on habitat edges, and Ricefield frogs showed a preference for bare surfaces as feeding sites in the middle of habitat. The difference in diet observed during three species seems to be explained by the difference in microhabitat use and body size of three species.

  8. THE MOCHE BOTANICAL FROG (La rana botánica mochica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna McClelland †

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants and animals with features which identify them as supernaturals characterize the art of the Precolumbian Moche culture of northern Peru. Among these animals is a frog with feline attributes and a consistent association with manioc tubers, stalks, and plants, the Botanical Frog. The Botanical Frog appears to have been patterned on Leptodactylus pentadactylus. It is shown copulating with felines. Fine line painted vessels and ones with low relief decoration show the Botanical Frog performing as part of a ritual involving other animals and cultivated crops, suggesting that the Botanical Frog was associated with agriculture. ESPAÑOL: El arte de la cultura mochica de la costa norte del Perú presenta plantas y animales mostrando rasgos sobrenaturales. Uno de los animales es una rana con elementos felinos y asociada con tubérculos, ramas y plantas de yuca. La Rana Botánica probablemente tiene su origen en Leptodactylus pentadactylus, una rana carnívora de la selva amazónica. La Rana Botánica copula con felinos y, en vasijas pintadas con líneas finas o con escenarios representados en bajorrelieve, toma parte en ceremonias involucrando a otros animales y cosechas domésticas. Parece ser que la Rana Botánica era un ser sobrenatural asociado con la agricultura.

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Rana catesbeiana [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Rana catesbeiana 名詞 一般 * * * * ウシ...ガエル ウシガエル ウシガエル Thesaurus2015 200906051181134488 C LS05 UNKNOWN_2 Rana catesbeiana

  10. Impacts of weathered tire debris on the development of Rana sylvatica larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camponelli, K.M.; Casey, R.E.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Lev, S.M.; Landa, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Highway runoff has the potential to negatively impact receiving systems including stormwater retention ponds where highway particulate matter can accumulate following runoff events. Tire wear particles, which contain about 1% Zn by mass, make up approximately one-third of the vehicle derived particulates in highway runoff and therefore may serve as a stressor to organisms utilizing retention ponds as habitat. In this study, we focused on the potential contribution of tire debris to Zn accumulation by Rana sylvatica larvae and possible lethal or sublethal impacts resulting from exposure to weathered tire debris during development. Eggs and larvae were exposed to aged sediments (containing either ZnCl2 or tire particulate matter, both providing nominal concentrations of 1000 mg Zn kg-1) through metamorphosis. Water column Zn was elevated in both the ZnCl2 and tire treatments relative to the control treatment, indicating that aging allowed Zn leaching from tire debris to occur. Tissue Zn was also elevated for the ZnCl2 and tire treatments indicating that Zn in the treatments was available for uptake by the amphibians. Exposure to both ZnCl2 and tire treatments increased the time for larvae to complete metamorphosis in comparison with controls. We also observed that the longer the organisms took to complete metamorphosis, the smaller their mass at metamorphosis. Our results indicate that Zn leached from aged tire debris is bioavailable to developing R. sylvatica larvae and that exposure to tire debris amended sediments can result in measurable physiological outcomes to wood frogs that may influence population dynamics. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Impacts of weathered tire debris on the development of Rana sylvatica larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camponelli, Kimberly M; Casey, Ryan E; Snodgrass, Joel W; Lev, Steven M; Landa, Edward R

    2009-02-01

    Highway runoff has the potential to negatively impact receiving systems including stormwater retention ponds where highway particulate matter can accumulate following runoff events. Tire wear particles, which contain about 1% Zn by mass, make up approximately one-third of the vehicle derived particulates in highway runoff and therefore may serve as a stressor to organisms utilizing retention ponds as habitat. In this study, we focused on the potential contribution of tire debris to Zn accumulation by Rana sylvatica larvae and possible lethal or sublethal impacts resulting from exposure to weathered tire debris during development. Eggs and larvae were exposed to aged sediments (containing either ZnCl2 or tire particulate matter, both providing nominal concentrations of 1000 mg Zn kg(-1)) through metamorphosis. Water column Zn was elevated in both the ZnCl2 and tire treatments relative to the control treatment, indicating that aging allowed Zn leaching from tire debris to occur. Tissue Zn was also elevated for the ZnCl2 and tire treatments indicating that Zn in the treatments was available for uptake by the amphibians. Exposure to both ZnCl2 and tire treatments increased the time for larvae to complete metamorphosis in comparison with controls. We also observed that the longer the organisms took to complete metamorphosis, the smaller their mass at metamorphosis. Our results indicate that Zn leached from aged tire debris is bioavailable to developing R. sylvatica larvae and that exposure to tire debris amended sediments can result in measurable physiological outcomes to wood frogs that may influence population dynamics.

  12. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the testes of frog Rana limnocharis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hangjun; Cai Chenchen; Shi Cailei; Cao Hui; Han Ziliu [Department of Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Xuelin Road 16, Xiasha Gaojiao Dongqu, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310036 (China); Jia Xiuying, E-mail: hznujiaxiuying@126.com [Department of Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Xuelin Road 16, Xiasha Gaojiao Dongqu, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310036 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can cause vacuoles and deformity of the spermatogenic cells in the frog testes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can result in oxidative stress in the frog testes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can induce significantly increase of ROS contents triggered DNA damages in the frog testes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can cause apoptosis in the testes of male R. limnocharis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptosis by Cd in the frog testes is related to Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 genes. - Abstract: This study explored the genetic damage induced by cadmium exposure in the testes of Rana limnocharis. Healthy adult frogs were exposed to 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 mg/L of cadmium solution for 14 days. The results showed that exposure to these concentrations increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content in the testes, clearly indicating a dose-effect relationship. Moreover, the same dosages of Cd{sup 2+} solution increased glutathione (reduced) content, with the values being significantly different from those observed in the control group (P < 0.01). The comet assay results demonstrated that the DNA damage rate, tail length, and tail moment of samples obtained from frogs exposed to 2.5-7.5 mg/L of cadmium solution significantly increased compared with those of samples obtained from the control group (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that cadmium can induce free radical generation, followed by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Ultrastructural observation revealed vacuoles in the spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. Moreover, cadmium exposure induced significant down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3 expressions. Taken together, these data indicate that cadmium can induce testicular cell apoptosis in R. limnocharis. Exploring the effects of cadmium on the mechanism of reproductive toxicity in amphibians will help provide a

  13. Influence of anuran prey on the condition and distribution of Rana muscosa in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.L. Pope; K.R. Matthews

    2002-01-01

    Mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) at high elevations of the Sierra Nevada must obtain enough food during summer to survive 7–9 winter months when their aquatic habitats are frozen and food is presumably unavailable. Adults of R. muscosa prey on a variety of organisms, including aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates and...

  14. Delayed metamorphosis and recurrence of bacterial infection in irradiated Rana clamitans tadpoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.R.

    1982-03-01

    X-ray doses of 5 and 10 Gy (1 Gy/min) given to premetamorphic Green Frog (Rana clamitans) tadpoles delayed their metamorphosis relative to unirradiated controls. Previous pathogenic bacterial infections recurred in irradiated animals prior to metamorphic climax. Limited mortality occurred during metamorphic climax, 80-105 days after irradiation

  15. Leech presence on Iberian Brown Frog, Rana iberica, (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae from north-western Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Ayres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of parasitism on Rana iberica by two species of leeches, Batracobdella sp. and Hirudo medicinalis, in a mountainous area of north-western Spain. Conservation implications of high parasite load on small and isolated populations are discussed.

  16. Mating strategy and breeding patterns of the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara A. Wheeler; Hartwell H. Welsh Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The Foothill Yellow-legged Frog (Rana boylii) has declined across much of its native range in California. Improper stream management may lower egg mass survival and reduce the availability of suitable breeding habitats. We collected data during six breeding-seasons (2002-2007) along an unregulated stream in northwestern California. We monitored...

  17. Effects of the Chytrid fungus on the Tarahumara frog (Rana tarahumarae) in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. Hale; Philip C. Rosen; James L. Jarchow; Gregory A. Bradley

    2005-01-01

    We conducted histological analyses on museum specimens collected 1975-1999 from 10 sites in Arizona and Sonora to test for the pathogenic chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in ranid frogs, focusing on the Tarahumara frog (Rana tarahumarae). During 1981-2000, frogs displaying disease signs were found in the field, and...

  18. Site fidelity of the declining amphibian Rana sierrae (Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen Matthews; Haiganoush Preisler

    2010-01-01

    From 1997 to 2006, we used mark–recapture models to estimate the site fidelity of 1250 Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frogs (Rana sierrae) in Kings Canyon National Park, California, USA, during their three main activity periods of overwintering, breeding, and feeding. To quantify site fidelity, the tendency to return to and reuse previously occupied...

  19. Octylphenol and UV-B radiation alter larval development and hypothalamic gene expression in the leopard frog (Rana pipiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Douglas; Lean, David; Trudeau, Vance L

    2002-03-01

    We assessed octylphenol (OP), an estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical, and UV-B radiation, a known stressor in amphibian development, for their effects on hypothalamic gene expression and premetamorphic development in the leopard frog Rana pipiens. Newly hatched tadpoles were exposed for 10 days to OP alone at two different dose levels; to subambient UV-B radiation alone; and to two combinations of OP and UV-B. Control animals were exposed to ethanol vehicle (0.01%) exposure, a subset of tadpoles from each treatment group was raised to metamorphosis to assess differences in body weight and time required for hindlimb emergence. Tadpoles from one of the OP/UV-B combination groups had greater body weight and earlier hindlimb emergence (p weight or hindlimb emergence, indicating a potential mechanism of interaction between OP and UV-B. We hypothesized that the developing hypothalamus might be a potential environmental sensor for neurotoxicologic studies because of its role in the endocrine control of metamorphosis. We used a differential display strategy to identify candidate genes differentially expressed in the hypothalamic region of the exposed tadpoles. Homology cloning was performed to obtain R. pipiens glutamate decarboxylases--GAD65 and GAD67, enzymes involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). cDNA expression profiles revealed that OP and UV-B affected the levels of several candidate transcripts in tadpole (i.e., Nck, Ash, and phospholipase C gamma-binding protein 4 and brain angiogenesis inhibitor-3) and metamorph (i.e., GAD67, cytochrome C oxidase, and brain angiogenesis inhibitor-2 and -3) brains. This study represents a novel approach in toxicology that combines physiologic and molecular end points and indicates that levels of OP commonly found in the environment and subambient levels of UV-B alter the expression of important hypothalamic genes and disrupt tadpole growth patterns.

  20. Multifarious selection through environmental change: acidity and predator-mediated adaptive divergence in the moor frog (Rana arvalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea-Serrano, Andrés; Hangartner, Sandra; Laurila, Anssi; Räsänen, Katja

    2014-04-07

    Environmental change can simultaneously cause abiotic stress and alter biological communities, yet adaptation of natural populations to co-changing environmental factors is poorly understood. We studied adaptation to acid and predator stress in six moor frog (Rana arvalis) populations along an acidification gradient, where abundance of invertebrate predators increases with increasing acidity of R. arvalis breeding ponds. First, we quantified divergence among the populations in anti-predator traits (behaviour and morphology) at different rearing conditions in the laboratory (factorial combinations of acid or neutral pH and the presence or the absence of a caged predator). Second, we evaluated relative fitness (survival) of the populations by exposing tadpoles from the different rearing conditions to predation by free-ranging dragonfly larvae. We found that morphological defences (relative tail depth) as well as survival of tadpoles under predation increased with increasing pond acidity (under most experimental conditions). Tail depth and larval size mediated survival differences among populations, but the contribution of trait divergence to survival was strongly dependent on prior rearing conditions. Our results indicate that R. arvalis populations are adapted to the elevated predator pressure in acidified ponds and emphasize the importance of multifarious selection via both direct (here: pH) and indirect (here: predators) environmental changes.

  1. Predator mediated selection and the impact of developmental stage on viability in wood frog tadpoles (Rana sylvatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calsbeek Ryan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex life histories require adaptation of a single organism for multiple ecological niches. Transitions between life stages, however, may expose individuals to an increased risk of mortality, as the process of metamorphosis typically includes developmental stages that function relatively poorly in both the pre- and post-metamorphic habitat. We studied predator-mediated selection on tadpoles of the wood frog, Rana sylvatica, to identify this hypothesized period of differential predation risk and estimate its ontogenetic onset. We reared tadpoles in replicated mesocosms in the presence of the larval odonate Anax junius, a known tadpole predator. Results The probability of tadpole survival increased with increasing age and size, but declined steeply at the point in development where hind limbs began to erupt from the body wall. Selection gradient analyses indicate that natural selection favored tadpoles with short, deep tail fins. Tadpoles resorb their tails as they progress toward metamorphosis, which may have led to the observed decrease in survivorship. Path models revealed that selection acted directly on tail morphology, rather than through its indirect influence on swimming performance. Conclusions This is consistent with the hypothesis that tail morphology influences predation rates by reducing the probability a predator strikes the head or body.

  2. Multifarious selection through environmental change: acidity and predator-mediated adaptive divergence in the moor frog (Rana arvalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea-Serrano, Andrés; Hangartner, Sandra; Laurila, Anssi; Räsänen, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Environmental change can simultaneously cause abiotic stress and alter biological communities, yet adaptation of natural populations to co-changing environmental factors is poorly understood. We studied adaptation to acid and predator stress in six moor frog (Rana arvalis) populations along an acidification gradient, where abundance of invertebrate predators increases with increasing acidity of R. arvalis breeding ponds. First, we quantified divergence among the populations in anti-predator traits (behaviour and morphology) at different rearing conditions in the laboratory (factorial combinations of acid or neutral pH and the presence or the absence of a caged predator). Second, we evaluated relative fitness (survival) of the populations by exposing tadpoles from the different rearing conditions to predation by free-ranging dragonfly larvae. We found that morphological defences (relative tail depth) as well as survival of tadpoles under predation increased with increasing pond acidity (under most experimental conditions). Tail depth and larval size mediated survival differences among populations, but the contribution of trait divergence to survival was strongly dependent on prior rearing conditions. Our results indicate that R. arvalis populations are adapted to the elevated predator pressure in acidified ponds and emphasize the importance of multifarious selection via both direct (here: pH) and indirect (here: predators) environmental changes. PMID:24552840

  3. Effects of chronic copper exposure on development and survival in the southern leopard frog (Lithobates [Rana] sphenocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Stacey L; Erickson, Matthew R; Flynn, R Wesley; Mills, Gary L; Tuberville, Tracey D; Scott, David E

    2012-07-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants contributes to the global decline of amphibian populations. The impacts of organic contaminants on amphibians are well documented. However, substantially less is known concerning the potential effects of metals on amphibian populations. Copper (Cu) is an essential element, but it can be toxic at concentrations only slightly higher than the normal physiological range. The present study examines the effects of chronic Cu exposure on embryos and larvae of southern leopard frogs, Lithobates (Rana) sphenocephalus. Groups of eggs from multiple clutches were collected from two wetlands and exposed to a range of Cu concentrations (0-150 µg/L) until they reached the free-swimming stage, and then individual larvae were reared to metamorphosis. Higher Cu concentrations significantly reduced embryo survival to the free-swimming stage but did not further reduce survival to metamorphosis. Larval period was affected by Cu treatment, but the clutch from which larvae originated (i.e., parentage) explained a higher proportion of the variation. Embryo survival to hatching varied significantly among clutches, ranging from 42.9 to 79.2%. Measurable levels of Cu were found in larvae with body burdens up to 595 µg Cu/g dry mass in the 100 µg/L treatment, and larval Cu body burdens were higher than in metamorphs. The present study also demonstrated that higher initial egg density ameliorated embryo mortality at higher Cu levels and should be accounted for in future studies. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  4. cytogenetic effects in populations of amphibians Rana arvalis living on the radio-contaminated area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yushkova, E.; Bodnar, I.; Zainullin, V. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The study of the features reactions of the animals a differing complicated individual development (metamorphosis) and living in conditions of radioactive contamination is an important trend in the modern radio-ecology. This information is of interest not only from the point of view of detection the mechanisms of radiobiological effects (hyper-radiosensitivity, hormesis, radio-adaptation, etc.) but also viewpoint of predicting delayed radiation effects that is necessary at account the normalization of technogeneous loading on natural ecosystems. An assessment of the level of cytogenetic damages (single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks) in the blood cells of tadpoles of Rana arvalis living in areas contaminated of wastes radium production (Russia, Komi Republic, Ukhta district) was conducted. Using this biological matter as a bioindicator due to the fact that development amphibian is carried out by metamorphosis and includes larval stage. At this stage post-embryonic development of an individual are the most sensitive to anthropogenic impact. To exclude the effects of other factors (temperature, age-specific peculiarities, overpopulation, etc.) on the formation of DNA damages from the studied reservoirs were taken laying eggs of amphibians (12-15 egg laying from the area) which afterwards are contain in strictly controlled laboratory conditions using water, belt silt, plants of native pond. The reaction of amphibians on the contamination was assessed by the level of DNA damage by method Comet assay was determined. With each egg laying were selected for 7 even-aged individuals. Total for cytogenetic analysis was used 189 individuals. It is shown that in animals that develop on the radio-contaminated area the level of single-strand DNA (alkaline pH version of the Comet assay) was higher than in the control area. According an estimate to the level of double-strand DNA (neutral pH version of the Comet assay) significant differences not was found. The high variability

  5. Diversity and phylogeography of Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bao-Tian; Zhou, Yu; Min, Mi-Sook; Matsui, Masafumi; Dong, Bing-Jun; Li, Pi-Peng; Fong, Jonathan J

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the species diversity and phylogeography of the Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (the R. dybowskii species complex: R. dybowskii, R. pirica, and R. uenoi) using four mitochondrial and three nuclear loci. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of three distinct species in this complex; using extensive molecular data, we confirm the validity of Rana uenoi recognized as a distinct species, and infer R. dybowskii and R. pirica to be sister species. Also, we included populations from previously unsampled regions in Northeast China, and identified them to be R. dybowskii. While many species in Northeast Asia diverged due to Pleistocene glaciation, divergence-dating analyses inferred older, Miocene speciation in the R. dybowskii species complex. Ancestral area reconstruction identified the orogenic movement of the Changbai Mountain Range and the opening of the Sea of Japan/East Sea being major events influencing allopatric speciation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Large intestine bacterial flora of nonhibernating and hibernating leopard frogs (Rana pipiens).

    OpenAIRE

    Gossling, J; Loesche, W J; Nace, G W

    1982-01-01

    The bacteria in the large intestines of 10 northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were enumerated and partially characterized. Four nonhibernating frogs were collected in the summer, four hibernating frogs were collected in the winter, and two frogs just emerged from hibernation were collected in the spring. All frogs had about 10(10) bacteria per g (wet weight) of intestinal contents and about 10(9) bacteria per g (wet weight) of mucosal scraping, although the counts from the winter frogs wer...

  7. N.C. Rana: The Life of a `Comet' in the Astrophysical World

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay, Utpal; Ray, Saibal

    2014-01-01

    Narayan Chandra Rana, a person with extraordinary potential from a remote village of Bengal, India, came into the limelight of the international scientific world through his exceptional talent, zeal and courage. In his very short life-span, he excelled not only into various branches of astrophysics, but also took a leading role in science popularization, text book writing etc. In this paper, life and works of that budding scientist of India have been discussed from multifarious viewpoints.

  8. Ultrastructure and localisation of late-sporogonic developmental stages of Sphaerospora ranae (Myxosporea: Sphaerosporidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Miloslav; Bartošová, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2014), s. 311-321 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2330; GA ČR(CZ) GPP506/11/P724 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * Europe * kidneys * myxospore * Myxozoa * Rana * sporogony * synchronisation * in situ hybridisation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.147, year: 2014

  9. O sufixo -rana no português falado pelo caboclo amazonense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Azevedo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a formação de palavras com o sufixo -rana no português falado em seis localidades situadas na região do Médio Solimões no Estado do Amazonas. O corpus para a análise foi retirado das respostas dos informantes ao questionário semântico-lexical da tese de Azevedo¹, que está em andamento e que trata da variação dialetal na região do Baixo Amazonas e do Médio Solimões. Para os propósitos da pesquisa, nossa fundamentação foi baseada no modelo da morfologia gerativa a fim de que fosse possível a construção de uma regra aplicável às bases que esse sufixo seleciona. Os resultados mostraram a existência de formações neológicas, uma vez que não foram encontradas em obras lexicográficas. Além disso, o sufixo -rana ao selecionar bases substantivas não muda a classe gramatical da palavra primitiva ao formar novos substantivos. Devido à regularidade, foi possível estabelecermos uma regra de formação de palavras para o sufixo -rana no português falado nessa região da Amazônia brasileira.

  10. Influence of Nitrate and Nitrite on Thyroid Hormone Responsive and Stress-Associated Gene Expression in Cultured Rana catesbeiana Tadpole Tail Fin Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinther, Ashley; Edwards, Thea M.; Guillette, Louis J.; Helbing, Caren C.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are common aqueous pollutants that are known to disrupt the thyroid axis. In amphibians, thyroid hormone (TH)-dependent metamorphosis is affected, although whether the effect is acceleration or deceleration of this developmental process varies from study to study. One mechanism of action of these nitrogenous compounds is through alteration of TH synthesis. However, direct target tissue effects on TH signaling are hypothesized. The present study uses the recently developed cultured tail fin biopsy (C-fin) assay to study possible direct tissue effects of nitrate and nitrite. Tail biopsies obtained from premetamorphic Rana catesbeiana tadpoles were exposed to 5 and 50 mg/L nitrate (NO3–N) and 0.5 and 5 mg/L nitrite (NO2–N) in the absence and presence of 10 nM T3. Thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) and Rana larval keratin type I (RLKI), both of which are TH-responsive gene transcripts, were measured using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. To assess cellular stress which could affect TH signaling and metamorphosis, heat shock protein 30, and catalase (CAT) transcript levels were also measured. We found that nitrate and nitrite did not significantly change the level of any of the four transcripts tested. However, nitrate exposure significantly increased the heteroscedasticity in response of TRβ and RLKI transcripts to T3. Alteration in population variation in such a way could contribute to the previously observed alterations of metamorphosis in frog tadpoles, but may not represent a major mechanism of action. PMID:22493607

  11. Influence of nitrate and nitrite on thyroid hormone-responsive and stress-associated gene expression in cultured Rana catesbeiana tadpole tail fin tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eHinther

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate and nitrite are common aqueous pollutants that are known to disrupt the thyroid axis. In amphibians, thyroid hormone (TH-dependent metamorphosis is affected, although whether the effect is acceleration or deceleration of this developmental process varies from study to study. One mechanism of action of these nitrogenous compounds is through alteration of TH synthesis. However, direct target tissue effects on TH signalling are hypothesized. The present study uses the recently developed cultured tail fin biopsy (C-fin assay to study possible direct tissue effects of nitrate and nitrite. Tail biopsies obtained from premetamorphic Rana catesbeiana tadpoles were exposed to 5 mg/L and 50 mg/L nitrate (NO3-N and 0.5 mg/L and 5 mg/L nitrite (NO2-N in the absence and presence of 10 nM T3. Thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ and Rana larval keratin type I (RLKI, both of which are thyroid hormone responsive gene transcripts, were measured using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. To assess cellular stress which could affect TH signalling and metamorphosis, heat shock protein 30 (HSP30 and catalase (CAT transcript levels were also measured. We found that nitrate and nitrite did not significantly change the level of any of the four transcripts tested. However, nitrate exposure significantly increased the heteroscedasticity in response of TRβ and RLKI transcripts to T3. Alteration in population variation in such a way could contribute to the previously observed alterations of metamorphosis in frog tadpoles, but may not represent a major mechanism of action.

  12. Reproducción de la rana Hyla labialis Reproducción del rana Hvla labialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Alice S.

    1962-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. Se estudió la ovogénesis en la Hyla labialis para compararla con el mismo proceso en las ranas que viven en países con estaciones climatéricas definidas. Por inyección de glándula pituitaria se pueden obtener huevos fertilizados durante los meses de octubre a junio, y rara vez en los otros meses. 2. Se midieron y se contaron ovocitos enteros en muestras de ovarios maduros, inmaduros y después de la ovulación, Hay ovocitos de todos los tamaños presentes en los ovarios maduros; en los ovarios no maduros, y después de la ovulación hay células de todos los tamaños hasta 1.200 mm. de diámetro. 3. En secciones de ovarios se midió el diámetro de las células y de los núcleos y plaquetas vitelinas. Se estudiaron los cambios citológicos de los núcleos y también del citoplasma. Las plaquetas vitelinas aparecen en células que tienen un diámetro de 0.350 a 0.400 mm, La melanina aparece en ovocitos que tienen 0.700 mm. o más de diámetro. En general, los cambios citológicos son muy semejantes a los descritos por otros investigadores en otras especies. 4. La diferencia más obvia e interesante entre la ovogénesis de la Hyla Iabialis y la de otras especies descritas es la presencia de ovocitos de todos los tamaños y en cantidades grandes en el ovario inmediatamente después de la ovulación. Se piensa que los resultados demuestran que el proceso de ovogénesis sigue durante todos los meses sin detenerse como se hace en países con estaciones climatéricas definidas. 1. Oögenesis of the frog, Hyla labialis has been studied in order to Compare it with the same process in frogs which live in countries with definite climatic seasons. Fertilized eggs can be obtained after pituitary injection during the months of October through June and occasionally during the rest of the year. 2. Whole oöcytes were measured and counted in samples taken from mature ovaries, immature ovaries and ovaries after ovulation had taken place. There are o

  13. De novo Transcriptome Assemblies of Rana (Lithobates catesbeiana and Xenopus laevis Tadpole Livers for Comparative Genomics without Reference Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inanc Birol

    Full Text Available In this work we studied the liver transcriptomes of two frog species, the American bullfrog (Rana (Lithobates catesbeiana and the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis. We used high throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq data to assemble and annotate these transcriptomes, and compared how their baseline expression profiles change when tadpoles of the two species are exposed to thyroid hormone. We generated more than 1.5 billion RNA-seq reads in total for the two species under two conditions as treatment/control pairs. We de novo assembled these reads using Trans-ABySS to reconstruct reference transcriptomes, obtaining over 350,000 and 130,000 putative transcripts for R. catesbeiana and X. laevis, respectively. Using available genomics resources for X. laevis, we annotated over 97% of our X. laevis transcriptome contigs, demonstrating the utility and efficacy of our methodology. Leveraging this validated analysis pipeline, we also annotated the assembled R. catesbeiana transcriptome. We used the expression profiles of the annotated genes of the two species to examine the similarities and differences between the tadpole liver transcriptomes. We also compared the gene ontology terms of expressed genes to measure how the animals react to a challenge by thyroid hormone. Our study reports three main conclusions. First, de novo assembly of RNA-seq data is a powerful method for annotating and establishing transcriptomes of non-model organisms. Second, the liver transcriptomes of the two frog species, R. catesbeiana and X. laevis, show many common features, and the distribution of their gene ontology profiles are statistically indistinguishable. Third, although they broadly respond the same way to the presence of thyroid hormone in their environment, their receptor/signal transduction pathways display marked differences.

  14. Laboratory studies bearing on pigment pattern polymorphisms in wild populations of Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, D J

    1972-01-01

    Data are presented for 2,393 progeny from a number of crosses related to a study in ecological genetics of the Burnsi and Kandiyohi polymorphisms in natural populations of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens. No significant differences in viability were found between wild-type homozygotes (+/+) and Burnsi heterozygotes (B/+) or homozygotes (B/B). Similarly, no difference in viability was found between wild-type (+/+) and Kandiyohi heterozygotes (K/+) and homozygotes (K/K). However, there appears to be slight reduction in viability of the double dominant heterozygote (B/+; K/+) in comparison with (+/+), (B/+), and (K/+) progeny from the same cross.-The Kandiyohi heterozygotes (K/+) appeared to have a more rapid rate of development from fertilization through metamorphosis than wild-type (+/+) or Burnsi (B+/) or Burnsi-Kandiyohi heterozygotes (B+K/+). Since Kandiyohi is associated primarily with the prairie habitat (Merrell 1965), this finding suggests that the adaptive advantage of Kandiyohi lies in the more rapid rate of development of frogs carrying this gene, enabling them to complete metamorphosis before the prairie breeding ponds dry up.-Data are presented from crosses involving dorsal spot number. The results suggest that heredity plays a role in the determination of dorsal spot number but that non-genetic influences are also of considerable importance.-The results of these crosses are discussed with respect to their bearing on the formation of pigment patterns in Rana pipiens. From the available data it is clear that the pigment pattern in Rana pipiens is a complex trait influenced by major gene loci, by modifying genes, and by environmental effects. The relative importance of these factors varies depending on the particular combination of genetic and environmental conditions.

  15. O SUFIXO -RANA NO PORTUGUÊS FALADO PELO CABOCLO AMAZONENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a formação de palavras com o sufixo –rana no português falado em seis localidades situadas na região do Médio Solimões no Estado do Amazonas. O corpus para a análise foi retirado das respostas dos informantes ao questionário semântico-lexical da tese de Azevedo, que está em andamento e que trata da variação dialetal na região do Baixo Amazonas e do Médio Solimões. Para os propósitos da pesquisa, nossa fundamentação foi baseada no modelo da morfologia gerativa a fim de que fosse possível a construção de uma regra aplicável às bases que esse sufixo seleciona. Os resultados mostraram a existência de formações neológicas, uma vez que não foram encontradas em obras lexicográficas. Além disso, o sufixo –rana ao selecionar bases substantivas não muda a classe gramatical da palavra primitiva ao formar novos substantivos. Devido à regularidade, foi possível estabelecermos uma regra de formação de palavras para o sufixo –rana no português falado nessa região da Amazônia brasileira.

  16. Food Habits of the Endemic Long Legged Wood Frog, Rana Pseudodalmatina (Amphibia, Ranidae, in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najibzadeh M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Iranian long legged wood frog, Rana pseudodalmatina Eiselt & Schmidtler, 1971 is a brown frog species endemic to the Hyrcanian forest. The objective of the present study is to collect detailed information on the feeding habits of 44 specimens of this species (24 ♂, 20 ♀ by analyzing the stomach contents of individuals from 10 populations inhabiting range. The food habit of R. pseudodalmatina generally varies by the availability of surrounding prey items, and it is a foraging predator, the food of which consists largely of Coleoptera (mainly Carabidae, Dytiscidae and Haliplidae, Diptera (Muscidae and Hymenoptera (Formicidae, and no difference was found between females and males in the stomach content.

  17. First report of Hepatozoon sp. in the Oregon spotted frog, Rana pretiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Patricia L; Bowerman, William J

    2010-07-01

    From 2005 through 2008, we screened 650 Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) from three populations in central Oregon, USA, for hemoparasites. A Hepatozoon sp., not previously reported in R. pretiosa, was found in one population of frogs, mostly as intracellular gamonts at a prevalence of 10.5% with parasitemias ranging from 0.02% to greater than 42% of erythrocytes within individual frogs. Intra-and extracellular merozoites were present, but rare. A potential vector, the mosquito Culex boharti, was common throughout the habitat of the population carrying Hepatozoon sp.

  18. Ciliates (Protozoa from dried sediments of a temporary pond from Argentina Ciliados (Protozoa de sedimentos secos de una charca temporaria de la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cristina Küppers

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporary ponds represent special environments that are inhabited by organisms adapted to changing environmental conditions. Ciliates are able to survive complete loss of water in these transient habitats through cyst formation. However, ciliates from the Neotropical region in general have been poorly studied with modern techniques. The main goal of this study is to describe the ciliates in dried sediments of a temporary pond from Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, through sampling efforts that were performed 2003-2005. Soil samples were obtained during drought phases and re wetted in laboratory to establish raw and enriched cultures. Ciliates were then studied both in vivo and after impregnation with protargol. In this study, we present 4 new records for Argentina (Gonostomum affine (Stein, 1859 Sterki, 1878, Stylonychia bifaria (Stokes, 1887 Berger, 1999, Pleurotricha lanceolata (Ehrenberg, 1835 Stein, 1859, Meseres corlissi Petz and Foissner, 1992, 1 for South America (Blepharisma americanum (Suzuki, 1954 Hirshfield, Isquith and Bhandary, 1965, and 2 for the Neotropical Realm (Gonostomum strenuum (Engelmann, 1862 Sterki, 1878, Stylonychia lemnae Ammermann and Schlegel, 1983.Los cuerpos de agua temporarios son ambientes particulares que se encuentran habitados por organismos adaptados a condiciones fluctuantes. Los ciliados son capaces de sobrevivir a la pérdida completa de agua del ambiente gracias a la formación de estructuras de resistencia. Por otra parte, los ciliados de la región Neotropical han sido poco investigados con técnicas modernas. El objetivo de este estudio es referir los ciliados que se desarrollaron a partir de los sedimentos secos de una charca temporaria de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, en la que se realizaron muestreos durante el período 2003-2005. Las muestras de suelo fueron obtenidas durante las fases de sequía y luego resuspendidas en el laboratorio para realizar cultivos naturales y enriquecidos. Los

  19. Hemoparasites in Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) from central Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Patricia L; Bowerman, William J

    2008-04-01

    Between 2001 and 2003, we screened blood smears of 156 Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) from three populations in central Oregon for blood parasites. A Lankesterella sp. and a Trypanosoma sp. were detected in 31% and 35% of the frogs, respectively. Parasite loads were generally light, with Lankesterella sporozoites in 1-2% of erythrocytes, and extracellular trypanosomes were seen at rates of about one parasite per 200 fields of view at 1,000x. Little work has been published on hemoparasites of ranids in the western USA in the past 30 yr. Because of the recent taxonomic division of the Rana pretiosa complex, this may be the first published report of blood parasites for R. pretiosa sensu stricto. Both parasites reported here differed in morphologic features and morphometric comparisons from previous descriptions of anuran hemoparasites. Much work remains to sort out the taxonomy of hemoparasites among western USA ranids and to determine the ecological significance of these parasites; both tasks are important steps in understanding and managing these, and related, sensitive and threatened species.

  20. Exposing diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Kamilla; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    professionals´ meetings with patients and relatives. In the paper we draw data from focus group discussions with interdisciplinary groups of health care professionals working in the area of care for older people. The video narratives used to initiate discussions are developed through ethnographic fieldwork...... in the homes of older people and in pedagogical institutions targeting older people. In the paper we look at the potentials and challenges in working with ethnographic video narratives as a pedagogical tool. Our findings indicate that the use of video narratives has the potential to expose the diversity...... focus on their own professional discipline and its tasks 2) stimulates collaborative learning when they discuss their different interpretations of the ethnographic video narratives and achieve a deeper understanding of each other’s work and their clients’ lifeworlds, which might lead to a better...

  1. Accelerated hatching of southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala) eggs in response to the presence of a crayfish Procambarus nigrocinctus predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; James B. Johnson; Cory K. Adams; Gage H. Dayton

    2003-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity, such as morphological and behavioral changes in response to predators, is common in larval anurans. Less is known about inducible defenses in the embryonic stages of development. We investigated the predation risk imposed by crayfish (Procambarus nigrocinctus) on southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala)...

  2. Linking the distribution of an invasive amphibian (Rana catesbeiana) to habitat conditions in a managed river system in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra Fuller; Karen Pope; Donald Ashton; Hartwell Welsh

    2010-01-01

    Extensive modifications of river systems have left floodplains some of the most endangered ecosystems in the world and made restoration of these systems a priority. Modified river ecosystems frequently support invasive species to the detriment of native species. Rana catesbeiana (American bullfrog) is an invasive amphibian that thrives in modified...

  3. Water velocity tolerance in tadpoles of the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii): Swimming performance, growth, and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Kupferberg; A. Lind; V. Thill; S. Yarnell

    2011-01-01

    We explored the effects of large magnitude flow fluctuations in rivers with dams, commonly referred to as pulsed flows, on tadpoles of the lotic-breeding Foothill Yellow-legged Frog, Rana boylii. We quantified the velocity conditions in habitats occupied by tadpoles and then conducted experiments to assess the tolerance to values at the upper limit...

  4. Variation in genotoxic stress tolerance among frog populations exposed to UV and pollutant gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquis, Olivier; Miaud, Claude; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Bocher, Aurore; Mouchet, Florence; Guittonneau, Sylvie; Devaux, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Populations of widely distributed species can be subjected to unequal selection pressures, producing differences in rates of local adaptation. We report a laboratory experiment testing tolerance variation to UV-B and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among common frog (Rana temporaria) populations according to their natural exposure level in the field. Studied populations were naturally distributed along two gradients, i.e. UV-B radiation with altitude and level of contamination by PAHs with the distance to emitting sources (road traffic). Tadpoles from eight populations were subjected to (1) no or high level of artificial UV-B; (2) four concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (0, 50, 250, 500 μg L -1 ); (3) simultaneously to UV-B and BaP. Since both stressors are genotoxic, the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) in circulating red blood cells was used as a bioindicator of tadpole sensitivity. High-altitude populations appear to be locally adapted to better resist UV-B genotoxicity, as they showed the lowest MNE numbers. Conversely, no correlation was observed between levels of PAH contamination in the field and tadpole tolerance to BaP in the laboratory, indicating the absence of local adaptation for BaP tolerance in these populations. Nevertheless, the decrease of MNE formation due to BaP exposure with altitude suggests that high-altitude populations were intrinsically more resistant to BaP genotoxicity. We propose the hypothesis of a co-tolerance between UV-B and BaP in high-altitude common frog populations: local adaptation to prevent and/or repair DNA damage induced by UV-B could also protect these highland populations against DNA damage induced by BaP. The results of this study highlight the role of local adaptation along pollutant gradients leading to tolerance variation, which implies that is it necessary to take into account the history of exposure of each population and the existence of co-tolerance that can hide toxic effects of a new

  5. Variation in genotoxic stress tolerance among frog populations exposed to UV and pollutant gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquis, Olivier [Laboratoire d' Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS 5553, Universite de Savoie, Technolac, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Miaud, Claude, E-mail: claude.miaud@univ-savoie.fr [Laboratoire d' Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS 5553, Universite de Savoie, Technolac, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Ficetola, Gentile Francesco [Laboratoire d' Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS 5553, Universite de Savoie, Technolac, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Department of Biology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy); Bocher, Aurore [Laboratoire de Chimie Moleculaire et Environnement, Universite de Savoie, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Mouchet, Florence [Laboratoire d' Ecologie Fonctionnelle, UMR CNRS-UPS-INPT 5245, Institut National Polytechnique-ENSAT, Auzeville-Tolosane (France); Guittonneau, Sylvie [Laboratoire de Chimie Moleculaire et Environnement, Universite de Savoie, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Devaux, Alain [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Environnement, Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l' Etat, INRA-EFPA, Vaulx-en-Velin (France)

    2009-11-08

    Populations of widely distributed species can be subjected to unequal selection pressures, producing differences in rates of local adaptation. We report a laboratory experiment testing tolerance variation to UV-B and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among common frog (Rana temporaria) populations according to their natural exposure level in the field. Studied populations were naturally distributed along two gradients, i.e. UV-B radiation with altitude and level of contamination by PAHs with the distance to emitting sources (road traffic). Tadpoles from eight populations were subjected to (1) no or high level of artificial UV-B; (2) four concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (0, 50, 250, 500 {mu}g L{sup -1}); (3) simultaneously to UV-B and BaP. Since both stressors are genotoxic, the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) in circulating red blood cells was used as a bioindicator of tadpole sensitivity. High-altitude populations appear to be locally adapted to better resist UV-B genotoxicity, as they showed the lowest MNE numbers. Conversely, no correlation was observed between levels of PAH contamination in the field and tadpole tolerance to BaP in the laboratory, indicating the absence of local adaptation for BaP tolerance in these populations. Nevertheless, the decrease of MNE formation due to BaP exposure with altitude suggests that high-altitude populations were intrinsically more resistant to BaP genotoxicity. We propose the hypothesis of a co-tolerance between UV-B and BaP in high-altitude common frog populations: local adaptation to prevent and/or repair DNA damage induced by UV-B could also protect these highland populations against DNA damage induced by BaP. The results of this study highlight the role of local adaptation along pollutant gradients leading to tolerance variation, which implies that is it necessary to take into account the history of exposure of each population and the existence of co-tolerance that can hide toxic effects of a

  6. Estrogenic exposure affects metamorphosis and alters sex ratios in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens): identifying critically vulnerable periods of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Natacha S; Duarte, Paula; Wade, Michael G; Lean, David R S; Trudeau, Vance L

    2008-05-01

    During the transformation from larval tadpole to juvenile frog, there are critical periods of metamorphic development and sex differentiation that may be particularly sensitive to endocrine disruption. The aim of the present study was to identify sensitive developmental periods for estrogenic endocrine disruption in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) using short, targeted exposures to the synthetic estrogen, ethinylestradiol (EE2). Post-hatch tadpoles (Gosner stage 27) were exposed over five distinct periods of metamorphosis: early (stage 27-30), mid (stage 30-36), early and mid (stage 27-36), late (stage 36-42), and the entire metamorphic period (chronic; stage 27-42). For each period, animals were sampled immediately following the EE2 exposure and at metamorphic climax (stage 42). The effects of EE2 on metamorphic development and sex differentiation were assessed through measures of length, weight, developmental stage, days to metamorphosis, sex ratios and incidence of gonadal intersex. Our results show that tadpoles exposed to EE2 during mid-metamorphosis were developmentally delayed immediately following exposure and took 2 weeks longer to reach metamorphic climax. In the unexposed groups, there was low proportion (0.15) of intersex tadpoles at stage 30 and gonads appeared to be morphologically distinct (male and female) in all individuals by stage 36. Tadpoles exposed early in development displayed a strong female-biased sex ratio compared to the controls. Moreover, these effects were also seen at metamorphic climax, approximately 2-3 months after the exposure period, demonstrating that transient early life-stage exposure to estrogen can induce effects on the reproductive organs that persist into the beginning of adult life-stages.

  7. 'Man and biosphere' - studies of the Sikkim Himalayas. Pt. 5. Acute toxicity of selected heavy metals on the tadpoles of Rana hexadactyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangarot, B S; Sehgal, A; Bhasin, M K

    1985-01-01

    The toxicity of different heavy metals as mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic and zinc was tested on tadpoles of Rana hexadactyla. The rank order of the toxicity was determined. The results are briefly discussed.

  8. Modelling the impact of roads on regional population of Moor frogs (Rana arvalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maj-Britt

    for decisions concerning road lay-out and mitigation measures. As model species was chosen the Moor frog (Rana arvalis). Populations of Moor frogs are assumed to follow a pattern of metapopulation dynamics, with colonisation, extinction and recolonisation of suitable habitat patches. Thus, road constructions...... to be constructed and analysed. The first scenario should be a map of the area as it is before the planned road construction (scenario 0). This analysis measures the ecological performance of the original landscape and is a reference against which other scenarios are to be compared. The second map (scenario 1......) should show the landscape as it is expected to be after the road constructions. In combination, the analyses of scenario 0 and scenario 1 make it possible to assess the effect of road construction on connectivity and population persistence. The analyses also constitute the basis for planning...

  9. Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) in southeastern Oregon: A survey of historical localities, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Chistopher A.; Galvan, Stephanie K.; Adams, Michael J.; McCreary, Brome

    2010-01-01

    The Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) occupies a large range in western North America and is comprised of at least three genetic units. Concern exists regarding the status of the Great Basin populations in Oregon, Idaho, and Nevada. We surveyed target and nearby alternate sites on public lands in southeastern Oregon where there was evidence that Columbia spotted frogs were historically present. We found the species at 59.5 percent (25 of 42) of target or nearby alternate sites. They were in 15 of 23 permanent streams and 8 of 13 intermittent streams. Our surveys do not provide evidence of widespread population losses in our sites. Interpretation of status of Columbia spotted frogs in this study is limited by a lack of precision in some of the historical locations and by our inability to determine if locations where only adults were indicated in the historical record once had breeding populations. Our results support the need for continued investigation of these populations.

  10. Bone marrow reconstitution of immune responses following irradiation in the leopard frog, Rana pipiens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.A.; Wright, R.K.; Cooper, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    The bone marrow of Rana is an important source of cells capable of maintaining individual viability, responding to Concanavalin A (Con A) and producing PFC against sheep erythrocyte (SRBC) antigens. Frog marrow is more effective than the spleen in maintaining life. Radiation destroys the ability of frogs to respond to SRBC immunization (lack of bone marrow and spleen PFC, serum antibody) and bone marrow/spleen cells to respond to Con A, i.e., bone marrow and spleen contain radiation-sensitive cells. Shielding one hind leg during irradiation leads to reconstitution of bone marrow/spleen PFC responses, antibody synthesis and individual viability. Our results suggest that bone marrow is: a) the source of stem cells, and b) the source of mature T- and B- lymphocytes that can recirculate within the immune system

  11. Biota sediment concentration ratio (CRs-b) for fishes of Rana Pratap Sagar Lake, Rawatbhata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, S.K.; Srivastava, A.P.; Jain, A.K.; Meenal, Balram; Tiwari, S.N.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Radionuclides dissolved in water can be adsorbed by bottom/shore sediment transferring it to the deep sediment layers. These adsorbed radionuclides can be remobilized and be available again for uptake by freshwater biota. The biota sediment concentration ratio (CR s-b ) is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in an organism (C b ) on a fresh weight basis to the radionuclide concentration measured in the sediment (C sediment ). Using the data of 137 Cs activity in fish and shore sediment, CR s-b was calculated for fish samples of Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) Lake, Rawatbhata. This value can be applied in predictive models to calculate radionuclide concentration in fish samples

  12. Workplace safety in Bangladesh ready-made garment sector: 3 years after the Rana Plaza collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Uttama; Ansary, Mehedi Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Workplace safety is one of the most important issues in industries worldwide, and is endangered by industrial accidents. Different industrial disasters have resulted in several initiatives worldwide to protect human life and reduce material damage, both nationally and internationally. In Bangladesh, the ready-made garment (RMG) industry is one of the most important export-oriented business sectors, which is facing challenges to ensure workplace safety. The Rana Plaza collapse in Bangladesh is the consequence of such non-compliance. The accident resulted in different local and global initiatives to address the challenges. This article reviews progress and achievement of the initiatives to reduce vulnerability in the Bangladesh RMG industry within 3 years after the deadly accident. In the long run, the challenge is to maintain momentum already created for achieving sustainability in the RMG sector in Bangladesh and maintaining compliance even after the end of support from external partners.

  13. Parasites of the mink frog (rana septentrionalis) from Minnesota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotthoefer, Anna M.; Bolek, M.G.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Beasley, Val R.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-two mink frogs, Rana septentrionalis, collected from two locations in Minnesota, United States, were examined for helminth and protozoan blood parasites in July 1999. A total of 16 parasite taxa were recovered including 5 larval digenean trematodes, 7 adult digenean trematodes, 3 nematodes, and I Trypanosorna species. Infracommunities were dominated by the digeneans in terms of richness and abundance. In particular, echinostomatid metacercariae in the kidneys of frogs were the most common parasites found, infecting 100% of the frogs and consisting of about 90% of all helminth individuals recovered. Gorgodera amplicava, Gorgoderina multilohata, Haernaroloechus pan'iplexus, Haernatoloechus breviplexus, Cosnwcercoides dukae, and Oswaldocruzia pipiens represent new host records. The survey presented here represents the second known helminth survey of mink frogs conducted in North America. A summary of metazoan parasites reported from mink frogs is included.

  14. Shore and off-shore monitoring of Rana Pratap Sagar lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P.C.; Roy, Alpana; Hegde, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) is a man made fresh water reservoir on the river Chambal and is located about 65 km away from Kota city in the state of Rajasthan. It is a balancing reservoir between Gandhi Sagar, upstream and Jawahar Sagar, downstream. On the eastern bank of RPS there exist Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) Site, comprising of four operating pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) of 220 MWe each. The low level radioactive effluents from RAPS, are released in controlled manner to RPS. On release the effluents undergo dispersion in the aquatic environment of RPS and may reach man through, various pathways. Being fresh water reservoir, considerable emphasis is laid on the aquatic monitoring aspects relating to RPS and downstream reservoirs. This paper presents the monitored levels of radioactivity prevailing in the aquatic samples collected from near shore and off shore locations of RPS. (author)

  15. Comparative microhabitat characteristics at oviposition sites of the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jeff A.; Cook, David G.; Yee, Julie L.; van Hattem, Michael G.; Fong, Darren R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the microhabitat characteristics of 747 egg masses of the federally-threatened Rana draytonii (California red-legged frog) at eight sites in California. our study showed that a broad range of aquatic habitats are utilized by ovipositing R. draytonii, including sites with perennial and ephemeral water sources, natural and constructed wetlands, lentic and lotic hydrology, and sites surrounded by protected lands and nested within modified urban areas. We recorded 45 different egg mass attachment types, although the use of only a few types was common at each site. These attachment types ranged from branches and roots of riparian trees, emergent and submergent wetland vegetation, flooded upland grassland/ruderal vegetation, and debris. eggs were deposited in relatively shallow water (mean 39.7 cm) when compared to maximum site depths. We found that most frogs in artificial pond, natural creek, and artificial channel habitats deposited egg masses within one meter of the shore, while egg masses in a seasonal marsh averaged 27.3 m from the shore due to extensive emergent vegetation. Rana draytonii appeared to delay breeding in lotic habitats and in more inland sites compared to lentic habitats and coastal sites. eggs occurred as early as mid-december at a coastal artificial pond and as late as mid-April in an inland natural creek. We speculate that this delay in breeding may represent a method of avoiding high-flow events and/or freezing temperatures. Understanding the factors related to the reproductive needs of this species can contribute to creating, managing, or preserving appropriate habitat, and promoting species recovery.

  16. Pseudacris triseriata (western chorus frog) and Rana sylvatica (wood frog) chytridiomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittman, S.E.; Muths, E.; Green, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a known pathogen of anuran amphibians, and has been correlated with amphibian die-offs worldwide (Daszak et. al. 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5:735-748). In Colorado, B. dendrobatidis has infected Boreal toads (Bufo boreas) (Muths et. al., in review) and has been identified on museum specimens of northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) (Carey et. al. 1999. Develop. Comp. Immunol. 23:459-472). We report the first verified case of chytrid fungus in chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) and wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) in the United States. We collected seven P. triseriata, and two adult and two juvenile R. sylvatica in the Kawuneeche Valley in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) during June 2001. These animals were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) as part of an amphibian health evaluation in RMNP. Chorus frogs were shipped in one container. Wood frog adults and juveniles were shipped in two separate containers. Histological examinations of all chorus frogs and 3 of 4 wood frogs were positive for chytrid fungus infection. The fourth (adult) wood frog was too decomposed for meaningful histology. Histological findings consisted of multifocally mild to diffusely severe infections of the epidermis of the ventrum and hindlimb digital skin. Chytrid thalli were confined to the thickened epidermis (hyperkeratosis), were spherical to oval, and occasional thalli contained characteristic discharge pores or zoospores (Green and Kagarise Sherman 1999. J. Herpetol 35:92-103; Fellers et al. 2001. Copeia 2001:945-953). We cannot confirm that all specimens carried the fungus at collection, because infection may have spread from one individual to all other individuals in each container during transport. Further sampling of amphibians in Kawuneeche Valley is warranted to determine the rate of infection and mortality in these populations.

  17. Infestación por esparganos en ranas del genero Pristimantis (Anura, Strabomantidae del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio, reportamos el parasitismo por esparganos del cestode Spirometra sp. en los anfibios: Pristimantis nephophilus y Pristimantis rhodostichus, provenientes del departamento de San Martin, Perú. Tres estructuras filiformes localizadas a nivel subcutáneo, fueron colectadas e identificadas como esparganos. El hallazgo de este metacestode constituye el primer registro en anfibios del Perú y demuestra que las ranas P. nephophilus y P. rhodostichus son nuevos hospederos intermediarios para Spirometra sp.

  18. Radiocesium accumulation in the anuran frog, Rana tagoi tagoi, in forest ecosystems after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Teruhiko; Endo, Satoru; Takada, Momo; Oba, Yurika; Nursal, Wim Ikbal; Igawa, Takeshi; Doi, Hideyuki; Yamada, Toshihiro; Okuda, Toshinori

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians are key components in forest food webs. When examining radioactive contamination in anurans, it is important to understand how radiocesium transfer occurs from lower to higher trophic levels in forest ecosystems. We investigated the activity concentration of radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) in Tago's brown frog (Rana tagoi tagoi) captured on the forest floor approximately 2.5 years after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. We collected 66 R. tagoi tagoi at different distances from the FNPP. Radiocesium accumulation showed positive correlations with the air radiation dose rate and litter contamination but not with distance from the FNPP. Whole-body radioactivity showed no correlation with body mass or length. Our results suggest that differences in the available food items result in large variability in individual contamination. Contamination level monitoring in terrestrial and aquatic amphibian is necessary for clarifying the processes and mechanisms of radiocesium transfer through forest food webs. - Highlights: • Radiocesium level in Rana tagoi tagoi from forests near Fukushima was assessed. • Radiocesium accumulation was related to air dose rate and litter contamination. • Differences in dietary intake might lead to variability in individual contamination. • Transfer of radiocesium among trophic levels can occur via anurans. - Rana tagoi tagoi accumulates radiocesium in forest floor habitats near Fukushima

  19. Bioaccumulation of macro- and trace elements by European frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.) in relation to environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polechońska, Ludmiła; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra

    2016-02-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the level of trace metals and macroelements in Hydrocharis morsus-ranae collected from regions differing in the degree and type of pollution. Concentrations of 17 macro- and microelements were determined in roots and shoots of European frogbit as well as in water and bottom sediments from 30 study sites. Plants differed in concentrations of elements and bioaccumulation capacity depending on the characteristics of dominant anthropogenic activities in the vicinity of the sampling site. Shoots of H. morsus-ranae growing in the vicinity of organic chemistry plants and automotive industry contained particularly high levels of Cd, Co, and S. Plants from area close to heat and power plant, former ferrochrome industry and new highway, were distinguished by the highest concentrations of Cr, Cu, and Pb. European frogbit from both these regions contained more Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Zn than plants from agricultural and recreational areas. The concentrations of alkali metals and Co, Fe, and N in H. morsus-ranae were elevated in relation to the natural content in macrophytes irrespectively to their content in the environment. Based on the values of Bioaccumulation and Translocation Factors, European frogbit is an accumulator for Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and a good candidate for phytoremediation of water polluted with Co, Cu, Hg, K, Mn, and Ni. The amount of Co and Mn removed from water and accumulated in the plant biomass during the vegetation season was considerably high.

  20. Blood and urine physiological values in farm-cultured Rana catesbeiana (Anura: Ranidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Coppo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 302 samples of healthy farm-cultured Rana catesbeiana specimens (9-21 months-old, 50- 350 g liveweight, 50% each sex from the north-east of Argentina, were analyzed through spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, densitometry, refractometry and microscopy in order to obtain blood and urine normal values. Confidence intervals (pCon el propósito de obtener valores normales sanguíneos y urinarios, 302 muestras de ejemplares sanos de Rana catesbeiana del nordeste argentino (9-21 meses de edad, 50-350 g de peso vivo, 50% de cada sexo, fueron analizados por espectrofotometría, electroforesis, densitometría, refractometría y microscopía. Fueron obtenidos intervalos de confianza (p<0.05 para hematocrito (28.6-31.6%, eritrocitos (0.40-0.44 T/L, VCM (686-732 fL, hemoglobina (6.41-7.20 g/dL, HCM (151-164 pg, CHCM (22.6-24.0%, leucocitos (18.7-22.3 G/L, neutrófilos (58.4-63.4%, linfocitos (23.9-29.8%, monocitos (2.1-3.8%, eosinófilos (4.6-7.0%, basófilos (2.9-4.1%, tiempo de sangría (289-393s, tiempo de coagulación (452- 696s, tiempo de protrombina (76-128s, densidad urinaria (1.0061-1.0089 g/mL, pH urinario (6.38-6.96, fibrinógeno (0.59-0.99 g/dL, proteínas totales (4.19-4.49 g/dL, albúmina (1.49-1.67 g/dL, alfa-1 globulina (0.20-0.24 g/dL, alfa-2 globulina (0.48-0.54 g/dL, beta globulina (0.68-0.77 g/dL, gamma globulina (1.28-1.42 g/dL, relación albúmina/globulinas (0.50-0.58, creatinina (4.09-5.56 mg/L, urea (76.1-92.4 mg/L, ácido úrico (11.5-15.4 mg/L, triglicéridos (0.34-0.52 g/L, colesterol total (0.56-0.67 g/L, C-HDL (0.03-0.05 g/L, C-LDL (0.34-0.44 g/L, alfa lipoproteína (6.01-8.67%, beta lipoproteína (91.3-93.9%, glucosa (0.45-0.54 g/L, Na (116-121 meq/L, K (3.42- 3.81 meq/L, Cl (100-116 meq/L, Ca (7.98-8.61 mg/dL, P (8.31-9.36 mg/dL, Mg (2.26-2.55 mg/dL, Fe (105-178 ug/dL, ALP (144-170 IU/L, ALT (10.0-14.8 IU/L, AST (42.8-53.4 IU/L, GGT (7.8-10.6 IU/L, LDH (99-135 IU/L, CHE (151-185 IU/L y CPK (365-500 IU/L. Algunos

  1. Biodiversity and productivity of Rana Patap Sagar lake a thermo-ecological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P.C.; Sharma, L.L.

    2007-01-01

    Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) in Rajasthan, is a man made fresh water reservoir and is balancing between Gandhi Sagar on upstream and Jawahar sagar on its down stream. On its eastern bank there exists Rawatbhata Site, comprising of multi -nuclear facilities. There are four PHWR units of Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) which are in operations, two are under construction and another two are under advanced stage of planning. In addition to nuclear power plants the Site also houses a Heavy Water Plant and other allied facilities such as cobalt facility and waste management facilities. RAPS draws water from RPS lake through a 300 m long conduit pipe located at lake bottom about 20 m below the surface. Duly treated low level radioactive liquid effluents from RAPS facilities are injected to the warmed condenser outlet and then allowed to discharge to RPS in a controlled manner. The warm water is likely to remain at the surface and get mixed with lake water and cooled due to dilutions, evaporation from lake surface and wind currents. The heat release to the RPS lake through condenser outlet may effect the microbiological and water quality parameters, planktonic biodiversity, fish productivity etc. and thus it is imperative to conduct the thermal ecological study to assess the extent of maturation of the water body to identify its present trophic status in terms of eutrophication. This presentation gives the details of thermal ecological studies carried out at Rana Pratap Sagar lake during 2002-2004 under DAE-BRNS project.. The study includes monitoring of several water quality parameters, biological and bacterial parameters and data on thermal stratification in respect of RPS reservoir. The data so obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The probabilistic and possibilistic approaches have been applied to evaluate ecological risk. The study reveals that there is no adverse effect on RPS water quality owing to receive the warmed effluents from RAPS. Furthermore, it

  2. Low levels of the herbicide atrazine alter sex ratios and reduce metamorphic success in Rana pipiens tadpoles raised in outdoor mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Valérie S; Carew, Amanda C; Pauli, Bruce D; Wade, Michael G; Cooke, Gerard M; Trudeau, Vance L

    2010-04-01

    There are conflicting reports regarding the effects of atrazine (ATZ) on amphibian development. Therefore, further studies are needed to examine the potential mechanisms of action of ATZ in amphibians. Our aim in this study was to determine whether low concentrations of ATZ affect gonadal development and metamorphosis in the Northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens. Tadpoles were exposed in outdoor mesocosms to nominal concentrations of 0.1 and 1.8 microg/L of formulated ATZ from Gosner stage 27 (G27) to metamorphic climax (G42). Exposure to 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2; 1.5 microg/L) provided a positive control for induction of testicular oocytes in males. Endocrine-related gene expression and gonadal histopathology were examined at G42 and in a subset of premetamorphic G34 tadpoles that failed to metamorphose. Gonadal gross morphology revealed that the 1.8-microg/L ATZ treatment produced 20% more females compared with the control. Histologic analysis revealed that 22% of EE2-treated males had testicular oocytes, whereas none were observed in any animals from the control or either ATZ groups. ATZ increased brain estrogen receptor alpha mRNA to 2.5 times that of the control at premetamorphosis and altered liver levels of 5beta-reductase activity at metamorphosis. In contrast, brain aromatase mRNA level and activity did not change. ATZ treatments significantly reduced metamorphic success (number of animals reaching metamorphosis) without affecting body weight, snout-vent length, or age at metamorphosis. Gene expression analysis indicated that ATZ decreased the expression of deiodinase type 3 in the tail at premetamorphosis. Our study indicates that exposure to low concentrations of ATZ in experimental mesocosms alters gonadal differentiation and metamorphosis in developing R. pipiens.

  3. Helicopter-borne magnetic, electromagnetic and radiometric geophysical survey in the Storforshei area, Rana, Nordland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodionov, Alexei; Ofstad, Frode; Tassis, Georgios

    2012-07-01

    NGU conducted an airborne geophysical survey in Mo i Rana area in July 2012. This report describes and documents the aquisition, processing and visualization of recorded datasets. The geophysical survey results reported herein are 1414 line km. The Geotech Ltd. Hummingbird frequency domain system supplemented by optically pumped cesium magnetometer and 1024 channels RSX-5 spectrometer was used for data aquisition. The survey was flown with 100 m line spacing, line direction of 180 deg North-South (in the west) and 150 deg NorthWest-SouthEast (in the east) with the average speed 96 km/h. The average terrain clearance of the bird was 55 m. Collected data were processed by AR GeoConsulting using Geosoft Oasis Montaj software. Raw total magnetic field data were corrected for diurnal variation and levelled using standard micro levelling algorithm. EM data were filtered and levelled using both automated and manual levelling procedure. Apparent resistivity was calculated from in-phase and quadrature data for each of the five frequencies separately using a homogeneous half space model. Apparent resistivity dataset was levelled and filtered. Radiometric data were processed using standard procedures recommended by International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA). All data were gridded with the cell size of 25 m and presented as shaded relief maps at the scale of 1:25 000.(Author)

  4. Relationships between leukocytes and Hepatozoon spp. In green frogs, Rana clamitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutler, Dave; Smith, Todd G; Robinson, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    There are few published data on amphibian leukocyte profiles, and relationships between amphibian leukocytes and parasites are even less well known. Using counts from 35 pairs of blood smears taken 2 days apart, we tested for correlations between leukocyte proportions and infection intensities of Hepatozoon spp. (either Hepatozoon catesbianae or Hepatozoon clamatae) in green frogs (Rana clamitans). On average (SE), we counted 65.4 (1.7) lymphocytes, 14.0 (1.3) neutrophils, 19.3 (1.6) eosinophils, 0.9 (0.1) monocytes, and 0.4 (0.1) basophils per 100 leukocytes. All frogs harbored Hepatozoon spp. (median seven parasites per 100 leukocytes; range 1-250). Significant relationships were not observed between numbers of leukocytes and infection intensities of Hepatozoon spp. Among the possible explanations for these null results are that Hepatozoon spp. is benign, that Hepatozoon spp. is able to evade detection by the immune system, that Hepatozoon spp. is able to manipulate leukocyte investment, or that other unmeasured or undetected parasites were more important in affecting immune response.

  5. Climatic influences on the breeding biology of the agile frog ( Rana dalmatina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Magali; Pinaud, David; Barbraud, Christophe; Trotignon, Jacques; Brischoux, François

    2018-02-01

    Severe population declines of amphibians have been shown to be attributed to climate change. Nevertheless, the various mechanisms through which climate can influence population dynamics of amphibians remain to be assessed, notably to disentangle the relative synergetic or antagonistic influences of temperature and precipitations on specific life history stages. We investigated the impact of rainfall and temperature on the egg-clutch abundance in a population of agile frog ( Rana dalmatina) during 29 years (1987-2016) on 14 breeding sites located in Brenne Natural Park, France. Specifically, we examined the influence of environmental conditions occurring during five temporal windows of the year cycle corresponding to specific life history stages. Overall, our results suggest that the year-to-year fluctuations of egg-clutch abundances in Brenne Natural Park were partly dependent on local climatic conditions (rainfall and temperature). Climate seemed to influence breeding frogs during the autumn-winter period preceding reproduction. Spring and summer conditions did not influence reproduction. Additionally, we failed to detect effects of climatic conditions on newly metamorphosed individuals. Other factors such as density dependence and inter-specific interactions with introduced predators are likely to play a significant role in reproduction dynamics of the studied frog populations.

  6. Activation of eggs of the frog, Rana nigromaculata Hallowell, after localized UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambuichi, Hajime

    1981-01-01

    To analyze the mode of transmission of the activating stimulus, the change in time course of the 2nd maturation division was examined in eggs of the frog, Rana nigromaculata, which were activated by insemination or by pricking after UV-irradiation at either the animal or the vegetal hemisphere. Irradiation of the animal (UAF) or the vegetal (UVF) hemisphere before insemination retarded the 2nd maturation division in comparison with that in normally fertilized eggs (CF). When the eggs were pricked at the irradiated surface (UAP and UVP, respectively), however, the 2nd maturation division progressed faster than that of CF. The comparison of the velocity of the 2nd maturation division between UAF and UVF, and also between UAP and UVP, showed that the cortical reaction in the vegetal hemisphere was affected by UV-irradiation more severely than that in the animal hemisphere. The results suggested that the quality of the granules or the constituent within the egg cortex might vary according to the regional difference in the egg surface. (author)

  7. Helicopter-borne magnetic, electromagnetic and radiometric geophysical survey in the Storforshei area, Rana, Nordland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionov, Alexei; Ofstad, Frode; Tassis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    NGU conducted an airborne geophysical survey in Mo i Rana area in July 2012. This report describes and documents the aquisition, processing and visualization of recorded datasets. The geophysical survey results reported herein are 1414 line km. The Geotech Ltd. Hummingbird frequency domain system supplemented by optically pumped cesium magnetometer and 1024 channels RSX-5 spectrometer was used for data aquisition. The survey was flown with 100 m line spacing, line direction of 180 deg North-South (in the west) and 150 deg NorthWest-SouthEast (in the east) with the average speed 96 km/h. The average terrain clearance of the bird was 55 m. Collected data were processed by AR GeoConsulting using Geosoft Oasis Montaj software. Raw total magnetic field data were corrected for diurnal variation and levelled using standard micro levelling algorithm. EM data were filtered and levelled using both automated and manual levelling procedure. Apparent resistivity was calculated from in-phase and quadrature data for each of the five frequencies separately using a homogeneous half space model. Apparent resistivity dataset was levelled and filtered. Radiometric data were processed using standard procedures recommended by International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA). All data were gridded with the cell size of 25 m and presented as shaded relief maps at the scale of 1:25 000.(Author)

  8. Seasonal Variation in the Hepatoproteome of the Dehydration- and Freeze-Tolerant Wood Frog, Rana sylvatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P. Costanzo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Winter’s advent invokes physiological adjustments that permit temperate ectotherms to cope with stresses such as food shortage, water deprivation, hypoxia, and hypothermia. We used liquid chromatography (LC in combination with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS quantitative isobaric (iTRAQ™ peptide mapping to assess variation in the abundance of hepatic proteins in summer- and winter-acclimatized wood frogs (Rana sylvatica, a northerly-distributed species that tolerates extreme dehydration and tissue freezing during hibernation. Thirty-three unique proteins exhibited strong seasonal lability. Livers of winter frogs had relatively high levels of proteins involved in cytoprotection, including heat-shock proteins and an antioxidant, and a reduced abundance of proteins involved in cell proliferation, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial function. They also exhibited altered levels of certain metabolic enzymes that participate in the biochemical reorganization associated with aphagia and reliance on energy reserves, as well as the freezing mobilization and post-thaw recovery of glucose, an important cryoprotective solute in freezing adaptation.

  9. Toxic effects of NH4+-N on embryonic development of Bufo gargarizans and Rana chensinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongzhang; Chai, Lihong; Luo, Pingping; Zhou, Meimei; Nover, Daniel; Zhao, Xiaohong

    2017-09-01

    Although nitrogen fertilizer is commonly used worldwide, little information is currently available about NH 4 + -N toxicity on amphibians. This study determined the acute and chronic toxic effects of NH 4 + -N on two native Chinese amphibian species (Bufo gargarizans and Rana chensinensis), and compared the negative sensitivity of different embryos to NH 4 + -N. Static renewal aqueous exposures were performed using B. gargarizans and R. chensinensis embryos at Gosner stage 2 over 96 h. In terms of 96 h-LC 50 , B. gargarizans and R. chensinensis embryos had significantly different responses to NH 4 + -N, and the latter was more sensitive to NH 4 + -N than the former. In the chronic toxicity test, exposure to 10 mg L -1 NH 4 + -N or higher significantly decreased the hatching rate of embryos in both species. Significant increases in the abnormality rate of embryos at 50 mg L -1 NH 4 + -N or higher were observed and morphological abnormalities were characterized by axial flexures, yolk sac edema, and hyperplasia in both species. Additionally, the total length of embryos decreased in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to NH 4 + -N. The results indicate that NH 4 + -N exposure can increase abnormality and inhibit the hatching and development of embryos in B. gargarizans and R. chensinensis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular cloning and expression patterns of the Vasa gene from Rana nigromaculata (Amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Jia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Vasa protein is a member of the DEAD (Asp-Glu-Alu-Asp box family of ATP-dependent RNA helicases. The Vasa gene is specifically expressed in germ-line cells of many metazoans and is known to play a critical role in gametogenesis and reproductive regulation. In this paper, we isolate the full length cDNA sequence of the Vasa gene from the frog Rana nigromaculata Hallowell, 1861. The open reading frame (ORF encoding 398 amino acid residues has nine conserved motifs. According to the similarities at the amino acid sequenceythe phylogenetic analysis of Vasa gene was consistent with the evolution relationships from chordates to mammals. Furthermore, the expression pattern analysis of RnVasa mRNA, using the technique of Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR, showed a high level of transcripts in testis, ovary and kidney, whereas little to no signal was detected in other tissues, which suggests that it may play a role during gametogenesis.

  11. Rana computatrix to human language: towards a computational neuroethology of language evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbib, Michael A

    2003-10-15

    Walter's Machina speculatrix inspired the name Rana computatrix for a family of models of visuomotor coordination in the frog, which contributed to the development of computational neuroethology. We offer here an 'evolutionary' perspective on models in the same tradition for rat, monkey and human. For rat, we show how the frog-like taxon affordance model provides a basis for the spatial navigation mechanisms that involve the hippocampus and other brain regions. For monkey, we recall two models of neural mechanisms for visuomotor coordination. The first, for saccades, shows how interactions between the parietal and frontal cortex augment superior colliculus seen as the homologue of frog tectum. The second, for grasping, continues the theme of parieto-frontal interactions, linking parietal affordances to motor schemas in premotor cortex. It further emphasizes the mirror system for grasping, in which neurons are active both when the monkey executes a specific grasp and when it observes a similar grasp executed by others. The model of human-brain mechanisms is based on the mirror-system hypothesis of the evolution of the language-ready brain, which sees the human Broca's area as an evolved extension of the mirror system for grasping.

  12. BIOMETRIC STUDY TO RANA RIDIBUNDA FROG SPECIES NEARNESS TO TIMISOARA LOCALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BURA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Speciality literature provides little informations regarding Rana ridibunda frogbiometry. For supply this gap we studied the size and weight of 54 frogs sampled fromnearby Timişoara area ponds.The mean body lenght was 8,08 ± 0,54 cm for the females and respectively 6,17 ± 0,45cm for the males. Before evisceration on a par females weighted 62,28 ± 12,87 g andthe males 22,46 ± 5,3 g whereas after this action the carcase weighted 43,89 ± 8,91 gin the case of females and respectively 18,45 ± 4,42 g in the case of male lake frog. Themean leg lenght measured 12,59 ± 0,68 cm for female frogs and 9,78 ± 0,66 cm in thecase of male frogs. The hind stylopodium was estimated on a par as 13,23 ± 2,57 g forfemales and 5,33 ± 1,26 g for the males.

  13. Acute Toxicity of an Organophosphate Insecticide Chlorpyrifos to an Anuran, Rana cyanophlyctis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai Kumar Srivastav

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate pesticide that elicits broad-spectrum insecticidal activity against a number of important arthropod pests. Determining the insecticides’ toxicity to amphibians can give us a better understanding regarding the role of toxicants in amphibian declines. This information would be beneficial to assess their ecological relevance at environmental concentrations. The present study assessed toxicity of chlorpyrifos to an anuran Rana cyanophlyctis. Methods: For the determination of LC50 values for chlorpyrifos, four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was used. Five replicates each containing ten frogs were subjected to each concentration of chlorpyrifos (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 mg/L for the test. Mortality of the frog at different exposure periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h was subjected to Probit analysis with the POLO-PC software (LeOra Software to calculate the LC50 and 95% confidence level. Results: The LC50 values of chlorpyrifos for the frog R. cyanophlyctis at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h were 8.252, 7.254, 6.247 and 4.993mg/L, respectively. Conclusion: Mortality has been noticed in chlorpyrifos treated frogs related to the decline in amphibian population. Therefore, chlorpyrifos should not be used near water reservoirs.

  14. Acute Toxicity of a Heavy Metal Cadmium to an Anuran, the Indian Skipper Frog Rana cyanophlyctis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai Kumar Srivastav

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increasing awareness throughout the world regarding the remarkable decrease in amphibian population. For such amphibian population decline several causes have been given. Cadmium, a heavy metal is released both from natural sources (leaching of cadmium rich soils and anthropogenic activities to the aquatic and terrestrial environments. This study evaluated the toxicity of heavy metal cadmium to Indian skipper frog Rana cyanophlyctis. Methods: For the determination of LC50 values for cadmium, four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was used. Five replicates each containing ten frogs were subjected to each concentration of cadmium chloride (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mg/L. At different exposure periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h, the mortality of the frog was subjected to Probit analysis with the POLO-PC software (LeOra Software to calculate the LC50 and 95% confidence level. Results: The LC50 values of cadmium chloride for the frog R. cyanophlyctis at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h are 32.586, 29.994, 27.219 and 23.048 mg/L, respectively. The results have been discussed with the toxicity reported for other aquatic vertebrate --fish. Conclusion: Cadmium caused mortality to the frog and this could be one of the reasons for population decline of frogs which inhabit water contaminated with heavy metals.

  15. Effect of rana galamensis–based diet on the activities of some enzymes and histopathology of selected tissues of albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Rana galamensis-based diet on the activities of some enzymes and histopathology of selected tissues of albino rats was investigated for eight weeks. A total of sixteen albino rats weighing between 29.15 and 26.01g (21 days old were divided into two groups. The first group contains animals fed on casein-based diet (control; the second group was fed on Rana galamensis-based diet. The animals were fed with their appropriate diet on daily basis and on the eight weeks of the experiment the animals were sacrificed using diethyl ether as anesthesia, blood was collected by cardiac puncture and organs of interest were harvested. Thereafter, organ to body weight ratio, some biochemical parameters and histopathology examination were carried out. There was no significant difference (p >0.05 in the organ to body weight ratio of the animals fed on control and Rana galamensis-based diets. Also, there was no significant different (p >0.05 in the activities of all the enzymes (ALP [alkaline phosphatase], AST [asparate transaminase], ALT [alanine transaminase], and γGT [gamma glutamyl transferase] investigated in the selected tissues and serum of rats fed on Rana galamensis- based diet when compared with the control. In addition, histological examinations of hepatocyte's rats fed on Rana galamensis- based diet show normal architecture structure when compared with the control. The insignificant different in the activities of all the enzymes studies (ALP, AST, ALT and γGT indicated no organ damage, supported by the normal histology studies. The obtained results may imply that Rana galamensis is safe for consumption.  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  16. Gastrin and Cholecystokinin of the Bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, Have Distinct Effects on Gallbladder Motility and Gastric Acid Secretion in Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaj; Bomgren, Peter; Holmgren, Susanne

    1998-01-01

    distinct members of the CCK/gastrin family were identified in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), termed CCK and gastrin. Frog gastrin is very similar to CCK in the region defining biological activity. To evaluate whether the two endogenous peptides have distinct properties, their effects were studied...... values are 3.1 and 17.2 nM, respectively. Furthermore, gastrin had a significantly higher efficacy than CCK-8s. Thus, in spite of their close structural resemblance, there are clear differences between the two endogenous peptides in their action on gallbladder and gastric mucosa. It is concluded...

  17. The postglacial recolonization of Northern Europe by Rana arvalis as revealed by microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, T; Merilä, J

    2009-02-01

    The postglacial history of the moor frog (Rana arvalis) in Northern Europe was investigated with the aid of eight variable microsatellite loci and a 661 bp sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. A division between eastern and western mitochondrial lineages was discovered, supporting two recolonization routes to Fennoscandia since the last glacial maximum. This result was corroborated by the microsatellite data, which revealed a contact zone between the two lineages in Northern Sweden. These findings add to the increasing evidence that an intraspecific genetic biodiversity founded on the existence of eastern and western clades is a common element in Fennoscandian fauna and flora.

  18. Hexadactyly case at a Rana kl. esculenta sample from the north-western part of Romania (Short Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan SAS

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available At 17 June 2006, in a habitat close to Gherta Mica locality (47°56'0'' N, 23°14'0'' E, Satu-Mare County, Romania we had found a sample of Rana kl. esculenta which presented hexadactyly at both of its posterior feet. The captured sample of edible frog had fully formed extra (sixth toes, with phalanges (bones. The hexadactyly was perfectly symmetrical at both of the posterior feet. At this individual we did not discovered any other malformations, the biometrical characters situating in the variations limits of the other green frogs from the studied habitat. A symmetric hexadacytly can be a result of atavism.

  19. Cuervo, rana y tortuga en Gönnersdord : Animales representados raras veces, que han sido dibujados perfectamente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelore Bosinski

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En las placas de pizarra del yacimiento magdaleniense de Gönnersdorf (Renania, Alemania encontramos, junto con muchas otras representaciones, un cuervo, una rana y una tortuga. A pesar de que estos animales han sido representados en raras ocasiones, estas figuras son vivas y con muchos detalles anatómicos. Tomando en consideración que los animales no sirvieron de modelo mientras eran dibujados, estas figuras fueron realizadas tras una observación intensiva y dibujadas por artistas con genio eidético.

  20. Oral chytridiomycosis in the mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, G.M.; Green, E.D.; Longcore, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was originally reported in wild frog populations in Panama and Australia, and from captive frogs in the U.S. National Zoological Park (Washington, DC). This recently described fungus affects the keratinized epidermis of amphibians and has been implicated as a causative factor in the declines of frog populations. We report here the presence of B. dendrobatidis in larval and recently metamorphosed mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) in or near the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, an area where declines have been documented in all five species of native anurans. Forty-one percent (158 of 387) of larval R. muscosa examined in the field with a hand lens and 18% (14 of 79) of preserved larvae had abnormalities of the oral disc. Twenty-eight larvae were collected from 10 sites where tadpoles had been observed with missing or abnormally keratinized mouthparts, and 24 of these were examined for infection. Sixty-seven percent (16 of 24) of these tadpoles were infected with B. dendrobatidis. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was cultured from both tadpoles and recent metamorphs from one of these sites. Tadpoles with mouthpart abnormalities or confirmed chytrid fungus infections were collected at 23 sites spanning a distance of > 440 km and an elevational range from 1658-3550 m. Life-history traits of R. muscosa may make this species particularly susceptible to infection by Batrachochytrium. We recommend that biologists examine tadpoles for oral disc abnormalities as a preliminary indication of chytridiomycosis. Further, we believe that biologists should take precautions to prevent spreading this and other amphibian diseases from one site to another.

  1. Population trends, survival, and sampling methodologies for a population of Rana draytonii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Miller, David A.W.; Halstead, Brian J.

    2017-01-01

    Estimating population trends provides valuable information for resource managers, but monitoring programs face trade-offs between the quality and quantity of information gained and the number of sites surveyed. We compared the effectiveness of monitoring techniques for estimating population trends of Rana draytonii (California Red-legged Frog) at Point Reyes National Seashore, California, USA, over a 13-yr period. Our primary goals were to: 1) estimate trends for a focal pond at Point Reyes National Seashore, and 2) evaluate whether egg mass counts could reliably estimate an index of abundance relative to more-intensive capture–mark–recapture methods. Capture–mark–recapture (CMR) surveys of males indicated a stable population from 2005 to 2009, despite low annual apparent survival (26.3%). Egg mass counts from 2000 to 2012 indicated that despite some large fluctuations, the breeding female population was generally stable or increasing, with annual abundance varying between 26 and 130 individuals. Minor modifications to egg mass counts, such as marking egg masses, can allow estimation of egg mass detection probabilities necessary to convert counts to abundance estimates, even when closure of egg mass abundance cannot be assumed within a breeding season. High egg mass detection probabilities (mean per-survey detection probability = 0.98 [0.89–0.99]) indicate that egg mass surveys can be an efficient and reliable method for monitoring population trends of federally threatened R. draytonii. Combining egg mass surveys to estimate trends at many sites with CMR methods to evaluate factors affecting adult survival at focal populations is likely a profitable path forward to enhance understanding and conservation of R. draytonii.

  2. Habitat use and home range of the endangered gold-spotted pond frog (Rana chosenica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Nam-Yong; Sung, Ha-Cheol; Cheong, Seokwan; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Eom, Junho; Park, Daesik

    2008-09-01

    Because of their complex life styles, amphibians and reptiles living in wetlands require both aquatic and terrestrial buffer zones in their protected conservation areas. Due to steep declines in wild populations, the gold-spotted pond frog (Rana chosenica) is listed as vulnerable by the IUCN. However, lack of data about its movements and use of habitat prevents effective conservation planning. To determine the habitat use and home range of this species, we radio-tracked 44 adult frogs for 37 days between 10 July and 4 Nov. 2007 to observe three different populations in the breeding season, non-breeding season, and late fall. The gold-spotted pond frog was very sedentary; its daily average movement was 9.8 m. Frogs stayed close to breeding ponds (within 6.6 m), and did not leave damp areas surrounding these ponds, except for dormancy migration to terrestrial sites such as dried crop fields. The average distance of dormancy migration of seven frogs from the edge of their breeding ponds was 32.0 m. The average size of an individual's home range was 713.8 m(2) (0.07 ha). The year-round population home range, which accounts for the home ranges of a population of frogs, was determined for two populations to be 8,765.0 m(2) (0.88 ha) and 3,700.9 m(2) (0.37 ha). Our results showed that to conserve this endangered species, appropriately sized wetlands and extended terrestrial buffer areas surrounding the wetlands (at least 1.33 ha, diameter 130 m) should be protected.

  3. Effects of wetland vs. landscape variables on parasite communities of Rana pipiens: links to anthropogenic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotthoefer, Anna M.; Rohr, Jason R.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Koehler, Anson V.; Johnson, Catherine M.; Johnson, Lucinda B.; Beasley, Val R.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of several diseases affecting amphibian populations worldwide has prompted investigations into determinants of the occurrence and abundance of parasites in frogs. To understand the spatial scales and identify specific environmental factors that determine risks of parasitism in frogs, helminth communities in metamorphic frogs of the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) were examined in relation to wetland and landscape factors at local (1 km) and regional (10 km) spatial extents in an agricultural region of Minnesota (USA) using regression analyses, ordination, and variance partitioning techniques. Greater amounts of forested and woody wetland habitats, shorter distances between woody wetlands, and smaller-sized open water patches in surrounding landscapes were the most consistently positive correlates with the abundances, richness, and diversity of helminths found in the frogs. Wetland and local landscape variables were suggested as most important for larval trematode abundances, whereas local and regional landscape variables appeared most important for adult helminths. As previously reported, the sum concentration of atrazine and its metabolite desethylatrazine, was the strongest predictor of larval trematode communities. In this report, we highlight the additional influences of landscape factors. In particular, our data suggest that anthropogenic activities that have resulted in the loss of the availability and connectivity of suitable habitats in the surrounding landscapes of wetlands are associated with declines in helminth richness and abundance, but that alteration of wetland water quality through eutrophication or pesticide contamination may facilitate the transmission of certain parasite taxa when they are present at wetlands. Although additional research is needed to quantify the negative effects of parasitism on frog populations, efforts to reduce inputs of agrochemicals into wetlands to limit larval trematode infections may be warranted

  4. Cathelicidins from the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana provides novel template for peptide antibiotic design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiying Ling

    Full Text Available Cathelicidins, a class of gene-encoded effector molecules of vertebrate innate immunity, provide a first line of defense against microbial invasions. Although cathelicidins from mammals, birds, reptiles and fishes have been extensively studied, little is known about cathelicidins from amphibians. Here we report the identification and characterization of two cathelicidins (cathelicidin-RC1 and cathelicidin-RC2 from the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. The cDNA sequences (677 and 700 bp, respectively encoding the two peptides were successfully cloned from the constructed lung cDNA library of R. catesbeiana. And the deduced mature peptides are composed of 28 and 33 residues, respectively. Structural analysis indicated that cathelicidin-RC1 mainly assumes an amphipathic alpha-helical conformation, while cathelicidin-RC2 could not form stable amphipathic structure. Antimicrobial and bacterial killing kinetic analysis indicated that the synthetic cathelicidin-RC1 possesses potent, broad-spectrum and rapid antimicrobial potency, while cathelicidin-RC2 exhibited very weak antimicrobial activity. Besides, the antimicrobial activity of cathelicidin-RC1 is salt-independent and highly stable. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis indicated that cathelicidin-RC1 kills microorganisms through the disruption of microbial membrane. Moreover, cathelicidin-RC1 exhibited low cytotoxic activity against mammalian normal or tumor cell lines, and low hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. The potent, broad-spectrum and rapid antimicrobial activity combined with the salt-independence, high stability, low cytotoxic and hemolytic activities make cathelicidin-RC1 an ideal template for the development of novel peptide antibiotics.

  5. Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirane, T.

    1982-01-01

    The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males

  6. Enzymatic regulation of seasonal glycogen cycling in the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, M Clara F; Lee, Richard E; Costanzo, Jon P

    2016-12-01

    Liver glycogen is an important energy store in vertebrates, and in the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica, this carbohydrate also serves as a major source of the cryoprotectant glucose. We investigated how variation in the levels of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKAc), glycogen phosphorylase (GP), and glycogen synthase (GS) relates to seasonal glycogen cycling in a temperate (Ohioan) and subarctic (Alaskan) populations of this species. In spring, Ohioan frogs had reduced potential for glycogen synthesis, as evidenced by low GS activity and high PKAc protein levels. In addition, glycogen levels in spring were the lowest of four seasonal samples, as energy input was likely directed towards metabolism and somatic growth during this period. Near-maximal glycogen levels were reached by mid-summer, and remained unchanged in fall and winter, suggesting that glycogenesis was curtailed during this period. Ohioan frogs had a high potential for glycogenolysis and glycogenesis in winter, as evidenced by large glycogen reserves, high levels of GP and GS proteins, and high GS activity, which likely allows for rapid mobilization of cryoprotectant during freezing and replenishing of glycogen reserves during thawing. Alaskan frogs also achieved a near-maximal liver glycogen concentration by summer and displayed high glycogenic and glycogenolytic potential in winter, but, unlike Ohioan frogs, started replenishing their energy reserves early in spring. We conclude that variation in levels of both glycogenolytic and glycogenic enzymes likely happens in response to seasonal changes in energetic strategies and demands, with winter survival being a key component to understanding the regulation of glycogen cycling in this species.

  7. Relationships among developmental stage, metamorphic timing, and concentrations of elements in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snodgrass, J.W.; Hopkins, W.A.; Roe, J.H. [Towson University, Towson, MD (United States). Dept. for Biological Science

    2003-07-01

    We collected bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) larvae from a coal combustion waste settling basin to investigate the effects of developmental stage and timing of metamorphosis on concentrations of a series of trace elements in bullfrog tissues. Bullfrogs at four stages of development (from no hind limbs to recently metamorphosed juveniles) and bullfrogs that metamorphosed in the fall or overwintered in the contaminated basin and metamorphosed in the spring were analyzed for whole-body concentrations of Al, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ag, Sr, and Se. After the effects of dry mass were removed, tissue concentrations of six elements (Al, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, As, and Pb) decreased from the late larval stage through metamorphosis. Decreases in concentrations through metamorphosis ranged from 40% for Cu to 97% for Al. Tissue concentrations of these elements were also similar or higher in spring; Al and Cr concentrations were 34 and 90% higher in the spring, respectively, whereas As, Ni, Cu, and Pb concentrations were {lt} 10% higher. Concentrations of Cd, Se, and Ag varied among seasons but not among stages; Cd and Ag concentrations were 40 and 62% lower, respectively, and Se concentrations were 21% higher in spring. Concentrations of Zn varied only among stages; concentrations decreased gradually through late larval stage and then increased through metamorphosis. Concentrations of Sr varied among stages, but this variation was dependent on the season. Concentrations of Sr were higher in larval stages during the spring, but because concentrations of Sr increased 122% through metamorphosis in the fall and only 22% in the spring, concentrations were higher in fall metamorphs when compared with spring metamorphs. Our results indicate that metamorphosis and season of metamorphosis affects trace element concentrations in bullfrogs and may have important implications for the health of juveniles and the transfer of pollutants from the aquatic to the terrestrial environment.

  8. Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa) movement and demography at Dilman Meadow: Implications for future monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelgren, Nathan D.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Bowerman, Jay; Adams, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    From 2001 to 2005, we studied the demography and seasonal movement of Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) translocated into created ponds in Dilman Meadow in central Oregon. Our objectives were to inform future monitoring and management at the site, and to elucidate poorly known aspects of the species’ population ecology. Movement rates revealed complementary use of sites seasonally, with one small spring being preferred during winter that was rarely used during the rest of the year. Growth rates were significantly higher in ponds that were not used for breeding, and larger size resulted in significantly higher survival. When variation in survival by size was accounted for there was little variation among ponds in survival. Seasonal estimates of survival were lowest for males during the breeding/post-breeding redistribution period, suggesting a high cost of breeding for males. Overwintering survival for both genders was relatively high. Our study supports others in suggesting Oregon spotted frogs are specific in their overwintering habitat requirements, and that predator-free springs may be of particular value. We suggest that any future monitoring include measures of the rate of pond succession. Demographic monitoring should include metrics of both frog reproduction and survival: counts of egg masses at all ponds during spring, and capture-recapture study of survival in mid and late summer when capture rates are highest. Additional study of early life stages would be particularly useful to broaden our understanding of the species’ ecology. Specifically, adding intensive capture and marking effort after larval transformation in fall would enable a full understanding of the annual life cycle. Complete study of the annual life cycle is needed to isolate the life stages and mechanisms through which Oregon spotted frogs are affected by stressors such as nonnative predators. Dilman Meadow, which lacks many hypothesized stressors, is an important reference for

  9. The esophagus anatomic-histology of bull frog ("Rana catesbeiana" Shaw, 1802 Anatomo-histologia do esôfago da rã touro ("Rana catesbeiana" Shaw, 1802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Lino Pinto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to describe the esophage functional morpho – histology of bull frog (Rana catebeiana Shaw, 1802, twenty bull frog, mean body weight of 85.00 ± 2.03 g, were used. The esophageal mucosa architecture is defined by thick longitudinal folds, showing an esophageal ciliated pseudostratified epithelium with mucous cells and pluricellular glands; the esophageal muscular coat is composed by inner circular muscular lamina, and by outer longitudinal muscular lamina.Com o objetivo de descrever a anatomo histologia funcional do esôfago da rã touro (Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802, foram utilizados 20 (vinte exemplares de rã touro com peso médio de 85,00 ± 2,03 g. Verificou-se que a arquitetura da mucosa esofágica é definida por pregas espessas e longitudinais, com epitélio esofágico do tipo pseudo estratificado ciliado com células mucosas e glândulas pluricelulares; a túnica muscular esofágica é constituida pela túnica muscular circular, mais interna, e pela túnica muscular longitudinal, mais externa.

  10. A new gorgoderid species of the urinary bladder of Rana zweifeli from Michoacán, Mexico Una nueva especie de gorgodérido de la vejiga urinaria de Rana zweifeli de Michoacán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Mata-López

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Gorgoderina tarascae n. sp. is described from the urinary bladder of Rana zweifeli, from Cutzaróndiro, Michoacán, Mexico. Gorgoderina tarascae differs from the other species of the genus by possessing the following combination of characters: follicular vitelline glands, arranged in two clusters of 4-7 follicles dorsal to the ovary, compact and smooth reproductive organs situated far from each other and from the acetabulum, suckers close to each other, and a slender, spindle shaped body with a flexed position due to the situation of the acetabulum.Gorgoderina tarascae n. sp. se describe como parásita de la vejiga urinaria de Rana zweifeli de Cutzaróndiro, Michoacán, México. Gorgoderina tarascae difiere del resto de las especies del género por la siguiente combinación de características: posee glándulas vitelógenas arregladas en dos racimos de 4-7 folículos situados dorsalmente al ovario, órganos reproductivos compactos y de bordes lisos, muy separados entre si y con respecto del acetábulo, ventosas cercanas una de la otra y cuerpo delgado, en forma de huso y flexionado debido a la posición del acetábulo.

  11. The tactile-stimulated startle response of tadpoles: acceleration performance and its relationship to the anatomy of wood frog (Rana sylvatica), bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), and American toad (Bufo americanus) tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidietis, Laura

    2006-04-01

    I described the tactile-stimulated startle response (TSR) of wood frog (Rana sylvatica), bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), and American toad (Bufo americanus) tadpoles. One purpose was to rank species in terms of maximum acceleration performance. Also, I tested whether anatomical indicators of performance potential were predictive of realized performance. TSRs were elicited in a laboratory setting, filmed at 250 Hz, and digitally analyzed. TSRs began with two, initial body curls during which tadpoles showed a broad spectrum of movement patterns. TSR performance was quantified by maximum linear acceleration and maximum rotational acceleration of the head/body, both of which tended to occur immediately upon initiation of motion ( wood frog > American toad. The species' rank order for the anatomical indicator of rotational acceleration potential was bullfrog > wood frog = American toad. Thus, the anatomical indicators roughly predicted the rank order of interspecific average performance. However, the anatomical indicators did not correlate with individual tadpole performance. Variability in behavioral patterns may obscure the connection between anatomy and performance. This is seen in the current lack of intraspecific correlation between a morphological indicator of acceleration capacity and acceleration performance.

  12. Buildings exposed to fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW) [de

  13. Interaction of an Introduced Predator with Future Effects of Climate Change in the Recruitment Dynamics of the Imperiled Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog (Rana sierrae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    I Lacan; Kathleen R. Matthews; K.V. Feldman

    2008-01-01

    Between-year variation in snowpack (from 20 to 200% of average) and summer rainfall cause large fluctuations in volume of small lakes in the higher elevation (> 3000 m) Sierra Nevada, which are important habitat for the imperiled Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog, Rana sierrae. Climate change (global warming) is predicted to increase these...

  14. Movement ecology and seasonal distribution of mountain yellow-legged frogs, Rana muscosa, in a high-elevation Sierra Nevada basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.L. Pope; K.R. Matthews

    2001-01-01

    Movement ecology and seasonal distribution of mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) in Dusy Basin (3470 m), Kings Canyon National Park, California, were characterized using passive integrated transponder (PIT) surveys and visual encounter surveys. We individually PIT-tagged 500 frogs during the summers of 1997 and 1998 and monitored these individuals during seven...

  15. Extra-intestinal localization of Goussia sp (Apicomplexa) oocysts in Rana dalmatina (Anura: Ranidae), and the fate of infection after metamorphosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, M.; Modrý, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2006), s. 237-241 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1544; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Goussia * Rana * Coccidia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.509, year: 2006

  16. Experimental Repatriation of Mountain Yellow-legged Frogs (Rana muscosa) in the Sierra Nevada of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Bradford, David F.; Pratt, David; Wood, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    In the late 1970s, Rana muscosa (mountain yellow-legged frog) was common in the Tableland area of Sequoia National Park, California where it was possible to find hundreds of tadpoles and adults around many of the ponds and lakes. Surveys in 1993-1995 demonstrated that R. muscosa was absent from more than half of all suitable habitat within the park, including the Tableland area. At that same time, R. muscosa was still common at Sixty Lake Basin, Kings Canyon National Park, 30 km to the northeast. To evaluate the potential causes for the extirpation, we repatriated R. muscosa eggs, tadpoles, subadults, and adult frogs from Sixty Lake Basin to four sites in the Tableland area in 1994 and 1995. We subsequently surveyed each release site and the surrounding area 2 - 3 times per week in 1994-1995, and intermittently in 1996-1997, to monitor the survival of all life history stages, and to detect dispersal of adults and subadults. We also monitored predation, water quality, weather, and water temperature. Our techniques for capturing, holding, transporting, and releasing R. muscosa were refined during the study, and during 1995 resulted in high initial survival rates of all life history stages. Adult frogs were anaesthetized, weighed, measured, tagged, and held in plastic boxes with wet paper towels. Tadpoles were collected and held in fiberglass screen cages set in the water at the edge of a pond. This resulted in relatively natural conditions with less crowding and good water circulation. Frogs, tadpoles, and eggs were placed in Ziploc bags for transport to the Tableland by helicopter. Short-term survival of tadpoles, subadults, and adults was high at all four release sites, tadpoles reached metamorphosis, and adult frogs were still present. However, we detected no evidence of reproduction at three sites (e.g., no new eggs or small tadpoles) and nearly all life history stages disappeared within 12 months. At the fourth site, there was limited reproduction, but it was

  17. Regulation of 5'-adenosine monophosphate deaminase in the freeze tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieni, Christopher A; Storey, Kenneth B

    2008-04-22

    The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, is one of a few vertebrate species that have developed natural freeze tolerance, surviving days or weeks with 65-70% of its total body water frozen in extracellular ice masses. Frozen frogs exhibit no vital signs and their organs must endure multiple stresses, particularly long term anoxia and ischemia. Maintenance of cellular energy supply is critical to viability in the frozen state and in skeletal muscle, AMP deaminase (AMPD) plays a key role in stabilizing cellular energetics. The present study investigated AMPD control in wood frog muscle. Wood frog AMPD was subject to multiple regulatory controls: binding to subcellular structures, protein phosphorylation, and effects of allosteric effectors, cryoprotectants and temperature. The percentage of bound AMPD activity increased from 20 to 35% with the transition to the frozen state. Bound AMPD showed altered kinetic parameters compared with the free enzyme (S0.5 AMP was reduced, Hill coefficient fell to approximately 1.0) and the transition to the frozen state led to a 3-fold increase in S0.5 AMP of the bound enzyme. AMPD was a target of protein phosphorylation. Bound AMPD from control frogs proved to be a low phosphate form with a low S0.5 AMP and was phosphorylated in incubations that stimulated PKA, PKC, CaMK, or AMPK. Bound AMPD from frozen frogs was a high phosphate form with a high S0.5 AMP that was reduced under incubation conditions that stimulated protein phosphatases. Frog muscle AMPD was activated by Mg.ATP and Mg.ADP and inhibited by Mg.GTP, KCl, NaCl and NH4Cl. The enzyme product, IMP, uniquely inhibited only the bound (phosphorylated) enzyme from muscle of frozen frogs. Activators and inhibitors differentially affected the free versus bound enzyme. S0.5 AMP of bound AMPD was also differentially affected by high versus low assay temperature (25 vs 5 degrees C) and by the presence/absence of the natural cryoprotectant (250 mM glucose) that accumulates during freezing

  18. Use of femur bone density to segregate wild from farmed Dybowski's frog (Rana dybowskii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu Hui; Huang, Xiao Ming; Xia, Rui; Xu, Yan Chun; Dahmer, Thomas D

    2011-04-15

    Wildlife has been utilized by humans throughout history and demand continues to grow today. Farming of wildlife can supplement the supply of wild-harvested wildlife products and, in theory, can reduce pressure on free-ranging populations. However, poached wildlife products frequently enter legal markets where they are fraudulently sold as farmed wildlife products. To effectively close this illegal trade in wild-captured wildlife, there is a need to discriminate wild products from farmed products. Because of the strong market demand for wild-captured frog meat and the resulting strong downward pressure on wild populations, we undertook research to develop a method to discriminate wild from farmed Dybowski's frog (Rana dybowskii) based on femur bone density. We measured femur bone density (D(f)) as the ratio of bone mass to bone volume. D(f) of wild frogs revealed a slightly increasing linear trend with increasing age (R(2)=0.214 in males and R(2)=0.111 in females, p=0.000). Wild males and wild females of age classes from 2 to ≥ 5 years had similar D(f) values. In contrast, 2-year-old farmed frogs showed significantly higher D(f) values (p=0.000) among males (mean D(f)=0.623 ± 0.011 g/ml, n=32) than females (mean D(f)=0.558 ± 0.011 g/ml, n=27). For both sexes, D(f) of wild frogs was significantly higher than that of farmed frogs (p=0.000). Among males, 87.5% (28 of 32 individuals) of farmed frogs were correctly identified as farmed frogs and 86.3% (69 of 80 individuals) of wild frogs were correctly identified as wild frogs. These results suggest that femur bone density is one reliable tool for discriminating between wild and farmed Dybowski's frog. This study also highlights a novel strategy with explicit forensic potential to discriminate wild from captive bred wildlife species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cultured Rana catesbeiana tailfin tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Austin eHammond

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs, materials that have one dimension less than 100 nm, are used in manufacturing, health and food products, and consumer products including cosmetics, clothing and household appliances. Their utility to industry is derived from their high surface-area-to-volume ratios and physico-chemical properties distinct from their bulk counterparts, but the near-certainty that NPs will be released into the environment raises the possibility that they could present health risks to humans and wildlife. The thyroid hormones (THs, thyroxine and 3,3’,5-triiodothyronine (T3, are involved in development and metabolism in vertebrates including humans and frogs. Many of the processes of anuran metamorphosis are analogous to human post-embryonic development and disruption of TH action can have drastic effects. These shared features make the metamorphosis of anurans an excellent model for screening for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. We used the cultured tailfin (C-fin assay to examine the exposure effects of 0.1-10 nM (~8-800 ng/L of three types of ~20 nm TiO2 NPs (P25, M212, M262 and micron-sized TiO2 (μTiO2 ±10 nM T3. The actual Ti levels were 40.9 – 64.7% of the nominal value. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR was used to measure the relative amounts of mRNA transcripts encoding TH-responsive thyroid hormone receptors (thra and thrb and Rana larval keratin type I (rlk1, as well as the cellular stress-responsive heat shock protein 30 kDa (hsp30, superoxide dismutase (sod, and catalase (cat. The levels of the TH-responsive transcripts were largely unaffected by any form of TiO2. Some significant effects on stress-related transcripts were observed upon exposure to micron-sized TiO2, P25 and M212 while no effect was observed with M262 exposure. Therefore the risk of adversely affecting amphibian tissue by disrupting TH-signalling or inducing cellular stress is low for these compounds relative to other previously

  20. Habituation and sensitization of aggression in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana): testing the dual-process theory of habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, M A

    2001-09-01

    The aggressive response of male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) habituates with repeated broadcasts of acoustic stimuli simulating a new territorial neighbor. The effects of stimulus repetition rate and stimulus intensity on bullfrog aggressive responses were tested in a field experiment designed to test the assumptions of a dual-process theory of habituation. Synthetic advertisement calls were broadcast at 2 repetition rates and 2 intensities in a factorial design. Bullfrogs were more aggressive at the higher stimulus intensity at both repetition rates. Aggressive responses habituated more slowly at the higher stimulus intensity and slower repetition rate compared with other treatments. Several biotic and abiotic factors had small or negligible effects on aggressive responses. Although consistent with the operation of 2 opposing processes, habituation and sensitization, the data provide only partial support for the assumptions of dual-process theory.

  1. Short-term occupancy and abundance dynamics of the Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) across its core range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Mccreary, Brome; Galvan, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) occupies only a fraction of its original range and is listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act. We surveyed 93 sites in a rotating frame design (2010–13) in the Klamath and Deschutes Basins, Oregon, which encompass most of the species’ core extant range. Oregon spotted frogs are declining in abundance and probability of site occupancy. We did not find an association between the probability that Oregon spotted frogs disappear from a site (local extinction) and any of the variables hypothesized to affect Oregon spotted frog occupancy. This 4-year study provides baseline data, but the 4-year period was too short to draw firm conclusions. Further study is essential to understand how habitat changes and management practices relate to the status and trends of this species.

  2. Evidence for a intimate relationship between mast cells and nerve fibers in the tongue of the frog, Rana esculenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieffi Baccari, Gabriella; Minucci, Sergio [Naples, II Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisiologia Umana e Funzioni Biologiche Integrate `Filippo Bottazzi`

    1997-12-31

    Morphological and ultrastructural association of mast cells and nerve fibers were studied in the tongue of the frog Rana esculenta. The number of mast cells in the tongue (253 {+-} 45 / mm{sup 2}) is far the highest of the frog tissue as far as people know. They are distributed throughout the connective tissue among the muscular fibers, near arterioles and venules but predominantly in close association and within the nerves. They are often embedded in the endoneurium within a nerve bundle near to myelinic or unmyelinic fibers and in membrane-to-membrane contact with axonlike processes. Just for the richness of mast cells, the tongue of the frog could represent an useful model to study the relationship between these cells and the peripheral nervous system.

  3. Food composition of Uludağ frog, Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 in Uludağ (Bursa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerim Çiçek

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habit and food preferences of Uludağ frog, Rana macrocnemis were studied in 2006 and 2007 in Uludağ (Bursa, Turkey. Stomach contents of 165 (87 males, 58 females, 20 juveniles individuals were analyzed and a total of 2,129 prey items were determined. It was found that the species fed mainly on a variety of invertebrates and especially on insects (96.5%. The most frequently consumed prey items were Coleoptera (62.8%, Diptera (14.4%, and Hymenoptera (9.8%. There was no significant sex- and age-dependent difference in the feeding regime. It appears that the species is feeding less in the breeding period and more in the post-breeding period. It was also evident that there was an increase in the consumption of Coleoptera depending on the elevation.

  4. Evidence for a intimate relationship between mast cells and nerve fibers in the tongue of the frog, Rana esculenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieffi Baccari, Gabriella; Minucci, Sergio [Naples, II Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisiologia Umana e Funzioni Biologiche Integrate ` Filippo Bottazzi`

    1998-12-31

    Morphological and ultrastructural association of mast cells and nerve fibers were studied in the tongue of the frog Rana esculenta. The number of mast cells in the tongue (253 {+-} 45 / mm{sup 2}) is far the highest of the frog tissue as far as people know. They are distributed throughout the connective tissue among the muscular fibers, near arterioles and venules but predominantly in close association and within the nerves. They are often embedded in the endoneurium within a nerve bundle near to myelinic or unmyelinic fibers and in membrane-to-membrane contact with axonlike processes. Just for the richness of mast cells, the tongue of the frog could represent an useful model to study the relationship between these cells and the peripheral nervous system.

  5. A New Locality for Rana ridibunda caralitana Arıkan, 1988 (Anura: Ranidae in the Central Anatolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinçer Ayaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orta Anadolu’da Rana ridibunda caralitana Arıkan, 1988 için yeni bir lokalite. Bu çalışmada, Bor (Niğde’dan toplanan 18 (10 ♂♂, 8 ♀♀ ergin ova kurbağası örneği, başta renk-desen olmak üzere yapılan morfolojik analiz sonucunda incelenmiştir. İncelenen örneklerin caralitana formuna ait olduğu anlaşılmıştır. Böylece caralitana’nın dağılış areali genişletilmiştir

  6. Los cromosomas meióticos de la rana arborícola Smilisca baudinii (Anura: Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Hernández-Guzmán

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La rana arborícola mexicana Smilisca baudinii, es una especie de rana común en Centroamérica. Sin embargo, la biología y genética de la especie, es pobremente conocida a pesar de su importancia para mantener en equilibrio ecológico las selvas tropicales. Con el propósito de contribuir con el conocimiento biológico de esta especie, establecimos el cariotipo típico en meiosis en especímenes recolectados en Tabasco, México, mediante procedimientos citogenéticos estándares. El estudio, se fundamentó en el análisis de 131 dispersiones cromosómicas en estadio meiótico de dos adultos de la especie (una hembra y un macho. El análisis de las metafases, permitió establecer el número modal haploide de 1n=12 cromosomas bivalentes. La fórmula cromosómica del cariotipo haploide, se integró por 12 cromosomas birrámeos caracterizado por 12 pares de cromosomas bivalentes metacéntricos-submetacéntricos (msm. Los conteos en meiosis, hacen suponer como número diploide de cromosomas a un complemento integrado por 2n=24 cromosomas birrámeos. No fue posible observar presencia de cromosomas sexuales, entre las dispersiones meióticas del espécimen hembra y macho. Los resultados sugieren que la estructura cromosómica de S. baudinii, es compartida ampliamente entre las especies de la familia Hylidae y los cromosomas "B" son estructuras importantes en la diversificación de las especies.

  7. Effects of a behavior change campaign on household drinking water disinfection in the Lake Chad basin using the RANAS approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilje, Jonathan; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2018-04-01

    Worldwide, an estimated 700 million people rely on unimproved drinking water sources; even more consume water that is not safe to drink. Inadequate drinking water quality constitutes a major risk factor for cholera and other diarrheal diseases around the globe, especially for young children in developing countries. Household water treatment and safe storage systems represent an intermediate solution for settings that lack infrastructure supplying safe drinking water. However, the correct and consistent usage of such treatment technologies rely almost exclusively on the consumer's behavior. This study targeted at evaluating effects of a behavior change campaign promoting the uptake of household drinking water chlorination in communities along the Chari and Logone rivers in Chad. The campaign was based on formative research using health psychological theory and targeted several behavioral factors identified as relevant. A total of 220 primary caregivers were interviewed concerning their household water treatment practices and mindset related to water treatment six months after the campaign. The Risks, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-regulation (RANAS) model was used to structure the interviews as the RANAS approach had been used for designing the campaign. Results show significantly higher self-reported drinking water chlorination among participants of the intervention. Significant differences from a control group were identified regarding several behavioral factors. Mediation analysis revealed that the intervention positively affected participants' individual risk estimation for diarrheal disease, health knowledge, perceived efforts and benefits of water treatment, social support strategies, knowledge of how to perform chlorination, and perceived ability to do so. The campaign's effect on water treatment was mainly mediated through differences in health knowledge, changes in norms, and self-efficacy convictions. The findings imply that water treatment behavior

  8. New species of Oswaldocruzia (Nematoda: Molineoidae), new species of Rhabdias (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae), and other helminths in Rana cf. forreri (Anura: Ranidae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R

    2005-06-01

    Oswaldocruzia costaricensis n. sp. (Strongylida: Molineidae) from the intestines and Rhabdias savagei n. sp. (Rhabditida: Rhabdiasidae) from the lungs of Rana cf. forreri (Anura: Ranidae) are described and illustrated. Oswaldocruzia costaricensis represents the 77th species assigned to the genus and differs from the other Neotropical species in the genus by possessing a Type II bursa and long cervical alae. Rhabdias savagei represents the 47th species assigned to the genus and differs from other Neotropical species in the genus by possession of 4 lips and a postequatorial vulva. Rana cf. forreri was also found to harbor the trematodes, Haematoloechus parcivitellarius and Megalodiscus temperatus, the nematodes, Aplectana incerta, Aplectana itzocanensis, Cosmocerca podicipinus, Foleyellides striatus, Subulascaris falcaustriformis, and a larva of the nematode Brevimulticaecum sp. Cosmocerca panamaensis is considered to be a synonym of Cosmocerca podicipinus.

  9. Tracing the genus Sphaerospora: rediscovery, redescription and phylogeny of the Sphaerospora ranae (Morelle, 1929) n. comb. (Myxosporea, Sphaerosporidae), with emendation of the genus Sphaerospora

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Miloslav; Fiala, Ivan; Modrý, David

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 12 (2007), s. 1727-1739 ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1544; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Myxosporea * Amphibia * Rana * redescription * phylogeny * SSU rDNA * genus emendation * molecular characteristic Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.081, year: 2007

  10. Peran ILO (International Labour Organization) dalam Menangani Kecelakaan Kerja pada Industri Garmen di Bangladesh Studi Kasus Tragedi Rana Plaza Tahun 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Pakpahan, Saiman; Tambun, Harry Panduari

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to determine the role of International Labour Organization (ILO) in dealing with industrial workplace accidents in Bangladesh by focusing on Rana Plaza tragedy in 2013. ILO plays an active role to promote decent work for every man and woman all over the world. Workplace accident is one of many problems usually found in garment industry in Bangladesh. Unsafe structural integrity and fire safety are the factors that cause workplace accidents.This research uses Pluralism Persp...

  11. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.E.J.; Soetens, F.

    2005-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  12. Nueva especie de rana del género Pristimantis del grupo lacrimosus (Amphibia: Craugastoridae del Parque Nacional Sangay, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Batallas R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Describimos una nueva especie de rana terrestre del genero Pristimantis de tamaño mediano (LRC en machos desde 22.18 a 25.13 mm descubierta en los bosques nublados de las estribaciones orientales del Parque Nacional Sangay, al centro oriente de Ecuador, a elevaciones de 2750 m. Asignamos a Pristimantis latericius sp. nov., al grupo Pristimantis lacrimosus, el cual se diferencia del resto de miembros de este grupo por presentar tubérculos prominentes en el parpado superior y una coloración rojo anaranjado en el dorso. Las llamadas son cortas, conformadas por una sola nota y dos bandas armónicas. Importantes levantamientos de información faunística se han venido generando en los últimos años en el Parque Nacional Sangay, sin embargo es necesario incrementar estudios que ayuden a documentar la ecología e historia natural de los anfibios, ya que sin lugar a dudas ayudaran a comprender procesos ecológicos. El descubrimiento de esta y otras nuevas especies en este sector, demuestra su importancia biológica confortando al desarrollo de planes de conservación en este importante Patrimonio Natural de la Humanidad.

  13. Hind limb malformations in free-living northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) from Maine, Minnesota, and Vermont suggest multiple etiologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, C.U.; Loeffler, I.K.; Fallon, J.F.; Converse, K.A.; Green, E.; Helgen, J.C.; Kersten, S.; Levey, R.; Eaton-Poole, L.; Burkhart, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    Background Reports of malformed frogs have increased throughout the North American continent in recent years. Most of the observed malformations have involved the hind limbs. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the hind limb malformations in wild frogs as an important step toward understanding the possible etiologies. Methods During 1997 and 1998, 182 recently metamorphosed northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were collected from Minnesota, Vermont, and Maine. Malformed hind limbs were present in 157 (86%) of these frogs, which underwent necropsy and radiographic evaluation at the National Wildlife Health Center. These malformations are described in detail and classified into four major categories: (1) no limb (amelia); (2) multiple limbs or limb elements (polymelia, polydactyly, polyphalangy); (3) reduced limb segments or elements (phocomelia, ectromelia, ectrodactyly, and brachydactyly; and (4) distally complete but malformed limb (bone rotations, bridging, skin webbing, and micromelia). Results Amelia and reduced segments and/or elements were the most common finding. Frogs with bilateral hind limb malformations were not common, and in only eight of these 22 frogs were the malformations symmetrical. Malformations of a given type tended to occur in frogs collected from the same site, but the types of malformations varied widely among all three states, and between study sites within Minnesota. Conclusions Clustering of malformation type suggests that developmental events may produce a variety of phenotypes depending on the timing, sequence, and severity of the environmental insult. Hind limb malformations in free-living frogs transcend current mechanistic explanations of tetrapod limb development.

  14. Behaviors of 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-DDT in Rana japonica japonica Guenther

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yiqiang; Zhong Chuangguang; Zhao Xiaokui; Chen Shunhua

    2002-01-01

    The research on the behaviors of 14 C-butachlor, 14 C-chlorpyrifos and 14 C-DDT in the frog Rana japonica japonica Guenther was carried out. After administrated per os to the frogs in doses of 380, 347, 363 Bq/g, 14 C-butachlor, 14 C-chlorpyrifos and 14 C-DDT, were distributed respectively to various organs within 24 h with specific accumulating organs as gallbladder, intestine and intestine, relevantly to the pesticides described. Compared to that in gallbladder and intestine, the radioactivity of many organs was extremely low, and this might due to the characters of the pesticides. Analysis of the metabolites of 14 C-DDT in frog at 24 th hr demonstrated that DDT was difficult to be degraded. Most 14 C-butachlor, 14 C-chlorpyrifos 14 C-DDT in liver and fat or ovary of frog was extractable with acetone. However, there were some differences between the pesticides, and the organs as well. And 14 C-butachlor, 14 C-chlorpyrifos or 14 C-DDT were better bound in liver than in fat

  15. Odorous and non-fatal skin secretion of adult wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa is effective in avoiding predation by snakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Yoshimura

    Full Text Available The roles played by nonfatal secretions of adult anurans in the avoidance of predation remain unknown. The adult Wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa has warty skin with the odorous mucus secretion that is not fatal to the snake Elaphe quadrivirgata. We fed R. rugosa or Fejervarya limnocharis, which resembles R. rugosa in appearance and has mucus secretion, to snakes and compared the snakes' responses to the frogs. Compared to F. limnocharis, R. rugosa was less frequently bitten or swallowed by snakes. The snakes that bit R. rugosa spat out the frogs and showed mouth opening (gaping behavior, while the snakes that bit F. limnocharis did not show gaping behavior. We also compared the responses of the snakes to R. rugosa and F. limnocharis secretions. We coated palatable R. japonica with secretions from R. rugosa or F. limnocharis. The frogs coated by R. rugosa secretion were less frequently bitten or swallowed than those coated by F. limnocharis secretion. We concluded that compared to different frog species of similar sizes, the adult R. rugosa was less frequently preyed upon by, and that its skin secretion was effective in avoiding predation by snakes.

  16. Pre-hibernation energy reserves in a temperate anuran, Rana chensinensis, along a relatively fine elevational gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X.; Li, B.; Li, Y.; Ma, X.; Fellers, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Temperate anurans have energy substrates in the liver, fat bodies, carcass and gonads; these stores provide support for metabolism and egg production during hibernation, and for breeding activities in spring. This paper compares the energy budget shortly before hibernation among Rana chensinensis populations at elevations of 1400, 1700 and 2000 m along a river in northern China. The larger frogs, regardless of elevation, had relatively heavy storage organs and the masses of nearly all these organs were positively correlated with each other. After controlling for the effect of body size, we found no significant difference in energetic organ mass among different age classes for each of the three populations. There were sexual differences in energy strategy. Males in all populations accumulated greater reserves in liver, fat bodies and carcass than did females. In contrast, females put more energy into their ovaries and oviducts. Frogs from higher elevations tended to have heavier organs than those from lower elevations; however, the pattern did not vary systematically along fine environmental gradients. Mid-elevation R. chensinensis built up significantly more reserves than low-elevation individuals, but were similar to their highland conspecifics. Males from higher elevations tended to have heavier liver and fat bodies; females were similar in liver and ovary mass across all elevations, but formed heavier fat bodies, oviducts and somatic tissue at higher elevation sites.

  17. The effects of four arthropod diets on the body and organ weights of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens, during vitellogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, G C

    1978-12-01

    Wild-caught adult Rana pipiens females were captured in midsummer and fed diets of crickets, flies sowbugs or wax moth larvae during a three-month period of active vitellogenesis. The cricket diet supported the most extensive body weight gain during this time and promoted a prolonged period of weight increase in an additional long-term study. Synchronous growth of the oocytes occurred in all four groups, but the ovaries and oviducts of cricket-fed animals were significantly larger than those of frogs on the other three diets. The significantly higher liver weights of frogs fed wax moth larvae may have reflected an augmentation of hepatic energy stores. Fat body weights were also highest in this group of animals. Frogs fed crickets and wax moth larvae possessed larger fat bodies than did the midsummer control animals killed immediately after their arrival in the laboratory. In contrast, frogs fed flies and sowbugs had smaller fat bodies than did the initial controls, suggesting that animals on these diets had utilized fat body lipid during vitellogenesis. Gastrocnemius and final body weights were lowest in frogs fed wax moth larvae. These findings may have reflected the nutritional content of the diet or the reduction in appetite frequently noted in these animals during observations of feeding behavior.

  18. Odorous and non-fatal skin secretion of adult wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa) is effective in avoiding predation by snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yuri; Kasuya, Eiiti

    2013-01-01

    The roles played by nonfatal secretions of adult anurans in the avoidance of predation remain unknown. The adult Wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa) has warty skin with the odorous mucus secretion that is not fatal to the snake Elaphe quadrivirgata. We fed R. rugosa or Fejervarya limnocharis, which resembles R. rugosa in appearance and has mucus secretion, to snakes and compared the snakes' responses to the frogs. Compared to F. limnocharis, R. rugosa was less frequently bitten or swallowed by snakes. The snakes that bit R. rugosa spat out the frogs and showed mouth opening (gaping) behavior, while the snakes that bit F. limnocharis did not show gaping behavior. We also compared the responses of the snakes to R. rugosa and F. limnocharis secretions. We coated palatable R. japonica with secretions from R. rugosa or F. limnocharis. The frogs coated by R. rugosa secretion were less frequently bitten or swallowed than those coated by F. limnocharis secretion. We concluded that compared to different frog species of similar sizes, the adult R. rugosa was less frequently preyed upon by, and that its skin secretion was effective in avoiding predation by snakes.

  19. Ranalexin. A novel antimicrobial peptide from bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) skin, structurally related to the bacterial antibiotic, polymyxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D P; Durell, S; Maloy, W L; Zasloff, M

    1994-04-08

    Antimicrobial peptides comprise a diverse class of molecules used in host defense by plants, insects, and animals. In this study we have isolated a novel antimicrobial peptide from the skin of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. This 20 amino acid peptide, which we have termed Ranalexin, has the amino acid sequence: NH2-Phe-Leu-Gly-Gly-Leu-Ile-Lys-Ile-Val-Pro-Ala-Met-Ile-Cys-Ala-Val-Thr- Lys-Lys - Cys-COOH, and it contains a single intramolecular disulfide bond which forms a heptapeptide ring within the molecule. Structurally, Ranalexin resembles the bacterial antibiotic, polymyxin, which contains a similar heptapeptide ring. We have also cloned the cDNA for Ranalexin from a metamorphic R. catesbeiana tadpole cDNA library. Based on the cDNA sequence, it appears that Ranalexin is initially synthesized as a propeptide with a putative signal sequence and an acidic amino acid-rich region at its amino-terminal end. Interestingly, the putative signal sequence of the Ranalexin cDNA is strikingly similar to the signal sequence of opioid peptide precursors isolated from the skin of the South American frogs Phyllomedusa sauvagei and Phyllomedusa bicolor. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization experiments demonstrated that Ranalexin mRNA is first expressed in R. catesbeiana skin at metamorphosis and continues to be expressed into adulthood.

  20. Effects of testosterone on contractile properties of sexually dimorphic forelimb muscles in male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana, Shaw 1802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron R. Kampe

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the effects of testosterone (T on the contractile properties of two sexually dimorphic forelimb muscles and one non-dimorphic muscle in male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana, Shaw 1802. The dimorphic muscles in castrated males with testosterone replacement (T+ achieved higher forces and lower fatigability than did castrated males without replaced testosterone (T0 males, but the magnitude of the differences was low and many of the pair-wise comparisons of each muscle property were not statistically significant. However, when taken as a whole, the means of seven contractile properties varied in the directions expected of masculine values in T+ animals in the sexually dimorphic muscles. Moreover, these data, compared with previous data on male and female bullfrogs, show that values for T+ males are similar to normal males and are significantly different from females. The T0 males tended to be intermediate in character between T+ males and females, generally retaining masculine values. This suggests that the exposure of young males to T in their first breeding season produces a masculinizing effect on the sexually dimorphic muscles that is not reversed between breeding seasons when T levels are low. The relatively minor differences in contractile properties between T+ and T0 males may indicate that as circulating T levels rise during breeding season in normal males, contractile properties can be enhanced rapidly to maximal functional levels for breeding success.

  1. Efecto de ocho Protocolos de Inducción Hormonal sobre la Reproducción de Ranas Venenosas Dendrobates truncatus (Cope, 1861) en el Parque Recreativo y Zoológico Piscilago

    OpenAIRE

    J Alexander Franco; Sandra Sarmiento

    2012-01-01

    La difícil reproducción en cautiverio de ranas del género Dendrobates y su importanciapara la investigación médica y la industria de mascotas, han llevando a través del trafico al declive a sus poblaciones naturales, generando la necesidad de investigar el potencial zootécnico y la conservación de estas especies. Este estudio evaluó el efecto de ocho protocolos de inducción hormonal sobre la reproducción de ranas Dendrobates truncatus, se realizó en el Parque recreativo y zoológico Piscilago ...

  2. Changes in growth rate and macroelement and trace element accumulation in Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L. during the growing season in relation to environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polechońska, Ludmiła; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Dambiec, Małgorzata

    2017-02-01

    The temporal variations in plant chemistry connected with its life cycle may affect the cycling of elements in an ecosystem as well as determine the usefulness of the species in phytoremediation and bioindication. In this context, there is a gap in knowledge on the role of floating plants for elements cycling in aquatic reservoirs. The aim of the study was to determine if there are variations in Hydrocharis morsus-ranae (European frog-bit) bioaccumulation capacity and the growth rate of its population during the growing season and to test the impact of environmental pollution on these features. The content of macroelements (Ca, K, Mg, N, Na, P, S) and trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Hg, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) was determined in H. morsus-ranae collected monthly from June to October from habitats differing in environmental contamination. The results showed that the highest content of most trace metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Zn) and some nutrients (N, P) in plants as well as the greatest bioaccumulation efficiency occurred simultaneously in the beginning of the growing season. In the following months, a dilution effect (manifested by a decrease in content) related to the rapid growth was observed. Co, Mn, and Ni content in plant tissues reflected the level of environmental contamination throughout the growing season which makes H. morsus-ranae a potential biomonitor of pollution for these metals. Considering the great bioaccumulation ability, high sensitivity to contamination, and low biomass of European frog-bit in polluted systems, further investigation is required to assess the real phytoremediation capability of the species.

  3. Los cromosomas meióticos de la rana arborícola Smilisca baudinii (Anura: Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Hernández-Guzmán

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La rana arborícola mexicana Smilisca baudinii, es una especie de rana común en Centroamérica. Sin embargo, la biología y genética de la especie, es pobremente conocida a pesar de su importancia para mantener en equilibrio ecológico las selvas tropicales. Con el propósito de contribuir con el conocimiento biológico de esta especie, establecimos el cariotipo típico en meiosis en especímenes recolectados en Tabasco, México, mediante procedimientos citogenéticos estándares. El estudio, se fundamentó en el análisis de 131 dispersiones cromosómicas en estadio meiótico de dos adultos de la especie (una hembra y un macho. El análisis de las metafases, permitió establecer el número modal haploide de 1n=12 cromosomas bivalentes. La fórmula cromosómica del cariotipo haploide, se integró por 12 cromosomas birrámeos caracterizado por 12 pares de cromosomas bivalentes metacéntricos-submetacéntricos (msm. Los conteos en meiosis, hacen suponer como número diploide de cromosomas a un complemento integrado por 2n=24 cromosomas birrámeos. No fue posible observar presencia de cromosomas sexuales, entre las dispersiones meióticas del espécimen hembra y macho. Los resultados sugieren que la estructura cromosómica de S. baudinii, es compartida ampliamente entre las especies de la familia Hylidae y los cromosomas "B" son estructuras importantes en la diversificación de las especies.Meiotic chromosomes of the tree frog Smilisca baudinii (Anura: Hylidae. The Mexican tree frog Smilisca baudinii, is a very common frog in Central America. In spite their importance to keep the ecological equilibrium of the rainforest, its biology and genetics are poorly known. In order to contribute with its biological knowledge, we described the typical meiotic karyotype based in standard cytogenetic protocols to specimens collected in Tabasco, Mexico. The study was centered in the analysis of 131 chromosome spreads at meiotic stage from two adults of the

  4. Endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity of low dose MCLR on male frogs (Rana nigromaculata) in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Xiuying; Cai, Chenchen; Wang, Jia; Gao, Nana; Zhang, Hangjun, E-mail: zhanghangjun@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Low-dose MCLR (1 μg/L) elicits a potential ecological effect on amphibian populations. • MCLR can induce abnormal sperm morphologies and activities on male frogs. • MCLR can induce a decrease in serum testosterone and an increase in serum estradiol of male frogs. • MCLR can increase SF-1 protein levels and decrease P450 aromatase levels in the gonads of frogs. - Abstract: Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are potential global threats to aquatic ecosystems and human health. The World Health Organization has set a provisional guideline limit of 1 μg/L microcystin-LR (MCLR) in freshwater. However, MCLR concentrations in several water bodies have exceeded this level. Despite this recommended human safety standard, MCLR-induced endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity on male frog (Rana nigromaculata) were demonstrated in this study. Results showed that sperm motility and sperm count were significantly and negatively correlated with exposure time and concentration. By contrast, abnormal sperm rate was positively correlated with both parameters. Ultrastructural observation results revealed abnormal sperm morphologies, vacuoles in spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. These results indicated that MCLR could induce toxic effects on the reproductive system of frogs, significantly decrease testosterone content, and rapidly increase estradiol content. Prolonged exposure and increased concentration enhanced the relative expression levels of P450 aromatase and steroidogenic factor 1; thus, endocrine function in frogs was disrupted. This study is the first to demonstrate in vivo MCLR toxicity in the reproductive system of male R. nigromaculata. This study provided a scientific basis of the global decline in amphibian populations.

  5. Endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity of low dose MCLR on male frogs (Rana nigromaculata) in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Xiuying; Cai, Chenchen; Wang, Jia; Gao, Nana; Zhang, Hangjun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Low-dose MCLR (1 μg/L) elicits a potential ecological effect on amphibian populations. • MCLR can induce abnormal sperm morphologies and activities on male frogs. • MCLR can induce a decrease in serum testosterone and an increase in serum estradiol of male frogs. • MCLR can increase SF-1 protein levels and decrease P450 aromatase levels in the gonads of frogs. - Abstract: Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are potential global threats to aquatic ecosystems and human health. The World Health Organization has set a provisional guideline limit of 1 μg/L microcystin-LR (MCLR) in freshwater. However, MCLR concentrations in several water bodies have exceeded this level. Despite this recommended human safety standard, MCLR-induced endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity on male frog (Rana nigromaculata) were demonstrated in this study. Results showed that sperm motility and sperm count were significantly and negatively correlated with exposure time and concentration. By contrast, abnormal sperm rate was positively correlated with both parameters. Ultrastructural observation results revealed abnormal sperm morphologies, vacuoles in spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. These results indicated that MCLR could induce toxic effects on the reproductive system of frogs, significantly decrease testosterone content, and rapidly increase estradiol content. Prolonged exposure and increased concentration enhanced the relative expression levels of P450 aromatase and steroidogenic factor 1; thus, endocrine function in frogs was disrupted. This study is the first to demonstrate in vivo MCLR toxicity in the reproductive system of male R. nigromaculata. This study provided a scientific basis of the global decline in amphibian populations

  6. Histopathological changes and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities in Iberian green frogs (Rana perezi Seoane) from a uranium mine pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, S.M.; Antunes, S.C.; Pissarra, H.; Pereira, M.L.; Goncalves, F.; Pereira, R.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of their sensitivity to anthropogenic stressors, adults of Rana perezi Seoane were found inhabiting effluent ponds from a uranium mine. Due to the presence of such organisms in this environment, it becomes of paramount importance to assess the damages induced by local contamination on these aquatic vertebrates, in order to integrate this information on a site-specific risk assessment that is being carried out in the area. To attain this purpose an ethically and statistically acceptable number of green frogs were captured in the mine pond (M) and in a pristine river (VR), a few kilometres from the mine. Bioaccumulation of metals and histopathological alterations were evaluated in the liver, kidneys, spleen, lungs and testes of the animals. Simultaneously, blood samples were collected for the evaluation of genotoxic damage on erythrocytes. Animals captured in the M pond showed significantly increased levels of Be, Al, Mn, Fe and U in the liver, as well as Pb and U in the kidney. The liver was the main target organ for the bioaccumulation of Be, Al, Fe and U. However, renal histopathologies were more severe than those of liver. The main tissue alterations recorded in animals from the mine were: a slight increase in melanomacrophagic centers (MMC) in liver, lung and kidneys; dilatation of the renal tubules lumen associated with tubular necrosis. A significantly higher number of erythrocytic abnormalities (lobed, notched and kidney shaped nuclei and micronuclei) were recorded in frogs from M than in frogs from VR, along with a significantly lower frequency of immature erythrocytes. Both observations suggested that the removal of abnormal blood cells might be compromised

  7. Histopathological changes and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities in Iberian green frogs (Rana perezi Seoane) from a uranium mine pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, S.M. [Departamento de Biologia/Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)], E-mail: s.reis.marques@gmail.com; Antunes, S.C. [Departamento de Biologia/Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pissarra, H. [Laboratorio de Anatomia Patologica, Centro de Investigacao Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal (CIISA), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria, U.T.L., Lisboa (Portugal); Pereira, M.L. [Departamento de Biologia/Centro de Investigacao em Materiais Ceramicos e Compositos (CICECO), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Goncalves, F.; Pereira, R. [Departamento de Biologia/Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2009-01-31

    In spite of their sensitivity to anthropogenic stressors, adults of Rana perezi Seoane were found inhabiting effluent ponds from a uranium mine. Due to the presence of such organisms in this environment, it becomes of paramount importance to assess the damages induced by local contamination on these aquatic vertebrates, in order to integrate this information on a site-specific risk assessment that is being carried out in the area. To attain this purpose an ethically and statistically acceptable number of green frogs were captured in the mine pond (M) and in a pristine river (VR), a few kilometres from the mine. Bioaccumulation of metals and histopathological alterations were evaluated in the liver, kidneys, spleen, lungs and testes of the animals. Simultaneously, blood samples were collected for the evaluation of genotoxic damage on erythrocytes. Animals captured in the M pond showed significantly increased levels of Be, Al, Mn, Fe and U in the liver, as well as Pb and U in the kidney. The liver was the main target organ for the bioaccumulation of Be, Al, Fe and U. However, renal histopathologies were more severe than those of liver. The main tissue alterations recorded in animals from the mine were: a slight increase in melanomacrophagic centers (MMC) in liver, lung and kidneys; dilatation of the renal tubules lumen associated with tubular necrosis. A significantly higher number of erythrocytic abnormalities (lobed, notched and kidney shaped nuclei and micronuclei) were recorded in frogs from M than in frogs from VR, along with a significantly lower frequency of immature erythrocytes. Both observations suggested that the removal of abnormal blood cells might be compromised.

  8. UNA ESPECIE NUEVA DE RANA DEL GÉNERO CHIASMOCLEIS (MICROHYLIDAE: GASTROPHRYNINAE DE LA CORDILLERA DEL CÓNDOR, ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA ALMENDÁRIZ C.

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se describe una especie nueva de rana del género Chiasmocleis de los bosques montanos del suroriente del Ecuador, en las laderas occidentales de la Cordillera del Cóndor, entre 1.025-1.630 m de altitud. En base a nuevas secuencias de ADN mitocondrial y nuclear presentamos las relaciones filogenéticas de la nueva especie y sus congéneres. La filogenia muestra una relación cercana a C. antenori, C. carvalhoi, C. magnova, y C. tridactyla. La nueva especie forma parte de un clado integrado por especies que previamente habían sido asignadas al género Syncope. Este clado es hermano de otro conformado por el resto de especies de Chiasmocleis. La nueva especie difiere de sus congéneres por su dorso café ladrillo a café obscuro (sepia cubierto por puntos diminutos blanco-amarillentos. Chiasmocleis parkeri sp. nov. se parece a Chiasmocleis antenori por la ausencia del dedo I, tanto en las manos como en los pies, pero difiere en la coloración, la disposición y tamaño de las manchas claras y la ausencia de una línea clara en la región cantal. La especie nueva presenta algunos rasgos que le distinguen de especies similares. Describimos el canto, caracterizado por tener notas sin pulsos y aportamos datos ecológicos de la localidad típica y áreas adyacentes.

  9. Chilled frogs are hot: hibernation and reproduction of the Endangered mountain yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Frank E.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Lemm, Jeffrey M.; Fisher, Robert N.; Clark, Rulon W.

    2015-01-01

    In the face of the sixth great extinction crisis, it is imperative to establish effective breeding protocols for amphibian conservation breeding programs. Captive efforts should not proceed by trial and error, nor should they jump prematurely to assisted reproduction techniques, which can be invasive, difficult, costly, and, at times, counterproductive. Instead, conservation practitioners should first look to nature for guidance, and replicate key conditions found in nature in the captive environment, according to the ecological and behavioral requirements of the species. We tested the effect of a natural hibernation regime on reproductive behaviors and body condition in the Endangered mountain yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa. Hibernation had a clear positive effect on reproductive behavior, manifesting in vocal advertisement signaling, female receptivity, amplexus, and oviposition. These behaviors are critical components of courtship that lead to successful reproduction. Our main finding was that captive R. muscosa require a hibernation period for successful reproduction, as only hibernated females produced eggs and only hibernated males successfully fertilized eggs. Although hibernation also resulted in a reduced body condition, the reduction appeared to be minimal with no associated mortality. The importance of hibernation for reproduction is not surprising, since it is a major component of the conditions that R. muscosa experiences in the wild. Other amphibian conservation breeding programs can also benefit from a scientific approach that tests the effect of natural ecological conditions on reproduction. This will ensure that captive colonies maximize their role in providing genetic reservoirs for assurance and reintroduction efforts.

  10. Cryptic invasion of Northern Leopard Frogs (Rana pipiens) across phylogeographic boundaries and a dilemma for conservation of a declining amphibian

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Ryan P.; Drost, Charles A.; Mock, Karen E.

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic introduction of species is a major contributor to loss of biodiversity. Translocations within the range of a species are less frequently recognized, but have the potential for negative effects as well. Genetic mixing may lead to loss of local adaptations or further decline through outbreeding depression. These cryptic invasions may be quite difficult to recognize, but genetic tools can be used to recognize and monitor such intraspecific introductions. Conversely, translocations within species can be an important conservation tool to reduce inbreeding depression and replace lost genetic diversity. Thus, cryptic invasions can be either an aid or a hindrance to conservation efforts. We tested for the presence of non-native genotypes and assessed the extent and nature of introgression in populations of Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens) in the southwestern US, where populations have declined to a few remnant populations. The most abundant and diverse complex of populations in the region contained a mitochondrial haplotype that was not native to the western US, probably resulting from the introduction of released pets, laboratory animals, or release during fish stocking. These non-native haplotypes were well integrated into a large complex of ponds and lakes, contributing to high genetic diversity in this area. Logistically, the geographic extent of non-native genetic influence within this population precludes eliminating or controlling the non-native component of this population. We recommend assessing the progress and fate of the introgression over time—along with population fitness parameters—to determine whether this introduction is beneficial or detrimental to population persistence. Meanwhile, translocations from nearby locations with similar environmental conditions have the best prospects for avoiding problems with outbreeding depression in other declining populations and will also most effectively preserve regional genetic diversity.

  11. One-tone suppression in the frog auditory nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    Sixty-seven fibers of a sample of 401 in the auditory nerve of grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) showed one-tone suppression, i.e., their spontaneous activity was suppressed by tones. All fibers were afferents from the amphibian papilla with best frequencies between 100 and 400 Hz. Best suppression...

  12. Changes in dynamics processes of the muscles’ traction under influence of stress-factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Nozdrenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Change of fibers’ dynamic parameters of the frog Rana temporaria skeletal muscle m. tibialis traction under influence of modulated stimulation and aluminium chloride solutions was studied. At 10-4,5·10-4 and 10‑3 M·l-1 concentrations of aluminium chloride the nonlinear decrease of the muscle fibers’ traction parameters was observed.

  13. First report of freshwater leech Helobdella stagnalis (Rhyncobdellida: Glossiphoniidae as a parasite of an anuran amphibian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Tiberti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the first case of parasitism on anuran amphibian, Rana temporaria, by the freshwater leech Helobdella stagnalis, in a mountainous area of northwestern Italy. The presence of skin abrasions and haemorrhages attributable to leech attack discards the hypothesis of a simple phoretic relationship between leech and frog.

  14. Effects of road de-icing salt (NaCl) on larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanzo, Domenico; Hecnar, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    Vast networks of roads cover the earth and have numerous environmental effects including pollution. A major component of road runoff in northern countries is salt (mostly NaCl) used as a winter de-icing agent, but few studies of effects of road salts on aquatic organisms exist. Amphibians require aquatic habitats and chemical pollution is implicated as a major factor in global population declines. We exposed wood frog tadpoles to NaCl. Tests revealed 96-h LC50 values of 2636 and 5109 mg/l and tadpoles experienced reduced activity, weight, and displayed physical abnormalities. A 90 d chronic experiment revealed significantly lower survivorship, decreased time to metamorphosis, reduced weight and activity, and increased physical abnormalities with increasing salt concentration (0.00, 0.39, 77.50, 1030.00 mg/l). Road salts had toxic effects on larvae at environmentally realistic concentrations with potentially far-ranging ecological impacts. More studies on the effects of road salts are warranted. - Road salts have toxic effects on amphibians at environmentally realistic concentrations

  15. Effects of road de-icing salt (NaCl) on larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanzo, Domenico [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, ON, P7B 5E1 (Canada); Hecnar, Stephen J. [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, ON, P7B 5E1 (Canada)]. E-mail: stephen.hecnar@lakeheadu.ca

    2006-03-15

    Vast networks of roads cover the earth and have numerous environmental effects including pollution. A major component of road runoff in northern countries is salt (mostly NaCl) used as a winter de-icing agent, but few studies of effects of road salts on aquatic organisms exist. Amphibians require aquatic habitats and chemical pollution is implicated as a major factor in global population declines. We exposed wood frog tadpoles to NaCl. Tests revealed 96-h LC50 values of 2636 and 5109 mg/l and tadpoles experienced reduced activity, weight, and displayed physical abnormalities. A 90 d chronic experiment revealed significantly lower survivorship, decreased time to metamorphosis, reduced weight and activity, and increased physical abnormalities with increasing salt concentration (0.00, 0.39, 77.50, 1030.00 mg/l). Road salts had toxic effects on larvae at environmentally realistic concentrations with potentially far-ranging ecological impacts. More studies on the effects of road salts are warranted. - Road salts have toxic effects on amphibians at environmentally realistic concentrations.

  16. Effects of oil sands waste water on the wood frog (rana sylvatica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersikorn, B.; Smits, J.E. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The sustainability of various reclamation strategies can be determined by the growth and health of indigenous amphibians (Wood Frogs). This paper referred to the large quantities of tailings water that are generated by oil sand extraction activities. It presented the results of a study that was conducted in the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 on reclaimed formation wetlands comprising tailings water. The objective was to understand the impact of these wetlands on native amphibians. Frogs were exposed to wetlands containing oil sands process affected water (OSPW) and reference water (no OSPW). Six experimental trenches were made at one site in the first year. Each trench had 3 enclosures with 50 tadpoles. In the second year, there were 13 sites, including 6 reference and 7 OSPW affected sites, which were classified as old (more than 8 yrs) or young (less than 7 yrs). Four enclosures, with 50 tadpoles each, were placed in each wetland. The study involved the evaluation of growth rate, survival, time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone concentrations, liver EROD activity, and tissue retinol concentrations. In addition, stable isotopes were used to track carbon flow from primary production plants, through the food chain, to tadpoles and frogs which represent intermediate and higher trophic levels in reclaimed wetlands.

  17. Cuando un príncipe besa a una rana: ¡Sorpresa! Una propuesta didáctica desde la homosexualidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Jódar Sánchez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En esta propuesta didáctica, utilizamos el álbum ilustrado como herramienta para la enseñanza de contenido lingüístico, así como valores sociales y cívicos a un grupo de estudiantes de ELE de nivel A2. Utilizamos el álbum ilustrado El día de la rana roja que narra la historia de dos príncipes que se enamoran y adoptan a una niña huérfana. Estructuramos nuestra propuesta en cuatro fases (introducción, comprensión, consolidación, resignificación, de las cuáles las dos últimas son las dos que más desarrollamos. Planteamos una entrevista a la rana del cuento, un teatro con marionetas, y el dibujo del mapa del reino como actividades de introducción. En la fase de comprensión se sugieren actividades de léxico y gramática sencillas, tratando, por ejemplo, los tiempos de presente y futuro. En la fase de consolidación, el profesor tiene la opción de realizar el taller del adivinador de sueños o la puesta en escena de declaraciones de amor entre animales. Finalmente, para la fase de resignificación, se cuestiona por qué el rey y la reina cambian el vestido por unos pantalones al averiguar que su hijo se casará con un chico. Palabras clave: Homosexualidad, español como lengua extranjera, álbum ilustrado, El día de la rana roja.   Abstract: This teaching material is based on the picture book El día de la rana roja, the story of a prince who marries another man and together adopt an orphan child. It is targeted to students of Spanish as a foreign language of any country, including the United States, with an A2 level. Picture books are useful tools to teach, not only language and grammar, but also civility and good manners in society. The proposal is divided into four phases (introduction, comprehension, consolidation, and intellectual challenge, the latter of which are explained in detail. For the introduction phase, we propose interviewing the frog in the story, having a puppet role play narrating the story, and

  18. The exposed breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingman, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    The skin and lungs are two tissues that are frequently bombarded with cancer-initiating factors, such as ultraviolet rays from the sun and smoke and pollutants in the air we breathe. Yet breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in Australian women, affecting one in eight before the age of 85. It is more common than skin melanoma and lung cancer. Why, then, does the breast so commonly get cancer when it is not a tissue that is particularly exposed to the environmental agents that increase cancer risk in other major organs? Is there something unique about this tissue that makes it particularly susceptible? The breast undergoes cellular changes over the course of the monthly menstrual cycle, and and these changes affect cancer susceptibility. Rising levels of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone occur immediately after the egg is released from the ovary, and these hormones cause the breast cells to divide and change to accommodate further development if pregnancy occurs. If the woman becomes pregnant, the cells in the breast continue to develop and become the milk-producing structures required to feed a newborn baby. But if pregnancy does not occur there is a drop in progesterone, which triggers the death of the newly developed breast cells. This occurs at the same time women have their period. Then the cycle starts again, and continues every month until menopause, unless the woman becomes pregnant.

  19. Exposing the faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    UK NIREX, the body with responsibility for finding an acceptable strategy for deposition of radioactive waste has given the impression throughout its recent public consultation that the problem of nuclear waste is one of public and political acceptability, rather than one of a technical nature. However the results of the consultation process show that it has no mandate from the British public to develop a single, national, deep repository for the burial of radioactive waste. There is considerable opposition to this method of managing radioactive waste and suspicion of the claims by NIREX concerning the supposed integrity and safety of this deep burial option. This report gives substance to those suspicions and details the significant areas of uncertainty in the concept of effective geological containment of hazardous radioactive elements, which remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years. Because the science of geology is essentially retrospective rather than predictive, NIREX's plans for a single, national, deep 'repository' depend heavily upon a wide range of assumptions about the geological and hydrogeological regimes in certain areas of the UK. This report demonstrates that these assumptions are based on a limited understanding of UK geology and on unvalidated and simplistic theoretical models of geological processes, the performance of which can never be directly tested over the long time-scales involved. NIREX's proposals offer no guarantees for the safe and effective containment of radioactivity. They are deeply flawed. This report exposes the faults. (author)

  20. Alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in estrogen- and androgen-treated adult male leopard frog, Rana pipiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Jeremy T

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadal steroids, in particular 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT and 17 beta-estradiol (E2, have been shown to feed back on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis of the ranid frog. However, questions still remain on how DHT and E2 impact two of the less-studied components of the ranid HPG axis, the hypothalamus and the gonad, and if the feedback effects are consistently negative. Thus, the goal of the study was to examine the effects of DHT and E2 upon the HPG axis of the gonadally-intact, sexually mature male leopard frogs, Rana pipiens. Methods R. pipiens were implanted with silastic capsules containing either cholesterol (Ch, a control, DHT, or E2 for 10 or 30 days. At each time point, steroid-induced changes in hypothalamic GnRH and pituitary LH concentrations, circulating luteinizing hormone (LH, and testicular histology were examined. Results Frogs implanted with DHT or E2 for 10 days did not show significant alterations in the HPG axis. In contrast, frogs implanted with hormones for 30 days had significantly lower circulating LH (for both DHT and E2, decreased pituitary LH concentration (for E2 only, and disrupted spermatogenesis (for both DHT and E2. The disruption of spermatogenesis was qualitatively similar between DHT and E2, although the effects of E2 were consistently more potent. In both DHT and E2-treated animals, a marked loss of all pre-meiotic germ cells was observed, although the loss of secondary spermatogonia appeared to be the primary cause of disrupted spermatogenesis. Unexpectedly, the presence of post-meiotic germ cells was either unaffected or enhanced by DHT or E2 treatment. Conclusions Overall, these results showed that both DHT and E2 inhibited circulating LH and disrupted spermatogenesis progressively in a time-dependent manner, with the longer duration of treatment producing the more pronounced effects. Further, the feedback effects exerted by both steroid hormones upon the HPG axis were

  1. Persistence of a circadian rhythmicity for thyroid hormones in plasma and thyroid of hibernating male Rana ridibunda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, E R; Delmotte, N M; Darras, V M

    1983-06-01

    The presence and circadian rhythmicity of thyroid hormones was studied in plasma and the thyroid gland of male Rana ridibunda before and during hibernation. Hibernating January frogs do have a lower T3 and T4 content of their thyroid gland whereas plasma levels of T3 are maintained and of T4 increased compared to fed September or October frogs. It seems likely that the increased photoperiod in January will be responsible for this increased T4 secretion, since controlled laboratory experiments performed in December did not reveal any influence of low temperature on circulating T3 or T4 levels. Also feeding does not influence circulating levels and thyroid content of thyroid hormones in frogs kept at room temperature during the month of January. A circadian rhythmicity of T3 and T4 in the thyroid gland is present in fed October frogs and in non fed December frogs acclimated at 5 degrees C for 12 days with an acrophase for T3 at approximately 1500 h and for T4 at around 1900 h, whereas in plasma only T3 does have circadian variations (acrophase about midnight) but not T4. When December frogs are acclimated to room temperature for 12 days, frogs are active again, but do not eat and have a lower body weight than frogs hibernating at 5 degrees C. Their T3 content of the thyroid gland has disappeared, but T4 thyroid content and plasma levels of T3 and T4 are maintained. As in hibernating frogs, no circadian variations in T4 plasma concentrations are present whereas the circadian thyroid T4 rhythm disappears. At the same time a dampening in rhythmicity for plasma T3 as judged by the significantly lower amplitude occurs. It is concluded that the persistence of circulating levels of thyroid hormones and of a circadian cyclicity for T3 in plasma in non feeding hibernating frogs may reflect the special metabolic state e.g. availability of food reserves in these animals.

  2. The role of MEF2 transcription factors in dehydration and anoxia survival in Rana sylvatica skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam P. Hoyeck

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The wood frog (Rana sylvatica can endure freezing of up to 65% of total body water during winter. When frozen, wood frogs enter a dormant state characterized by a cessation of vital functions (i.e., no heartbeat, blood circulation, breathing, brain activity, or movement. Wood frogs utilize various behavioural and biochemical adaptations to survive extreme freezing and component anoxia and dehydration stresses, including a global suppression of metabolic functions and gene expression. The stress-responsive myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2 transcription factor family regulates the selective expression of genes involved in glucose transport, protein quality control, and phosphagen homeostasis. This study examined the role of MEF2A and MEF2C proteins as well as select downstream targets (glucose transporter-4, calreticulin, and muscle and brain creatine kinase isozymes in 40% dehydration and 24 h anoxia exposure at the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels using qRT-PCR, immunoblotting, and subcellular localization. Mef2a/c transcript levels remained constant during dehydration and anoxia. Total, cytoplasmic, and nuclear MEF2A/C and phospho-MEF2A/C protein levels remained constant during dehydration, whereas a decrease in total MEF2C levels was observed during rehydration. Total and phospho-MEF2A levels remained constant during anoxia, whereas total MEF2C levels decreased during 24 h anoxia and P-MEF2C levels increased during 4 h anoxia. In contrast, cytoplasmic MEF2A levels and nuclear phospho-MEF2A/C levels were upregulated during anoxia. MEF2 downstream targets remained constant during dehydration and anoxia, with the exception of glut4 which was upregulated during anoxia. These results suggest that the upregulated MEF2 response reported in wood frogs during freezing may in part stem from their cellular responses to surviving prolonged anoxia, rather than dehydration, leading to an increase in GLUT4 expression which may

  3. Terrestrial activity and conservation of adult California red-legged frogs Rana aurora draytonii in coastal forests and grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulger, J.B.; Scott, N.J.; Seymour, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    The federally threatened California red-legged frog Rana aurora draytonii occupies both aquatic and terrestrial habitats in its adult life stage. The terrestrial activities of this species are not well known and require documentation to assist in the development of appropriate levels of protection under the US Endangered Species Act. We studied the terrestrial activities of radio-tagged red-legged frogs (n = 8-26) inhabiting a coastal watershed in Santa Cruz County, California, during 1997-1998. In particular, we investigated (1) the use of terrestrial habitats by non-migrating adults in relation to season, breeding chronology, and precipitation, and (2) adult migration behavior, including seasonal timing, duration, distances traveled, and the use of corridors. Non-migrating red-legged frogs occupied terrestrial habitats briefly (median = 4-6 days) following infrequent summer rains, but resided nearly continuously on land (median = 20-30 days) from the onset of the winter wet-season until breeding activities commenced 1-2 months later. All of the non-migrating frogs remained within 130 m of their aquatic site of residence (median days), despite frequent and copious rainfall. Adult migration to and from breeding sites occurred from late October through mid-May (wet season). We monitored 25 migration events between aquatic sites that were 200-2800 m apart. Short distance movements ( days, longer movements required up to 2 months. Most migrating frogs moved overland in approximately straight lines to target sites without apparent regard to vegetation type or topography. Riparian corridors were neither essential nor preferred as migration routes. Frogs traveling overland occurred in upland habitats as far as 500 m from water. Approximately 11-22% of the adult population was estimated to migrate to and from breeding sites annually, whereas the bulk of the adult population was resident at these sites. Adequate protection of red-legged frog populations inhabiting

  4. Spatial Amphibian Impact Assessment – a management tool for assessment of road effects on regional populations of Moor frogs (Rana arvalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maj-Britt; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2013-01-01

    viability. Analyses of maps without the planned road constructions will constitute a “null-model” against which other scenarios can be compared, making it possible to assess the effect of road projects on landscape connectivity and population dynamics. Analyses and comparisons of several...... demonstrate how SAIA can be used to assess which management measures would be best to mitigate the effect of landscape fragmentation caused by road constructions by means of a case study dedicated to the Moor frog (Rana arvalis).......An expanding network of roads and railways fragments natural habitat affecting the amount and quality of habitat and reducing connectivity between habitat patches with severe consequences for biodiversity and population persistence. To ensure an ecologically sustainable transportation system...

  5. Incidence and impact of axial malformations in larval bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) developing in sites polluted by a coal-burning power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, W.A.; Congdon, J.; Ray, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    Amphibian malformations have recently received much attention from the scientific community, but few studies have provided evidence linking environmental pollution to larval amphibian malformations in the field. The authors document an increased incidence of axial malformations in bullfrog larvae (Rana catesbeiana) inhabiting two sites contaminated with coal combustion wastes. In the polluted sites, 18 and 37% of larvae exhibited lateral curvatures of the spine, whereas zero and 4% of larvae from two reference sites had similar malformations. Larvae from the most heavily polluted site had significantly higher tissue concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements, including As, Cd, Se, Cu, Cr, and V, compared with conspecifics from the reference sites. In addition, malformed larvae from the cost contaminated site had decreased swimming speeds compared with those of normal larvae from the same site. The authors hypothesize that the complex mixture of contaminants produced by coal combustion is responsible for the high incidence of malformations and associated effects on swimming performance

  6. Induction of cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases in northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, by 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-W.; Melancon, M.J.; Jung, R.E.; Karasov, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were injected intraperitoneally either with a solution of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 in corn oil at a concentration of 0.2, 0.7, 2.3 and 7.8 mg/kg body weight or with corn oil alone. Appropriate assay conditions with hepatic microsomes were determined for four cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases: ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD), methoxy-ROD (MROD), benzyloxy-ROD (BROD) and pentoxy-ROD (PROD). One week after PCB administration, the specific activities of EROD, MROD, BROD and PROD were not elevated at doses ? 0.7 mg/kg (p > 0.05), but were significantly increased at doses ? 2.3 mg/kg compared to the control groups (p leopard frogs.

  7. Una nueva especie de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis (Amphibia: Craugastoridae, de la Cordillera de Kutukú, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Brito M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Describimos una especie nueva de mediano tamaño (LRC en la hembra 38.7 mm; en machos de 23.8 a 26.4 mm de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis de los bosques sub-tropicales de la Cordillera de Kutukú, del sureste de Ecuador, a elevaciones de 1581-1820 m. Asignamos a Pristimantis almendariz sp. nov., al subgénero Hypodictyon, serie de especies ridens. La nueva especie difiere de otros miembros de la serie ridens por su patrón distintivo con manchas dorsales, membrana timpánica ausente, presencia de tubérculos cónicos agrandados en el párpado, tubérculo inter-orbital prominente, e iris plateado con reticulaciones negras.

  8. Identification of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica from American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana farmed in Sabah, Malaysia using PCR method and future management of outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainuri, N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: High demand for frog meat in Malaysia especially the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana has promoted intensive farming of the animal. However, the farming of American bullfrog is restricted by the occurrence of diseases. This study reports the first isolation of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica from specimens of American bullfrog that suffer from cataract and ‘red-leg’ syndrome.Methodology and Result: The pathogen was isolated from eyes and internal organs (liver, kidney and spleen of thediseased bullfrog specimens. All the bacterial isolates were subjected to phenotypic characterization and antibiotic susceptibility assay, and further identified by using the 16S rDNA sequencing analysis. We designed two pair of specific PCR primers (22-25 mers which are complimentary to the β-lactamase gene in the reference strain ofE. meningoseptica ATCC49470. The result showed all the bacterial isolates shared similar phenotypic characters and antibiotic susceptibility. BLAST analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences indicated that the bacterial isolates had very high sequence homology (100% with E. meningospetica ATCC49470 and E. meningoseptica isolates from mosquito. The two PCR primers were very specific to E. meningoseptica isolates of this study. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This is the first isolation and characterization of bacterial pathogen, E. meningoseptica in cultured American bullfrog (Rana catesbeina that suffered from eye cataract and ‘red-leg’syndrome in Sabah, Malaysia. It is suspected that one of the possible transmission routes of the bacterial pathogen could be via mosquito bites. The findings suggest that there is urgent requirement for standard guideline of good farming practice to be adopted in frog farms throughout the country. Such a guideline can help in minimizing economic losses, preventing transmission of the zoonotic bacterial pathogen to farm workers, and sustaining the industry in Malaysia andupgrading

  9. A new record for American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus in San Juan, Argentina Nuevo registro de rana toro americana (Lithobates catesbeianus en San Juan, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanabria

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a new record of Lithobates catesbeianus (American bullfrog from Argentina. L. catesbeianus was first introduced to San Juan Province 11 years ago in Calingasta Department, where the habitat is pre-cordilleran. The new record is for Zonda Department, San Juan Province, in the Monte desert region. Here, L. catesbeianus uses artificial ponds for reproduction and tadpole development. These ponds receive water from an irrigation system that connects the whole agriculture land in the region. The tadpoles use the irrigation canals to move among ponds. We suggest that legislation should be established to prevent future invasions and to achieve sustainable management of the wild American bullfrog populations in San Juan. Prevention of future invasion and management of established populations of this species requires the cooperation of numerous stake holders.Se presenta un nuevo registro de Lithobates catesbeianus (rana toro americana en Argentina. L. catesbeianus fue introducida por primera vez a la provincia de San Juan hace 11 años en el Departamento Calingasta, donde el hábitat es pre-cordillerano. El nuevo registro es para el Departamento Zonda en la provincia de San Juan, en el desierto del Monte. En este sitio, L. catesbeianus usa estanques artificiales para la reproducción y desarrollo del renacuajo. Los estanques reciben agua de un sistema de riego que conecta todas las tierras de la agricultura en la región. Los renacuajos utilizan los canales de riego para moverse entre los estanques. Sugerimos que se establezcan leyes para prevenir invasiones futuras y para lograr un manejo integrado de las poblaciones silvestres de rana toro que se encuentran en San Juan. La prevención de futuras invasiones y el manejo de las poblaciones establecidas de esta especie requieren la cooperación de numerosas entidades tanto gubernamentales como privadas.

  10. Supplementary studies of Pleurogenoides medians (Digenea: Lecithodendriidae infecting the Marsh frog Rana Ridibunda (Amphibia: Ranidae in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rewaida Abdel-Gaber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pleurogenoides medians, a digenean lecithodendriid trematode, parasitize numerous aquatic vertebrate species including frogs, freshwater fish, urodeles and anurans. In the present study, a total of 190 out of 300 (63.33% marsh frogs Rana Ridibunda were found to be infected with this digenean parasite. The highest percentage of infection was recorded in winter reaching 93.33%, and the lowest value was recorded to be 6.66% during summer. Prevalence and intensity of infection were positively correlated with the host size. Host sex showed no effect in this respect. Morphological studies based on light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the adult worms characterized by small body size measured 1.980–2.430 (2.205 ± 0.1 mm long and 0.870–1.20 (9.87 ± 0.01 mm wide with spines of similar size distributed all over the body surface; oral sucker is sub-terminal and measured 0.180–0.230 (0.203 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.120–0.180 (0.150 ± 0.01 mm wide; ventral sucker is smaller than the oral sucker, post-ovarian located at 1/3 level from the anterior end and measured 0.080–0.102 (0.090 ± 0.001 mm long and 0.100–0140 (0.120 ± 0.001 mm wide; two symmetrical testes were located near the cecal termination on both sides of the ventral sucker, measured 0.153–0.193 (0.176 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.160–0.192 (0.175 ± 0.01 mm wide; pre-acetabular ovary was present and measured 0.130–0.150 (0.140 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.100–0.130 (0.120 ± 0.01 mm wide; vitellaria are extra-caecal and extended from the level of the pharynx to a level slightly beyond the ovary. By comparing the recovered parasite with different species of the same genus from different hosts having different localities, it was found that the present species morphometrically more or less different from the comparable species and the only similar species was P. medians described previously from the common toad Bufo bufo by having all similar

  11. The effects of aquatic oxygen concentration, body size and respiratory behaviour on the stamina of obligate aquatic (Bufo americanus) and facultative air-breathing (Xenopus laevis and Rana berlandieri) anuran larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassersug, R J; Feder, M E

    1983-07-01

    Larvae of the anurans Rana berlandieri and Xenopus laevis have lungs and can breathe air as well as irrigate buccal and pharyngeal surfaces for aquatic respiration. Larvae of Bufo americanus lack lungs until just before metamorphosis and are obligately aquatic. We examined the relationship between the locomotor stamina (time to fatigue), aquatic oxygen concentration, body size, and respiratory behaviour of swimming larvae of these species, with the following results: Stamina is size-dependent in all three species. Aquatic hypoxia reduces stamina in larvae of all three species, but most conspicuously in Bufo. Breathing air increases stamina in Rana larvae, especially in large animals and under aquatic hypoxia. In contrast to Rana larvae, Xenopus larvae swimming in normoxic water undergo a reduction in stamina when allowed to breathe air. In hypoxic water, aerial respiration moderates the reduction in stamina seen in Xenopus larvae. Branchial irrigation is associated with increased stamina in Xenopus, and is increased under hypoxia and at high swimming velocities. Respiratory demand, buoyancy and the drag associated with branchial irrigation all affect respiratory behaviour in Xenopus larvae. The great amount of interspecific variation in the relationship between respiratory behaviour and stamina reveals the importance of measuring performance directly when attempting to interpret the functional significance of respiratory structures and behaviour.

  12. Effects of maturation and acidosis on the chaos-like complexity of the neural respiratory output in the isolated brainstem of the tadpole, Rana esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Christian; Samara, Ziyad; Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Bautin, Nathalie; Ranohavimparany, Anja; Le Coz, Patrick; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Darré, Pierre; Zelter, Marc; Poon, Chi-Sang; Similowski, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Human ventilation at rest exhibits mathematical chaos-like complexity that can be described as long-term unpredictability mediated (in whole or in part) by some low-dimensional nonlinear deterministic process. Although various physiological and pathological situations can affect respiratory complexity, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely elucidated. If such chaos-like complexity is an intrinsic property of central respiratory generators, it should appear or increase when these structures mature or are stimulated. To test this hypothesis, we employed the isolated tadpole brainstem model [Rana (Pelophylax) esculenta] and recorded the neural respiratory output (buccal and lung rhythms) of pre- (n = 8) and postmetamorphic tadpoles (n = 8), at physiologic (7.8) and acidic pH (7.4). We analyzed the root mean square of the cranial nerve V or VII neurograms. Development and acidosis had no effect on buccal period. Lung frequency increased with development (P acidosis, but in postmetamorphic tadpoles only (P respiratory central rhythm generator accounts for ventilatory chaos-like complexity, especially in the postmetamorphic stage and at low pH. According to the ventilatory generators homology theory, this may also be the case in mammals.

  13. The prevalence and risk factors of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among workers injured in Rana Plaza building collapse in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Taylor; Villanueva, Gabriela; Quadir, Mohammad M; Sagiraju, Hari K R; Alamgir, Hasanat

    2015-07-01

    Prevalence and risk factors of PTSD among injured garment workers who survived a major factory collapse. Survivors receiving treatment or rehabilitation care at one year post event were surveyed, which included Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Specific version. The respondents consisted of 181 people with a mean age of 27.8 years and a majority had less than high school education (91.2%). Multivariable logistic regression found that the odds of having PTSD was higher among married (OR: 3.2 [95% CI: 1.3-8.0]), those who used to work more than 70 hr/week (OR: 2.4 [1.1-5.3]), workers who used to hold higher job positions (OR: 2.6 [1.2-5.6]) or who had a concussion injury (OR: 3.7 [1.4-9.8]). Among the respondents, 83.4% remained unemployed, and only 57.3% (63 people) reported receiving a quarter or less of what they were promised as compensation. Probable PTSD was prevalent among surviving workers of the Rana Plaza building collapse in Bangladesh. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. NUEVA ESPECIE DE RANA BROMELÍCOLA DEL GÉNERO PRISTIMANTIS (AMPHIBIA: CRAUGASTORIDAE, MESETA DE LA CORDILLERA DEL CÓNDOR, ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE BRITO M.

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Describimos una especie pequeña de rana bromelícola del género Pristimantis (longitud rostro-cloaca en hembras 20.3-23.3 mm; en machos 16.1-17.4 mm, proveniente de una remota meseta de arenisca de la Cordillera del Cóndor, en el sureste de Ecuador, con un rango altitudinal de 2.045-2.860 m. Una filogenia en base a secuencias de ADN (genes mitocondriales y nucleares muestra que la nueva especie forma parte del grupo P. orestes y está más cercanamente relacionada con una especie de Pristimantis aún no descrita de la vertiente sur oriental ecuatoriana. Difiere de sus congéneres de Ecuador, por su coloración dorsal y ventral predominantemente negra; superficie palmar amplia y robusta con dedos cortos y gruesos; presencia de un surco profundo y amplio extendido desde la base anterior del I dedo manual hasta la base posterior del tubérculo palmar; tubérculos subarticulares divididos, tubérculos supernumerarios agrandados y con granulaciones pequeñas. Todos los individuos registrados estuvieron en bromelias terrestres. Las llamadas son cortas, de frecuencia modulada, conformada por una nota con duración de 5-15 ms. Los insectos representaron el 80% de la dieta de la especie nueva.

  15. Rangewide phylogeography and landscape genetics of the Western U.S. endemic frog Rana boylii (Ranidae): Implications for the conservation of frogs and rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, A.J.; Spinks, P.Q.; Fellers, G.M.; Shaffer, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic data are increasingly being used in conservation planning for declining species. We sampled both the ecological and distributional limits of the foothill yellow-legged frog, Rana boylii to characterize mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in this declining, riverine amphibian. We evaluated 1525 base pairs (bp) of cytochrome b and ND2 fragments for 77 individuals from 34 localities using phylogenetic and population genetic analyses. We constructed gene trees using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, and quantified genetic variance (using AMOVA and partial Mantel tests) within and among hydrologic regions and river basins. Several moderately supported, geographically-cohesive mtDNA clades were recovered for R. boylii. While genetic variation was low among populations in the largest, most inclusive clade, samples from localities at the edges of the geographic range demonstrated substantial genetic divergence from each other and from more central populations. Hydrologic regions and river basins, which represent likely dispersal corridors for R. boylii, accounted for significant levels of genetic variation. These results suggest that both rivers and larger hydrologic and geographic regions should be used in conservation planning for R. boylii. ?? 2010 US Government.

  16. Effects of maturation and acidosis on the chaos-like complexity of the neural respiratory output in the isolated brainstem of the tadpole, Rana esculenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Ziyad; Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Bautin, Nathalie; Ranohavimparany, Anja; Le Coz, Patrick; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Darré, Pierre; Zelter, Marc; Poon, Chi-Sang; Similowski, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Human ventilation at rest exhibits mathematical chaos-like complexity that can be described as long-term unpredictability mediated (in whole or in part) by some low-dimensional nonlinear deterministic process. Although various physiological and pathological situations can affect respiratory complexity, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely elucidated. If such chaos-like complexity is an intrinsic property of central respiratory generators, it should appear or increase when these structures mature or are stimulated. To test this hypothesis, we employed the isolated tadpole brainstem model [Rana (Pelophylax) esculenta] and recorded the neural respiratory output (buccal and lung rhythms) of pre- (n = 8) and postmetamorphic tadpoles (n = 8), at physiologic (7.8) and acidic pH (7.4). We analyzed the root mean square of the cranial nerve V or VII neurograms. Development and acidosis had no effect on buccal period. Lung frequency increased with development (P Chaos-like complexity, assessed through the noise limit, increased from pH 7.8 to pH 7.4 (P chaos-like complexity, especially in the postmetamorphic stage and at low pH. According to the ventilatory generators homology theory, this may also be the case in mammals. PMID:21325645

  17. Assessment of heavy metals and metalloids in tissues of two frog species: Rana tigrina and Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis from industrial city Sialkot, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Irfan Zia; Kashif, Zeshan; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Su, Xiaomei; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Ullah, Kalim; Hu, Jinxing; Dawood, Muhammad

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the concentrations of Ni, Fe, Pb, Cu, Co, Zn, Cd, Mn, and Cr in selected body tissues (liver, stomach, kidney, heart, lungs, and skeletal muscles) of two frog species: Rana tigrina and Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis captured from industrial wastewater of Sialkot city known worldwide for its tanning industry. The both frog species had darker appearance, distinctively different wet body weight, and snout-vent length. The results revealed that the heavy metal concentrations were high in the samples collected from industrial sites as compared to non-industrial sites. The different tissues of R. tigrina and E. cyanophlyctis exhibited little significant differences from two sites. The concentrations of heavy metals were more in tissues of R. tigrina as compared to E. cyanophlyctis. Mean concentration of Cd, Fe, Ni, Mn, Cu, and Cr was comparatively greater in R. tigrina, whereas Pb and Co were higher in E. cyanophlyctis. The concentration of Cu and Cd in the liver and kidney were relatively more in both species as compared to other organs. Further, the results indicated that frogs collected from industrial sites showed decreased body length and weight, and greater metal accumulation. The results will help the authorities for the conservation of these frog species which are under the influence of heavy metal contamination.

  18. Exposure to coal combustion residues during metamorphosis elevates corticosterone content and adversely affects oral morphology, growth, and development in Rana sphenocephala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.D.; Peterson, V.A.; Mendonca, M.T. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (USA). Dept. of Biological Science

    2009-01-15

    Coal combustion residues (CCRs) are documented to negatively impact oral morphology, growth, and development in larval amphibians. It is currently unclear what physiological mechanisms may mediate these effects. Corticosterone, a glucocorticoid hormone, is a likely mediator because when administered exogenously it, like CCRs, also negatively influences oral morphology, growth, and development in larval amphibians. In an attempt to identify if corticosterone mediates these effects, we raised larval Southern Leopard Frogs, Rana sphenocephala, on either sand or CCR substrate and documented effects of sediment type on whole body corticosterone, oral morphology, and time to and mass at key metamorphic stages. Coal combustion residue treated tadpoles contained significantly more corticosterone than controls throughout metamorphosis. However, significantly more oral abnormalities occurred early in metamorphosis when differences in corticosterone levels between treatments were minimal. Overall, CCR-treated tadpoles took significantly more time to transition between key stages and gained less mass between stages than controls, but these differences between treatments decreased during later stages when corticosterone differences between treatments were greatest. Our results suggest endogenous increase in corticosterone content and its influence on oral morphology, growth and development is more complex than previously thought.

  19. Metals in riparian wildlife of the lead mining district of southeastern Missouri. [Rana catesbeiana, Ondatra zibethicus; Butorides striatus; Nerodia sipedon; Stelgidopteryx serripennis, Riparia riparia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niethammer, K.R.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Samson, F.B.

    1985-03-01

    Five species of riparian vertebrates (425 individuals) primarily representing upper trophic levels were collected from the Big River and Black River drainages in two lead mining districts of southeastern Missouri, 1981-82. Big River is subject to metal pollution via erosion and seepage from large tailings piles from inactive lead mines. Black River drains part of a currently mined area. Bull-frogs (Rana catesbeiana), muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus), and green-backed herons (Butorides striatus) collected downstream from the source of metal contamination to Big River had significantly higher lead and cadmium levels than specimens collected at either an uncontaminated upstream site or on Black River. Northern water snakes (Nerodia sipedon) had elevated lead levels below the tailings source, but did not seem to accumulate cadmium. Levels of lead, cadmium, or zinc in northern rough-winged swallows (Stelgidopteryx serripennis) were not related to collecting locality. Carcasses of ten bank swallows (Riparia riparia) collected from a colony nesting in a tailings pile along the Big River had lead concentrations of 2.0-39 ppm wet weight. Differences between zinc concentrations in vertebrates collected from contaminated and uncontaminated sites were less apparent than differences in lead and cadmium. There was little relationship between metal concentrations in the animals studied and their trophic levels. Bull-frogs are the most promising species examined for monitoring environmental levels of lead, cadmium, and zinc.

  20. Reprocessing of nonoptimally exposed holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, G.S.; Robertson, C.E.; Tamashiro, F.M.

    1980-01-01

    Two reprocessing techniques have been investigated that are capable of correcting the effects of nonoptimum optical density of photographic amplitude holograms recorded on Agfa-Gevaert type 10E75 plates. In some cases a reprocessed hologram will exhibit a diffraction efficiency even higher than that obtainable from a hologram exposed and processed to the optimum density. The SNR of the reprocessed holograms is much higher than that of the same holograms belached with cupric bromide. In some cases the SNR approaches the optimum value for a properly exposed amplitude hologram. Subjective image quality and resolution of reprocessed hologram reconstructins appear to be no different than for normal single-development holograms. Repeated reprocessing is feasible and in some cases desirable as a means of increasing diffraction efficiency

  1. Big mountains but small barriers: population genetic structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis) in the Tsinling and Daba Mountain region of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Aibin; Li, Cheng; Fu, Jinzhong

    2009-04-09

    Amphibians in general are poor dispersers and highly philopatric, and landscape features often have important impacts on their population genetic structure and dispersal patterns. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic differentiation among amphibian populations are particularly pronounced for populations separated by mountain ridges. The Tsinling Mountain range of northern China is a major mountain chain that forms the boundary between the Oriental and Palearctic zoogeographic realms. We studied the population structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis) to test whether the Tsinling Mountains and the nearby Daba Mountains impose major barriers to gene flow. Using 13 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci, 523 individuals from 12 breeding sites with geographical distances ranging from 2.6 to 422.8 kilometers were examined. Substantial genetic diversity was detected at all sites with an average of 25.5 alleles per locus and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.504 to 0.855, and two peripheral populations revealed significantly lower genetic diversity than the central populations. In addition, the genetic differentiation among the central populations was statistically significant, with pairwise FST values ranging from 0.0175 to 0.1625 with an average of 0.0878. Furthermore, hierarchical AMOVA analysis attributed most genetic variation to the within-population component, and the between-population variation can largely be explained by isolation-by-distance. None of the putative barriers detected from genetic data coincided with the location of the Tsinling Mountains. The Tsinling and Daba Mountains revealed no significant impact on the population genetic structure of R. chensinensis. High population connectivity and extensive juvenile dispersal may account for the significant, but moderate differentiation between populations. Chinese wood frogs are able to use streams as breeding sites at high elevations, which may significantly contribute to the

  2. Big mountains but small barriers: Population genetic structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis in the Tsinling and Daba Mountain region of northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cheng

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amphibians in general are poor dispersers and highly philopatric, and landscape features often have important impacts on their population genetic structure and dispersal patterns. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic differentiation among amphibian populations are particularly pronounced for populations separated by mountain ridges. The Tsinling Mountain range of northern China is a major mountain chain that forms the boundary between the Oriental and Palearctic zoogeographic realms. We studied the population structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis to test whether the Tsinling Mountains and the nearby Daba Mountains impose major barriers to gene flow. Results Using 13 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci, 523 individuals from 12 breeding sites with geographical distances ranging from 2.6 to 422.8 kilometers were examined. Substantial genetic diversity was detected at all sites with an average of 25.5 alleles per locus and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.504 to 0.855, and two peripheral populations revealed significantly lower genetic diversity than the central populations. In addition, the genetic differentiation among the central populations was statistically significant, with pairwise FST values ranging from 0.0175 to 0.1625 with an average of 0.0878. Furthermore, hierarchical AMOVA analysis attributed most genetic variation to the within-population component, and the between-population variation can largely be explained by isolation-by-distance. None of the putative barriers detected from genetic data coincided with the location of the Tsinling Mountains. Conclusion The Tsinling and Daba Mountains revealed no significant impact on the population genetic structure of R. chensinensis. High population connectivity and extensive juvenile dispersal may account for the significant, but moderate differentiation between populations. Chinese wood frogs are able to use streams as breeding sites at high

  3. Don't get the blues: conspicuous nuptial colouration of male moor frogs (Rana arvalis) supports visual mate recognition during scramble competition in large breeding aggregations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztatecsny, Marc; Preininger, Doris; Freudmann, Anita; Loretto, Matthias-Claudio; Maier, Franziska; Hödl, Walter

    2012-12-01

    Conspicuous male colouration is expected to have evolved primarily through selection by female choice. In what way conspicuous colours could be advantageous to males scrambling for mates remains largely unknown. The moor frog (Rana arvalis) belongs to the so-called explosive breeders in which spawning period is short; intrasexual competition is strong, and males actively search and scramble for females. During breeding, male body colouration changes from a dull brown (similar to females) to a conspicuous blue, and we wanted to test if male blueness influences mating success or facilitates male mate recognition. To do so, we first measured the colour of mated and non-mated males using a spectrophotometer. In an experiment, we then analysed interactions of actual male moor frogs in natural spawning aggregations with a brown (resembling a female or a non-breeding male) and a blue model frog. Mated and non-mated males did not differ in colouration, suggesting that female choice based on colour traits was unlikely. In our behavioural experiment, male moor frogs spent significantly more time in contact and in amplexus with the brown model than with the blue model. Our results suggest that the nuptial colouration in moor frogs can act as a new type of visual signal in anurans evolved to promote instantaneous mate recognition allowing males to quickly move between rivals while scrambling for females. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00265-012-1412-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  4. Desempenho zootécnico e tabela de alimentação de girinos de rã-touro (Rana catesbeiana criados no sistema anfigranja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Samuel Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com a execução deste trabalho avaliar, em nível de campo, o desempenho zootécnico de girinos de rã-touro (Rana catesbeiana criados em ranários comerciais que utilizam o sistema anfigranja, e simultaneamente estimar os valores de consumo diário de ração para compor uma tabela de referência para a alimentação dos animais. Os resultados encontrados nas unidades de observações monitoradas (aproximadamente 249 mil animais atingiram os seguintes índices médios: a mortalidade (em % variou de: 0,7 a 35,2 (média 5,9%; o ganho de peso (g. p/dia: de 0,03 a 0,22 (média 0,11 g/dia; e a conversão alimentar: de 0,92 a 2,75 : 1; (média 1,50 : 1. Comparados com dados preliminares, tais resultados indicam uma significativa otimização dos índices zootécnicos, demonstrando que houve um relativo ganho de produtividade com o aperfeiçoamento das técnicas de manejo implementadas. A redução do valor médio da conversão alimentar aparente foi provocada principalmente pelo adequado uso da tabela de referência, cujos valores foram ratificados durante o trabalho de monitoramento das unidades. Tal tabela possibilita o cálculo da quantidade de alimento a ser oferecido diariamente, baseado nos peso médio dos girinos e na estimativa do percentual de consumo, para temperatura da água entre 18 a 29 graus centígrados, (girinos de 0,1 a 26 gramas de peso médio.

  5. Una especie nueva de rana arbórea del género Hyloscirtus (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae de la Cordillera del Cóndor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Almendáriz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las ranas ecuatorianas del género Hyloscirtus incluyen 16 especies descritas, de las cuales 11 pertenecen al grupo H. larinopygion. Su distribución se limita a los flancos de la Cordillera de los Andes, tanto al oriente como al occidente. Una evaluación de la herpetofauna en el sector meridional de la Cordillera del Cóndor (bosques montanos sobre mesetas de arenisca en la provincia de Zamora Chinchipe, Ecuador, condujo al descubrimiento de una especie nueva del grupo que describimos aquí como Hyloscirtus condor sp. nov.; se analizan los renacuajos, las llamadas de anuncio y se estima las relaciones filogenéticas de la especie nueva y de las especies relacionadas en base a nuevas secuencias de los genes mitocondriales 12S, tRNA Val y 16S, con un total de hasta 2508 bp. Los resultados muestran que el grupo H. larinopygion está conformado por dos clados, uno distribuido en los Andes norte y centro de Ecuador y el otro al sur. La nueva especie pertenece al clado sur y es hermana de H. tapichalaca y de una especie aparentemente no descrita de la Provincia Morona Santiago. La especie nueva difiere de sus congéneres por su patrón de coloración dorsal, que consiste de puntos amarillo obscuro en un fondo canela. Es la especie más grande del grupo H. larinopygion y comparte con H. tapichalaca la presencia de una espina prepólica grande y curvada y brazos hipertrofiados. La especie nueva habita un área remota y bien conservada de la Cordillera del Cóndor. El descubrimiento de ésta y otras especies nuevas del mismo lugar denota la importancia biológica del área y motivan al desarrollo de planes de conservación.

  6. Composition of Micro-eukaryotes on the Skin of the Cascades Frog (Rana cascadae and Patterns of Correlation between Skin Microbes and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan G. Kueneman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global amphibian decline linked to fungal pathogens has galvanized research on applied amphibian conservation. Skin-associated bacterial communities of amphibians have been shown to mediate fungal skin infections and the development of probiotic treatments with antifungal bacteria has become an emergent area of research. While exploring the role of protective bacteria has been a primary focus for amphibian conservation, we aim to expand and study the other microbes present in amphibian skin communities including fungi and other micro-eukaryotes. Here, we characterize skin-associated bacteria and micro-eukaryotic diversity found across life stages of Cascades frog (Rana cascadae and their associated aquatic environments using culture independent 16S and 18S rRNA marker-gene sequencing. Individuals of various life stages of Cascades frogs were sampled from a population located in the Trinity Alps in Northern California during an epidemic of the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. We filtered the bacterial sequences against a published database of bacteria known to inhibit B. dendrobatidis in co-culture to estimate the proportion of the skin bacterial community that is likely to provide defense against B. dendrobatidis. Tadpoles had a significantly higher proportion of B. dendrobatidis-inhibitory bacterial sequence matches relative to subadult and adult Cascades frogs. We applied a network analysis to examine patterns of correlation between bacterial taxa and B. dendrobatidis, as well as micro-eukaryotic taxa and B. dendrobatidis. Combined with the published database of bacteria known to inhibit B. dendrobatidis, we used the network analysis to identify bacteria that negatively correlated with B. dendrobatidis and thus could be good probiotic candidates in the Cascades frog system.

  7. In-situ caging of wood frog (Rana sylvatica) larvae in wetlands formed from oil sands tailings materials (OSPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersikorn, B.; Smits, J.E. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The reclamation of oil sand tailings through the formation of wetlands was examined during the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 in a mesocosm study of indigenous amphibians (wood frogs). In both years, frogs were exposed to wetlands containing oil sands process-affected materials (OSPM) and reference wetlands that did not contain any OSPM. In year 2 there were 14 sites, of which 7 were reference sites and 7 were OSPM- affected sites. The sites were classified as older or younger than 7 yrs. Four enclosures, each containing 50 tadpoles, were placed in each wetland. Survival time to metamorphosis, and thyroid hormone ratios of larvae raised in young OSPM wetlands were found to be different from those of reference wetlands and old OSPM wetlands. This presentation also provided data on liver EROD activity and whole-body triglyceride concentrations. The study showed that the formation of wetlands from tailings material may support populations of amphibians if the wetlands are given the time to age. The development and health of native amphibians reflects the sustainability of the different reclamation strategies and delineates how higher trophic level organisms may be affected by OSPM.

  8. Food composition of Uludağ frog, Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 in Uludağ (Bursa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerim CICEK

    2011-06-01

    -ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} --> Feeding habit and food preferences of Uludağ frog, Rana macrocnemis were studied in 2006 and 2007 in Uludağ (Bursa, Turkey. Stomach contents of 165 (87 ♂♂, 58 ♀♀, 20 juveniles individuals were analyzed and a total of 2,129 preys were determined. It was found that the species fed mainly on a variety of invertebrates and especially on insects (96.5%. The most frequently consumed preys were Coleoptera (62.8%, Diptera (14.4%, and Hymenoptera (9.8%. It was observed that there was no significant sex- and age-dependent difference in the feeding regime. The species was found to feed less in the breeding period and more in the post-breeding period. It was also striking that there was an increase in the consumption of Coleoptera depending on elevation. In conclusion, the species is an opportunistic and widely-foraging predator that feeds on terrestrial and aquatic insects and its food composition varies by the availability of prey items around it.

  9. Advances in treating exposed fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Giglio, Pedro; Fogaça Cristante, Alexandre; Ricardo Pécora, José; Partezani Helito, Camilo; Lei Munhoz Lima, Ana Lucia; Dos Santos Silva, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The management of exposed fractures has been discussed since ancient times and remains of great interest to present-day orthopedics and traumatology. These injuries are still a challenge. Infection and nonunion are feared complications. Aspects of the diagnosis, classification and initial management are discussed here. Early administration of antibiotics, surgical cleaning and meticulous debridement are essential. The systemic conditions of patients with multiple trauma and the local conditions of the limb affected need to be taken into consideration. Early skeletal stabilization is necessary. Definitive fixation should be considered when possible and provisional fixation methods should be used when necessary. Early closure should be the aim, and flaps can be used for this purpose.

  10. Interference of a short-chain phospholipid with ion transport pathways in frog skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unmack, M A; Frederiksen, O; Willumsen, N J

    1997-01-01

    The effects of mucosal application of the short-chain phospholipid didecanoyl-L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (DDPC; with two saturated 10-carbon acyl chains) on active Na+ transport and transepithelial conductance (G) in the frog skin (Rana temporaria) were investigated. Active Na+ transport...... of the frog skin epithelium and opens a paracellular tight junction pathway. Both effects may be caused by incorporation of DDPC in the apical cell membrane....

  11. Revisión taxonómica de Alytes grandis Brunner (Amphibia, Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchiz, B.

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The holotype and only existing remain referred to Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, presumably a discoglossid frog from the German Pleistocene, is examined and compared with other living and fossil Palaearctic anurans. The analysis rejects its validity as an independent extinct species, as The material is clearly within the known variability of living Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, of which it should be considered merely a sinonym.

    Se examina el holotipo y único resto atribuido de Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, un supuesto discoglósido del Pleistoceno alemán, comparándose con otros anuros actuales y fósiles del Paleártico. El análisis permite desechar su pertenencia a una especie extinta independiente, siendo en cambio atribuible con toda claridad a la viviente Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, de la que debe considerarse sinónimo.
    Zum systematischen Status von Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957 (Amphibia, Anura. Der bislang einzig bekannte und von Brunner (1957 beschriebene Rest zu Alytes grandis aus pleistozänen Ablagerungen der Breitenberghöhle bei Gössweinstein (Fränk, Alb wird beschrieben und aufgrund ausführlicher Vergleichsuntersuchungen der rezenten Art Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, zugeordnet, Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, ist somit als synonyrn zu Rana temporaria zu betrachten.

  12. Effects of nitrate and atrazine on larval development and sexual differentiation in the northern leopard frog Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Frances; Carr, James A; Handy, Richard D

    2006-01-01

    Pollution from agrochemicals may be contributing to the global decline in amphibian populations. Environmentally relevant concentrations of nitrate and/or atrazine on anuran development and gonadal differentiation were tested. Four replicates of 20 tadpoles per tank (80/treatment) were exposed from Taylor-Kollros stage 2 to 3 to stage 23 to 34 to either 10 mg/L nitrate, 10 microg/L atrazine, a combined exposure of 10 mg/L nitrate plus 10 microg/L atrazine, or untreated controls. No treatment-dependent effects on weight, snout-vent or hind limb length, or time to forelimb emergence were observed. The proportions of females increased in all treatments compared to the controls, especially in the combined treatment (chi2 = 17.90, df = 6, p = 0.0065, combined = 66.4% female, control = 41% female). The frequency of intersex was low in all treatments. No treatment-related effects on the total number of spermatogenic cells were observed, but the ratio of cell types differed in that testes from animals in the treated groups exhibited more spermatogonia, fewer spermatocytes, and more spermatids than the control (significantly different, Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05). Ovaries from animals treated with nitrate or atrazine exhibited larger immature (previtellogenic) and mature (vitellogenic) follicles, but ovaries from the combined treatment had larger immature follicles only. Testicular oocytes were observed in the nitrate-only and atrazine-only treatments, and the control treatment, but not the combined treatment. Overall, this study has demonstrated changes in sex ratios that are more marked in response to combined nitrate/atrazine exposure than with these chemicals alone. Histological evidence suggests that premature maturation of gonad may occur as a result of nitrate and/or atrazine exposure during larval development.

  13. Meal from tilapia filleting industrial waste in the feed of the bullfrog tadpoles (Rana Catesbeiana Shaw, 1802/ Inclusão de farinha de resíduos da indústria de filetagem de tilápias na alimentação de girinos de rã-touro (Rana Catesbeiana Shaw,1802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Manske

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the inclusion of meal of tilapia industrial waster in bullfrog tadpoles’ diets (Rana Catesbeina Shaw, 1802. Two hundred fifty tadpoles with initial weight and length of 0,18 ± 0,05g and 2,50 ± 0,18 centimeters were used, respectively, they were used and distributed in 25 aquariums of 30 liter each in a complete randomized design with five treatments and five repetitions. The tadpoles were fed four times a day with diets containing 0, 5, 10 and 15% of inclusion of tilapia filleting and another diet with 0% of supplemented tilapia filleting with synthetic methionine, being supplied four times a day at ease. The experiment period was 30 days. The diets with tilapia filleting inclusion and methionine supplementation did not have influence in the final weight and length averages, feed survival and conversion of bullfrog tadpoles. It cam be used until 15% of tilapia filleting inclusion in the bullfrog tadpoles food. The synthetic methionine supplementation in diets for bullfrog tadpoles is not necessary in diets with levels over 0,47% of the total methionine.Este experimento objetivou avaliar a inclusão da farinha de resíduos de filetagem de tilápias (FT em rações para girinos de rã-touro (Rana Catesbeina Shaw,1802. Foram utilizados 250 girinos com peso e comprimento inicial de 0,18 ± 0,05g e 2,50 ± 0,18 cm, respectivamente, distribuídos em 25 aquários de 30 L cada, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os girinos foram alimentados quatro vezes ao dia, com rações contendo 0, 5, 10, 15% de inclusão de FT e outra ração com 0% de FT suplementada com metionina sintética, sendo fornecidas quatro vezes ao dia a vontade. O período do experimento foi de 30 dias. As rações com inclusão de FT e suplementação de metionina não influenciaram nas médias de peso final, comprimento final, sobrevivência e conversão alimentar dos girinos de r

  14. Primer registro de una población asilvestrada de rana toro (Lithobates catesbeianus en la Provincia de Córdoba, Argentina: Notas sobre la biología de la especie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmentins, Mauricio S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En Argentina se ha constatado la presencia de poblaciones asilvestradas de Lithobates catesbeianus en las provincias de San Juan (Sanabria et al., 2005 y de Misiones (Pereyra et al., 2006. Las ranas toro pueden eliminar a los anfibios nativos directamente a través de predación o competencia por interferencia, o indirectamente por competencia por explotación, modificación del comportamiento, alteración del hábitat o introducción de enfermedades o parásitos (Boone et al., 2004. El presente trabajo se realizó en la localidad de Agua de las Piedras (30º48' 46,2"S; 64º12'57,9"O; 760 msnm, la cual se encuentra a 65 km al norte de la ciudad de Córdoba, provincia de Córdoba, Argentina.

  15. Leukemias in the progeny of exposed parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosenko, M.M.; Gudkova, N.V.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of leukemias among the progeny of exposed parents. The parents were exposed as a result of discharge of radioactive waste from the Mayak atomic plant into the Techa river in the Southern Urals. The doses per parents gonads, ranging from 0.035 to 1.27 Sv, were due to external exposure in 1950-1956 and to incorporation of Cs-137. Nine cases with leukemia and four with lympohoma were recorded in 13.500 antenatally exposed subjects and descendants of exposed parents over the period of 1950 to 1988. The leukemia morbidity index for the progeny of exposed parents was 2.51, which virtually not statistically differ from that in control group. Refs. 7, figs. 3, tabs. 3

  16. Abundancia relativa y uso de microhábitat de la rana Geobatrachus walkeri (Anura: Strabomantidae en dos hábitats en Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Martínez Baños

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La rana Geobatrachus walkeri pertenece a un género monotípico y endémico del área de San Lorenzo, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. La especie habita en el bosque secundario natural y en una plantación de pino (dominada por Pinus patula. Para comparar la abundancia relativa y el uso del microhábitat en estos dos hábitat y durante los períodos de máxima y mínima precipitación, se distribuyeron aleatoriamente 30 cuadrantes en cada bosque sobre los que se registraron el número de individuos y los microhábitats ocupados. Además se reconocieron otros aspectos de la historia natural mediante muestreo por encuentros casuales (VES, se incluye en los dos hábitats áreas no muestreadas por los cuadrantes. La mayor abundancia de ranas se obtuvo en la plantación de pino y durante la época de lluvias. El microhábitat más usado fue la hojarasca de pino. Geobatrachus walkeri es una especie exitosa en las plantaciones de pino, asociada permanentemente a su hojarasca en donde parece desarrollar todo su ciclo de vida. Las claras modificaciones derivadas de la introducción de las plantaciones de pino en el suelo y el agua, parecen no haber afectado la supervivencia y mantenimiento exitoso de esta especie categorizada como en peligro de extinción.

  17. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca(2+)]i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca(2+)], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca 2+ ] i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca 2+ ], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers showed higher PS

  19. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Hernández, Gerardo [Section of Methodology of Science, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica [Faculty of Medicine, UJED, Durango, DGO (Mexico); Maldonado-Vega, María [CIATEC, León, GTO (Mexico); Rosas-Flores, Margarita [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor, E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  20. The properties degradation of exposed GFRP roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Mohammad; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Kaavessina, Mujtahid; Setyanto, Djoko

    2018-02-01

    There is much consideration of roof selection as a protector of a building against the outside weather, such as lightweight, strong stiff, corrosion resistant and guarantee for the availability of products. Based on these considerations, glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) roof is a roof which can fulfill the requirement. The objective of this research is to investigate the degradation of physical and mechanical properties of GFRP roof exposed in outside weather. This GFRP roof composite was produced using a sheet molding compound (SMC) supplied by PT Intec Persada, Tangerang, Indonesia. There are two kinds GFRP roofs evaluated in this research that are GFRP roof exposed within 7 years and new GFRP roof that has not been exposed. The GFRP roofs were cut manually for preparing the specimens for hardness test, tensile test, SEM and FTIR test. The results show that the GFRP roof exposed within 7 years had the degradation of properties compared to the new GFRP roof. The exposed GFRP roof had lower strength and hardness compared to the new GFRP roof. The SEM observation indicates that exposed GFRP roof had the debonding of fiber on the surface, and in contrast, there are no debonding of fiber in the new GFRP roof surface. It can be recommended that the exposed GFRP roof may be repaired to enhance its performance and can re-increase its properties using the coating.

  1. Predator-induced changes in metabolism cannot explain the growth/predation risk tradeoff.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich K Steiner

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Defence against predators is usually accompanied by declining rates of growth or development. The classical growth/predation risk tradeoff assumes reduced activity as the cause of these declines. However, in many cases these costs cannot be explained by reduced foraging effort or enhanced allocation to defensive structures under predation risk. Here, we tested for a physiological origin of defence costs by measuring oxygen consumption in tadpoles (Rana temporaria exposed to predation risk over short and long periods of time. The short term reaction was an increase in oxygen consumption, consistent with the "fight-or-flight" response observed in many organisms. The long term reaction showed the opposite pattern: tadpoles reduced oxygen consumption after three weeks exposure to predators, which would act to reduce the growth cost of predator defence. The results point to an instantaneous and reversible stress response to predation risk. This suggests that the tradeoff between avoiding predators and growing rapidly is not caused by changes in metabolic rate, and must be sought in other behavioural or physiological processes.

  2. Disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, A.; Motyka, T.

    1991-01-01

    A plan has been established for disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides used in Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium production or Materials Test Facility (MTF) R ampersand D operations. The recommended plan assumes that the first tritium-exposed metal hydrides will be disposed of after startup of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) Expansion Project in 1992, and thus the plan is consistent with the new disposal requiremkents that will be in effect for the SWDF Expansion Project. Process beds containing tritium-exposed metal hydride powder will be disposed of without removal of the powder from the bed; however, disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydride powder that has been removed from its process vessel is also addressed

  3. Exposing Latent Information in Folksonomies for Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    1.73 $.") http://www.w3.org/2006/07/SWD/ SKOS /reference/20081001/ Spiteri, L.F. (2007) "The structure and form of folksonomy tags: The road to the...Exposing Latent Information in Folksonomies for Reasoning January 14, 2010 Sponsored by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DOD...DATES COVERED (From - To! 4/14/2009-12/23/2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exposing Latent Information in Folksonomies for Reasoning Sa. CONTRACT

  4. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; González, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    : Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17-76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected...... and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results: Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal......, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education...

  5. Proximally exposed A-bomb survivors. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Nanao

    1992-01-01

    Methods for observing chromosomes can be chronologically divided into the era of non-differential staining technique (1962-1975) and the era of differential staining method (since 1976). This paper reviews the literature of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells found in the two eras. Findings during the era of 1962-1975 include the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells, comparison of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells and T lymphocytes, and annual variation of chromosomal aberrations. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations was high in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors (90.5% and 52.6% in A-bomb survivors exposed within 500 m and at 501-1,000 m, respectively); on the contrary, it was low in those exposed far from 1,000 m (6.2% or less). The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells was lower than that in T lymphocytes (21.5% vs 27.1% in those exposed within 500 m and 14.1% vs 23% in those exposed at 501-1,000 m). Annual analysis for chromosomal aberrations has shown the somewhat dependence upon medullary hematopoiesis and virus infection. The advent of differential staining technique since 1976 has made it possible to clarify the type of chromosomal aberrations and site of breakage. Of 710 bone marrow cells taken from 13 A-bomb survivors exposed within 1,000 m, 121 cells (from 11 A-bomb survivors) exhibited chromosomal aberrations. In differential staining analysis, all 121 cells but one were found to be of stable type, such as translocation and inversion. Furthermore, the site of breakage was found to be non-randomly distributed. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells has advantages of reflecting dynamic condition of these cells and determining gradual progression into leukemia. (N.K.)

  6. Exposing the Mathematical Wizard: Approximating Trigonometric Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2011-01-01

    For almost all students, what happens when they push buttons on their calculators is essentially magic, and the techniques used are seemingly pure wizardry. In this article, the author draws back the curtain to expose some of the mathematics behind computational wizardry and introduces some fundamental ideas that are accessible to precalculus…

  7. Exposing Library Services with AngularJS

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Voß; Moritz Horn

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the JavaScript framework AngularJS and specific AngularJS modules for accessing library services. It shows how information such as search suggestions, additional links, and availability can be embedded in any website. The ease of reuse may encourage more libraries to expose their services via standard APIs to allow usage in different contexts.

  8. Expose Mechanical Engineering Students to Biomechanics Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui

    2011-01-01

    To adapt the focus of engineering education to emerging new industries and technologies nationwide and in the local area, a biomechanics module has been developed and incorporated into a mechanical engineering technical elective course to expose mechanical engineering students at ONU (Ohio Northern University) to the biomedical engineering topics.…

  9. Stabilizer for seismically exposed bridge cranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelke, M.; Kuhr, H.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a stabilizer for seismically exposed bridge cranes in reactor buildings. The trolley and the crane bridge are fitted with the stabilizer consisting of a bipartite safety catch which is connected with a joint and able to take up the vertical loads during an earthquake. This stabilizer is suitable for all kinds of bridge cranes operated in seismically active regions

  10. Dose coefficients for individual occupationally exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This Regulation refers to the requirements of the Regulation CNEN-NN.3.01, 'Basic Act of Radiological Protection', aiming its application to the dose calculation, with purposes of conformity verification with limits and restrictions of doses and level of reference for individual occupationally exposed, according to the express in its section 5

  11. Fibrosis biomarkers in workers exposed to MWCNTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatkhutdinova, Liliya M.; Khaliullin, Timur O.; Vasil'yeva, Olga L.; Zalyalov, Ramil R.; Mustafin, Ilshat G.; Kisin, Elena R.; Birch, M. Eileen; Yanamala, Naveena; Shvedova, Anna A.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with their unique physico-chemical properties offer numerous technological advantages and are projected to drive the next generation of manufacturing growth. As MWCNT have already found utility in different industries including construction, engineering, energy production, space exploration and biomedicine, large quantities of MWCNT may reach the environment and inadvertently lead to human exposure. This necessitates the urgent assessment of their potential health effects in humans. The current study was carried out at NanotechCenter Ltd. Enterprise (Tambov, Russia) where large-scale manufacturing of MWCNT along with relatively high occupational exposure levels was reported. The goal of this small cross-sectional study was to evaluate potential biomarkers during occupational exposure to MWCNT. All air samples were collected at the workplaces from both specific areas and personal breathing zones using filter-based devices to quantitate elemental carbon and perform particle analysis by TEM. Biological fluids of nasal lavage, induced sputum and blood serum were obtained from MWCNT-exposed and non-exposed workers for assessment of inflammatory and fibrotic markers. It was found that exposure to MWCNTs caused significant increase in IL-1β, IL6, TNF-α, inflammatory cytokines and KL-6, a serological biomarker for interstitial lung disease in collected sputum samples. Moreover, the level of TGF-β1 was increased in serum obtained from young exposed workers. Overall, the results from this study revealed accumulation of inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers in biofluids of workers manufacturing MWCNTs. Therefore, the biomarkers analyzed should be considered for the assessment of health effects of occupational exposure to MWCNT in cross-sectional epidemiological studies. - Highlights: • The effects of MWCNT exposure in humans remain unclear. • We found increased KL-6/TGF-β levels in the biofluids of MWCNT-exposed workers.

  12. Fibrosis biomarkers in workers exposed to MWCNTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatkhutdinova, Liliya M., E-mail: liliya.fatkhutdinova@gmail.com [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Khaliullin, Timur O., E-mail: Khaliullin.40k@gmail.com [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, WVU, Morgantown, WV (United States); Vasil' yeva, Olga L., E-mail: volgaleon@gmail.com [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Zalyalov, Ramil R., E-mail: zalyalov.ramil@gmail.com [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Mustafin, Ilshat G., E-mail: ilshat64@mail.ru [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Kisin, Elena R., E-mail: edk8@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Birch, M. Eileen, E-mail: mib2@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Yanamala, Naveena, E-mail: wqu1@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Shvedova, Anna A., E-mail: ats1@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, WVU, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with their unique physico-chemical properties offer numerous technological advantages and are projected to drive the next generation of manufacturing growth. As MWCNT have already found utility in different industries including construction, engineering, energy production, space exploration and biomedicine, large quantities of MWCNT may reach the environment and inadvertently lead to human exposure. This necessitates the urgent assessment of their potential health effects in humans. The current study was carried out at NanotechCenter Ltd. Enterprise (Tambov, Russia) where large-scale manufacturing of MWCNT along with relatively high occupational exposure levels was reported. The goal of this small cross-sectional study was to evaluate potential biomarkers during occupational exposure to MWCNT. All air samples were collected at the workplaces from both specific areas and personal breathing zones using filter-based devices to quantitate elemental carbon and perform particle analysis by TEM. Biological fluids of nasal lavage, induced sputum and blood serum were obtained from MWCNT-exposed and non-exposed workers for assessment of inflammatory and fibrotic markers. It was found that exposure to MWCNTs caused significant increase in IL-1β, IL6, TNF-α, inflammatory cytokines and KL-6, a serological biomarker for interstitial lung disease in collected sputum samples. Moreover, the level of TGF-β1 was increased in serum obtained from young exposed workers. Overall, the results from this study revealed accumulation of inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers in biofluids of workers manufacturing MWCNTs. Therefore, the biomarkers analyzed should be considered for the assessment of health effects of occupational exposure to MWCNT in cross-sectional epidemiological studies. - Highlights: • The effects of MWCNT exposure in humans remain unclear. • We found increased KL-6/TGF-β levels in the biofluids of MWCNT-exposed workers.

  13. Development of Hepatozoon caimani (Carini, 1909 Pessôa, De Biasi & De Souza, 1972 in the Caiman Caiman c. crocodilus, the frog Rana catesbeiana and the mosquito Culex fatigans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lainson Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sporogony of Hepatozoon caimani has been studied, by light microscopy, in the mosquito Culex fatigans fed on specimens of the caiman Caiman c. crocodilus showing gametocytes in their peripheral blood. Sporonts iniciate development in the space between the epithelium of the insect gut and the elastic membrane covering the haemocoele surface of the stomach. Sporulating oocysts are clustered on the gut, still invested by the gut surface membrane. Fully mature oocysts were first seen 21 days after the blood-meal. No sporogonic stages were found in some unidentified leeches fed on an infected caiman, up to 30 days following the blood-meal. When mosquitoes containing mature oocysts were fed to frogs (Leptodactylus fuscus and Rana catesbeiana, cysts containing cystozoites developed in the internal organs, principally the liver. Feeding these frogs to farm-bred caimans resulted in the appearance of gametocytes in their peripheral blood at some time between 59 and 79 days later, and the development of tissue cysts in the liver, spleen, lungs and kidneys. Transmission of the parasite was also obtained by feeding young caimans with infected mosquitoes and it is suggested that both methods occur in nature. The finding of similar cysts containing cystozoites in the semi-aquatic lizard Neusticurus bicarinatus, experimentally fed with infected C. fatigans, suggests that other secondary hosts may be involved.

  14. Influência da baixa temperatura ambiental sobre a inflamação em rã-touro gigante (Rana catesbeiana: avaliações qualitativa e quantitativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Catão-Dias

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo investigar a modulação exercida pela temperatura ambiental sobre a cinética celular inflamatória experimentalmente induzida em Rana catesbeiana, rã-touro gigante. Para tanto, 120 espécimes pós-metamórficos foram mantidos a 6ºC e 24ºC e tratados pela transfixação do tecido muscular da coxa por fio de sutura ou injeção intramuscular de carragenina. Os resultados obtidos através de avaliações qualitativa e quantitativa do foco lesional mostraram que a baixa temperatura ambiental modula significativamente a evolução do processo inflamatório. Animais mantidos a 6ºC, em ambos os modelos, apresentaram números de células inflamatórias significativamente menores que os verificados a 24ºC, independentemente do tempo de avaliação. Por outro lado, algum fator pertencente aos mecanismos de defesa do hospedeiro não deve ter sido bloqueado pela temperatura, visto que a área de reação à injúria mostrou-se equivalente na maioria dos tempos pesquisados.

  15. Stability of people exposed to water flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Martínez-Gomariz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our cities are formed by several elements which are exposed to floods of a magnitude according to the importance of the rainfall event and the design of the urban drainage system. The most important components in the cities are the pedestrians who develop various activities during rain events. Focusing on pedestrians, the research on their stability when they are exposed to water flows provides the necessary knowledge to understand and manage the associated hazard for them. In this research, several experiments with humans were carried out in order to determine the stability limits to pedestrians crossing through a water flow in a real scale platform. The results obtained and by comparing those with human stability criteria proposed by other authors and guidelines provide a more restrictive criterion.

  16. Children exposed to war/terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A

    2003-12-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of psychological morbidities in children who have been exposed to war-related traumas or terrorism as well as the diversity of war-related casualties and their associated psychological responses. The psychological responses to war-related stressors are categorized as (1) little or no reaction, (2) acute emotional and behavioral effects, and (3) long-term effects. Specific categories of war-related casualties discussed include refugee status, traumatic bereavement, effects of parental absence, and child soldiers. Psychological responses associated with terrorism and bioterrorism are presented. Lastly, mediators of the psychological response to war-related stressors are discussed, to include exposure effects, gender effects, parental, family and social factors, and child-specific factors. Children exposed to war-related stressors experience a spectrum of psychological morbidities including posttraumatic stress symptomatology, mood disorders, externalizing and disruptive behaviors, and somatic symptoms determined by exposure dose effect. Specific questions for future research are identified.

  17. Studies on persons exposed to plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.; Stebbings, J.H.; Hempelmann, L.H.; Haxton, L.K.; York, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of four studies of persons exposed, or potentially exposed, to plutonium are summarized. The studies are: a five-year update on clinical examinations and health experience of 26 Manhattan District workers heavily exposed at Los Alamos in 1944 to 1945; a 30-year mortality follow-up of 224 white male workers with plutonium body burdens of 10 nCi or more; a review of cancer mortality rates between 1950 and 1969 among Los Alamos County, New Mexico, male residents, all of whom have worked in or have lived within a few kilometers of a major plutonium plant and other nuclear facilities; and a review of cancer incidence rates between 1969 and 1974 in male residents of Los Alamos County. No excess of mortality due to any cause was observed in the 224 male subjects with the highest plutonium exposures at Los Alamos. Clinical examinations of the Manhattan District workers, whose average age in 1976 was 56 years, show them to be active persons with diseases that are not unusual for their ages. The two deaths in this group over the past 30 years have not been due to cancer. Mortality and incidence data indicate no excess of lung cancer in Los Alamos County males

  18. EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Rabbow

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS, carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form, lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface. Radiation dosimeters distributed over the whole facility complemented the scientific payload. Three extravehicular activities later the chemical samples were returned to Earth on March 2, 2016, with Soyuz 44S, having spent 588 days in space. The biological samples arrived back later, on June 18, 2016, with 45S, after a total duration in space of 531 days. The exposure of the samples to Low Earth Orbit vacuum lasted for 531 days and was divided in two parts: protected against solar irradiation during the first 62 days, followed by exposure to solar radiation during the subsequent 469 days. In parallel to the space mission, a Mission Ground Reference (MGR experiment with a flight identical Hardware and a complete flight identical set of samples was performed at the premises of DLR (German Aerospace Center in Cologne by MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center, according to the mission data either downloaded from the ISS (temperature data, facility status, inner pressure status or provided by RedShift Design and Engineering BVBA, Belgium (calculated ultra violet radiation fluence data. In this paper, the EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results.

  19. Towards harmonized qualifications for radiation exposed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briso, Hugo A.

    2008-01-01

    The accelerated process of globalization affecting mankind doesn't exclude safety matters. Indeed, some trans national corporations are increasingly offering specialized engineering services such as industrial radiography or well lodging. As well, a growing scientific exchange involves the mobility of nuclear researchers in different areas, for instance radiochemistry, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Such a breakdown in the technological frontiers must necessarily be reflected by the regulatory solutions. Particularly, diverse levels of theoretical-practical training for radiation exposed personnel coexist in the Latin-American Region, being an especially sensitive problem for radiation protection matters. The spectrum goes from post-graduate courses required for radiation protection officers in some countries, while in others only basic recommendations are required for the operating personnel. Another scheme consists of medium level course for the operating personnel, while radiation protection officers don't have special requirements. Many educational private institutions teach non standardized courses which only give broad concepts of radiation protection. On the other hand, usually nothing is said about the operational training, or else its certification is entrusted to the employer itself. In some countries multiple Regulatory Authorities apply dissimilar criteria to assess safety matters, including the evaluation of workers applications. The necessary regional integration makes indispensable to establish common standards for granting authorizations. Having similar or homogeneous requirements for the universe of radiation exposed personnel, i.e. source operators, radiation protection officers, qualified experts and technical support people would be easier for the Regulatory Authorities to have common methodologies of evaluation for the applicants. An IAEA supported technical cooperation project related to this paper seeks to establish standardized

  20. Lymphocytic subsets in occupationally exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.; Wottawa, A.

    1989-04-01

    The percentage of CD2, CD4, CD8 and NK cells of peripheral blood was investigated in persons occupationally exposed to very low doses of ionizing radiation. Investigations were carried out by monoclonal antibodies and flow-cytometry. While significant effects of age and smoking habits on the relative number of CD8 cells and CD4/CD8 ratios could be established, no influence of the very low radiation exposure on the profile of lymphocytic cells in blood was found, except a very slight effect on the relative number of total T cells (= CD2 cells). 7tabs., 2figs., 16refs. (Author)

  1. Renographic curve of persons exposed to mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenic, J.; Jurgova, T.; Zimacek, J.; Petrovicova, J.; Bilicky, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the group of 72 workers which were exposed to fumes of metallic mercury we evaluated possible nephrotoxic effect of Hg 0 . We also used nuclear renography for evaluation of kidney. Nephrotoxic effect of Hg 0 was proved by increased proteinuria and relatively frequent findings of pathological renogram. In the group with pathological renogram, elimination of Hg 0 in urine (1822.8 nmol.dm -3 ) was increased. In the group with normal finding the value was 883.7 nmol.dm -3 . These findings pointed at toxic effect of Hg 0 on kidney and suitability of radionuclide examination for disclosing of subclinical pathological changes. (authors)

  2. Spoiled Onions: Exposing Malicious Tor Exit Relays

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Philipp; Lindskog, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Several hundred Tor exit relays together push more than 1 GiB/s of network traffic. However, it is easy for exit relays to snoop and tamper with anonymised network traffic and as all relays are run by independent volunteers, not all of them are innocuous. In this paper, we seek to expose malicious exit relays and document their actions. First, we monitored the Tor network after developing a fast and modular exit relay scanner. We implemented several scanning modules for detecting common attac...

  3. Uniform Protection for Multi-exposed Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2014-01-01

    the Quality Calculus that computes the combinations of data required to reach a program point and relates them to a notion of cost. In this way, we can compare the security deployed on different paths that expose the same resource. The analysis is formalised in terms of flow logic, and is implemented......Ensuring that information is protected proportionately to its value is a major challenge in the development of robust distributed systems, where code complexity and technological constraints might allow reaching a key functionality along various paths. We propose a protection analysis over...

  4. Backfilling of trenches exposed to waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This paper treats the numerical prediction of initial and long-term morphology of small pipeline trenches. For this purpose a refined flow and sediment transport description is applied such that the entire mathematical problem is formulated and solved on a curvilinear grid using a k - ε turbulence......-closure. The backfilling process of trenches exposed to either waves or a steady current is of importance in relation to the implementation of pipelines in the marine environment. With respect to the sedimentation of trenches, the non-dimensional Trench-Keulegan-Carpenter number, KC = a/L, where a is the excursion length...

  5. Analyses of Concrete Structures Exposed to Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian

    The text book contains the data and methods necessary for fire safety design of concrete constructions. The methods relate to standard fire as well as to any time of any other fire course.Material data are presented for concretes exposed to fire, and calculation methods are given for the ultimate...... bending capacity of beams and slabs, the ultimate shear capacity of beams, for the instability of columns and walls and for the deflection of prestressed and non-prestressed beams, slabs, walls and columns.All methods have been derived and compared to tests by Kristian Hertz....

  6. Occupational health care of radiation exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Rahman Hamzah

    1995-01-01

    The medical problems encountered by the earlier pioneer workers in radiation at the turn of the century are well known. In the 1928, the ICRP (International Committee for Radiological Protection) was instituted and the ALARA principle of radiation protection was evolved. Occupational health care is about maintaining the health and safety of workers in their workplaces. This involves using medical, nursing and engineering practices to achieve its objectives. In certain occupations, including those where workers are exposed to ionising radiation, some of these principles are enshrined in the legislation and would require statutory compliance. Occupational health care of radiation workers seek to prevent ill health arising from exposure to radiation by consolidating the benefits of exposures control and dosimetry. This is via health surveillance for spillages, contamination and exposures to unsealed sources of radiation. It is unlikely that can plan and hope to cater for a Chernobyl type of disaster. However, for the multitude of workers in industry exposed to radiation, control models are available. These are from the more in industrialize countries with a nuclear based energy industry, and where radioactive gadgetry are used in places ranging from factories and farms to construction sites. These models involve statutory requirements on the standard of work practices, assessment of fitness to work and the monitoring of both the worker and the workplace. A similar framework of activity is present in Malaysia. This will be further enhanced with the development of her general health and safety at work legislation. (author)

  7. Protection of man: the exposed individual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnstedt, A.; Knebel, J.U. [Programme Nuclear Safety Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Breustedt, B. [Institute for Radiation Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Present methods for quantifying radiation exposure rely on a standardized reference man (75 kg) with defined average anatomical and physiological data. But individual person actually exposed differs from this idealized standard man. Therefore the focus of investigations at the Institute for Radiation Research (Institut fuer Strahlenforschung, ISF) which was founded at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, KIT) in 2009 is based on the vision to place the exposed individual with its anatomical and physiological particularities, under consideration of age, gender, body height, body shape and environment, in the centre of an individual-related quantification of the external and internal radiation exposure. Research work at the ISF is aiming at quantifying radiation exposure by improved determination of doses essentially caused by external radiation fields and the intake of radionuclides into the body. The three main topics of the institute are - external dosimetry (e.g. using a (voxel) model of the hand to simulate skin dose distribution); - internal dosimetry (e.g. body size related efficiency calibration of in-vivo counting equipment); - numerical methods/modeling (e.g. development of a mathematical/voxel-hybrid model of the human body). (authors)

  8. Zirconium ignition in exposed fuel channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, E., E-mail: merezra@technion.ac.il; Hasan, D.; Nekhamkin, Y.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We demonstrate the idea of runaway zirconium–steam reactions in severe accidents in today's LWRs. • We predict the thermal-hydraulics conditions relevant to cladding oxidation in an exposed fuel channel of a partially uncovered core. • The Semenov theory of metal combustion is extended to define a criterion for runaway oxidation reaction in fuel cladding. - Abstract: A theoretical model based on simultaneous solution of the heat and mass transfer equations is developed for predicting the rate of thermo-chemical reaction between zirconium cladding and a hot steam environment. Ignition conditions relevant to cladding oxidation in an exposed fuel channel of a partially uncovered core are predicted based on the theory of metal combustion. A range of decay power, convective heat transfer coefficients, and initial temperatures leading to uncontrolled runaway cladding oxidation is identified. The model could be readily integrated as part of a fuel channel analysis code for predicting possible outcomes of different accident mitigation procedures in light water nuclear reactors under LOCA conditions.

  9. Abundancia relativa y uso de microhábitat de la rana Geobatrachus walkeri (Anura: Strabomantidae en dos hábitats en Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Martínez Baños

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La rana Geobatrachus walkeri pertenece a un género monotípico y endémico del área de San Lorenzo, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. La especie habita en el bosque secundario natural y en una plantación de pino (dominada por Pinus patula. Para comparar la abundancia relativa y el uso del microhábitat en estos dos hábitat y durante los períodos de máxima y mínima precipitación, se distribuyeron aleatoriamente 30 cuadrantes en cada bosque sobre los que se registraron el número de individuos y los microhábitats ocupados. Además se reconocieron otros aspectos de la historia natural mediante muestreo por encuentros casuales (VES, se incluye en los dos hábitats áreas no muestreadas por los cuadrantes. La mayor abundancia de ranas se obtuvo en la plantación de pino y durante la época de lluvias. El microhábitat más usado fue la hojarasca de pino. Geobatrachus walkeri es una especie exitosa en las plantaciones de pino, asociada permanentemente a su hojarasca en donde parece desarrollar todo su ciclo de vida. Las claras modificaciones derivadas de la introducción de las plantaciones de pino en el suelo y el agua, parecen no haber afectado la supervivencia y mantenimiento exitoso de esta especie categorizada como en peligro de extinción.Relative abundance and microhabitat use by the frog Geobatrachus walkeri (Anura:Strabomantidae in two habitats of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Geobatrachus walkeri belongs to a monotypic frog genus endemic to the San Lorenzo area, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. This species has been categorized as endangered because of its small distribution area and the decline in the extent and quality of its habitat. It inhabits two forest types with different composition and structure, the native secondary forest and a pine plantation (dominated by Pinus patula. To compare the relative abundance and microhabitat use of this species in these habitat types, 30 quadrants/environment were

  10. To be a worker (exposed?) or not to be a worker (exposed?) that is the question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, M.

    2008-01-01

    The notion of personnel is detailed in this article in order to know exactly what personnel is considered as exposed and what radiation doses are under this term. The regulatory texts are studied in different articles of the French law and show that different kind of exposed personnel are considered. The definitions are varying with the notion of risk, of radiation doses and the work itself. This article asks for a better and more precise definition that will help the actors of radiation protection. (N.C.)

  11. Brain damage among the prenatally exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Schull, W.J.; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi.

    1991-01-01

    Significant effects on the developing brain of exposure to ionizing radiation are seen among those individuals exposed in the 8th through the 25th week after fertilization. These effects, particularly in the most sensitive period, 8-15 weeks after fertilization, manifest themselves as an increased frequency of severe mental retardation (SMR), a diminution in IQ score and in school performance, and an increase in the occurrence of seizures. Of 30 SMR cases, 18 (60%) had small heads. About 10% of the individuals with small head sizes observed among the in utero clinical sample were mentally retarded. When all of the cases of mental retardation are included in the analysis, a linear dose-response model fits the data adequately and no evidence of a threshold emerges; however, if the two probable nonradiation-related cases of Down's syndrome are excluded from the 19 SMR cases exposed 8-15 weeks after fertilization, the evidence of a threshold is stronger. The 95% lower bound of the threshold based on the new dosimetry system appears to be in the range of 0.12-0.23 Gy. In the 16-25 week period, the 95% lower bound of the threshold is 0.21 Gy both with and without inclusion of two probable nonradiation-related retarded cases. In a regression analysis of IQ scores and school performance data, a greater linearity is suggested with the new dosimetry (DS86) than with the old (T65DR), but the mean IQ score and the mean school performance of those exposed in utero to doses under 0.10 Gy are similar, and not statistically different from the means in the control group. The risk ratios for unprovoked seizures, following exposure during the 8th through the 15th week after fertilization, are 4.4 (90% confidence interval: 0.5-40.9) after 0.10-0.49 Gy and 24.9 (4.1-191.6) after 0.50 Gy or more when the mentally retarded are included and 4.4 (0.5-40.9) and 14.5 (0.4-199.6), respectively, when they are excluded. (author)

  12. Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan N. Fink

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrocyclic trichothecenes, mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, have been implicated in adverse reactions in individuals exposed to mold-contaminated environments. Cellular and humoral immune responses and the presence of trichothecenes were evaluated in patients with mold-related health complaints. Patients underwent history, physical examination, skin prick/puncture tests with mold extracts, immunological evaluations and their sera were analyzed for trichothecenes. T-cell proliferation, macrocyclic trichothecenes, and mold specific IgG and IgA levels were not significantly different than controls; however 70% of the patients had positive skin tests to molds. Thus, IgE mediated or other non-immune mechanisms could be the cause of their symptoms.

  13. Reactivity of lithium exposed graphite surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harilal, S.S.; Allain, J.P.; Hassanein, A.; Hendricks, M.R.; Nieto-Perez, M.

    2009-01-01

    Lithium as a plasma-facing component has many attractive features in fusion devices. We investigated chemical properties of the lithiated graphite surfaces during deposition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy. In this study we try to address some of the known issues during lithium deposition, viz., the chemical state of lithium on graphite substrate, oxide layer formation mechanisms, Li passivation effects over time, and chemical change during exposure of the sample to ambient air. X-ray photoelectron studies indicate changes in the chemical composition with various thickness of lithium on graphite during deposition. An oxide layer formation is noticed during lithium deposition even though all the experiments were performed in ultrahigh vacuum. The metal oxide is immediately transformed into carbonate when the deposited sample is exposed to air.

  14. Lifetime assessment of service-exposed components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalwa, G.; Weber, H.

    1988-01-01

    A longtime prognosis on the operation of creep-exposed components requires a lifetime analysis. The basis for such an analysis can be improved by an analysis of microstructure and material properties. Actually the grade of material exhaustion has to be regarded as proper assessment quantity. However, stress and time safety also are valuable assessment quantities which should be taken into consideration, especially when the grade of exhaustion is uncertain because of inaccurate input parameters. A correct assessment of the damage state cannot be made without taking into consideration the failure mechanism which has to be assumed for a specific component. With respect to creep the most critical component of a steamline system is the pipe bend because of the risk of large damage events. For this case component metallography by replicas is suggested as preventive test method. The continuation of service of a creep damage pipe bend cannot be recommended. (orig./MM) [de

  15. Water infiltration into exposed fractured rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.C.; Evans, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Fractured rock media are present at many existing and potential waste disposal sites, yet characterization data and physical relationships are not well developed for such media. This study focused on water infiltration characteristics of an exposed fractured rock as an approach for defining the upper boundary condition for unsaturated-zone water percolation and contaminant transport modeling. Two adjacent watersheds of 0.24 and 1.73 ha with slopes up to 45% were instrumented for measuring rainfall and runoff. Fracture density was measured from readily observable fracture traces on the surface. Three methods were employed to evaluate the rainfall-runoff relationship. The first method used the annual totals and indicated that only 22.5% of rainfall occurred as runoff for the 1990-1991 water year, which demonstrates a high water intake rate by the exposed fracture system. The second method employed total rainfall and runoff for individual storms in conjunction with the commonly used USDA Soil Conservation Service curve number method developed for wide ranges of soils and vegetation. Curve numbers between 75 and 85 were observed for summer and winter storms with dry antecedent runoff conditions, while values exceeded 90 for wet conditions. The third method used a mass-balance approach for four major storms, which indicated that water intake rates ranged from 2.0 to 7.3 mm h -1 , yielding fracture intake velocities ranging from 122 to 293 m h -1 . The three analyses show the complexity of the infiltration process for fractured rock. However, they contribute to a better understanding of the upper boundary condition for predicting contaminant transport through an unsaturated fractured rock medium. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Exposing the Myths, Defining the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavov, S.

    2013-01-01

    With this official statement, the WEC calls for policymakers and industry leaders to ''get real'' as the World Energy Council as a global energy body exposes the myths by informing the energy debate and defines a path to a more sustainable energy future. The World Energy Council urged stakeholders to take urgent and incisive actions, to develop and transform the global energy system. Failure to do so could put aspirations on the triple challenge of WEC Energy Trilemma defined by affordability, accessibility and environmental sustainability at serious risk. Through its multi-year in-depth global studies and issue-mapping the WEC has found that challenges that energy sector is facing today are much more crucial than previously envisaged. The WEC's analysis has exposed a number of myths which influence our understanding of important aspects of the global energy landscape. If not challenged, these misconceptions will lead us down a path of complacency and missed opportunities. Much has, and still is, being done to secure energy future, but the WEC' s studies reveal that current pathways fall short of delivering on global aspirations of energy access, energy security and environmental improvements. If we are to derive the full economic and social benefits from energy resources, then we must take incisive and urgent action to modify our steps to energy solutions. The usual business approaches are not effective, the business as usual is not longer a solution. The focus has moved from large universal solutions to an appreciation of regional and national contexts and sharply differentiated consumer expectations.(author)

  17. Clinical investigation of proximate exposed group, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako; Hasegawa, Kazuyo; Kato, Masafumi; Kumasawa, Toshihiko

    1984-01-01

    In order to investigate effects of the A-bombing on prevalence of diabetes mellitus, follow-up studies were made on 5907 A-bomb survivors who received glucose tolerance test (GTT) during 20 years between 1963 and 1983. The A-bomb survivors were divided into the group A (1899 men and 1165 women exposed within 1.9 km from the hypocenter) and the group B (1725 men and 1118 women exposed 3.0 km or farther from it). Among non-obese survivors, 21.9% and 21.8% were being treated for diabetes mellitus or were evaluated as having diabetic type on GTT in the group A and the group B, respectively; while this was seen in 52.1% of obese survivors in the group A and 49.9% in the group B. There was no difference between the groups. In non-obese survivors, the annual development rate from the normal type to the diabetic type was 0.89% in the group A and 0.65% in the group B; the annual development rate from the borderline type to the diabetic type was 5.73% in the group A and 5.49% in the group B, showing no differences between the groups. The annual development rate from the normal or borderline type to the diabetic type was two times or higher in obese survivors than in non-obese survivors irrespective of exposure status. Regarding the number of diabetic survivors who became non-diabetic type in spite of having no treatment, and prevalence of diabetic complications, no difference was seen between the groups. These results suggest that the A-bombing has scarcely influenced the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and clinical course. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized slaughtering...

  19. Activity of Ca(2+,Mg(2+-ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum and contraction strength of the frog skeletal muscles under the effect of organophosphorus insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Nozdrenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of an experimental study of organo­phosphorus insecticides, including pirimiphosmethyl, diazinon and chlorpyrifos caused a decline of the contraction properties in m. tibialis anterior fiber bundles of Rana temporaria, as well as sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase enzymatic activity reduction are outlined in this paper. Concentration-dependent strengths response diminishing in isolated skeletal muscle fiber bundles as a result of non-cholinergic influence of organophosphorus insecticides were found. A decrease of Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase enzymatic activity in sarcoplasmic reticulum was observed after administration of each insecticide. The most significant inhibition of this enzyme was observed when using chlorpyrifos.

  20. [ACTIVITY OF Ca2+,Mg(2+)-ATPase OF SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM AND CONTRACTION STRENGTH OF THE FROG SKELETAL MUSCLES UNDER THE EFFECT OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS INSECTICIDES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozdrenko, D M; Korchinska, L V; Soroca, V M

    2015-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of organophosphorus insecticides, including pirimiphosmethyl, diazinon and chlorpyrifos caused a decline of the contraction properties in m. tibialis anterior fiber bundles of Rana temporaria, as well as sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+, Mg(2+)-ATPase enzymatic activity reduction are outlined in this paper. Concentration-dependent strengths response diminishing in isolated skeletal muscle fiber bundles as a result of non-cholinergic influence of organophosphorus insecticides were found. A decrease of Ca2+, Mg(2+)-ATPase enzymatic activity in sarcoplasmic reticulum was observed after administration of each insecticide. The most significant inhibition of this enzyme was observed when using chlorpyrifos.

  1. Endoparasites in some Swedish Amphibians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1988-01-01

    A study was made of the endoparasites in specimens of Rana arvalis and R. temporaria collected on two occasions from a locality of southern Sweden. Some frogs were investigated directly after capture while other frogs were kept hibernating and the composition of the parasites as well...... as the behaviour of the parasites were studied after the termination of hibernation. Twelve species of parasites were found. Six of them, Polystoma integerrimum, Pleurogenes claviger (Trematoda), Rhabdias bufonis, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Cosmocerca ornata and Oxysomatium brevicauda- tum (Nematoda), have...... not previously been reported from Sweden. The late Prof. O. Nybelin's unpublished records of parasites found in Swedish amphibians are also given....

  2. Analysis of three amphibian populations with quarter-century long time-series.

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, A H; Schimidt, B R; Grossenbacher, K

    1998-01-01

    Amphibians are in decline in many parts of the world. Long tme-series of amphibian populations are necessary to distinguish declines from the often strong fluctuations observed in natural populations. Time-series may also help to understand the causes of these declines. We analysed 23-28-year long time-series of the frog Rana temporaria. Only one of the three studied populations showed a negative trend which was probably caused by the introduction of fish. Two populations appeared to be densi...

  3. Biological monitoring results for cadmium exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, M A; Freeman, C S; Grossman, E A; Martonik, J

    1996-11-01

    As part of a settlement agreement with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) involving exposure to cadmium (Cd), a battery production facility provided medical surveillance data to OSHA for review. Measurements of cadmium in blood, cadmium in urine, and beta 2-microglobulin in urine were obtained for more than 100 workers over an 18-month period. Some airborne Cd exposure data were also made available. Two subpopulations of this cohort were of primary interest in evaluating compliance with the medical surveillance provisions of the Cadmium Standard. These were a group of 16 workers medically removed from cadmium exposure due to elevations in some biological parameter, and a group of platemakers. Platemaking had presented a particularly high exposure opportunity and had recently undergone engineering interventions to minimize exposure. The effect on three biological monitoring parameters of medical removal protection in the first group and engineering controls in platemakers is reported. Results reveal that both medical removal from cadmium exposures and exposure abatement through the use of engineering and work practice controls generally result in declines in biological monitoring parameters of exposed workers. Implications for the success of interventions are discussed.

  4. Behavioral changes in fish exposed to phytoestrogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clotfelter, Ethan D.; Rodriguez, Alison C.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral effects of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish, Betta splendens. Adult fish were exposed to a range of concentrations of genistein, equol, β-sitosterol, and the positive control 17β-estradiol. The following behaviors were measured: spontaneous swimming activity, latency to respond to a perceived intruder (mirror reflection), intensity of aggressive response toward a perceived intruder, probability of constructing a nest in the presence of a female, and the size of the nest constructed. We found few changes in spontaneous swimming activity, the latency to respond to the mirror, and nest size, and modest changes in the probability of constructing a nest. There were significant decreases, however, in the intensity of aggressive behavior toward the mirror following exposure to several concentrations, including environmentally relevant ones, of 17β-estradiol, genistein, and equol. This suggests that phytoestrogen contamination has the potential to significantly affect the behavior of free-living fishes. - Environmentally relevant concentrations of phytoestrogens reduce aggressive behavior in fish

  5. Exposing the “One China” Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-yuan Tseng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, when the governments from both sides across the Taiwan Strait began having contacts, both of them, at the People’s Republic of China (PRC’s request, expressed verbally, and in relation to functional issues, that they advocated the “one China” principle, though what “one China” actually meant was open to different interpretations, and the shift that elevated the 1992 “one China” interpretations from the functional level to the political level did not occur until April 2005. Since President Tsai Ing-wen was sworn in and the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP became the ruling party of the Republic of China (ROC on Taiwan in early 2016, the PRC has used Tsai’s rejection of this so-called “1992 consensus” as a pretext to discontinue all intergovernmental communication channels with the ROC on Taiwan, while also cutting down on cross-strait civil exchanges in travel and education. This thinkpiece article aims to scrutinise this “one China” principle, how it has developed over the years, and expose its underlying realities.

  6. Degradation of HEPA filters exposed to DMSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; LeMay, J.

    1994-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) sprays are being used to remove the high explosive (HE) from nuclear weapons in the process of their dismantlement. A boxed 50 cfm HEPA filter with an integral prefilter was exposed to DMSO vapor and aerosols that were generated by a spray nozzle to simulate conditions expected in the HE dissolution operation. After 198 hours of operation, the pressure drop of the filter had increased from 1.15 inches to 2.85 inches, and the efficiency for 0.3 μm dioctyl sebacate (DOS) aerosols decreased from 99.992% to 98.6%. Most of the DMSO aerosols had collected as a liquid pool inside the boxed HEPA. The liquid was blown out of the filter exit with 100 cfm air flow at the end of the test. Since the filter still met the minimum allowed efficiency of 99.97% after 166 hours of exposure, we recommend replacing the filter every 160 hours of operation or sooner if the pressure drop increases by 50%. Examination of the filter showed that visible cracks appeared at the joints of the wooden frame and a portion of the sealant had pulled away from the frame. Since all of the DMSO will be trapped in the first HEPA filter, the second HEPA filter should not suffer from DMSO degradation. Thus the combined efficiency for the first filter (98.6%) and the second filter (99.97%) is 99.99996% for 0.3μm particles. If the first filter is replaced prior to its degradation, each of the filters will have 99.97% efficiency, and the combined efficiency will be 99.999991%. The collection efficiency for DMSO/HE aerosols will be much higher because the particle size is much greater

  7. Degradation of HEPA filters exposed to DMSO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Larsen, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) sprays are being used to remove the high explosive (HE) from nuclear weapons in the process of their dismantlement. A boxed 50 cmf HEPA filter with an integral prefilter was exposed to DMSO vapor and aerosols that were generated by a spray nozzle to simulate conditions expected in the HE dissolution operation. After 198 hours of operation, the pressure drop of the filter had increased form 1.15 inches to 2,85 inches, and the efficiency for 0.3 {mu}m dioctyl sebacate (DOS) aerosols decreased form 99.992% to 98.6%. Most of the DMSO aerosols had collected as a liquid pool inside the boxed HEPA. The liquid was blown out of the filter exit with 100 cmf air flow at the end of the test. Since the filter still met the minimum allowed efficiency of 99.97% after 166 hours of exposure, we recommend replacing the filter every 160 hours of operation or sooner if the pressure drop increases by 50%. Examination of the filter showed that visible cracks appeared at the joints of the wooden frame and a portion of the sealant had pulled away from the frame. Since all of the DMSO will be trapped in the first HEPA filter, the second HEPA filter should not suffer from DMSO degradation. Thus the combined efficiency for the first filter (98.6%) and the second filter (99.97%) is 99.99996% for 0.3 {mu}m particles. If the first filter is replaced prior to its degradation, each of the filters will have 99.97% efficiency, and the combined efficiency will be 99.999991%. The collection efficiency for DMSO/HE aerosols will be much higher because the particle size is much greater.

  8. Reversão sexual de rã-touro (Rana catesbeiana com hormônio masculinizante misturado à ração de girinos Sexual reversion of bullfrog with masculinizing hormone added to the tadpole ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Angelo Agostinho

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consistiu em testar a eficiência de um hormônio masculinizante (17beta-hidróxi-17-metil-andróxi-4-en-3-ona na reversão sexual de girinos de rã-touro (Rana catesbeiana. Foram usados 352 girinos com dois a três meses de idade, nos estádios 30 a 36, para testar quatro níveis de hormônio na ração (0, 30, 60 e 90 mig/g por 45 dias. Após a metamorfose, 167 imagos foram sacrificados e 185 imagos foram criados até a idade de quatro meses e, então, sacrificados. As análises macroscópicas das gônadas e das características sexuais secundárias confirmaram a masculinização nos tratamentos com hormônio. Muitos ovócitos foram observados nos testículos dos imagos revertidos (ovotestis; entretanto, quatro meses após a metamorfose, os ovotestis ocorreram esporadicamente. Concluiu-se que, após a metamorfose, iniciou-se um processo de reabsorção dos ovócitos nos imagos revertidos, culminando com a quase total reabsorção dos ovócitos no quarto mês de idade.This work consisted in testing the efficiency of a masculinizing hormone (17beta-hydroxy-17-methyl-androxy-4-en-3-one in the sex reversal of bullfrog tadpoles. Three hundred and fifty two tadpoles with two or three months old, from the stages 30 to 36, were used to test four levels of hormone in the ration (0, 30, 60 and 90 mug/g, for 45 days. After metamorphosis, 167 juveniles were sacrificed and 185 were reared until the fourth month of age and sacrificed thereafter. Macroscopic analysis of the gonads and secondary traits confirmed the masculinization in the treatments with hormone. Many oocytes were observed in the testes of the masculinized juveniles; however, four months after metamorphosis the ovotestes were sporadic. It was concluded that, after metamorphosis, oocyte reabsorption started in reversed juveniles, culminating in almost total reabsorption at the fourth months.

  9. Educator Sexual Misconduct: Exposing or Causing Learners to Be Exposed to Child Pornography or Pornography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Coetzee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available he law recognises that non-contact sexual offences can cause harm and several offences were created to regulate non-contact sexual child abuse offences. Several of these offences deal with the exposure or causing exposure of children to child pornography or pornography. Sexual grooming of children and the “Exposure or display of or causing exposure or display of child pornography or pornography to children” are criminalised in sections 18(2 and 19 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters Amendment Act 32 of 2007. And offences in relation to exposing children to disturbing, harmful and age-inappropriate materials are criminalised in sections 24A(2 and (4 of the Films and Publications Act 65 of 1996. In this article the author considered the content of the offences of “Exposure or display of or causing exposure or display of child pornography or pornography to children” in relation to the other offences dealing with exposure of children to child pornography or pornography. Benchmarked against these criminal offences the author then conceptualised exposing learners, or causing the exposure of learners to child pornography or pornography as forms of educator misconduct. The seriousness that should be attached to these forms of misconduct was considered in light of the various criminal offences. The review of the criminal offences and the forms of educator misconduct brought the ineffectiveness of current forms of serious educator misconduct to the fore. There is no form of serious misconduct that covers the transgression of educators who expose learners to child pornography or pornography that can be classified as “XX”. In conclusion a suggestion is made with regard to how a new form of serious misconduct could be worded so as to cover this gap, eg An educator must be dismissed if he or she is found guilty of – (g exposing a learner to or causing exposure of a learner to material classified as “Refused” or

  10. [A survey of occupational health among polyether-exposed workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xu-ying; Yu, Bin; Zhang, Chun-ping; Zheng, Guan-hua; Bai, Lan; Zhang, Pan-pan

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the occupational health of the workers simultaneously exposed to acrylonitrile, epoxyethane, epoxypropane, and styrene. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 70 front-line workers simultaneously exposed to acrylonitrile, epoxyethane, epoxypropane, and styrene (exposure group) and 50 managers (control group) in a polyether manufacturer; in addition, air monitoring at workplace and occupational health examination were also performed. The obtained data were analyzed. The female workers in exposure group and the spouses of male workers in exposure group had significantly higher spontaneous abortion rates than their counterparts in control group (P polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean levels of DNA damage than the control group (P polyether-exposed working years and those with not less than 20 polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean micronucleus rates than the control group (P polyether-exposed working years (P > 0.05); the workers with not less than 5 and less than 20 polyether-exposed working years and workers with not less than 20 polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean micronucleus rates than those with less than 5 polyether-exposed working years (P polyether manufacturer.

  11. Going beyond the most exposed people in a dose assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjerpe, Thomas; Broed, Robert [Facilia AB, Gustavslundsvaegen 151C, SE-167 51 Bromma (Sweden); Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment, EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, FI-28 100 Pori (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    The dose assessment in a long-term radiation safety assessment often focus on assessing dose of a representative person to be used for determining compliance with a radiation dose constraint. This representative person is often assumed to receive a dose that is representative of the most exposed people, i.e., the more highly exposed individuals in the population. This is not always sufficient, the Finnish regulations for disposal of nuclear waste has radiation dose constraint to the most exposed people as well as for larger groups of exposed people. This work presents the methodology to assessing dose of a representative person for a larger group of exposed people as applied by Posiva in the TURVA-2012 safety case for the spent nuclear fuel disposal at Olkiluoto. In addition, annual doses from the set of biosphere calculation cases analysed in TURVA-2012 are presented and discussed. Special focus is given on explaining the differences in exposure levels and exposure routes between the estimated annual doses to representative persons for most exposed people and a larger exposed group. The results show that the annual doses to a larger group of people ranges from one to three orders of magnitude below the annual doses to the most exposed people. Furthermore, the exposure route related to food ingestion is less significant for the larger group of people compared to the most exposed people and that the exposure route related to water ingestion shows the opposite behaviour. (authors)

  12. Response of exposed bark and exposed lichen to an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, A.M.J. [Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Oliveira do Hospital (Portugal). Oliveira do Hospital College of Technology and Management; Freitas, M.C.; Canha, N. [URSN, Sacavem (Portugal). Inst. Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN); Verburg, T.G.; Wolterbeek, H.T. [Technical Univ. of Delft (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation, Radionuclides and Reactors

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study is to understand emission sources of chemical elements using biomonitoring as a tool. The selected lichen and bark were respectively Parmotrema bangii and Criptomeria japonica, sampled in the pollution-free atmosphere of Azores (Sao Miguel island), Portugal, and were exposed in the courtyards of 22 basic schools of Lisbon. The exposure was from January to May 2008 and from June to October 2008 (designated through the text as winter and summer respectively). The chemical element concentrations were determined by INAA. Conductivity of the lichen samples was measured. Factor analysis (MCTTFA) was applied to winter/summer bark/lichen exposed datasets. Arsenic emission sources, soil with anthropogenic contamination, a Se source, traffic, industry, and a sea contribution, were identified. In lichens, a physiological source based on the conductivity values was found. The spatial study showed contribution of sources to specific school positioning. Conductivity values were high in summer in locations as international Lisbon airport and downtown. Lisbon is spatially influenced by marine air mass transportation. It is concluded that one air sampler in Lisbon might be enough to define the emission sources under which they are influenced. (orig.)

  13. Ecophysiological tolerance of duckweeds exposed to copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoun-Boule, Myriam [Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Botany, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3000-456 (Portugal)], E-mail: mkb@ci.uc.pt; Vicente, Joaquim A.F.; Nabais, Cristina [Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Botany, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3000-456 (Portugal); Prasad, M.N.V. [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Freitas, Helena [Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Botany, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3000-456 (Portugal)

    2009-01-18

    Although essential for plants, copper can be toxic when present in supra-optimal concentrations. Metal polluted sites, due to their extreme conditions, can harbour tolerant species and/or ecotypes. In this work we aimed to compare the physiological responses to copper exposure and the uptake capacities of two species of duckweed, Lemna minor (Lm(EC1)) and Spirodela polyrrhiza (SP), from an abandoned uranium mine with an ecotype of L. minor (Lm(EC2)) from a non-contaminated pond. From the lowest Cu concentration exposure (25 {mu}M) to the highest (100 {mu}M), Lm(EC2) accumulated higher amounts of copper than Lm(EC1) and SP. Dose-response curves showed that Cu content accumulated by Lm(EC2) increases linearly with Cu treatment concentrations (r{sup 2} = 0.998) whereas quadratic models were more suitable for Lm(EC1) and SP (r{sup 2} = 0.999 and r{sup 2} = 0.998 for Lm(EC1) and SP, respectively). A significant concentration-dependent decline of chlorophyll a (chl a) and carotenoid occurred as a consequence of Cu exposure. These declines were significant for Lm(EC2) exposed to the lowest Cu concentration (25 {mu}M) whereas for Lm(EC1) and SP a significant decrease in chl a and carotenoids was observed only at 50 and 100 {mu}M-Cu. Electric conductivity (EC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased after Cu exposure, indicating oxidative stress. Significant increase of EC was observed in Lm(EC2) for all Cu concentrations whereas the increase for Lm(EC1) and SP became significant only after an exposure to 50 {mu}M-Cu. On the contrary, for Lm(EC1), SP, and Lm(EC2), MDA content significantly increased even at the lowest concentration. Protein content and catalase (CAT) activity showed a decrease with an increase in Cu concentration. For the species Lm(EC1) and SP, a significant effect of copper on CAT activity was observed only at the highest concentration (100 {mu}M-Cu) whereas, for Lm(EC2), this effect started to be significant after an exposure to 50 {mu

  14. Ecophysiological tolerance of duckweeds exposed to copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanoun-Boule, Myriam; Vicente, Joaquim A.F.; Nabais, Cristina; Prasad, M.N.V.; Freitas, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Although essential for plants, copper can be toxic when present in supra-optimal concentrations. Metal polluted sites, due to their extreme conditions, can harbour tolerant species and/or ecotypes. In this work we aimed to compare the physiological responses to copper exposure and the uptake capacities of two species of duckweed, Lemna minor (Lm(EC1)) and Spirodela polyrrhiza (SP), from an abandoned uranium mine with an ecotype of L. minor (Lm(EC2)) from a non-contaminated pond. From the lowest Cu concentration exposure (25 μM) to the highest (100 μM), Lm(EC2) accumulated higher amounts of copper than Lm(EC1) and SP. Dose-response curves showed that Cu content accumulated by Lm(EC2) increases linearly with Cu treatment concentrations (r 2 = 0.998) whereas quadratic models were more suitable for Lm(EC1) and SP (r 2 = 0.999 and r 2 = 0.998 for Lm(EC1) and SP, respectively). A significant concentration-dependent decline of chlorophyll a (chl a) and carotenoid occurred as a consequence of Cu exposure. These declines were significant for Lm(EC2) exposed to the lowest Cu concentration (25 μM) whereas for Lm(EC1) and SP a significant decrease in chl a and carotenoids was observed only at 50 and 100 μM-Cu. Electric conductivity (EC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased after Cu exposure, indicating oxidative stress. Significant increase of EC was observed in Lm(EC2) for all Cu concentrations whereas the increase for Lm(EC1) and SP became significant only after an exposure to 50 μM-Cu. On the contrary, for Lm(EC1), SP, and Lm(EC2), MDA content significantly increased even at the lowest concentration. Protein content and catalase (CAT) activity showed a decrease with an increase in Cu concentration. For the species Lm(EC1) and SP, a significant effect of copper on CAT activity was observed only at the highest concentration (100 μM-Cu) whereas, for Lm(EC2), this effect started to be significant after an exposure to 50 μM-Cu. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity

  15. Psychopharmacologic treatment of children prenatally exposed to drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulvershorn, Leslie A; Schroeder, Kristen M; Wink, Logan K; Erickson, Craig A; McDougle, Christopher J

    2015-05-01

    This pilot study compared the pharmacologic treatment history and clinical outcomes observed in pediatric outpatients with psychiatric disorders exposed to drugs of abuse in utero to those of an age-matched, sex-matched and psychiatric disorder-matched, non-drug-exposed group. In this matched cohort study, medical records of children treated at an academic, child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinic were reviewed. Children with caregiver-reported history of prenatal drug exposure were compared with a non-drug-exposed control group being cared for by the same providers. Patients were rated with the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale (CGI-S) throughout treatment. The changes in pre-treatment and post-treatment CGI-S scores and the total number of medication trials were determined between groups. The drug-exposed group (n = 30) had a higher total number of lifetime medication trials compared with the non-drug-exposed group (n = 28) and were taking significantly more total medications, at their final assessment. Unlike the non-drug-exposed group, the drug-exposed group demonstrated a lack of clinical improvement. These results suggest that in utero drug-exposed children may be more treatment-refractory to or experience greater side effects from the pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric disorders than controls, although we cannot determine if early environment or drugs exposure drives these findings. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Unusual presentation of necrotizing fasciitis in an HIV exposed infant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... presentation of NF, in this instance, it presented on the scalp, in an HIV exposed neonate. It also stressed the importance prompt diagnosis of all skin lesions in HIV exposed neonates, and the role of early diagnosis and aggressive multi disciplinary team management in salvaging NF which is a potentially fatal condition.

  17. Animal Cruelty by Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The first objective of this study was to determine if children exposed to domestic violence were significantly more likely to be cruel to animals than children not exposed to violence. The second was to determine if there were significant age and gender differences between children who were and were not cruel to animals. Method: A…

  18. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed bison...

  19. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a...

  20. Self-reported hearing performance in workers exposed to solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Fuente

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare hearing performance relating to the peripheral and central auditory system between solvent-exposed and non-exposed workers. METHODS: Forty-eight workers exposed to a mixture of solvents and 48 non-exposed control subjects of matched age, gender and educational level were selected to participate in the study. The evaluation procedures included: pure-tone audiometry (500 - 8,000 Hz, to investigate the peripheral auditory system; the Random Gap Detection test, to assess the central auditory system; and the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap, to investigate subjects' self-reported hearing performance in daily-life activities. A Student t test and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were computed to determine possible significant differences between solvent-exposed and non-exposed subjects for the hearing level, Random Gap Detection test and Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap. Pearson correlations among the three measures were also calculated. RESULTS: Solvent-exposed subjects exhibited significantly poorer hearing thresholds for the right ear than non-exposed subjects. Also, solvent-exposed subjects exhibited poorer results for the Random Gap Detection test and self-reported poorer listening performance than non-exposed subjects. Results of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap were significantly correlated with the binaural average of subject pure-tone thresholds and Random Gap Detection test performance. CONCLUSIONS: Solvent exposure is associated with poorer hearing performance in daily life activities that relate to the function of the peripheral and central auditory system.

  1. The differences in phenolic content in rivers exposed and non-exposed to anthropogenic contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałowicz, Jaromir; Bukowska, Bozena; Duda, Wirgiliusz

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the work was to determine the differences in a kind, number and concentrations of phenol, chlorophenols, chlorocatechols chlorinated methoxyphenols (chloroguaiacols, chlorosyringols) and 3,4,5-trichloroveratrole in the drainage of the Dzierzazna river, the flow non-exposed to anthropogenic contamination and in the Ner river, the flow exposed to anthropogenic pollution. The samples of water were collected in the Dzierzazna river in the Swoboda locality, the inflow of the Dzierzazna river - the Ciosenka river and, also, in the spring situated in Ciosny Sady locality. Water of the Ner river was collected in points near Łódź, Konstantynów, Poddebice and Dabie towns. The compounds were condensed (adsorbed) and eluted with methylene chloride on octadecyl C18 layer in a Baker Separex system. The obtained eluent was separated using the method of gas chromatography and analysed using mass spectrometry technique. In samples collected from the drainage of the Dzierzazna river phenol, chlorophenols, guaiacol, trichloroguaiacol, tetrachloroguaiacol, trichlorosyringol and 3,4,5-trichloroveratole were determined. As no anthropogenic sources are situated within the drainage of the Dzierzazna river, we may suppose that most of the determined compounds are mainly of natural origin. No or trace concentrations of chlorinated methoxyphenols were noted in the water of the Ner river, but a higher number, and concentrations of chlorophenols and additionally chlorocatechols were determined in this flow. It is also apparent that changes in a number and concentrations of phenols in the water of the Ner river did not prove a seasonal character, which was typical of the Dzierzazna drainage waters.

  2. Distribución y abundancia de Craugastor vulcani: una especie de rana en riesgo de Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, México Distribution and abundance of Craugastor vulcani: an endangered frog species from Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pineda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En México, más de la mitad de las especies de anfibios están amenazadas y de la mayoría no se genera información que permita conocer el estatus en el que se encuentran sus poblaciones. En este trabajo se evaluó la distribución y abundancia de Craugastor vulcani, una rana endémica de la sierra de Los Tuxtlas Veracruz que se encuentra en riesgo de extinción, en función de la transformación de la selva. Para este trabajo, se consultaron bases de datos de registros históricos y se muestrearon 12 sitios que representan ambientes comunes de la región. Se registró un total de 524 individuos, de los cuales el 77% se encontraron en fragmentos de selva, el 20% en remanentes riparios y sólo el 3% en potreros. La mayor abundancia (62% se registró durante la época seca del año. La distribución conocida de C. vulcani está sesgada hacia el norte de la sierra, existe poca información sobre su presencia en la porción sur. La permanencia de la especie en la zona parece depender de los pocos fragmentos de bosque existentes. El aumento en el número, área y conectividad de tales remanentes son algunas de las medidas necesarias para conservar ésta y otras especies amenazadas en la región.More than a half of all amphibian species occurring in Mexico are threatened, and for most of them there is no current information to assess the status of their populations. Craugastor vulcani is an endemic frog from the Los Tuxtlas mountains, Veracruz, and it is classified as an endangered species. We examine the distribution and abundance of C. vulcani as a function of rainforest transformation in Los Tuxtlas. We consulted historical records in databases and sampled 12 sites representing common habitats of the region. We recorded a total of 524 individuals of which 77% were found in rainforest fragments, 20% were collected in riparian remnants and just 3% in cattle pastures. Most individuals (62% were recorded during the dry season. The known distribution

  3. Osteología, taxonomía y relaciones filogenéticas de las ranas del género Telmatobufo (Leptodactylidae Osteology, taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the frog genus Telmatobufo (Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. RAMÓN FORMAS

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo un análisis osteológico de las especies del género Telmatobufo (T. australis, T. bullocki, T. venustus, el que completa la definición genérica fundamentada exclusivamente en la osteología de T. bullocki y caracteres larvarios. Para cada especie se entrega nueva información distribucional, ecológica, reproductiva, morfométrica, cromosómica, alozímica y molecular. Se presenta una clave para identificar individuos adultos de las tres especies de Telmatobufo. Se publica por primera vez una lámina de Philippi perdida por casi un siglo, lo que permite aclarar de manera definitiva la identidad taxonómica de T. venustus. Con las distancias de Mahalanobis y las distancias genéticas de Rogers se determinan las similitudes morfológicas y genéticas entre las especies de Telmatobufo. Usando las secuencias para ARN 12S mitocondrial, frecuencias alélicas polarizadas de genes estructurales y caracteres morfológicos (osteológicos y morfológicos externos se propone una hipótesis de relaciones filogenéticas basada en los principios de máxima parsimonia y máxima probabilidad. Finalmente se entrega una proposición acerca de la especiación e historia evolutiva de este grupo de ranas endémicas de los bosques templados del centro-sur de ChileAn osteological analysis of the three species of the genus Telmatobufo (T. australis, T. bullocki, and T. venustus was done. That analysis completes the generic definition based mainly on the osteology of T. bullocki and on morphological larval characters. New information on morphometry, chromosomes, reproductive biology, ecology, geographical range, allozymes, and molecular data is provided for each species. A key for the taxonomic determination of adult specimens of Telmatobufo is also presented. An unedited original plate by R.A. Philippi, lost for almost a century, is published for the first time; this plate allowed the restatement of the taxonomical identity of T. venustus. Mahalanobis

  4. Survey on Urinary Levels of Aflatoxins in Professionally Exposed Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Ferri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed mill workers may handle or process maize contaminated with aflatoxins (AFs. This condition may lead to an unacceptable intake of toxins deriving from occupational exposure. This study assessed the serological and urinary levels of AFs in workers exposed to potentially contaminated dusts in two mills. From March to April 2014, blood and urine samples were collected, on Monday and Friday morning of the same working week from 29 exposed workers and 30 non-exposed controls. AFs (M1, G2, G1, B1, B2 and aflatoxicol (AFOH A were analyzed. Each subject filled in a questionnaire to evaluate potential food-borne exposures to mycotoxins. AFs contamination in environmental dust was measured in both plants. No serum sample was found to be positive. Seventy four percent of urine samples (73.7% revealed AFM1 presence. AFM1 mean concentration was 0.035 and 0.027 ng/mL in exposed and non-exposed workers, respectively (p = 0.432; the concentration was slightly higher in Friday’s than in Monday’s samples, in exposed workers, 0.040 versus (vs. 0.031 and non-exposed controls (0.030 vs. 0.024, p = 0.437. Environmental AFs contamination ranged from 7.2 to 125.4 µg/kg. The findings of this study reveal the presence of higher AFs concentration in exposed workers than in non-exposed controls, although these differences are to be considered consistent with random fluctuations.

  5. DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS OF TOMOPTERNA AND RANA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    five-toed stage, of a spur on the hind foot, giving a six-toed appearance when the spur first appears. This feature ... In the main key, besides the spur on the foot, tail and spiracle characters were used, the former with the .... and is generally pale ... ' (p. 96) and 'They reach a maximum of 70 mm, and are flat, heavy tadpoles ..•.

  6. Care of HIV-exposed and HIV-infected neonates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, further reduction in MTCT may be possible if newborns at high risk of acquiring HIV ... infants of breastfeeding mothers with newly diagnosed HIV infection, dual NVP/ .... birth HIV DNA PCR testing for HIV-exposed low birth weight.

  7. UDS in lymphocytes of occupationally radiation exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.

    1982-01-01

    To determine a possible effect of low dose radiation on DNA repair processes, peripheral lymphocytes of mine workers exposed to 222 Rn in the thermal gallery of Badgastein (Austria) and employees of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf, exposed to varying doses of gamma radiation, were investigated. The capacity for unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) induced by in vitro UV irradiation was measured by autoradiography of isolated lymphocytes of exposed persons and unexposed controls. In all 222 Rn-exposed mine workers a significant increase of UDS above control values could be observed. Gamma irradiation 31 mrad had a significant effect on UDS, indicating a stimulation of DNA repair capability by chronic low dose exposure. (Author)

  8. Pulmonary function evaluations of dogs exposed to uranium ore dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loscutoff, S.M.; Buschbom, R.L.; Palmer, R.F.; Cross, F.T.

    1980-01-01

    Pulmonary function evaluations were conducted on dogs exposed to carnotite uranium ore dust. Significant changes were detected in the slope of the single-breath N 2 washout curve, suggesting an uneven distribution of ventilation

  9. Administrative norms on radiofrequency radiation for occupationally exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxeboel, G.

    1982-01-01

    The report presents a proposal for administrative norms on radiofrequency (RF) radiation for occupationally exposed persons. The norms establish maximum allowable field exposure in a frequency range from 1 MHz too 300 GHz. (RF)

  10. Micronuclei frequency in children exposed to environmental mutagens: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neri, Monica; Fucic, Aleksandra; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2003-01-01

    Cytogenetic monitoring has been traditionally used for the surveillance of populations exposed to genotoxic agents. In recent years sensitivity problems emerged in surveys of populations exposed to low levels of mutagens, and therefore alternative approaches have been explored. Biomonitoring....... The limited number of published papers indicates that the conduct of properly designed studies on the effect of environmental pollutants in children may be difficult. This review confirmed the usefulness of MN assay in biomonitoring studies conducted in children, revealing that in many circumstances...

  11. Epidemiological studies of some populations exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, J.L.

    1985-08-01

    During 1984 September 19 and 20, a meeting was held at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Pinawa, Manitoba to discuss current epidemiological studies of populations exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Twelve representatives from three countries attended the meeting and eleven papers were extensively discussed. The majority of these papers described studies of populations occupationally exposed to radiation. The report contains summaries of the papers presented and of the discussions that took place

  12. Behavioural changes in mice exposed to low level microwave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goiceanu, C.; Gradinaru, F.; Danulescu, R.; Balaceanu, G.; Sandu, D. D.; Avadanei, O. G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our study is to point out some changes in mice behaviour due possibly to exposure to low-level microwave fields. Animals spontaneous behaviour were monitored and the exploring behaviour and motor activity were assessed. Ten selected Swiss male mice were exposed to low-level microwave fields of about 1 mW/cm 2 power density for a relatively long period of time (13 weeks), comparing to their lifetime. The exposure system consists in a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) Cell. A control lot of ten Swiss male mice was used. All twenty mice were selected to be of same age and of 202 g initial body weight. Each animal was placed in his own holder. The behaviour of the animals, from both exposed and control lots, was assessed by using a battery of three behavioural tests. The test sessions were performed every two weeks. During exposure period it was recorded a progressive but moderate loss of motor activity for both exposed and controls, probably due to weight gain and aging. Concerning exploratory activity there is a significant difference between control and exposed animals. Control mice had approximately constant performances in time. On the other hand exposed mice showed a progressive decrease in time of their exploratory ability. Motor activity of exposed animals does not seem to be affected by microwave exposure, in spite of moderate loss in time of motor activity in both lots, as long as it was recorded a quite similar evolution. The difference in performances of exposed and controls concerning exploratory activity seem to emphasise an effect of long-term low-level microwave exposure. The progressive loss in time of exploratory activity of exposed mice, in contrast with controls, could be due to the interference of microwaves with central nervous activity. (authors)

  13. Ethylene thiourea: thyroid function in two groups of exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.M.

    1984-08-01

    Ethylene thiourea is manufactured at one factory in the United Kingdom and is mixed into masterbatch rubber at another. Clinical examinations and thyroid function tests were carried out over a period of three years on eight process workers and five mixers and on matched controls. The results show that the exposed mixers, but not exposed process workers, have significantly lower levels of total thyroxine (T4) than the controls. One mixer had an appreciably raised level of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH).

  14. Ethylene thiourea: thyroid function in two groups of exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D M

    1984-08-01

    Ethylene thiourea is manufactured at one factory in the United Kingdom and is mixed into masterbatch rubber at another. Clinical examinations and thyroid function tests were carried out over a period of three years on eight process workers and five mixers and on matched controls. The results show that the exposed mixers, but not exposed process workers, have significantly lower levels of total thyroxine (T4) than the controls. One mixer had an appreciably raised level of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH).

  15. Hearing Loss in Persons Exposed and not Exposed to Occupational Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalova, Martina; Mrazkova, Eva; Sachova, Petra; Vojkovska, Kristyna; Tomaskova, Hana; Janoutova, Jana; Janout, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to compare hearing loss in individuals at risk and those not at risk for occupational noise and to compare working loss by gender. The analysis used data from a current Czech Ministry of Health grant project called Epidemiological and Genetic Study of the Frequency of Hearing Loss (2011 to 2015; NT12246-5/2011). The analyzed sample comprised 4988 participants. Hearing was tested using pure-tone threshold audiometry, tympanometry, and measurement of the stapedius reflex. Females at risk and those not at risk for occupational noise who were younger than 44 years and older than 75 years were found to have no statistically significant differences at any pure-tone threshold audiometry frequency. In females aged 45 to 74 years, statistically significant differences were found. In males, hearing loss was observed as early as 18 years of age. When comparing males and females at no risk for occupational noise, there were no statistically significant differences at any of the frequencies in those younger than 29 years. In females aged 30 years or older, statistically significant differences were observed at various frequencies in all age groups. When comparing males and females at risk for occupational noise, statistically significant differences were more frequent than in employees not exposed to noise. Hearing loss in females does not significantly vary depending on occupational exposure. The opposite is true for males. However, the maximum differences in mean levels did not exceed 10 dB. It is therefore clear that noise is a preventable factor, and the use of personal protective equipment is warranted.

  16. Analysis of reproductive function in persons exposed to chronic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossenko, M.M.; Ostroumova, E.V.; Vyushkova, O.V.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the reproductive function in individuals exposed to radiation in the riverside villages on the Techa in the Southern Urals. The exposure of the population, numbering 28000, occurred in 1950-1956 as a result of discharges into the river of radioactive wastes from the Mayak facility for processing weapon plutonium. The residents were exposed to chronic radiation, both external and internal. The range of exposure doses to gonads was sufficiently wide: 20-1270 mSv. However, the distribution of doses among the exposed individuals was ununiform, and the proportion of people whose dose was below 120 mGy accounted for 74%. The following characteristics of exposed women were analyzed: menstrual function, outcomes of pregnancy, birth rates, health status for newborns. The analysis of the menstrual function in exposed women showed that in persons exposed in childhood, menarche was registered at the age of 14.3 years, on the average (based on literature sources, menarche is attained at the age of 13 for unexposed population). The mean age at menopause was 47.9 years for exposed women (the respective mean value for Russia is 50.8 years). Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in 9000 exposed women. The rate of medical and criminal abortions was estimated as 79 per 100 labors. The rate of spontaneous abortions for exposed women was slightly higher, 3.11%, than for controls, 2.30%; these difference, however, were statistically insignificant. The total loss of fetus or neonate (unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy: spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, early neonatal death) was estimated to be 4.58% at zero dose. Exposure to gonads at the dose 1 Sv, estimated using the above-indicated method, yielded 3% of additional unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy. It was shown, based on the analysis of birth rates for the Techa Cohort that they had not undergone any essential changes over the first 25 years of exposure compared to the respective coefficients for

  17. Analysis of reproductive function in persons exposed to chronic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossenko, M.M.; Ostroumova, E.V.; Vyushkova, O.V. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the reproductive function in individuals exposed to radiation in the riverside villages on the Techa in the Southern Urals. The exposure of the population, numbering 28000, occurred in 1950-1956 as a result of discharges into the river of radioactive wastes from the Mayak facility for processing weapon plutonium. The residents were exposed to chronic radiation, both external and internal. The range of exposure doses to gonads was sufficiently wide: 20-1270 mSv. However, the distribution of doses among the exposed individuals was ununiform, and the proportion of people whose dose was below 120 mGy accounted for 74%. The following characteristics of exposed women were analyzed: menstrual function, outcomes of pregnancy, birth rates, health status for newborns. The analysis of the menstrual function in exposed women showed that in persons exposed in childhood, menarche was registered at the age of 14.3 years, on the average (based on literature sources, menarche is attained at the age of 13 for unexposed population). The mean age at menopause was 47.9 years for exposed women (the respective mean value for Russia is 50.8 years). Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in 9000 exposed women. The rate of medical and criminal abortions was estimated as 79 per 100 labors. The rate of spontaneous abortions for exposed women was slightly higher, 3.11%, than for controls, 2.30%; these difference, however, were statistically insignificant. The total loss of fetus or neonate (unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy: spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, early neonatal death) was estimated to be 4.58% at zero dose. Exposure to gonads at the dose 1 Sv, estimated using the above-indicated method, yielded 3% of additional unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy. It was shown, based on the analysis of birth rates for the Techa Cohort that they had not undergone any essential changes over the first 25 years of exposure compared to the respective coefficients for

  18. Analysis of the mortality of the progeny of exposed parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosenko, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the values, time course, and structure of mortality of the progeny of exposed residents of villages on the banks of the Techa river in the Urals. The exposure was caused by discharge of radioactive waste of Mayak radiochemical plant for the manufacture of bomb plutonium into the river. A total of 76x10 6 m 3 liquid waste with a total activity of 2,75x10 6 Ci was discharged into the river from 1949 to 1956. The population of villages on the banks of the river, 26554 subjects was exposed to external and internal radiation. The doses per gonads caused by external exposure and incorporation of evenly distributed radionuclides (mainly 137 Cs) ranged 20 to 1270 mSv. A total of 23869 children were born to exposed subjects since the beginning of exposure; 3160 of these were exposed in utero. The mortality rates int he studied cohort was nothigher than in controls. However, deaths from the so-called endogenous causes were more frequent for the descendants of exposed subjects: neonatal diseases, congenital developmental defects, and states that could not be accurately defined. Correlation of the number of deaths from congenital developmental defects to the collective gonadal dose permitted us to assess the risk as 0.004 perSv, this being in agreement with the estimates of the International Committee for Radiation Protection. 7 refs.; 2 figs.; 6 tabs

  19. Serum-thyroxine levels in microwave-exposed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.T.; Lebda, N.; Michaelson, S.M.; Pettit, S.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of the response of the thyroid gland in animals exposed to microwave irradiation is controversial. Animal experimentation has contributed to the controversy because both increased and decreased thyroid functions have been reported. The thyroxine concentration in rats as representative of thyroid function in animals exposed to 2.45-GHz, 120-Hz amplitude-modulated microwaves has been studied. These studies covered a long time span; rats from two commercial sources (BS and CR) were used and subjected to different numbers of exposures, and therefore these data were evaluated for their stability. Two factors could influence in the result significantly, i.e., source of animal and number of sham exposures. Rats used in the 2-hr exposures were from two different commercial sources; rats from CR had a higher (but normal) thyroxine concentration than did rats from BS. Therefore the data of these animals were separated by commercial source for reevaluation. Instead of increased thyroxine concentration in rats exposed at 25, 30, and 40 mW/cm 2 , changes were not noted in any microwave-exposed rats. The influence of sham exposure revealed that appropriate concurrent control and specification of animal source are needed in longitudinal studies. Furthermore, statistical procedures used can greatly influence the conclusions. Thus the specificity of changes in thyroxine concentration in rats exposed to microwaves because of its sporadic occurrence and because of inconsistencies among experiments was doubted

  20. Screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.R.

    1997-12-31

    This publication resulted from a World Health Organisation initiated project to investigate the harmonisation of definitions, approaches and methodologies for the screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dust. The first part of the book provides definitions of screening and surveillance and describes the main elements of such programmes. The second part discusses the practical aspect of the screening and surveillance of working populations exposed to crystalline silica, coal mine dust and asbestos. Although no single set of guidelines is applicable to the development and implementation of a programme for the screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dust, the recommendations, together with certain caveats, should provide a useful starting point. Annexes provide examples of existing programmes in various countries and environments and discuss the use and interpretation of questionnaires, lung spirometry and chest radiography. Overall the book should be of interest to occupational health professionals.

  1. Cytogenetic investigation of subjects professionally exposed to radiofrequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Annemarie; Van Gorp, Urbain; Verschaeve, Luc

    2006-03-01

    Nowadays, virtually everybody is exposed to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) from mobile phone base station antennas or other sources. At least according to some scientists, this exposure can have detrimental health effects. We investigated cytogenetic effects in peripheral blood lymphocytes from subjects who were professionally exposed to mobile phone electromagnetic fields in an attempt to demonstrate possible RFR-induced genetic effects. These subjects can be considered well suited for this purpose as their RFR exposure is 'normal' though rather high, and definitely higher than that of the 'general population'. The alkaline comet assay, sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosome aberration tests revealed no evidence of RFR-induced genetic effects. Blood cells were also exposed to the well known chemical mutagen mitomycin C in order to investigate possible combined effects of RFR and the chemical. No cooperative action was found between the electromagnetic field exposure and the mutagen using either the comet assay or SCE test.

  2. Histomorphological patterns in osseous rests exposed at fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, C.; Tiesler, V.; Oliva, A.I.; Quintana, P.

    2005-01-01

    Histomorphology as part of morphological research studies bony structure on the tissue level. Its methods are applied in this investigation to evaluate histomorphological impact patterns in heat-exposed bony material, particularly color changes, fissure patterns, volumetric reduction, and changes in the size of Haversian canals. These variables were evaluated in exposed thin sections of porcine long bones, obtained during two experimental series. The first one was conducted under stable thermal conditions in a furnace by measuring heat impact in stepped time (I to S hours) and temperature intervals (200 to 800 C). During a second experimental phase, bony samples were exposed to direct fire in defined time and heat intervals. The treated specimens were then sectioned and microscopically scrutinized. The results presented here were designed to offer new analytical, measurable standards in the investigation of forms of heat exposition of the human body, applicable in forensics and the study of ancient Maya posthumous body treatments. (Author)

  3. Urine nickel concentrations in nickel-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacki, E J; Parsons, G E; Roy, B R; Mikac-Devic, M; Kennedy, C D; Sunderman, F W

    1978-01-01

    Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was employed for analyses of nickel concentrations in urine samples from nickel-exposed workers in 10 occupational groups and from non-exposed workers in two control groups. Mean concentrations of nickel in urine were greatest in workers who were exposed to inhalation of aerosols of soluble nickel salts (e.g., workers in nickel plating operations and in an electrolytic nickel refinery). Less marked increases in urine nickel concentrations were found in groups of metal sprayers, nickel battery workers, bench mechanics and are welders. No significant increases in mean concentrations of nickel were found in urine samples from workers who performed grinding, buffing and polishing of nickel-containing alloys or workers in a coal gasification plant who employed Raney nickel as a hydrogenation catalyst. Measurements of nickel concentrations in urine are more sensitive and practical than measurements of serum nickel concentrations for evaluation of nickel exposures in industrial workers.

  4. Liver function in workers exposed of the cosmetics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, T; Caciari, T; Rosati, M V; Biagi, M; De Sio, S; Andreozzi, G; Schifano, M P; Capozzella, A; Pimpinella, B; Tomei, G; Tomei, F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether occupational exposure to substances used in the cosmetic factories may cause effects on the liver and blood counts in exposed workers. The study included 48 exposed workers and 86 unexposed controls. All workers included in the study underwent blood count, white blood count, total, direct and indirect bilirubin, transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and cholinesterase. The differences between the means and frequencies were compared using the Student's t-test and chi-square test with Yates correction and were considered significant when the p value was cosmetics industry had liver test values above the range. We noted a statistically significant higher prevalence of GPT (p cosmetics industry compared with the control group. The results obtained suggest that occupational exposure to low doses of substances used in the cosmetic industry is able to influence some liver parameters in occupationally exposed workers.

  5. Ice nucleation of ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salam

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The ice nucleation characteristics of montmorillonite mineral dust aerosols with and without exposure to ammonia gas were measured at different atmospheric temperatures and relative humidities with a continuous flow diffusion chamber. The montmorillonite particles were exposed to pure (100% and diluted ammonia gas (25 ppm at room temperature in a stainless steel chamber. There was no significant change in the mineral dust particle size distribution due to the ammonia gas exposure. 100% pure ammonia gas exposure enhanced the ice nucleating fraction of montmorillonite mineral dust particles 3 to 8 times at 90% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw and 5 to 8 times at 100% RHw for 120 min exposure time compared to unexposed montmorillonite within our experimental conditions. The percentages of active ice nuclei were 2 to 8 times higher at 90% RHw and 2 to 7 times higher at 100% RHw in 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite compared to unexposed montmorillonite. All montmorillonite particles are more efficient as ice nuclei with increasing relative humidities and decreasing temperatures. The activation temperature of montmorillonite exposed to 100% pure ammonia was 15°C higher than for unexposed montmorillonite particles at 90% RHw. In the 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite experiments, the activation temperature was 10°C warmer than unexposed montmorillonite at 90% RHw. Degassing does not reverse the ice nucleating ability of ammonia exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles suggesting that the ammonia is chemically bound to the montmorillonite particle. This is the first experimental evidence that ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles can enhance its activation as ice nuclei and that the activation can occur at temperatures warmer than –10°C where natural atmospheric ice nuclei are very scarce.

  6. Intrapulmonary reactions of workers exposed to dust and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, T; Nakadate, T; Sakurai, M; Sakurai, Y

    1984-01-01

    Forty-one dust-and-ozone-exposed and 37 nonexposed workers, belonging to the Research and Development Division of a photo-copier manufacturing industry, were examined to assess the effect of the exposure to carbon, iron and resin dust and ozone in the air of the work environment by means of questionnaires on their physical condition, smoking habits and exposure history by interview, chest X-rays, testing of ventilatory functions, transcutaneous PO2 (tcPO2) test and H2O2-induced hemolysis test. The following results were obtained. Respirable dust concentrations in the air of the work place were 0.1-1.0 mg/m3, total dust concentrations 0.2-2.0 mg/m3, and ozone concentrations 0.004-0.06 ppm (0.008-0.12 mg/m3). According to the Japanese Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses, the exposed workers showed a higher rate of profusion 0/1 and over, and category 1 and over (1/0 and over) than the nonexposed workers. Ventilatory function testing revealed no difference between exposed workers and nonexposed workers, but small airway narrowing was suspected in smoking workers in comparison with nonsmoking workers. Transcutaneous PO2 showed no difference between exposed and nonexposed workers, between smoking and nonsmoking workers, and between any of the paired six combinations out of the four groups of workers, i.e., nonsmoking and nonexposed, nonsmoking and exposed, smoking and nonexposed, and smoking and exposed. It was estimated by H2O2-induced hemolysis test that smoking and/or dust exposure, especially long-term exposure, gave rise to aggravation of fragility of the erythrocyte membrane by lipid peroxidation with ozone or active oxygen produced by the reaction of dust and alveolar macrophages.

  7. [Hepatotoxicity in healthy infants exposed to nevirapine during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveli, Pablo; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Soler-Palacín, Pere; Martín-Nalda, Andrea; Rovira-Girabal, Núria; Fortuny-Guasch, Clàudia; Figueras-Nadal, Concepció

    2016-01-01

    The use of nevirapine in HIV-infected pregnant women is discouraged due to its potential to cause hepatotoxicity. There is limited information available on the toxicity in non-HIV infected newborn exposed to this drug during pregnancy. The aim of the study is to determine the extent of hepatotoxicity in the newborn exposed to nevirapine and HIV during pregnancy. A cross-sectional, observational, multicenter study was conducted on a cohort of healthy infants born to HIV-infected mothers, in whom the first determination of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), before 6weeks of age, was collected. Patients were allocated to 2groups according to exposure to nevirapine during pregnancy. Hepatotoxicity was rated according to the AIDS Table for Grading the Severity of Adult and Pediatric Adverse Events (DAIDS). This study included 160newborns from 159pregnancies (88exposed to nevirapine-based regimens and 71 exposed to protease inhibitors-based therapies). No cases of hepatotoxicity were observed according to the DAIDS Table for Grading. Two cases of ALT above normal values (2.8%; 95%CI: 0.3-9.8%) were observed in patients not exposed to nevirapine, and one case (1.1%; 95%CI: 0.0-6.1%) in the group exposed to nevirapine (P=.585). The lack of differences between groups suggests that highly active antiretroviral treatment regimens including nevirapine administered during pregnancy do not involve a higher risk of liver disease compared to other treatment combinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. Contaminations of inner surface of magnesium fluoride windows in the `Expose-R' experiment on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurat, V. E.

    2017-10-01

    A series of experiments was carried out previously on board of the International Space Station in `EXPOSE-R', a multi-user expose facility, provided by European Space Agency attached to the external surface of the Russian Segment. In one experiment, spores of microorganisms and species of higher plant seeds, in heat-sealed polymer bags were irradiated by solar radiation passed through MgF2 windows in a high space vacuum. After sample exposure, it was found that in many cases the inner surfaces of windows were contaminated. Analysis of the contamination revealed the presence of chemical groups CH2, CH3, NH, OH, C═O, Si-CH3 (Demets et al. in 2015). Their presence in deposits was explained by photofixation of gaseous precursors - some of the vapours of glues and additives in polymeric materials in the core facility of `Expose-R'. Carbon-, oxygen- and silicon-containing groups may be deposited from outer intrinsic atmosphere. This atmosphere is connected with sample compartments and core facility. However, the presence of NH groups on inner surfaces of windows was not expected. This paper shows that the process responsible for carbon-, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing group formation can be a photopolymerization of caprolactam, which is released from the outer Nylon 6 layer of polymer bags under Solar vacuum ultraviolet radiation.

  9. Analysis of early mortality rates of survivors exposed within Japanese wooden houses in Hiroshima by exposed distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru; Ohkita, Takeshi.

    1986-01-01

    Mortality for 3,215 A-bomb survivors who were exposed in Japanese wooden houses at ≤ 1,300 m from the hypocenter on August 6, 1945 was examined. An overall mortality was 51 % (1,640/3,215 survivors) within 61 days after the exposure. According to the distance from the hypocenter, it was 100 % in A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤ 600 m, and 20 % in those exposed between 1,201 m and 1,300 m. The mortality decreased with increasing the distance from the hypocenter. In conjunction with the duration after the exposure and the distance from the hypocenter, the mortality was 100 % 12 days after the exposure in survivors exposed at ≤ 600 m. In survivors exposed at > 800 m, the mortality tended to be higher two weeks after the exposure than immediately after that. The distance from the hypocenter causing 50 per cent mortality was estimated to be 1,026 m from August 6 to October 5; 1,002 m from August 6 to September 10; 887 m from August 7 to September 10; and 867 m from August 20 to September 16. However, these figures were probably lower than the real mortality rates, since no information was available when whole family died. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Survival of Spores of Trichoderma longibrachiatum in Space: data from the Space Experiment SPORES on EXPOSE-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Katja; Lux-Endrich, Astrid; Panitz, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    In the space experiment `Spores in artificial meteorites' (SPORES), spores of the fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years on board the EXPOSE-R facility outside of the International Space Station. The environmental conditions tested in space were: space vacuum at 10-7-10-4 Pa or argon atmosphere at 105 Pa as inert gas atmosphere, solar extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) radiation at λ > 110 nm or λ > 200 nm with fluences up to 5.8 × 108 J m-2, cosmic radiation of a total dose range from 225 to 320 mGy, and temperature fluctuations from -25 to +50°C, applied isolated or in combination. Comparable control experiments were performed on ground. After retrieval, viability of spores was analysed by two methods: (i) ethidium bromide staining and (ii) test of germination capability. About 30% of the spores in vacuum survived the space travel, if shielded against insolation. However, in most cases no significant decrease was observed for spores exposed in addition to the full spectrum of solar UV irradiation. As the spores were exposed in clusters, the outer layers of spores may have shielded the inner part. The results give some information about the likelihood of lithopanspermia, the natural transfer of micro-organisms between planets. In addition to the parameters of outer space, sojourn time in space seems to be one of the limiting parameters.

  11. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy among American-Indian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jamie; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Hanson, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Research has determined that the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur preconceptually, either by reducing alcohol intake in women planning pregnancy or at risk for becoming pregnant, or by preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One such AEP prevention programme with non-pregnant American-Indian (AI) women is…

  12. Maternal ability to take care of children exposed to HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyana Gomes Freitas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the ability of mothers to take care of children exposed to HIV, using the Assessment Scale of Care Skills for Children Exposed to HIV at Birth and to check the association between the scale dimensions and maternal characteristics. METHOD: this cross-sectional study involved 62 HIV+ mothers whose children of up to one year old had been exposed to the virus at birth. The Assessment Scale of Care Skills for Children Exposed to HIV at Birth consists of 52 items and five dimensions, indicating high, moderate or low care ability. RESULTS: 72.7% of the mothers appropriately offered zidovudine syrup; 86.0% were highly skilled to prepare and administer milk formula; 44.4% were moderately able to prepare and administer complementary feeding; 76.5% revealed high ability to administer prophylactic treatment against pneumonia and 95.3% demonstrated high abilities for clinical monitoring and immunization. Significant associations were found between some maternal variables and the scale dimensions. CONCLUSION: the scale permits the assessment of maternal care delivery to these children and the accomplishment of specific child health interventions.

  13. 3. cotrimoxazole prophylaxis compliance among hiv exposed infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    reported that their spouses knew about their HIV status and 65.7% said that they felt free to give their child cotrimoxazole in public.61.8% of the respondents did not know that there was a social support group for mothers/caretakers of HIV exposed infants in their community and 74.5% stated that there were misconceptions ...

  14. Rich Representations with Exposed Semantics for Deep Visual Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    of a relationship between visual recognition, associative processing, and episodic memory and provides important clues into the neural mechanism...provides critical evidence of a relationship between visual recognition, associative processing, and episodic memory and provides important clues into...From - To) ;run.- ~01~ Final!Technical 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Rich Representations with Exposed Semantics for Deep Visual

  15. Erosion of marker coatings exposed to Pilot-PSI plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paris, P.; Hakola, A.; Bystrov, K.; De Temmerman, G.; Aints, M.; I. Jõgi,; Kiisk, M.; Kozlova, J.; Laan, M.; Likonen, J.; Lissovski, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to study plasma-induced erosion processes. Samples with ITER-relevant coatings were exposed to controlled plasma fluxes whose parameters were characteristic to those occurring in the reactor walls. After the experiments,

  16. Identification of Surface Exposed Elementary Body Antigens of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to identify the surface exposed antigenic components of Cowdria ruminantium elementary body (EB) by biotin labeling, determine effect of reducing and non-reducing conditions and heat on the mobility of these antigens and their reactivity to antibodies from immunized animals by Western blotting.

  17. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Virus in People Exposed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was therefore undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in people who had been exposed to traditional surgical practices in Edo State, Nigeria. Sera from the subjects were tested for HCV antibodies using Clinotech Diagnostic test device supplied by Clinotech Diagnostic and ...

  18. Computed temperature profile in materials exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping, Tso Chin; Choong, Yap Siew; Seon, Chan Kam

    1987-06-01

    Computed temperature profiles are presented for the materials of lead, steel, concrete and water in curved shells, when they are exposed to gamma radiation. The results are based on the usual simplified theory of thermal conduction with an exponential heat source.

  19. Histopathology of the organs of Broiler Chickens exposed to flames ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathology of the organs of broiler chickens exposed to the flame and fumes of refined petroleum product kerosene at varying distances over a period of 16hrs daily for 56 days in a poultry house were evaluated. Kerosene burning was simulated in a designed burner. Kerosene flame in a designed burner was placed 4, ...

  20. Thyroidal angiogenesis in zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) exposed to high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a well known environmental contaminant, perchlorate inhibits thyroidal iodide uptake and reduces thyroid hormone levels. In zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to high concentrations of sodium perchlorate (200, 350 and 500 mg/L) for 10 days, remarkable angiogenesis was identified, not only histopathologically but also ...

  1. Management of Patients with Post- Traumatic Exposed Bones at Moi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The global frequency for open long bone fracture is at least 11.5 cases per 100,000 persons per year. Precise published research information regarding the characteristics and the management of patients with post- traumatic exposed bones for Africa, Kenya and Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital- Eldoret is ...

  2. Rapid Assessment of Anthropogenic Impacts of Exposed Sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We applied a rapid assessment methodology to estimate the degree of human impact of exposed sandy beaches in Ghana using ghost crabs as ecological indicators. The use of size ranges of ghost crab burrows and their population density as ecological indicators to assess extent of anthropogenic impacts on beaches ...

  3. Methane formation in tritium gas exposed to stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    Tests were performed to determine the effect cleanliness of a surface exposed to tritium gas had on methane formation. These tests performed on 304 stainless steel vessels, cleaned in various ways, showed that the methane formation was reduced by the use of various cleaning procedures

  4. 'Unicorn' among rats exposed to mycotoxins from Fusarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoental, R

    1983-05-01

    A horn-like nodule developed in the middle of the forehead of a white rat, exposed perinatally to T-2 toxin and to zearalenone, the secondary metabolites of Fusarium. The hard nodule consisted mainly of keratine, derived from a squamous carcinoma spreading through the nasal turbinals and invading the brain.

  5. Predictors of incident tuberculosis in HIV-exposed children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To examine the predictors of tuberculosis infection in HIV-exposed children. Design: A longitudinal cohort study nested within a randomised controlled trial. Setting: Antenatal clinics in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Subjects: Children born to 875 HIV-infected women in Tanzania. Results: A total of 82 children ...

  6. Equilibrium disorders in workers exposed to mixed solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgianni, Concetto; Tanzariello, Mariagiuseppina; De Pasquale, Domenico; Brecciaroli, Renato; Spatari, Giovanna

    2018-02-06

    Organic solvents cause diseases of the vestibular system. However, little is known regarding the correlation between vestibular damage and exposure to organic solvents below threshold limit values. The best measure by which to evaluate vestibular disorders is static and dynamic posturography. The aim of this study was to evaluate equilibrium disorders via static and dynamic posturography in workers without clear symptoms and exposed to low doses of mixed solvents. 200 subjects were selected. Using an Otometrics device (Madsen, Denmark), all subjects endured static and dynamic posturography testing with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Results were compared with a control group of unexposed individuals. Based on the obtained data, the following results can be drawn: (a) subjects exposed to mixtures of solvents show highly significant differences regarding all static and dynamic posturography parameters in comparison to the control group; (b) posturography testing has proven to be a valid means by which to detect subliminal equilibrium disorders in subjects exposed to solvents. We can confirm that refinery workers exposed to mixtures of solvents can present subliminal equilibrium disorders. Early diagnosis of the latter is made possible by static and dynamic posturography.

  7. Uranium in the tissue of occupationally exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, E.E.; McInroy, J.F.; Schulte, H.F.

    1975-04-01

    Data are presented on the content of uranium in tissue samples from deceased occupationally exposed uranium workers. Data on the distribution in lungs, lymph nodes, liver, kidneys, and bone tissues are correlated with available data on the urinary excretion of U during the period of occupational exposure. (CH)

  8. Clinical findings on in utero exposed microcephalic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabuchi, Akira; Hirai, Tsuyoshi; Nakagawa, Shigeru; Shimada, Katsunobu; Fujito, Junro

    1966-12-24

    Since animal experiments have shown that microcephaly is induced by fetal exposure to radiation and microcephaly has been found in children of mothers exposed to x-ray therapy during pregnancy (Murphy et al), the main cause of microcephaly in children exposed in utero to the A-bomb is considered to be ionizing radiation. Wood et al reported the increased incidence of microcephaly and mental retardation in children exposed in utero at proximal distances which they felt could not be attributed to any other known variable. ABCC has recently concluded that the effect of in utero exposure is primarily due to the immediate effect of radiation upon the fetuses although in A-bomb exposure the physical injury to the mother due to the A-bomb cannot be completely ignored. Our survey likewise revealed an increase of microcephaly in children exposed early in pregnancy at less than 15 weeks at closer distances than 1500 m. Thus, we presume that A-bomb radiation increases the incidence of microcephaly. 16 references, 8 tables.

  9. Protecting exposed tissues with external ultrasonic super-hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, Barry Neil

    2006-01-01

    The author contends that a technique preventing dehydration of exposed tissues, such as external ultrasonic super-hydration, will result in a lower morbidity rate, decreasing deep tissue pain, susceptibility to infection, fat necrosis, wound dehiscence, and improving recovery times. He discusses how he uses this technique in his aesthetic surgery practice.

  10. 46 CFR 108.223 - Guards on exposed equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... have hand covers, guards, or rails installed on all belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guards on exposed equipment. 108.223 Section 108.223 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN...

  11. Thyroidal angiogenesis in zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... As a well known environmental contaminant, perchlorate inhibits thyroidal iodide uptake and reduces thyroid hormone levels. In zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to high concentrations of sodium perchlorate (200, 350 and 500 mg/L) for 10 days, remarkable angiogenesis was identified, not only.

  12. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, A.; Peters, O.

    2009-01-01

    number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on

  13. Obstetric Outcomes of Mothers Previously Exposed to Sexual Violence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Gisladottir

    Full Text Available There is a scarcity of data on the association of sexual violence and women's subsequent obstetric outcomes. Our aim was to investigate whether women exposed to sexual violence as teenagers (12-19 years of age or adults present with different obstetric outcomes than women with no record of such violence.We linked detailed prospectively collected information on women attending a Rape Trauma Service (RTS to the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry (IBR. Women who attended the RTS in 1993-2010 and delivered (on average 5.8 years later at least one singleton infant in Iceland through 2012 formed our exposed cohort (n = 1068. For each exposed woman's delivery, nine deliveries by women with no RTS attendance were randomly selected from the IBR (n = 9126 matched on age, parity, and year and season of delivery. Information on smoking and Body mass index (BMI was available for a sub-sample (n = 792 exposed and n = 1416 non-exposed women. Poisson regression models were used to estimate Relative Risks (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CI.Compared with non-exposed women, exposed women presented with increased risks of maternal distress during labor and delivery (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.01-2.79, prolonged first stage of labor (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03-1.88, antepartum bleeding (RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.22-3.07 and emergency instrumental delivery (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.34. Slightly higher risks were seen for women assaulted as teenagers. Overall, we did not observe differences between the groups regarding the risk of elective cesarean section (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61-1.21, except for a reduced risk among those assaulted as teenagers (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.93. Adjusting for maternal smoking and BMI in a sub-sample did not substantially affect point estimates.Our prospective data suggest that women with a history of sexual assault, particularly as teenagers, are at increased risks of some adverse obstetric outcomes.

  14. Obstetric Outcomes of Mothers Previously Exposed to Sexual Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisladottir, Agnes; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Harlow, Bernard L; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Jonsdottir, Eyrun; Bjarnadottir, Ragnheidur I; Hauksdottir, Arna; Aspelund, Thor; Cnattingius, Sven; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A

    2016-01-01

    There is a scarcity of data on the association of sexual violence and women's subsequent obstetric outcomes. Our aim was to investigate whether women exposed to sexual violence as teenagers (12-19 years of age) or adults present with different obstetric outcomes than women with no record of such violence. We linked detailed prospectively collected information on women attending a Rape Trauma Service (RTS) to the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry (IBR). Women who attended the RTS in 1993-2010 and delivered (on average 5.8 years later) at least one singleton infant in Iceland through 2012 formed our exposed cohort (n = 1068). For each exposed woman's delivery, nine deliveries by women with no RTS attendance were randomly selected from the IBR (n = 9126) matched on age, parity, and year and season of delivery. Information on smoking and Body mass index (BMI) was available for a sub-sample (n = 792 exposed and n = 1416 non-exposed women). Poisson regression models were used to estimate Relative Risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared with non-exposed women, exposed women presented with increased risks of maternal distress during labor and delivery (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.01-2.79), prolonged first stage of labor (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03-1.88), antepartum bleeding (RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.22-3.07) and emergency instrumental delivery (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.34). Slightly higher risks were seen for women assaulted as teenagers. Overall, we did not observe differences between the groups regarding the risk of elective cesarean section (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61-1.21), except for a reduced risk among those assaulted as teenagers (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.93). Adjusting for maternal smoking and BMI in a sub-sample did not substantially affect point estimates. Our prospective data suggest that women with a history of sexual assault, particularly as teenagers, are at increased risks of some adverse obstetric outcomes.

  15. Measurement of DNA repair deficiency in workers exposed to benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, L.M.; Au, W.W.; El Zein, R.; Grossman, L.

    1996-01-01

    We hypothesize that chronic exposure to environmental toxicants can induce genetic damage causing DNA repair deficiencies and leading to the postulated mutator phenotype of carcinogenesis. To test our hypothesis, a host cell reactivation (HCR) assay was used in which pCMVcat plasmids were damaged with UV light (175, 350 J/m 2 UV light), inactivating the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene, and then transfected into lymphocytes. Transfected lymphocytes were therefore challenged to repair the damaged plasmids, reactivating the reporter gene. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Gaucher cell lines were used as positive and negative controls for the HCR assay. The Gaucher cell line repaired normally but XP cell lines demonstrated lower repair activity. Additionally, the repair activity of the XP heterozygous cell line showed intermediate repair compared to the homozygous XP and Gaucher cells. We used HCR to measure the effects of benzene exposure on 12 exposed and 8 nonexposed workers from a local benzene plant. Plasmids 175 J/m 2 and 350 J/m 2 were repaired with a mean frequency of 66% and 58%, respectively, in control workers compared to 71% and 62% in exposed workers. Conversely, more of the exposed workers were grouped into the reduced repair category than controls. These differences in repair capacity between exposed and control workers were, however, not statistically significant. The lack of significant differences between the exposed and control groups may be due to extremely low exposure to benzene (<0.3 ppm), small population size, or a lack of benzene genotoxicity at these concentrations. These results are consistent with a parallel hprt gene mutation assay. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Micronuclei frequency in albino rats exposed to high natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneesh, D.; Godwin Wesley, S.

    2013-01-01

    Genotoxicity and DNA damage endpoints are used to evaluate results in the context of cell survival. Genotoxicity in mammalian cells is monitored mostly by using cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. The score of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes can be used as a biomarker and also as a bio-dosimeter of radiation exposure. In the present study the effect of natural radiation on albino rats has been investigated, to find out if there is any increase in MN frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Animals at the age of 2-3 weeks were exposed to natural radiation, at the dose of 10.38 μGyh -1 for a period of 6 months. A parallel control set was also maintained (0.12 μGy h -1 '). Blood samples were collected from both test (exposed to natural radiation) and control rats. Lymphocyte culture was done following 'microculture techniques' for 72 h. Cytochalasin B, at a concentration of 6.0 μg/ml, was added to the lymphocyte cultures at 44 h to block cytokinesis. The frequency of MN was evaluated by scoring a total of 1000 binucleated (BN) cells from one slide. The frequency of MN among the rats exposed to natural radiation was found to be 1.83±0.05 per 1000 BN cells and in the control it was 1.82±0.07 per 1000 BN cells. No statistically significant difference in the MN frequencies of exposed and control groups (p>0.05) was seen. The lower MN frequency in natural radiation exposed rats could be an indication of adaptive response. (author)

  17. Increased gluconeogenesis in rats exposed to hyper-G stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daligcon, B.C.; Oyama, J.; Hannak, K.

    1985-01-01

    The role of gluconeogenesis on the increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen of rats exposed to hyper-G (radial acceleration) stress was determined. Overnight-fasted, male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were injected i.p. with uniformly labeled 14 C lactate, alanine, or glycerol (5 μCi/rat) and immediately exposed to 3.1 G for 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 hr. 14 C incorporation of the labeled substrates into plasma glucose and liver glycogen was measured and compared to noncentrifuged control rats injected in a similar manner. Significant increases in 14 C incorporation of all three labeled substrates into plasma glucose were observed in centrifuged rats at all exposure periods; 14 C incorporation into liver glycogen was significantly increased only at 0.50 and 1.0 hr. The i.p. administration (5 mg/100-g body wt) of 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid, a potent gluconeogenesis inhibitor, prior to centrifugation blocked the increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen during the first hour of centrifugation. The increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen was also abolished in adrenodemedullated rats exposed to centrifugation for 1.0 hr. Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker, suppressed the increase in plasma glucose of rats exposed to centrifugation for 0.25 hr. From the results of this study, it is concluded that the initial, rapid rise in plasma glucose as well as the increase in liver glycogen of rats exposed to hyper-G stress can be attributed to an increased rate of gluconeogenesis, and that epinephrine plays a dominant role during the early stages of exposure to centrifugation. 11 references, 3 tables

  18. Biological behaviour of buccal cells exposed to blue light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritsch, Kerstin; Ponsonnet, Laurence; Schembri, Catherine; Farge, Pierre; Pourreyron, Laurence; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    Blue light is used in dental practise to cure resin-based materials, but the path of the light often includes oral tissues such as gingival tissues. While adverse effects of blue light exposure on cells - such as retina cells - are well known, few studies have investigated the impact of blue light exposure on oral cells. The aim of the present in vitro study was to assess the biological effects of blue light emitted by two dental curing devices (a plasma-arc and a light-emitting diode curing unit) on human gingival fibroblasts. Light intensities and light-induced temperature rise were respectively measured with a radiometer and a thermocouple. Cellular response to blue light exposure was assessed by the observation of cell morphology (scanning electron microscopy) and the estimation of cell mitochondrial activity (MTT assay). Light intensities measured at the clinical distance were 488 ± 42 mW/cm 2 for the plasma-arc unit and ranged from 61 ± 5 to 140 ± 16 mW/cm 2 for the light-emitting diodes unit, according to the curing program used. The highest temperature rise was 0.5 and 3.5 deg. C for exposure to the plasma-arc light and to the light-emitting diodes light, respectively. Results showed no differences between exposed- and non-exposed cells in regards to cell morphology. However, cells exposed to blue light presented an increased mitochondrial activity compared to control cells (non-exposed), and mostly those exposed to plasma-arc light

  19. Are students exposed to tobacco smoke in German schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich, Joachim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate to which extent 6th grade school children are exposed to tobacco smoke by others. As biomarker for the exposure to tobacco smoke nicotine and cotinine were measured in the urine. Our study population consisted of 771 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years who according to a questionnaire did not smoke. In addition we analysed the data of 459 school children who were not exposed to tobacco smoke at home. The nicotine and cotinine concentrations in the spontaneous urine sample were determined by HPLC methods.On average in about 20% of all non-smoking children, who were not exposed to tobacco smoke at home, biomarker (nicotine or cotinine were detected in the urine. The percentage of the detected biomarker values (nicotine and/or cotinine in the urine of the school children varied between 0% and 50% between schools. In addition we determined the proportion of smoking classmates per school. No positive association was found between the detected biomarker values of the non-smoking school children not exposed to tobacco smoke at home and the proportion of smokers per school. The concentration of biomarker depending on the time of day the urine samples were collected showed higher nicotine and cotinine values when the urine sample was collected between 10 and 12 o'clock in the morning compared to urine samples collected between 7 and 10 a.m.In spite of the limitations our study provides some evidence that children are exposed involuntarily to tobacco smoke by others at school. That is why our results support the requirement of a general legal ban on smoking for teachers, the school staff and students.

  20. Cancer risk in men exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohsnitter, W C; Noller, K L; Hoover, R N; Robboy, S J; Palmer, J R; Titus-Ernstoff, L; Kaufman, R H; Adam, E; Herbst, A L; Hatch, E E

    2001-04-04

    An association between prenatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure and cancer in men, especially testicular cancer, has been suspected, but findings from case-control studies have been inconsistent. This study was conducted to investigate the association between prenatal DES exposure and cancer risk in men via prospective follow-up. A total of 3613 men whose prenatal DES exposure status was known were followed from 1978 through 1994. The overall and site-specific cancer incidence rates among the DES-exposed men were compared with those of the unexposed men in the study and with population-based rates. The relative rate (RR) was used to assess the strength of the association between prenatal DES exposure and cancer development. All statistical tests were two-sided. Overall cancer rates among DES-exposed men were similar to those among unexposed men (RR = 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.58 to 1.96) and to national rates (RR = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.65 to 1.44). Testicular cancer may be elevated among DES-exposed men, since the RRs for testicular cancer were 3.05 (95% CI = 0.65 to 22.0) times those of unexposed men in the study and 2.04 (95% CI = 0.82 to 4.20) times those of males in the population-based rates. The higher rate of testicular cancer in the DES-exposed men is, however, also compatible with a chance observation. To date, men exposed to DES in utero do not appear to have an increased risk of most cancers. It remains uncertain, however, whether prenatal DES exposure is associated with testicular cancer.

  1. Nematopsis temporariae (Gregarinasina, Apicomplexa, Alveolata) is an intracellular infectious agent of tadpole livers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chambouvet, A.; Valigurová, A.; Pinheiro, L. M.; Richards, T.A.; Jirků, Miloslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2016), s. 675-679 ISSN 1758-2229 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : phylogeny * eukaryotes * parasites * declines * disease Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 3.363, year: 2016

  2. Nutritional Status among the Children of Age Group 5-14 Years in Selected Arsenic Exposed and Non-Exposed Areas of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess and compare the nutritional status of children aged 5-14 years in arsenic exposed and non- exposed areas.It was a cross sectional study conducted on 600 children of age 5-14 years from arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas in Bangladesh. Designed questionnaire and check list were used for collection of data. To estimate BMI necessary anthropometric measurements of the studied children were done. Dietary intakes of the study children were assessed using 24-hours recall method.The difference of socio-economic conditions between the children of exposed area and non-exposed area was not significant. On an average the body mass index was found to be significantly (p < 0.01 lower among the children of arsenic exposed area (49% in comparison to that of children in non-exposed area (38%. Stunting (p < 0.01, wasting (p < 0.05 and underweight (p < 0.05 were significantly higher in exposed group in comparison to non-exposed group. No significant difference of nutrition intake was found between exposed and non-exposed children as well as thin and normal children.In this study children exposed to arsenic contaminated water were found to be suffered from lower nutritional status.

  3. Nutritional Status among the Children of Age Group 5-14 Years in Selected Arsenic Exposed and Non-Exposed Areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaul Karim, Mohammad; Ahmad, Sk Akhtar

    2014-12-01

    To assess and compare the nutritional status of children aged 5-14 years in arsenic exposed and non- exposed areas. It was a cross sectional study conducted on 600 children of age 5-14 years from arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas in Bangladesh. Designed questionnaire and check list were used for collection of data. To estimate BMI necessary anthropometric measurements of the studied children were done. Dietary intakes of the study children were assessed using 24-hours recall method. The difference of socio-economic conditions between the children of exposed area and non-exposed area was not significant. On an average the body mass index was found to be significantly (p < 0.01) lower among the children of arsenic exposed area (49%) in comparison to that of children in non-exposed area (38%). Stunting (p < 0.01), wasting (p < 0.05) and underweight (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in exposed group in comparison to non-exposed group. No significant difference of nutrition intake was found between exposed and non-exposed children as well as thin and normal children. In this study children exposed to arsenic contaminated water were found to be suffered from lower nutritional status.

  4. Chest X ray examination of workers exposed to pneumoconiosis risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indovina, P.L.; Reggiani, A.; Calicchia, A.; Nicolosi, A.

    1986-01-01

    Chest X-ray examination of workers exposed to pneumoconiosis risk: critical analysis of legal and radiation protection aspects. Chest X-ray examination is one of the most common radiological examinations practised in Italy. According to Presidential Decree 1124/65, workers exposed to risk of asbestosis and silicosis must undergo a chest radiography once a year, on occasion of the periodic medical examination. Basic requirements aimed at the radiation protection of the patient must therefore be complied with, and optimization of the chest radiography execution procedures is required. This paper illustrates the results obtained with the implementation of the NEXT programme in Italy for this kind of X-ray examination. The main objective of the NEXT programme is the optimization of radiological techniques. On the basis of the most recent publications in the field of radiation protection, a critical analysis is made of the laws in force in Italy

  5. Mental health interventions for children exposed to disasters and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe interventions used with children who are exposed to disasters and terrorism and to present information about the potential benefits of these interventions. A literature search conducted in January 2013 using relevant databases and literature known to the authors that was not generated by the search yielded a total of 85 studies appropriate for review. Intervention approaches used with children exposed to disasters and terrorism included preparedness interventions, psychological first aid, psychological debriefing, psychoeducation, cognitive behavioral techniques, exposure and narrative techniques, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and traumatic grief interventions. The investigation of these interventions is complex, and studies varied in methodological rigor (e.g., sample size, the use of control groups, outcomes measured). Given the limitations in the currently available empirical information, this review integrates the literature, draws tentative conclusions about the current state of knowledge, and suggests future directions for study.

  6. Structural analysis of osseous rests exposed to heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, C.; Tiesler, V.; Quintana, P.; Oliva, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    Heat exposed human remains present physical and chemical changes that, when analysed, may provide important indications about the type of heating they were exposed. This information, jointly with that of the archaeological context, allows us to know about the cultural practices of the past from a methodological perspective that actually, has not been explored sufficiently. The present investigation applies a series of structural parameters of bone in the evaluation of skeletal sample from the archaeological site of Calakmul, which exhibits signs of thermal exposure. Results on the Pre hispanic specimens are compared to those obtained from an experimental series of animal bone, which was submitted to different types of heat with the objective to contribute with new data on the forms of heating and their role in ancient Maya society. (Author)

  7. Genomic damage in children accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fucic, A; Brunborg, G; Lasan, R

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, our knowledge of the mechanisms by which children respond to exposures to physical and chemical agents present in the environment, has significantly increased. Results of recent projects and programmes focused on children's health underline a specific vulnerability of chil...... and efficient preventive measures, by means of a better knowledge of the early and delayed health effects in children resulting from radiation exposure....... of children to environmental genotoxicants. Environmental research on children predominantly investigates the health effects of air pollution while effects from radiation exposure deserve more attention. The main sources of knowledge on genome damage of children exposed to radiation are studies performed...... after the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident in 1986. The present review presents and discusses data collected from papers analyzing genome damage in children environmentally exposed to ionizing radiation. Overall, the evidence from the studies conducted following the Chernobyl accident, nuclear tests...

  8. Chromosome aberrations in pesticide-exposed greenhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, B F; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Gamborg, M O

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of subtoxic exposure to pesticides causing chromosome aberrations in greenhouse workers. METHODS: In a cross-sectional and prospective study design chromosome aberration frequencies in cultured lymphocytes were examined for 116...... greenhouse workers exposed to a complex mixture of almost 50 insecticides, fungicides, and growth regulators and also for 29 nonsmoking, nonpesticide-exposed referents. RESULTS: The preseason frequencies of chromosome aberrations were slightly but not statistically significantly elevated for the greenhouse...... workers when they were compared with the referents. After a summer season of pesticide spraying in the greenhouses, the total frequencies of cells with chromosome aberrations were significantly higher than in the preseason samples (P=0.02) and also higher than for the referents (P=0.05). This finding...

  9. Granulocytes enzymes as a biomarker of radiotoxicity in exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milacic, S.; Jovicic, D.; Tanaskovic, I.; Marinkovic, O.; Milacic, S.)

    2007-01-01

    When radionuclide reaches the organism it causes internal irradiation and the lesions may be long lasting in various tissues. Enzymes in leukocytes will be used as a biomarkers of contamination with radio-nuclide in nuclear medicine workers. The analysed group had been consisted of 74 workers, exposed to radioactive isotopes J 131 and mTc 99 in nuclear medicine. Duration of occupational exposure (DOE) varied, so the groups with DOE of 1-5, 6-15, and 16-30 years, were compared to one another. The control group consisted of 52 subjects exposed to radionuclides (Cs 137 ) from environmental. Alkaline phosphatases and myeloperoxidase activity were inhibited in the granulocytes. The neutrophilic granulocytes count was lower while the number of eosinophils was higher

  10. Cytogenetic study of in utero exposed individuals, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Masahiro; Honda, Takeo

    1986-11-01

    In 20 persons exposed in uterus to atomic radiation, chromosomes in the peripheral lymphocytes were examined using G-band differential staining and conventional Giemsa staining techniques. The subjects were divided into Group A of the mothers receiving 17 - 535 rad and Group B of the mothers receiving 0 rad. Chromosome aberrations were observed in 72 (5%) of 1,463 cells in Group A and in 19 (1%) of 1503 cells in Group B. Most of the chromosome aberrations were stable type involving translocation, inversion, and deletion. In one person whose mother was exposed to 453 rad, structural chromosome aberrations were observed in 53 (38%) of 141 cells. Furthermore, 11 cells had two kinds of clones. This finding may provide clues for elucidating the promotion of cloning of cells with stable type structural chromosome aberrations due to in uterus exposure to high doses of atomic radiation. (Namekawa, K.).

  11. Cytogenetic study of in utero exposed individuals, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Masahiro; Honda, Takeo

    1986-01-01

    In 20 persons exposed in uterus to atomic radiation, chromosomes in the peripheral lymphocytes were examined using G-band differential staining and conventional Giemsa staining techniques. The subjects were divided into Group A of the mothers receiving 17 - 535 rad and Group B of the mothers receiving 0 rad. Chromosome aberrations were observed in 72 (5 %) of 1,463 cells in Group A and in 19 (1 %) of 1503 cells in Group B. Most of the chromosome aberrations were stable type involving translocation, inversion, and deletion. In one person whose mother was exposed to 453 rad, structural chromosome aberrations were observed in 53 (38 %) of 141 cells. Furthermore, 11 cells had two kinds of clones. This finding may provide clues for elucidating the promotion of cloning of cells with stable type structural chromosome aberrations due to in uterus exposure to high doses of atomic radiation. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. English exposed common mistakes made by Chinese speakers

    CERN Document Server

    Hart, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Having analysed the most common English errors made in over 600 academic papers written by Chinese undergraduates, postgraduates, and researchers, Steve Hart has written an essential, practical guide specifically for the native Chinese speaker on how to write good academic English. English Exposed: Common Mistakes Made by Chinese Speakers is divided into three main sections. The first section examines errors made with verbs, nouns, prepositions, and other grammatical classes of words. The second section focuses on problems of word choice. In addition to helping the reader find the right word, it provides instruction for selecting the right style too. The third section covers a variety of other areas essential for the academic writer, such as using punctuation, adding appropriate references, referring to tables and figures, and selecting among various English date and time phrases. Using English Exposed will allow a writer to produce material where content and ideas-not language mistakes-speak the loudest.

  13. Personality and psychopathological profiles in individuals exposed to mobbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Paolo; Monaco, Edoardo; Prestigiacomo, Claudio; Talamo, Alessandra; Ruberto, Amedeo; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, mental health and medical professionals have been asked to assess claims of psychological harm arising from harassment at the workplace, or "mobbing." This study assessed the personality and psychopathological profiles of 146 individuals exposed to mobbing using validity, clinical, and content scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2. Profiles and factor analyses were obtained. Two major dimensions emerged among those exposed to mobbing: (a) depressed mood, difficulty in making decisions, change-related anguish, and passive-aggressive traits (b) somatic symptoms, and need for attention and affection. This cross-sectional pilot study provides evidence that personality profiles of mobbing victims and psychological damage resulting from mobbing may be evaluated using standardized assessments, though a longitudinal study is needed to delineate cause-and-effect relationships.

  14. Corrosion of beryllium exposed to celotex and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.A.; Butt, D.P.; Lillard, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Celotex is a commercial rigid cellulose fiberboard product primarily used in the building construction industry. Currently celotex is being used as a packing material in AL-R8 containers. Ion chromatography of celotex packing material at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has indicated that this material contains aggressive anions, including chloride, which may accelerate corrosion. It is well known that beryllium is susceptible to pitting corrosion when exposed to chloride containing environments. Levy noted pitting in beryllium at the open circuit potential when exposed to 0.1 M NaCl solution. This investigation attempts to evaluate the potential risk of accelerated beryllium corrosion from celotex and water which may occur naturally when celotex dust comes into contact with moisture from the atmosphere

  15. Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Quvang Harck

    This thesis “Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes” evaluates the performance of existing types of structures when exposed to climate changes. This includes also the potential of using cost‐sharing multipurpose structures for protection against the effects of future...... climate changes. The thesis consists of three parts. The first part evaluates the performance of existing design formulae for estimation of wave actions on structures, especially in shallow water since these structures are most vulnerable to the rising sea water levels caused by climate changes. Existing...... of coastal protection structures, which are extended to a wider range of wave conditions, and which can be used to more accurately estimate the influence from climate changes. In the second part of the thesis, the extended and modified formulae are used in case studies to evaluate the influence from climate...

  16. Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Quvang Harck

    This thesis "Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes" evaluates the performance of existing types of structures when exposed to climate changes. This includes also the potential of using cost‐sharing multipurpose structures for protection against the effects of future...... climate changes. The thesis consists of three parts. The first part evaluates the performance of existing design formulae for estimation of wave actions on structures, especially in shallow water since these structures are most vulnerable to the rising sea water levels caused by climate changes. Existing...... of coastal protection structures, which are extended to a wider range of wave conditions, and which can be used to more accurately estimate the influence from climate changes. In the second part of the thesis, the extended and modified formulae are used in case studies to evaluate the influence from climate...

  17. Warfarin binding to plasma of workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, K.; Shapiro, R.; Forney, R.B. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The extent of (14)C-warfarin binding to plasma proteins was evaluated in a group of normal, healthy volunteers and in two groups of individuals occupationally exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI). Plasma binding was assessed by ultrafiltration after the addition of racemic (14)C-warfarin to a final concentration of 0.8 microgram/ml. Chronic occupational exposure to TDI did not affect the extent of warfarin binding since warfarin free fractions (normalized to an albumin concentration of 4.5 g/dl) were 1.09 +/- 0.23 (mean +/- SD), 0.98 +/- 0.19, and 0.97 +/- 0.15 for controls and the two groups of TDI-exposed individuals, respectively.

  18. Immunotoxic effects of iodine-131 in prenatally exposed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.A.; Stevens, R.H.; Lindholm, P.A.; Cheng, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    Present results suggest that offspring exposed in utero to radioactive iodine-131 develop a measureable cell-mediated immune (CMI) response. Regnant Fischer F344 inbred rats were exposed to 370 kBg to 3.7 MBg (10 to 100 μCi) Na 131I on 16 to 18 days of gestation and evaluated for CMI responsiveness 2 to 3 months post exposure using an 125I radiolabeled membrane release assay. Current data suggest that not only the F1, but also the F2 pups develop a measureable CMI response. In order to determine whether other immune functions are altered studies have been initiated to evaluate the immunotoxic effect of prenatal exposure to 131I. These studies include the evaluation of the delayed hypersensitivity response and the blastogenic responses to phytoheemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and lipopolysaccharide

  19. Studies on health risks to persons exposed to plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.; Stebbings, J.H. Jr.; Healy, J.W.; Hempelmann, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Two studies on Los Alamos workers exposed to plutonium have shown no increase in cancers of the lung, bone, and liver, three principal cancers of interest following plutonium deposition. A clinical study of 26 workers exposed 32 years ago shows no cases of cancer other than two skin cancers that were excised successfully. A mortality study of 224 workers, all persons with estimated deposition of 10 nCi or moe in 1974, showed no excess of mortality due to any cause. No bone or liver cancers were present, while one death due to lung cancer was observed as compared to an expected three cases. These negative findings on such small groups are not able to prove or disprove the validity of commonly used risk estimates as recommended in the 1972 BEIR and 1977 UNSCEAR reports, but the data do indicate that much higher risk estimates are not warranted

  20. Studies on health risks to persons exposed to plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelz, G.L.; Stebbings, J.H. Jr.; Healy, J.W.; Hempelmann, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Two studies on Los Alamos workers exposed to plutonium have shown no increase in cancers of the lung, bone, and liver, three principal cancers of interest following plutonium deposition. A clinical study of 26 workers exposed 32 years ago shows no cases of cancer other than two skin cancers that were excised successfully. A mortality study of 224 workers, all persons with estimated deposition of 10 nCi or moe in 1974, showed no excess of mortality due to any cause. No bone or liver cancers were present, while one death due to lung cancer was observed as compared to an expected three cases. These negative findings on such small groups are not able to prove or disprove the validity of commonly used risk estimates as recommended in the 1972 BEIR and 1977 UNSCEAR reports, but the data do indicate that much higher risk estimates are not warranted.

  1. Potential contribution of exposed resin to ecosystem emissions of monoterpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Allyson S. D.; Harley, Peter; Monson, Russell K.

    2013-10-01

    Conifers, especially pines, produce and store under pressure monoterpene-laden resin in canals located throughout the plant. When the plants are damaged and resin canals punctured, the resin is exuded and the monoterpenes are released into the atmosphere, a process that has been shown to influence ecosystem-level monoterpene emissions. Less attention has been paid to the small amounts of resin that are exuded from branches, expanding needles, developing pollen cones, and terminal buds in the absence of any damage. The goal of this study was to provide the first estimate of the potential of this naturally-exposed resin to influence emissions of monoterpenes from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) ecosystems. When resin is first exuded as small spherical beads from undamaged tissues it emits monoterpenes to the atmosphere at a rate that is four orders of magnitude greater than needle tissue with an equivalent exposed surface area and the emissions from exuded beads decline exponentially as the resin dries. We made measurements of resin beads on the branches of ponderosa pine trees in the middle of the growing season and found, on average, 0.15 cm2 of exposed resin bead surface area and 1250 cm2 of total needle surface area per branch tip. If the resin emerged over the course of 10 days, resin emissions would make up 10% of the ecosystem emissions each day. Since we only accounted for exposed resin at a single point in time, this is probably an underestimate of how much total resin is exuded from undamaged pine tissues over the course of a growing season. Our observations, however, reveal the importance of this previously unrecognized source of monoterpenes emitted from pine forests and its potential to influence regional atmospheric chemistry dynamics.

  2. Examination of respiratory tract in workers occupationally exposed to beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cianciara, M.; Swiatkowski, J.

    1989-01-01

    In a group (30) occupationally exposed to beryllium below the Maximum Allowed Concentration, deviations from the norm were found in 13% of chest x rays and impairments of lung ventilatory reserves in 46%. The low intensity and non-specific character of the changes did not allow confirmation of connection with occupational exposure. Radiological examination of the lungs, expanded functional testing of the respiratory system and measurements of blood gases are recommended to identify workers with respiratory changes at an early stage. (UK)

  3. Haemogram of adult Clarias gariepinus exposed to chronic levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clarias gariepinus (mean weight, 850 ± 60 g) mean length, 38.75 ± 6.7 cm) were exposed individually to four concentrations of Roundup, containing 360g/l glyphosate in the form of 480g/l isopropylamine salt (1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 mg/l) and a control (0 mg/l), five replicates per concentration for 70 days in static renewal ...

  4. Limit State of Trapezoidal Metal Sheets Exposed to Concentrated Load

    OpenAIRE

    Kateřina Jurdová

    2013-01-01

    In most industrial compounds are used trapezoidal metal sheets like a roof decks. These trapezoidal metal sheets are exposed by concentrated loads, usually by service loads arise from installation of air distribution, sanitary distribution, sprinkler system or wiring installation. In objects of public facilities (like shopping centre, tennis hall, etc.) they can be used for hanging advertising posters etc, too. These systems work as “building kit”. These anchoring systems are represented by c...

  5. Toxicity of lunar dust assessed in inhalation-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chiu-wing; Scully, Robert R; Zhang, Ye; Renne, Roger A; Hunter, Robert L; McCluskey, Richard A; Chen, Bean T; Castranova, Vincent; Driscoll, Kevin E; Gardner, Donald E; McClellan, Roger O; Cooper, Bonnie L; McKay, David S; Marshall, Linda; James, John T

    2013-10-01

    Humans will again set foot on the moon. The moon is covered by a layer of fine dust, which can pose a respiratory hazard. We investigated the pulmonary toxicity of lunar dust in rats exposed to 0, 2.1, 6.8, 20.8 and 60.6 mg/m(3) of respirable-size lunar dust for 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week); the aerosols in the nose-only exposure chambers were generated from a jet-mill ground preparation of a lunar soil collected during the Apollo 14 mission. After 4 weeks of exposure to air or lunar dust, groups of five rats were euthanized 1 day, 1 week, 4 weeks or 13 weeks after the last exposure for assessment of pulmonary toxicity. Biomarkers of toxicity assessed in bronchoalveolar fluids showed concentration-dependent changes; biomarkers that showed treatment effects were total cell and neutrophil counts, total protein concentrations and cellular enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, glutamyl transferase and aspartate transaminase). No statistically significant differences in these biomarkers were detected between rats exposed to air and those exposed to the two low concentrations of lunar dust. Dose-dependent histopathology, including inflammation, septal thickening, fibrosis and granulomas, in the lung was observed at the two higher exposure concentrations. No lesions were detected in rats exposed to ≤6.8 mg/m(3). This 4-week exposure study in rats showed that 6.8 mg/m(3) was the highest no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL). These results will be useful for assessing the health risk to humans of exposure to lunar dust, establishing human exposure limits and guiding the design of dust mitigation systems in lunar landers or habitats.

  6. Under-exposed. And if radiations were good for you?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2016-01-01

    This book is in fact a synthesis of an American publication (Under-Exposed). The author, with its characteristic style, aims at giving a positive perception of nuclear energy, at denying catastrophist speeches on nuclear energy, and more particularly on radioactivity: low doses are not dangerous, and even can be useful for our health and well-being, notably in many spa resorts. Thus, he also aims at struggling against what he considers as an ecological obscurantism

  7. Environmental Monitoring Of Microbiological Laboratory: Expose Plate Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahaya Talib; Othman Mahmud; Noraisyah Mohd Yusof; Asmah Mohibat; Muhamad Syazwan Zulkifli

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of microorganism is important and conducted regularly on environment of microbiological laboratory at Medical Technology Division. Its objective is to ensure the quality of working environment is maintained according to microbial contamination, consequently to assure the quality of microbiological tests. This paper presents report of environmental monitoring since year 2007. The test involved was bacterial colony counts after the growth media was exposed to air at identified location. (author)

  8. End stage renal disease among ceramic workers exposed to silica

    OpenAIRE

    Rapiti, E.; Sperati, A.; Miceli, M.; Forastiere, F.; Di, L; Cavariani, F.; Goldsmith, D. F.; Perucci, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether ceramic workers exposed to silica experience an excess of end stage renal disease. METHODS: On the basis of a health surveillance programme, a cohort of 2980 male ceramic workers has been enrolled during the period 1974-91 in Civitacastellana, Lazio, Italy. For each worker, employment history, smoking data, and x ray film readings were available. The vital status was ascertained for all cohort members. All 2820 people still alive and resident in the Lazio...

  9. Humidity Buildup in Electronic Enclosures Exposed to Constant Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Staliulionis, Zygimantas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2017-01-01

    Electronic components and devices are exposed to a wide variety of climatic conditions, therefore the protection of electronic devices from humidity is becoming a critical factor in the system design. The ingress of moisture into typical electronic enclosures has been studied with defined paramet....... The moisture buildup inside the enclosure has been simulated using an equivalent RC circuit consisting of variables like controlled resistors and capacitors to describe the diffusivity, permeability, and storage in polymers....

  10. Analysis of uranium in urine of persons occupationaly exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    A technique of uranium analysis in urine of persons occupationaly exposed, using the fluorimetric method is proposed. Two procedures for the determination are presented: the first employs platinum dishes, obtaining a detection limit of 1 ppb and the second one, using aluminium dishes, shows a detection limit of 100 ppb. Uranium and urine physico-chemical characteristics are described, as well as norms for the exposition of workers to uranium. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. Urine mutagenicity of steel workers exposed to coke oven emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Meo, M.P.; Dumenil, G.; Botta, A.H.; Laget, M.; Zabaloueff, V.; Mathias, A.

    1987-03-01

    Urine mutagenicity of 19 individuals was investigated at a steel mill. All the subjects worked on the coal processing unit. Urine samples were collected at the end of a working day. Urine samples of two exposed workers were collected at the end of two periods of rest and two periods of working. Mutagens were extracted on XAD-2 resin and tested by the Salmonella microsomal assay and the SOS spot test. Mutagenic potencies of exposed smokers and exposed non-smokers were 8.62 +/- 6.56 and 1.1 +/- 0.48 revertants/mg creatinine respectively with Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 + S9. Both values were significantly higher than those of unexposed smokers and non-smokers (5.07 +/- 3.33 and 0.47 +/- 0.72 revertants/mg creatinine respectively). The urinary mutagenic potency of the two exposed individuals increased at the end of periods of working (15.97 +/- 2.57 revertants/mg creatinine) and decreased at the end of periods of rest (12.31 +/- 2.45 revertants/mg creatinine). Urinary mutagens were detected with S. typhimurium strain TA100 + S9 to a lesser extent. No direct-acting mutagens were detected by the SOS spot test. Atmospheric benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were also measured by h.p.l.c. on the coke battery. BaP concentrations ranged between 0.01 and 0.6 microgram/m3 air at the different working sites. Biological monitoring with short-term tests is discussed.

  12. Children exposed to domestic violences assessment and psychopathology /

    OpenAIRE

    Olaya Guzmán, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: 17-06-2010 Exposure to domestic violence is a current, complex concern with negative aftermath on the child's mental health. Aim: to answer the following questions about the effects that this exposure has on children's mental health: a) what should be assessed; b) what kind of psychopathology do outpatient exposed children have; c) which characteristics of the situation are more influential; and d) what is the role of parenting styles. Method: A retrospective cohort ...

  13. Entanglement witnesses arising from exposed positive linear maps

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Kil-Chan; Kye, Seung-Hyeok

    2011-01-01

    We consider entanglement witnesses arising from positive linear maps which generate exposed extremal rays. We show that every entanglement can be detected by one of these witnesses, and this witness detects a unique set of entanglement among those. Therefore, they provide a minimal set of witnesses to detect all entanglement in a sense. Furthermore, if those maps are indecomposable then they detect large classes of entanglement with positive partial transposes which have nonempty relative int...

  14. Behavior of cardiac variables in animals exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alberto Rupp de Paiva

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the behavior of cardiac variables in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. METHODS: Two groups of Wistar rats were studied as follows: control group (C, comprising 28 animals; and smoking group (S, comprising 23 animals exposed to cigarette smoke for 30 days. Left ventricular cardiac function was assessed in vivo with transthoracic echocardiography, and myocardial performance was analyzed in vitro in preparations of isolated left ventricular papillary muscle. The cardiac muscle was assessed in isometric contractions with an extracellular calcium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L. RESULTS: No statistical difference was observed in the values of the body variables of the rats and in the mechanical data obtained from the papillary muscle between the control and smoking groups. The values of left ventricular systolic diameter were significantly greater in the smoking animals than in the control animals (C= 3.39 ± 0.4 mm and S= 3.71 ± 0.51 mm, P=0.02. A significant reduction was observed in systolic shortening fraction (C= 56.7 ± 4.2% and S= 53.5 ± 5.3%, P=0.02 and in ejection fraction (C= 0.92 ± 0.02 and S= 0.89 ± 0.04, P=0.01. CONCLUSION: The rats exposed to cigarette smoke had a reduction in left ventricular systolic function, although their myocardial function was preserved.

  15. Increased oxidative stress in infants exposed to passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Ali; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of passive cigarette smoking on the oxidative and anti-oxidative status of plasma in infants. Eighty-four infants aged 6-28 weeks were divided into two groups: the study group included infants who had been exposed to passive smoking via at least five cigarettes per day for at least the past 6 weeks at home, while the control group included infants who had never been exposed to passive smoking. The antioxidative status of plasma was assessed by the measurement of individual antioxidant components: vitamin C, albumin, bilirubin, uric acid, thiol contents and total antioxidant capacity (TAC 1 and TAC 2). Oxidative status was assessed by the determination of total peroxide levels and the oxidative stress index (OSI 1 and OSI 2). Plasma vitamin C, thiol concentration and TAC 1 and TAC 2 levels were significantly lower, whereas plasma total peroxide levels and OSI 1 and OSI 2 were significantly higher, in passive smoking infants than in the controls (Pantioxidant defence system in infants, and exposes them to potent oxidative stress.

  16. Differential cardiac effects in rats exposed to atmospheric ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of this study demonstrate that atmospheric smog generated from both isoprene and toluene cause cardiac effects in rats. In addition, it appears that smog from toluene is more toxic in terms of cardiac arrhythmogenicity. Smog, which is a complex mixture of particulate matter and gaseous irritants (ozone, sulfur dioxide, reactive aldehydes), as well as components which react with sunlight to form secondary pollutants, has recently been linked to increased risk of adverse cardiac responses. The components, and therefore health effects, of atmospheric smog are determined by the fuel used to generate them. In this study we examined the difference between isoprene- and toluene-generated smog in causing cardiac effects in rats and hypothesized that both atmospheres would cause cardiac electrical and functional changes in rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were exposed to either atmospheric smog generated by the USEPA’s mobile reaction chamber using either isoprene or toluene, or filtered air for four hours. One day later, rats were anesthetized and left ventricular functional responses to dobutamine were measured using a Millar probe and arrhythmia sensitivity to aconitine. Baseline left ventricular pressure (LVP) was lower in toluene-exposed animals but not isoprene when compared to air. Increases in LVP with increasing doses of dobutamine were impaired only in toluene-exposed rats. Both isoprene and toluene impaired the rate of ventri

  17. Preventive medical programmes to personnel exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada F, E.

    1996-01-01

    The increasing use of ionizing radiation in the medical field as well as in industry and research grants has special importance to the security aspects related to the individual as well as his surroundings, reason for which the implementation of effective Occupational Radiation Protection Programmes constitutes a priority. Presently, in Guatemala, an Occupational Medicine Programme, directed to the Radiosanitary watch over of occupationally exposed personnel does not exist. It is the goal in this project to organize and establish such programme, based on protective and training actions focused toward the employee as the main entity, his specific activities and his work surroundings. Medical watch over together with Radiation Protection will permit the reduction of the occurrence probability of accidents or incidents, as well as the limitation of stochastic effects to the undermost values. The application scope of the present project is, in the first place, directed to the occupationally exposed personnel of the Direcci[n General de Energ[a Nuclear, as regulatory entity of these activities, and afterwards, its application in the different institutions which work with ionizing radiations. All the previously exposed is based on the Nuclear Legislation prevailing in Guatemala as well as the recommendations of international organizations. (author)

  18. Rapid genetic erosion in pollutant-exposed experimental chironomid populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Carsten [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: cnowak@senckenberg.de; Vogt, Christian [Abteilung Aquatische Okotoxikologie, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: vogt@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Pfenninger, Markus [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: pfenninger@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Schwenk, Klaus [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: k.schwenk@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Oehlmann, Joerg [Abteilung Aquatische Okotoxikologie, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: oehlmann@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Streit, Bruno [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: streit@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Oetken, Matthias [Abteilung Aquatische Okotoxikologie, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: oetken@bio.uni-frankfurt.de

    2009-03-15

    Few studies have evaluated how effectively environmental contamination may reduce genetic diversity of a population. Here, we chose a laboratory approach in order to test if tributyltin (TBT) exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations leads to reduced genetic variation in the midge Chironomus riparius. Two TBT-exposed and two unexposed experimental populations were reared simultaneously in the laboratory for 12 generations. We recorded several life-history traits in each generation and monitored genetic variation over time using five variable microsatellite markers. TBT-exposed strains showed increased larval mortality (treatments: 43.8%; controls: 27.8%), slightly reduced reproductive output, and delayed larval development. Reduction of genetic variation was strongest and only significant in the TBT-exposed strains (treatments: -45.9%, controls: -24.4% of initial heterozygosity) after 12 generations. Our findings document that chemical pollution may lead to a rapid decrease in genetic diversity, which has important implications for conservation strategies and ecological management in polluted environments. - Chronic TBT exposure reduces allelic variation at five variable microsatellite loci in experimental populations of Chironomus riparius.

  19. Rapid genetic erosion in pollutant-exposed experimental chironomid populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Carsten; Vogt, Christian; Pfenninger, Markus; Schwenk, Klaus; Oehlmann, Joerg; Streit, Bruno; Oetken, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated how effectively environmental contamination may reduce genetic diversity of a population. Here, we chose a laboratory approach in order to test if tributyltin (TBT) exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations leads to reduced genetic variation in the midge Chironomus riparius. Two TBT-exposed and two unexposed experimental populations were reared simultaneously in the laboratory for 12 generations. We recorded several life-history traits in each generation and monitored genetic variation over time using five variable microsatellite markers. TBT-exposed strains showed increased larval mortality (treatments: 43.8%; controls: 27.8%), slightly reduced reproductive output, and delayed larval development. Reduction of genetic variation was strongest and only significant in the TBT-exposed strains (treatments: -45.9%, controls: -24.4% of initial heterozygosity) after 12 generations. Our findings document that chemical pollution may lead to a rapid decrease in genetic diversity, which has important implications for conservation strategies and ecological management in polluted environments. - Chronic TBT exposure reduces allelic variation at five variable microsatellite loci in experimental populations of Chironomus riparius

  20. Studies of workers exposed to low doses of external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1991-04-01

    Currently, several epidemiologic studies of workers who have been exposed occupationally to low levels of radiation are being conducted, and include studies of workers in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada involved in the production of both defense materials and nuclear power. This paper focuses on studies that evaluate the possible adverse effects resulting from external exposure to radiation. The radiation risk estimates that have been used to establish radiation protection standards for workers and others have been obtained mainly from studies of persons exposed at high doses and dose rates. However, questions remain with regard to the extrapolation process that has been necessary for estimating low-level radiation risks. Occupational studies provide a direct assessment of risk based on data on persons exposed at the actual levels of interest. If current risk estimates are correct, these studies have very little chance of detecting risk, but can still be used to provide useful upper limits on risks. The studies are also adequate to detect serious underestimation of risks. 36 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Assessing color vision loss among solvent-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, D; Blain, L

    1987-01-01

    Acquired color vision loss has been associated with exposure to organic solvents in the workplace. However, not all tests of chromatic discrimination loss are designed to detect acquired, as opposed to congenital, loss. The Lanthony D-15 desaturated panel (D-15-d), a simple 15 cap color arrangement test, designed to identify mild acquired dyschromatopsia, can be administered rapidly in the field, under standard conditions. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the D-15-d among 23 solvent-exposed workers of a paint manufacturing plant, by comparing the results obtained with the D-15-d to those obtained with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue (FM-100), a highly sensitive measure of color vision loss. The D-15-d revealed a significantly higher prevalence of dyschromatopsia among the ten highly exposed workers (80%) as compared to the 13 moderately exposed workers (30.8%); FM-100 results revealed one false positive. All dyschromatopic workers presented blue-yellow loss; the FM-100 detected eight complex patterns, while the D-15-d identified 5. Comparison of D-15-d and FM-100 scores were highly correlated (corr. coeff. 0.87; p less than 0.001). Multiple regression analyses showed both scores to be significantly related to age and exposure level. The findings of this study indicate that the D-15-d is an adequate instrument for field study batteries. However, the FM-100 should be used for more detailed assessment.

  2. Ethanol emission from loose corn silage and exposed silage particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sasha D.; Montes, Felipe; Rotz, C. Alan; Mitloehner, Frank

    2010-11-01

    Silage on dairy farms has been identified as a major source of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. However, rates of VOC emission from silage are not accurately known. In this work, we measured ethanol (a dominant silage VOC) emission from loose corn silage and exposed corn silage particles using wind tunnel systems. Flux of ethanol was highest immediately after exposing loose silage samples to moving air (as high as 220 g m -2 h -1) and declined by as much as 76-fold over 12 h as ethanol was depleted from samples. Emission rate and cumulative 12 h emission increased with temperature, silage permeability, exposed surface area, and air velocity over silage samples. These responses suggest that VOC emission from silage on farms is sensitive to climate and management practices. Ethanol emission rates from loose silage were generally higher than previous estimates of total VOC emission rates from silage and mixed feed. For 15 cm deep loose samples, mean cumulative emission was as high as 170 g m -2 (80% of initial ethanol mass) after 12 h of exposure to an air velocity of 5 m s -1. Emission rates measured with an emission isolation flux chamber were lower than rates measured in a wind tunnel and in an open setting. Results show that the US EPA emission isolation flux chamber method is not appropriate for estimating VOC emission rates from silage in the field.

  3. Immunomodulatory effects in workers exposed to naturally occurring asbestos fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledda, Caterina; Costa, Chiara; Matera, Serena; Puglisi, Beatrice; Costanzo, Valentina; Bracci, Massimo; Fenga, Concettina; Rapisarda, Venerando; Loreto, Carla

    2017-05-01

    Natural asbestiform fibers are defined 'naturally occurring asbestos' (NOA) and refer to the mineral as a natural component of soils or rocks. The release of NOA fibers into the air from rocks or soils by routine human activities or natural weathering processes represents a risk for human beings. Fluoro-edenite (FE) is a NOA fiber detected in the benmoreitic lava in the area of Biancavilla, South-west slope of Mt. Etna. The aim of the present study was to investigate FE immunotoxicity pathways in a group of 38 occupationally exposed construction workers, in order to find any biological markers of its effect. Subjects underwent respiratory function tests and HRCT total chest scanning. Serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were measured. The presence of PPs was significantly greater in subjects exposed than in the control (25 vs. 2). In subjects exposed to FE, IL-1β and TNF-α values were significantly higher than the controls. The previously observed increase of IL-1β and IL-18 showed a probable involvement of the proteic complex defined inflammosome by FE fibers.

  4. Unmet Health Care Needs among Children Exposed to Parental Incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin

    2017-05-01

    Objectives The incarceration rate in the United States has increased rapidly since the mid-1970s and, accordingly, a large number of children are exposed to parental incarceration. Research finds that parental incarceration is associated with deleterious physical and mental health outcomes among children, but little is known about these children's health care access. Methods I used data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (N = 95,531), a population-based and nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized children ages 0-17 in the United States, to estimate the association between exposure to parental incarceration and children's unmet health care needs. Results In logistic regression models that adjust for an array of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, children exposed to parental incarceration, compared to their counterparts, have 1.26 (95% CI 1.02-1.54) times the odds of having any unmet health care need. Analyses that disaggregate by type of unmet health care need (mental, dental, vision, mental health, or other) suggest this association is driven by a greater likelihood of unmet mental health care needs (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.04-2.46). Conclusions Children exposed to parental incarceration, a vulnerable group especially at risk of physical and mental health problems, face challenges to health care access, especially mental health care access. Given that parental incarceration is concentrated among those children most in need of health care, parental incarceration may exacerbate existing inequalities in unmet health care needs.

  5. Antioxidant status of neonates exposed in utero to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, L; Gulian, J M; Dalmasso, C; Calaf, R; Simeoni, U; Millet, V

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the influence of maternal smoke exposure on neonatal and maternal antioxidant status, 39 mothers who were active smokers, 14 mothers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), 17 controls, and their newborns were included in a prospective, controlled study. Plasma total antioxidant capacity, measured as total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and concentrations of specific antioxidants were measured in cord and in maternal blood. A similar, significant increase in ceruloplasmin concentration was observed in neonates born to actively smoking mothers and in those born to ETS exposed mothers. Uric acid and TRAP concentrations were significantly increased in ETS-exposed newborns and their mothers, compared to newborns and mothers from the active smoking and no-exposure groups with a trend towards increased uric acid, TRAP and FRAP concentrations being observed in the active smokers group. Neonatal and maternal antioxidant concentrations correlated significantly, except for ceruloplasmin. Cord blood vitamin A, E and C concentrations were unaffected by smoke exposure. These results show that maternal active smoking as well as ETS exposure significantly affect neonatal and maternal antioxidant status. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Biomarkers of genetic damage in human populations exposed to pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiassa, Delia; Manas, Fernando; Bosch, Beatriz; Gentile, Natalia; Bernardi, Natali; Gorla, Nora

    2012-01-01

    The effect of pesticides on human, animal and environmental health has been cause of concern in the scientific community for a long time. Numerous studies have reported that pesticides are not harmless and that their use can lead to harmful biological effects in the medium and long term, in exposed human and animals, and their offspring. The importance of early detection of genetic damage is that it allows us to take the necessary measures to reduce or eliminate the exposure to the deleterious agent when damage is still reversible, and thus to prevent and to diminish the risk of developing tumors or other alterations. In this paper we reviewed the main concepts in the field, the usefulness of genotoxicity studies and we compiled studies performed during the last twenty years on genetic monitoring of people occupationally exposed to pesticides. we think that genotoxicity tests, including that include chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus, sister chromatid exchanges and comet assays, should be considered as essential tools in the implementation of complete medical supervision for people exposed to potential environmental pollutants, particularly for those living in the same place as others who were others have already developed some type of malignancy. This action is particularly important at early stages to prevent the occurrence of tumors, especially from environmental origins.

  7. Evaluation of radiation protection educational level of professional exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, O.; Krstev, S.; Jovanovic, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Serbia and Montenegro legislation concerning with radiation protection was upgrading after publication ICRP- 60 and B.S.S., No.115. Present Law on the Protection against Ionizing Radiation is in force from 1996. Among quite new issues in radiation protection regulations there was article relate to obligatory refresher training. Due to adverse political and economic situation through many years radiation protection regulations were not fulfill completely. The aim of this investigation was to get real view to education level of professional exposed workers. In Serbia and Montenegro the most of ionizing radiation sources are in medical use and the most exposed workers are radiographers and radiologists. The test was passed by 200 radiographers and 50 radiologists. Main groups of questions were: Radiation protection and safety; difference between safety and security; legislation: law and regulations; incidents, accidents and operational failures: recording, learning. Usually, knowledge from school pales. New quantities (as ambient and personal dose equivalent) are mostly unknown. It is easier to understand the real difference between safety and security than to understand linguistic differences. Discussing regulations workers are more interesting in syndicate regulations than radiation protection ones. Operational failures and incidents are hidden. Better to say: nobody dare to speak about them. The results imposed conclusion that regulatory body has to pay more attention to upraise safety culture and radiation protection education level of professional exposed workers. (authors)

  8. Expose : procedure and results of the joint experiment verification tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitz, C.; Rettberg, P.; Horneck, G.; Rabbow, E.; Baglioni, P.

    The International Space Station will carry the EXPOSE facility accommodated at the universal workplace URM-D located outside the Russian Service Module. The launch will be affected in 2005 and it is planned to stay in space for 1.5 years. The tray like structure will accomodate 2 chemical and 6 biological PI-experiments or experiment systems of the ROSE (Response of Organisms to Space Environment) consortium. EXPOSE will support long-term in situ studies of microbes in artificial meteorites, as well as of microbial communities from special ecological niches, such as endolithic and evaporitic ecosystems. The either vented or sealed experiment pockets will be covered by an optical filter system to control intensity and spectral range of solar UV irradiation. Control of sun exposure will be achieved by the use of individual shutters. To test the compatibility of the different biological systems and their adaptation to the opportunities and constraints of space conditions a profound ground support program has been developed. The procedure and first results of this joint Experiment Verification Tests (EVT) will be presented. The results will be essential for the success of the EXPOSE mission and have been done in parallel with the development and construction of the final hardware design of the facility. The results of the mission will contribute to the understanding of the organic chemistry processes in space, the biological adaptation strategies to extreme conditions, e.g. on early Earth and Mars, and the distribution of life beyond its planet of origin.

  9. Expose-R experiment on effects of open space condition on survivorship in dormant stages of aquatic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Yusoff, Fatimah; Azuraidi, Osman

    2012-07-01

    Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches especially for interplanetary missions. Direct experiments in open space BYORYSK supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria, fungi spores, seed of plants and crustacean dormant cysts. Even though the rate of survivorship in long-term treatments was low but good enough to conclude that biological invasion even to Mars is a real danger. As soon as the BYORYSK lunch was made of metal the possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it an ESA and RSA equipment titled EXPOSE-R was applied. The EXPOSE-R facility was an external facility attached to the outside of the Zvezda Service Module in ISS in the end of November 2008. It had glace windows transparent for UV-radiation and possibility to measure temperature, space- and UV-radiation. Among a number of experiments requiring exposure to the open space environment it had a biological launch containing resting stages of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. These stages included dried ephippia of cladoceran Daphnia magna differentiated on size, dormant eggs of ostracode Eucypris ornate, cysts of fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis ( all from hemi desert Caspian area) and Artemis salina from salt lake Crimean populations. All dormant stages were kept in transparent to UV plastic bags placed in three layers. After about two years of exposing in open space dormant stages of 3 species A. salina, D. magna, S. torvicornis successfully survived at different scales but in second and third layers only . The highest level of survivorship was found in A. salina cysts. In preliminary land experiments that imitated land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions survivorship in resting eggs of D .magna, S. torvicornis and E. ornate was tested also. The total UV dose of

  10. Work ability score of solvent-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furu, Heidi; Sainio, Markku; Hyvärinen, Hanna-Kaisa; Kaukiainen, Ari

    2018-03-28

    Occupational chronic solvent encephalopathy (CSE), characterized by neurocognitive dysfunction, often leads to early retirement. However, only the more severe cases are diagnosed with CSE, and little is known about the work ability of solvent-exposed workers in general. The aim was to study memory and concentration symptoms, work ability and the effect of both solvent-related and non-occupational factors on work ability, in an actively working solvent-exposed population. A questionnaire on exposure and health was sent to 3640 workers in four solvent-exposed fields, i.e. painters and floor-layers, boat builders, printers, and metal workers. The total number of responses was 1730. We determined the work ability score (WAS), a single question item of the Work Ability Index, and studied solvent exposure, demographic factors, Euroquest memory and concentration symptoms, chronic diseases, and employment status using univariate and multivariate analyses. The findings were compared to those of a corresponding national blue-collar reference population (n = 221), and a small cohort of workers with CSE (n = 18). The proportion of workers with memory and concentration symptoms was significantly associated with solvent exposure. The WAS of solvent-exposed workers was lower than that of the national blue-collar reference group, and the difference was significant in the oldest age group (those aged over 60). Solvent-exposed worker's WAS were higher than those of workers diagnosed with CSE. The WAS were lowest among painters and floor-layers, followed by metal workers and printers, and highest among boat builders. The strongest explanatory factors for poor work ability were the number of chronic diseases, age and employment status. Solvent exposure was a weak independent risk factor for reduced WAS, comparable to a level of high alcohol consumption. Even if memory and concentration symptoms were associated with higher solvent exposure, the effect of solvents on self

  11. Color discrimination impairment in workers exposed to mercury vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Pavel; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Nerudová, Jana; Lukás, Edgar; Cábelková, Zdena; Cikrt, Miroslav

    2003-08-01

    To study color discrimination impairment in workers exposed to elemental mercury (Hg) vapor. Twenty-four male workers from a chloralkali plant exposed to Hg vapor, aged 42+/-9.8 years, duration of exposure 14.7+/-9.7 years, were examined. The 8h TWA air-borne Hg concentration in workplace was 59 microg/m(3); mean Hg urinary excretion (HgU) was 20.5+/-19.3 microg/g creatinine; mean Hg urinary excretion after the administration of a chelating agent, sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane-sulfonate (DMPS), was 751.9+/-648 microg/48h. Twenty-four age- and gender-matched control subjects were compared. Visual acuity, alcohol intake, smoking habits, and history of diseases or drugs potentially influencing color vision were registered. The Lanthony 15-Hue desaturated test (L-D15-d) was used to assess color vision. The results were expressed quantitatively as Bowman's Color Confusion Index (CCI), and qualitatively according to Verriest's classification of acquired dyschromatopsias. The CCI was significantly higher in the exposed group than in the control (mean CCI 1.15 versus 1.04; P=0.04). The proportion of subjects with errorless performance on the Lanthony test was significantly lower in the Hg exposed group compared to referents (52% versus 73%; P=0.035). The exposed group showed higher frequency of type III dyschromatopsias (blue-yellow confusion axis) in comparison with the control group (12.5% versus 8.3%), however, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Multiple regression did not show any significant relationship between the CCI, and age, alcohol consumption, or measures of exposure. In agreement with previous studies by Cavalleri et al. [Toxicol. Lett. 77 (1995) 351; Environ. Res. Sec. A 77 (1998) 173], the results of this study support the hypothesis that exposure to mercury vapor can induce sub-clinical color vision impairment. This effect was observed at an exposure level below the current biological limit for occupational exposure to mercury. This

  12. Interaction of Al with O2 exposed Mo2BC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolvardi, Hamid; Music, Denis; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Al adheres to many surfaces. • Solid–solid interactions challenging for real (oxidized) surfaces. • Dissociative O 2 adsorption on Mo 2 BC(0 4 0). • Al nonamer is disrupted on oxidized Mo 2 BC(0 4 0). • Adhesion of a residual Al on the native oxide. - Abstract: A Mo 2 BC(0 4 0) surface was exposed to O 2 . The gas interaction was investigated using ab initio molecular dynamics and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of air exposed surfaces. The calculations suggest that the most dominating physical mechanism is dissociative O 2 adsorption whereby Mo−O, O−Mo−O and Mo 2 −C−O bond formation is observed. To validate these results, Mo 2 BC thin films were synthesized utilizing high power pulsed magnetron sputtering and air exposed surfaces were probed by XPS. MoO 2 and MoO 3 bond formation is observed and is consistent with here obtained ab initio data. Additionally, the interfacial interactions of O 2 exposed Mo 2 BC(0 4 0) surface with an Al nonamer is studied with ab initio molecular dynamics to describe on the atomic scale the interaction between this surface and Al to mimic the interface present during cold forming processes of Al based alloys. The Al nonamer was disrupted and Al forms chemical bonds with oxygen contained in the O 2 exposed Mo 2 BC(0 4 0) surface. Based on the comparison of here calculated adsorption energy with literature data, Al−Al bonds are shown to be significantly weaker than the Al−O bonds formed across the interface. Hence, Al−Al bond rupture is expected for a mechanically loaded interface. Therefore the adhesion of a residual Al on the native oxide layer is predicted. This is consistent with experimental observations. The data presented here may also be relevant for other oxygen containing surfaces in a contact with Al or Al based alloys for example during forming operations

  13. PERSONAL FEATURES OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS ILL WITH RESPIRATORY TUBERCULOSIS EXPOSED AND NOT EXPOSED TO THE SOURCE OF INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Zolotova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific personal features of 296 children and adolescents exposed to tuberculosis and those with unidentified exposure were comparatively analyzed. Children with unidentified exposure demonstrated psychic tension, poor self-control, poorly developed social communication skills which determined disruptive interpersonal relations and uneasy personal growth. Children exposed to tuberculosis in their families were characterized by judging didactive position towards their neighbors which was formed by dysfunctional patterns of relations in their parental families. Adolescent with unidentified exposure manifested the contrast combination of pre-morbid personal attitudes which had certain etiologic contribution to the development of borderline neurotic states. The higher level of destructive reactions in the interpersonal communication was observed in the adolescents exposed to tuberculosis in their families. Identified personal features are considered to be psychological factors determining the hyperactivation of adaptive systems at the pre-morbid state and consequent development of structural functional disorders in various systems of the host, as well as providing impact on the course of tuberculosis.

  14. Vascular Hyperpermeability Response in Animals Systemically Exposed to Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Chieh; Chang, Chao-Yuah; Lin, Ming-Lu

    2018-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying cardiovascular diseases induced by chronic exposure to arsenic remain unclarified. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether increased vascular leakage is induced by inflammatory mustard oil in mice systemically exposed to various doses of arsenic and whether an increased vascular leakage response is still present in arsenic-fed mice after arsenic discontinuation for 2 or 6 months. ICR mice were fed water or various doses of sodium arsenite (10, 15, or 20 mg/kg/day; 5 days/week) for 8 weeks. In separate experiments, the mice were treated with sodium arsenite (20 mg/kg) for 2 or 8 weeks, followed by arsenic discontinuation for 2 or 6 months. Vascular permeability to inflammatory mustard oil was quantified using Evans blue (EB) techniques. Both arsenic-exposed and water-fed (control) mice displayed similar basal levels of EB leakage in the ears brushed with mineral oil, a vehicle of mustard oil. The levels of EB leakage induced by mustard oil in the arsenic groups fed with sodium arsenite (10 or 15 mg/kg) were similar to those of water-fed mice. However, increased levels of EB leakage in response to mustard oil stimulation were significantly higher in mice treated with sodium arsenite (20 mg/kg; high dose) than in arsenic-fed (10 or 15 mg/kg; low and middle doses) or control mice. After arsenic discontinuation for 2 or 6 months, mustard oil-induced vascular EB leakage in arsenic-fed (20 mg/kg) mice was similar to that in control mice. Dramatic increases in mustard oil-induced vascular leakage were only present in mice systemically exposed to the high arsenic dose, indicating the synergistic effects of the high arsenic dose and mustard oil.

  15. Neurobehavioral evaluation of Venezuelan workers exposed to organic solvent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, E; Yanes, L; Feo, O; Maizlish, N

    1995-01-01

    To assess the applicability of the World Health Organization (WHO) Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery (NCTB), we evaluated 53 male and 29 female Venezuelan workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents in an adhesive factory, and 56 male and 11 female workers unexposed to any type of neurotoxic chemical. The average age of unexposed workers was 30 years and 33 years for those exposed, average schooling for both groups was 8 years, and the mean duration of exposure was 7 years. The NCTB, which assesses central nervous system functions, is composed of seven tests that measure simple motor function, short-term memory, eye-hand coordination, affective behavior, and psychomotor perception and speed. The battery includes: profile of mood states (POMS); Simple Reaction Time for attention and response speed; Digit Span for auditory memory; Santa Ana manual dexterity; Digit-Symbol for perceptual motor speed; the Benton visual retention for visual perception and memory; and Pursuit Aiming II for motor steadiness. In each of 13 subtests, the exposed group had a poorer performance than the nonexposed group. The range of differences in mean performance was between 5% and 89%, particularly in POMS (tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, depression-rejection, fatigue-inertia, confusion-bewilderment), Simple Reaction Time, Digit-Symbol, and Santa Ana Pegboard (p memory, confusion, paresthesias in upper and lower extremities, and sleep disturbances. We conclude that the methodology is applicable to the population studied. The tests of the NCTB were accepted by the subjects and were administered satisfactorily, except for occasional difficulties in verbal comprehension in subtests of POMS, which is the only test that requires more demanding verbal skills. The magnitude of the behavioral deficits is consistent with the probable high level of exposure and with the range of deficits previously reported in workers with long-term solvent exposures.

  16. Effects of volcanic deposit disaggregation on exposed water composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, W. E.; Genareau, K. D.

    2016-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions produce a variety of hazards. Pyroclastic material can be introduced to water through ash fallout, pyroclastic flows entering water bodies, and/or lahars. Remobilization of tephras can occur soon after eruption or centuries later, introducing additional pyroclastic material into the environment. Introduction of pyroclastic material may alter the dissolved element concentration and pH of exposed waters, potentially impacting drinking water supplies, agriculture, and ecology. This study focuses on the long-term impacts of volcanic deposits on water composition due to the mechanical breakup of volcanic deposits over time. Preliminary work has shown that mechanical milling of volcanic deposits will cause significant increases in dissolved element concentrations, conductivity, and pH of aqueous solutions. Pyroclastic material from seven eruptions sites was collected, mechanically milled to produce grain sizes Soufriere Hills, Ruapehu), mafic (Lathrop Wells) and ultramafic (mantle xenoliths) volcanic deposits. Lathrop Wells has an average bulk concentration of 49.15 wt.% SiO2, 6.11 wt. % MgO, and 8.39 wt. % CaO and produces leachate concentrations of 85.69 mg/kg for Ca and 37.22 mg/kg for Mg. Taupo and Valles Caldera samples have a bulk concentration of 72.9 wt.% SiO2, 0.59 wt. % MgO, and 1.48 wt. % CaO, and produces leachate concentrations of 4.08 mg/kg for Ca and 1.56 mg/kg for Mg. Similar testing will be conducted on the intermediate and ultramafic samples to test the hypothesis that bulk magma composition and mineralogy will directly relate to the increased dissolved element concentration of exposed waters. The measured effects on aqueous solutions will aid in evaluation of impacts to marine and freshwater systems exposed to volcanic deposits.

  17. Variance in exposed perturbations impairs retention of visuomotor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaveral, Cesar Augusto; Danion, Frédéric; Berrigan, Félix; Bernier, Pierre-Michel

    2017-11-01

    Sensorimotor control requires an accurate estimate of the state of the body. The brain optimizes state estimation by combining sensory signals with predictions of the sensory consequences of motor commands using a forward model. Given that both sensory signals and predictions are uncertain (i.e., noisy), the brain optimally weights the relative reliance on each source of information during adaptation. In support, it is known that uncertainty in the sensory predictions influences the rate and generalization of visuomotor adaptation. We investigated whether uncertainty in the sensory predictions affects the retention of a new visuomotor relationship. This was done by exposing three separate groups to a visuomotor rotation whose mean was common at 15° counterclockwise but whose variance around the mean differed (i.e., SD of 0°, 3.2°, or 4.5°). Retention was assessed by measuring the persistence of the adapted behavior in a no-vision phase. Results revealed that mean reach direction late in adaptation was similar across groups, suggesting it depended mainly on the mean of exposed rotations and was robust to differences in variance. However, retention differed across groups, with higher levels of variance being associated with a more rapid reversion toward nonadapted behavior. A control experiment ruled out the possibility that differences in retention were accounted for by differences in success rates. Exposure to variable rotations may have increased the uncertainty in sensory predictions, making the adapted forward model more labile and susceptible to change or decay. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The brain predicts the sensory consequences of motor commands through a forward model. These predictions are subject to uncertainty. We use visuomotor adaptation and modulate uncertainty in the sensory predictions by manipulating the variance in exposed rotations. Results reveal that variance does not influence the final extent of adaptation but selectively impairs the retention of

  18. Improving antenatal risk assessment in women exposed to high risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Natasha; Newman, Louise K; Hunter, Mick; Dunlop, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Antenatal substance use and related psychosocial risk factors are known to increase the likelihood of child protection involvement; less is known about the predictive nature of maternal reflective functioning (RF) in this population. This preliminary study assessed psychosocial and psychological risk factors for a group of substance dependent women exposed to high risks in pregnancy, and their impact on child protection involvement. Pregnant women on opiate substitution treatment (n = 11) and a comparison group (n = 15) were recruited during their third trimester to complete measures of RF (Pregnancy Interview), childhood trauma, mental health and psychosocial assessments. At postnatal follow-up, RF was reassessed (Parent Development Interview - Revised Short Version) and mother-infant dyads were videotaped to assess emotional availability (EA). Child protection services were contacted to determine if any concerns had been raised for infant safety. Significant between-group differences were observed for demographics, psychosocial factors, trauma and mental health symptoms. Unexpectedly, no significant differences were found for RF or EA between groups. Eight women in the 'exposed to high risks' group became involved with child protection services. Reflective functioning was not significantly associated with psychosocial risk factors, and therefore did not mediate the outcome of child protection involvement. Women 'exposed to high risks' were equally able to generate a model of their own and their infants' mental states and should not be seen within a deficit perspective. Further research is required to better understand the range of risk factors that predict child protection involvement in high risk groups. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Heart rate variability in workers chronically exposed to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota; Chlebda, Ewa

    2004-07-01

    Lead is a strong neurotoxin. The effects of lead on the activity of the autonomic nervous system, assessed by the use of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, have not yet been established. To assess the effects of occupational chronic lead exposure on the autonomic nervous system activity. The study group consisted of 22 copper foundry workers (mean age 41.8+/-8.7 years) who had elevated parameters of lead overload and were admitted to the hospital for chelate therapy. The control group consisted of 13 age-matched healthy males. Lead concentration was measured with the use of atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and concentration of free protoporphyrins in erythrocytes (FEP) using a fluorometric method. Each patient underwent 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring, and standard short-term as well as long-term HRV parameters were obtained. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in HRV parameters. In the control group, HRV parameters correlated with age. In patients, a significant negative correlation between lead concentration and some short-term HRV parameters calculated during the night was found: SDNN (r=-0.48, p<0.05), TP (r=-0.48, p<0.01) and LF (r=-0.48, p<0.01). In patients, a negative correlation between lead concentration and HFnight/HFday index was found (r=-0.47 p<0.01), whereas in controls this correlation was positive (r=0.66 p<0.05). Overall HRV indices are similar in subjects exposed to lead and in healthy controls. A decrease in the physiological elevation of HF values during the night, together with an increase in lead blood concentration and lack of relationship between age and HRV parameters in workers chronically exposed to lead may suggest disturbances of the autonomic system. In subjects not exposed to lead a decrease in heart rate with an increase in FEP concentration was observed.

  20. Oxidative damage of DNA in subjects occupationally exposed to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlas, Natalia; Olewińska, Elżbieta; Markiewicz-Górka, Iwona; Kozłowska, Agnieszka; Januszewska, Lidia; Lundh, Thomas; Januszewska, Ewa; Pawlas, Krystyna

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) in environmental and occupational settings continues to be a serious public health problem and may pose an elevated risk of genetic damage. The aim of this study was to assess the level of oxidative stress and DNA damage in subjects occupationally exposed to lead. We studied a population of 78 male workers exposed to lead in a lead and zinc smelter and battery recycling plant and 38 men from a control group. Blood lead levels were detected by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and plasma lead levels by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The following assays were performed to assess the DNA damage and oxidative stress: comet assay, determination of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant status (TAS). The mean concentration of lead in the blood of the exposed group was 392 ± 103 μg/L and was significantly higher than in the control group (30.3 ± 29.4 μg/L, p lead exposure [lead in blood, lead in plasma, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP)] and urine concentration of 8-OHdG. The level of oxidative damage of DNA was positively correlated with the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and negatively with total anti-oxidative status (TAS). Our study suggests that occupational exposure causes an increase in oxidative damage to DNA, even in subjects with relatively short length of service (average length of about 10 years). 8-OHdG concentration in the urine proved to be a sensitive and non-invasive marker of lead induced genotoxic damage.

  1. Comments on Simplified Calculation Method for Fire Exposed Concrete Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    1998-01-01

    The author has developed new simplified calculation methods for fire exposed columns. Methods, which are found In ENV 1992-1-2 chapter 4.3 and in proposal for Danish code of Practise DS411 chapter 9. In the present supporting document the methods are derived and 50 eccentrically loaded fire expos...... columns are calculated and compared to results of full-scale tests. Furthermore 500 columns are calculated in order to present each test result related to a variation of the calculation in time of fire resistance....

  2. Oral and dental affections in mercury-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmy, M.S.

    1978-07-01

    A total of 222 mercury-exposed workers in the Chlor-Alkali plant in Kuwait were investigated for oral and dental affections. The levels of mercury-vapor ranged from 566.6 microgram/m3 to 0.3 microgram/m3 in different parts of the factory. The periods of exposure varied from 1 to 11 years. Although the level of mercury vapor in the air and the period of exposure proved to be the main factors as regards the oral signs and symptoms, the oral hygiene condition and the individual sensitivity played substantial roles. Oral affections were found not to be due to allergy to mercury.

  3. Experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Engnes, Kristin; Lidén, Eva; Lundgren, Ingela

    2012-01-01

    In this study a phenomenological approach was used in order to enter deeply into the experience of living with violence during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of women’s experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with five Norwegian women; two during pregnancy and three after the birth. The women were between the age of 20 and 38 years. All women had received support f...

  4. Exposing government response action contractors to environmental tort liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Government contractors, particularly those involved with hazardous waste response action activities, are encountering increased risks for environmental tort liabilities. Contracts often include tasks and work assignments requiring the management of industrial, chemical, nuclear or mining wastes, spent fuels, munitions or other toxic substances. Contractors exposure to liability for damages results directly from the environmental laws and regulations pursuant to which the Government has contracted them to respond. Additionally, contractors may be exposed to common law liability under such dogmas as nuisance, trespass and strict liability in tort

  5. Evaluation of carbons exposed to the Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitz, V.R.; Romans, J.B.; Bellamy, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    One of the lines of defense that served to mitigate the radiological effects of the accident at Three Mile Island was the activated carbon installed in ventilation air flows. Filters in the Auxiliary and Fuel Handling Buildings of Unit 2 adsorbed tens to hundreds of curies of iodine-131, preventing the release to the environment. The carbon exposed to the accident has been replaced and the spent carbon has been analyzed in the laboratory. Independent analyses were performed for the two filter trains in both the Auxiliary and Fuel Handling Buildings, replaced at various times after the accident. The results of these analyses are compared to new (unexposed) carbons

  6. Corrosivity Sensor for Exposed Pipelines Based on Wireless Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawand, Lydia; Shiryayev, Oleg; Al Handawi, Khalil; Vahdati, Nader; Rostron, Paul

    2017-05-30

    External corrosion was identified as one of the main causes of pipeline failures worldwide. A solution that addresses the issue of detecting and quantifying corrosivity of environment for application to existing exposed pipelines has been developed. It consists of a sensing array made of an assembly of thin strips of pipeline steel and a circuit that provides a visual sensor reading to the operator. The proposed sensor is passive and does not require a constant power supply. Circuit design was validated through simulations and lab experiments. Accelerated corrosion experiment was conducted to confirm the feasibility of the proposed corrosivity sensor design.

  7. Analysis of plutonium-239 in occupationally exposed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez M, H.

    2017-10-01

    Apart from radiometric techniques, several mass spectrometry (Ms) techniques can be used to evaluate the incorporation of plutonium-239 in occupationally exposed personnel, among which we can consider mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source (Icp-Ms); mass spectrometry with accelerators (AMS); thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (Sims). In this work we evaluated analytical methods to measure isotopes of plutonium-239 in urine samples from occupationally exposed personnel, using alpha spectroscopy (As), magnetic sector mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source (Icp-SFMS) and AMS. The samples were collected during 24 h were acidified with HNO 3 at 5% in v/v. The processes used in the preparation of the samples were: a) co-precipitation, b) acid digestion, c) radiochemical separation and d) electro deposition. The results obtained in terms of minimum detectable activity of plutonium-239 were 0.1 μBq (∼ 0.4 fg per sample), 5.1 μBq (∼ 2 fg per sample), 30.1 μBq (∼ 13 fg per sample) and 0.1 μBq (∼ 51 fg per sample) for AMS, Aridus-Icp-SFMS, Icp, SFMS and As, respectively. On the other hand, samples previously analyzed by As were re-evaluated by Aridus-Icp-SFMS and AMS. The results show that extraction with 60 ml of 5% HNO 3 at 60 degrees Celsius and for 2.5 h is enough to extract 90% of Pu electrodeposited on the planchette. In conclusion, AMS is an ultra-sensitive technique for determining isotope ratios of Pu, especially when is desired to validate a method to measure plutonium-239. Additionally, Icp-SFMS is a rapid analysis technique and can be used as a screening technique in situations of radiological incidents or accidents with Pu in the occupationally exposed personnel. Regarding alpha spectroscopy has been considered as the technique of excellence in the routine analysis to measure plutonium-239 in occupationally exposed personnel, due to the low cost. Finally, Icp-SFMS and AMS

  8. Rubella virus detection by ELISA method in exposed radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianmei; Zhu Bo; Zhu Youming; Shao Jinhui; Wu Weiping; Han Jinxiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A rapid diagnosis method was developed to detect Rubella virus infection in radiation workers. Methods: Modified ELISA method was used to detect the level of lgG and lgM antibodies in 514 in Jinan district. Results: 90.47% of 514 cases was shown to be resistant against Rubella virus; 6.42% were sensitive type; 0.78% belonged to be reinfected. Conclusion: Detection of Rubella virus in exposed radiation workers was imperative, and vaccine against Rubella virus was also needed to eliminate the infection risk. (authors)

  9. Brain biochemistry of infant mice and rats exposed to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berber, G.B.; Maes, J.; Gilliavod, N.; Casale, G.

    1978-05-01

    Brains of rats and mice exposed to lead from birth receive biochemical examinations. Mice are given drinking water with lead and are studied until they are 17 days old. Rats ae given lead in the diet and followed for more than a year. In mice a retardation in body growth and development in brain DNA is found. In rats, cathepsin is enhanced at almost all times. An important role of proteolytic processes and biogenic animes is suggested in lead encephalopathy. (33 references, 7 tables)

  10. Haematological evaluation of Wistar rats exposed to chronic doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two groups (A and B) were respectively exposed to CdCl2 (0.25 and 2.5 mg/kg), two other groups (C and D) respectively received HgCl2 (0.12 and 1.2 mg/kg) and the last two groups (E and F) were respectively treated with the combination of these two metals: (0.25 mg/kg Cd + 0.12 mg/kg Hg) and (2.5 mg/kg Cd + 1.2 ...

  11. Test Method for Spalling of Fire Exposed Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2005-01-01

    A new material test method is presented for determining whether or not an actual concrete may suffer from explosive spalling at a specified moisture level. The method takes into account the effect of stresses from hindered thermal expansion at the fire-exposed surface. Cylinders are used, which...... in many countries serve as standard specimens for testing the compressive strength. Consequently, the method is quick, cheap and easy to use in comparison to the alternative of testing full-scale or semi full-scale structures with correct humidity, load and boundary conditions. A number of concretes have...

  12. Multiple endocrine disrupting effects in rats perinatally exposed to butylparaben

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Svingen, Terje

    2016-01-01

    ) expression was reduced in prepubertal, but not adult animals exposed to butylparaben. In adult testes, Nr5a1 expression was reduced at all doses, indicating persistent disruption of steroidogenesis. Prostate histology was altered at prepuberty and adult prostate weights were reduced in the high dose group......Parabens comprise a group of preservatives commonly added to cosmetics, lotions and other consumer products. Butylparaben has estrogenic and anti-androgenic properties and is known to reduce sperm counts in rats following perinatal exposure. Whether butylparaben exposure can affect other endocrine...

  13. Erosion of graphite surface exposed to hot supersonic hydrogen gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, O. P.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical model based on laminar boundary layer flow equations was developed to predict the erosion rate of a graphite (AGCarb-101) surface exposed to a hot supersonic stream of hydrogen gas. The supersonic flow in the nozzle outside the boundary layer formed over the surface of the specimen was determined by assuming one-dimensional isentropic conditions. An overall surface reaction rate expression based on experimental studies was used to describe the interaction of hydrogen with graphite. A satisfactory agreement was found between the results of the computation, and the available experimental data. Some shortcomings of the model and further possible improvements are discussed.

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis in Miscanthus sinensis exposed to antimony stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Liang; Ren, Huadong; Li, Sheng; Gao, Ming; Shi, Shengqing; Chang, Ermei; Wei, Yuan; Yao, Xiaohua; Jiang, Zeping; Liu, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    To explore the molecular basis of Sb tolerance mechanism in plant, a comparative proteomic analysis of both roots and leaves in Miscanthus sinensis has been conducted in combination with physiological and biochemical analyses. M. sinensis seedlings were exposed to different doses of Sb, and both roots and leaves were collected after 3 days of treatment. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and image analyses found that 29 protein spots showed 1.5-fold change in abundance in leaves and 19 spots in roots, of which 31 were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. Proteins involved in antioxidant defense and stress response generally increased their expression all over the Sb treatments. In addition, proteins relative to transcription, signal transduction, energy metabolism and cell division and cell structure showed a variable expression pattern over Sb concentrations. Overall these findings provide new insights into the probable survival mechanisms by which M. sinensis could be adapting to Sb phytotoxicity. - Highlights: • Proteomics in Miscanthus sinensis leaves and roots exposed to Sb stress were studied. • There were 31 spots that were identified by mass spectrometry. • Most of these proteins were involved in antioxidant defense and stress response. • Our findings provide new insights into the tolerant mechanisms to Sb stress. - Miscanthus sinensis proteomic analysis under Sb stress reveals probable molecular mechanisms on Sb detoxification

  15. P300 brain potential among workers exposed to organic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente E. Moen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SUMMARYThe P300 component of the auditory event-related brain potential was examined in a group of 11workers exposed to low levels of organic solvents in a paint factory and 11 unexposed controls beforeand after 3 weeks of summer vacation. The P300 latency time was found to be prolonged among theexposed workers compared to the reference group before the summer vacation, and to be significantlylonger before the vacation than after in the exposed group.The P300 component was also examined in a group of 85 seamen from chemical tankers, experiencingpeak exposures to organic solvents. They were compared to a reference group of unexposedseamen. Comparing these two groups, no difference was found in the P300 latency time. No relationshipbetween the P300 latency time and exposure was found in a multiple regression analysis, includingthe variables age, alcohol consumption, smoking and cerebral concussions.The study indicates the occurrence of an acute biological effect in the nervous system related toorganic solvent exposure, expressed by prolonged P300 latency time. This was found at very lowexposure levels and should be studied further.

  16. Experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Engnes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study a phenomenological approach was used in order to enter deeply into the experience of living with violence during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of women's experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV during pregnancy. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with five Norwegian women; two during pregnancy and three after the birth. The women were between the age of 20 and 38 years. All women had received support from a professional research and treatment centre. The essential structure shows that IPV during pregnancy is characterized by difficult existential choices related to ambivalence. Existential choices mean questioning one's existence, the meaning of life as well as one's responsibility for oneself and others. Five constituents further explain the essential structure: Living in unpredictability, the violence is living in the body, losing oneself, feeling lonely and being pregnant leads to change. Future life with the child is experienced as a possibility for existential change. It is important for health professionals to recognize and support pregnant women who are exposed to violence as well as treating their bodies with care and respect.

  17. Experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engnes, Kristin; Lidén, Eva; Lundgren, Ingela

    2012-01-01

    In this study a phenomenological approach was used in order to enter deeply into the experience of living with violence during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of women's experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with five Norwegian women; two during pregnancy and three after the birth. The women were between the age of 20 and 38 years. All women had received support from a professional research and treatment centre. The essential structure shows that IPV during pregnancy is characterized by difficult existential choices related to ambivalence. Existential choices mean questioning one's existence, the meaning of life as well as one's responsibility for oneself and others. Five constituents further explain the essential structure: Living in unpredictability, the violence is living in the body, losing oneself, feeling lonely and being pregnant leads to change. Future life with the child is experienced as a possibility for existential change. It is important for health professionals to recognize and support pregnant women who are exposed to violence as well as treating their bodies with care and respect.

  18. Ultrastructural and metabolic changes in osteoblasts exposed to uranyl nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasat, D.R.; Orona, N.S.; Mandalunis, P.M.; Cabrini, R.L.; Ubios, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to uranium is an occupational hazard to workers who continually handle uranium and an environmental risk to the population at large. Since the cellular and molecular pathways of uranium toxicity in osteoblast cells are still unknown, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the adverse effects of uranyl nitrate (UN) on osteoblasts both in vivo and in vitro. Herein we studied the osteoblastic ultrastructural changes induced by UN in vivo and analyzed cell proliferation, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis, and alkaline phosphatase (APh) activity in osteoblasts exposed to various UN concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μM) in vitro. Cell proliferation was quantified by means of the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, ROS was determined using the nitro blue tetrazolium test, apoptosis was morphologically determined using Hoechst 3332 and APh activity was assayed spectrophotometrically. Electron microscopy revealed that the ultrastructure of active and inactive osteoblasts exposed to uranium presented cytoplasmic and nuclear alterations. In vitro, 1-100 μM UN failed to modify cell proliferation ratio and to induce apoptosis. ROS generation increased in a dose-dependent manner in all tested doses. APh activity was found to decrease in 1-100 μM UN-treated cells vs. controls. Our results show that UN modifies osteoblast cell metabolism by increasing ROS generation and reducing APh activity, suggesting that ROS may play a more complex role in cell physiology than simply causing oxidative damage. (orig.)

  19. Exposing the cancer genome atlas as a SPARQL endpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, Helena F.; Veiga, Diogo F.; Freire, Pablo R.; Weinstein, John N.; Mills, Gordon B.; Almeida, Jonas S.

    2011-01-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional effort to characterize several types of cancer. Datasets from biomedical domains such as TCGA present a particularly challenging task for those interested in dynamically aggregating its results because the data sources are typically both heterogeneous and distributed. The Linked Data best practices offer a solution to integrate and discover data with those characteristics, namely through exposure of data as Web services supporting SPARQL, the Resource Description Framework query language. Most SPARQL endpoints, however, cannot easily be queried by data experts. Furthermore, exposing experimental data as SPARQL endpoints remains a challenging task because, in most cases, data must first be converted to Resource Description Framework triples. In line with those requirements, we have developed an infrastructure to expose clinical, demographic and molecular data elements generated by TCGA as a SPARQL endpoint by assigning elements to entities of the Simple Sloppy Semantic Database (S3DB) management model. All components of the infrastructure are available as independent Representational State Transfer (REST) Web services to encourage reusability, and a simple interface was developed to automatically assemble SPARQL queries by navigating a representation of the TCGA domain. A key feature of the proposed solution that greatly facilitates assembly of SPARQL queries is the distinction between the TCGA domain descriptors and data elements. Furthermore, the use of the S3DB management model as a mediator enables queries to both public and protected data without the need for prior submission to a single data source. PMID:20851208

  20. Spatial variability of macrobenthic zonation on exposed sandy beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Puri; Rubal, Marcos; Cacabelos, Eva; Maldonado, Cristina; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2014-07-01

    We analysed the consistence of vertical patterns of distribution (i.e. zonation) for macrofauna at different spatial scales on four intermediate exposed beaches in the North of Portugal. We tested the hypothesis that biological zonation on exposed sandy beaches would vary at the studied spatial scales. For this aim, abundance, diversity and structure of macrobenthic assemblages were examined at the scales of transect and beach. Moreover, the main environmental factors that could potentially drive zonation patterns were investigated. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that the number of biological zones ranged from two to three depending on the beach and from indistinct zonation to three zones at the scale of transect. Therefore, results support our working hypothesis because zonation patterns were not consistent at the studied spatial scales. The median particle size, sorting coefficient and water content were significantly correlated with zonation patterns of macrobenthic assemblages. However, a high degree of correlation was not reached when the total structure of the assemblage was considered.

  1. Error-related negativities during spelling judgments expose orthographic knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lindsay N; Perfetti, Charles A; Rickles, Benjamin

    2014-02-01

    In two experiments, we demonstrate that error-related negativities (ERNs) recorded during spelling decisions can expose individual differences in lexical knowledge. The first experiment found that the ERN was elicited during spelling decisions and that its magnitude was correlated with independent measures of subjects' spelling knowledge. In the second experiment, we manipulated the phonology of misspelled stimuli and observed that ERN magnitudes were larger when misspelled words altered the phonology of their correctly spelled counterparts than when they preserved it. Thus, when an error is made in a decision about spelling, the brain processes indexed by the ERN reflect both phonological and orthographic input to the decision process. In both experiments, ERN effect sizes were correlated with assessments of lexical knowledge and reading, including offline spelling ability and spelling-mediated vocabulary knowledge. These results affirm the interdependent nature of orthographic, semantic, and phonological knowledge components while showing that spelling knowledge uniquely influences the ERN during spelling decisions. Finally, the study demonstrates the value of ERNs in exposing individual differences in lexical knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential Adjustment Among Rural Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianko, Natallia; Hedge, Jasmine M.; McDonell, James R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines differences in psychological adjustment in a sample of rural adolescents who have been exposed to family violence. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 580 adolescents and their primary caregivers. The results revealed that over two thirds of the study participants (68.8%) had been exposed to violence in their families. As hypothesized, cluster analysis identified several profiles among adolescents, distinguished by their psychological and emotional functioning: well adjusted (46.2%), moderately adjusted (44.3%), and struggling (9.5%). Discriminant function analysis confirmed the groupings and revealed that family functioning was among the most influential factors explaining adjustment differences. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) further showed that adolescents from each of the three adjustment profiles reported significantly different levels of family social support, parental involvement, and perceived neighborhood safety. Overall, the results confirm heterogeneity of adolescent adaptation in the aftermath of family violence and provide insights into family and neighborhood factors that account for variability in adolescents’ reactions to violence. Implications for future research and practical interventions are discussed. PMID:27106255

  3. Lipid peroxidation in workers exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y L; Chen, C Y; Sheu, J Y; Chuang, I C; Pan, J H; Lin, T H

    1999-02-26

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to hexavalent chromium induces lipid peroxidation in human. This study involved 25 chrome-plating factory workers and a reference group of 28 control subjects. The whole-blood and urinary chromium concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Malondialdehyde (MDA), the product of lipid peroxidation, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the activities of protective enzymes were measured by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. In the chrome-plating workers, the mean concentrations of chromium in blood and urine were 5.98 microg/L and 5.25 microg/g creatinine, respectively; the mean concentrations of MDA in blood and urine were 1.7 micromol/L and 2.24 micromol/g creatinine. The concentrations of both chromium and MDA in blood and urine were significantly higher in the chromium-exposed workers. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT) were not markedly different between control and exposed workers. Data suggest that MDA may be used as a biomarker for occupational chromium exposure. Antioxidant enzymic activities are not a suitable marker for chromium exposure.

  4. The exposed proteomes of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Casas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli are well-known intestinal pathogens in pigs. B. hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery, a disease with an important impact on pig production while B. pilosicoli is responsible of a milder diarrheal disease in these animals, porcine intestinal spirochetosis. Recent sequencing projects have provided information for the genome of these species facilitating the search of vaccine candidates using reverse vaccinology approaches. However, practically no experimental evidence exists of the actual gene products being expressed and of those proteins exposed on the cell surface or released to the cell media. Using a cell-shaving strategy and a shotgun proteomic approach we carried out a large-scale characterization of the exposed proteins on the bacterial surface in these species as well as of peptides and proteins in the extracellular medium. The study included 3 strains of B. hyodysenteriae and 2 strains of B. pilosicoli and involved 148 LC-MS/MS runs on a high resolution Orbitrap instrument. Overall, we provided evidence for more than 29000 different peptides pointing to 1625 and 1338 different proteins in B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli, respectively. Many of the most abundant proteins detected corresponded to described virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The level of expression of these proteins, however, was different among species and strains, stressing the value of determining actual gene product levels as a complement of genomic-based approaches for vaccine design.

  5. Differential Adjustment Among Rural Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianko, Natallia; Hedge, Jasmine M; McDonell, James R

    2016-04-22

    This study examines differences in psychological adjustment in a sample of rural adolescents who have been exposed to family violence. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 580 adolescents and their primary caregivers. The results revealed that over two thirds of the study participants (68.8%) had been exposed to violence in their families. As hypothesized, cluster analysis identified several profiles among adolescents, distinguished by their psychological and emotional functioning: well adjusted (46.2%), moderately adjusted (44.3%), and struggling (9.5%). Discriminant function analysis confirmed the groupings and revealed that family functioning was among the most influential factors explaining adjustment differences. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) further showed that adolescents from each of the three adjustment profiles reported significantly different levels of family social support, parental involvement, and perceived neighborhood safety. Overall, the results confirm heterogeneity of adolescent adaptation in the aftermath of family violence and provide insights into family and neighborhood factors that account for variability in adolescents' reactions to violence. Implications for future research and practical interventions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. The Immune System of HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Raya, Bahaa; Kollmann, Tobias R; Marchant, Arnaud; MacGillivray, Duncan M

    2016-01-01

    Infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women are HIV-exposed but the majority remains uninfected [i.e., HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)]. HEU infants suffer greater morbidity and mortality from infections compared to HIV-unexposed (HU) peers. The reason(s) for these worse outcomes are uncertain, but could be related to an altered immune system state. This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature investigating the adaptive and innate immune system of HEU infants. HEU infants have altered cell-mediated immunity, including impaired T-cell maturation with documented hypo- as well as hyper-responsiveness to T-cell activation. And although prevaccination vaccine-specific antibody levels are often lower in HEU than HU, most HEU infants mount adequate humoral immune response following primary vaccination with diphtheria toxoid, haemophilus influenzae type b, whole cell pertussis, measles, hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. However, HEU infants are often found to have lower absolute neutrophil counts as compared to HU infants. On the other hand, an increase of innate immune cytokine production and expression of co-stimulatory markers has been noted in HEU infants, but this increase appears to be restricted to the first few weeks of life. The immune system of HEU children beyond infancy remains largely unexplored.

  7. Thyroid neoplasia in Marshall Islanders exposed to nuclear fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T.E.; van Belle, G.; LoGerfo, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    We studied the risk of thyroid neoplasia in Marshall Islanders exposed to radioiodines in nuclear fallout from the 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test. We screened 7266 Marshall Islanders for thyroid nodules; the islanders were from 14 atolls, including several southern atolls, which were the source of the best available unexposed comparison group. Using a retrospective cohort design, we determined the prevalence of thyroid nodularity in a subgroup of 2273 persons who were alive in 1954 and who therefore were potentially exposed to fallout from the BRAVO test. For those 12 atolls previously thought to be unexposed to fallout, the prevalence of thyroid nodules ranged from 0.9% to 10.6%. Using the distance of each atoll from the test site as a proxy for the radiation dose to the thyroid gland, a weighted linear regression showed an inverse linear relationship between distance and the age-adjusted prevalence of thyroid nodules. Distance was the strongest single predictor in logistic regression analysis. A new absolute risk estimate was calculated to be 1100 excess cases/Gy/y/1 X 10(6) persons (11.0 excess cases/rad/y/1 million persons), 33% higher than previous estimates. We conclude that an excess of thyroid nodules was not limited only to the two northern atolls but extended throughout the northern atolls; this suggests a linear dose-response relationship

  8. RESPONSE OF TOMATO PLANTS EXPOSED TO TREATMENT WITH NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Giordani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work the response of Tomato plants cv. Micro-Tom to nanoparticles (NPs treatment was investigated. Tomato seedlings were grown in hydroponic condition and NPs treatments were carried out by adding Fe3O4 or TiO2 NPs to nutrient solution. At the end of treatments, NPs root uptake and tissue deposition were investigated using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope, equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy for chemical identification. At morphological level, one week after the beginning of NP treatment, seedlings grown with high concentration of TiO2 NPs showed an abnormal proliferation of root hairs, as compared to the control seedlings and to the seedlings exposed to Fe3O4 NPs, Shoot morphology did not differ in tomato seedlings grown under different conditions and no symptoms of toxicity were observed in NP-treated plants. In order to analyse genetic effects of NPs treatments, RNA transcription was studied in roots of NP-exposed and control plants by Illumina RNA sequencing, evidencing the induction of transposable elements.

  9. Ultrastructural changes of photodegradation of wood surfaces exposed to UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, M.L.; Hu, N.

    1991-01-01

    Red pine sapwood transverse and radial surfaces were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light for 3 to 40 days. Effect of UV irradiation on ultrastructural changes of cell walls were studied by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. SEM study of transverse sections showed that during initial stages of UV irradiation, lignin in cell corners and in the compound middle lamellae was preferentially degraded and that the radial middle lamellae substained a greater rate of UV degradation than did the tangential middle lamellae. Massive cell wall degradation, as indicated by cell wall thinning, did not occur until surfaces were exposed to UV light for more than 10 days. TEM study of radial cell wall surfaces indicated that lignin lining the warty layer was removed by UV irradiation in 3 days and that warts were destroyed by a UV irradiation in 7 days. UV irradiation of cell wall surfaces produced a substantial amount of water-soluble degradation products. After 30 days of UV irradiation, the S3 layer was totally removed and revealed the very fragile S2 layer. (author)

  10. Prevalence of tinnitus in workers exposed to noise and organophosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delecrode, Camila Ribas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research on the workplace has emphasized the effects of noise exposure on workers' hearing, but has not considered the effects of agrochemicals. Aim: To evaluate and correlate the hearing level and tinnitus of workers exposed simultaneously to noise and organophosphates in their workplace and to measure tinnitus distress on their quality of life. Method: A retrospective clinical study. We evaluated 82 organophosphate sprinklers from the São Paulo State Regional Superintendence who were active in the fight against dengue and who were exposed to noise and organophosphates. We performed pure tone audiometry and applied the translated THI (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory questionnaire. Results: Of the sample, 28.05% reported current tinnitus or had presented tinnitus, and the workers with tinnitus had an increased incidence of abnormal audiometry. The average hearing threshold for the 4-8-kHz frequency range of the workers with current tinnitus was higher than that of the others, and was most affected at the 4-kHz frequency. The THI score ranged 0-84, with an average score of 13.1. Twelve (52.17% workers had THI scores consistent with discrete handicap. Conclusion: There is an increased incidence of abnormal pure tone audiometry in workers with tinnitus, and its impact on the workers' quality of life was discrete. The correlation between average hearing threshold and tinnitus distress was weak.

  11. Chromosomal aberrations in subjects exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovicic, D.; Milacic, S.; Kovacevic, R.; Tanaskovic, I.

    2006-01-01

    Occupational exposure is particularly delicate because of chronic exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation and its cumulative effect, where it is important to consider the biological response of body to given conditions of exposure. The objective of this study was the observation of the recovery of the DNA damages in subjects working in the radiation area in two different intervals.Group I, consisting of 30 subjects, was exposed to ionizing radiation and unstable chromosomal aberrations were identified. Group II included the same, re-examined subjects (30) 9 months later. It was verified that 5 (16.67%) subjects still had unstable chromosomal aberrations, although they had been excluded from radiation area Controls groups (C) consisted of 64 subjects that were not exposed to mutagenic agents.The comparison of the control group with the two studied groups revealed the reduction of the unstable aberrations (p<0.05). The total effective doses, which increased with the years spent in radiation area, reflected the yield of chromosomal aberrations. The presence of chromosomal aberrations in some subjects, after the exclusion from the ionising radiation exposure, suggests that the time needed for the recovery of the DNA damages is different, which indicates the individual differences in radiosensitivity as well as different of the reparatory cellular response. (author)

  12. Cancer incidence among workers exposed to softwood dust in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailyte, Giedre

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cancer incidence in a cohort of woodworkers exposed to softwood dust in a Lithuanian wooden joinery products factory. The study population consisted of 1518 workers (1080 men and 438 women) employed in the factory for at least 1 year between 1947 and 1996 and living in Lithuania on 1 January 1978, when the follow-up for cancer incidence began. The follow-up period for cancer was 1978-2007. Cancer risk was assessed by standardised incidence ratios (SIR) with reference to the national population. Overall cancer incidence was not increased among woodworkers. However, the number of mouth and pharynx cancer cases among male woodworkers was significantly increased compared with expected numbers (SIR 2.19, 95% CI 1.17 to 3.74). A higher risk was found for cancer of the buccal cavity than for pharyngeal cancer (SIRs 2.83 and 1.45, respectively). The SIR for larynx cancer was also elevated (SIR 1.39, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.64) among men, while the number of lung cancer cases was higher than expected only among women (SIR 2.07, 95% CI 00.57 to 5.31). This results of this study support the hypothesis that exposure to softwood dust may increase the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. No support was found for an increased risk of other respiratory cancers among workers exposed to softwood dust.

  13. Cytogenetic diagnostic of 3 populations of occupationally exposed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Arceo M, C.

    2013-10-01

    In the year 2000 the first service of biological dosimetry was requested to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), and until the year 2012 have been assisted 52 cases approximately. Most of the cases correspond to workers dedicated to the industrial radiography, followed by the occupationally exposed personnel either in the hospital area or health services and the minority corresponds to individuals linked to research institutions. The incident with more serious consequences to the individual happened to workers that ingested I-131 in the year 2003. Using the biological dosimetry to estimate exposure dose by damage in the lymphocyte chromosomes of each worker has been possible to establish the exposure dose in each one of them, or also to discard the supposed exposure. The dosimetry demonstrates to be an useful tool for situations with exposure suspicion, for example when the reading of thermoluminescent dosimeter of a occupationally exposed personnel does not correspond to the event, or when the personnel forgets to carry his dosimeter, the exposure dose can be determined. (Author)

  14. Image restorations constrained by a multiply exposed picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breedlove, J.R. Jr.; Kruger, R.P.; Trussell, H.J.; Hunt, B.R.

    1977-01-01

    There are a number of possible industrial and scientific applications of nanosecond cineradiographs. While the technology exists to produce closely spaced pulses of x rays for this application, the quality of the time-resolved radiographs is severely limited. The limitations arise from the necessity of using a fluorescent screen to convert the transmitted x rays to light and then using electro-optical imaging systems to gate and to record the images with conventional high-speed cameras. It has been proposed that in addition to the time-resolved images, a conventional multiply-exposed radiograph be obtained. Simulations are used to demonstrate that the additional information supplied by the multiply-exposed radiograph can be used to improve the quality of digital image restorations of the time-resolved pictures over what could be achieved with the degraded images alone. Because of the need for image registration and rubber sheet transformations, this problem is one which can best be solved on a digital, as opposed to an optical, computer

  15. Direct assessment of cumulative aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist activity in sera from experimentally exposed mice and environmentally exposed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlezinger, Jennifer J; Bernard, Pamela L; Haas, Amelia

    2010-01-01

    (PCB)-exposed Faroe Islanders using an AhR-driven reporter cell line. To validate relationships between serum AhR agonist levels and biological outcomes, AhR agonist activity in mouse sera correlated with toxic end points. AhR agonist activity in unmanipulated ("neat") human sera was compared......, was associated with the frequency of recent pilot whale dinners, but did not correlate with levels of PCBs quantified by GC/MS. Surprisingly, significant "baseline" AhR activity was found in commercial human sera. CONCLUSIONS: An AhR reporter assay revealed cumulative levels of AhR activation potential in neat...

  16. Nasal biopsies of children exposed to air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Rodriguez-Alcaraz, A; Valencia-Salazar, G; Mora-Tascareño, A; García, R; Osnaya, N; Villarreal-Calderón, A; Devlin, R B; Van Dyke, T

    2001-01-01

    Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) atmosphere is a complex mixture of air pollutants, including ozone, particulate matter, and aldehydes. Children in SWMMC are exposed chronically and sequentially to numerous toxicants, and they exhibit significant nasal damage. The objective of this study was to assess p53 accumulation by immunohistochemistry in nasal biopsies of SWMMC children. We evaluated 111 biopsies from 107 children (83 exposed SWMMC children and 24 control children residents in a pollutant-compliant Caribbean island). Complete clinical histories and physical examinations, including an ear-nose-throat (ENT) exam were done. There was a significant statistical difference in the upper and lower respiratory symptomatology and ENT findings between control and exposed children (p < 0.001). Control children gave no respiratory symptomatology in the 3 months prior to the study; their biopsies exhibited normal ciliated respiratory epithelium and were p53-negative. SWMMC children complained of epistaxis, nasal obstruction. and crusting. Irregular areas of whitish-gray recessed mucosa over the inferior and middle turbinates were seen in 25% of SWMMC children, and their nasal biopsies displayed basal cell hyperplasia, decreased numbers of ciliated and goblet cells, neutrophilic epithelial infiltrates, squamous metaplasia. and mild dysplasia. Four of 21 SWMMC children with grossly abnormal mucosal changes exhibited strong transmural nuclear p53 staining in their nasal biopsies (p 0.005, odds ratio 26). In the context of lifetime exposures to toxic and potentially carcinogenic air pollutants, p53 nasal induction in children could potentially represent. a) a checkpoint response to toxic exposures, setting up a selective condition for p53 mutation, or b) a p53 mutation has already occurred as a result of such selection. Because the biological significance of p53 nuclear accumulation in the nasal biopsies of these children is not clear at this point, we strongly

  17. Genetic Analysis of Mice Skin Exposed by Hyper-Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Rika; Terada, Masahiro; Seki, Masaya; Higashibata, Akira; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2013-02-01

    In the space environment, physiological alterations, such as low bone density, muscle weakness and decreased immunity, are caused by microgravity and cosmic radiation. On the other hand, it is known that the leg muscles are hypertrophy by 2G-gravity. An understanding of the effects on human body from microgravity to hyper-gravity is very important. Recently, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has started a project to detect the changes on gene expression and mineral metabolism caused by microgravity by analyzing the hair of astronauts who stay in the international Space Station (ISS) for a long time. From these results of human hair’s research, the genetic effects of human hair roots by microgravity will become clear. However, it is unclear how the gene expression of hair roots was effected by hypergravity. Therefore, in this experiment, we analyzed the effect on mice skin contained hair roots by comparing microgravity or hypergravity exposed mice. The purpose of this experiment is to evaluate the genetic effects on mice skin by microgravity or 2G-gravity. The samples were taken from mice exposed to space flight (FL) or hypergravity environment (2G) for 3-months, respectively. The extracted and amplified RNA from these mice skin was used to DNA microarray analysis. in this experiment, we analyzed the effect of gravity by using mice skin contained hair roots, which exposed space (FL) and hyper-gravity (2G) for 3 months and each control. By DNA microarray analysis, we found the common 98 genes changed in both FL and 2G. Among these 98 genes, the functions and pathways were identified by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) software. Next, we focused the one of the identified pathways and compared the effects on each molecules in this pathways by the different environments, such as FL and 2G. As the results, we could detect some interesting molecules, which might be depended on the gravity levels. In addition, to investigate

  18. Analysing deterioration of marble stones exposed to underwater conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Beatriz; Álvarez de Buergo, Mónica; Bethencourt, Manuel; Freire-Lista, David; Fort, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    The peculiar conditions of the marine environment make the conservation of underwater archaeological sites an extremely complex procedure. This is due to the fact that the prevailing conditions in this environment promote the development of deterioration phenomena in submerged artefacts through the synergistic action of physical, chemical and biological factors. The objective of the present investigation was to determine how petrophysical properties of cultural heritage materials can be affected by being exposed to the specific underwater conditions of the sea bottom, and so, to evaluate how this can affect, in a long term, in their durability and evolution when they part of an archaeological site. For this purpose, two types of marble (the Italian Carrara and the Spanish Macael) were subjected to an experiment consisting of exposing stone materials for one and a half year to underwater conditions. The experimental test was located in an archaeological site in the Bay of Cadiz (southern Spain), Bajo del Chapitel (recognized as Cultural Interest), which includes remains of shipwrecks from different periods. In this site, samples were submerged to 12 m depth and placed in the sea bottom simulating the different positions in which underwater archaeological objects can be found (fully exposed, half buried and covered). Petrophysical characterisation involved determination of the apparent and bulk densities, water saturation (maximum water content a material may contain), open porosity (porosity accessible to water), chromatic parameters and ultrasonic velocity. Before measuring, samples were subjected to mechanical cleaning (in those samples with biological colonization) and to removal of salt deposits. Results showed significant differences in these petrophysical properties after underwater submersion, which were directly related to the type of underwater exposure condition. Comparative analysis of petrophysical properties, like the one conducted in this study

  19. Genotoxic damage in pathology anatomy laboratory workers exposed to formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Solange; Coelho, Patricia; Costa, Carla; Silva, Susana; Mayan, Olga; Silva Santos, Luis; Gaspar, Jorge; Teixeira, Joao Paulo

    2008-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a chemical traditionally used in pathology and anatomy laboratories as a tissue preservative. Several epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to FA have indicated an increased risk of nasopharyngeal cancers in industrial workers, embalmers and pathology anatomists. There is also a clear evidence of nasal squamous cell carcinomas from inhalation studies in the rat. The postulated mode of action for nasal tumours in rats was considered biologically plausible and considered likely to be relevant to humans. Based on the available data IARC, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, has recently classified FA as a human carcinogen. Although the in vitro genotoxic as well as the in vivo carcinogenic potentials of FA are well documented in mammalian cells and in rodents, evidence for genotoxic effects and carcinogenic properties in humans is insufficient and conflicting thus remains to be more documented. To evaluate the genetic effects of long-term occupational exposure to FA a group of 30 Pathological Anatomy laboratory workers was tested for a variety of biological endpoints, cytogenetic tests (micronuclei, MN; sister chromatid exchange, SCE) and comet assay. The level of exposure to FA was evaluated near the breathing zone of workers, time weighted average of exposure was calculated for each subject. The association between the biomarkers and polymorphic genes of xenobiotic metabolising and DNA repair enzymes was also assessed. The mean level of exposure was 0.44 ± 0.08 ppm (0.04-1.58 ppm). MN frequency was significantly higher (p = 0.003) in the exposed subjects (5.47 ± 0.76) when compared with controls (3.27 ± 0.69). SCE mean value was significantly higher (p < 0.05) among the exposed group (6.13 ± 0.29) compared with control group (4.49 ± 0.16). Comet assay data showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) of TL in FA-exposed workers (60.00 ± 2.31) with respect to the control group (41.85 ± 1.97). A positive correlation was

  20. Ionizing radiation and frequency of chromosomal aberrations in exposed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasojevic-Tisma, Vera; Pavlovic, Snezana

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood were investigated among the observed groups of subjects who were exposed to low radiation doses (external exposure) in comparison with the control group. The first group of subjects is involved in the production of radioisotope technetium, whose accumulated work exposure time ranges between 3 and 30 years. The second group works on inspection of the medical X-ray equipment, whose accumulated work exposure time is between 2 and 34 years. The third group worked on decontamination of the terrain from depleted uranium radioactive ammunition. These workers were involved in mechanical removal of the surface soil layer to a depth of 50 cm. They were selected out of a group of professionals otherwise exposed to radiation from confined sources in their daily work. The accumulated work exposure of this group ranged from 2 to 34 years. The control group consisted of individuals not working in the ionizing radiation zone. The average yearly absorbed dose measured by TL dosimeters for all three observed groups did not exceed 2 mSv. The chromosomal aberrations were analyzed by a modified Moorhead method. The objective of the study was to establish the existence of differences in the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations change with respect to the source type, i.e. type of radioactive emission. Comparisons of the chromosomal changes in the observed groups revealed that the group working on technetium production had an increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations with respect to control. The aberrations found were of the acentric fragment and chromosomal break types. A comparison of the exposed groups between each other, no statistically significant differences in the numbers of chromosomal aberrations were found. Soil decontamination from depleted uranium did not contribute to the relative radiation risk, since it lasted only a few months, and was done by the professionals fully clothed

  1. Ion irradiated graphite exposed to fusion-relevant deuterium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deslandes, Alec; Guenette, Mathew C.; Corr, Cormac S.; Karatchevtseva, Inna; Thomsen, Lars; Ionescu, Mihail; Lumpkin, Gregory R.; Riley, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Graphite samples were irradiated with 5 MeV carbon ions to simulate the damage caused by collision cascades from neutron irradiation in a fusion environment. The ion irradiated graphite samples were then exposed to a deuterium plasma in the linear plasma device, MAGPIE, for a total ion fluence of ∼1 × 10 24 ions m −2 . Raman and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy were used to characterize modifications to the graphitic structure. Ion irradiation was observed to decrease the graphitic content and induce disorder in the graphite. Subsequent plasma exposure decreased the graphitic content further. Structural and surface chemistry changes were observed to be greatest for the sample irradiated with the greatest fluence of MeV ions. D retention was measured using elastic recoil detection analysis and showed that ion irradiation increased the amount of retained deuterium in graphite by a factor of four

  2. Reduced recruitment in Hyalella azteca (Saussure, 1858) exposed to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, M Shuhaimi; Pascoe, David

    2002-09-01

    Neonates of the amphipod Hyalella azteca were exposed for a 35-day period in the laboratory to a range of copper concentrations, nominally 18 microg/l, 40 microg/l, 70 microg/l and 260 microg/l. The reproductive status of the population was assessed by recording recruitment, the number of precopulatory pairs and number of gravid females. At the end of the experiment, the body lengths of individuals were measured using image analysis. There was a significant decrease in the final population size of H. azteca with increasing copper concentration and compared with the control. Copper significantly reduced recruitment of juveniles and length composition of the final population and there was also a trend toward reduced precopula number with increasing copper concentrations.

  3. Mothers and infants exposed to intimate partner violence compensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Nicole; Morris, Catherine Young; Secco, Loretta; Stewart, Miriam; Hughes, Jean; Critchley, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Reasons for the developmental variability in children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) are unclear and under studied. This article presents exploratory findings on (a) the potential impact of IPV on mother-child relationships and child development and (b) the association between these maternal-child relationship impacts and child development. The fit of findings with compensatory, spillover, and compartmentalization hypotheses was explored. Participants were 49 mothers and 51 children younger than 3 years of age affected by IPV. Data were collected on maternal-child interactions, child development, social support, difficult life circumstances, family functioning, child temperament, and parental depression. The findings suggested developmental impacts on children in the sample, along with children's high sensitivity and responsiveness to their caregivers. Although some spillover effects were observed, the predominant observation was of mothers and infants compensating for exposure to IPV in their interactions.

  4. Exposing the QCD Splitting Function with CMS Open Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkoski, Andrew; Marzani, Simone; Thaler, Jesse; Tripathee, Aashish; Xue, Wei

    2017-09-29

    The splitting function is a universal property of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which describes how energy is shared between partons. Despite its ubiquitous appearance in many QCD calculations, the splitting function cannot be measured directly, since it always appears multiplied by a collinear singularity factor. Recently, however, a new jet substructure observable was introduced which asymptotes to the splitting function for sufficiently high jet energies. This provides a way to expose the splitting function through jet substructure measurements at the Large Hadron Collider. In this Letter, we use public data released by the CMS experiment to study the two-prong substructure of jets and test the 1→2 splitting function of QCD. To our knowledge, this is the first ever physics analysis based on the CMS Open Data.

  5. Supporting awareness in creative group work by exposing design rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Farooq

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available When creativity is taken as a long-term, complex, and collaborative activity, support for awareness is required for group members to monitor the development of ideas, track how these ideas became narrowed, and understand how alternatives are being implemented and integrated by colleagues. In this paper, we investigate the effects of exposing design rationale to convey awareness, specifically activity awareness, in group creativity. Through evaluating a prototype, we investigate status updates that convey design rationale, and to what consequences, in small groups in fully distributed collaboration. We found that status updates are used for a variety of purposes and that participants’ comments on their collaborators’ status updates provided feedback. Overall, results suggest that participants’ awareness about their collaborators’ future plans increased over time. Majority of participants found the status updates useful, particularly those with higher metacognitive knowledge. Based on our results, two design strategies for activity awareness are proposed.

  6. Own experiences in genetic counselling of radiation exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laude, G.; Bruening, L.

    1995-01-01

    An outline is given of genetic counselling provided to 46 radiation-exposed persons during the period from 1978 to 1994. The radiation exposure had, in most cases, been due to radiation-therapeutic measures (n=22). To a low extent, counselling was carried out because of fear of genetic consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident (n=11), preceding radiation exposure from X-ray (n=9) and nuclear diagnosis (n=1) as well as occupation radiation exposure (n=3). During counselling, information was given on the genetic risk to be expected, taking into consideration the risk factor that is valid at present and the malformation doubling dose. After performance of radiation therapy, an avoidance of conception for 2 years has been recommended. After termination of this period, in the case of an urgent wish of having children, pregnancy was not discouraged if no further risk factors existed. (orig.) [de

  7. Patients exposed to therapeutic irradiation for benign conditions in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    In the United States there are over 1 million individuals who have been irradiated for benign conditions in the head and neck. Many recent reports document conclusively that individuals who have had head and neck radiation for benign conditions have markedly increased risk of thyroid, salivary, and perhaps breast cancer as compared to the general population. Although the relative risk as compared to the general population is high, the risk that any one individual who has had head or neck irradiation will develop a subsequent malignancy is relatively low. Identification of these patients through some type of screening procedure may be beneficial in terms of prevention of subsequent mortality and morbidity from cancer, especially thyroid and salivary cancer. The American Medical Association and the American Hospital Association issued a joint statement of October 17, 1975, urging hospitals and physicians to work together in their communities to develop guidelines and procedures for screening of exposed individuals and for public education

  8. Brain plasticity of rats exposed to prenatal immobilization stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badalyan B. Yu.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This histochemical and immunohistochemical study was aimed at examining the brain cellular structures of newborn rats exposed to prenatal immobilization (IMO stress. Methods. Histochemical method on detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity and ABC immunohistochemical technique. Results. Cell structures with radial astrocytes marker GFAP, neuroepithelial stem cell marker gene nestin, stem-cells marker and the hypothalamic neuroprotective proline-rich polypeptide PRP-1 (Galarmin, a natural cytokine of a common precursor to neurophysin vasopressin associated glycoprotein have been revealed in several brain regions. Conclusions. Our findings indicate the process of generation of new neurons in response to IMO and PRP-1 involvement in this recovery mechanism, as PRP-1-Ir was detected in the above mentioned cell structures, as well as in the neurons and nerve fibers.

  9. Psychological distress of adolescents exposed to Hurricane Hugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, S B; Weinrich, M; Weinrich, S; Hardin, T L; Garrison, C

    1994-07-01

    To ascertain the effects of a natural disaster on adolescents, 1482 South Carolina high school students who were exposed to Hurricane Hugo were surveyed 1 year after the disaster. Subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire measuring Hugo exposure, nonviolent and violent life events, social support, self-efficacy, and psychological distress. Results showed that the students reported minimal exposure to the hurricane and psychological distress variables approximated national norms. As exposure increased, adolescents reported increased symptoms of psychological distress; i.e., anger, depression, anxiety, and global mental distress. Females and white students experienced higher levels of distress. In most cases, other stressful life events were at least as strong a predictor of psychological distress as was exposure to the hurricane. Self-efficacy and social support were protective.

  10. Self-protection of unsealed anodised aluminium exposed to atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escudero, E.; Bartolome, M. J.; Lopez, V.; Simancas, J.; Gonalez, J. A.; Morcillo, M.; Otero, E.

    2005-01-01

    To confirm or refute the widely held idea that the sealing operation is vital to guarantee the good resistance of anodised aluminium to atmospheric corrosion, unsealed, anodised specimens with three different film thick messes were exposed in 9 atmospheres in Ibero america with salinity values of between 3.9 and 684 mg m''2 day ''-1 of chlorides. Using a wide variety of techniques, from scanning and transmission electron microscopy to direct measurements by gravimetry, and including indirect measurements by electrochemical techniques as well as standard sealing quality control tests, the self-sealing capacity of unsealed anodic coating during atmospheric exposure is demonstrated. Surprisingly, unlike other types of protective coatings, the quality of anodic films improves with ageing. (Author) 15 refs

  11. Protection of persons occupationally exposed to radiation and of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    The experiences of the last ten years have shown that the measures of the First Radiation Protection Ordinance generally proved to be sufficient for the protection of the employed or of the patients. They had to be amended in so far as the exposure to radiation for those occupationally exposed can be reduced. This results in changes to the regulations so that certain groups of persons can also be effectively controlled. The recognition that medical supervision for radiation protection reasons is reasonable only if exposure has occurred should be additionally utilized in the regulations if the Euratom standards make this possible. The protection of patients attains some new rules which can be derived from handling and from therapeutical use. In this case too experience resulted in a more reasonable application of ionizing radiation and radioactive materials than was expected when the First Radiation Protection Ordinance was issued. (orig.) [de

  12. Medical examination of the workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshio

    1991-01-01

    The hazardous effects of ionizing radiation to man are well recognized, and they are divided into two groups, the stochastic effects (hereditary and carcinogenic effect) and non-stochastic effects (somatic effects such as depression of hematopoiesis, chronic dermatitis and cataracta). The basic framework of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is intended to prevent the occurrence of non-stochastic effects, by keeping doses below the relevant thresholds, and to ensure that all reasonable aspects are taken to reduce the incidence of stochastic effects. In Japan, the regulatory provisions of radiological protection of the workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation are based on the recommendation of ICRP adopted in 1977. According to these regulations, the dose equivalent limits of occupational exposure of man has been decided at 50 mSv/year. The monitoring of exposure to the individual and the procedure of medical examination of the workers are briefly described and discussed. (author)

  13. Reproductive toxicity in boron exposed workers in Bandirma, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran, Nurşen; Duydu, Yalçin; Bolt, Hermann M

    2012-06-01

    Boric acid and sodium borates have been considered as being "toxic to reproduction and development", following results of animal studies with high doses. However unfavorable effects of boron exposure on reproduction and development have not been proved in epidemiological studies so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate the reproductive toxicity indicators in highly exposed workers employed in a boric acid production plant in Bandırma, Turkey. Two hundred and four workers participated in this study. The mean blood boron concentration of the high exposure group of workers was 223.89 ± 69.49 (152.82-454.02)ng/g. Unfavorable effects of boron exposure on the reproductive toxicity indicators were not observed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. The hearing of rural workers exposed to noise and pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Tereza R R; Dourado, Solano S F; Lima, Lucas V; Antoniolli, Ângelo R

    2018-01-01

    n work environments, different physical and chemical agents that may pose a risk to workers' hearing health coexist. In this context, occupational hearing loss stands out. It has mostly been attributed to only noise exposure, although there are other agents, that is, pesticides that might contribute to occupational hearing loss. In this report, two cases will be presented that consider rural workers exposed to pesticides and intense noise generated by an adapted rudimentary vehicle. The noise measured in this vehicle was 88.3 dBA up to 93.4 dBA. Pure-tone audiometry, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, and high-frequency audiometry tests were performed. This report is unusual because of the short time of exposure to noise and pesticides and the hearing loss found, indicating a synergy between those agents.

  15. Hot spring therapy of atomic bomb exposed patients, (9)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatta, O [Balneogic Sanatorium for the Atomic Bomb Injured Beppu, Oita (Japan); Tsuji, H

    1978-03-01

    The following description shows the statistics and the results of medical examinatin concerning the patients utilized Beppu Atomic Bomb Center from April, 1977, to March, 1978. Number of persons utilized the center was 3904, and 20285 man-days in total. Number of case treated there was 268. Number of diseases amounted to 442 of 66 sorts, excluding temporary of acute diseases such as acute entergastritis and cold diseases, etc. According to the report by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, atomic bomb-exposed persons show twice as much rate of incidence as normal persons, and owing to aging, many of them have more than two kinds of diseases. Among the diseases, 60 cases were hypertension, 32 heart disease, 30 knee-arthritis, 26 diabetes, 25 hepatitis, 23 spondylosis deformans, etc. Among 268 cases treated by hot spring therapy, 6 were totally cured, and 252 showed alleviation, while 10 showed no change.

  16. NeuLand submodules exposed to fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparic, Igor [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Aumann, Thomas [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze; Heil, Michael; Simon, Haik [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Jaehrling, Simon [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Within the R{sup 3}B collaboration (Reactions with Relativistic Radioactive Beams), a new neutron detector NeuLAND (New Large Area Neutron Detector) is being developed. The technical design was finalized in November 2011, a fully active scintillator concept was chosen. It will be a box-shaped 2.5 x 2.5 x 3 m{sup 3} detector consisting of 3000 scintillator bars arranged in 60 planes with mutually orthogonal orientation. An array of 150 NeuLAND bars was exposed to fast ''mono-energetic'' neutrons stemming from quasi-free deuteron breakup reactions on a CH{sub 2} target (250 to 1500 AMeV). The experiment carried out at GSI in Nov. 2012 aims for determination of both time resolution and efficiency of NeuLAND submodules. Preliminary results of the analysis are presented.

  17. Brain magnetic resonance imaging of infants exposed prenatally to buprenorphine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahila, H.; Kivitie-Kallio, S.; Halmesmaki, E.; Valanne, L.; Autti, T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the brains of newborns exposed to buprenorphine prenatally. Material and Methods: Seven neonates followed up antenatally in connection with their mothers' buprenorphine replacement therapy underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain before the age of 2 months. The infants were born to heavy drug abusers. Four mothers were hepatitis C positive, and all were HIV negative. All mothers smoked tobacco and used benzodiazepines. All pregnancies were full term, and no perinatal asphyxia occurred. All but one neonate had abstinence syndrome and needed morphine replacement therapy. Results: Neither structural abnormalities nor abnormalities in signal intensity were recorded. Conclusion: Buprenorphine replacement therapy does not seem to cause any major structural abnormalities of the brain, and it may prevent known hypoxic-ischemic brain changes resulting from uncontrolled drug abuse. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess possible abnormalities in the brain maturation process

  18. Exposed Biologies and the Banking of Reproductive Vitality in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2018-01-01

    The looming figures of smog-choked cities, cancer villages and contaminated food have become iconic of a modernising China: the tragic, perhaps unavoidable, side effects of a voracious economy. In this article, I examine how the sperm bank—jingzi ku—in China has emerged quite literally as a sanct......The looming figures of smog-choked cities, cancer villages and contaminated food have become iconic of a modernising China: the tragic, perhaps unavoidable, side effects of a voracious economy. In this article, I examine how the sperm bank—jingzi ku—in China has emerged quite literally...... as a sanctuary of vitality amidst concerns around food safety, air and water pollution, rising infertility and declining population quality. As a twist on Margaret Lock’s concept of ‘local biologies’, I argue that ‘exposed biologies’ have become a matter of concern in China in ways that have corroborated a place...

  19. Susceptible-infected-recovered and susceptible-exposed-infected models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tome, Tania; De Oliveira, Mario J

    2011-01-01

    Two stochastic epidemic lattice models, the susceptible-infected-recovered and the susceptible-exposed-infected models, are studied on a Cayley tree of coordination number k. The spreading of the disease in the former is found to occur when the infection probability b is larger than b c = k/2(k - 1). In the latter, which is equivalent to a dynamic site percolation model, the spreading occurs when the infection probability p is greater than p c = 1/(k - 1). We set up and solve the time evolution equations for both models and determine the final and time-dependent properties, including the epidemic curve. We show that the two models are closely related by revealing that their relevant properties are exactly mapped into each other when p = b/[k - (k - 1)b]. These include the cluster size distribution and the density of individuals of each type, quantities that have been determined in closed forms.

  20. Brain magnetic resonance imaging of infants exposed prenatally to buprenorphine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahila, H.; Kivitie-Kallio, S.; Halmesmaki, E.; Valanne, L.; Autti, T. [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dept. of Pediatrics, and Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the brains of newborns exposed to buprenorphine prenatally. Material and Methods: Seven neonates followed up antenatally in connection with their mothers' buprenorphine replacement therapy underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain before the age of 2 months. The infants were born to heavy drug abusers. Four mothers were hepatitis C positive, and all were HIV negative. All mothers smoked tobacco and used benzodiazepines. All pregnancies were full term, and no perinatal asphyxia occurred. All but one neonate had abstinence syndrome and needed morphine replacement therapy. Results: Neither structural abnormalities nor abnormalities in signal intensity were recorded. Conclusion: Buprenorphine replacement therapy does not seem to cause any major structural abnormalities of the brain, and it may prevent known hypoxic-ischemic brain changes resulting from uncontrolled drug abuse. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess possible abnormalities in the brain maturation process.

  1. Radiation pneumonitis in a patient exposed to asbestos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashford, R.F.U.; Maher, J.; Drury, A.; Pickering, D.

    1981-01-01

    A case report is presented of a 58 year old man who had for many years run an asbestos importing and fibreizing plant. He developed radiation pneumonitis following radiotherapy to a squamous cell carcinoma of the middle 3rd of the oesophagus. Detailed lung studies at autopsy revealed asbestos bodies associated with macrophages in many alveoli and areas of subpleural fibrosis typical of asbestos exposure. This was the most florid case of radiation seen in the Westminster Hospital for some years and the first seen in patients treated for carcinoma of the oesophagus using a three field technique. It is suggested that when planning radiotherapy to an asbestos-exposed patient, a possible increase in lung sensitivity to radiation should be considered when planning dosage. (U.K.)

  2. Action spectra in mammalian cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A review is given of the literature published since 1977 on action spectra in mammalian cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation in the wavelength region above 220 nm. Action spectra for lethal events are discussed for cell inactivation in normal cells, growth arrested cells and photosensitive cells. Action spectra for non-lethal events are also discussed in relation to pyrimidine dimer formation, photoreactivation and the use of photosensitisers. It was concluded from these studies that damage to the DNA, and the extent of the repair of this damage, seems to determine a cell's response to such parameters as inactivation, mutation, transformation, latent viral activation, cellular viral capacity and ultraviolet enhanced viral reactivation. In addition to the direct effects of UV on DNA, photosensitization of cellular responses with chemicals such as 8-MOP extend the wavelength range at which damage can be demonstrated. (U.K.)

  3. Damage assessment in CFRP laminates exposed to impact fatigue loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsigkourakos, George; Silberschmidt, Vadim V; Ashcroft, I A

    2011-01-01

    Demand for advanced engineering composites in the aerospace industry is increasing continuously. Lately, carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRPs) became one of the most important structural materials in the industry due to a combination of characteristics such as: excellent stiffness, high strength-to-weight ratio, and ease of manufacture according to application. In service, aerospace composite components and structures are exposed to various transient loads, some of which can propagate in them as cyclic impacts. A typical example is an effect of the wind gusts during flight. This type of loading is known as impact fatigue (IF); it is a repetition of low-energy impacts. Such loads can cause various types of damage in composites: fibre breaking, transverse matrix cracking, de-bonding between fibres and matrix and delamination resulting in reduction of residual stiffness and loss of functionality. Furthermore, this damage is often sub-surface, which reinforces the need for more regular inspection. The effects of IF are of major importance due its detrimental effect on the structural integrity of components that can be generated after relatively few impacts at low force levels compared to those in a standard fatigue regime. This study utilises an innovative testing system with the capability of subjecting specimens to a series of repetitive impacts. The primary subject of this paper is to assess the damaging effect of IF on the behaviour of drilled CFRP specimens, exposed to such loading. A detailed damage analysis is implemented utilising an X-ray micro computed tomography system. The main findings suggested that at early stages of life damage is governed by o degree splits along the length of the specimens resulting in a 20% reduction of stiffness. The final failure damage scenario indicated that transverse crasks in the 90 degree plies are the main reason for complete delamination which can be translated to a 50% stiffness reduction.

  4. Exposing the cancer genome atlas as a SPARQL endpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, Helena F; Veiga, Diogo F; Freire, Pablo R; Weinstein, John N; Mills, Gordon B; Almeida, Jonas S

    2010-12-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional effort to characterize several types of cancer. Datasets from biomedical domains such as TCGA present a particularly challenging task for those interested in dynamically aggregating its results because the data sources are typically both heterogeneous and distributed. The Linked Data best practices offer a solution to integrate and discover data with those characteristics, namely through exposure of data as Web services supporting SPARQL, the Resource Description Framework query language. Most SPARQL endpoints, however, cannot easily be queried by data experts. Furthermore, exposing experimental data as SPARQL endpoints remains a challenging task because, in most cases, data must first be converted to Resource Description Framework triples. In line with those requirements, we have developed an infrastructure to expose clinical, demographic and molecular data elements generated by TCGA as a SPARQL endpoint by assigning elements to entities of the Simple Sloppy Semantic Database (S3DB) management model. All components of the infrastructure are available as independent Representational State Transfer (REST) Web services to encourage reusability, and a simple interface was developed to automatically assemble SPARQL queries by navigating a representation of the TCGA domain. A key feature of the proposed solution that greatly facilitates assembly of SPARQL queries is the distinction between the TCGA domain descriptors and data elements. Furthermore, the use of the S3DB management model as a mediator enables queries to both public and protected data without the need for prior submission to a single data source. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neurodevelopmental delay in children exposed in utero to hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejzo, Marlena S; Magtira, Aromalyn; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik; Macgibbon, Kimber; Mullin, Patrick M

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of emotional, behavioral, and learning disorders in children exposed in utero to hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and to identify prognostic factors for these disorders. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of 312 children from 203 mothers with HG were compared to neurodevelopmental outcomes from 169 children from 89 unaffected mothers. Then the clinical profiles of patients with HG and a normal child outcome were compared to the clinical profiles of patients with HG and a child with neurodevelopmental delay to identify prognostic factors. Binary responses were analyzed using either a Chi-square or Fisher Exact test and continuous responses were analyzed using a t-test. Children exposed in utero to HG have a 3.28-fold increase in odds of a neurodevelopmental diagnosis including attention disorders, learning delay, sensory disorders, and speech and language delay (Pneurodevelopmental delay. We found no evidence for increased risk of 13 emotional, behavioral, and learning disorders, including autism, intellectual impairment, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, the study was not sufficiently powered to detect rare conditions. Medications, treatments, and preterm birth were not associated with an increased risk for neurodevelopmental delay. Women with HG are at a significantly increased risk of having a child with neurodevelopmental delay. Common antiemetic treatments were not linked to neurodevelopmental delay, but early symptoms may play a role. There is an urgent need to address whether aggressive treatment that includes vitamin and nutrient supplementation in women with early symptoms of severe nausea of pregnancy decreases the risk of neurodevelopmental delay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Clastogenic factors in the plasma of children exposed at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerit, I.; Levy, A.; Cernjavski, L.; Alaoui-Youssefi, A.; Pogossian, A.; Quastel, M.; Goldsmith, J.; Merkin, L.; Riklis, E.

    1997-01-01

    Clastogenic factors (CFs), as they were described previously in accidentally or therapeutically irradiated persons, in A-bomb survivors and in liquidators of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, were also detected in the plasma of Chernobyl-exposed children. A high percentage of plasma ultrafiltrates from 170 children, immigrated to Israel in 1990, exerted clastogenic effects in test cultures set up with blood from healthy donors. The differences were highly significant in comparison to children immigrated from 'clean' cities of the former Soviet Union or children born in Israel. The percentage of CF-positive children and the mean values of the adjusted clastogenic scores (ACS) were higher for those coming from Gomel and Mozyr, which are high exposure sites (IAEA measurements), compared to those coming from Kiev. There was no correlation between residual 137-Caesium body burden and presence of CFs. However, both measurements were not done at the same time (in 1990 and 1992-1994, respectively). Also no relationship could be revealed between enlargement of the thyroid gland and CF-positivity. CFs are not only observed after irradiation, but in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases with autoimmune reactions. They were also described in the congenital breakage syndromes, which are hereditary diseases with the highest cancer incidence in humans. Whether the clastogenic effects continuously produced by circulating CFs represent a risk factor for malignant late effects deserves further study and follow-up. Since CF formation and CF action are mediated by superoxide radicals, prophylactic treatment with antioxidants may be suggested for Chernobyl-exposed children, whose plasma induces a strongly positive CF-test

  7. Viability and Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Selcuk; Lete, Luis

    2015-09-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can be highly effective biocontrol agents, but their efficacy can be reduced due to exposure to environmental stress such as from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Our objectives were to 1) compare UV tolerance among a broad array of EPN species, and 2) investigate the relationship between reduced nematode viability (after exposure to UV) and virulence. Nematodes exposed to a UV radiation (254 nm) for 10 or 20 min were assessed separately for viability (survival) and virulence to Galleria mellonella. We compared 9 different EPN species and 15 strains: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Baine, fl11, Oswego, and Vs strains), H. floridensis (332), H. georgiana (Kesha), H. indica (HOM1), H. megidis (UK211), Steinernema carpocapsae (All, Cxrd, DD136, and Sal strains), S. feltiae (SN), S. rarum (17C&E), and S. riobrave (355). In viability assessments, steinernematids, particularly strains of S. carpocapsae, generally exhibited superior UV tolerance compared with the heterorhabditids. However, some heterorhabditids tended to be more tolerant than others, e.g., H. megidis and H. bacteriophora (Baine) were most susceptible and H. bacteriophora (Vs) was the only heterorhabditid that did not exhibit a significant effect after 10 min of exposure. All heterorhabditids experienced reduced viability after 20 min exposure though several S. carpocapsae strains did not. In total, after 10 or 20 min exposure, the viability of seven nematode strains did not differ from their non-UV exposed controls. In virulence assays, steinernematids (particularly S. carpocapsae strains) also tended to exhibit higher UV tolerance. However, in contrast to the viability measurements, all nematodes experienced a reduction in virulence relative to their controls. Correlation analysis revealed that viability among nematode strains is not necessarily related to virulence. In conclusion, our results indicate that the impact of UV varies substantially among EPNs, and viability alone

  8. Beta dosimetry in teeth from SR-90 exposed subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattibene, P.; De Coste, V.; Onori, S.; Veronese, I.; Giussani, A.; Cantone, M.C.; Shishkina, E.

    2006-01-01

    Tooth enamel is a well recognized dosimeter for retrospective dose reconstruction of individuals accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation. The measurements of the absorbed dose in tooth enamel is conventionally carried out with the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance technique. Tooth enamel is sensitive to all kind of ionizing radiation. Its response to photons has been widely investigated. For application to contaminated teeth with 90 Sr, one of the most common osteo tropic radionuclides, the effectiveness of tooth enamel response to the β spectrum needs be evaluated. The response function to 90 Sr of the EPR/tooth enamel systems, its linearity and reproducibility have been investigated under a controlled geometry, and the results will be presented and compared to those obtained with photons. When the subject has been exposed to both external and internal radiation, a combined EPR/T.L. method can be used to distinguish the internal from the external contribution to the cumulative dose in tooth (Gosku et al., 2002;=Veronese et al. 2004, Shishkina et al. 2005). The T.L. measurement, performed putting thin ± Al 2 O 3 :C dosimeters at contact with the tooth surfaces, enables to estimate the beta dose rate due to the radionuclides present in tooth. The combination of this information with that coming from EPR allows, under specific assumptions, to evaluate separately the internal and external contribution to the tooth dose. In a previous work (Veronese et al., 2004) the dose in enamel measured by EPR in a tooth contaminated with 90 Sr of a Techa River resident was compared to the dose rate measured by TLDs. The test has been extended to a larger number of 90 Sr contaminated teeth. EPR measurements have been also performed in other portions of the teeth, i.e. tooth dentin and root. The correlation between the results, obtained from EPR and TLD measurements, and the evaluation of the relative proportion of internal and external dose are presented and discussed. (authors)

  9. Performance of Raphidocelis subcapitata exposed to heavy metal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expósito, Nora; Kumar, Vikas; Sierra, Jordi; Schuhmacher, Marta; Giménez Papiol, Gemma

    2017-12-01

    Microalgae growth inhibition assays are candidates for referent ecotoxicological assays, and are a fundamental part in the strategy to reduce the use of fish and other animal models in aquatic toxicology. In the present work, the performance of Raphidocelis subcapitata exposed to heavy metals following standardized growth inhibition assays has been assessed in three different scenarios: 1) dilutions of single heavy metals, 2) artificial mixture of heavy metals at similar levels than those found in natural rivers and, 3) natural samples containing known mixtures of contaminants (heavy metals). Chemical speciation of heavy metals has been estimated with Eh-pH diagram and Visual MINTEQ software; heavy metal and free heavy metal ion concentrations were used as input data, together with microalgae growth inhibition, for Dr. Fit software. The final goal was to assess the suitability of the ecotoxicological test based on the growth inhibition of microalgae cultures, and the mathematic models based on these results, for regulatory and decision-making purposes. The toxicity of a given heavy metal is not only determined by its chemical speciation; other chemical and biological interaction play an important role in the final toxicity. Raphidocelis subcapitata 48h-h-EC50 for tested heavy metals (especially Cu and Zn) were in agreement with previous studies, when ion metal bioavailability was assumed to be 100%. Nevertheless, the calculated growth inhibition was not in agreement with the obtained inhibition when exposed to the artificial mixture of heavy metals or the natural sample. Interactions between heavy metal ions and the compounds of the culture media and/or the natural sample determine heavy metal bioavailability, and eventually their toxicity. More research is needed for facing the challenge posed by pollutant mixtures as they are present in natural environments, and make microalgae-based assays suitable for pollution management and regulatory purposes. Copyright

  10. Developmental dental defects in children exposed to PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan, J. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Fac. of Medicine; Sovcikova, E.; Kovrizhnykh, I.; Wimmerova, S.; Trnovec, T. [Slovak Medical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine; Kocan, A. [Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Toxic Organic Pollutants

    2004-09-15

    Developing enamel is sensitive to a wide range of local and systemic disturbances. Because of the absolute metabolic stability of its structure, changes in enamel during its development are permanent in nature. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been shown to disturb tooth development in experimental animals, but only limited amounts of data exist on their adverse effects in humans. Dental changes such as mottled, chipped, carious, and neonatal teeth have been reported in accidentally exposed humans. Nevertheless, co-contamination with polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) was largely responsible for the overall toxicity4. Alaluusua et al. found that developmental dental defects were correlated with the total exposure to polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons via mother's milk. The correlation was strong with exposure to prevailing levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) but weak with exposure to PCBs alone. In our previous study we have shown developmental dental defects in children exposed to PCBs alone6, suggesting that the developing human teeth are vulnerable to PCBs. In the Michalovce region of eastern Slovakia, PCBs from a chemical plant manufacturing Delors contaminated the surrounding district7. The total serum PCB levels in samples from the general population there exceeded by several times the background levels in subjects living in a comparable unexposed Svidnik district. PCB levels in breast milk samples in the Michalovce region were the highest in Slovakia. Levels of toxic polychlorinated aromatics (PCDFs, PCNs, and planar PCBs) in technical Delors were high. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure to PCBs, measured at the individual level, on developmental dental defects in children in eastern Slovakia.

  11. Study of chromosome aberrations on the workers occupationally exposed to thorium and rare earth mixed dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Wang Chunyan; Lv Huiming; Zhang Cuilan; Hao Shuxia; Su Xu; Jia Kejun; Liu Yufei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of thorium and rare earth mixed dust on chromosome aberrations in the lymphocytes of occupational exposed workers. Methods: Analyses of unstable chromosome aberrations on 53 occupational exposed workers and 58 control workers were carried out by the conventional Giemsa staining method. Fluorescence in situ hybridization method was performed to analyze the chromosome stable aberrations on 10 occupational exposed workers and l0 control workers. Results: The frequencies of chromosomal aberration cells, dicentrics plus rings, total aberrations in exposed workers were significantly higher than those in controls. No significant difference was found in the frequency of acentric aberrations between exposed and non-exposed workers. No significant difference was found in the frequency of translocations between exposed and non-exposed workers. Conclusions: Chronically occupational exposure to thorium and rare earth mixed dust can increase the induction of unstable chromosome aberration, but the increase of stable chromosome aberrations (translocation) can not be observed. (authors)

  12. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the Secretary...

  13. Overview of the ISS Radiation Environment Observed during the ESA EXPOSE-R2 Mission in 2014-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachev, T. P.; Bankov, N. G.; Tomov, B. T.; Matviichuk, Yu. N.; Dimitrov, Pl. G.; Häder, D.-P.; Horneck, G.

    2017-11-01

    The radiation risk radiometer-dosimeter (R3D)-R2 solid-state detector performed radiation measurements at the European Space Agency EXPOSE-R2 platform outside of the Russian "Zvezda" module at the International Space Station (ISS) from 24 October 2014 to 11 January 2016. The ISS orbital parameters were average altitude of 415 km and 51.6° inclination. We developed special software and used experimentally obtained formulas to determine the radiation flux-to-dose ratio from the R3DR2 Liulin-type deposited-energy spectrometer. We provide for the first time simultaneous, long-term estimates of radiation dose external to the ISS for four source categories: (i) galactic cosmic ray particles and their secondary products; (ii) protons in the South Atlantic Anomaly region of the inner radiation belt (IRB); (iii) relativistic electrons and/or bremsstrahlung in the outer radiation belt (ORB); and (iv) solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The latter category is new in this study. Additionally, in this study, secondary particles (SP) resulting from energetic particle interaction with the detector and nearby materials are identified. These are observed continuously at high latitudes. The detected SPs are identified using the same sorting requirements as SEP protons. The IRB protons provide the highest consistent hourly dose, while the ORB electrons and SEPs provide the most extreme hourly doses. SEPs were observed 11 times during the study interval. The R3DR2 data support calculation of average equivalent doses. The 30 day and 1 year average equivalent doses are much smaller than the skin and eyes doses recommendations by the National Council on Radiation Protection (Report 132), which provides radiation protection guidance for Low Earth Orbit.

  14. Loi constitutive chimioplastique pour le beton expose aux hautes temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Rabah

    Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world. Even though it has been used for several centuries, its behavior to high temperature remains to be understood. In the light of recent extreme events, including accidents, and arson, special attention has been focused on the performance of concrete in the fire safety assessment of buildings and tunnels. Fire represents one of the most severe conditions encountered during the life-time of a structure. Concrete exposed to high temperature can significantly jeopardize the structural integrity and load bearing capacity of the structure. Spalling of concrete remains one of the main issues to be addressed in the case of fire in buildings and tunnels. Successful modeling of this phenomenon depends not only on the accurate prediction of the temperature distribution through structural concrete but also on its mechanical response to the heating and boundaries restrains conditions and the migration of moisture and associated pore pressures. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a reliable formulation of concrete with all required information to understand its behavior during and after exposure to elevated temperature. It is also necessary to properly assess the effects of thermal degradation in order to develop predictive tools and validate design codes. Many structural problems can be adequately worthy by an elastoplastic model. The ultimate goal of this study is the development of a new constitutive model under a chemoplastic framework. To do this, an experimental program is carried out. The purpose of this program is twofold. First, it is essential to calibrate the proposed constitutive law that will be developed, and, second, for defining an inverse a problem. Usually, uniaxial and triaxial tests, conducted with confining pressure varied between 1.3 and 24 MPa and a temperature up to 700°C, allow us to identify the constitutive law parameters. This law reproduces the reduced field strength due to

  15. Durability of Selected Membrane Materials when Exposed to Chlorine Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikeland, Marianne Soerflaten

    2001-03-01

    This thesis is focusing on the durability of selected membrane materials when exposed to chlorine gas in the temperature range 30-100{sup o}C. Studies of the changes of membrane separation properties and the mechanisms promoting these changes have been studied. The selected membrane materials were poly(dimethylsioxane) (PDMS), Fluorel, fluorosilicone, and blends of PDMS and Fluorel. The thesis is organised in seven chapters. The first chapter gives an introduction to the background of the work. The second chapter presents the theory for gas separation using dense rubbery membranes. The properties of the selected membrane materials are presented in chapter three. The fourth chapter describes degradation mechanisms for polymeric materials in general and for the selected membrane materials in particular. Presentation of the experimental work is given in chapter five, while the results with discussions are presented in chapter six. The conclusions and recommendations for further studies are given in chapter seven. Five appendixes are attached: Appendix A describes the calculations of permeability and solubility coefficients and the accuracy of the experimental measurements. Appendix B summarises the measured values in tables and Appendix C describes the analytical methods. Appendix D gives the properties of the gases used in the experiments. Appendix E is the article ''Durability of Poly(dimethylsiloxane) when Exposed to Chlorine Gas'', submitted to the Journal of Applied Polymer Science. Highly crosslinked PDMS was found to have an initial high permeability for chlorine gas and a high Cl{sub 2}/O{sub 2} selectivity. However when exposed to chlorine gas the permeability decreased significantly. Crosslinking of the PDMS polymer chain and chlorination of the polymer gave a denser polymer structure and thus lower permeability. Fluorel showed very low permeabilities and selectivities for the gases in question and was thus not interesting for this

  16. Pulmonary nodules in workers exposed to urban stressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancini, A.; Fioravanti, M.; Ciarrocca, M.; Palermo, P.; Fiaschetti, M.; Schifano, M.P.; Tomei, G.; Tomei, F.

    2010-01-01

    By multilayer spiral low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) of the chest this study assesses the early detection of lung lesions on a sample of 100 traffic policemen of a big Italian city professionally exposed to urban pollutants and 100 controls non-occupationally exposed to urban pollutants matched by sex, age, length of service and cigarette smoking habit. Exposure to urban pollutants in traffic policemen was characterized using the annual average concentrations of PM 10 , NO 2 and benzene in the period 1998-2008 measured by fixed monitoring stations located in different areas of the city. A significant and increasing number of suspicious lung nodules with diameters between 5 and 10 mm was observed: in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) vs. controls (including smokers and non-smokers); in total smokers (including traffic policemen and controls) vs. total non-smokers (traffic policemen and controls); in smoker traffic policemen vs. smoker controls and vs. non-smoker traffic policemen; in non-smoker traffic policemen vs. non-smoker controls. The RR of finding cases with at least one lung nodule with diameters between 5 and 10 mm in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) compared to controls (including smokers and non-smokers) is 1.94 (CI 1.13-3.31); in total smokers vs. non-smokers the RR is 1.96 (CI 1.20-3.19). The comparison between the interaction exposure and smoking shows an increase in smoker traffic policemen than in smoker controls (RR=2.14; CI 1.02-4.52). The RR for smoker traffic policemen was higher than in non-smoker traffic policemen (RR=2.09; CI 1.19-3.66). The results of our study show that: (1) while smoker workers have a higher risk for developing solid suspicious lung nodules, the simple routinely exposure to urban pollutants is unable to produce the same kind of increased risk; (2) the interaction of smoking and exposure to urban pollutants greatly increases the risk for the development of solid suspicious lung

  17. Pulmonary nodules in workers exposed to urban stressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancini, A. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Occupational Medicine, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fioravanti, M. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Psychiatric Science and Psychological Medicine, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Ciarrocca, M.; Palermo, P.; Fiaschetti, M.; Schifano, M.P. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Occupational Medicine, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome (Italy); Tomei, G. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Psychiatric Science and Psychological Medicine, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Tomei, F., E-mail: francesco.tomei@uniroma1.it [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Occupational Medicine, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    By multilayer spiral low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) of the chest this study assesses the early detection of lung lesions on a sample of 100 traffic policemen of a big Italian city professionally exposed to urban pollutants and 100 controls non-occupationally exposed to urban pollutants matched by sex, age, length of service and cigarette smoking habit. Exposure to urban pollutants in traffic policemen was characterized using the annual average concentrations of PM{sub 10}, NO{sub 2} and benzene in the period 1998-2008 measured by fixed monitoring stations located in different areas of the city. A significant and increasing number of suspicious lung nodules with diameters between 5 and 10 mm was observed: in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) vs. controls (including smokers and non-smokers); in total smokers (including traffic policemen and controls) vs. total non-smokers (traffic policemen and controls); in smoker traffic policemen vs. smoker controls and vs. non-smoker traffic policemen; in non-smoker traffic policemen vs. non-smoker controls. The RR of finding cases with at least one lung nodule with diameters between 5 and 10 mm in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) compared to controls (including smokers and non-smokers) is 1.94 (CI 1.13-3.31); in total smokers vs. non-smokers the RR is 1.96 (CI 1.20-3.19). The comparison between the interaction exposure and smoking shows an increase in smoker traffic policemen than in smoker controls (RR=2.14; CI 1.02-4.52). The RR for smoker traffic policemen was higher than in non-smoker traffic policemen (RR=2.09; CI 1.19-3.66). The results of our study show that: (1) while smoker workers have a higher risk for developing solid suspicious lung nodules, the simple routinely exposure to urban pollutants is unable to produce the same kind of increased risk; (2) the interaction of smoking and exposure to urban pollutants greatly increases the risk for the development of solid

  18. Airway inflammation among compost workers exposed to actinomycetes spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Kulvik Heldal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To study the associations between exposure to bioaerosols and work-related symptoms, lung function and biomarkers of airway inflammation in compost workers. Materials and method. Personal full-shift exposure measurements were performed on 47 workers employed at five windrow plants (n=20 and five reactor plants (n=27. Samples were analyzed for endotoxins, bacteria, fungal and actinomycetes spores. Health examinations were performed on workers and 37 controls before and after work on the day exposure was measured. The examinations included symptoms recorded by questionnaire, lung function by spirometry and nasal dimensions by acoustic rhinometry (AR. The pneumoproteins CC16, SP-D and SP-A were measured in a blood sample drawn at the end of the day. Results. The levels of endotoxins (median 3 EU/m[sup]3[/sup] , range 0–730 EU/m[sup]3[/sup] and actinomycetes spores (median 0.2 × 10[sup]6[/sup] spores/m[sup]3[/sup] , range 0–590 × 10[sup]6[/sup] spores/m[sup]3[/sup] were significantly higher in reactor plants compared to windrow plants. However, windrow composting workers reported more symptoms than reactor composting workers, probably due to use of respiratory protection. Exposure-response relationships between actinomycetes spores exposure and respiratory effects, found as cough and nose irritation during a shift, was significantly increased (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.1–16, OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.5–25, respectively, p<0.05 among workers exposed to 0.02–0.3 × 10[sup]6[/sup] actinomycetes spores/m 3 , and FEV1/FVC% decreased cross shift (b=–3.2, SE=1.5%, p<0.01. Effects were weaker in the highest exposed group, but these workers used respiratory protection, frequently limiting their actual exposure. No relationships were found between exposure and pneumoprotein concentrations. Conclusions. The major agent in the aerosol generated at compost plants was actinomycetes spores which was associated with work related cough symptoms and work

  19. Frequency of marriage and live birth among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blot, W.J.; Shimizu, Y.; Kato, H.; Miller, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    Frequency of marriage and birth as of January 1973 was determined for persons exposed in utero to the atomic bombs in 1945 and for controls. The marriage rate was lower in persons heavily exposed in utero than in the non-exposed or lightly exposed. This difference is attributed partly to the lesser marriageability of persons with mental retardation who are significantly more numerous among the heavily exposed, and partly to unmeasured variables, possibly including social discrimination against survivors of the atomic bomb. No consistent relation was observed between radiation exposure and three reproductive indices: childless marriages, number of births, and interval between marriage and first birth

  20. The management of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    In Canada, the regulation of radiation protection is a shared responsibility between the federal body (the Atomic Energy Control Board) and the appropriate provincial body (usually the Department of Health, or Department of Labour). The AECB is responsible, for example, for regulating the development, application and use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes, and the provinces are responsible for the regulation of all other forms of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations and for naturally-occurring radioactive material (NORM). Although there is consultation between the federal and provincial regulatory agencies, the division of jurisdictional authority has resulted in considerable differences in the approach towards implementation radiation protection programs in Canada. This is especially true in the management of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. These differences have produced unwarranted discrepancies in operating procedures and practices in the allocation of resources and manpower, and in the requirements governing radiological training, personnel monitoring and medical surveillance. In light of the General Amendments to the AEC Regulations, the 1990 Recommendations of the ICRP, and the IAEA recommendations on safety culture, the ACRP has considered it timely to undertake a study to examine the feasibility of establishing a more coherent approach to harmonize radiation protection practices within Canada. This study comprised an examination of the regulatory approach used in several countries: a review of the nature of radiation safety programs in various types of licensed institutions and facilities in Canada; and a review of recommendations of internationally-recognized authorities in radiation protection