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Sample records for raman spectrum signals

  1. Raman spectrum of asphaltene

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Wael A.; Yang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Asphaltenes extracted from seven different crude oils representing different geological formations from around the globe were analyzed using the Raman spectroscopic technique. Each spectrum is fitted with four main peaks using the Gaussian function. On the basis of D1 and G bands of the Raman spectrum, asphaltene indicated an ordered structure with the presence of boundary defected edges. The average aromatic sheet size of the asphaltene molecules is estimated within the range of 1.52-1.88 nm, which represents approximately seven to eight aromatic fused rings. This estimation is based on the integrated intensity of D1 and G bands, as proposed by Tunistra and Koenig. The results here are in perfect agreement with so many other used techniques and indicate the potential applicability of Raman measurements to determine the average aromatic ring size and its boundary. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  2. Raman spectrum of asphaltene

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Wael A.

    2012-11-05

    Asphaltenes extracted from seven different crude oils representing different geological formations from around the globe were analyzed using the Raman spectroscopic technique. Each spectrum is fitted with four main peaks using the Gaussian function. On the basis of D1 and G bands of the Raman spectrum, asphaltene indicated an ordered structure with the presence of boundary defected edges. The average aromatic sheet size of the asphaltene molecules is estimated within the range of 1.52-1.88 nm, which represents approximately seven to eight aromatic fused rings. This estimation is based on the integrated intensity of D1 and G bands, as proposed by Tunistra and Koenig. The results here are in perfect agreement with so many other used techniques and indicate the potential applicability of Raman measurements to determine the average aromatic ring size and its boundary. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. Condensing Raman spectrum for single-cell phenotype analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Shiwei

    2015-12-09

    Background In recent years, high throughput and non-invasive Raman spectrometry technique has matured as an effective approach to identification of individual cells by species, even in complex, mixed populations. Raman profiling is an appealing optical microscopic method to achieve this. To fully utilize Raman proling for single-cell analysis, an extensive understanding of Raman spectra is necessary to answer questions such as which filtering methodologies are effective for pre-processing of Raman spectra, what strains can be distinguished by Raman spectra, and what features serve best as Raman-based biomarkers for single-cells, etc. Results In this work, we have proposed an approach called rDisc to discretize the original Raman spectrum into only a few (usually less than 20) representative peaks (Raman shifts). The approach has advantages in removing noises, and condensing the original spectrum. In particular, effective signal processing procedures were designed to eliminate noise, utilising wavelet transform denoising, baseline correction, and signal normalization. In the discretizing process, representative peaks were selected to signicantly decrease the Raman data size. More importantly, the selected peaks are chosen as suitable to serve as key biological markers to differentiate species and other cellular features. Additionally, the classication performance of discretized spectra was found to be comparable to full spectrum having more than 1000 Raman shifts. Overall, the discretized spectrum needs about 5storage space of a full spectrum and the processing speed is considerably faster. This makes rDisc clearly superior to other methods for single-cell classication.

  4. Condensing Raman spectrum for single-cell phenotype analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Shiwei; Wang, Xuetao; Gao, Xin; Ren, Lihui; Su, Xiaoquan; Bu, Dongbo; Ning, Kang

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have proposed an approach called rDisc to discretize the original Raman spectrum into only a few (usually less than 20) representative peaks (Raman shifts). The approach has advantages in removing noises, and condensing the original spectrum. In particular, effective signal processing procedures were designed to eliminate noise, utilising wavelet transform denoising, baseline correction, and signal normalization. In the discretizing process, representative peaks were selected to signicantly decrease the Raman data size. More importantly, the selected peaks are chosen as suitable to serve as key biological markers to differentiate species and other cellular features. Additionally, the classication performance of discretized spectra was found to be comparable to full spectrum having more than 1000 Raman shifts. Overall, the discretized spectrum needs about 5storage space of a full spectrum and the processing speed is considerably faster. This makes rDisc clearly superior to other methods for single-cell classication.

  5. Raman spectrum of natural and synthetic stishovite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemley, R.J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Chao, E.C.T.

    1986-01-01

    Raman spectra of natural and synthetic samples of stishovite have been measured with a micro-optical spectrometer system. These spectra have a pattern that is characteristic of rutile-structured oxides. The spectrum of synthetic stishovite is characterized by well-resolved bands at 231, 589, 753, and 967 cm-1, which are assigned as the B1g, Eg, A1g, and B2g fundamentals, respectively, of the first-order Raman spectrum of the ideal, ordered structure. Natural stishovite obtained from Meteor Crater, Arizona has a first-order Raman spectrum that is fully consistent with that of the synthetic material. The observed spectrum of the natural sample, however, is weaker and has bands in addition to those identified as fundamentals in the spectrum of the synthetic material. A broad band at ???475 cm-1 may be indicative of glass or contaminants derived from the extraction procedure. Alternatively, this band may arise from multiphonon scattering that is enhanced by poor crystallinity or structural disorder in the natural shocked sample. ?? 1986 Springer-Verlag.

  6. A SIGNAL ENHANCED PORTABLE RAMAN PROBE FOR ANESTHETIC GAS MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schlüter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The spontaneous Raman scattering technique is an excellent tool for a quantitative analysis of multi-species gas mixtures. It is a noninvasive optical method for species identification and gas phase concentration measurement of all Raman active molecules, since the intensity of the species specific Raman signal is linearly dependent on the concentration. Applying a continuous wave (CW laser it typically takes a few seconds to capture a gas phase Raman spectrum at room temperature. Nevertheless in contrast to these advantages the weak Raman signal intensity is a major drawback. Thus, it is still challenging to detect gas phase Raman spectra in alow-pressure regime with a temporal resolution of only a few 100 ms. In this work a fully functional gas phase Raman system for measurements in the low-pressure regime (p ≥ 980 hPa (absolute is presented. It overcomes the drawback of a weak Raman signal by using a multipass cavity. A description of the sensor setup and of the multipass arrangement will be presented. Moreover the complete functionality of the sensor system will be demonstrated by measurements at an anesthesia simulator under clinical relevant conditions and in comparison to a conventional gas monitor.

  7. Triplet State Resonance Raman Spectrum of all-trans-diphenylbutadiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Grossman, W.E.L.; Killough, P.M

    1984-01-01

    The resonance Raman spectrum of all-trans-diphenylbutadiene (DPB) in its ground state and the resonance Raman spectrum (RRS) of DPB in its short-lived electronically excited triplet state are reported. Transient spectra were obtained by a pump-probe technique using two pulsed lasers...

  8. Studying the distribution of deep Raman spectroscopy signals using liquid tissue phantoms with varying optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardaki, Martha Z; Gardner, Benjamin; Stone, Nicholas; Matousek, Pavel

    2015-08-07

    In this study we employed large volume liquid tissue phantoms, consisting of a scattering agent (Intralipid), an absorption agent (Indian ink) and a synthesized calcification powder (calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP)) similar to that found in cancerous tissues (e.g. breast and prostate), to simulate human tissues. We studied experimentally the magnitude and origin of Raman signals in a transmission Raman geometry as a function of optical properties of the medium and the location of calcifications within the phantom. The goal was to inform the development of future noninvasive cancer screening applications in vivo. The results provide insight into light propagation and Raman scattering distribution in deep Raman measurements, exploring also the effect of the variation of relative absorbance of laser and Raman photons within the phantoms. Most notably when modeling breast and prostate tissues it follows that maximum signals is obtained from the front and back faces of the tissue with the central region contributing less to the measured spectrum.

  9. [Study on the surface-enhanced Raman spectrum of trimethoprim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-zhi; Wang, Yuan

    2003-02-01

    A new method is given in this paper to study the spectra of trimethoprim by using the surface-enhanced Raman spectrum (SERS) technology and the highly efficient thin layer chromatography (TLC) dissociation technology. The results of SERS indicate that the main vibrant spectral band can be obtained by TLC in the samples of about 6 micrograms. The expansion and contraction of pyrimidine ring can be obviously increased and the molecule information can be exactly presented under the action of silver particles.

  10. Enhancing Raman signals with an interferometrically controlled AFM tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oron-Carl, Matti; Krupke, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the upgrade of a commercial confocal Raman microscope into a tip-enhanced Raman microscope/spectroscopy system (TERS) by integrating an interferometrically controlled atomic force microscope into the base of an existing upright microscope to provide near-field detection and thus signal enhancement. The feasibility of the system is demonstrated by measuring the Raman near-field enhancement on thin PEDOT:PSS films and on carbon nanotubes within a device geometry. An enhancement factor of 2–3 and of 5–6 is observed, respectively. Moreover, on a nanotube device we show local conductivity measurement and its correlation to Raman and topography recordings. Upgrading an existing upright confocal Raman microscope in the demonstrated way is significantly cheaper than purchasing a complete commercial TERS system. (paper)

  11. Raman Spectra of Nanodiamonds: New Treatment Procedure Directed for Improved Raman Signal Marker Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul R. Nigmatullin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detonation nanodiamonds (NDs have shown to be promising agents in several industries, ranging from electronic to biomedical applications. These NDs are characterized by small particle size ranging from 3 to 6 nm, while having a reactive surface and a stable inert core. Nanodiamonds can exhibit novel intrinsic properties such as fluorescence, high refractive index, and unique Raman signal making them very attractive imaging agents. In this work, we used several nanodiamond preparations for Raman spectroscopic studies. We exposed these nanodiamonds to increasing temperature treatments at constant heating rates (425–575°C aiding graphite release. We wanted to correlate changes in the nanodiamond surface and properties with Raman signal which could be used as a detection marker. These observations would hold potential utility in biomedical imaging applications. First, the procedure of optimal linear smoothing was applied successfully to eliminate the high-frequency fluctuations and to extract the smoothed Raman spectra. After that we applied the secondary Fourier transform as the fitting function based on some significant set of frequencies. The remnant noise was described in terms of the beta-distribution function. We expect this data treatment to provide better results in biomolecule tracking using nanodiamond base Raman labeling.

  12. UMTS signal measurements with digital spectrum analysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licitra, G.; Palazzuoli, D.; Ricci, A. S.; Silvi, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    The launch of the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UNITS), the most recent mobile telecommunications standard has imposed the requirement of updating measurement instrumentation and methodologies. In order to define the most reliable measurement procedure, which is aimed at assessing the exposure to electromagnetic fields, modern spectrum analysers' features for correct signal characterisation has been reviewed. (authors)

  13. Study on pattern recognition of Raman spectrum based on fuzzy neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiangxiang; Lv, Xiaoyi; Mo, Jiaqing

    2017-10-01

    Hydatid disease is a serious parasitic disease in many regions worldwide, especially in Xinjiang, China. Raman spectrum of the serum of patients with echinococcosis was selected as the research object in this paper. The Raman spectrum of blood samples from healthy people and patients with echinococcosis are measured, of which the spectrum characteristics are analyzed. The fuzzy neural network not only has the ability of fuzzy logic to deal with uncertain information, but also has the ability to store knowledge of neural network, so it is combined with the Raman spectrum on the disease diagnosis problem based on Raman spectrum. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA) is used to extract the principal components of the Raman spectrum, reducing the network input and accelerating the prediction speed and accuracy of Network based on remaining the original data. Then, the information of the extracted principal component is used as the input of the neural network, the hidden layer of the network is the generation of rules and the inference process, and the output layer of the network is fuzzy classification output. Finally, a part of samples are randomly selected for the use of training network, then the trained network is used for predicting the rest of the samples, and the predicted results are compared with general BP neural network to illustrate the feasibility and advantages of fuzzy neural network. Success in this endeavor would be helpful for the research work of spectroscopic diagnosis of disease and it can be applied in practice in many other spectral analysis technique fields.

  14. Raman spectrum of predissociating H/sub 2/S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinermanns, K.; Suntz, R.; Schneider, R.

    1986-01-01

    Emission spectroscopy of photodissociating molecules provides interesting insights into the short-time dynamics of bond raptures. The authors report here a resolved H/sub 2/S photoemission spectrum after excitation at 193 nm, although its electronic spectrum in this wavelength region is diffuse. The electronic spectrum of H/sub 2/S between 250 and 170 nm is nearly continuous probably due to predissociation

  15. [Fuzzing pattern recognition study on Raman spectrum of tumor peripheral tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lei; Zhao, Yuan-li; Ge, Xiang-hong; Zhang, Xiao-dong; Hao, Zhi-fang; Lü, Jing

    2006-06-01

    On the basis of some theories about fuzzing pattern recognition, the present article studied the data preprocessing of the Raman spectrum of tumor peripheral tissue, and feature extraction and selection. According to these features the authors improved the leaning towards the bigger membership function of trapezoidal distribution. The authors built the membership function of Raman spectrum of tumor peripheral tissue which belongs to malignant tumor on the basis of 40 specimens, and designed the classifier. The test of other 40 specimens showed that the discrimination of malignant tumor is 82.4%, while that of beginning tumor is 73.9%.

  16. The Raman spectrum of LaFeO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompsett, G.A.; Phillips, R.J.; Sammes, N.M.

    1998-01-01

    LaFeO 3 was prepared using a reverse-strike coprecipitation method and compacts of the calcined powder were sintered at 1350, 1400 and 1450 deg C for 6 h. The Raman spectra of LaFeO 3 were obtained at both low-temperature and room-temperature, with 9 bands observed of predicted 24 Raman active modes. Mode assignment is determined from comparison with perovskites with the same structure, namely, SmAlO 3 and LaGaO 3 and are as follows: 102 (B 1g ), ca.140 (B 2g ), 150 (B 1g ), 176 (A g ), 227 (B 3g ), 261 (A g ), 289 (A g ), 429 (B 3g ). Copyright (1998) Australasian Ceramic Society

  17. The Raman spectrum and lattice parameters of MgB2 as a function of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Lei; Zhang Huarong; Chen Lin; Feng Yong

    2004-01-01

    The temperature dependences of the Raman spectrum and lattice parameters of polycrystalline MgB 2 have been investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. It is found that the lattice parameters show an approximately linear change with the temperature decrease, giving different thermal expansions along the a- and c-axes, which is caused by the comparatively weak metal-boron bonding in MgB 2 . The grain size of MgB 2 determined by means of x-ray diffraction is around 45 nm for both [100] and [001] directions. There is no evidence for any structural transition while the temperature changes from 300 K down to 12 K. An anomalous Raman band at 603 cm -1 is observed, which is consistent with the theoretical prediction for the E 2g in-plane boron stretching mode. The Raman frequency increases and the linewidth decreases as the temperature decreases. A possible origin of the temperature dependences of the Raman frequency and the linewidth is discussed. It is suggested that the grain size effect of MgB 2 on the nanometric scale will have a clear influence on the frequency and the linewidth of the Raman spectrum

  18. Concentration of small ring structures in vitreous silica from a first-principles analysis of the Raman spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, P; Gonze, Xavier; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2003-01-17

    Using a first-principles approach, we calculate Raman spectra for a model structure of vitreous silica. We develop a perturbational method for calculating the dielectric tensor in an ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme and obtain Raman coupling tensors by finite differences with respect to atomic displacements. For frequencies below 1000 cm(-1), the parallel-polarized Raman spectrum of vitreous silica is dominated by oxygen bending motions, showing a strong sensitivity to the intermediate range structure. By modeling the Raman coupling, we derive estimates for the concentrations of three- and four-membered rings from the experimental intensities of the Raman defect lines.

  19. Overlay Spectrum Sharing using Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Osama; Abediseid, Walid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    in overlay cognitive radio system, where the secondary transmitter broadcasts a mixture of two different signals. The first signal is selected from the PGS scheme to match the primary message transmission. On the other hand, the second signal is chosen

  20. Digital dewaxing of Raman signals: discrimination between nevi and melanoma spectra obtained from paraffin-embedded skin biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfayli, Ali; Gobinet, Cyril; Vrabie, Valeriu; Huez, Regis; Manfait, Michel; Piot, Olivier

    2009-05-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is the most severe tumor affecting the skin and accounts for three quarters of all skin cancer deaths. Raman spectroscopy is a promising nondestructive tool that has been increasingly used for characterization of the molecular features of cancerous tissues. Different multivariate statistical analysis techniques are used in order to extract relevant information that can be considered as functional spectroscopic descriptors of a particular pathology. Paraffin embedding (waxing) is a highly efficient process used to conserve biopsies in tumor banks for several years. However, the use of non-dewaxed formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues for Raman spectroscopic investigations remains very restricted, limiting the development of the technique as a routine analytical tool for biomedical purposes. This is due to the highly intense signal of paraffin, which masks important vibrations of the biological tissues. In addition to being time consuming and chemical intensive, chemical dewaxing methods are not efficient and they leave traces of the paraffin in tissues, which affects the Raman signal. In the present study, we use independent component analysis (ICA) on Raman spectral images collected on melanoma and nevus samples. The sources obtained from these images are then used to eliminate, using non-negativity constrained least squares (NCLS), the paraffin contribution from each individual spectrum of the spectral images of nevi and melanomas. Corrected spectra of both types of lesion are then compared and classified into dendrograms using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA).

  1. Theoretical model to the Raman spectrum of B2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrio, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper we report a new theory that reproduces qualitatively well the Raman spectrum of v-B 2 O 3 . The basic idea is that one can find the thermodinamically averaged Green's function for a Bethe lattice, with a Born Hamiltonian, with dihedral angles totally random. In extension one constructs a Bethe lattice of rings and solve the equations of motion for Green's functions at the Boron sites, bridging oxygens and oxygens in the rings. (M.W.O.) [pt

  2. Resonance Raman Spectrum of the Transient (SCN)2 Free Radical Anion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Jensen, N. H.; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn

    1979-01-01

    The resonance Raman spectrum of the transient species (λmax = 475 nm, τ½ = 1.6 μs) formed by pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of thiocyanate, SCN2−, is reported. The spectrum is discussed in terms of the previous assignment of this transient to the radical anion, (SCN)−2. The observed...... vibrational frequencies of the radical anion are consistent with substantial weakening of the S---S and the Ctriple bond; length as m-dashN bonds are compared with neutral thiocyanogen....

  3. Experimental and ab initio DFT calculated Raman Spectrum of Sudan I, a Red Dye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Kristensen, Steffen Buus; Liu, Chuan

    2011-01-01

    The red dye Sudan I was investigated by Raman spectroscopy using different excitation wavelengths (1064, 532 and 244 nm). A calculation of the Raman spectrum based on quantum mechanical ab initio density functional theory (DFT) was made using the RB3LYP method with the 3-21G and 6-311+G(d,p) basis...... of the Sudan I molecule was involved in the majority of the vibrations through N N and C–N stretching and various bending modes. Low-intensity bands in the lower wavenumber range (at about 721, 616, 463 and 218 cm−1) were selectively enhanced by the resonance Raman effect when using the 532 nm excitation line....... Comparison was made with other azo dyes in the literature on natural, abundant plant pigments. The results show that there is a possibility in foodstuff analysis to distinguish Sudan I from other dyes by using Raman spectroscopy with more than one laser wavelength for resonance enhancement of the different...

  4. Subtle Raman signals from nano-diamond and β-SiC thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntumalla, Mohan Kumar; Ojha, Harish; Srikanth, Vadali Venkata Satya Siva

    2013-01-01

    Micro Raman scattering experiments are carried out in pursuit of subtle but discernable signals from nano-diamond and β-SiC thin films. The thin films are synthesized using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition technique. Raman scattering experiments in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were carried out to extract microstructure and phase information of the above mentioned thin films. Certain subtle Raman signals have been identified in this work. In the case of nanodiamond thin films, Raman bands at ∼ 485 and ∼ 1220 cm −1 are identified. These bands have been assigned to the nanodiamond present in nanodiamond thin films. In the case of nano β-SiC thin films, optical phonons are identified using surface enhanced Raman scattering. - Highlights: ► Subtle Raman signals from nano-diamond and β-silicon carbide related thin films. ► Raman bands at ∼ 485 and ∼ 1220 cm −1 from nanodiamond thin films are identified. ► Longitudinal optical phonon from nano β-silicon carbide thin films is identified

  5. Power Spectrum Estimation of Randomly Sampled Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara M.; Buchhave, Preben; K. George, William

    2014-01-01

    proportional to velocity magnitude that consist of well-defined frequency content, which makes bias easy to spot. The idea is that if the algorithms are not able to produce correct statistics from this simple signal, then they will certainly not be able to function well for a more complex measured LDA signal...

  6. Jamming Signal Reduction in Spread Spectrum Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-26

    the addition of an appropriate equalizer netowrk . The original signal and the estimate of the jamming signal are matched and added by a resistor...ADDRESS(SI different from Controllln~ OWce) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) Unclassified IS.. OECLASSIFICATION /DOWNGRAD IHO SCHEDULE $6. DISTRIB

  7. Raman spectroscopy of gases with a Fourier transform spectrometer: the spectrum of D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, D.E.; Weber, A.; Brault, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    A high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) has been used to record spontaneous incoherent laser Raman spectra of gases. The resolution, sensitivity, calibration accuracy, and spectral coverage achieved in these spectra demonstrate the viability of the FTS for Raman spectroscopy. Measurements from a spectrum of D 2 containing both v = 0-0 and v = 1-0 transitions were fitted to the Dunham expansion of the vibration--rotation energy levels. The coefficients are (in cm -1 ) Y 10 = 2993.6060(67), Y 01 = 30.4401 (89), Y 11 = -1.0538(17), Y 02 = -0.011590(41), Y 12 = 2.02(80) x 10 -4 , and Y 03 = 5.83(11) x 10 -6 . Errors in parentheses are one standard deviation

  8. Periodic Density Functional Theory Study of the Structure, Raman Spectrum, and Mechanical Properties of Schoepite Mineral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenero, Francisco; Cobos, Joaquín; Timón, Vicente

    2018-04-16

    The structure and Raman spectrum of schoepite mineral, [(UO 2 ) 8 O 2 (OH) 12 ]·12H 2 O, was studied by means of theoretical calculations. The computations were carried out by using density functional theory with plane waves and pseudopotentials. A norm-conserving pseudopotential specific for the U atom developed in a previous work was employed. Because it was not possible to locate H atoms directly from X-ray diffraction (XRD) data by structure refinement in previous experimental studies, all of the positions of the H atoms in the full unit cell were determined theoretically. The structural results, including the lattice parameters, bond lengths, bond angles, and powder XRD pattern, were found to be in good agreement with their experimental counterparts. However, the calculations performed using the unit cell designed by Ostanin and Zeller in 2007, involving half of the atoms of the full unit cell, led to significant errors in the computed powder XRD pattern. Furthermore, Ostanin and Zeller's unit cell contains hydronium ions, H 3 O + , which are incompatible with the experimental information. Therefore, while the use of this schoepite model may be a very useful approximation requiring a much smaller amount of computational effort, the full unit cell should be used to study this mineral accurately. The Raman spectrum was also computed by means of density functional perturbation theory and compared with the experimental spectrum. The results were also in agreement with the experimental data. A normal-mode analysis of the theoretical spectra was performed to assign the main bands of the Raman spectrum. This assignment significantly improved the current empirical assignment of the bands of the Raman spectrum of schoepite mineral. In addition, the equation of state and elastic properties of this mineral were determined. The crystal structure of schoepite was found to be stable mechanically and dynamically. Schoepite can be described as a brittle material exhibiting

  9. Overlay Spectrum Sharing using Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Osama

    2016-11-30

    Improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) scheme has been recently shown to provide performance improvements in interference limited networks as opposed to the conventional proper Gaussian signaling (PGS) scheme. In this paper, we implement the IGS scheme in overlay cognitive radio system, where the secondary transmitter broadcasts a mixture of two different signals. The first signal is selected from the PGS scheme to match the primary message transmission. On the other hand, the second signal is chosen to be from the IGS scheme in order to reduce the interference effect on the primary receiver. We then optimally design the overlay cognitive radio to maximize the secondary link achievable rate while satisfying the primary network quality of service requirements. In particular, we consider full and partial channel knowledge scenarios and derive the feasibility conditions of operating the overlay cognitive radio systems. Moreover, we derive the superiority conditions of the IGS schemes over the PGS schemes supported with closed form expressions for the corresponding power distribution and the circularity coefficient and parameters. Simulation results are provided to support our theoretical derivations.

  10. A high signal-to-noise ratio composite quasar spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, P.J.; Hewett, P.C.; Foltz, C.B.; Chaffee, F.H.; Weymann, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    A very high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N of about 400) composite spectrum of the rest-frame ultraviolet and optical region of high luminosity quasars is presented. The spectrum is derived from 718 individual spectra obtained as part of the Large Bright Quasar Survey. The moderate resolution, 4A or less, and high signal-to-noise ratio allow numerous weak emission features to be identified. Of particular note is the large equivalent-width of the Fe II emission in the rest-frame ultraviolet and the blue continuum slope of the composite. The primary aim of this paper is to provide a reference spectrum for use in line identifications, and a series of large-scale representations of the composite spectrum are shown. A measure of the standard deviation of the individual quasar spectra from the composite spectrum is also presented. 12 refs

  11. Studies of the Raman Spectra of Cyclic and Acyclic Molecules: Combination and Prediction Spectrum Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taijin; Assary, Rajeev S.; Marshall, Christopher L.; Gosztola, David J.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Stair, Peter C.

    2012-04-02

    A combination of Raman spectroscopy and density functional methods was employed to investigate the spectral features of selected molecules: furfural, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), methanol, acetone, acetic acid, and levulinic acid. The computed spectra and measured spectra are in excellent agreement, consistent with previous studies. Using the combination and prediction spectrum method (CPSM), we were able to predict the important spectral features of two platform chemicals, HMF and levulinic acid.The results have shown that CPSM is a useful alternative method for predicting vibrational spectra of complex molecules in the biomass transformation process.

  12. Power Spectrum Estimation of Randomly Sampled Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, C. M.; Buchhave, P.; K. George, W.

    algorithms; sample and-hold and the direct spectral estimator without residence time weighting. The computer generated signal is a Poisson process with a sample rate proportional to velocity magnitude that consist of well-defined frequency content, which makes bias easy to spot. The idea...

  13. Distortions in the output signals of conventional spectrum analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1988-08-01

    We show that the output signals of conventional spectrum analysers contain distortions which basically originate from the signal processing performed inside the analysers' frequency convertors. Total elimination of these distortions through normal filtering techniques is difficult owing to the closeness of some of their frequencies to the corresponding frequencies of the required signals. Simple design adjustments that can minimize these distortions are suggested. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs

  14. Microwave assisted in situ synthesis of Ag–NaCMC films and their reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Tao; Li, Junpeng; Zhang, Li; Wang, Binbing; Zhou, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Two kinds of Ag–NaCMC films for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) were prepared by conventional heating and microwave assisted in situ reduction methods without any additional capping or reducing agents. A relatively narrow and symmetric surface plasmon resonance band was observed in the absorption spectra of the films fabricated by the microwave assisted in situ reduction method. More uniform silver nanoparticles (NPs) implied by the symmetric absorption spectrum were further confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy images. After the simulation of the E-field intensity distribution around the silver NPs in NaCMC film, the Raman scattering enhancement factors (EFs) of these films were then investigated with 4-mercaptobenzoic acid molecule as a SERS reporter. Improved reproducibility of SERS signal was obtained in the microwave assisted synthesized Ag–NaCMC film, although it maintained an EF as only 1.11 × 10 8 . The reproducible SERS signal of the Ag–NaCMC film is particularly attractive and this microwave assisted in situ reduction method is suitable for the production of excellent substrate for biosensor application. - Highlights: • The synthesis of Ag–NaCMC films was successfully fulfilled by a low-cost microwave method. • More uniform silver nanoparticles were observed in Ag–NaCMC film synthesized by microwave. • Improved reproducibility of SERS signal was obtained in microwave synthesized Ag–NaCMC film. - Abstract: Two kinds of Ag–NaCMC films for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) were prepared by conventional heating and microwave assisted in situ reduction methods without any additional capping or reducing agents. A relatively narrow and symmetric surface plasmon resonance band was observed in the absorption spectra of the films fabricated by the microwave assisted in situ reduction method. More uniform silver nanoparticles (NPs) implied by the symmetric absorption spectrum were further confirmed by

  15. Raman signal enhancement by multiple beam excitation and its application for the detection of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sakshi [Laser Science and Technology Centre, Metcalfe House, Delhi 110054 (India); Instrument Design and Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Ahmad, Azeem; Mehta, Dalip S., E-mail: mehtads@physics.iitd.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Gambhir, Vijayeta; Reddy, Martha N. [Laser Science and Technology Centre, Metcalfe House, Delhi 110054 (India)

    2015-08-31

    In a typical Raman based sensor, a single laser beam is used for exciting the sample and the backscattered or forward scattered light is collected using collection optics and is analyzed by a spectrometer. We have investigated that by means of exciting the sample with multiple beams, i.e., by dividing the same input power of the single beam into two or three or more beams and exciting the sample from different angles, the Raman signal enhances significantly. Due to the presence of multiple beams passing through the same volume of the sample, an interference pattern is formed and the volume of interaction of excitation beams with the sample increases. By means of this geometry, the enhancement in the Raman signal is observed and it was found that the signal strength increases linearly with the increase in number of excitation beams. Experimental results of this scheme for excitation of the samples are reported for explosive detection at a standoff distance.

  16. A high-resolution two-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectrum using a spectral amplitude modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Chenhui; Zhang, Shian; Wu, Meizhen; Jia, Tianqing; Sun, Zhenrong; Qiu, Jianrong

    2013-01-01

    Femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectra suffer from low spectral resolution because of the broadband laser spectrum. In this paper, we propose a feasible scheme to achieve a high-resolution two-pulse CARS spectrum by shaping both the pump and probe pulses using rectangular amplitude modulation. We show that a narrowband hole in the CARS spectrum can be created by the amplitude-shaped laser pulse, the position of which is correlated with the Raman resonant frequency of the molecule. Thus, by observing holes in the CARS spectrum, we are able to obtain a high-resolution CARS spectrum and the energy-level diagram of the molecule. (paper)

  17. Signal-to-noise contribution of principal component loads in reconstructed near-infrared Raman tissue spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimbergen, M C M; van Swol, C F P; Kendall, C; Verdaasdonk, R M; Stone, N; Bosch, J L H R

    2010-01-01

    The overall quality of Raman spectra in the near-infrared region, where biological samples are often studied, has benefited from various improvements to optical instrumentation over the past decade. However, obtaining ample spectral quality for analysis is still challenging due to device requirements and short integration times required for (in vivo) clinical applications of Raman spectroscopy. Multivariate analytical methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), are routinely applied to Raman spectral datasets to develop classification models. Data compression is necessary prior to discriminant analysis to prevent or decrease the degree of over-fitting. The logical threshold for the selection of principal components (PCs) to be used in discriminant analysis is likely to be at a point before the PCs begin to introduce equivalent signal and noise and, hence, include no additional value. Assessment of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at a certain peak or over a specific spectral region will depend on the sample measured. Therefore, the mean SNR over the whole spectral region (SNR(msr)) is determined in the original spectrum as well as for spectra reconstructed from an increasing number of principal components. This paper introduces a method of assessing the influence of signal and noise from individual PC loads and indicates a method of selection of PCs for LDA. To evaluate this method, two data sets with different SNRs were used. The sets were obtained with the same Raman system and the same measurement parameters on bladder tissue collected during white light cystoscopy (set A) and fluorescence-guided cystoscopy (set B). This method shows that the mean SNR over the spectral range in the original Raman spectra of these two data sets is related to the signal and noise contribution of principal component loads. The difference in mean SNR over the spectral range can also be appreciated since fewer principal components can

  18. First-principles analysis of the Raman spectrum of vitreous silica: comparison with the vibrational density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umari, P; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    The HH and HV Raman spectra of vitreous silica are calculated from first principles for a model structure consisting of a disordered network of corner-sharing tetrahedra, for which the vibrational properties were obtained previously. We analyse the contribution of specific atomic motions to the Raman spectra and perform a detailed comparison with respect to the vibrational density of states. We find that the HV spectrum closely resembles the vibrational density of states. By comparison, the HH spectrum shows significant differences and arises almost exclusively from oxygen vibrations

  19. First-principles analysis of the Raman spectrum of vitreous silica: comparison with the vibrational density of states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umari, P; Pasquarello, Alfredo [Institut de Theorie des Phenomenes Physiques (ITP), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Institut Romand de Recherche Numerique en Physique des Materiaux (IRRMA), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2003-04-30

    The HH and HV Raman spectra of vitreous silica are calculated from first principles for a model structure consisting of a disordered network of corner-sharing tetrahedra, for which the vibrational properties were obtained previously. We analyse the contribution of specific atomic motions to the Raman spectra and perform a detailed comparison with respect to the vibrational density of states. We find that the HV spectrum closely resembles the vibrational density of states. By comparison, the HH spectrum shows significant differences and arises almost exclusively from oxygen vibrations.

  20. Generation and reception of spread-spectrum signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, R.

    1983-05-01

    The term 'spread-spectrum' implies a technique whereby digitized information is added to a pseudo-random number sequence and the resultant bit stream changes some parameter of the carrier frequency in discrete increments. The discrete modulation of the carrier frequency is usually realized either as a multiple level phase shift keyed or frequency shift keyed signal. The resultant PSK-modulated frequency spectrum is referred to as direct sequence spread-spectrum, whereas the FSK-modulated carrier frequency is referred to as a frequency hopped spread spectrum. These can be considered the major subsets of the more general term 'spread-spectrum'. In discussing signal reception, it is pointed out that active correlation methods are used for channel synchronization when the psuedo random sequences are long or when the processing gain is large, whereas the passive methods may be used for either short pseudo-random noise generation codes or to assist in attaining initial synchronization in long sequence spread-spectrum systems.

  1. Fine structure of the stimulated Raman spectrum in compressed hydrogen. The relaxation-oscillation mode of backscattered Stokes emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bespalov, V.G.; Efimov, Yu.N.; Staselko, D.I.

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies the emission spectra of backscattered stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in compressed hydrogen in the relaxation-oscillation mode and the compression SRS mode for the minimum width of the spontaneous scattering spectrum (in the region of the Dicke dip). It is shown that the generation of a train of Stokes-emission subpulses results in the appearance of fine structure in the backscattered SRS spectrum. The influence of the temporal structure of reflected Stokes pulses on this spectrum and on the appearance of fine structure in it is analyzed. The conditions for generating spectrally limited (without phase modulation), extremely coherent Stokes pulses are explained. 18 refs., 3 figs

  2. How Does the Shape of the Stellar Spectrum Affect the Raman Scattering Features in the Albedo of Exoplanets?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oklopčić, Antonija [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hirata, Christopher M. [Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Heng, Kevin, E-mail: oklopcic@astro.caltech.edu [Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012, Bern (Switzerland)

    2017-09-10

    The diagnostic potential of the spectral signatures of Raman scattering, imprinted in planetary albedo spectra at short optical wavelengths, has been demonstrated in research on planets in the solar system, and has recently been proposed as a probe of exoplanet atmospheres, complementary to albedo studies at longer wavelengths. Spectral features caused by Raman scattering offer insight into the properties of planetary atmospheres, such as the atmospheric depth, composition, and temperature, as well as the possibility of detecting and spectroscopically identifying spectrally inactive species, such as H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, in the visible wavelength range. Raman albedo features, however, depend on both the properties of the atmosphere and the shape of the incident stellar spectrum. Identical planetary atmospheres can produce very different albedo spectra depending on the spectral properties of the host star. Here we present a set of geometric albedo spectra calculated for atmospheres with H{sub 2}/He, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} composition, irradiated by different stellar types ranging from late A to late K stars. Prominent albedo features caused by Raman scattering appear at different wavelengths for different types of host stars. We investigate how absorption due to the alkali elements sodium and potassium may affect the intensity of Raman features, and we discuss the preferred strategies for detecting Raman features in future observations.

  3. Multifractal signal reconstruction based on singularity power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Gang; Yu, Wenxian; Xia, Wenxiang; Zhang, Shuning

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a novel multifractal reconstruction method based on singularity power spectrum analysis (MFR-SPS). • The proposed MFR-SPS method has better power characteristic than the algorithm in Fraclab. • Further, the SPS-ISE algorithm performs better than the SPS-MFS algorithm. • Based on the proposed MFR-SPS method, we can restructure singularity white fractal noise (SWFN) and linear singularity modulation (LSM) multifractal signal, in equivalent sense, similar with the linear frequency modulation(LFM) signal and WGN in the Fourier domain. - Abstract: Fractal reconstruction (FR) and multifractal reconstruction (MFR) can be considered as the inverse problem of singularity spectrum analysis, and it is challenging to reconstruct fractal signal in accord with multifractal spectrum (MFS). Due to the multiple solutions of fractal reconstruction, the traditional methods of FR/MFR, such as FBM based method, wavelet based method, random wavelet series, fail to reconstruct fractal signal deterministically, and besides, those methods neglect the power spectral distribution in the singular domain. In this paper, we propose a novel MFR method based singularity power spectrum (SPS). Supposing the consistent uniform covering of multifractal measurement, we control the traditional power law of each scale of wavelet coefficients based on the instantaneous singularity exponents (ISE) or MFS, simultaneously control the singularity power law based on the SPS, and deduce the principle and algorithm of MFR based on SPS. Reconstruction simulation and error analysis of estimated ISE, MFS and SPS show the effectiveness and the improvement of the proposed methods compared to those obtained by the Fraclab package.

  4. A New Digital Signal Processing Method for Spectrum Interference Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrisani, L.; Capriglione, D.; Ferrigno, L.; Miele, G.

    2011-01-01

    Frequency spectrum is a limited shared resource, nowadays interested by an ever growing number of different applications. Generally, the companies providing such services pay to the governments the right of using a limited portion of the spectrum, consequently they would be assured that the licensed radio spectrum resource is not interested by significant external interferences. At the same time, they have to guarantee that their devices make an efficient use of the spectrum and meet the electromagnetic compatibility regulations. Therefore the competent authorities are called to control the access to the spectrum adopting suitable management and monitoring policies, as well as the manufacturers have to periodically verify the correct working of their apparatuses. Several measurement solutions are present on the market. They generally refer to real-time spectrum analyzers and measurement receivers. Both of them are characterized by good metrological accuracies but show costs, dimensions and weights that make no possible a use "on the field". The paper presents a first step in realizing a digital signal processing based measurement instrument able to suitably accomplish for the above mentioned needs. In particular the attention has been given to the DSP based measurement section of the instrument. To these aims an innovative measurement method for spectrum monitoring and management is proposed in this paper. It performs an efficient sequential analysis based on a sample by sample digital processing. Three main issues are in particular pursued: (i) measurement performance comparable to that exhibited by other methods proposed in literature; (ii) fast measurement time, (iii) easy implementation on cost-effective measurement hardware.

  5. Signaling on the continuous spectrum of nonlinear optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkolnia, Iman; Safari, Majid

    2017-08-07

    This paper studies different signaling techniques on the continuous spectrum (CS) of nonlinear optical fiber defined by nonlinear Fourier transform. Three different signaling techniques are proposed and analyzed based on the statistics of the noise added to CS after propagation along the nonlinear optical fiber. The proposed methods are compared in terms of error performance, distance reach, and complexity. Furthermore, the effect of chromatic dispersion on the data rate and noise in nonlinear spectral domain is investigated. It is demonstrated that, for a given sequence of CS symbols, an optimal bandwidth (or symbol rate) can be determined so that the temporal duration of the propagated signal at the end of the fiber is minimized. In effect, the required guard interval between the subsequently transmitted data packets in time is minimized and the effective data rate is significantly enhanced. Moreover, by selecting the proper signaling method and design criteria a distance reach of 7100 km is reported by only singling on CS at a rate of 9.6 Gbps.

  6. Infrared optical constants, dielectric constants, molar polarizabilities, transition moments, dipole moment derivatives and Raman spectrum of liquid cyclohexane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, C. Dale; Pickup, Janet E.

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies have been done in this laboratory focusing on the optical properties of several liquid aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in the infrared. The current study reports the infrared and absorption Raman spectra of liquid cyclohexane. Infrared spectra were recorded at 25 °C over a wavenumber range of 7400-490 cm -1. Infrared measurements were taken using transmission cells with pathlengths ranging from 3 to 5000 μm. Raman spectra were recorded between 3700 and 100 cm -1 at 25 °C using a 180° reflection geometry. Ab initio calculations of the vibrational wavenumbers at the B3LYP/6311G level of theory were performed and used to help assign the observed IR and Raman spectra. Extensive assignments of the fundamentals and binary combinations observed in the infrared imaginary molar polarizability spectrum are reported. The imaginary molar polarizability spectrum was curve fitted to separate the intensity from the various transitions and used to determine the transition moments and magnitudes of the derivatives of the dipole moment with respect to the normal coordinates for the fundamentals.

  7. Raman database of amino acids solutions: A critical study of Extended Multiplicative Signal Correction

    KAUST Repository

    Candeloro, Patrizio

    2013-01-01

    The Raman spectra of biological materials always exhibit complex profiles, constituting several peaks and/or bands which arise due to the large variety of biomolecules. The extraction of quantitative information from these spectra is not a trivial task. While qualitative information can be retrieved from the changes in peaks frequencies or from the appearance/disappearance of some peaks, quantitative analysis requires an examination of peak intensities. Unfortunately in biological samples it is not easy to identify a reference peak for normalizing intensities, and this makes it very difficult to study the peak intensities. In the last decades a more refined mathematical tool, the extended multiplicative signal correction (EMSC), has been proposed for treating infrared spectra, which is also capable of providing quantitative information. From the mathematical and physical point of view, EMSC can also be applied to Raman spectra, as recently proposed. In this work the reliability of the EMSC procedure is tested by application to a well defined biological system: the 20 standard amino acids and their combination in peptides. The first step is the collection of a Raman database of these 20 amino acids, and subsequently EMSC processing is applied to retrieve quantitative information from amino acids mixtures and peptides. A critical review of the results is presented, showing that EMSC has to be carefully handled for complex biological systems. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Differentiation of molecular chain entanglement structure through laser Raman spectrum measurement of High strength PET fibers under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, D.; Takarada, W.; Kikutani, T.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism for the improvement of mechanical properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibers based on the concept of controlling the state of molecular entanglement. For this purpose, five different PET fibers were prepared through either the conventional melt spinning and drawing/annealing process or the high-speed melt spinning process. In both cases, the melt spinning process was designed so as to realize different Deborah number conditions. The prepared fibers were subjected to the laser Raman spectroscopy measurement and the characteristics of the scattering peak at around 1616 cm-1, which corresponds to the C-C/C=C stretching mode of the aromatic ring in the main chain, were investigated in detail. It was revealed that the fibers drawn and annealed after the melt spinning process of lower Deborah number showed higher tensile strength as well as lower value of full width at half maximum (FWHM) in the laser Raman spectrum. Narrow FWHM was considered to represent the homogeneous state of entanglement structure, which may lead to the higher strength and toughness of fibers because individual molecular chains tend to bare similar level of tensile stress when the fiber is stretched. In case of high-speed spun fibers prepared with a high Deborah number condition, the FWHM was narrow presumably because much lower tensile stress in comparison with the drawing/annealing process was applied when the fiber structure was developed, however the value increased significantly upon applying tensile load to the fibers during the laser Raman spectrum measurement. From these results, it was concluded that the Laser Raman spectroscopy could differentiate molecular chain entanglement structure of various fiber samples, in that low FWHM, which corresponds to either homogeneous state of molecular entanglement or lower level of mean residual stress, and small increase of FWTH upon applying tensile stress are considered to be the key

  9. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Potential Role of Endocannabinoids Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balapal S. Basavarajappa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the unique features of prenatal alcohol exposure in humans is impaired cognitive and behavioral function resulting from damage to the central nervous system (CNS, which leads to a spectrum of impairments referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Human FASD phenotypes can be reproduced in the rodent CNS following prenatal ethanol exposure. Several mechanisms are expected to contribute to the detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing fetus, particularly in the developing CNS. These mechanisms may act simultaneously or consecutively and differ among a variety of cell types at specific developmental stages in particular brain regions. Studies have identified numerous potential mechanisms through which alcohol can act on the fetus. Among these mechanisms are increased oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, interference with the activity of growth factors, glia cells, cell adhesion molecules, gene expression during CNS development and impaired function of signaling molecules involved in neuronal communication and circuit formation. These alcohol-induced deficits result in long-lasting abnormalities in neuronal plasticity and learning and memory and can explain many of the neurobehavioral abnormalities found in FASD. In this review, the author discusses the mechanisms that are associated with FASD and provides a current status on the endocannabinoid system in the development of FASD.

  10. Collision-induced Raman scattering and the peculiar case of neon: Anisotropic spectrum, anisotropy, and the inverse scattering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixneuf, Sophie; Rachet, Florent; Chrysos, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Owing in part to the p orbitals of its filled L shell, neon has repeatedly come on stage for its peculiar properties. In the context of collision-induced Raman spectroscopy, in particular, we have shown, in a brief report published a few years ago [M. Chrysos et al., Phys. Rev. A 80, 054701 (2009)], that the room-temperature anisotropic Raman lineshape of Ne–Ne exhibits, in the far wing of the spectrum, a peculiar structure with an aspect other than a smooth wing (on a logarithmic plot) which contrasts with any of the existing studies, and whose explanation lies in the distinct way in which overlap and exchange interactions interfere with the classical electrostatic ones in making the polarizability anisotropy, α ∥ − α ⊥ . Here, we delve deeper into that study by reporting data for that spectrum up to 450 cm −1 and for even- and odd-order spectral moments up to M 6 , as well as quantum lineshapes, generated from SCF, CCSD, and CCSD(T) models for α ∥ − α ⊥ , which are critically compared with the experiment. On account of the knowledge of the spectrum over the augmented frequency domain, we show how the inverse scattering problem can be tackled both effectively and economically, and we report an analytic function for the anisotropy whose quantum lineshape faithfully reproduces our observations

  11. Alterations of GABAergic Signaling in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Pizzarelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs comprise a heterogeneous group of pathological conditions, mainly of genetic origin, characterized by stereotyped behavior, marked impairment in verbal and nonverbal communication, social skills, and cognition. Interestingly, in a small number of cases, ASDs are associated with single mutations in genes encoding for neuroligin-neurexin families. These are adhesion molecules which, by regulating transsynaptic signaling, contribute to maintain a proper excitatory/inhibitory (E/I balance at the network level. Furthermore, GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in adult life, at late embryonic/early postnatal stages has been shown to depolarize and excite targeted cell through an outwardly directed flux of chloride. The depolarizing action of GABA and associated calcium influx regulate a variety of developmental processes from cell migration and differentiation to synapse formation. Here, we summarize recent data concerning the functional role of GABA in building up and refining neuronal circuits early in development and the molecular mechanisms regulating the E/I balance. A dysfunction of the GABAergic signaling early in development leads to a severe E/I unbalance in neuronal circuits, a condition that may account for some of the behavioral deficits observed in ASD patients.

  12. Reduced Predictable Information in Brain Signals in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eGomez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a common developmental disorder characterized by communication difficulties and impaired social interaction. Recent results suggest altered brain dynamics as a potential cause of symptoms in ASD. Here, we aim to describe potential information-processing consequences of these alterations by measuring active information storage (AIS – a key quantity in the theory of distributed computation in biological networks. AIS is defined as the mutual information between the semi-infinite past of a process and its next state. It measures the amount of stored information that is used for computation of the next time step of a process. AIS is high for rich but predictable dynamics. We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG signals in 13 ASD patients and 14 matched control subjects in a visual task. After a beamformer source analysis, twelve task-relevant sources were obtained. For these sources, stationary baseline activity was analyzed using AIS. Our results showed a decrease of AIS values in the hippocampus of ASD patients in comparison with controls, meaning that brain signals in ASD were either less predictable, reduced in their dynamic richness or both. Our study suggests the usefulness of AIS to detect an abnormal type of dynamics in ASD. The observed changes in AIS are compatible with Bayesian theories of reduced use or precision of priors in ASD.

  13. Raman spectrum of methane in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, ethane, and propane environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, D. V.

    2018-02-01

    Using binary CH4 - mixtures with varied concentrations of H2, N2, CO2, C2H6 and C3H8 and a fixed ambient pressure of 25 bar, the influence of the environment on spectral characteristics (Raman shift, half-width, peak intensity) of Q-branches of the ν1, ν2, ν3, and 2ν4 methane Raman bands are investigated. It is found that depending on the environment these bands demonstrate different changes in their Raman shifts and half-widths. It is shown that the ratios of peak intensities I(ν2)/I(ν1), I(ν3)/I(ν1) and I(2ν4)/I(ν1) are very sensitive to the environment. The Raman shifts and half-widths of CH4 bands are assumed to depend on the absolute concentration of molecules in the analyzed medium. The data obtained would be useful in Raman diagnostics of natural gas.

  14. Analysis of low active-pharmaceutical-ingredient signal drugs based on thin layer chromatography and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Chen, Hui; Zhu, Qingxia; Liu, Yan; Lu, Feng

    2016-11-30

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) embedded in the excipients of the formula can usually be unravelled by normal Raman spectroscopy (NRS). However, more and more drugs with low API content and/or low Raman scattering coefficient were insensitive to NRS analysis, which was for the first time defined as Low API-Signal Drugs (LASIDs) in this paper. The NRS spectra of these LASIDs were similar to their dominant excipients' profiles, such as lactose, starch, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), etc., and were classified into three types as such. 21 out of 100 kinds of drugs were screened as LASIDs and characterized further by Raman microscopic mapping. Accordingly, we proposed a tailored solution to the qualitation and quantitation problem of these LASIDs, using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) detection on the thin layer chromatographic (TLC) plate both in situ and after-separation. Experimental conditions and parameters including TLC support matrix, SERS substrate, detection mode, similarity threshold, internal standard, etc., were optimized. All LASIDs were satisfactorily identified and the quantitation results agreed well with those of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For some structural analogues of LASIDs, although they presented highly similar SERS spectra and were tough to distinguish even with Raman microscopic mapping, they could be successfully discriminated from each other by coupling SERS (with portable Raman spectrometer) with TLC. These results demonstrated that the proposed solution could be employed to detect the LASIDs with high accuracy and cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Raman spectrum of nano-structured onion-like fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaomin; Xu Bingshe; Liu Xuguang; Jia Husheng; Hideki, Ichinose

    2005-01-01

    Onion-like fullerenes (OLFs) have been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and Raman spectroscopy. With a precise control of current, high-quality OLFs with few defects are found on the redeposit rod on the cathode. The size of OLFs is found to be in the range of 15-40 nm. Metal particles are useful support crystal to realize the synthesis of high-quality OLFs. Raman spectra of OLFs show high degree of graphitization. Compared with that of highly oriented prolific graphite (HOPG), the strain of graphene planes due to curvature and uneven distribution of the diameter of OLFs has been estimated analytically and is used to account for the downward shift of the G peak

  16. Variation method for optimization of Raman fiber amplifier pumped by continuous-spectrum radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasempour Ardekani, A.; Bahrampour, A. R.; Feizpour, A.

    2007-01-01

    In Raman fiber amplifiers, reduction of gain ripple versus frequency has a great importance. In this article using variational method and continuous pump, gain ripple is optimized. It is shown here that for a 40 km line the average gain is 1.3dB and the gain ripple is 0.12 dB, that is lower than the latest published data.

  17. Stimulated Raman signals at conical intersections: Ab initio surface hopping simulation protocol with direct propagation of the nuclear wave function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalewski, Markus, E-mail: mkowalew@uci.edu; Mukamel, Shaul, E-mail: smukamel@uci.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States)

    2015-07-28

    Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (FSRS) signals that monitor the excited state conical intersections dynamics of acrolein are simulated. An effective time dependent Hamiltonian for two C—H vibrational marker bands is constructed on the fly using a local mode expansion combined with a semi-classical surface hopping simulation protocol. The signals are obtained by a direct forward and backward propagation of the vibrational wave function on a numerical grid. Earlier work is extended to fully incorporate the anharmonicities and intermode couplings.

  18. Stimulated Raman signals at conical intersections: Ab initio surface hopping simulation protocol with direct propagation of the nuclear wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Mukamel, Shaul

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (FSRS) signals that monitor the excited state conical intersections dynamics of acrolein are simulated. An effective time dependent Hamiltonian for two C—H vibrational marker bands is constructed on the fly using a local mode expansion combined with a semi-classical surface hopping simulation protocol. The signals are obtained by a direct forward and backward propagation of the vibrational wave function on a numerical grid. Earlier work is extended to fully incorporate the anharmonicities and intermode couplings

  19. The Raman Spectrum of the Squarate (C4O4-2 Anion: An Ab Initio Basis Set Dependence Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Sandro G. de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Raman excitation profile of the squarate anion, C4O4-2 , was calculated using ab initio methods at the Hartree-Fock using Linear Response Theory (LRT for six excitation frequencies: 632.5, 514.5, 488.0, 457.9, 363.8 and 337.1 nm. Five basis set functions (6-31G*, 6-31+G*, cc-pVDZ, aug-cc-pVDZ and Sadlej's polarizability basis set were investigated aiming to evaluate the performance of the 6-31G* set for numerical convergence and computational cost in relation to the larger basis sets. All basis sets reproduce the main spectroscopic features of the Raman spectrum of this anion for the excitation interval investigated. The 6-31G* basis set presented, on average, the same accuracy of numerical results as the larger sets but at a fraction of the computational cost showing that it is suitable for the theoretical investigation of the squarate dianion and its complexes and derivatives.

  20. A new method for detection of the electron temperature in laser-plasma short wave cut off of stimulated Raman scattering spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiatai

    1994-01-01

    From the theory of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) three wave interaction, a new method of detecting the electron temperature in laser-plasma is obtained. SRS spectrum obtained from Shenguang No. 12 Nd-laser experiments are analysed. Using the wave length of short wave cut off of SRS, the electron temperature in corona plasma region is calculated consistently. These results agree reasonable with X-ray spectrum experiments

  1. Infrared and Raman spectrum of CaU04: a new data and interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liegeois-Duyckaerts, M.

    1977-01-01

    New Raman and i.r. data on CaU0 4 , including isotopic and solid solutions frequencies, are presented and interpreted with the support of a group theoretical analysis and a normal coordinate treatment. The oxygen atoms only are allowed to move during the four Raman-active modes, all of which have been observed. The vibrational behaviour of the Casub(1-x)Srsub(x)U0 4 solid solutions suggest that two of these modes are conveniently described by internal motions of the uranyl group, viz. symmetric stretch (696 cm -1 ) and librational (340 cm -1 ) motions. Similarly, solid solution frequencies and 40 Ca- 44 Ca isotopic shifts lead to a satisfactory assignment of the five observed (against six predicted) i.r. frequencies: internal motions of the uranyl ion (696 and 366 cm -1 for the antisymmetric stretching, and bending respectively), translations of the Ca ++ ion (305 and 165 -1 ), and translation of the oxygen (435 cm -1 ). Most of these assignments do not agree with those previously proposed. The non-reproducibility of some i.r. frequencies is also discussed. (author)

  2. The Real-time Frequency Spectrum Analysis of Neutron Pulse Signal Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yuelin; Ren Yong; Wei Biao; Feng Peng; Mi Deling; Pan Yingjun; Li Jiansheng; Ye Cenming

    2009-01-01

    The frequency spectrum analysis of neutron pulse signal is a very important method in nuclear stochastic signal processing Focused on the special '0' and '1' of neutron pulse signal series, this paper proposes new rotation-table and realizes a real-time frequency spectrum algorithm under 1G Hz sample rate based on PC with add, address and SSE. The numerical experimental results show that under the count rate of 3X10 6 s -1 , this algorithm is superior to FFTW in time-consumption and can meet the real-time requirement of frequency spectrum analysis. (authors)

  3. Raman spectrum reveals Mesenchymal stem cells inhibiting HL60 cells growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xin; Fang, Shaoyin; Zhang, Daosen; Zhang, Qinnan; Lu, Xiaoxu; Tian, Jindong; Fan, Jinping; Zhong, Liyun

    2017-04-01

    Though some research results reveals that Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability of inhibiting tumor cells proliferation, it remains controversial about the precise interaction mechanism during MSCs and tumor cells co-culture. In this study, combing Raman spectroscopic data and principle component analysis (PCA), the biochemical changes of MSCs or Human promyelocytic leukemia (HL60) cells during their co-culture were presented. The obtained results showed that some main Raman peaks of HL60 assigned to nucleic acids or proteins were greatly higher in intensity in the late stage of co-culture than those in the early stage of co-culture while they were still lower relative to the control group, implicating that the effect of MSCs inhibiting HL60 proliferation appeared in the early stage but gradually lost the inhibiting ability in the late stage of co-culture. Moreover, some other peaks of HL60 assigned to proteins were decreased in intensity in the early stage of co-culture relative to the control group but rebounded to the level similar to the control group in the late stage, showing that the content and structure changes of these proteins might be generated in the early stage but returned to the original state in the late stage of co-culture. As a result, in the early stage of MSCs-HL60 co-culture, along with the level of Akt phosphorylation of HL60 was lowered relative to its control group, the proliferation rate of HL60 cells was decreased. And in the late stage of co-culture, along with the level of Akt phosphorylation was rebounded, the reverse transfer of Raman peaks within 875-880 cm- 1 appeared, thus MSCs lost the ability to inhibit HL60 growth and HL60 proliferation was increased. In addition, it was observed that the peak at 811 cm- 1, which is a marker of RNA, was higher in intensity in the late stage than that in the control group, indicating that MSCs might be differentiated into myofibroblast-like MSCs. In addition, PCA results also exhibited

  4. Extraction and identification of mixed pesticides’ Raman signal and establishment of their prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    A nondestructive and sensitive method was developed to detect the presence of mixed pesticides of acetamiprid, chlorpyrifos and carbendazim on apples by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Self-modeling mixture analysis (SMA) was used to extract and identify the Raman spectra of individual p...

  5. Experimental Demonstration of Mixed Formats and Bit Rates Signal Allocation for Spectrum-flexible Optical Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert; Karinou, Fotini; Angelou, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    We report on an extensive experimental study for adaptive allocation of 16-QAM and QPSK signals inside spectrum flexible heterogeneous superchannel. Physical-layer performance parameters are extracted for use in resource allocation mechanisms of future flexible networks....

  6. Note: A portable Raman analyzer for microfluidic chips based on a dichroic beam splitter for integration of imaging and signal collection light paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Yijia; Xu, Shuping; Xu, Weiqing, E-mail: xuwq@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Chen, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Chen, Gang [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Bi, Wenbin [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Cui, Haining [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2015-05-15

    An integrated and portable Raman analyzer featuring an inverted probe fixed on a motor-driving adjustable optical module was designed for the combination of a microfluidic system. It possesses a micro-imaging function. The inverted configuration is advantageous to locate and focus microfluidic channels. Different from commercial micro-imaging Raman spectrometers using manual switchable light path, this analyzer adopts a dichroic beam splitter for both imaging and signal collection light paths, which avoids movable parts and improves the integration and stability of optics. Combined with surface-enhanced Raman scattering technique, this portable Raman micro-analyzer is promising as a powerful tool for microfluidic analytics.

  7. Surface-enhanced Raman spectrum of Gly-Gly adsorbed on the silver colloidal surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaojuan, Yuan; Huaimin, Gu; Jiwei, Wu

    2010-08-01

    Raman and SERS spectra of homodipeptide Gly-Gly and Gly were recorded and compared in this paper, and band assignment for the functional groups contained in these molecules was analyzed in detail. Time-dependent and pH-dependent SERS spectra of Gly-Gly molecule adsorbed on nano-colloidal silver surface were also studied. The time-dependent SERS spectra of Gly-Gly are characterized by the increase in intensity of bands primarily representing the vibrational signatures emanating from the amino and amide moiety of Gly-Gly molecule. It is found that the adsorption style of Gly-Gly on the silver colloid changes as time goes on; at 5 min after adding the sample to the silver colloid, Gly-Gly adsorbs on silver surface firstly through the carboxylate, amino and amide groups, and then the carboxylate group is far away from the silver surface at 10 min to 3 days. The SERS variation of Gly-Gly with the change of pH suggests that the adsorption style is pH-dependent, the different adsorption behavior of the Gly-Gly occurs on silver surface at different pH values.

  8. [In situ thin layer chromatography-fourier transform-surface-enhanced Raman spectrum study on ingredients of berberine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Guo, Zhan-sheng; Wang, Ying-feng; Wang, Song-ying; Ren, Gui-fen; Zhang, Xiang-lan; Han, Xiu-lan

    2002-10-01

    Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) combined with Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) has been used for studying characteristic spectrum of molecules in situ in micrograms samples. There are very few report for applying the SERS-TCL method in the study of the effective ingredients of Chinese traditional herbs. Coptis Chinensis France is an often-used clinic Chinese traditional medicine. Its main effective components include berberine and so on, which have antibiotic very wide and also have curative effect on improving the functions of heart vascular cycles. Therefore the concentrations of berberine are very important for the quality control of the medicine. In this work, the ethanol extract of Coptis Chinensis France was first separated by TLC, the SERS was then measure directly after dropping silver gel on the separated spots. The method can be used for the finger print analysis of the berberine. 3 microL of alcohol extract of Coptis Chinensis France with total alkaloids concentration of 1.0 mg.mL was placed on silicon GF254 TLC plate. The sample was separated by developing solvent of n bulanol-Acitic acid-H2O (7:2:1 V/V). The positions of berberine in the sample were confirmed by the standard alkaloid solutions. The Rf values for berberine are 0.29. The silver gel was used as surface enhanced substrate and placed on the separated berberine spots. FT-SERS was measured directly by a Nicolet FT-Raman 910 spectrometer. Berberine belong to isoquinoline alkaloids. His structure can be found in reference. The date of spectrum of berberine can be seen that the band at 1,396 cm-1 due to Ar-OCH3 deformation vibrations was greatly enhanced, indicating that the molecule was absorbed on silver gel strongly through lone-pair electron in Ar-OCH3. The ring stretching mode occurring around 1,548 cm-1 represents isoquinoline ring in the molecule. The band at 727 cm-1 due to CH (ring) deformation vibrations was also enhanced.

  9. Comparison of fluorescence rejection methods of baseline correction and shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhijian; Zou, Wenlong; Wu, Jianhong

    2017-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been extensively used in biochemical tests, explosive detection, food additive and environmental pollutants. However, fluorescence disturbance brings a big trouble to the applications of portable Raman spectrometer. Currently, baseline correction and shifted-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) methods are the most prevailing fluorescence suppressing methods. In this paper, we compared the performances of baseline correction and SERDS methods, experimentally and simulatively. Through the comparison, it demonstrates that the baseline correction can get acceptable fluorescence-removed Raman spectrum if the original Raman signal has good signal-to-noise ratio, but it cannot recover the small Raman signals out of large noise background. By using SERDS method, the Raman signals, even very weak compared to fluorescence intensity and noise level, can be clearly extracted, and the fluorescence background can be completely rejected. The Raman spectrum recovered by SERDS has good signal to noise ratio. It's proved that baseline correction is more suitable for large bench-top Raman system with better quality or signal-to-noise ratio, while the SERDS method is more suitable for noisy devices, especially the portable Raman spectrometers.

  10. State–time spectrum of signal transduction logic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacNamara, Aidan; Terfve, Camille; Henriques, David; Bernabé, Beatriz Peñalver; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Despite the current wealth of high-throughput data, our understanding of signal transduction is still incomplete. Mathematical modeling can be a tool to gain an insight into such processes. Detailed biochemical modeling provides deep understanding, but does not scale well above relatively a few proteins. In contrast, logic modeling can be used where the biochemical knowledge of the system is sparse and, because it is parameter free (or, at most, uses relatively a few parameters), it scales well to large networks that can be derived by manual curation or retrieved from public databases. Here, we present an overview of logic modeling formalisms in the context of training logic models to data, and specifically the different approaches to modeling qualitative to quantitative data (state) and dynamics (time) of signal transduction. We use a toy model of signal transduction to illustrate how different logic formalisms (Boolean, fuzzy logic and differential equations) treat state and time. Different formalisms allow for different features of the data to be captured, at the cost of extra requirements in terms of computational power and data quality and quantity. Through this demonstration, the assumptions behind each formalism are discussed, as well as their advantages and disadvantages and possible future developments. (paper)

  11. Large Variations of the Raman Signal in the Spectra of Twisted Bilayer Graphene on a BN Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbac, Martin; Frank, Otakar; Kong, Jing; Sanchez-Yamagishi, Javier; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2012-03-15

    We report an unusual enhancement of the Raman signal of the G mode in a twisted graphene bilayer (2-LG) on a hexagonal single-crystalline boron nitride substrate. We used an isotopically engineered 2-LG, where the top layer was composed of (13)C atoms and the bottom layer of (12)C atoms. Consequently, it was possible by Raman spectroscopy to distinguish between the enhancement coming from the top and bottom layers. The enhancement of the G mode was, however, found to be similar for the top and bottom layers, and this enhancement effect was observed only at certain locations on the substrate. The experiment with two different laser excitation energies showed that the location of the enhanced spots is dependent on the laser excitation energy. Therefore our results suggest that the enhancement comes from new states in the electronic structure, which are a consequence of a local specific rotation of the grains in graphene layers.

  12. Study on Spectrum Estimation in Biophoton Emission Signal Analysis of Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitao Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The photon emission signal in visible range (380 nm–630 nm was measured from various wheat kernels by means of a low noise photomultiplier system. To study the features of the photon emission signal, the spectrum estimation method of the photon emission signal is described for the first time. The biophoton emission signal, belonging to four varieties of wheat, is analyzed in time domain and frequency domain. It shows that the intensity of the biophoton emission signal for four varieties of wheat kernels is relatively weak and has dramatic changes over time. Mean and mean square value are obviously different in four varieties; the range was, respectively, 3.7837 and 74.8819. The difference of variance is not significant. The range is 1.1764. The results of power spectrum estimation deduced that the biophoton emission signal is a low frequency signal, and its power spectrum is mostly distributed in the frequency less than 0.1 Hz. Then three parameters, which are spectral edge frequency, spectral gravity frequency, and power spectral entropy, are adopted to explain the features of the kernels’ spontaneous biophoton emission signal. It shows that the parameters of the spontaneous biophoton emission signal for different varieties of wheat are similar.

  13. [Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis of thiabendazole pesticide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lei; Wu, Rui-mei; Liu, Mu-hua; Wang, Xiao-bin; Yan, Lin-yuan

    2015-02-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique was used to analyze the Raman peaks of thiabendazole pesticides in the present paper. Surface enhanced substrates of silver nanoparticle were made based on microwave technology. Raman signals of thiabendazole were collected by laser Micro-Raman spectrometer with 514. 5 and 785 nm excitation wavelengths, respectively. The Raman peaks at different excitation wavelengths were analyzed and compared. The Raman peaks 782 and 1 012 at 785 nm excitation wavelength were stronger, which were C--H out-of-plane vibrations. While 1284, 1450 and 1592 cm(-1) at 514.5 nm excitation wavelength were stronger, which were vng and C==N stretching. The study results showed that the intensity of Raman peak and Raman shift at different excitation wavelengths were different And strong Raman signals were observed at 782, 1012, 1284, 1450 and 1592 cm(-1) at 514.5 and 785 nm excitation wavelengths. These characteristic vibrational modes are characteristic Raman peaks of carbendazim pesticide. The results can provide basis for the rapid screening of pesticide residue in agricultural products and food based on Raman spectrum.

  14. Evidence of dithionite contribution to the low-frequency resonance Raman spectrum of reduced and mixed-valence cytochrome c oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, J A

    1992-02-01

    The resonance Raman spectra of deoxygenated solutions of mixed-valence cyanide-bound and fully reduced cytochrome oxidase derivatives that have been reduced in the presence of aqueous or solid sodium dithionite exhibit two new low-frequency lines centered at 474 and 590 cm-1. These lines were not observed when the reductant system was changed to a solution containing ascorbate and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD). Under enzyme turnover conditions, the addition of dithionite to the reoxidized protein (the 428-nm or "oxygenated" form) increases the intensity of these lines, while reoxidation and rereduction of the enzyme in the presence of ascorbate/TMPD resulted in the absence of both lines. Our data suggest that both lines must have contributions from species formed from aqueous dithionite, presumably the SO2 species, since these two lines are also observed in the Raman spectrum of a solution of aqueous dithionite, but not in the spectrum of an ascorbate/TMPD solution. Since heme metal-ligand stretch vibrations are expected to appear in the low-frequency region from 215 to 670 cm-1, our results indicate that special care should be exercised during the interpretation of the cytochrome a3 resonance Raman spectrum.

  15. Ultraviolet Resonant Raman Enhancements in the Detection of Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short Jr., Billy Joe [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Raman-based spectroscopy is potentially militarily useful for standoff detection of high explosives. Normal (non-resonance) and resonance Raman spectroscopies are both light scattering techniques that use a laser to measure the vibrational spectrum of a sample. In resonance Raman, the laser is tuned to match the wavelength of a strong electronic absorbance in the molecule of interest, whereas, in normal Raman the laser is not tuned to any strong electronic absorbance bands. The selection of appropriate excitation wavelengths in resonance Raman can result in a dramatic increase in the Raman scattering efficiency of select band(s) associated with the electronic transition. Other than the excitation wavelength, however, resonance Raman is performed experimentally the same as normal Raman. In these studies, normal and resonance Raman spectral signatures of select solid high explosive (HE) samples and explosive precursors were collected at 785 nm, 244 nm and 229 nm. Solutions of PETN, TNT, and explosive precursors (DNT & PNT) in acetonitrile solvent as an internal Raman standard were quantitatively evaluated using ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) microscopy and normal Raman spectroscopy as a function of power and select excitation wavelengths. Use of an internal standard allowed resonance enhancements to be estimated at 229 nm and 244 nm. Investigations demonstrated that UVRR provided ~2000-fold enhancement at 244 nm and ~800-fold improvement at 229 nm while PETN showed a maximum of ~25-fold at 244 nm and ~190-fold enhancement at 229 nm solely from resonance effects when compared to normal Raman measurements. In addition to the observed resonance enhancements, additional Raman signal enhancements are obtained with ultraviolet excitation (i.e., Raman scattering scales as !4 for measurements based on scattered photons). A model, based partly on the resonance Raman enhancement results for HE solutions, is presented for estimating Raman enhancements for solid HE samples.

  16. A Novel Approach for Transmission of 56 Gbit/s NRZ Signal in Access Network Using Spectrum Slicing Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spolitis, S.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Bobrovs, V.

    2013-01-01

    We present the spectrum slicing and stitching concept for high-capacity low optics complexity optical access networks. Spectrum slicing and stitching of a 56 Gbit/s NRZ electrical signal is experimentally demonstrated for the first time.......We present the spectrum slicing and stitching concept for high-capacity low optics complexity optical access networks. Spectrum slicing and stitching of a 56 Gbit/s NRZ electrical signal is experimentally demonstrated for the first time....

  17. Mathematical model for biomolecular quantification using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based signal intensity distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palla, Mirko; Bosco, Filippo Giacomo; Yang, Jaeyoung

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a novel statistical method for quantifying trace amounts of biomolecules by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using a rigorous, single molecule (SM) theory based mathematical derivation. Our quantification framework could be generalized for planar...

  18. The studies of surface properties of 1.5 MeV Si-implanted silicon by multiphonon Raman spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.

    1995-01-01

    The surface layer of crystalline silicon implanted by 1.5 MeV Si ions with doses ranging from 1 x 10 11 to 1 x 10 15 Si + cm -2 has been studied by two-phonon Raman spectra in both the acoustical overtone region and optical overtone region. Two-phonon Raman line intensities and shifts have been used to investigate the properties in the skin layer. The experimental two-phonon Raman spectra showed a decrease in intensity for both optical and acoustical two-phonon Raman peaks and also showed shifts by different amounts in different directions depending on the particular phonons. The stress values obtained by two-phonon Raman line shifts are compared with those obtained previously by one-phonon Raman shifts. The comparison shows that the surface defects make no contribution to two-phonon Raman line shifts. The two-phonon Raman line shifts show that the surface stress increases as a function of implantation doses. (author)

  19. Underlay Spectrum Sharing Techniques with In-Band Full-Duplex Systems using Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gaafar, Mohamed

    2016-10-26

    Sharing the spectrum with in-band full-duplex (FD) primary users (PUs) is a challenging and interesting problem in the underlay cognitive radio (CR) systems. The self-interference introduced at the primary network may dramatically impede the secondary user (SU) opportunity to access the spectrum. To tackle this problem, we use the so-called improper Gaussian signaling. Particularly, we assume the downlink transmission of a SU that uses improper Gaussian signaling while the FD PU pair implements the regular proper Gaussian signaling. First, we derive a closed form expression and an upper bound for the SU and PUs outage probabilities, respectively. Second, we optimize the SU signal parameters to minimize its outage probability while maintaining the required PUs quality-of-service based on the average channel state information (CSI). Moreover, we provide the conditions to reap merits from employing improper Gaussian signaling at the SU. Third, we design the SU signal parameters based on perfect knowledge of its direct link instantaneous CSI and investigate all benefits that can be achieved at both the SU and PUs. Finally, we provide some numerical results that demonstrate the advantages of using improper Gaussian signaling to access the spectrum of the FD PUs.

  20. More light on the 2ν5 Raman overtone of SF6: Can a weak anisotropic spectrum be due to a strong transition anisotropy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, D.; Rachet, F.; Chrysos, M.

    2014-01-01

    Long known as a fully polarized band with a near vanishing depolarization ratio [η s = 0.05, W. Holzer and R. Ouillon, Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 589 (1974)], the 2ν 5 Raman overtone of SF 6 has so far been considered as of having a prohibitively weak anisotropic spectrum [D. P. Shelton and L. Ulivi, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 149 (1988)]. Here, we report the first anisotropic spectrum of this overtone, at room temperature and for 13 gas densities ranging between 2 and 27 amagat. This spectrum is 10 times broader and 50 times weaker than the isotropic counterpart of the overtone [D. Kremer, F. Rachet, and M. Chrysos, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 174308 (2013)] and its profile much more sensitive to pressure effects than the profile of the isotropic spectrum. From our measurements an accurate value for the anisotropy matrix-element |〈000020|Δα|000000〉| was derived and this value was found to be comparable to that of the mean-polarizability ((000020), α ¯ (000000)). Among other conclusions our study offers compelling evidence that, in Raman spectroscopy, highly polarized bands or tiny depolarization ratios are not necessarily incompatible with large polarizability anisotropy transition matrix-elements. Our findings and the way to analyze them suggest that new strategies should be developed on the basis of the complementarity inherent in independent incoherent Raman experiments that run with two different incident-beam polarizations, and on concerted efforts to ab initio calculate accurate data for first and second polarizability derivatives. Values for these derivatives are still rarities in the literature of SF 6

  1. More light on the 2ν5 Raman overtone of SF6: Can a weak anisotropic spectrum be due to a strong transition anisotropy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, D.; Rachet, F.; Chrysos, M.

    2014-01-01

    Long known as a fully polarized band with a near vanishing depolarization ratio [ηs = 0.05, W. Holzer and R. Ouillon, Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 589 (1974)], the 2ν5 Raman overtone of SF6 has so far been considered as of having a prohibitively weak anisotropic spectrum [D. P. Shelton and L. Ulivi, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 149 (1988)]. Here, we report the first anisotropic spectrum of this overtone, at room temperature and for 13 gas densities ranging between 2 and 27 amagat. This spectrum is 10 times broader and 50 times weaker than the isotropic counterpart of the overtone [D. Kremer, F. Rachet, and M. Chrysos, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 174308 (2013)] and its profile much more sensitive to pressure effects than the profile of the isotropic spectrum. From our measurements an accurate value for the anisotropy matrix-element |⟨000020|Δα|000000⟩| was derived and this value was found to be comparable to that of the mean-polarizability | |. Among other conclusions our study offers compelling evidence that, in Raman spectroscopy, highly polarized bands or tiny depolarization ratios are not necessarily incompatible with large polarizability anisotropy transition matrix-elements. Our findings and the way to analyze them suggest that new strategies should be developed on the basis of the complementarity inherent in independent incoherent Raman experiments that run with two different incident-beam polarizations, and on concerted efforts to ab initio calculate accurate data for first and second polarizability derivatives. Values for these derivatives are still rarities in the literature of SF6.

  2. Sharing the Licensed Spectrum of Full-Duplex Systems Using Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gaafar, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Sharing the spectrum with in-band full-duplex (FD) primary users (PU) is a challenging and interesting problem in the underlay cognitive radio (CR) systems. The self-interference introduced at the primary network may dramatically impede the secondary user (SU) opportunity to access the spectrum. In this work, we attempt to tackle this problem through the use of the so-called improper Gaussian signaling. Such a signaling technique has demonstrated its superiority in improving the overall performance in interference limited networks. Particularly, we assume a system with a SU pair working in half-duplex mode that uses improper Gaussian signaling while the FD PU pair implements the regular proper Gaussian signaling techniques. First, we derive a closed form expression for the SU outage probability and an upper bound for the PU outage probability. Then, we optimize the SU signal parameters to minimize its outage probability while maintaining the required PU quality-of-service based on the average channel state information. Finally, we provide some numerical results that validate the tightness of the PU outage probability bound and demonstrate the advantage of employing the improper Gaussian signaling to the SU in order to access the spectrum of the FD PU.

  3. Laser Raman Spectroscopy with Different Excitation Sources and Extension to Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Wahadoszamen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A dispersive Raman spectrometer was used with three different excitation sources (Argon-ion, He-Ne, and Diode lasers operating at 514.5 nm, 633 nm, and 782 nm, resp.. The system was employed to a variety of Raman active compounds. Many of the compounds exhibit very strong fluorescence while being excited with a laser emitting at UV-VIS region, hereby imposing severe limitation to the detection efficiency of the particular Raman system. The Raman system with variable excitation laser sources provided us with a desired flexibility toward the suppression of unwanted fluorescence signal. With this Raman system, we could detect and specify the different vibrational modes of various hazardous organic compounds and some typical dyes (both fluorescent and nonfluorescent. We then compared those results with the ones reported in literature and found the deviation within the range of ±2 cm−1, which indicates reasonable accuracy and usability of the Raman system. Then, the surface enhancement technique of Raman spectrum was employed to the present system. To this end, we used chemically prepared colloidal suspension of silver nanoparticles as substrate and Rhodamine 6G as probe. We could observe significant enhancement of Raman signal from Rhodamine 6G using the colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles the average magnitude of which is estimated to be 103.

  4. Temperature dependence of the Raman spectrum of 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(2-thienyl)prop-2-en-1-one

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toledo, T. A.; da Costa, R. C.; Al-Maqtari, H. M.; Jamalis, J.; Pizani, P. S.

    2017-06-01

    The heterocyclic chalcone containing thiophene ring 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(2-thienyl)prop-2-en-1-one, C13H9ClOS was synthesized and investigated using experimental techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) at room temperature, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) from room temperature to 500 K and Raman scattering at the temperature range 10-413 K in order to study its structure and vibrational properties as well as stability and possible phase transition. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to determine the vibrational spectrum viewing to improve the knowledge of the material properties. A reasonable agreement was observed between theoretical and experimental Raman spectrum taken at 10 K since anharmonic effects of the molecular motion is reduced at low temperatures, leading to a more comprehensive assignment of the vibrational modes. Increasing the temperature up to 393 K, was observed the typical phonon anharmonicity behavior associated to changes in the Raman line intensities, line-widths and red-shift, in special in the external mode region, whereas the internal modes region remains almost unchanged due its strong chemical bonds. Furthermore, C13H9ClOS goes to melting phase transition in the temperature range 393-403 K and then sublimates in the temperature range 403-413 K. This is denounced by the disappearance of the external modes and the absence of internal modes in the Raman spectra, in accordance with DSC curve. The enthalpy (ΔH) obtained from the integration of the endothermic peak in DSC curve centered at 397 K is founded to be 121.5 J/g.

  5. [Signal analysis and spectrum distortion correction for tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wei-Yi; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Jun; Chen, Jun-Qing; Liang, Bo

    2011-04-01

    In the present paper, the signal of a tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) trace gas sensing system, which has a wavelength modulation with a wide range of modulation amplitudes, is studied based on Fourier analysis method. Theory explanation of spectrum distortion induced by laser intensity amplitude modulation is given. In order to rectify the spectrum distortion, a method of synchronous amplitude modulation suppression by a variable optical attenuator is proposed. To validate the method, an experimental setup is designed. Absorption spectrum measurement experiments on CO2 gas were carried out. The results show that the residual laser intensity modulation amplitude of the experimental system is reduced to -0.1% of its original value and the spectrum distortion improvement is 92% with the synchronous amplitude modulation suppression. The modulation amplitude of laser intensity can be effectively reduced and the spectrum distortion can be well corrected by using the given correction method and system. By using a variable optical attenuator in the TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy) system, the dynamic range requirements of photoelectric detector, digital to analog converter, filters and other aspects of the TDLAS system are reduced. This spectrum distortion correction method can be used for online trace gas analyzing in process industry.

  6. Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgfeldt Hansen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    The publication functions as a proces description of the development and construction of an urban furniture SPECTRUM in the city of Gwangju, Republic of Korea. It is used as the cataloque for the exhibition of Spectrum.......The publication functions as a proces description of the development and construction of an urban furniture SPECTRUM in the city of Gwangju, Republic of Korea. It is used as the cataloque for the exhibition of Spectrum....

  7. Multivariate control charts based on net analyte signal (NAS) and Raman spectroscopy for quality control of carbamazepine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Werickson Fortunato de Carvalho; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2011-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy and control charts based on the net analyte signal (NAS) were applied to polymorphic characterization of carbamazepine. Carbamazepine presents four polymorphic forms: I-IV (dihydrate). X-ray powder diffraction was used as a reference technique. The control charts were built generating three charts: the NAS chart that corresponds to the analyte of interest (form III in this case), the interference chart that corresponds to the contribution of other compounds in the sample and the residual chart that corresponds to nonsystematic variations. For each chart, statistical limits were developed using samples within the quality specifications. It was possible to identify the different polymorphic forms of carbamazepine present in pharmaceutical formulations. Thus, an alternative method for the quality monitoring of the carbamazepine polymorphic forms after the crystallization process is presented.

  8. Multivariate control charts based on net analyte signal (NAS) and Raman spectroscopy for quality control of carbamazepine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Werickson Fortunato de Carvalho [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality, Inmetro, Dimci/Dquim - Directorate of Metrology, Science and Industry/Division of Chemical Metrology, Av. Nossa Senhora das Gracas 50, Building 6, 25250-020, Xerem, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Poppi, Ronei Jesus, E-mail: ronei@iqm.unicamp.br [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology (INCT) for Bioanalytics, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-31

    Raman spectroscopy and control charts based on the net analyte signal (NAS) were applied to polymorphic characterization of carbamazepine. Carbamazepine presents four polymorphic forms: I-IV (dihydrate). X-ray powder diffraction was used as a reference technique. The control charts were built generating three charts: the NAS chart that corresponds to the analyte of interest (form III in this case), the interference chart that corresponds to the contribution of other compounds in the sample and the residual chart that corresponds to nonsystematic variations. For each chart, statistical limits were developed using samples within the quality specifications. It was possible to identify the different polymorphic forms of carbamazepine present in pharmaceutical formulations. Thus, an alternative method for the quality monitoring of the carbamazepine polymorphic forms after the crystallization process is presented.

  9. Research on n-γ discrimination method based on spectrum gradient analysis of signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xiaoliang; Liu Guofu; Yang Jun; Wang Yueke

    2013-01-01

    Having discovered that there are distinct differences between the spectrum gradient of the output neutron and γ-ray signal from liquid scintillator detectors, this paper presented a n-γ discrimination method called spectrum gradient analysis (SGA) based on frequency-domain features of the pulse signals. The basic principle and feasibility of SGA method were discussed and the validity of n-γ discrimination results of SGA was verified by the associated particle neutron flight experiment. The discrimination performance of SGA was evaluated under different conditions of sampling rates ranging from 5 G/s to 250 M/s. The results show that SGA method exhibits insensitivity to noise, strong anti-interference ability, stable discrimination performance and lower amount of calculation in contrast with time-domain n-γ discrimination methods. (authors)

  10. Performance Analysis of Control Signal Transmission Technique for Cognitive Radios in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Ren; Tomioka, Tazuko; Kobayashi, Takahiro

    When cognitive radio (CR) systems dynamically use the frequency band, a control signal is necessary to indicate which carrier frequencies are currently available in the network. In order to keep efficient spectrum utilization, this control signal also should be transmitted based on the channel conditions. If transmitters dynamically select carrier frequencies, receivers have to receive control signals without knowledge of their carrier frequencies. To enable such transmission and reception, this paper proposes a novel scheme called DCPT (Differential Code Parallel Transmission). With DCPT, receivers can receive low-rate information with no knowledge of the carrier frequencies. The transmitter transmits two signals whose carrier frequencies are spaced by a predefined value. The absolute values of the carrier frequencies can be varied. When the receiver acquires the DCPT signal, it multiplies the signal by a frequency-shifted version of the signal; this yields a DC component that represents the data signal which is then demodulated. The performance was evaluated by means of numerical analysis and computer simulation. We confirmed that DCPT operates successfully even under severe interference if its parameters are appropriately configured.

  11. A study on hybrid split-spectrum processing technique for enhanced reliability in ultrasonic signal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Hyung; Koo, Kil Mo; Cheong, Yong Moo; Kim, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    Many signal-processing techniques have been found to be useful in ultrasonic and nondestructive evaluation. Among the most popular techniques are signal averaging, spatial compounding, matched filters, and homomorphic processing. One of the significant new process is split-spectrum processing(SSP), which can be equally useful in signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) improvement and grain characterization in several engineering materials. The purpose of this paper is to explore the utility of SSP in ultrasonic NDE. A wide variety of engineering problems are reviewed and suggestions for implementation of the technique are provided. SSP uses the frequency-dependent response of the interfering coherent noise produced by unresolvable scatters in the resolution range cell of a transducer. It is implemented by splitting the Sequency spectrum of the received signal by using Gaussian bandpass filters. The theoretical basis for the potential of SSP for grain characterization in SUS 304 material is discussed, and some experimental-evidence for the feasibility of the approach is presented. Results of SNR enhancement in signals obtained from real four samples of SUS 304. The influence of various processing parameters on the performance of the processing technique is also discussed. The minimization algorithm. which provides an excellent SNR enhancement when used either in conjunction with other SSP algorithms like polarity-check or by itself, is also presented.

  12. A Study on Hybrid Split-Spectrum Processing Technique for Enhanced Reliability in Ultrasonic Signal Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, H.; Koo, K. M.; Kim, G. J.

    1996-01-01

    Many signal-processing techniques have been found to be useful in ultrasonic and nondestructive evaluation. Among the most popular techniques are signal averaging, spatial compounding, matched filters and homomorphic processing. One of the significant new process is split-spectrum processing(SSP), which can be equally useful in signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) improvement and grain characterization in several specimens. The purpose of this paper is to explore the utility of SSP in ultrasonic NDE. A wide variety of engineering problems are reviewed, and suggestions for implementation of the technique are provided. SSP uses the frequency-dependent response of the interfering coherent noise produced by unresolvable scatters in the resolution range cell of a transducer. It is implemented by splitting the frequency spectrum of the received signal by using gaussian bandpass filter. The theoretical basis for the potential of SSP for grain characterization in SUS 304 material is discussed, and some experimental evidence for the feasibility of the approach is presented. Results of SNR enhancement in signals obtained from real four samples of SUS 304. The influence of various processing parameters on the performance of the processing technique is also discussed. The minimization algorithm, which provides an excellent SNR enhancement when used either in conjunction with other SSP algorithms like polarity-check or by itself, is also presented

  13. On the isotropic Raman spectrum of Ar2 and how to benchmark ab initio calculations of small atomic clusters: Paradox lost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysos, Michael; Dixneuf, Sophie; Rachet, Florent

    2015-07-14

    This is the long-overdue answer to the discrepancies observed between theory and experiment in Ar2 regarding both the isotropic Raman spectrum and the second refractivity virial coefficient, BR [Gaye et al., Phys. Rev. A 55, 3484 (1997)]. At the origin of this progress is the advent (posterior to 1997) of advanced computational methods for weakly interconnected neutral species at close separations. Here, we report agreement between the previously taken Raman measurements and quantum lineshapes now computed with the employ of large-scale CCSD or smartly constructed MP2 induced-polarizability data. By using these measurements as a benchmark tool, we assess the degree of performance of various other ab initio computed data for the mean polarizability α, and we show that an excellent agreement with the most recently measured value of BR is reached. We propose an even more refined model for α, which is solution of the inverse-scattering problem and whose lineshape matches exactly the measured spectrum over the entire frequency-shift range probed.

  14. On the isotropic Raman spectrum of Ar{sub 2} and how to benchmark ab initio calculations of small atomic clusters: Paradox lost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrysos, Michael, E-mail: michel.chrysos@univ-angers.fr; Rachet, Florent [LUNAM Université, Université d’Angers, CNRS UMR 6200, Laboratoire MOLTECH-Anjou, 2 Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers (France); Dixneuf, Sophie [Centre du Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique de Grenoble, Laboratoire CEA-bioMérieux, Bât 40.20, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-14

    This is the long-overdue answer to the discrepancies observed between theory and experiment in Ar{sub 2} regarding both the isotropic Raman spectrum and the second refractivity virial coefficient, B{sub R} [Gaye et al., Phys. Rev. A 55, 3484 (1997)]. At the origin of this progress is the advent (posterior to 1997) of advanced computational methods for weakly interconnected neutral species at close separations. Here, we report agreement between the previously taken Raman measurements and quantum lineshapes now computed with the employ of large-scale CCSD or smartly constructed MP2 induced-polarizability data. By using these measurements as a benchmark tool, we assess the degree of performance of various other ab initio computed data for the mean polarizability α, and we show that an excellent agreement with the most recently measured value of B{sub R} is reached. We propose an even more refined model for α, which is solution of the inverse-scattering problem and whose lineshape matches exactly the measured spectrum over the entire frequency-shift range probed.

  15. Sharing the Licensed Spectrum of Full-Duplex Systems using Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gaafar, Mohamed; Amin, Osama; Abediseid, Walid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Sharing the spectrum with in-band full-duplex (FD) primary users (PU) is a challenging and interesting problem in the underlay cognitive radio (CR) systems. The self-inteference introducsed at the primary network may dramatically impede the secondary user (SU) opportunity to access the spectrum. In this work, we attempt to tackle this problem through the use of so called improper Gaussian signaling (IGS). Such a signaling technique has demonstrated its superiority in improving the overall performance in interference limited networks. Particularly, we assume a system with a SU pair working in half-duplex mode that uses IGS while the FD PU pair implements the regular proper Gaussiam signaling techniques. Frist, we derive a closed form expression for the SU outage probability while maintaining the required PU quality-of-service based on the average channel state information. Finally, we provide some numerical results that validate the tightness of the PU outage probability bound and demonstrate the advantage of employing IGS to the SU in order to access the spectrum of the FD PU.

  16. Sharing the Licensed Spectrum of Full-Duplex Systems using Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gaafar, Mohamed

    2016-01-06

    Sharing the spectrum with in-band full-duplex (FD) primary users (PU) is a challenging and interesting problem in the underlay cognitive radio (CR) systems. The self-inteference introducsed at the primary network may dramatically impede the secondary user (SU) opportunity to access the spectrum. In this work, we attempt to tackle this problem through the use of so called improper Gaussian signaling (IGS). Such a signaling technique has demonstrated its superiority in improving the overall performance in interference limited networks. Particularly, we assume a system with a SU pair working in half-duplex mode that uses IGS while the FD PU pair implements the regular proper Gaussiam signaling techniques. Frist, we derive a closed form expression for the SU outage probability while maintaining the required PU quality-of-service based on the average channel state information. Finally, we provide some numerical results that validate the tightness of the PU outage probability bound and demonstrate the advantage of employing IGS to the SU in order to access the spectrum of the FD PU.

  17. Time-resolved resonance raman spectrum of all-trans-diphenylbutadiene in the lowest excited singlet state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Jensen, Niels-Henrik; Langkilde, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The resonance Raman spectrwn of all-trans-diphenylbutadiene in its lowest excited S1 state excited in resonance with the S1 → Sn absorption band at 650 nm in non-polar solvents is reported. Three vibrational bands at 1572, 1481 and 1165 cm−1 are observed. A possible assignment of the the 1481 cm−...

  18. A Spectrum Sensing Method Based on Signal Feature and Clustering Algorithm in Cognitive Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of difficulty in determining the threshold in spectrum sensing technologies based on the random matrix theory, a spectrum sensing method based on clustering algorithm and signal feature is proposed for Cognitive Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks. Firstly, the wireless communication signal features are obtained according to the sampling signal covariance matrix. Then, the clustering algorithm is used to classify and test the signal features. Different signal features and clustering algorithms are compared in this paper. The experimental results show that the proposed method has better sensing performance.

  19. Spectrum sharing opportunities of full-duplex systems using improper Gaussian signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gaafar, Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    Sharing the licensed spectrum of full-duplex (FD) primary users (PU) brings strict limitations on the underlay cognitive radio operation. Particularly, the self interference may overwhelm the PU receiver and limit the opportunity of secondary users (SU) to access the spectrum. Improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) has demonstrated its superiority in improving the performance of interference channel systems. Throughout this paper, we assume a FD PU pair that uses proper Gaussian signaling (PGS), and a half-duplex SU pair that uses IGS. The objective is to maximize the SU instantaneous achievable rate while meeting the PU quality-of-service. To this end, we propose a simplified algorithm that optimizes the SU signal parameters, i.e, the transmit power and the circularity coefficient, which is a measure of the degree of impropriety of the SU signal, to achieve the design objective. Numerical results show the merits of adopting IGS compared with PGS for the SU especially with the existence of week PU direct channels and/or strong SU interference channels.

  20. Testing second order cyclostationarity in the squared envelope spectrum of non-white vibration signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesani, P.; Pennacchi, P.; Ricci, R.; Chatterton, S.

    2013-10-01

    Cyclostationary models for the diagnostic signals measured on faulty rotating machineries have proved to be successful in many laboratory tests and industrial applications. The squared envelope spectrum has been pointed out as the most efficient indicator for the assessment of second order cyclostationary symptoms of damages, which are typical, for instance, of rolling element bearing faults. In an attempt to foster the spread of rotating machinery diagnostics, the current trend in the field is to reach higher levels of automation of the condition monitoring systems. For this purpose, statistical tests for the presence of cyclostationarity have been proposed during the last years. The statistical thresholds proposed in the past for the identification of cyclostationary components have been obtained under the hypothesis of having a white noise signal when the component is healthy. This need, coupled with the non-white nature of the real signals implies the necessity of pre-whitening or filtering the signal in optimal narrow-bands, increasing the complexity of the algorithm and the risk of losing diagnostic information or introducing biases on the result. In this paper, the authors introduce an original analytical derivation of the statistical tests for cyclostationarity in the squared envelope spectrum, dropping the hypothesis of white noise from the beginning. The effect of first order and second order cyclostationary components on the distribution of the squared envelope spectrum will be quantified and the effectiveness of the newly proposed threshold verified, providing a sound theoretical basis and a practical starting point for efficient automated diagnostics of machine components such as rolling element bearings. The analytical results will be verified by means of numerical simulations and by using experimental vibration data of rolling element bearings.

  1. Power spectrum analysis of the x-ray scatter signal in mammography and breast tomosynthesis projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Bliznakova, Kristina; Fei, Baowei

    2013-10-01

    To analyze the frequency domain characteristics of the signal in mammography images and breast tomosynthesis projections with patient tissue texture due to detected scattered x-rays. Acquisitions of x-ray projection images of 19 different patient breasts were simulated using previously acquired volumetric patient images. Acquisition of these images was performed with a dedicated breast CT prototype system, and the images were classified into voxels representing skin, adipose, and glandular tissue with a previously validated automated algorithm. The classified three dimensional images then underwent simulated mechanical compression representing that which is performed during acquisition of mammography and breast tomosynthesis images. The acquisition of projection images of each patient breast was simulated using Monte Carlo methods with each simulation resulting in two images: one of the primary (non-scattered) signal and one of the scatter signal. To analyze the scatter signal for both mammography and breast tomosynthesis, two projections images of each patient breast were simulated, one with the x-ray source positioned at 0° (mammography and central tomosynthesis projection) and at 30° (wide tomosynthesis projection). The noise power spectra (NPS) for both the scatter signal alone and the total signal (primary + scatter) for all images were obtained and the combined results of all patients analyzed. The total NPS was fit to the expected power-law relationship NPS(f) = k/f β and the results were compared with those previously published on the power spectrum characteristics of mammographic texture. The scatter signal alone was analyzed qualitatively and a power-law fit was also performed. The mammography and tomosynthesis projections of three patient breasts were too small to analyze, so a total of 16 patient breasts were analyzed. The values of β for the total signal of the 0° projections agreed well with previously published results. As expected, the scatter

  2. Disorders of dysregulated signal traffic through the RAS-MAPK pathway: phenotypic spectrum and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Marco; Gelb, Bruce D

    2010-12-01

    RAS GTPases control a major signaling network implicated in several cellular functions, including cell fate determination, proliferation, survival, differentiation, migration, and senescence. Within this network, signal flow through the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway-the first identified mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade-mediates early and late developmental processes controlling morphology determination, organogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and growth. Signaling through the RAS-MAPK cascade is tightly controlled; and its enhanced activation represents a well-known event in oncogenesis. Unexpectedly, in the past few years, inherited dysregulation of this pathway has been recognized as the cause underlying a group of clinically related disorders sharing facial dysmorphism, cardiac defects, reduced postnatal growth, ectodermal anomalies, variable cognitive deficits, and susceptibility to certain malignancies as major features. These disorders are caused by heterozygosity for mutations in genes encoding RAS proteins, regulators of RAS function, modulators of RAS interaction with effectors, or downstream signal transducers. Here, we provide an overview of the phenotypic spectrum associated with germline mutations perturbing RAS-MAPK signaling, the unpredicted molecular mechanisms converging toward the dysregulation of this signaling cascade, and major genotype-phenotype correlations. © 2010 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. The Raman spectrum of CaCO{sub 3} polymorphs calcite and aragonite: A combined experimental and computational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De La Pierre, Marco, E-mail: cedric.carteret@univ-lorraine.fr, E-mail: marco.delapierre@unito.it; Maschio, Lorenzo; Orlando, Roberto; Dovesi, Roberto [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Torino and NIS (Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces) Centre of Excellence, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Carteret, Cédric, E-mail: cedric.carteret@univ-lorraine.fr, E-mail: marco.delapierre@unito.it; André, Erwan [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l’Environnement (LCPME), UMR 7564, Université de Lorraine-CNRS, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54601 Villers-lès-Nancy (France)

    2014-04-28

    Powder and single crystal Raman spectra of the two most common phases of calcium carbonate are calculated with ab initio techniques (using a “hybrid” functional and a Gaussian-type basis set) and measured both at 80 K and room temperature. Frequencies of the Raman modes are in very good agreement between calculations and experiments: the mean absolute deviation at 80 K is 4 and 8 cm{sup −1} for calcite and aragonite, respectively. As regards intensities, the agreement is in general good, although the computed values overestimate the measured ones in many cases. The combined analysis permits to identify almost all the fundamental experimental Raman peaks of the two compounds, with the exception of either modes with zero computed intensity or modes overlapping with more intense peaks. Additional peaks have been identified in both calcite and aragonite, which have been assigned to {sup 18}O satellite modes or overtones. The agreement between the computed and measured spectra is quite satisfactory; in particular, simulation permits to clearly distinguish between calcite and aragonite in the case of powder spectra, and among different polarization directions of each compound in the case of single crystal spectra.

  4. Investigations on the relationship between power spectrum and signal-to-noise ratio of frequency-swept pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhuhong; Fan Diayuan

    1993-01-01

    The criterion for obtaining compressed chirp pulses with high signal-to-noise ratio is the shape of the power spectrum, a chirp pulse of Gaussian shaped power spectrum without modulation is needed in CPA system to get the clean compressed pulses. 4 refs., 2 figs

  5. Embedding Dimension Selection for Adaptive Singular Spectrum Analysis of EEG Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanzhi Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The recorded electroencephalography (EEG signal is often contaminated with different kinds of artifacts and noise. Singular spectrum analysis (SSA is a powerful tool for extracting the brain rhythm from a noisy EEG signal. By analyzing the frequency characteristics of the reconstructed component (RC and the change rate in the trace of the Toeplitz matrix, it is demonstrated that the embedding dimension is related to the frequency bandwidth of each reconstructed component, in consistence with the component mixing in the singular value decomposition step. A method for selecting the embedding dimension is thereby proposed and verified by simulated EEG signal based on the Markov Process Amplitude (MPA EEG Model. Real EEG signal is also collected from the experimental subjects under both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. The experimental results show that based on the embedding dimension selection method, the alpha rhythm can be extracted from the real EEG signal by the adaptive SSA, which can be effectively utilized to distinguish between the eyes-open and eyes-closed states.

  6. Embedding Dimension Selection for Adaptive Singular Spectrum Analysis of EEG Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shanzhi; Hu, Hai; Ji, Linhong; Wang, Peng

    2018-02-26

    The recorded electroencephalography (EEG) signal is often contaminated with different kinds of artifacts and noise. Singular spectrum analysis (SSA) is a powerful tool for extracting the brain rhythm from a noisy EEG signal. By analyzing the frequency characteristics of the reconstructed component (RC) and the change rate in the trace of the Toeplitz matrix, it is demonstrated that the embedding dimension is related to the frequency bandwidth of each reconstructed component, in consistence with the component mixing in the singular value decomposition step. A method for selecting the embedding dimension is thereby proposed and verified by simulated EEG signal based on the Markov Process Amplitude (MPA) EEG Model. Real EEG signal is also collected from the experimental subjects under both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. The experimental results show that based on the embedding dimension selection method, the alpha rhythm can be extracted from the real EEG signal by the adaptive SSA, which can be effectively utilized to distinguish between the eyes-open and eyes-closed states.

  7. Bi-spectrum based-EMD applied to the non-stationary vibration signals for bearing faults diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Lotfi; Ali, Jaouher Ben; Fnaiech, Farhat

    2014-09-01

    Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) has been widely applied to analyze vibration signals behavior for bearing failures detection. Vibration signals are almost always non-stationary since bearings are inherently dynamic (e.g., speed and load condition change over time). By using EMD, the complicated non-stationary vibration signal is decomposed into a number of stationary intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) based on the local characteristic time scale of the signal. Bi-spectrum, a third-order statistic, helps to identify phase coupling effects, the bi-spectrum is theoretically zero for Gaussian noise and it is flat for non-Gaussian white noise, consequently the bi-spectrum analysis is insensitive to random noise, which are useful for detecting faults in induction machines. Utilizing the advantages of EMD and bi-spectrum, this article proposes a joint method for detecting such faults, called bi-spectrum based EMD (BSEMD). First, original vibration signals collected from accelerometers are decomposed by EMD and a set of IMFs is produced. Then, the IMF signals are analyzed via bi-spectrum to detect outer race bearing defects. The procedure is illustrated with the experimental bearing vibration data. The experimental results show that BSEMD techniques can effectively diagnosis bearing failures. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    weak Raman signal, which facilitates identification in chemi- cal and biological systems. Recently, single-molecule Raman scattering has enhanced the detection sensitivity limit of ... was working on the molecular diffraction of light, which ulti-.

  9. [A new peak detection algorithm of Raman spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng-Zhi; Sun, Qiang; Liu, Ying; Liang, Jing-Qiu; An, Yan; Liu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    The authors proposed a new Raman peak recognition method named bi-scale correlation algorithm. The algorithm uses the combination of the correlation coefficient and the local signal-to-noise ratio under two scales to achieve Raman peak identification. We compared the performance of the proposed algorithm with that of the traditional continuous wavelet transform method through MATLAB, and then tested the algorithm with real Raman spectra. The results show that the average time for identifying a Raman spectrum is 0.51 s with the algorithm, while it is 0.71 s with the continuous wavelet transform. When the signal-to-noise ratio of Raman peak is greater than or equal to 6 (modern Raman spectrometers feature an excellent signal-to-noise ratio), the recognition accuracy with the algorithm is higher than 99%, while it is less than 84% with the continuous wavelet transform method. The mean and the standard deviations of the peak position identification error of the algorithm are both less than that of the continuous wavelet transform method. Simulation analysis and experimental verification prove that the new algorithm possesses the following advantages: no needs of human intervention, no needs of de-noising and background removal operation, higher recognition speed and higher recognition accuracy. The proposed algorithm is operable in Raman peak identification.

  10. Vibrational spectrum of the K-590 intermediate in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle at room temperature: picosecond time-resolved resonance coherent anti-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujj, L.; Jäger, F.; Popp, A.; Atkinson, G. H.

    1996-12-01

    The vibrational spectrum of the K-590 intermediate, thought to contribute significantly to the energy storage and transduction mechanism in the bacteriorhodopsin (BR) photocycle, is measured at room temperature using picosecond time-resolved resonance coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (PTR/CARS). The room-temperature BR photocycle is initiated by the 3 ps, 570 nm excitation of the ground-state species, BR-570, prepared in both H 2O and D 2O suspensions of BR. PTR/CARS data, recorded 50 ps after BR-570 excitation, at which time only BR-570 and K-590 are present, have an excellent S/N which provides a significantly more detailed view of the K-590 vibrational degrees of freedom than previously available. Two picosecond (6 ps FWHM) laser pulses, ω1 (633.4 nm) and ωS (675-700 nm), are used to record PTR/CARS data via electronic resonance enhancement in both BR-570 and K-590, each of which contains a distinct retinal structure (assigned as 13- rans, 15- anti, 13- cis, respectively). To obtain the vibrational spectrum of K-590 separately, the PTR/CARS spectra from the mixture of isomeric retinals is quantitatively analyzed in terms of third-order susceptibility ( η(3)) relationships. PTR/CARS spectra of K-590 recorded from both H 2O and D 2O suspensions of BR are compared with the analogous vibrational data obtained via spontaneous resonance Raman (RR) scattering at both low (77 K) and room temperature. Analyses of these vibrational spectra identify temperature-dependent effects and changes assignable to the substitution of deuterium at the Schiff-base nitrogen not previously reported.

  11. Analysis Spectrum of ECG Signal and QRS Detection during Running on Treadmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agung Suhendra, M.; Ilham R., M.; Simbolon, Artha I.; Faizal A., M.; Munandar, A.

    2018-03-01

    The heart is an important organ in our metabolism in which it controls circulatory and oxygen. The heart exercise is needed one of them using the treadmill to prevent health. To analysis, it using electrocardiograph (ECG) to investigating and diagnosing anomalies of the heart. In this paper, we would like to analysis ECG signals during running on the treadmill with kinds of speeds. There are two analysis ECG signals i.e. QRS detection and power spectrum density (PSD). The result of PSD showed that subject 3 has highly for all subject and the result of QRS detection using pan Tomkins algorithm that a percentage of failed detection is an approaching to 0 % for all subject.

  12. A novel recursive Fourier transform for nonuniform sampled signals: application to heart rate variability spectrum estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alexander; Aboy, Mateo

    2009-07-01

    We present a novel method to iteratively calculate discrete Fourier transforms for discrete time signals with sample time intervals that may be widely nonuniform. The proposed recursive Fourier transform (RFT) does not require interpolation of the samples to uniform time intervals, and each iterative transform update of N frequencies has computational order N. Because of the inherent non-uniformity in the time between successive heart beats, an application particularly well suited for this transform is power spectral density (PSD) estimation for heart rate variability. We compare RFT based spectrum estimation with Lomb-Scargle Transform (LST) based estimation. PSD estimation based on the LST also does not require uniform time samples, but the LST has a computational order greater than Nlog(N). We conducted an assessment study involving the analysis of quasi-stationary signals with various levels of randomly missing heart beats. Our results indicate that the RFT leads to comparable estimation performance to the LST with significantly less computational overhead and complexity for applications requiring iterative spectrum estimations.

  13. Signaling of noncomprehension in communication breakdowns in fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary E; Barstein, Jamie; Hornickel, Jane; Matherly, Sara; Durante, Genna; Losh, Molly

    The ability to indicate a failure to understand a message is a critical pragmatic (social) language skill for managing communication breakdowns and supporting successful communicative exchanges. The current study examined the ability to signal noncomprehension across different types of confusing message conditions in children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome (FXS), Down syndrome (DS), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and typical development (TD). Controlling for nonverbal mental age and receptive vocabulary skills, youth with comorbid FXS and ASD and those with DS were less likely than TD controls to signal noncomprehension of confusing messages. Youth with FXS without ASD and those with idiopathic ASD did not differ from controls. No sex differences were detected in any group. Findings contribute to current knowledge of pragmatic profiles in different forms of genetically-based neurodevelopmental disorders associated with intellectual disability, and the role of sex in the expression of such profiles. Upon completion of this article, readers will have learned about: (1) the social-communicative profiles of youth with FXS, DS, and ASD, (2) the importance of signaling noncomprehension in response to a confusing message, and (3) the similarities and differences in noncomprehension signaling in youth with FXS (with and without ASD), DS, idiopathic ASD, and TD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Frequency shifts in stimulated Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinth, W.; Kaiser, W.

    1980-01-01

    The nonresonant contributions to the nonlinear susceptibility chisup(()3) produce a frequency chirp during stimulated Raman scattering. In the case of transient stimulated Raman scattering, the spectrum of the generated Stokes pulse is found at higher frequencies than expected from spontaneous Raman data. The frequency difference can be calculated from the theory of stimulated Raman scattering. (orig.)

  15. Basal ganglia impairments in autism spectrum disorder are related to abnormal signal gating to prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Chantel S; Stocco, Andrea; Neuhaus, Emily; Kleinhans, Natalia M

    2016-10-01

    Research on the biological basis of autism spectrum disorder has yielded a list of brain abnormalities that are arguably as diverse as the set of behavioral symptoms that characterize the disorder. Among these are patterns of abnormal cortical connectivity and abnormal basal ganglia development. In attempts to integrate the existing literature, the current paper tests the hypothesis that impairments in the basal ganglia's function to flexibly select and route task-relevant neural signals to the prefrontal cortex underpins patterns of abnormal synchronization between the prefrontal cortex and other cortical processing centers observed in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We tested this hypothesis using a Dynamic Causal Modeling analysis of neuroimaging data collected from 16 individuals with ASD (mean age=25.3 years; 6 female) and 17 age- and IQ-matched neurotypical controls (mean age=25.6, 6 female), who performed a Go/No-Go test of executive functioning. Consistent with the hypothesis tested, a random-effects Bayesian model selection procedure determined that a model of network connectivity in which basal ganglia activation modulated connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and other key cortical processing centers best fit the data of both neurotypicals and individuals with ASD. Follow-up analyses suggested that the largest group differences were observed for modulation of connectivity between prefrontal cortex and the sensory input region in the occipital lobe [t(31)=2.03, p=0.025]. Specifically, basal ganglia activation was associated with a small decrease in synchronization between the occipital region and prefrontal cortical regions in controls; however, in individuals with ASD, basal ganglia activation resulted in increased synchronization between the occipital region and the prefrontal cortex. We propose that this increased synchronization may reflect a failure in basal ganglia signal gating mechanisms, resulting in a non-selective copying

  16. Kerr nonlinearity mitigation in 5 × 28-GBd PDM16-QAM signal transmission over a dispersion-uncompensated link with backward-pumpeddistributed Raman amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sackey, I.; Da Ros, Francesco; Jazayerifar, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present experimental and numerical investigations of Kerr nonlinearity compensation in a 400-km standard single-mode fiber link with distributed Raman amplification with backward pumping. A dual-pump polarization-independent fiber-based optical parametric amplifier is used for mid-link spectra...... to numerical simulations with good agreement. It is also shown with simulations that a maximum transmission reach of 2400 km enabled by the optical phase conjugator is possible for the WDM signal...

  17. Enhanced signal dispersion in saturation transfer difference experiments by conversion to a 1D-STD-homodecoupled spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Pastor, Manuel; Vega-Vazquez, Marino [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Laboratorio Integral de Dinamica e Estructura de Biomoleculas Jose R. Carracido, Unidade de Resonancia Magnetica, Edificio CACTUS, RIAIDT (Spain); Capua, Antonia De [Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali (Italy); Canales, Angeles [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, CSIC, Departamento de Estructura y funcion de proteinas (Spain); Andre, Sabine; Gabius, Hans-Joachim [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physiologische Chemie, Tieraerztliche Fakultaet (Germany); Jimenez-Barbero, Jesus [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, CSIC, Departamento de Estructura y funcion de proteinas (Spain)], E-mail: JJbarbero@cib.csic.es

    2006-10-15

    The saturation transfer difference (STD) experiment is a rich source of information on topological aspects of ligand binding to a receptor. The epitope mapping is based on a magnetization transfer after signal saturation from the receptor to the ligand, where interproton distances permit this process. Signal overlap in the STD spectrum can cause difficulties to correctly assign and/or quantitate the measured enhancements. To address this issue we report here a modified version of the routine experiment and a processing scheme that provides a 1D-STD homodecoupled spectrum (i.e. an experiment in which all STD signals appear as singlets) with line widths similar to those in original STD spectrum. These refinements contribute to alleviate problems of signal overlap. The experiment is based on 2D-J-resolved spectroscopy, one of the fastest 2D experiments under conventional data sampling in the indirect dimension, and provides excellent sensitivity, a key factor for the difference experiments.

  18. Contrasts between the vibronic contributions in the tris-(2,2'-bipyridyl)osmium(II) emission spectrum and the implications of resonance-Raman parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondongo, Onduru S; Endicott, John F

    2009-04-06

    The emission spectrum of the tris-(2,2'-bipyridine)osmium(II) metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited-state frozen solution at 77 K differs qualitatively from that expected based on its reported resonance-Raman (rR) parameters in that (1) the dominant vibronic contributions to the emission spectrum are in the low frequency regime (corresponding to nuclear displacements in largely to metal-ligand vibrational modes) and these contributions are negligible in the rR; and (2) the amplitude of the emission sideband components that correspond to envelopes of largely bpy centered vibrational modes is about 40% of that expected (relative to the amplitude observed for the band origin) for a simple vibronic progression in these modes. The distortions in low frequency vibrational modes are attributable to configurational mixing between metal centered (LF) and MLCT excited states, and the small amplitudes of the bpy-mode vibronic components may be a consequence of some intrinsic differences of the distortions of the (3)MLCT and (1)MLCT excited states such as the zero-field splitting of the (3)MLCT excited state and the different distortions of these excited-state components.

  19. Differentiating the growth phases of single bacteria using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strola, S. A.; Marcoux, P. R.; Schultz, E.; Perenon, R.; Simon, A.-C.; Espagnon, I.; Allier, C. P.; Dinten, J.-M.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present a longitudinal study of bacteria metabolism performed with a novel Raman spectrometer system. Longitudinal study is possible with our Raman setup since the overall procedure to localize a single bacterium and collect a Raman spectrum lasts only 1 minute. Localization and detection of single bacteria are performed by means of lensfree imaging, whereas Raman signal (from 600 to 3200 cm-1) is collected into a prototype spectrometer that allows high light throughput (HTVS technology, Tornado Spectral System). Accomplishing time-lapse Raman spectrometry during growth of bacteria, we observed variation in the net intensities for some band groups, e.g. amides and proteins. The obtained results on two different bacteria species, i.e. Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis clearly indicate that growth affects the Raman chemical signature. We performed a first analysis to check spectral differences and similarities. It allows distinguishing between lag, exponential and stationary growth phases. And the assignment of interest bands to vibration modes of covalent bonds enables the monitoring of metabolic changes in bacteria caused by growth and aging. Following the spectra analysis, a SVM (support vector machine) classification of the different growth phases is presented. In sum this longitudinal study by means of a compact and low-cost Raman setup is a proof of principle for routine analysis of bacteria, in a real-time and non-destructive way. Real-time Raman studies on metabolism and viability of bacteria pave the way for future antibiotic susceptibility testing.

  20. Raman spectroscopy of single nanoparticles in a double-nanohole optical tweezer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Steven; Al Balushi, Ahmed A; Gordon, Reuven

    2015-01-01

    A double nanohole in a metal film was used to trap nanoparticles (20 nm diameter) and simultaneously record their Raman spectrum using the trapping laser as the excitation source. This allowed for the identification of characteristic Stokes lines for titania and polystyrene nanoparticles, showing the capability for material identification of nanoparticles once trapped. Increased Raman signal was observed for the trapping of multiple nanoparticles. This system combines the benefits of nanoparticle isolation and manipulation with unique identification. (fast track communication)

  1. Raman Spectroscopy of Single Nanoparticles in a Double-Nanohole Optical Tweezer System

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Steven; Balushi, Ahmed A. Al; Gordon, Reuven

    2015-01-01

    A double nanohole in a metal film was used to trap nanoparticles (20 nm diameter) and simultaneously record their Raman spectrum using the trapping laser as the excitation source. This allowed for the identification of characteristic Stokes lines for titania and polystyrene nanoparticles, showing the capability for material identification of nanoparticles once trapped. Increased Raman signal is observed for the trapping of multiple nanoparticles. This system combines the benefits of nanoparti...

  2. How to improve a critical performance for an ExoMars 2020 Scientific Instrument (RLS). Raman Laser Spectrometer Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canora, C. P.; Moral, A. G.; Rull, F.; Maurice, S.; Hutchinson, I.; Ramos, G.; López-Reyes, G.; Belenguer, T.; Canchal, R.; Prieto, J. A. R.; Rodriguez, P.; Santamaria, P.; Berrocal, A.; Colombo, M.; Gallago, P.; Seoane, L.; Quintana, C.; Ibarmia, S.; Zafra, J.; Saiz, J.; Santiago, A.; Marin, A.; Gordillo, C.; Escribano, D.; Sanz-Palominoa, M.

    2017-09-01

    The Raman Laser Spectrometer (RLS) is one of the Pasteur Payload instruments, within the ESA's Aurora Exploration Programme, ExoMars mission. Raman spectroscopy is based on the analysis of spectral fingerprints due to the inelastic scattering of light when interacting with matter. RLS is composed by Units: SPU (Spectrometer Unit), iOH (Internal Optical Head), and ICEU (Instrument Control and Excitation Unit) and the harnesses (EH and OH). The iOH focuses the excitation laser on the samples and collects the Raman emission from the sample via SPU (CCD) and the video data (analog) is received, digitalizing it and transmiting it to the processor module (ICEU). The main sources of noise arise from the sample, the background, and the instrument (Laser, CCD, focuss, acquisition parameters, operation control). In this last case the sources are mainly perturbations from the optics, dark signal and readout noise. Also flicker noise arising from laser emission fluctuations can be considered as instrument noise. In order to evaluate the SNR of a Raman instrument in a practical manner it is useful to perform end-to-end measurements on given standards samples. These measurements have to be compared with radiometric simulations using Raman efficiency values from literature and taking into account the different instrumental contributions to the SNR. The RLS EQM instrument performances results and its functionalities have been demonstrated in accordance with the science expectations. The Instrument obtained SNR performances in the RLS EQM will be compared experimentally and via analysis, with the Instrument Radiometric Model tool. The characterization process for SNR optimization is still on going. The operational parameters and RLS algorithms (fluorescence removal and acquisition parameters estimation) will be improved in future models (EQM-2) until FM Model delivery.

  3. Correction Technique for Raman Water Vapor Lidar Signal-Dependent Bias and Suitability for Water Wapor Trend Monitoring in the Upper Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Cadirola, M.; Venable, D.; Calhoun, M.; Miloshevich, L; Vermeesch, K.; Twigg, L.; Dirisu, A.; Hurst, D.; Hall, E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The MOHAVE-2009 campaign brought together diverse instrumentation for measuring atmospheric water vapor. We report on the participation of the ALVICE (Atmospheric Laboratory for Validation, Interagency Collaboration and Education) mobile laboratory in the MOHAVE-2009 campaign. In appendices we also report on the performance of the corrected Vaisala RS92 radiosonde measurements during the campaign, on a new radiosonde based calibration algorithm that reduces the influence of atmospheric variability on the derived calibration constant, and on other results of the ALVICE deployment. The MOHAVE-2009 campaign permitted the Raman lidar systems participating to discover and address measurement biases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The ALVICE lidar system was found to possess a wet bias which was attributed to fluorescence of insect material that was deposited on the telescope early in the mission. Other sources of wet biases are discussed and data from other Raman lidar systems are investigated, revealing that wet biases in upper tropospheric (UT) and lower stratospheric (LS) water vapor measurements appear to be quite common in Raman lidar systems. Lower stratospheric climatology of water vapor is investigated both as a means to check for the existence of these wet biases in Raman lidar data and as a source of correction for the bias. A correction technique is derived and applied to the ALVICE lidar water vapor profiles. Good agreement is found between corrected ALVICE lidar measurments and those of RS92, frost point hygrometer and total column water. The correction is offered as a general method to both quality control Raman water vapor lidar data and to correct those data that have signal-dependent bias. The influence of the correction is shown to be small at regions in the upper troposphere where recent work indicates detection of trends in atmospheric water vapor may be most robust. The correction shown here holds promise for permitting useful upper

  4. Predictable information in neural signals during resting state is reduced in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodski-Guerniero, Alla; Naumer, Marcus J; Moliadze, Vera; Chan, Jason; Althen, Heike; Ferreira-Santos, Fernando; Lizier, Joseph T; Schlitt, Sabine; Kitzerow, Janina; Schütz, Magdalena; Langer, Anne; Kaiser, Jochen; Freitag, Christine M; Wibral, Michael

    2018-04-04

    The neurophysiological underpinnings of the nonsocial symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) which include sensory and perceptual atypicalities remain poorly understood. Well-known accounts of less dominant top-down influences and more dominant bottom-up processes compete to explain these characteristics. These accounts have been recently embedded in the popular framework of predictive coding theory. To differentiate between competing accounts, we studied altered information dynamics in ASD by quantifying predictable information in neural signals. Predictable information in neural signals measures the amount of stored information that is used for the next time step of a neural process. Thus, predictable information limits the (prior) information which might be available for other brain areas, for example, to build predictions for upcoming sensory information. We studied predictable information in neural signals based on resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of 19 ASD patients and 19 neurotypical controls aged between 14 and 27 years. Using whole-brain beamformer source analysis, we found reduced predictable information in ASD patients across the whole brain, but in particular in posterior regions of the default mode network. In these regions, epoch-by-epoch predictable information was positively correlated with source power in the alpha and beta frequency range as well as autocorrelation decay time. Predictable information in precuneus and cerebellum was negatively associated with nonsocial symptom severity, indicating a relevance of the analysis of predictable information for clinical research in ASD. Our findings are compatible with the assumption that use or precision of prior knowledge is reduced in ASD patients. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Holographic Raman lidar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We have constructed a Raman lidar system that incorporates a holographic optical element. By resolving just 3 nitrogen lines in the Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) spectrum, temperature fits as good as 1% at altitudes of 20km can be made in 30 minutes. Due to the narrowband selectivity of the HOE, the lidar provides measurements over a continuous 24hr period. By adding a 4th channel to capture the Rayleigh backscattered light, temperature profiles can be extended to 80km

  6. Spectral reconstruction for shifted-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuxia; Chernavskaia, Olga; Popp, Jürgen; Bocklitz, Thomas

    2018-08-15

    Fluorescence emission is one of the major obstacles to apply Raman spectroscopy in biological investigations. It is usually several orders more intense than Raman scattering and hampers further analysis. In cases where the fluorescence emission is too intense to be efficiently removed via routine mathematical baseline correction algorithms, an alternative approach is needed. One alternative approach is shifted-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS), where two Raman spectra are recorded with two slightly different excitation wavelengths. Ideally, the fluorescence emission at the two excitations does not change while the Raman spectrum shifts according to the excitation wavelength. Hence the fluorescence is removed in the difference of the two recorded Raman spectra. For better interpretability a spectral reconstruction procedure is necessary to recover the fluorescence-free Raman spectrum. This is challenging due to the intensity variations between the two recorded Raman spectra caused by unavoidable experimental changes as well as the presence of noise. Existent approaches suffer from drawbacks like spectral resolution loss, fluorescence residual, and artefacts. In this contribution, we proposed a reconstruction method based on non-negative least squares (NNLS), where the intensity variations between the two measurements are utilized in the reconstruction model. The method achieved fluorescence-free reconstruction on three real-world SERDS datasets without significant information loss. Thereafter, we quantified the performance of the reconstruction based on artificial datasets from four aspects: reconstructed spectral resolution, precision of reconstruction, signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), and fluorescence residual. The artificial datasets were constructed with varied Raman to fluorescence intensity ratio (RFIR), SNR, full-width at half-maximum (FWHM), excitation wavelength shift, and fluorescence variation between the two spectra. It was demonstrated that

  7. Full molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water and carbon tetrachloride for two-dimensional Raman spectroscopy in the frequency domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Ju-Yeon, E-mail: ju8879@kuchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Ito, Hironobu, E-mail: h.ito@kuchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tanimura, Yoshitaka, E-mail: tanimura@kuchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2016-12-20

    Frequency-domain two-dimensional (2D) Raman signals, which are equivalent to coherent two-dimensional Raman scattering (COTRAS) signals, for liquid water and carbon tetrachloride were calculated using an equilibrium–nonequilibrium hybrid molecular dynamics (MD) simulation algorithm. An appropriate representation of the 2D Raman spectrum obtained from MD simulations provides an easy-to-understand depiction of structural and dynamical properties. We elucidate mechanisms governing the 2D signal profiles involving anharmonic mode–mode coupling and the nonlinearities of the polarizability for the intermolecular and intramolecular vibrational modes. The predicted signal profiles and intensities can be utilized to analyze recently developed single-beam 2D spectra, whose signals are generated from a coherently controlled pulse, allowing the single-beam measurement to be carried out more efficiently. Moreover, the MD simulation results allow us to visualize the molecular structure and dynamics by comparing the accurately calculated spectrum with experimental result.

  8. 1.7  μm band narrow-linewidth tunable Raman fiber lasers pumped by spectrum-sliced amplified spontaneous emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wu, Di; Du, Quanli; Li, Xiaoyan; Han, Kexuan; Zhang, Lizhong; Wang, Tianshu; Jiang, Huilin

    2017-12-10

    A 1.7 μm band tunable narrow-linewidth Raman fiber laser based on spectrally sliced amplified spontaneous emission (SS-ASE) and multiple filter structures is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In this scheme, an SS-ASE source is employed as a pump source in order to avoid stimulated Brillouin scattering. The ring configuration includes a 500 m long high nonlinear optical fiber and a 10 km long dispersion shifted fiber as the gain medium. A segment of un-pumped polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber is used to modify the shape of the spectrum. Furthermore, a nonlinear polarization rotation scheme is applied as the wavelength selector to generate lasers. A high-finesse ring filter and a ring filter are used to narrow the linewidth of the laser, respectively. We demonstrate tuning capabilities of a single laser over 28 nm between 1652 nm and 1680 nm by adjusting the polarization controller (PC) and tunable filter. The tunable laser has a 0.023 nm effective linewidth with the high-finesse ring filter. The stable multi-wavelength laser operation of up to four wavelengths can be obtained by adjusting the PC carefully when the pump power increases.

  9. Raman spectrum, quantum mechanical calculations and vibrational assignments of (95% alpha-TeO2/5% Sm2O3) glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, I; Mohamed, Tarek A

    2007-06-01

    Chozen system of tellurite glasses doped with rare earth oxides (95% alpha-TeO(2)+5% Sm2O3) was prepared by melt quenching. Consequently, the Raman spectrum (150-1250 cm(-1)) of the modified tellurite have been recorded. As a continuation to our normal coordinate analysis, force constants and quantum mechanical (QM) calculations for tbp TeO4(4-) (triagonal bipyramid, C(2v)) and TeO(3+1); Te2O7(6-) (bridged tetrahedral), we have carried out ab initio frequency calculations for tpy TeO3(2-) (triagonal pyramidal, C(3v) and C(s)) and tp TeO3(2-) (triagonal planar, D(3h)) ions. The quantum mechanical calculations at the levels of RHF, B3LYP and MP2 allow confident vibrational assignments and structural identification in the binary oxide glass (95% alpha-TeO2 +5% Sm2O3). The dominant three-dimensional network structures in the modified glass are triagonal pyramidal TeO3 with minor features of short range distorted tbp TeO4 and bridged tetrahedral unit of TeO(3+1), leading to a structure of infinite chain. Therefore, alpha-TeO2/Sm2O3 (95/5%) glass experience structural changes from TeO4 (tbp); Te2O7 (TeO(3+1))-->TeO3 (tpy).

  10. Sensitive and fast detection of fructose in complex media via symmetry breaking and signal amplification using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fang; Bai, Tao; Zhang, Lei; Ella-Menye, Jean-Rene; Liu, Sijun; Nowinski, Ann K; Jiang, Shaoyi; Yu, Qiuming

    2014-03-04

    A new strategy is proposed to sensitively and rapidly detect analytes with weak Raman signals in complex media using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) via detecting the SERS signal changes of the immobilized probe molecules on SERS-active substrates upon binding of the analytes. In this work, 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MPBA) was selected as the probe molecule which was immobilized on the gold surface of a quasi-three-dimensional plasmonic nanostructure array (Q3D-PNA) SERS substrate to detect fructose. The molecule of 4-MPBA possesses three key functions: molecule recognition and reversible binding of the analyte via the boronic acid group, amplification of SERS signals by the phenyl group and thus shielding of the background noise of complex media, and immobilization on the surface of SERS-active substrates via the thiol group. Most importantly, the symmetry breaking of the 4-MPBA molecule upon fructose binding leads to the change of area ratio between totally symmetric 8a ring mode and nontotally symmetric 8b ring mode, which enables the detection. The detection curves were obtained in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and in undiluted artificial urine at clinically relevant concentrations, and the limit of detection of 0.05 mM was achieved.

  11. Raman spectroscopic determination of norbixin and tartrazine in sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, Ute; Strelau, Katharina K; Weber, Karina; Da Costa Filho, Paulo Augusto; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, a method for the detection of norbixin and tartrazine in sugar by means of resonance Raman spectroscopy is presented. The extraction was done in four steps using methanol and the measurements were performed in aqueous solution. The excitation wavelength was 514 nm for norbixin and 488 nm for tartrazine samples. The characteristic resonance Raman signals of the dyes were fitted by different functions. Depending on the R² values of the different fits, each spectrum was classified as positive or negative response. A detection limit of 250 ng g⁻¹ for norbixin and 989 ng g⁻¹ for tartrazine in solid sugar samples could be reached by logistic regression.

  12. Signal-to-Noise Contribution of Principal Component Loads in Reconstructed Near-Infrared Raman Tissue Spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbergen, M. C. M.; van Swol, C. F. P.; Kendall, C.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Stone, N.; Bosch, J. L. H. R.

    The overall quality of Raman spectra in the near-infrared region, where biological samples are often studied, has benefited from various improvements to optical instrumentation over the past decade. However, obtaining ample spectral quality for analysis is still challenging due to device

  13. Spectrum of absorption of a weak signal by an atom in a strong field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakaev, D.S.; Vdovin, Y.A.; Ermachenko, V.M.; Yakovlenko, S.I.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis is made of the spectrum of absorption of a weak probe electromagnetic field by two-level atoms in a strong resonant laser field, undergoing collision with buffer gas atoms. The analysis is made using an approach that allows for the direct influence of a strong electromagnetic field on the dynamics of an elastic collision between an active atom and a buffer gas atom. Rate equations are analyzed for a combined ''atom--strong electromagnetic field'' system (an atom ''dressed'' by the field) allowing for spontaneous and optical collisional transitions, and also for the interaction with the probe field. In the steady-state case, an expression is derived for the electric susceptibility of the medium at the small-signal frequency. This expression contains the rates of the optical collisional transitions that depend nontrivially on the parameters of the strong electromagnetic field. The phenomenological characteristics of optical collisional transitions generally used are only valid at low intensities and for small frequency detunings of the strong electromagnetic field, i.e., in the impact limit

  14. Bacterial detection using bacteriophages and gold nanorods by following time-dependent changes in Raman spectral signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtader, Farzaneh; Tomak, Aysel; Zareie, Hadi M; Piskin, Erhan

    2018-03-27

    This study attemps to develop bacterial detection strategies using bacteriophages and gold nanorods (GNRs) by Raman spectral analysis. Escherichia coli was selected as the target and its specific phage was used as the bioprobe. Target bacteria and phages were propagated/purified by traditional techniques. GNRs were synthesized by using hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as stabilizer. A two-step detection strategy was applied: Firstly, the target bacteria were interacted with GNRs in suspensions, and then they were dropped onto silica substrates for detection. It was possible to obtain clear surface-enchanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) peaks of the target bacteria, even without using phages. In the second step, the phage nanoemulsions were droped onto the bacterial-GNRs complexes on those surfaces and time-dependent changes in the Raman spectra were monitored at different time intervals upto 40 min. These results demonstrated that how one can apply phages with plasmonic nanoparticles for detection of pathogenic bacteria very effectively in a quite simple test.

  15. Triplet State Resonance Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Jensen, N. H.; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn

    1978-01-01

    Makes the first report on the resonance Raman spectrum of a molecule in its triplet state generated by pulse radiolysis. A solution of 0.01 mol dm-3 of p-terphenyl in benzene was studied......Makes the first report on the resonance Raman spectrum of a molecule in its triplet state generated by pulse radiolysis. A solution of 0.01 mol dm-3 of p-terphenyl in benzene was studied...

  16. Sparse-sampling with time-encoded (TICO) stimulated Raman scattering for fast image acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakert, Hubertus; Eibl, Matthias; Karpf, Sebastian; Huber, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Modern biomedical imaging modalities aim to provide researchers a multimodal contrast for a deeper insight into a specimen under investigation. A very promising technique is stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, which can unveil the chemical composition of a sample with a very high specificity. Although the signal intensities are enhanced manifold to achieve a faster acquisition of images if compared to standard Raman microscopy, there is a trade-off between specificity and acquisition speed. Commonly used SRS concepts either probe only very few Raman transitions as the tuning of the applied laser sources is complicated or record whole spectra with a spectrometer based setup. While the first approach is fast, it reduces the specificity and the spectrometer approach records whole spectra -with energy differences where no Raman information is present-, which limits the acquisition speed. Therefore, we present a new approach based on the TICO-Raman concept, which we call sparse-sampling. The TICO-sparse-sampling setup is fully electronically controllable and allows probing of only the characteristic peaks of a Raman spectrum instead of always acquiring a whole spectrum. By reducing the spectral points to the relevant peaks, the acquisition time can be greatly reduced compared to a uniformly, equidistantly sampled Raman spectrum while the specificity and the signal to noise ratio (SNR) are maintained. Furthermore, all laser sources are completely fiber based. The synchronized detection enables a full resolution of the Raman signal, whereas the analogue and digital balancing allows shot noise limited detection. First imaging results with polystyrene (PS) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads confirm the advantages of TICO sparse-sampling. We achieved a pixel dwell time as low as 35 μs for an image differentiating both species. The mechanical properties of the applied voice coil stage for scanning the sample currently limits even faster acquisition.

  17. Raman spectroscopy in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malard, L.M.; Pimenta, M.A.; Dresselhaus, G.; Dresselhaus, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    Recent Raman scattering studies in different types of graphene samples are reviewed here. We first discuss the first-order and the double resonance Raman scattering mechanisms in graphene, which give rise to the most prominent Raman features. The determination of the number of layers in few-layer graphene is discussed, giving special emphasis to the possibility of using Raman spectroscopy to distinguish a monolayer from few-layer graphene stacked in the Bernal (AB) configuration. Different types of graphene samples produced both by exfoliation and using epitaxial methods are described and their Raman spectra are compared with those of 3D crystalline graphite and turbostratic graphite, in which the layers are stacked with rotational disorder. We show that Resonance Raman studies, where the energy of the excitation laser line can be tuned continuously, can be used to probe electrons and phonons near the Dirac point of graphene and, in particular allowing a determination to be made of the tight-binding parameters for bilayer graphene. The special process of electron-phonon interaction that renormalizes the phonon energy giving rise to the Kohn anomaly is discussed, and is illustrated by gated experiments where the position of the Fermi level can be changed experimentally. Finally, we discuss the ability of distinguishing armchair and zig-zag edges by Raman spectroscopy and studies in graphene nanoribbons in which the Raman signal is enhanced due to resonance with singularities in the density of electronic states.

  18. Signal discrimination of ULF electromagnetic data with using singular spectrum analysis – an attempt to detect train noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saito

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic phenomena associated with crustal activities have been reported in a wide frequency range (DC-HF. In particular, ULF electromagnetic phenomena are the most promising among them because of the deeper skin depth. However, ULF geoelctromagnetic data are a superposition of signals of different origins. They originated from interactions between the geomagnetic field and the solar wind, leak current by a DC-driven train (train noise, precipitation, and so on. In general, the intensity of electromagnetic signals associated with crustal activity is smaller than the above variations. Therefore, in order to detect a smaller signal, signal discrimination such as noise reduction or identification of noises is very important. In this paper, the singular spectrum analysis (SSA has been performed to detect the DC-driven train noise in geoelectric potential difference data. The aim of this paper is to develop an effective algorithm for the DC-driven train noise detection.

  19. Differential signaling spread-spectrum modulation of the LED visible light wireless communications using a mobile-phone camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Hao; Chow, Chi-Wai

    2015-02-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) using spread spectrum modulation (SSM) and differential signaling (DS), detected by a mobile-phone camera is proposed and demonstrated for the first time to provide high immunity to background ambient light interference. The SSM signal provides the coding gain while the DS scheme enhances the clock recovery particular under high background ambient light. Experiment results confirm the feasibility of the proposed scheme, showing that the proposed system has 6-dB gain comparing with the traditional on-off keying (OOK) modulation under background ambient light of 3000 lux. The direct incident ambient light to the mobile-phone camera is 520 lux.

  20. Design of an 1800nm Raman amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    We present the experimental results for a Raman amplifier that operates at 1810 nm and is pumped by a Raman fiber laser at 1680 nm. Both the pump laser and the Raman amplifier is polarization maintaining. A challenge when scaling Raman amplifiers to longer wavelengths is the increase...... in transmission loss, but also the reduction in the Raman gain coefficient as the amplifier wavelength is increased. Both polarization components of the Raman gain is characterized, initially for linearly co-polarized signal and pump, subsequently linearly polarized orthogonal signal and pump. The noise...

  1. Challenges in higher order mode Raman amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Nielsen, Kristian; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk

    2015-01-01

    A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed......A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed...

  2. Mixture analysis with laser raman spctroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.S.; Bark, G.M.

    1981-01-01

    Trace amount of methyl orange was determined in colored medium by resonance Raman spectrometry. Without major modification of a commercial laser Raman spectrometer, the resonance Raman active molecule could be determined satisfactorily in 10sup(-5)M range when the background fluorescence was more than 20 times stronger than the signal. Use of fluorescence quenching agent was found helpful to improve the Raman signal. Suggestions for the improvement of analytical method is presented. (Author)

  3. Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman spectroscopy has gained increased use and importance in recent years for accurate and precise detection of physical and chemical properties of food materials, due to the greater specificity and sensitivity of Raman techniques over other analytical techniques. This book chapter presents Raman s...

  4. Underlay Spectrum Sharing Techniques with In-Band Full-Duplex Systems using Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gaafar, Mohamed; Amin, Osama; Abediseid, Walid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Sharing the spectrum with in-band full-duplex (FD) primary users (PUs) is a challenging and interesting problem in the underlay cognitive radio (CR) systems. The self-interference introduced at the primary network may dramatically impede

  5. Monitoring the oxidation of nuclear fuel cladding using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi, Hongyi; Mikael, Solomon; Allen, Todd; Sridharan, Kumar; Butt, Darryl; Blanchard, James P.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2014-01-01

    In order to observe Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) cladding oxidation within a spent fuel canister, cladding oxidized in air at 500 °C was investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy to measure the oxide layer thickness. Systematic Raman scans were performed to study the relationship between typical Raman spectra and various oxide layer thicknesses. The thicknesses of the oxide layers developed for various exposure times were measured by cross-sectional Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results of this work reveal that each oxide layer thickness has a corresponding typical Raman spectrum. Detailed analysis suggests that the Raman scattering peaks around wave numbers of 180 cm −1 and 630 cm −1 are the best choices for accurately determining the oxide layer thickness. After Gaussian–Lorentzian deconvolution, these two peaks can be quantitatively represented by four peaks. The intensities of the deconvoluted peaks increase consistently as the oxide layer becomes thicker and sufficiently strong signals are produced, allowing one to distinguish the bare and oxidized cladding samples, as well as samples with different oxide layer thicknesses. Hence, a process that converts sample oxide layer thickness to optical signals can be achieved

  6. Rapid detection of benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour by using Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juan; Peng, Yankun; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Dhakal, Sagar; Xu, Tianfeng

    2015-05-01

    Benzoyl peroxide is a common flour additive that improves the whiteness of flour and the storage properties of flour products. However, benzoyl peroxide adversely affects the nutritional content of flour, and excess consumption causes nausea, dizziness, other poisoning, and serious liver damage. This study was focus on detection of the benzoyl peroxide added in wheat flour. A Raman scattering spectroscopy system was used to acquire spectral signal from sample data and identify benzoyl peroxide based on Raman spectral peak position. The optical devices consisted of Raman spectrometer and CCD camera, 785 nm laser module, optical fiber, prober, and a translation stage to develop a real-time, nondestructive detection system. Pure flour, pure benzoyl peroxide and different concentrations of benzoyl peroxide mixed with flour were prepared as three sets samples to measure the Raman spectrum. These samples were placed in the same type of petri dish to maintain a fixed distance between the Raman CCD and petri dish during spectral collection. The mixed samples were worked by pretreatment of homogenization and collected multiple sets of data of each mixture. The exposure time of this experiment was set at 0.5s. The Savitzky Golay (S-G) algorithm and polynomial curve-fitting method was applied to remove the fluorescence background from the Raman spectrum. The Raman spectral peaks at 619 cm-1, 848 cm-1, 890 cm-1, 1001 cm-1, 1234 cm-1, 1603cm-1, 1777cm-1 were identified as the Raman fingerprint of benzoyl peroxide. Based on the relationship between the Raman intensity of the most prominent peak at around 1001 cm-1 and log values of benzoyl peroxide concentrations, the chemical concentration prediction model was developed. This research demonstrated that Raman detection system could effectively and rapidly identify benzoyl peroxide adulteration in wheat flour. The experimental result is promising and the system with further modification can be applicable for more products in near

  7. Amplitude spectrum EEG signal evidence for the dissociation of motor and perceptual spatial working memory in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrnis, Nikolaos; Protopapa, Foteini; Tsoukas, Evangelos; Balogh, Allison; Siettos, Constantinos I; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the question whether spatial working memory related to movement plans (motor working memory) and spatial working memory related to spatial attention and perceptual processes (perceptual spatial working memory) share the same neurophysiological substrate or there is evidence for separate motor and perceptual working memory streams of processing. Towards this aim, ten healthy human subjects performed delayed responses to visual targets presented at different spatial locations. Two tasks were attained, one in which the spatial location of the target was the goal for a pointing movement and one in which the spatial location of the target was used for a perceptual (yes or no) change detection. Each task involved two conditions: a memory condition in which the target remained visible only for the first 250 ms of the delay period and a delay condition in which the target location remained visible throughout the delay period. The amplitude spectrum analysis of the EEG revealed that the alpha (8-12 Hz) band signal was smaller, while the beta (13-30 Hz) and gamma (30-45 Hz) band signals were larger in the memory compared to the non-memory condition. The alpha band signal difference was confined to the frontal midline area; the beta band signal difference extended over the right hemisphere and midline central area, and the gamma band signal difference was confined to the right occipitoparietal area. Importantly, both in beta and gamma bands, we observed a significant increase in the movement-related compared to the perceptual-related memory-specific amplitude spectrum signal in the central midline area. This result provides clear evidence for the dissociation of motor and perceptual spatial working memory.

  8. Determination of water vapor and aerosol densities in the tropospheric atmosphere from nitrogen and water vapor raman signals

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, D H; Lee, J M; Yeon, K H; Choi, S C

    1998-01-01

    A Raman lidar system has been developed for the measurement of the water-vapor mixing ratio and the aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficients. To suppress the elastic scattering from the XeCl excimer laser, an acetone edge filter and narrow-band interference filters are used. By using independently calculated backscatter and extinction coefficients, we calculate the lidar ratios (extinction coefficient divided by the backscatter coefficient). The obtained ratios between 30 and 50 sr explain the special characteristics of the aerosol existing in the atmosphere. These ratios are also used as important parameters in the lidar inversion program. We have also obtained the water-vapor mixing ratio and find that big differences exist between the ratios inside the boundary layer and those of other regions.

  9. Analysis of albumin Raman scattering in visible and near-infrared ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykina, Anastasia A.; Artemyev, Dmitry N.

    2018-04-01

    In this work the analysis of the shape and intensity of albumin Raman signals in visible and near-IR ranges was carried out. The experimental setup using lasers from the visible region first of all excites the fluorescence of the albumin solution, the main contribution to which is produced by sodium chloride, which is a component of the tested sample. At the same time, lasers from the near-infrared range excited the Raman signal of albumin most effectively. It was found that the highest ratio of Raman scattering to autofluorescence intensities in the detected signal was obtained using a laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm. To determine the albumin solution concentration by type of spectrum, a regression approach with the projection to latent structures method was applied. The lowest predicted error of albumin concentration of 2-3 g/l was obtained by using the near-infrared range lasers.

  10. Small-signal gain spectrum of an 1800-torr CO2 amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, J.C.; Haglund, R.F. Jr.; Comly, J.

    1981-01-01

    Prominent hot band effects have been observed in the 9.4 and 10.6 μm gain spectrum of an 1800 torr electron-beam-controlled-discharge CO 2 laser amplifier. Theoretical calculations agree well with data at 53 wavelengths

  11. EMD self-adaptive selecting relevant modes algorithm for FBG spectrum signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Wu, Chun-ting; Liu, Huan-lin

    2017-07-01

    Noise may reduce the demodulation accuracy of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing signal so as to affect the quality of sensing detection. Thus, the recovery of a signal from observed noisy data is necessary. In this paper, a precise self-adaptive algorithm of selecting relevant modes is proposed to remove the noise of signal. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is first used to decompose a signal into a set of modes. The pseudo modes cancellation is introduced to identify and eliminate false modes, and then the Mutual Information (MI) of partial modes is calculated. MI is used to estimate the critical point of high and low frequency components. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm estimates the critical point more accurately than the traditional algorithms for FBG spectral signal. While, compared to the similar algorithms, the signal noise ratio of the signal can be improved more than 10 dB after processing by the proposed algorithm, and correlation coefficient can be increased by 0.5, so it demonstrates better de-noising effect.

  12. NAFASS: Fluctuation spectroscopy and the Prony spectrum for description of multi-frequency signals in complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigmatullin, R. R.; Gubaidullin, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we essentially modernize the NAFASS (Non-orthogonal Amplitude Frequency Analysis of the Smoothed Signals) approach suggested earlier. Actually, we solved two important problems: (a) new and effective algorithm was proposed and (b) we proved that the segment of the Prony spectrum could be used as the fitting function for description of the desired frequency spectrum. These two basic elements open an alternative way for creation of the fluctuation spectroscopy when the segment of the Fourier series can fit any random signal with trend but the dispersion spectrum of the Fourier series ω0 · k(ω0 ≡ 2 π / T) ⇒Ωk(k = 0 , 1 , 2 , . . . , K - 1) is replaced by the specific dispersion law Ωk calculated with the help of original algorithm described below. It implies that any finite signal will have a compact amplitude-frequency response (AFR), where the number of the modes is much less in comparison with the number of data points (K economic data and compare 30-years world prices for meat (beef, chicken, lamb and pork) entering as the basic components to every-day food consumption. These data were taken from the official site http://www.indexmundi.com/commodities/. We fitted these random functions with the high accuracy and calculated the desired ;amplitude-frequency; response for these random price fluctuations. The calculated distribution of the amplitudes (Ack, Ask) and frequency spectrum Ωk (k = 0, 1,…, K-1) allows one to compress initial data (K (number of modes) << N (number of data points), N/K ≅ 20-40) and receive an additional information for their comparison with each other. As the second example, we considered the transcendental/irrational numbers description in the frame of the proposed NAFASS approach, as well. This possibility was demonstrated on the quantitative description of the transcendental number π = 3.1415926535897932…, containing initially 6ṡ104 digits. The results obtained for the second type of data can be useful for

  13. Raman Microscopy and Microspectroscopy of Biological Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, N.M.; Otto, C.; Segers-Nolten, G.M.J.; Greve, J.; Merlin, Jean Claude; Turrell, Sylvia; Huvenne, Jean Pierre

    With a confocal Raman microspectrometer it is possible to collect Raman signal of a volume of only 1 µm3 Therefore, this technique offers the possibility to obtain information about the chemical composition of small cell structures like granules, without destroying the cell [1], This makes Raman

  14. Robust 9-QAM digital recovery for spectrum shaped coherent QPSK signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Bo; Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    division multiplexing (NWDM). The final equalized signal is detected by maximum likelihood sequence decision (MLSD) for data bit-error-ratio (BER) measurement. Optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) tolerance is improved by 0.5 dB at a BER of 1x10-3 compared to constant modulus algorithm (CMA) plus post......We propose 9-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (9-QAM) data recovery for polarization multiplexing-quadrature phase shift keying (PM-QPSK) signal in presence of strong filtering to approach Nyquist bandwidth. The decision-directed least radius distance (DD-LRD) algorithm for blind equalization...

  15. Raman facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Raman scattering is a powerful light scattering technique used to diagnose the internal structure of molecules and crystals. In a light scattering experiment, light...

  16. Modeling of the Signal Formation in SiC Sensors for Measurements of the Radiation Spectrum in Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolikowski, Igor P.

    2013-06-01

    The modeling methodology of the signal formation in SiC sensors is presented. The modeling uses two approaches: the first one is the integrated approach whereas the second is the analytical approach. The sensor response is obtained from both approaches: this is the usual solution of the forward problem. Moreover, the response function of the sensor is evaluated by means of the analytical approach and it can be used to solve the inverse problem: recovering the primary radiation spectrum using the response of the sensor. Additionally, the response function returns information about the signal formation in the sensor such as the shape of the response formed by particles with a specific energy. Results obtained by simulations are then compared with experimental data. (authors)

  17. Femtosecond Broadband Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo-Y; Yoon, Sagwoon; Mathies, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is a new technique where a narrow bandwidth picosecond Raman pump pulse and a red-shifted broadband femtosecond Stokes probe pulse (with or without time delay between the pulses) act on a sample to produce a high resolution Raman gain spectrum with high efficiency and speed, free from fluorescence background interference. It can reveal vibrational structural information and dynamics of stationary or transient states. Here, the quantum picture for femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is used to develop the semiclassical coupled wave theory of the phenomenon and to derive an expression for the measurable Raman gain in FSRS. The semiclassical theory is applied to study the dependence of lineshapes in FSRS on the pump-probe time delay and to deduce vibrational dephasing times in cyclohexane in the ground state

  18. Robust frequency diversity based algorithm for clutter noise reduction of ultrasonic signals using multiple sub-spectrum phase coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gongzhang, R.; Xiao, B.; Lardner, T.; Gachagan, A. [Centre for Ultrasonic Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G1 1XW (United Kingdom); Li, M. [School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18

    This paper presents a robust frequency diversity based algorithm for clutter reduction in ultrasonic A-scan waveforms. The performance of conventional spectral-temporal techniques like Split Spectrum Processing (SSP) is highly dependent on the parameter selection, especially when the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is low. Although spatial beamforming offers noise reduction with less sensitivity to parameter variation, phased array techniques are not always available. The proposed algorithm first selects an ascending series of frequency bands. A signal is reconstructed for each selected band in which a defect is present when all frequency components are in uniform sign. Combining all reconstructed signals through averaging gives a probability profile of potential defect position. To facilitate data collection and validate the proposed algorithm, Full Matrix Capture is applied on the austenitic steel and high nickel alloy (HNA) samples with 5MHz transducer arrays. When processing A-scan signals with unrefined parameters, the proposed algorithm enhances SNR by 20dB for both samples and consequently, defects are more visible in B-scan images created from the large amount of A-scan traces. Importantly, the proposed algorithm is considered robust, while SSP is shown to fail on the austenitic steel data and achieves less SNR enhancement on the HNA data.

  19. Search for narrow signals in the γ-spectrum from panti p annihilation at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adiels, L.; Bergstroem, I.; Backenstoss, G.; Findeisen, C.; Repond, J.; Tauscher, L.; Williams, M.C.S.; Charalambous, S.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Zioutas, K.; Cooper, M.D.; Kerek, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Troester, D.

    1986-01-01

    The γ-spectrum originating from panti p annihilations at rest in liquid hydrogen was measured with two BGO spectrometers. A total of 24x10 6 γ's were accumulated. No narrow peaks indicating exotic states such as baryonium were observed. The upper limit for the branching ratio panti p→γ+X with 1040≤m x ≤1770 MeV/c 2 and with Γ x ≤25 MeV/c 2 is less than 10 -3 with more than 99.96% confidence. (orig.)

  20. Analysis of polymer surfaces and thin-film coatings with Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAnally, Gerard David

    2001-01-01

    This thesis investigates the potential of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the analysis and characterisation of polymer surfaces. The Raman and SERS spectra from a PET film are presented. The SERS spectra from the related polyester PBT and from the monomer DMT are identical to PET, showing that only the aromatic signals are enhanced. Evidence from other compounds is presented to show that loss of the carbonyl stretch (1725 cm -1 ) from the spectra is due to a chemical interaction between the silver and surface carbonyl groups. The interaction of other polymer functional groups with silver is discussed. A comparison of Raman and SERS spectra collected from three faces of a single crystal shows the SERS spectra are depolarised. AFM images of the silver films used to obtain SERS are presented. They consist of regular islands of silver, fused together to form a complete film. The stability and reproducibility and of these surfaces is assessed. Band assignments for the SERS spectrum of PET are presented. A new band in the spectrum (1131 cm -1 ) is assigned to a complex vibration using a density functional calculation. Depth profiling through a polymer film on to the silver layer showed the SERS signals arise from the silver surface only. The profiles show the effects of refraction on the beam, and the adverse affect on the depth resolution. Silver films were used to obtain SERS spectra from a 40 nm thin-film coating on PET, without interference from the PET layer. The use of an azo dye probe as a marker to detect the coating is described. Finally, a novel method for the synthesis of a SERS-active vinyl-benzotriazole monomer is reported. The monomer was incorporated into a thin-film coating and the SERS spectrum obtained from the polymer. (author)

  1. Raman Spectroscopy for Homeland Security Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Mogilevsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy is an analytical technique with vast applications in the homeland security and defense arenas. The Raman effect is defined by the inelastic interaction of the incident laser with the analyte molecule’s vibrational modes, which can be exploited to detect and identify chemicals in various environments and for the detection of hazards in the field, at checkpoints, or in a forensic laboratory with no contact with the substance. A major source of error that overwhelms the Raman signal is fluorescence caused by the background and the sample matrix. Novel methods are being developed to enhance the Raman signal’s sensitivity and to reduce the effects of fluorescence by altering how the hazard material interacts with its environment and the incident laser. Basic Raman techniques applicable to homeland security applications include conventional (off-resonance Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS, resonance Raman spectroscopy, and spatially or temporally offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS and TORS. Additional emerging Raman techniques, including remote Raman detection, Raman imaging, and Heterodyne imaging, are being developed to further enhance the Raman signal, mitigate fluorescence effects, and monitor hazards at a distance for use in homeland security and defense applications.

  2. Towards eye-safe standoff Raman imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glimtoft, Martin; Bââth, Petra; Saari, Heikki; Mäkynen, Jussi; Näsilä, Antti; Östmark, Henric

    2014-05-01

    Standoff Raman imaging systems have shown the ability to detect single explosives particles. However, in many cases, the laser intensities needed restrict the applications where they can be safely used. A new generation imaging Raman system has been developed based on a 355 nm UV laser that, in addition to eye safety, allows discrete and invisible measurements. Non-dangerous exposure levels for the eye are several orders of magnitude higher in UVA than in the visible range that previously has been used. The UV Raman system has been built based on an UV Fabry-Perot Interferometer (UV-FPI) developed by VTT. The design allows for precise selection of Raman shifts in combination with high out-of-band blocking. The stable operation of the UV-FPI module under varying environmental conditions is arranged by controlling the temperature of the module and using a closed loop control of the FPI air gap based on capacitive measurement. The system presented consists of a 3rd harmonics Nd:YAG laser with 1.5 W average output at 1000 Hz, a 200 mm Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope, UV-FPI filter and an ICCD camera for signal gating and detection. The design principal leads to a Raman spectrum in each image pixel. The system is designed for field use and easy manoeuvring. Preliminary results show that in measurements of <60 s on 10 m distance, single AN particles of <300 μm diameter can be identified.

  3. Spectrum sharing opportunities of full-duplex systems using improper Gaussian signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gaafar, Mohamed; Amin, Osama; Abediseid, Walid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    half-duplex SU pair that uses IGS. The objective is to maximize the SU instantaneous achievable rate while meeting the PU quality-of-service. To this end, we propose a simplified algorithm that optimizes the SU signal parameters, i.e, the transmit power

  4. The research of data acquisition system for Raman spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao; Guo, Pan; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Chen, He; Chen, Wenbo

    2011-11-01

    Raman spectrometer has been widely used as an identification tool for analyzing material structure and composition in many fields. However, Raman scattering echo signal is very weak, about dozens of photons at most in one laser plus signal. Therefore, it is a great challenge to design a Raman spectrum data acquisition system which could accurately receive the weak echo signal. The system designed in this paper receives optical signals with the principle of photon counter and could detect single photon. The whole system consists of a photoelectric conversion module H7421-40 and a photo counting card including a field programmable gate array (FPGA) chip and a PCI9054 chip. The module H7421-40 including a PMT, an amplifier and a discriminator has high sensitivity on wavelength from 300nm to 720nm. The Center Wavelength is 580nm which is close to the excitation wavelength (532nm), QE 40% at peak wavelength, Count Sensitivity is 7.8*105(S-1PW-1) and Count Linearity is 1.5MHZ. In FPGA chip, the functions are divided into three parts: parameter setting module, controlling module, data collection and storage module. All the commands, parameters and data are transmitted between FPGA and computer by PCI9054 chip through the PCI interface. The result of experiment shows that the Raman spectrum data acquisition system is reasonable and efficient. There are three primary advantages of the data acquisition system: the first one is the high sensitivity with single photon detection capability; the second one is the high integrated level which means all the operation could be done by the photo counting card; and the last one is the high expansion ability because of the smart reconfigurability of FPGA chip.

  5. Pressure dependence of the Raman spectrum, lattice parameters and superconducting critical temperature of MgB2: evidence for pressure-driven phonon-assisted electronic topological transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, A.F.; Struzhkin, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    We overview recent high-pressure studies of high-temperature superconductor MgB 2 by Raman scattering technique combined with measurements of superconducting critical temperature T c and lattice parameters up to 57 GPa. An anomalously broadened Raman band at 620 cm -1 is observed and assigned to the in-plane boron stretching E 2g mode. It exhibits a large Grueneisen parameter indicating that the vibration is highly anharmonic. The pressure dependencies of the E 2g mode and T c reveal anomalies at 15-22 GPa (isotope dependent). The anharmonic character of the E 2g phonon mode, its anomalous pressure dependence, and also that for T c are interpreted as a result of a phonon-assisted Lifshitz electronic topological transition

  6. Enhanced Raman scattering in porous silicon grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajia; Jia, Zhenhong; Lv, Changwu

    2018-03-19

    The enhancement of Raman signal on monocrystalline silicon gratings with varying groove depths and on porous silicon grating were studied for a highly sensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response. In the experiment conducted, porous silicon gratings were fabricated. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were then deposited on the porous silicon grating to enhance the Raman signal of the detective objects. Results show that the enhancement of Raman signal on silicon grating improved when groove depth increased. The enhanced performance of Raman signal on porous silicon grating was also further improved. The Rhodamine SERS response based on Ag NPs/ porous silicon grating substrates was enhanced relative to the SERS response on Ag NPs/ porous silicon substrates. Ag NPs / porous silicon grating SERS substrate system achieved a highly sensitive SERS response due to the coupling of various Raman enhancement factors.

  7. Raman scattering tensors of tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, M; Ezaki, Y; Aida, M; Suzuki, M; Yimit, A; Ushizawa, K; Ueda, T

    1998-01-01

    Polarized Raman scattering measurements have been made of a single crystal of L-tyrosine by the use of a Raman microscope with the 488.0-nm exciting beam from an argon ion laser. The L-tyrosine crystal belongs to the space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) (orthorhombic), and Raman scattering intensities corresponding to the aa, bb, cc, ab and ac components of the crystal Raman tensor have been determined for each prominent Raman band. A similar set of measurements has been made of L-tyrosine-d4, in which four hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring are replaced by deuterium atoms. The effects of NH3-->ND3 and OH-->OD on the Raman spectrum have also been examined. In addition, depolarization ratios of some bands of L-tyrosine in aqueous solutions of pH 13 and pH 1 were examined. For comparison with these experimental results, on the other hand, ab initio molecular orbital calculations have been made of the normal modes of vibration and their associated polarizability oscillations of the L-tyrosine molecule. On the basis of these experimental data and by referring to the results of the calculations, discussions have been presented on the Raman tensors associated to some Raman bands, including those at 829 cm-1 (benzene ring breathing), 642 cm-1 (benzene ring deformation), and 432 cm-1 (C alpha-C beta-C gamma bending).

  8. Combined IR-Raman vs vibrational sum-frequency heterospectral correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sandra; Beutier, Clémentine; Hore, Dennis K.

    2018-06-01

    Vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy is a valuable probe of surface structure, particularly when the same molecules are present in one of the adjacent bulk solid or solution phases. As a result of the non-centrosymmetric requirement of SFG, the signal generated is a marker of the extent to which the molecules are ordered in an arrangement that breaks the up-down symmetry at the surface. In cases where the accompanying changes in the bulk are of interest in understanding and interpreting the surface structure, simultaneous analysis of the bulk IR absorption or bulk Raman scattering is helpful, and may be used in heterospectral surface-bulk two-dimensional correlation. We demonstrate that, in such cases, generating a new type of bulk spectrum that combines the IR and Raman amplitudes is a better candidate than the individual IR and Raman spectra for the purpose of correlation with the SFG signal.

  9. [Three-dimensional vertically aligned CNTs coated by Ag nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Jie; Fan, Tuo; Ren, Wen-Jie; Lai, Chun-Hong

    2014-09-01

    In order to make surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates contained more "hot spots" in a three-dimensional (3D) focal volume, and can be adsorbed more probe molecules and metal nanoparticles, to obtain stronger Raman spectral signal, a new structure based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coated by Ag nanoparticles for surface Raman enhancement is presented. The vertically aligned CNTs are synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). A silver film is first deposited on the vertically aligned CNTs by magnetron sputtering. The samples are then annealed at different temperature to cause the different size silver nanoparticles to coat on the surface and sidewalls of vertically aligned CNTs. The result of scanning electron microscopy(SEM) shows that Ag nanoparticles are attached onto the sidewalls and tips of the vertically aligned CNTs, as the annealing temperature is different , pitch size, morphology and space between the silver nanoparticles is vary. Rhodamine 6G is served as the probe analyte. Raman spectrum measurement indicates that: the higher the concentration of R6G, the stronger the Raman intensity, but R6G concentration increase with the enhanced Raman intensity varies nonlinearly; when annealing temperature is 450 °C, the average size of silver nanoparticles is about 100 to 120 nm, while annealing temperature is 400 °C, the average size is about 70 nm, and the Raman intensity of 450 °C is superior to the annealing temperature that of 400 °C and 350 °C.

  10. Relationship between Length and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Signal Strength in Metal Nanoparticle Chains: Ideal Models versus Nanofabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen D. Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have employed capillary force deposition on ion beam patterned substrates to fabricate chains of 60 nm gold nanospheres ranging in length from 1 to 9 nanoparticles. Measurements of the surface-averaged SERS enhancement factor strength for these chains were then compared to the numerical predictions. The SERS enhancement conformed to theoretical predictions in the case of only a few chains, with the vast majority of chains tested not matching such behavior. Although all of the nanoparticle chains appear identical under electron microscope observation, the extreme sensitivity of the SERS enhancement to nanoscale morphology renders current nanofabrication methods insufficient for consistent production of coupled nanoparticle chains. Notwithstanding this fact, the aggregate data also confirmed that nanoparticle dimers offer a large improvement over the monomer enhancement while conclusively showing that, within the limitations imposed by current state-of-the-art nanofabrication techniques, chains comprising more than two nanoparticles provide only a marginal signal boost over the already considerable dimer enhancement.

  11. The Role of Head Movements and Signal Spectrum in an Auditory Front/Back Illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Owen Brimijoin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We used a dynamic auditory spatial illusion to investigate the role of self-motion and acoustics in shaping our spatial percept of the environment. Using motion capture, we smoothly moved a sound source around listeners as a function of their own head movements. A lowpass filtered sound behind a listener that moved in the direction it would have moved if it had been located in the front was perceived as statically located in front. The contrariwise effect occurred if the sound was in front but moved as if it were behind. The illusion was strongest for sounds lowpass filtered at 500 Hz and weakened as a function of increasing lowpass cutoff frequency. The signals with the most high frequency energy were often associated with an unstable location percept that flickered from front to back as self-motion cues and spectral cues for location came into conflict with one another.

  12. High-resolution wave number spectrum using multi-point measurements in space – the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A new analysis method is presented that provides a high-resolution power spectrum in a broad wave number domain based on multi-point measurements. The analysis technique is referred to as the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR and it benefits from Capon's minimum variance method for obtaining the proper power spectral density of the signal as well as the MUSIC algorithm (Multiple Signal Classification for considerably reducing the noise part in the spectrum. The mathematical foundation of the analysis method is presented and it is applied to synthetic data as well as Cluster observations of the interplanetary magnetic field. Using the MSR technique for Cluster data we find a wave in the solar wind propagating parallel to the mean magnetic field with relatively small amplitude, which is not identified by the Capon spectrum. The Cluster data analysis shows the potential of the MSR technique for studying waves and turbulence using multi-point measurements.

  13. Fine-filter method for Raman lidar based on wavelength division multiplexing and fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zheng, Jiao; Lu, Hong; Yan, Qing; Wang, Li; Liu, Jingjing; Hua, Dengxin

    2017-11-01

    Atmospheric temperature is one of the important parameters for the description of the atmospheric state. Most of the detection approaches to atmospheric temperature monitoring are based on rotational Raman scattering for better understanding atmospheric dynamics, thermodynamics, atmospheric transmission, and radiation. In this paper, we present a fine-filter method based on wavelength division multiplexing, incorporating a fiber Bragg grating in the visible spectrum for the rotational Raman scattering spectrum. To achieve high-precision remote sensing, the strong background noise is filtered out by using the secondary cascaded light paths. Detection intensity and the signal-to-noise ratio are improved by increasing the utilization rate of return signal form atmosphere. Passive temperature compensation is employed to reduce the temperature sensitivity of fiber Bragg grating. In addition, the proposed method provides a feasible solution for the filter system with the merits of miniaturization, high anti-interference, and high stability in the space-based platform.

  14. Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Ethephone Adsorbed on Silver Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chul Jae; Kim, Hee Jin; Karim, Mohammad Rezaul; Lee, Mu Sang

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) spectrum of ethephone (2- chloroethylphosphonic acid). We observed significant signals in the ordinary Raman spectrum for solid-state ethephone as well as when it was adsorbed on a colloidal silver surface, strong vibrational signals were obtained at a very low concentration. The SERS spectra were obtained by silver colloids that were prepared by the γ - irradiation method. The influence of pH and the influence of anion (Cl - , Br - , I - ) on the adsorption orientation were investigated. Two different adsorption mechanisms were deduced, depending on the experimental conditions. The chlorine atom or the chlorine and two oxygen atoms were adsorbed on the colloidal silver surface. Among halide ions, Br - and I - were more strongly adsorbed on the colloidal silver surfaces. As a result, the adsorption of ethephone was less effective due to their steric hinderance

  15. Analyzing the fundamental properties of Raman amplification in optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Povlsen, Jørn Hedegaard

    2005-01-01

    The Raman response of germanosilicate fibers is presented. This includes not only the material dependence but also the relation between the spatial-mode profile of the light and the Raman response in the time and frequency domain. From the Raman-gain spectrum, information is derived related...

  16. Broad spectrum detoxification: the major longevity assurance process regulated by insulin/IGF-1 signaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gems, David; McElwee, Joshua J

    2005-03-01

    Our recent survey of genes regulated by insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) in Caenorhabditis elegans suggests a role for a number of gene classes in longevity assurance. Based on these findings, we propose a model for the biochemistry of longevity assurance and ageing, which is as follows. Ageing results from molecular damage from highly diverse endobiotic toxins. These are stochastic by-products of diverse metabolic processes, of which reactive oxygen species (ROS) are likely to be only one component. Our microarray analysis suggests a major role in longevity assurance of the phase 1, phase 2 detoxification system involving cytochrome P450 (CYP), short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes. Unlike superoxide and hydrogen peroxide detoxification, this system is energetically costly, and requires the excretion from the cell of its products. Given such costs, its activity may be selected against, as predicted by the disposable soma theory. CYP and UGT enzymes target lipophilic molecular species; insufficient activity of this system is consistent with age-pigment (lipofuscin) accumulation during ageing. We suggest that IIS-regulated longevity assurance involves: (a) energetically costly detoxification and excretion of molecular rubbish, and (b) conservation of existing proteins via molecular chaperones. Given the emphasis in this theory on investment in cellular waste disposal, and on protein conservation, we have dubbed it the green theory.

  17. All-Fiber Raman Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, Anna Chiara

    by means of fiber components. Assuming the possibility to use a fiber laser with a fundamental radiation at 1064nm, in-fiber efficient second harmonic generation is achieved by optically poling the core of the waveguide delivering the excitation light to the sample. In this way, Raman spectroscopy...... in the visible range can be performed. The simultaneous delivery of the excitation light and collection of the Raman signal from the sample are achieved by means of a doubleclad fiber, whose core and inner cladding act as \\independent" transmission channels. A double-clad fiber coupler allows for the recovery...... of the collected Raman scattering from the inner-cladding region of the double-clad fiber, thus replacing the bulk dichroic component normally used to demultiplex the pump and Raman signal. A tunable Rayleigh-rejection filter based on a liquid filled-photonic bandgap fiber is also demonstrated in this work...

  18. Design of SERS nanoprobes for Raman imaging: materials, critical factors and architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingwang; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Fan, Chenchen; Cui, Kai; Zhang, Yongming; Xiao, Zeyu

    2018-05-01

    Raman imaging yields high specificity and sensitivity when compared to other imaging modalities, mainly due to its fingerprint signature. However, intrinsic Raman signals are weak, thus limiting medical applications of Raman imaging. By adsorbing Raman molecules onto specific nanostructures such as noble metals, Raman signals can be significantly enhanced, termed surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Recent years have witnessed great interest in the development of SERS nanoprobes for Raman imaging. Rationally designed SERS nanoprobes have greatly enhanced Raman signals by several orders of magnitude, thus showing great potential for biomedical applications. In this review we elaborate on recent progress in design strategies with emphasis on material properties, modifying factors, and structural parameters.

  19. RAMPAC: a Program for Analysis of Complicated Raman Spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mul, F.F.M.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    A computer program for the analysis of complicated (e.g. multi-line) Raman spectra is described. The program includes automatic peak search, various procedures for background determination, peak fit and spectrum deconvolution and extensive spectrum handling procedures.

  20. Diode Laser Raman Scattering Prototype Gas-Phase Environmental Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benner, Robert

    1999-01-01

    We proposed developing a diode-laser-based, full spectrum Raman scattering instrument incorporating a multipass, external cavity enhancement cell for full spectrum, gas phase analysis of environmental pollutants...

  1. FT-IR, RAMAN AND DFT STUDIES ON THE VIBRATIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Physics, Science Faculty, Anadolu University, Eskişehir, Turkey ... IR spectrum was recorded using Bruker Optics IFS66v/s FTIR spectrometer at a ... spectrum was obtained using a Bruker Senterra Dispersive Raman microscope.

  2. Raman spectroscopy for DNA quantification in cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okotrub, K A; Surovtsev, N V; Semeshin, V F; Omelyanchuk, L V

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate the feasibility of a novel approach to quantify DNA in cell nuclei. This approach is based on spectroscopy analysis of Raman light scattering, and avoids the problem of nonstoichiometric binding of dyes to DNA, as it directly measures the signal from DNA. Quantitative analysis of nuclear DNA contribution to Raman spectrum could be reliably performed using intensity of a phosphate mode at 1096 cm(-1) . When compared to the known DNA standards from cells of different animals, our results matched those values at error of 10%. We therefore suggest that this approach will be useful to expand the list of DNA standards, to properly adjust the duration of hydrolysis in Feulgen staining, to assay the applicability of fuchsines for DNA quantification, as well as to measure DNA content in cells with complex hydrolysis patterns, when Feulgen densitometry is inappropriate. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  3. 基于MUSIC功率谱估计的直升机空中信号分析%Analysis of helicopter radiated signal based on MUSIC spectrum estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 杜鹏

    2017-01-01

    针对直升机飞行的辐射噪声特征谱线进行分析,提出一种基于MUSIC算法的直升机声信号处理方法.首先阐述MUSIC谱估计方法,然后针对实测不同机型直升机的飞行辐射噪声数据,分别进行MUSIC算法和传统方法的频谱分析,对得到的结果进行分析比较,数据处理结果表明MUSIC算法能够抑制噪声,明显改善信噪比,并能够更为细致地体现直升机声信号的谐波特性.%A method based on multiple signal classification(MUSIC)algorithm is proposed to process the helicopter ra-diated acoustic signal with random noise under the condition of the assumption that is the signal and noise are mutually uncorrelated. This paper introduces the MUSIC spectrum estimation method, and then uses the traditional method and MUSIC algorithm to process the signals radiated by different types of helicopters. The results show that MUSIC spec-trum estimation can suppress the noise, extrude the peak of spectrum to improve signal to noise ratio obviously and re-flect the harmonic characteristics of helicopter acoustic signal accurately.

  4. Femtosecond time-resolved studies of coherent vibrational Raman scattering in large gas-phase molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, C.C.; Chandler, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    Results are presented from femtosecond time-resolved coherent Raman experiments in which we excite and monitor vibrational coherence in gas-phase samples of benzene and 1,3,5-hexatriene. Different physical mechanisms for coherence decay are seen in these two molecules. In benzene, where the Raman polarizability is largely isotropic, the Q branch of the vibrational Raman spectrum is the primary feature excited. Molecules in different rotational states have different Q-branch transition frequencies due to vibration--rotation interaction. Thus, the macroscopic polarization that is observed in these experiments decays because it has many frequency components from molecules in different rotational states, and these frequency components go out of phase with each other. In 1,3,5-hexatriene, the Raman excitation produces molecules in a coherent superposition of rotational states, through (O, P, R, and S branch) transitions that are strong due to the large anisotropy of the Raman polarizability. The coherent superposition of rotational states corresponds to initially spatially oriented, vibrationally excited, molecules that are freely rotating. The rotation of molecules away from the initial orientation is primarily responsible for the coherence decay in this case. These experiments produce large (∼10% efficiency) Raman shifted signals with modest excitation pulse energies (10 μJ) demonstrating the feasibility of this approach for a variety of gas phase studies. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  5. Optimization of band-pass filtering parameters of a Raman lidar detecting atmospheric water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Kai-Fa; Hu, Shun-Xing; Wang, Ying-jian

    2012-01-01

    It is very important for daytime Raman lidar measurement of water vapor to determine the parameters of a band-pass filter, which are pertinent to the lidar signal to noise ratio (SNR). The simulated annealing (SA) algorithm method has an advantage in finding the extremum of a certain cost function. In this paper, the Raman spectrum of water vapor is simulated and then a first realization of a simulated annealing algorithm in the optimization of a band-pass filter of a Raman lidar system designed to detect daytime water vapor is presented. The simulated results indicate that the narrow band-pass filter has higher SNR than the wide filter does but there would be an increase in the temperature sensitivity of a narrowband Raman water vapor lidar in the upper troposphere. The numerical simulation indicates that the magnitude of the temperature dependent effect can reach 3.5% or more for narrow band-pass Raman water vapor measurements so it is necessary to consider a new water vapor Raman lidar equation that permits the temperature sensitivity of these equations to be confined to a single term. (paper)

  6. Optimizing laser crater enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednev, V N; Sdvizhenskii, P A; Grishin, M Ya; Filichkina, V A; Shchegolikhin, A N; Pershin, S M

    2018-03-20

    Raman signal enhancement by laser crater production was systematically studied for 785 nm continuous wave laser pumping. Laser craters were produced in L-aspartic acid powder by a nanosecond pulsed solid state neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser (532 nm, 8 ns, 1 mJ/pulse), while Raman spectra were then acquired by using a commercial spectrometer with 785 nm laser beam pumping. The Raman signal enhancement effect was studied in terms of the number of ablating pulses used, the lens-to-sample distance, and the crater-center-laser-spot offset. The influence of the experiment parameters on Raman signal enhancement was studied for different powder materials. Maximum Raman signal enhancement reached 11 fold for loose powders but decreased twice for pressed tablets. Raman signal enhancement was demonstrated for several diverse powder materials like gypsum or ammonium nitrate with better results achieved for the samples tending to give narrow and deep craters upon the laser ablation stage. Alternative ways of cavity production (steel needle tapping and hole drilling) were compared with the laser cratering technique in terms of Raman signal enhancement. Drilling was found to give the poorest enhancement of the Raman signal, while both laser ablation and steel needle tapping provided comparable results. Here, we have demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that a Raman signal can be enhanced 10 fold with the aid of simple cavity production by steel needle tapping in rough highly reflective materials. Though laser crater enhancement Raman spectroscopy requires an additional pulsed laser, this technique is more appropriate for automatization compared to the needle tapping approach.

  7. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puppels, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a technique that provides detailed structural information about molecules studied. In the field of molecular biophysics it has been extensively used for characterization of nucleic acids and proteins and for investigation of interactions between these molecules. It was felt that this technique would have great potential if it could be applied for in situ study of these molecules and their interactions, at the level of single living cell or a chromosome. To make this possible a highly sensitive confocal Raman microspectrometer (CRM) was developed. The instrument is described in detail in this thesis. It incorporates a number of recent technological developments. First, it employs a liquid nitrogen cooled CCD-camera. This type of detector, first used in astronomy, is the ultimate detector for Raman spectroscopy because it combines high quantum efficiency light detection with photon-noise limited operation. Second, an important factor in obtaining a high signal throughput of the spectrometer was the development of a new type of Raman notch filter. In the third place, the confocal detection principle was applied in the CRM. This limits the effective measuring volume to 3 . (author). 279 refs., 48 figs., 11 tabs

  8. The research of digital circuit system for high accuracy CCD of portable Raman spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yu; Cui, Yongsheng; Zhang, Xiuda; Yan, Huimin

    2013-08-01

    The Raman spectrum technology is widely used for it can identify various types of molecular structure and material. The portable Raman spectrometer has become a hot direction of the spectrometer development nowadays for its convenience in handheld operation and real-time detection which is superior to traditional Raman spectrometer with heavy weight and bulky size. But there is still a gap for its measurement sensitivity between portable and traditional devices. However, portable Raman Spectrometer with Shell-Isolated Nanoparticle-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SHINERS) technology can enhance the Raman signal significantly by several orders of magnitude, giving consideration in both measurement sensitivity and mobility. This paper proposed a design and implementation of driver and digital circuit for high accuracy CCD sensor, which is core part of portable spectrometer. The main target of the whole design is to reduce the dark current generation rate and increase signal sensitivity during the long integration time, and in the weak signal environment. In this case, we use back-thinned CCD image sensor from Hamamatsu Corporation with high sensitivity, low noise and large dynamic range. In order to maximize this CCD sensor's performance and minimize the whole size of the device simultaneously to achieve the project indicators, we delicately designed a peripheral circuit for the CCD sensor. The design is mainly composed with multi-voltage circuit, sequential generation circuit, driving circuit and A/D transition parts. As the most important power supply circuit, the multi-voltage circuits with 12 independent voltages are designed with reference power supply IC and set to specified voltage value by the amplifier making up the low-pass filter, which allows the user to obtain a highly stable and accurate voltage with low noise. What's more, to make our design easy to debug, CPLD is selected to generate sequential signal. The A/D converter chip consists of a correlated

  9. CV Raman

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    formatted to take advantage of the changes in publishing methods in the past thirty ..... This work would not have been possible without the support and en- couragement of ..... in which Raman made his decision, have a deeper significance than .... Light in Water and the Colour of the Sea within a month of his return to India ...

  10. Raman Chandrasekar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Raman Chandrasekar. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 430-439 General Article. How Children Learn to Use Language - An Overview of R. Narasimhan's Ideas on Child Language Acquisition.

  11. Development of Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy: Stimulated Raman Gain via Elimination of Cross Phase Modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Seung Min; Lee, Young Jong; Yu, Jong Wan; Kim, Seong Keun

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a new femtosecond probe technique by using stimulated Raman spectroscopy. The cross phase modulation in femtosecond time scale associated with off-resonant interaction was shown to be eliminated by integrating the transient gain/loss signal over the time delay between the Raman pump pulse and the continuum pulse. The stimulated Raman gain of neat cyclohexane was obtained to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. Spectral and temporal widths of stimulated Raman spectra were controlled by using a narrow band pass filter. Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy was proposed as a highly useful probe in time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy

  12. Silicon Nitride Background in Nanophotonic Waveguide Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashim Dhakal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that evanescent Raman spectroscopy using a silicon nitride (SiN nanophotonic waveguide platform has higher signal enhancement when compared to free-space systems. However, signal-to-noise ratio from the waveguide at a low analyte concentration is constrained by the shot-noise from the background light originating from the waveguide itself. Hence, understanding the origin and properties of this waveguide background luminescence (WGBL is essential to developing mitigation strategies. Here, we identify the dominating component of the WGBL spectrum composed of a broad Raman scattering due to momentum selection-rule breaking in amorphous materials, and several peaks specific to molecules embedded in the core. We determine the maximum of the Raman scattering efficiency of the WGBL at room temperature for 785 nm excitation to be 4.5 ± 1 × 10−9 cm−1·sr−1, at a Stokes shift of 200 cm−1. This efficiency decreases monotonically for higher Stokes shifts. Additionally, we also demonstrate the use of slotted waveguides and quasi-transverse magnetic polarization as some mitigation strategies.

  13. Synthesis, crystal structure and Raman spectrum of Ba{sub 7}[BO{sub 3}]{sub 3}Br(O{sub 1.33}F{sub 1.33})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reckeweg, Olaf; DiSalvo, Francis J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Schulz, Armin [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2017-05-01

    In addition to amorphous material and Ba{sub 7}[BO{sub 3}]{sub 4-x}F{sub 2-3x}, air and moisture sensitive single crystals of Ba{sub 7}[BO{sub 3}]{sub 3}Br(O{sub 1.33}F{sub 1.33}) were formed from H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, Ba(OH){sub 2}, BaF{sub 2} and BaBr{sub 2} . H{sub 2}O in alumina crucibles open to the atmosphere at 1300 K for 13 h. Ba{sub 7}[BO{sub 3}]{sub 3}Br(O{sub 1.33}F{sub 1.33}) crystallizes in the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}mc (no. 186, Z=2) with the lattice parameters a=1118.1(2) and c=723.93(13) pm. The Raman spectrum of the title compounds was also acquired and is compared to literature data.

  14. Synthesis, single-crystal structure determination and Raman spectrum of Ca{sub 2.57(4)}Sr{sub 0.43(4)}Cl{sub 2}[CBN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reckeweg, Olaf; DiSalvo, Francis J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Schulz, Armin [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2017-05-01

    Solid-state reaction of Ca, CaCl{sub 2}, Sr, SrCl{sub 2}, C and BN at 900 C for 3 days yielded transparent red needles of Ca{sub 2.57(4)}Sr{sub 0.43(4)}Cl{sub 2}[CBN] as minority product (<10%) mixed with crystals of isotypic yellow Ca{sub 3}Cl{sub 2}[CBN] and orange Sr{sub 3}Cl{sub 2}[CBN]. Ca{sub 2.57(4)}Sr{sub 0.43(4)}Cl{sub 2}[CBN] crystallizes in the space group Pnma (no.62) with the unit cell parameters of a=1389.2(6), b=386.05(15) and c=1131.2(4)pm (Z=4). The Raman spectrum confirms the presence of the [CBN]{sup 4-} unit. The incremental volume of the [CBN]{sup 4-} is calculated to be 50.7(10) Aa{sup 3}.

  15. Nanostructured surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates for explosives detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Michael Stenbaek; Olsen, Jesper Kenneth; Boisen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Here we present a method for trace detection of explosives in the gas phase using novel surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy substrates. Novel substrates that produce an exceptionally large enhancement of the Raman effect were used to amplify the Raman signal of explosives...

  16. C2 Swan spectrum used as a molecular pyrometer in transferred arc and the influence noise to signal ratio on the temperature values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, H

    2014-01-01

    The C 2 Swan system molecular emission spectrum is frequently observed in arc plasmas containing hydrocarbons. The spectra emitted from 5 kw in the transferred arc reactor at atmospheric pressure by CH 4 /CO 2 /Ar mixture are recorded with the help of an optical system consisting of a linear CCD array coupled with 2m spectrometer. The rotational temperature of 4300±300 K is found from the experimental Abel inverted spectra in the arc center after a point-to-point comparison of the spectrum with a computer simulated one. The influence of the noise to signal ratio has been studied, if the noise to signal ratio is about 10% we found an error of 7% at temperature 3000 K and 10% at 6000 K.

  17. Development of a Raman spectrometer to study surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Nandita; Chadha, Ridhima; Kapoor, Sudhir; Sarkar, Sisir K.; Mukherjee, Tulsi

    2011-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy is an important tool, which provides enormous information on the vibrational and structural details of materials. This understanding is not only interesting due to its fundamental importance, but also of considerable importance in optoelectronics and device applications of these materials in nanotechnology. In this report, we begin with a brief introduction on the Raman effect and various Raman scattering techniques, followed by a detailed discussion on the development of an instrument with home-built collection optics attachment. This Raman system consists of a pulsed laser excitation source, a sample compartment, collection optics to collect the scattered light, a notch filter to reject the intense laser light, a monochromator to disperse the scattered light and a detector to detect the Raman signal. After calibrating the Raman spectrometer with standard solvents, we present our results on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) investigations on three different kinds of chemical systems. (author)

  18. Alignment characterization of single-wall carbon nanotubes by Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Pijun; Liu Liyue; Zhang Yafei

    2003-01-01

    A novel method for identifying the Raman modes of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) based on the symmetry of the vibration modes has been studied. The Raman intensity of each vibration mode varies with polarization direction, and the relationship can be expressed as analytical functions. This method avoids troublesome numerical calculation and easily gives clear relations between Raman intensity and polarization direction. In this way, one can distinguish each Raman-active mode of SWNT through the polarized Raman spectrum

  19. Spectrum estimation method based on marginal spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jianhua; Hu Weiwen; Wang Xianchun

    2011-01-01

    FFT method can not meet the basic requirements of power spectrum for non-stationary signal and short signal. A new spectrum estimation method based on marginal spectrum from Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) was proposed. The procession of obtaining marginal spectrum in HHT method was given and the linear property of marginal spectrum was demonstrated. Compared with the FFT method, the physical meaning and the frequency resolution of marginal spectrum were further analyzed. Then the Hilbert spectrum estimation algorithm was discussed in detail, and the simulation results were given at last. The theory and simulation shows that under the condition of short data signal and non-stationary signal, the frequency resolution and estimation precision of HHT method is better than that of FFT method. (authors)

  20. Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy on chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübner, Jörg; Anhøj, Thomas Aarøe; Zauner, Dan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we report low resolution surface enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) conducted with a chip based spectrometer. The flat field spectrometer presented here is fabricated in SU-8 on silicon, showing a resolution of around 3 nm and a free spectral range of around 100 nm. The output facet...... is projected onto a CCD element and visualized by a computer. To enhance the otherwise rather weak Raman signal, a nanosurface is prepared and a sample solutions is impregnated on this surface. The surface enhanced Raman signal is picked up using a Raman probe and coupled into the spectrometer via an optical...... fiber. The obtained spectra show that chip based spectrometer together with the SERS active surface can be used as Raman sensor....

  1. Development of an optimal filter substrate for the identification of small microplastic particles in food by micro-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oßmann, Barbara E; Sarau, George; Schmitt, Sebastian W; Holtmannspötter, Heinrich; Christiansen, Silke H; Dicke, Wilhelm

    2017-06-01

    When analysing microplastics in food, due to toxicological reasons it is important to achieve clear identification of particles down to a size of at least 1 μm. One reliable, optical analytical technique allowing this is micro-Raman spectroscopy. After isolation of particles via filtration, analysis is typically performed directly on the filter surface. In order to obtain high qualitative Raman spectra, the material of the membrane filters should not show any interference in terms of background and Raman signals during spectrum acquisition. To facilitate the usage of automatic particle detection, membrane filters should also show specific optical properties. In this work, beside eight different, commercially available membrane filters, three newly designed metal-coated polycarbonate membrane filters were tested to fulfil these requirements. We found that aluminium-coated polycarbonate membrane filters had ideal characteristics as a substrate for micro-Raman spectroscopy. Its spectrum shows no or minimal interference with particle spectra, depending on the laser wavelength. Furthermore, automatic particle detection can be applied when analysing the filter surface under dark-field illumination. With this new membrane filter, analytics free of interference of microplastics down to a size of 1 μm becomes possible. Thus, an important size class of these contaminants can now be visualized and spectrally identified. Graphical abstract A newly developed aluminium coated polycarbonate membrane filter enables automatic particle detection and generation of high qualitative Raman spectra allowing identification of small microplastics.

  2. Raman assisted lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    We present a Lightwave Synthesized Frequency Sweeper comprising a Raman amplifier for loss compensation. The generated pulse train contains 123 pulses and has a flat signal level as well as a low noise level.......We present a Lightwave Synthesized Frequency Sweeper comprising a Raman amplifier for loss compensation. The generated pulse train contains 123 pulses and has a flat signal level as well as a low noise level....

  3. Design and performance of an ultraviolet resonance Raman spectrometer for proteins and nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, M P; Vohník, S; Thomas, G J

    1995-04-01

    We describe an ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectrometer appropriate for structural studies of biological macromolecules and their assemblies. Instrument design includes the following features: a continuous wave, intracavity doubled, ultraviolet laser source for excitation of the Raman spectrum; a rotating cell (or jet source) for presentation of the sample to the laser beam; a Cassegrain optic with f/1.0 aperture for collection of the Raman scattering; a quartz prism dispersing element for rejection of stray light and Rayleigh scattering; a 0.75-m single grating monochromator for dispersion of the Raman scattering; and a liquid-nitrogen-cooled, charge-coupled device for detection of the Raman photons. The performance of this instrument, assessed on the basis of the observed signal-to-noise ratios, the apparent resolution of closely spaced spectral bands, and the wide spectrometer bandpass of 2200 cm-1, is believed superior to previously described UVRR spectrometers of similar design. Performance characteristics of the instrument are demonstrated in UVRR spectra obtained from standard solvents, p-ethylphenol, which serves as a model for the tyrosine side chain, the DNA nucleotide deoxyguanosine-5'-monophosphate, and the human tumor necrosis factor binding protein, which is considered representative of soluble globular proteins.

  4. Assessing the Temperature Dependence of Narrow-Band Raman Water Vapor Lidar Measurements: A Practical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, David N.; Venable, Demetrius D.; Walker, Monique; Cardirola, Martin; Sakai, Tetsu; Veselovskii, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Narrow-band detection of the Raman water vapor spectrum using the lidar technique introduces a concern over the temperature dependence of the Raman spectrum. Various groups have addressed this issue either by trying to minimize the temperature dependence to the point where it can be ignored or by correcting for whatever degree of temperature dependence exists. The traditional technique for performing either of these entails accurately measuring both the laser output wavelength and the water vapor spectral passband with combined uncertainty of approximately 0.01 nm. However, uncertainty in interference filter center wavelengths and laser output wavelengths can be this large or larger. These combined uncertainties translate into uncertainties in the magnitude of the temperature dependence of the Raman lidar water vapor measurement of 3% or more. We present here an alternate approach for accurately determining the temperature dependence of the Raman lidar water vapor measurement. This alternate approach entails acquiring sequential atmospheric profiles using the lidar while scanning the channel passband across portions of the Raman water vapor Q-branch. This scanning is accomplished either by tilt-tuning an interference filter or by scanning the output of a spectrometer. Through this process a peak in the transmitted intensity can be discerned in a manner that defines the spectral location of the channel passband with respect to the laser output wavelength to much higher accuracy than that achieved with standard laboratory techniques. Given the peak of the water vapor signal intensity curve, determined using the techniques described here, and an approximate knowledge of atmospheric temperature, the temperature dependence of a given Raman lidar profile can be determined with accuracy of 0.5% or better. A Mathematica notebook that demonstrates the calculations used here is available from the lead author.

  5. Laser-Raman spectroscopy of living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    Investigations into the laser-Raman shift spectra of bacterial and mammalian cells have revealed that many Raman lines observed at 4-6 K, do not appear in the spectra of cells held at 300 K. At 300 K, Raman activity, at set frequencies, is observed only when the cells are metabolically active; however, the actual live cell spectrum, between 0 and 3400 cm -1 , has been found to alter in a specific way with time as the cells' progress through their life cycles. Lines above 300 cm -1 , from in vivo Raman active states, appear to shift to higher wave numbers whereas those below 300 cm -1 seem to shift to lower ones. The transient nature of many shift lines observed and the intensity of them when present in the spectrum indicates that, in, vivo, a metabolically induced condensation of closely related states occurs at a set time in the life of a living cell. In addition, the calculated ratio between the intensities of Stokes and anti-Stokes lines observed suggests that the metabolically induced 'collective' Raman active states are produced, in vivo, by non thermal means. It appears, therefore, that the energetics of the well established cell 'time clock' may be studied by laser-Raman spectroscopy; moreover, Raman spectroscopy may yield a new type of information regarding the physics of such biological phenomena as nutrition, virus infection and oncogenesis. (orig.)

  6. Coherent Raman scattering: Applications in imaging and sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Meng

    In this thesis, I discuss the theory, implementation and applications of coherent Raman scattering to imaging and sensing. A time domain interferometric method has been developed to collect high resolution shot-noise-limited Raman spectra over the Raman fingerprint regime and completely remove the electronic background signal in coherent Raman scattering. Compared with other existing coherent Raman microscopy methods, this time domain approach is proved to be simpler and more robust in rejecting background signal. We apply this method to image polymers and biological samples and demonstrate that the same setup can be used to collect two photon fluorescence and self phase modulation signals. A signal to noise ratio analysis is performed to show that this time domain method has a comparable signal to noise ratio to spectral domain methods, which we confirm experimentally. The coherent Raman method is also compared with spontaneous Raman scattering. The conditions under which coherent methods provide signal enhancement are discussed and experiments are performed to compare coherent Raman scattering with spontaneous Raman scattering under typical biological imaging conditions. A critical power, above which coherent Raman scattering is more sensitive than spontaneous Raman scattering, is experimentally determined to be ˜1mW in samples of high molecule concentration with a 75MHz laser system. This finding is contrary to claims that coherent methods provide many orders of magnitude enhancement under comparable conditions. In addition to the far field applications, I also discuss the combination of our time domain coherent Raman method with near field enhancement to explore the possibility of sensing and near field imaging. We report the first direct time-resolved coherent Raman measurement performed on a nanostructured substrate for molecule sensing. The preliminary results demonstrate that sub 20 fs pulses can be used to obtain coherent Raman spectra from a small number

  7. Characterization of Kevlar Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washer, Glenn; Brooks, Thomas; Saulsberry, Regor

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the characterization of Kevlar composite materials using Raman spectroscopy. The goal of the research is to develop and understand the Raman spectrum of Kevlar materials to provide a foundation for the development of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies based on the interaction of laser light with the polymer Kevlar. The paper discusses the fundamental aspects of experimental characterization of the spectrum of Kevlar, including the effects of incident wavelength, polarization and laser power. The effects of environmental exposure of Kevlar materials on certain characteristics of its Raman spectrum are explored, as well as the effects of applied stress. This data may provide a foundation for the development of NDE technologies intended to detect the in-situ deterioration of Kevlar materials used for engineering applications that can later be extended to other materials such as carbon fiber composites.

  8. Biological pH sensing based on the environmentally friendly Raman technique through a polyaniline probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songyang; Liu, Zhiming; Su, Chengkang; Chen, Haolin; Fei, Xixi; Guo, Zhouyi

    2017-02-01

    The biological pH plays an important role in various cellular processes. In this work, a novel strategy is reported for biological pH sensing by using Raman spectroscopy and polyaniline nanoparticles (PANI NPs) as the pH-sensitive Raman probe. It is found that the Raman spectrum of PANI NPs is strongly dependent on the pH value. The intensities of Raman spectral bands at 1225 and 1454 cm -1 increase obviously with pH value varying from 5.5 to 8.0, which covers the range of regular biological pH variation. The pH-dependent Raman performance of PANI NPs, as well as their robust Raman signals and sensitivities to pH, was well retained after the nanoparticles incorporated into living 4T1 breast adenocarcinoma cells. The data indicate that such PANI NPs can be used as an effective biological pH sensor. Most interestingly, the PANI spherical nanostructures can be acquired by a low-cost, metal-free, and one-pot oxidative polymerization, which gives them excellent biocompatibility for further biological applications.

  9. Normal Raman and SERS spectroscopy of the vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Tiantian; Gu Huaimin; Yuan Xiaojuan; Liu Fangfang

    2011-01-01

    In this study, surface-enhanced Raman scattering(SERS)spectra of vitamin E were obtained on colloidal silver(Ag). Alpha-(-) tocopherol which is the only form that is recognized to meet human requirements was selected to study. The analytes (±)- -tocopherol were dissolved in chloroform (CHCl 3 ) and the silver colloid was poured into the compound. Silver colloid was reduced by hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The analytes were the supernatant after standing the mixture for the reason that chloroform have no signals in surface-enhanced Raman scattering in the Ag colloid, and it would not affect the determination of the (±)- -tocopherol. The Normal Raman and SERS spectrum of Vitamin E were contrastively studied to realize how the vitamin E stuck to the silver nanoparticles. The results show the fat-soluble substances can be analysed by SERS. The spectra indicate that the molecules are adsorbed on the surface through the COO- groups by the simultaneous involvement of a and -type coordination. These results suggest some important criteria for consideration in SERS measurements and also provide important insights into the problem of predicting SERS activities for different fat-soluble substances.

  10. Normal Raman and SERS spectroscopy of the vitamin E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Tiantian; Gu Huaimin; Yuan Xiaojuan; Liu Fangfang, E-mail: guhm@scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, 510631, Guangzhou (China)

    2011-01-01

    In this study, surface-enhanced Raman scattering(SERS)spectra of vitamin E were obtained on colloidal silver(Ag). Alpha-(-) tocopherol which is the only form that is recognized to meet human requirements was selected to study. The analytes ({+-})- -tocopherol were dissolved in chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}) and the silver colloid was poured into the compound. Silver colloid was reduced by hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The analytes were the supernatant after standing the mixture for the reason that chloroform have no signals in surface-enhanced Raman scattering in the Ag colloid, and it would not affect the determination of the ({+-})- -tocopherol. The Normal Raman and SERS spectrum of Vitamin E were contrastively studied to realize how the vitamin E stuck to the silver nanoparticles. The results show the fat-soluble substances can be analysed by SERS. The spectra indicate that the molecules are adsorbed on the surface through the COO- groups by the simultaneous involvement of a and -type coordination. These results suggest some important criteria for consideration in SERS measurements and also provide important insights into the problem of predicting SERS activities for different fat-soluble substances.

  11. HR-TEM and FT-Raman dataset of the caffeine interacted Phe-Phe peptide nanotube for possible sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, A Lakshmi; Dhamodaran, M; Solomon, J Samu; Karthikeyan, B; Govindhan, R

    2018-02-01

    Sensing ability of caffeine interaction with Phe-Phe annotates (PNTs), is presented (Govindhan et al., 2017; Karthikeyan et al., 2014; Tavagnacco et al., 2013; Kennedy et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2017) [1-5] in this data set. Investigation of synthesized caffeine carrying peptide nanotubes are carried out by FT-Raman spectral analysis and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Particle size of the caffeine loaded PNTs is < 40 nm. The FT-Raman spectrum signals are enhanced in the region of 400-1700 cm -1 . These data are ideal tool for the applications like biosensing and drug delivery research (DDS).

  12. HR-TEM and FT-Raman dataset of the caffeine interacted Phe–Phe peptide nanotube for possible sensing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, A. Lakshmi; Dhamodaran, M.; Solomon, J. Samu; Karthikeyan, B.; Govindhan, R.

    2017-01-01

    Sensing ability of caffeine interaction with Phe-Phe annotates (PNTs), is presented (Govindhan et al., 2017; Karthikeyan et al., 2014; Tavagnacco et al., 2013; Kennedy et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2017) [1–5] in this data set. Investigation of synthesized caffeine carrying peptide nanotubes are carried out by FT-Raman spectral analysis and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Particle size of the caffeine loaded PNTs is < 40 nm. The FT-Raman spectrum signals are enhanced i...

  13. Power-law spectra found in plant signal of the Borssele NPP. An analysis using wavelet. Application of wavelet for wide-frequency range investigation and investigation (spectrum) for the secondary system signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzudo, T.; Verhoef, J.P.; Tuerkcan, E.

    1996-09-01

    Power-law spectra were found in the temperature signals of the secondary loop in the Borssele Nuclear Power Plant, a PWR in the Netherlands. The coolant temperature before the steam generator inlet was found to fluctuate such that its power spectrum density S, follows S∝f -α , where α is ∝4/3. Analyses using PSD suggested that the value of α is roughly constant over years. Detailed analyses were conducted using wavelet, with the discovery that the power-law appears constantly only at around 0.1 Hz, and the estimated α was found between 1.26 and 1.36. The feedwater pressure signal and feedwater flow rate signal in the same frequency range were white noise and Borwnian motion respectively, and the indication of α=4/3 was not found from them. (orig.)

  14. Investigation of the Mössbauer Spectrum Quality as a Dependence on the Frequency of the Velocity Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechousek, J.; Prochazka, R.; Cuda, J.; Frydrych, J.; Jancik, D.

    2010-07-01

    This paper is focused on a quality characterizing the Mössbauer spectra measured for various frequencies of the velocity signal. Standard electromechanical double-loudspeaker drive and digital PID velocity controller were used for calibration spectra measurement in the frequency interval from 4 up to 100 Hz. Several parameters were evaluated for recommendation of the suitable velocity signal frequency.

  15. Phonon populations by nanosecond-pulsed Raman scattering in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compaan, A.; Lee, M.C.; Trott, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Since the first time-resolved Raman studies of phonon populations under pulsed-laser-annealing conditions, a number of cw Raman studies have been performed which provide a much improved basis for interpreting the pulsed Raman data. Here we present new pulsed Raman results and interpret them with reference to temperature-dependent resonance effects, high-carrier-density effects, phonon anharmonicity, and laser-induced strain effects. The pulsed Raman data: Stokes to anti-Stokes ratios, shift and shape of the first-order peak, and second-order spectra: indicate the existence of a phase in which the Raman signal disappears followed by a rapidly cooling solid which begins within 300 K of the 1685 K normal melting temperature of Si. We identify a major difficulty in pulsed Raman studies in Si to be the decrease in Raman intensity at high temperatures

  16. Raman tensor elements of β-Ga2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranert, Christian; Sturm, Chris; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger; Grundmann, Marius

    2016-11-03

    The Raman spectrum and particularly the Raman scattering intensities of monoclinic β-Ga 2 O 3 are investigated by experiment and theory. The low symmetry of β-Ga 2 O 3 results in a complex dependence of the Raman intensity for the individual phonon modes on the scattering geometry which is additionally affected by birefringence. We measured the Raman spectra in dependence on the polarization direction for backscattering on three crystallographic planes of β-Ga 2 O 3 and modelled these dependencies using a modified Raman tensor formalism which takes birefringence into account. The spectral position of all 15 Raman active phonon modes and the Raman tensor elements of 13 modes were determined and are compared to results from ab-initio calculations.

  17. Mode-dependent dispersion in Raman line shapes: Observation and implications from ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umapathy, S.; Mallick, B.; Lakshmanna, A.

    2010-01-01

    Ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopy (URLS) enables one to obtain the vibrational structural information of molecular systems including fluorescent materials. URLS, a nonlinear process analog to stimulated Raman gain, involves a narrow bandwidth picosecond Raman pump pulse and a femtosecond broadband white light continuum. Under nonresonant condition, the Raman response appears as a negative (loss) signal, whereas, on resonance with the electronic transition the line shape changes from a negative to a positive through a dispersive form. The intensities observed and thus, the Franck-Condon activity (coordinate dependent), are sensitive to the wavelength of the white light corresponding to a particular Raman frequency with respect to the Raman pump pulse wavelength, i.e., there is a mode-dependent response in URLS.

  18. Fast Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Short-Lived Radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Hansen, Karina Benthin

    1976-01-01

    We report the first application of pulsed resonance Raman spectroscopy to the study of short-lived free radicals produced by pulse radiolysis. A single pulse from a flash-lamp pumped tunable dye laser is used to excite the resonance Raman spectrum of the p-terphenyl anion radical with an initial...

  19. IR, Raman and SERS studies of methyl salicylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Hema Tresa; Yohannan Panicker, C.; Philip, Daizy; Mannekutla, James R.; Inamdar, S. R.

    2007-04-01

    The IR and Raman spectra of methyl salicylate (MS) were recorded and analysed. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum was recorded in silver colloid. The vibrational wave numbers of the compound have been computed using the Hartree-Fock/6-31G * basis and compared with the experimental values. SERS studies suggest a flat orientation of the molecule at the metal surface.

  20. Screening and staging for non-small cell lung cancer by serum laser Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Zhang, Shaohong; Wan, Limei; Sun, Hong; Tan, Jie; Su, Qiucheng

    2018-08-05

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Current clinical screening methods to detect lung cancer are expensive and associated with many complications. Raman spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique that offers a convenient method to gain molecular information about biological samples. In this study, we measured the serum Raman spectral intensity of healthy volunteers and patients with different stages of non-small cell lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of serum laser Raman spectroscopy as a low cost alternative method in the screening and staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The Raman spectra of the sera of peripheral venous blood were measured with a LabRAM HR 800 confocal Micro Raman spectrometer for individuals from five groups including 14 healthy volunteers (control group), 23 patients with stage I NSCLC (stage I group), 24 patients with stage II NSCLC (stage II group), 19 patients with stage III NSCLC (stage III group), 11 patients with stage IV NSCLC (stage IV group). Each serum sample was measured 3 times at different spots and the average spectra represented the signal of Raman spectra in each case. The Raman spectrum signal data of the five groups were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and cross-validation. Raman spectral intensity was sequentially reduced in serum samples from control group, stage I group, stage II group and stage III/IV group. The strongest peak intensity was observed in the control group, and the weakest one was found in the stage III/IV group at bands of 848 cm -1 , 999 cm -1 , 1152 cm -1 , 1446 cm -1 and 1658 cm -1 (P Raman spectroscopy can effectively identify patients with stage I, stage II or stage III/IV Non-Small Cell Lung cancer using patient serum samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Resonance Raman Optical Activity and Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Optical Activity analysis of Cytochrome C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Christian; Abdali, Salim; White, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    High quality Resonance Raman (RR) and resonance Raman Optical Activity (ROA) spectra of cytochrome c were obtained in order to perform full assignment of spectral features of the resonance ROA spectrum. The resonance ROA spectrum of cytochrome c revealed a distinct spectral signature pattern due...... to resonance enhanced skeletal porphyrin vibrations, more pronounced than any contribution from the protein back-bone. Combining the intrinsic resonance enhancement of cytochrome c with surface plasmon enhancement by colloidal silver particles, the Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering (SERRS) and Chiral...... Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (ChERS) spectra of the protein were successfully obtained at very low concentration (as low as 1 µM). The assignment of spectral features was based on the information obtained from the RR and resonance ROA spectra. Excellent agreement between RR and SERRS spectra is reported...

  2. All-fiber Raman Probe using Higher Order Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Stine Højer Møller; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the first all-fiber Raman probe utilizing higher order modes for the excitation. The spectrum of cyclohexane is measured using both the fundamental mode as well as in-fiber-generated Bessel-like modes.......We demonstrate the first all-fiber Raman probe utilizing higher order modes for the excitation. The spectrum of cyclohexane is measured using both the fundamental mode as well as in-fiber-generated Bessel-like modes....

  3. Raman spectroscopic characterisations and analytical discrimination between caffeine and demethylated analogues of pharmaceutical relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Munshi, T.; Anstis, M.

    2005-05-01

    The FT Raman spectrum of caffeine was analysed along with that of its demethylated analogues, theobromine and theophylline. The similar but not identical structures of these three compounds allowed a more detailed assignment of the Raman bands. Noticeable differences in the Raman spectra of these compounds were apparent and key marker bands have been identified for the spectroscopic identification of these three compounds.

  4. Ultralow-frequency Raman system down to 10 cm{sup −1} with longpass edge filters and its application to the interface coupling in t(2+2)LGs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, M.-L.; Qiao, X.-F.; Wu, J.-B.; Shi, W.; Tan, P.-H., E-mail: phtan@semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Ran, F.-R.; Li, H. [Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE) & Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials - SICAM, Nanjing Tech University - NanjingTech, 30 South Puzhu Road, Nanjing 211816 (China); Zhang, Z.-H.; Xu, X.-Z.; Liu, K.-H. [School of Physics, Center for Nanochemistry, Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Ultralow-frequency (ULF) Raman spectroscopy becomes increasingly important in the area of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials; however, such measurement usually requires expensive and nonstandard equipment. Here, the measurement of ULF Raman signal down to 10 cm{sup −1} has been realized with high throughput by combining a kind of longpass edge filters with a single monochromator, which are verified by the Raman spectrum of L-cystine using three laser excitations. Fine adjustment of the angle of incident laser beam from normal of the longpass edge filters and selection of polarization geometry are demonstrated how to probe ULF Raman signal with high signal-to-noise. Davydov splitting of the shear mode in twisted (2+2) layer graphenes (t(2+2)LG) has been observed by such system in both exfoliated and transferred samples. We provide a direct evidence of twist-angle dependent softening of the shear coupling in t(2+2)LG, while the layer-breathing coupling at twisted interfaces is found to be almost identical to that in bulk graphite. This suggests that the exfoliation and transferring techniques are enough good to make a good 2D heterostructures to demonstrate potential device application. This Raman system will be potentially applied to the research field of ULF Raman spectroscopy.

  5. Raman spectroscopy insight into Norovirus encapsulation in Bombyx mori cypovirus cubic microcrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hajime; Oda, Naoki; Abe, Satoshi; Ueno, Takafumi; Zhu, Wenliang; Pernstich, Chris; Pezzotti, Giuseppe

    2018-05-16

    Protein and amino acid structures of Norovirus-like particles (NoVLP) have been investigated by Raman spectroscopy before and after encapsulation into Bombyx mori cypovirus (BmCPV) cubic microcrystals, which are usually referred to as cubes or polyhedra. Two different types of tag were used in co-expression, namely VP3 and H1 tags. VP3 tag is derived from a capsid protein VP4 from BmCPV and H1 tag is N-terminal α-helix of BmCPV polyhedrin, respectively. A major capsid protein VP1 of NoVLP G11.4 was fused with H1 or VP3 tags, and then encapsulated into BmCPV polyhedra. Analyses of the spectroscopic data permitted the assignment of conformation-sensitive Raman bands to viral amino acid constituents and the observation of structural similarities or differences between differently tagged samples. Three separate Raman zones were attentioned, namely, the ring-mode structure region (1000-1500 cm -1 ), the CO and CC double-bond region and its surroundings (1500-1750 cm -1 ), and the high-frequency CH stretching region (2800-3100 cm -1 ). Structural fingerprints could be found in specific spectral zones for differently co-expressed samples. One clear characteristic of the H1-tagged VP1 polyhedra was the increase in tyrosine fraction, which played a critical role in binding neighboring strands through its unpaired negatively charged COO - sites. This feature could consistently be detected in different regions, but it was best represented by Raman signals associated with negatively charged COO - sites and H1 helices in the double-bond region. Such peculiar chemical features were revealed by two relatively broad bands at 1570 and 1630 cm -1 , which were assigned to COO - anti-symmetric stretching and amide I in 3 10 -helix extensions to α-helices at N-termini, respectively. These specific features did not display in the spectrum of the VP3-tagged VP1 polyhedra. Concurrently, a strong reduction of CH bond Raman signal was noticed in the high frequency stretching

  6. The primordial deuterium abundance at zabs = 2.504 from a high signal-to-noise spectrum of Q1009+2956

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavarygin, E. O.; Webb, J. K.; Dumont, V.; Riemer-Sørensen, S.

    2018-04-01

    The spectrum of the zem = 2.63 quasar Q1009+2956 has been observed extensively on the Keck telescope. The Lyman limit absorption system zabs = 2.504 was previously used to measure D/H by Burles & Tytler using a spectrum with signal to noise approximately 60 per pixel in the continuum near Ly α at zabs = 2.504. The larger dataset now available combines to form an exceptionally high signal to noise spectrum, around 147 per pixel. Several heavy element absorption lines are detected in this LLS, providing strong constraints on the kinematic structure. We explore a suite of absorption system models and find that the deuterium feature is likely to be contaminated by weak interloping Ly α absorption from a low column density H I cloud, reducing the expected D/H precision. We find D/H =2.48^{+0.41}_{-0.35} × 10^{-5} for this system. Combining this new measurement with others from the literature and applying the method of Least Trimmed Squares to a statistical sample of 15 D/H measurements results in a "reliable" sample of 13 values. This sample yields a primordial deuterium abundance of (D/H)p = (2.545 ± 0.025) × 10-5. The corresponding mean baryonic density of the Universe is Ωbh2 = 0.02174 ± 0.00025. The quasar absorption data is of the same precision as, and marginally inconsistent with, the 2015 CMB Planck (TT+lowP+lensing) measurement, Ωbh2 = 0.02226 ± 0.00023. Further quasar and more precise nuclear data are required to establish whether this is a random fluctuation.

  7. Polytetrafluorethylene-Au as a substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegel Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study deals with preparation of substrates suitable for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS applications by sputtering deposition of gold layer on the polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE foil. Time of sputtering was investigated with respect to the surface properties. The ability of PTFE-Au substrates to enhance Raman signals was investigated by immobilization of biphenyl-4,4'-dithiol (BFD from the solutions with various concentrations. BFD was also used for preparation of sandwich structures with Au or Ag nanoparticles by two different procedures. Results showed that PTFE can be used for fabrication of SERS active substrate with easy handle properties at low cost. This substrate was sufficient for the measurement of SERS spectrum of BFD even at 10-8 mol/l concentration.

  8. Characterization of excited electronic states of naphthalene by resonance Raman and hyper-Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonang, C.C.; Cameron, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    The first resonance Raman and hyper-Raman scattering from naphthalene are reported. Fourth harmonic of a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser is used to resonantly excite the 1 B 1u + transition, producing Raman spectra that confirm the dominance of the vibronically active ν 28 (b 3g ) mode and the Franck--Condon active a g modes, ν 5 and ν 3 . A synchronously pumped stilbene dye laser and its second harmonic are employed as the excitation sources for hyper-Raman and Raman scattering from the overlapping 1 B 2 u + and 1 A g - states. The Raman spectra indicate that the equilibrium geometry of naphthalene is distorted primarily along ν 5 , ν 8 , and ν 7 normal coordinates upon excitation to 1 B 2 u + . The hyper-Raman spectrum shows that ν 25 (b 2u ) is the mode principally responsible for vibronic coupling between the 1 A g - and 1 B 2u + states. The results demonstrate the advantageous features of resonance hyper-Raman scattering for the case of overlapping one- and two-photon allowed transitions. Calculations based on simple molecular orbital configurations are shown to qualitatively agree with the experimental results

  9. Citrus fruits freshness assessment using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekvapil, Fran; Brezestean, Ioana; Barchewitz, Daniel; Glamuzina, Branko; Chiş, Vasile; Cintă Pinzaru, Simona

    2018-03-01

    The freshness of citrus fruits commonly available in the market was non-destructively assessed by Raman spectroscopy. Intact clementine, mandarin and tangerine species were characterised concerning their carotenoids skin Raman signalling in a time course from the moment they were acquired as fresh stock, supplying the market, to the physical degradation, when they were no longer attractive to consumers. The freshness was found to strongly correlate to the peel Raman signal collected from the same area of the intact fruits in a time course of a maximum of 20days. We have shown that the intensity of the carotenoid Raman signal is indeed a good indicator of fruit freshness and introduced a Raman coefficient of freshness (C Fresh ), whose time course is linearly decreasing, with different slope for different citrus groups. Additionally, we demonstrated that the freshness assessment could be achieved using a portable Raman instrument. The results could have a strong impact for consumer satisfaction and the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid spectro-polarimetry to probe molecular symmetry in multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würthwein, Thomas; Brinkmann, Maximilian; Hellwig, Tim; Fallnich, Carsten

    2017-11-21

    We present the simultaneous detection of the spectrum and the complete polarization state of a multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering signal with a fast division-of-amplitude spectro-polarimeter. The spectro-polarimeter is based on a commercial imaging spectrograph, a birefringent wedge prism, and a segmented polarizer. Compared to the standard rotating-retarder fixed-analyzer spectro-polarimeter, only a single measurement is required and an up to 21-fold reduced acquisition time is shown. The measured Stokes parameters allow us to differentiate between vibrational symmetries and to determine the depolarization ratio ρ by data post-processing.

  11. Identification of monoclinic calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate and hydroxyapatite in human sclera using Raman microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ko-Hua; Li, Mei-Jane; Cheng, Wen-Ting; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Lin, Shan-Yang

    2009-02-01

    Raman microspectroscopy was first used to determine the composition of a calcified plaque located at the pterygium-excision site of a 51-year-old female patient's left nasal sclera after surgery. It was unexpectedly found that the Raman spectrum of the calcified sample at 1149, 1108, 1049, 756, 517, 376 and 352/cm was similar to the Raman spectrum of monoclinic form of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal, but differed from the Raman spectrum of triclinic form of CPPD. An additional peak at 958/cm was also observed in the Raman spectrum of the calcified plaque, which was identical to the characteristic peak at 958/cm of hydroxyapatite (HA). This is the first study to report the spectral biodiagnosis of both monoclinic CPPD and HA co-deposited in the calcified plaque of a patient with sclera dystrophic calcification using Raman microspectroscopy.

  12. Electromagnetic spectrum management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seastrand, Douglas R.

    2017-01-31

    A system for transmitting a wireless countermeasure signal to disrupt third party communications is disclosed that include an antenna configured to receive wireless signals and transmit wireless counter measure signals such that the wireless countermeasure signals are responsive to the received wireless signals. A receiver processes the received wireless signals to create processed received signal data while a spectrum control module subtracts known source signal data from the processed received signal data to generate unknown source signal data. The unknown source signal data is based on unknown wireless signals, such as enemy signals. A transmitter is configured to process the unknown source signal data to create countermeasure signals and transmit a wireless countermeasure signal over the first antenna or a second antenna to thereby interfere with the unknown wireless signals.

  13. Electromagnetic spectrum management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seastrand, Douglas R.

    2017-10-17

    A system for transmitting a wireless countermeasure signal to disrupt third party communications is disclosed that include an antenna configured to receive wireless signals and transmit wireless counter measure signals such that the wireless countermeasure signals are responsive to the received wireless signals. A receiver processes the received wireless signals to create processed received signal data while a spectrum control module subtracts known source signal data from the processed received signal data to generate unknown source signal data. The unknown source signal data is based on unknown wireless signals, such as enemy signals. A transmitter is configured to process the unknown source signal data to create countermeasure signals and transmit a wireless countermeasure signal over the first antenna or a second antenna to thereby interfere with the unknown wireless signals.

  14. Introductory Raman spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R

    2012-01-01

    Praise for Introductory Raman Spectroscopy Highlights basic theory, which is treated in an introductory fashion Presents state-of-the-art instrumentation Discusses new applications of Raman spectroscopy in industry and research.

  15. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of dipolar molecules by the graphene Fermi surface modulation with different dipole moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingjia; Leng, Yandan; Huang, Jing; Yu, JiaoJiao; Lan, Zhenggang; Huang, Changshui

    2017-12-01

    We report the modulation of Raman scattering spectrum of chromophore/graphene hybrids by tunning the molecular polarization with different terminal groups (methyl, methoxy, nitrile, and two nitros). Based on the density functional theory, the specific dipole moment values of the chromophore molecules are calculated. An obvious surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was observed and the scattering intensity of molecule increases with enlarged dipole moment. According to the analysis of G band Raman shifts of graphene, the enhancement of the Raman signal can be attributed to strong electronic coupling between graphene and chromophore, which is closely related with the modulation of graphene Fermi surface by changing the dipole moment of the molecule. Besides, the optimization of the ground state geometry and the binding energy of the hybrids were also calculated with the Density Functional Based Tight Bonding (DFTB) method, which confirms that the enhanced Raman scattering of molecules on graphene arises from the improved energy level matching between graphene Fermi surface and molecular band, further providing a new way to design novel SERS devices.

  16. A novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection for natural gas exploration using methane-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weiwei; Chen, Qiao; Peng, Fang; Shen, Aiguo; Hu, Jiming

    2018-07-01

    Methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB), a unique group of Gram-negative bacteria utilizing methane as a sole source of carbon and energy, have been proved to be a biological indicator for gas prospecting. Field and cultivation-free detection of MOB is important but still challenging in current microbial prospecting of oil and gas (MPOG) system. Herein, SERS was used for the first time to our knowledge to investigate two species of methanotrophs and four closely relevant bacteria that universally coexisted in the upper soil of natural gas. A special but very simple approach was utilized to make silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) sufficiently contact with every single bacterial cell, and highly strong and distinct Raman signals free from any native fluorescence have been obtained, and successfully utilized for distinguishing MOB from other species. A more convincing multi-Raman criterion based on single Raman bands, and further the entire Raman spectrum in combination with statistical analysis (e.g., principal component analysis (PCA)), which were found capable of classifying MOB related bacterial cells in soil with an accuracy of 100%. This study therefore demonstrated sensitive and rapid SERS measurement technique accompanied by complete Raman database of various gas reservoirs related bacteria could aid field exploration of natural gas reservoir. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dual-wavelength external cavity laser device for fluorescence suppression in Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuting; Cai, Zhijian; Wu, Jianhong

    2017-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been widely used in the detection of drugs, pesticides, explosives, food additives and environmental pollutants, for its characteristics of fast measurement, easy sample preparation, and molecular structure analyzing capability. However, fluorescence disturbance brings a big trouble to these applications, with strong fluorescence background covering up the weak Raman signals. Recently shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) not only can completely remove the fluorescence background, but also can be easily integrated into portable Raman spectrometers. Usually, SERDS uses two lasers with small wavelength gap to excite the sample, then acquires two spectra, and subtracts one to the other to get the difference spectrum, where the fluorescence background will be rejected. So, one key aspects of successfully applying SERDS method is to obtain a dual-wavelength laser source. In this paper, a dual-wavelength laser device design based on the principles of external cavity diode laser (ECDL) is proposed, which is low-cost and compact. In addition, it has good mechanical stability because of no moving parts. These features make it an ideal laser source for SERDS technique. The experiment results showed that the device can emit narrow-spectral-width lasers of two wavelengths, with the gap smaller than 2 nanometers. The laser power corresponding to each wavelength can be up to 100mW.

  18. Dengue viral infection monitoring from diagnostic to recovery using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firdous, Shamaraz; Anwar, Shahzad

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been found useful for monitoring the dengue patient diagnostic and recovery after infection. In the present work, spectral changes that occurred in the blood sera of a dengue infected patient and their possible utilization for monitoring of infection and recovery were investigated using 532 nm wavelength of light. Raman spectrum peaks for normal and after recovery of dengue infection are observed at 1527, 1170, 1021 cm −1 attributed to guanine, adenine, TRP (protein) carbohydrates peak for solids, and skeletal C–C stretch of lipids acyl chains. Where in the dengue infected patient Raman peaks are at 1467, 1316, 1083, and 860 attributed to CH2/CH3 deformation of lipids and collagen, guanine (B, Z-marker), lipids and protein bands. Due to antibodies and antigen reactions the portions and lipids concentration totally changes in dengue viral infection compared to normal blood. These chemical changes in blood sera of dengue viral infection in human blood may be used as possible markers to indicate successful remission and suggest that Raman spectroscopy may provide a rapid optical method for continuous monitoring or evaluation of a protein bands and an antibodies population. Accumulate acquisition mode was used to reduce noise and thermal fluctuation and improve signal to noise ratio. This in vitro dengue infection monitoring methodology will lead in vivo noninvasive on-line monitoring and screening of viral infected patients and their recovery. (letter)

  19. Signal discrimination of ULF electromagnetic data with using singular spectrum analysis – an attempt to detect train noise

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, S.; Kaida, D.; Hattori, K.; Febriani, F.; Yoshino, C.

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic phenomena associated with crustal activities have been reported in a wide frequency range (DC-HF). In particular, ULF electromagnetic phenomena are the most promising among them because of the deeper skin depth. However, ULF geoelctromagnetic data are a superposition of signals of different origins. They originated from interactions between the geomagnetic field and the solar wind, leak current by a DC-driven train (train noise), precipitation, and so on. In general, the inten...

  20. Combined laser ultrasonics, laser heating, and Raman scattering in diamond anvil cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinin, Pavel V.; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Burgess, Katherine; Odake, Shoko; Chigarev, Nikolay; Sharma, Shiv K.

    2016-12-01

    We developed a multi-functional in situ measurement system under high pressure equipped with a laser ultrasonics (LU) system, Raman device, and laser heating system (LU-LH) in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). The system consists of four components: (1) a LU-DAC system (probe and pump lasers, photodetector, and oscilloscope) and DAC; (2) a fiber laser, which is designed to allow precise control of the total power in the range from 2 to 100 W by changing the diode current, for heating samples; (3) a spectrometer for measuring the temperature of the sample (using black body radiation), fluorescence spectrum (spectrum of the ruby for pressure measurement), and Raman scattering measurements inside a DAC under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) conditions; and (4) an optical system to focus laser beams on the sample and image it in the DAC. The system is unique and allows us to do the following: (a) measure the shear and longitudinal velocities of non-transparent materials under HPHT; (b) measure temperature in a DAC under HPHT conditions using Planck's law; (c) measure pressure in a DAC using a Raman signal; and (d) measure acoustical properties of small flat specimens removed from the DAC after HPHT treatment. In this report, we demonstrate that the LU-LH-DAC system allows measurements of velocities of the skimming waves in iron at 2580 K and 22 GPa.

  1. Predictions for measuring the cross power spectrum of the HI 21-cm signal and the Lyman-α forest using OWFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Anjan Kumar; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Guha Sarkar, Tapomoy

    2018-05-01

    We have studied the possibility of measuring the cross-correlation of the redshifted HI 21-cm signal and the Lyman-α forest using an upcoming radio-interferometric array OWFA and an spectroscopic observation like SDSS-IV. Our results shows that it is possible to have a 6 σ detection of the cross-correlation signal with OWFA PII using an observing time of 200 hrs each in Np = 25 independent fields-of-view. However, not much can be done beyond this using the cross-correlation signal for zc = 3.35 and B = 30 MHz. Apart from this, we have also envisaged a situation where observations are carried out at zc = 3.05 and 2.55 which lie closer to the peak of the quasar distribution at z = 2.25 and with a larger bandwidth of B = 60 MHz. We see that the SNR of the cross-correlation detection can be significantly enhanced to ~ 17 for zc = 2.55 and B = 60 MHz. It is then possible to measure βT and βF individually with an SNR >= 5 by combining the cross-correlation with the HI 21-cm auto-correlation measurements. We further find that a measurement of the binned cross-correlation power spectrum with SNR >= 5 is also possible in several bins at k <= 0.3 Mpc‑1.

  2. Measurement of absorption spectrum of deuterium oxide (D2O) and its application to signal enhancement in multiphoton microscopy at the 1700-nm window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuxin; Wen, Wenhui; Wang, Kai; Wang, Ke; Zhai, Peng; Qiu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    1700-nm window has been demonstrated to be a promising excitation window for deep-tissue multiphoton microscopy (MPM). Long working-distance water immersion objective lenses are typically used for deep-tissue imaging. However, absorption due to immersion water at 1700 nm is still high and leads to dramatic decrease in signals. In this paper, we demonstrate measurement of absorption spectrum of deuterium oxide (D 2 O) from 1200 nm to 2600 nm, covering the three low water-absorption windows potentially applicable for deep-tissue imaging (1300 nm, 1700 nm, and 2200 nm). We apply this measured result to signal enhancement in MPM at the 1700-nm window. Compared with water immersion, D 2 O immersion enhances signal levels in second-harmonic generation imaging, 3-photon fluorescence imaging, and third-harmonic generation imaging by 8.1, 24.8, and 24.7 times with 1662-nm excitation, in good agreement with theoretical calculation based on our absorption measurement. This suggests D 2 O a promising immersion medium for deep-tissue imaging

  3. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman characterization of copper (I) oxide microspheres composed of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenzhong; Tu Ya; Wang Lijuan; Liang Yujie; Shi Honglong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Raman spectroscopy of copper (I) oxide microspheres were investigated. ► Infrared active mode is greatly activated in Raman scattering spectrum. ► Infrared active mode shows up in Raman spectrum of copper (I) oxide microspheres. ► The defects existed in spheres could be responsible for the observed Raman property. - Abstract: The high-resolution transmission electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy were used to investigate the microstructures and Raman scattering property of copper (I) oxide microspheres composed of nanoparticles. High-resolution transmission electron microscope images indicate that the copper (I) oxide microspheres are composed of nanoparticles with random growth direction, indicating that there are many defects in microspheres. The Raman spectrum shows that infrared active mode, which must be odd parity and is Raman forbidden for bulk crystal due to its inversion symmetry, is activated and shows up in Raman scattering spectrum. On the basis of investigations of the microstructure features of copper (I) oxide microspheres, we attribute the appearance of IR active mode in Raman scattering spectrum to the breakdown of the symmetry of the lattice due to the presence of defects in the prepared copper (I) oxide microspheres as observed in HRTEM images.

  4. Detection of the quorum sensing signal molecule N-Dodecanoyl-DL-homoserine lactone below 1 nanomolarconcentrations using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claussen, Anetta; Abdali, Salim; Berg, Rolf W.

    2013-01-01

    suitable tool for in situ measurements of low Acyl-Homoserine Lactone (AHL) concentrations in biofilms containing QS bacteria. Signal molecules communicate information about their environment and coordinate certain physiological activities in QS systems that exist in many bacteria. SERS enables detection...

  5. HR-TEM and FT-Raman dataset of the caffeine interacted Phe–Phe peptide nanotube for possible sensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lakshmi Narayanan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensing ability of caffeine interaction with Phe-Phe annotates (PNTs, is presented (Govindhan et al., 2017; Karthikeyan et al., 2014; Tavagnacco et al., 2013; Kennedy et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2017 [1–5] in this data set. Investigation of synthesized caffeine carrying peptide nanotubes are carried out by FT-Raman spectral analysis and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM. Particle size of the caffeine loaded PNTs is < 40 nm. The FT-Raman spectrum signals are enhanced in the region of 400–1700 cm−1. These data are ideal tool for the applications like biosensing and drug delivery research (DDS. Keywords: Caffeine, PNTs, Sensing, HR-TEM, FT-Raman data

  6. Bearing failure detection of micro wind turbine via power spectral density analysis for stator current signals spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Faleh H.; Kadhim, Hussein T.; Resen, Ali K.; Shaban, Auday H.

    2018-05-01

    The failure such as air gap weirdness, rubbing, and scrapping between stator and rotor generator arise unavoidably and may cause extremely terrible results for a wind turbine. Therefore, we should pay more attention to detect and identify its cause-bearing failure in wind turbine to improve the operational reliability. The current paper tends to use of power spectral density analysis method of detecting internal race and external race bearing failure in micro wind turbine by estimation stator current signal of the generator. The failure detector method shows that it is well suited and effective for bearing failure detection.

  7. Parameter restoration of a soft X radiation spectrum by the signals of X-ray vacuum diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branitskij, A.V.; Olejnik, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    The multichannel measurement complex on the basis of vacuum X-ray diodes with various filters and the methodology of signals treatment, making it possible to obtained with nanosecond time resolution the radiation capacity in several spectral intervals, ranging from 0.1 up to 4 keV, the radiation capacity within the whole spectral range and the quantum average energy, are described. The method of linear combinations and the two-parametric models, providing close capacity values, are the most acceptable algorithms. This methodology was used at the Angara-5-1 facility in experiments on the cascade liners implosion and with the Z-pinch [ru

  8. Using a Spectrofluorometer for Resonance Raman Spectra of Organic Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadivel Masilamani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scattering (Rayleigh and Raman and fluorescence are two common light signals that frequently occur together, confusing the researchers and graduate students experimenting in molecular spectroscopy laboratories. This report is a brief study presenting a clear discrimination between the two signals mentioned, employing a common spectrofluorometer such as the PerkinElmer LS 55. Even better, the resonance Raman signal of a molecule (e.g., acetone can be obtained elegantly using the same instrument.

  9. Wavelet Transform Analysis of the Power Spectrum of Centre of Pressure Signals to Detect the Critical Point Interval of Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Snoussi, Hichem; Hewson, David; Duchêne, Jacques

    The aim of this study was to develop a method to detecting the critical point interval (CPI) when sensory feedback is used as part of a closed-loop postural control strategy. Postural balance was evaluated using centre of pressure (COP) displacements from a force plate for 17 control and 10 elderly subjects under eyes open, eyes closed, and vibration conditions. A modified local-maximum-modulus wavelet transform analysis using the power spectrum of COP signals was used to calculate CPI. Lower CPI values indicate increased closed-loop postural control with a quicker response to sensory input. Such a strategy requires greater energy expenditure due to the repeated muscular interventions to remain stable. The CPI for elderly occurred significantly quicker than for controls, indicating tighter control of posture. Similar results were observed for eyes closed and vibration conditions. The CPI parameter can be used to detect differences in postural control due to ageing.

  10. Flexible digital signal processing architecture for narrowband and spread-spectrum lock-in detection in multiphoton microscopy and time-resolved spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jesse W; Park, Jong Kang; Warren, Warren S; Fischer, Martin C

    2015-03-01

    The lock-in amplifier is a critical component in many different types of experiments, because of its ability to reduce spurious or environmental noise components by restricting detection to a single frequency and phase. One example application is pump-probe microscopy, a multiphoton technique that leverages excited-state dynamics for imaging contrast. With this application in mind, we present here the design and implementation of a high-speed lock-in amplifier on the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) coprocessor of a data acquisition board. The most important advantage is the inherent ability to filter signals based on more complex modulation patterns. As an example, we use the flexibility of the FPGA approach to enable a novel pump-probe detection scheme based on spread-spectrum communications techniques.

  11. Brain Lateralization in Mice Is Associated with Zinc Signaling and Altered in Prenatal Zinc Deficient Mice That Display Features of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Grabrucker

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have reported changes in the hemispheric dominance in autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients on functional, biochemical, and morphological level. Since asymmetry of the brain is also found in many vertebrates, we analyzed whether prenatal zinc deficient (PZD mice, a mouse model with ASD like behavior, show alterations regarding brain lateralization on molecular and behavioral level. Our results show that hemisphere-specific expression of marker genes is abolished in PZD mice on mRNA and protein level. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we found an increased striatal volume in PZD mice with no change in total brain volume. Moreover, behavioral patterns associated with striatal lateralization are altered and the lateralized expression of dopamine receptor 1 (DR1 in the striatum of PZD mice was changed. We conclude that zinc signaling during brain development has a critical role in the establishment of brain lateralization in mice.

  12. Raman spectroscopy of synthetic and natural iowaite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Ray L; Adebajo, Moses O; Erickson, Kristy L

    2005-02-01

    The chemistry of a magnesium based hydrotalcite known as iowaite Mg6Fe2Cl2(OH)16.4H2O has been studied using Raman spectroscopy. Iowaite has chloride as the counter anion in the interlayer. The formula of synthetic iowaite was found to be Mg5.78Fe2.09(Cl,(CO3)0.5)(OH)16.4H2O. Oxidation of natural iowaite results in the formation of Mg4FeO(Cl,CO3) (OH)8.4H2O. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the iowaite is a layered structure with a d(001) spacing of 8.0 angtsroms. For synthetic iowaite three Raman bands at 1376, 1194 and 1084 cm(-1) are attributed to CO3 stretching vibrations. These bands are not observed for the natural iowaite but are observed when the natural iowaite is exposed to air. The Raman spectrum of natural iowaite shows three bands at 708, 690 and 620 cm(-1) and upon exposure to air, two broad bands are found at 710 and 648 cm(-1). The Raman spectrum of synthetic iowaite has a very broad band at 712 cm(-1). The Raman spectrum of natural iowaite shows an intense band at 527 cm(-1). The air oxidized iowaite shows two bands at 547 and 484 cm(-1) attributed to the (CO3)(2-)nu2 bending mode. Raman spectroscopy has proven most useful for the study of the chemistry of iowaite and chemical changes induced in natural iowaite upon exposure to air.

  13. Construction of coherent antistokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidan, M. D.; Jazmati, A.

    2007-01-01

    Coherent Antistokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) has been built. It consists of a Raman cell, which is filled with CO 2 gas at 5 atm pressure and a frequency doubled Nd-YAG laser pumped dye laser. The two beams are focused by means of a bi-convex lens into Raman cell. The Antistokes signals (CARS signals) are generated due to Four-wave mixing process. The antistokes signals were directed to monochrometer entrance slit by prism . The signals are detected by photomultiplier detector which is fixed on the exit slit and connected to data acquisition card located inside the computed case. The dye laser frequency has to be tuned to satisfy the energy difference between the ν 1 beam (Nd- YAG laser beam) and the ν 2 beam (the stokes beam or the dye laser beam) exactly corresponds to a vibrational - rotational Raman resonance (ν 2 - ν 1 = ν M ) in the 12 CO 2 or 13 CO 2 molecule, then the antistokes signals (ν 3 ) will be generated. The spectra of the CARS signals have been recorded to determine the isotope shift of 12 CO 2 , 13 CO 2 , which is 18.3 cm -1 . (author)

  14. Neutron/gamma discrimination employing the power spectrum analysis of the signal from the liquid scintillator BC501A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, X.L.; Wang, Y.K; Yang, J.; Liu, G.; Lin, C.B.; Hu, Q.Q.; Peng, J.X.

    2013-01-01

    A digital method for the discrimination of neutron and γ-ray events based on analyzing the power spectra of the signals from a BC501A liquid scintillator detector was presented and investigated in this paper. In order to evaluate the feasibility of this novel pulse shape discrimination method, a 5GSample/s 8-bit oscilloscope was used to acquire waveforms for n/γ discrimination. Furthermore, the performance of this novel n/γ discrimination method was compared with that of a widely used method called the reference-pulses method which averaged a large number of neutron and γ-ray pulses to obtain the reference-pulse as the criterion for n/γ discrimination. The results showed that the proposed method performed well over the reference-pulses method, which was verified by the considerable decrease in the error rate of n/γ discrimination and the improvement of the Figure of Merit

  15. Upgrade of an old Raman Spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2004-01-01

    Improvement of a conventional Jeol Raman spectrometer with a single channel photo multiplier detector is described. New optical components (fibres, mirror, lens and CCD detector) have been chosen to design a high quality and easy-to-use instrument. Tests have shown that with this modified...... spectrometer Raman spectra can be acquired of a quality comparable to the spectra obtained previously, but the time needed to obtain a spectrum is markedly reduced. Selected test spectra and a simple calibration procedure to obtain the wavenumber values from the band CCD pixel position are presented....

  16. Charge Transfer Effect on Raman and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Furfural Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Fu; Shi, Haiyang; Chen, Weigen; Gu, Zhaoliang; Du, Lingling; Wang, Pinyi; Wang, Jianxin; Huang, Yingzhou

    2017-08-02

    The detection of furfural in transformer oil through surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is one of the most promising online monitoring techniques in the process of transformer aging. In this work, the Raman of individual furfural molecules and SERS of furfural-M x (M = Ag, Au, Cu) complexes are investigated through density functional theory (DFT). In the Raman spectrum of individual furfural molecules, the vibration mode of each Raman peak is figured out, and the deviation from experimental data is analyzed by surface charge distribution. In the SERS of furfural-M x complexes, the influence of atom number and species on SERS chemical enhancement factors (EFs) are studied, and are further analyzed by charge transfer effect. Our studies strengthen the understanding of charge transfer effect in the SERS of furfural molecules, which is important in the online monitoring of the transformer aging process through SERS.

  17. EXTRAPOLATION TECHNIQUES EVALUATING 24 HOURS OF AVERAGE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD EMITTED BY RADIO BASE STATION INSTALLATIONS: SPECTRUM ANALYZER MEASUREMENTS OF LTE AND UMTS SIGNALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossetti, Stefano; de Bartolo, Daniela; Veronese, Ivan; Cantone, Marie Claire; Cosenza, Cristina; Nava, Elisa

    2017-04-01

    International and national organizations have formulated guidelines establishing limits for occupational and residential electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure at high-frequency fields. Italian legislation fixed 20 V/m as a limit for public protection from exposure to EMFs in the frequency range 0.1 MHz-3 GHz and 6 V/m as a reference level. Recently, the law was changed and the reference level must now be evaluated as the 24-hour average value, instead of the previous highest 6 minutes in a day. The law refers to a technical guide (CEI 211-7/E published in 2013) for the extrapolation techniques that public authorities have to use when assessing exposure for compliance with limits. In this work, we present measurements carried out with a vectorial spectrum analyzer to identify technical critical aspects in these extrapolation techniques, when applied to UMTS and LTE signals. We focused also on finding a good balance between statistically significant values and logistic managements in control activity, as the signal trend in situ is not known. Measurements were repeated several times over several months and for different mobile companies. The outcome presented in this article allowed us to evaluate the reliability of the extrapolation results obtained and to have a starting point for defining operating procedures. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Extrapolation techniques evaluating 24 hours of average electromagnetic field emitted by radio base station installations: spectrum analyzer measurements of LTE and UMTS signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossetti, Stefano; Bartolo, Daniela de; Nava, Elisa; Veronese, Ivan; Cantone, Marie Claire; Cosenza, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    International and national organizations have formulated guidelines establishing limits for occupational and residential electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure at high-frequency fields. Italian legislation fixed 20 V/m as a limit for public protection from exposure to EMFs in the frequency range 0.1 MHz-3 GHz and 6 V/m as a reference level. Recently, the law was changed and the reference level must now be evaluated as the 24-hour average value, instead of the previous highest 6 minutes in a day. The law refers to a technical guide (CEI 211-7/E published in 2013) for the extrapolation techniques that public authorities have to use when assessing exposure for compliance with limits. In this work, we present measurements carried out with a vectorial spectrum analyzer to identify technical critical aspects in these extrapolation techniques, when applied to UMTS and LTE signals. We focused also on finding a good balance between statistically significant values and logistic managements in control activity, as the signal trend in situ is not known. Measurements were repeated several times over several months and for different mobile companies. The outcome presented in this article allowed us to evaluate the reliability of the extrapolation results obtained and to have a starting point for defining operating procedures. (authors)

  19. Self-pulsation threshold of Raman amplified Brillouin fiber cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Pedersen, Martin Erland Vestergaard; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    An implicit equation for the oscillation threshold of stimulated Brillouin scattering from Raman amplified signals in fibers with external feedback is derived under the assumption of no depletion. This is compared to numerical investigations of Raman amplification schemes showing good agreement...

  20. Shot-Noise Limited Time-Encoded Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Karpf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Raman scattering, an inelastic scattering mechanism, provides information about molecular excitation energies and can be used to identify chemical compounds. Albeit being a powerful analysis tool, especially for label-free biomedical imaging with molecular contrast, it suffers from inherently low signal levels. This practical limitation can be overcome by nonlinear enhancement techniques like stimulated Raman scattering (SRS. In SRS, an additional light source stimulates the Raman scattering process. This can lead to orders of magnitude increase in signal levels and hence faster acquisition in biomedical imaging. However, achieving a broad spectral coverage in SRS is technically challenging and the signal is no longer background-free, as either stimulated Raman gain (SRG or loss (SRL is measured, turning a sensitivity limit into a dynamic range limit. Thus, the signal has to be isolated from the laser background light, requiring elaborate methods for minimizing detection noise. Here, we analyze the detection sensitivity of a shot-noise limited broadband stimulated time-encoded Raman (TICO-Raman system in detail. In time-encoded Raman, a wavelength-swept Fourier domain mode locking (FDML laser covers a broad range of Raman transition energies while allowing a dual-balanced detection for lowering the detection noise to the fundamental shot-noise limit.

  1. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  2. Evaluation of the Fourier Frequency Spectrum Peaks of Milk Electrical Conductivity Signals as Indexes to Monitor the Dairy Goats’ Health Status by On-Line Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zaninelli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is a further characterization of the electrical conductivity (EC signal of goat milk, acquired on-line by EC sensors, to identify new indexes representative of the EC variations that can be observed during milking, when considering not healthy (NH glands. Two foremilk gland samples from 42 Saanen goats, were collected for three consecutive weeks and for three different lactation stages (LS: 0–60 Days In Milking (DIM; 61–120 DIM; 121–180 DIM, for a total amount of 1512 samples. Bacteriological analyses and somatic cells counts (SCC were used to define the health status of the glands. With negative bacteriological analyses and SCC < 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as healthy. When bacteriological analyses were positive or showed a SCC > 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as NH. For each milk EC signal, acquired on-line and for each gland considered, the Fourier frequency spectrum of the signal was calculated and three representative frequency peaks were identified. To evaluate data acquired a MIXED procedure was used considering the HS, LS and LS × HS as explanatory variables in the statistical model.Results showed that the studied frequency peaks had a significant relationship with the gland’s health status. Results also explained how the milk EC signals’ pattern change in case of NH glands. In fact, it is characterized by slower fluctuations (due to the lower frequencies of the peaks and by an irregular trend (due to the higher amplitudes of all the main frequency peaks. Therefore, these frequency peaks could be used as new indexes to improve the performances of algorithms based on multivariate models which evaluate the health status of dairy goats through the use of gland milk EC sensors.

  3. Evaluation of the Fourier Frequency Spectrum Peaks of Milk Electrical Conductivity Signals as Indexes to Monitor the Dairy Goats’ Health Status by On-Line Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Agazzi, Alessandro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is a further characterization of the electrical conductivity (EC) signal of goat milk, acquired on-line by EC sensors, to identify new indexes representative of the EC variations that can be observed during milking, when considering not healthy (NH) glands. Two foremilk gland samples from 42 Saanen goats, were collected for three consecutive weeks and for three different lactation stages (LS: 0–60 Days In Milking (DIM); 61–120 DIM; 121–180 DIM), for a total amount of 1512 samples. Bacteriological analyses and somatic cells counts (SCC) were used to define the health status of the glands. With negative bacteriological analyses and SCC 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as NH. For each milk EC signal, acquired on-line and for each gland considered, the Fourier frequency spectrum of the signal was calculated and three representative frequency peaks were identified. To evaluate data acquired a MIXED procedure was used considering the HS, LS and LS × HS as explanatory variables in the statistical model.Results showed that the studied frequency peaks had a significant relationship with the gland’s health status. Results also explained how the milk EC signals’ pattern change in case of NH glands. In fact, it is characterized by slower fluctuations (due to the lower frequencies of the peaks) and by an irregular trend (due to the higher amplitudes of all the main frequency peaks). Therefore, these frequency peaks could be used as new indexes to improve the performances of algorithms based on multivariate models which evaluate the health status of dairy goats through the use of gland milk EC sensors. PMID:26307993

  4. Research of high power and stable laser in portable Raman spectrometer based on SHINERS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yongsheng; Yin, Yu; Wu, Yulin; Ni, Xuxiang; Zhang, Xiuda; Yan, Huimin

    2013-08-01

    The intensity of Raman light is very weak, which is only from 10-12 to 10-6 of the incident light. In order to obtain the required sensitivity, the traditional Raman spectrometer tends to be heavy weight and large volume, so it is often used as indoor test device. Based on the Shell-Isolated Nanoparticle-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SHINERS) method, Raman optical spectrum signal can be enhanced significantly and the portable Raman spectrometer combined with SHINERS method will be widely used in various fields. The laser source must be stable enough and able to output monochromatic narrow band laser with stable power in the portable Raman spectrometer based on the SHINERS method. When the laser is working, the change of temperature can induce wavelength drift, thus the power stability of excitation light will be affected, so we need to strictly control the working temperature of the laser, In order to ensure the stability of laser power and output current, this paper adopts the WLD3343 laser constant current driver chip of Wavelength Electronics company and MCU P89LPC935 to drive LML - 785.0 BF - XX laser diode(LD). Using this scheme, the Raman spectrometer can be small in size and the drive current can be constant. At the same time, we can achieve functions such as slow start, over-current protection, over-voltage protection, etc. Continuous adjustable output can be realized under control, and the requirement of high power output can be satisfied. Max1968 chip is adopted to realize the accurate control of the laser's temperature. In this way, it can meet the demand of miniaturization. In term of temperature control, integral truncation effect of traditional PID algorithm is big, which is easy to cause static difference. Each output of incremental PID algorithm has nothing to do with the current position, and we can control the output coefficients to avoid full dose output and immoderate adjustment, then the speed of balance will be improved observably. Variable

  5. Confocal Raman Microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Dieing, Thomas; Toporski, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Confocal Raman Microscopy is a relatively new technique that allows chemical imaging without specific sample preparation. By integrating a sensitive Raman spectrometer within a state-of-the-art microscope, Raman microscopy with a spatial resolution down to 200nm laterally and 500nm vertically can be achieved using visible light excitation. Recent developments in detector and computer technology as well as optimized instrument design have reduced integration times of Raman spectra by orders of magnitude, so that complete images consisting of tens of thousands of Raman spectra can be acquired in seconds or minutes rather than hours, which used to be standard just one decade ago. The purpose of this book is to provide the reader a comprehensive overview of the rapidly developing field of Confocal Raman Microscopy and its applications.

  6. Improved Savitzky-Golay-method-based fluorescence subtraction algorithm for rapid recovery of Raman spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Zhang, Hongyuan; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2014-08-20

    In this paper, we propose an improved subtraction algorithm for rapid recovery of Raman spectra that can substantially reduce the computation time. This algorithm is based on an improved Savitzky-Golay (SG) iterative smoothing method, which involves two key novel approaches: (a) the use of the Gauss-Seidel method and (b) the introduction of a relaxation factor into the iterative procedure. By applying a novel successive relaxation (SG-SR) iterative method to the relaxation factor, additional improvement in the convergence speed over the standard Savitzky-Golay procedure is realized. The proposed improved algorithm (the RIA-SG-SR algorithm), which uses SG-SR-based iteration instead of Savitzky-Golay iteration, has been optimized and validated with a mathematically simulated Raman spectrum, as well as experimentally measured Raman spectra from non-biological and biological samples. The method results in a significant reduction in computing cost while yielding consistent rejection of fluorescence and noise for spectra with low signal-to-fluorescence ratios and varied baselines. In the simulation, RIA-SG-SR achieved 1 order of magnitude improvement in iteration number and 2 orders of magnitude improvement in computation time compared with the range-independent background-subtraction algorithm (RIA). Furthermore the computation time of the experimentally measured raw Raman spectrum processing from skin tissue decreased from 6.72 to 0.094 s. In general, the processing of the SG-SR method can be conducted within dozens of milliseconds, which can provide a real-time procedure in practical situations.

  7. ULTRAVIOLET RAMAN SPECTRAL SIGNATURE ACQUISITION: UV RAMAN SPECTRAL FINGERPRINTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEDLACEK,III, A.J.FINFROCK,C.

    2002-09-01

    As a member of the science-support part of the ITT-lead LISA development program, BNL is tasked with the acquisition of UV Raman spectral fingerprints and associated scattering cross-sections for those chemicals-of-interest to the program's sponsor. In support of this role, the present report contains the first installment of UV Raman spectral fingerprint data on the initial subset of chemicals. Because of the unique nature associated with the acquisition of spectral fingerprints for use in spectral pattern matching algorithms (i.e., CLS, PLS, ANN) great care has been undertaken to maximize the signal-to-noise and to minimize unnecessary spectral subtractions, in an effort to provide the highest quality spectral fingerprints. This report is divided into 4 sections. The first is an Experimental section that outlines how the Raman spectra are performed. This is then followed by a section on Sample Handling. Following this, the spectral fingerprints are presented in the Results section where the data reduction process is outlined. Finally, a Photographs section is included.

  8. Raman scattering in the atmospheres of the major planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, W.D.; Trafton, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    A method is developed for calculating the rate at which photons are Raman scattered as a function of frequency and depth in an inhomogeneous anisotropically scattering atmosphere. This method is used to determine the effects of Raman scattering by H 2 in the atmospheres of the major planets. Raman scattering causes an insufficient decrease in the blue and ultraviolet to explain the albedos of all of the planets; an additional source of extinction is necessary in this spectral region. Approximately 0.5-2.0% of the blue continuum photons have undergone Raman scattering in the shallow atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, while in the deep atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune Raman scattering accounts for abount 10-15% of the blue continuum intensity. The filling in of the cores of solar lines and the production of Raman-shifted ghosts of the Fraunhofer spectrum will be detectable effects in all of the major planets. Raman scattering has a significant influence on the formation and profiles of the strong red and near-infrared CH 4 bands on Uranus and Neptune. The residual intensity in the cores of these bands may be fully explained as a result of Raman scattering by H 2 . This scattering of photons into the cores of saturated absorption bands will cause an underestimate of the abundance of the absorber unless the effects of Raman scattering by H 2 in an inhomogeneous atmosphere are properly included in the analysis

  9. UV Resonant Raman Spectrometer with Multi-Line Laser Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, James L.; Kohel, James M.; Kirby, James P.; Morookian, John Michael; Pelletier, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    A Raman spectrometer employs two or more UV (ultraviolet) laser wavel engths to generate UV resonant Raman (UVRR) spectra in organic sampl es. Resonant Raman scattering results when the laser excitation is n ear an electronic transition of a molecule, and the enhancement of R aman signals can be several orders of magnitude. In addition, the Ra man cross-section is inversely proportional to the fourth power of t he wavelength, so the UV Raman emission is increased by another fact or of 16, or greater, over visible Raman emissions. The Raman-scatter ed light is collected using a high-resolution broadband spectrograph . Further suppression of the Rayleigh-scattered laser light is provi ded by custom UV notch filters.

  10. Multidimensional Raman spectroscopic signature of sweat and its potential application to forensic body fluid identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Sikirzhytskaya, Aliaksandra; Lednev, Igor K

    2012-03-09

    This proof-of-concept study demonstrated the potential of Raman microspectroscopy for nondestructive identification of traces of sweat for forensic purposes. Advanced statistical analysis of Raman spectra revealed that dry sweat was intrinsically heterogeneous, and its biochemical composition varies significantly with the donor. As a result, no single Raman spectrum could adequately represent sweat traces. Instead, a multidimensional spectroscopic signature of sweat was built that allowed for the presentation of any single experimental spectrum as a linear combination of two fluorescent backgrounds and three Raman spectral components dominated by the contribution from lactate, lactic acid, urea and single amino acids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Raman polarizabilities of the ν2, ν5 bands of CD3Cl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escribano, R.; Hernandez, M.G.; Mejias, M.; Brodersen, S.

    1985-01-01

    The Raman spectrum of the Coriolis interacting ν 2 , ν 5 bands of CD 3 Cl was recorded with a resolution of ca 0.6 cm -1 . Using the vibrational-rotational parameters of Yamada and Hirota, a computer simulation of the Raman contour was performed, yielding relative values of Raman polarizability derivatives for these bands. By comparison with the absolute intensity measurement of Orza et al., absolute values of the Raman polarizabilities were obtained. The sign of the Raman intensity perturbation was found to be negative. (author)

  12. Ring cavity for a Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1981-01-27

    A regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator are described which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplified Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal.

  13. Ring cavity for a Raman capillary waveguide amplifir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1981-01-27

    A regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator are described which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplified Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal.

  14. Evaluation of Shifted Excitation Raman Difference Spectroscopy and Comparison to Computational Background Correction Methods Applied to Biochemical Raman Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Eliana; Korinth, Florian; Stiebing, Clara; Krafft, Christoph; Schie, Iwan W; Popp, Jürgen

    2017-07-27

    Raman spectroscopy provides label-free biochemical information from tissue samples without complicated sample preparation. The clinical capability of Raman spectroscopy has been demonstrated in a wide range of in vitro and in vivo applications. However, a challenge for in vivo applications is the simultaneous excitation of auto-fluorescence in the majority of tissues of interest, such as liver, bladder, brain, and others. Raman bands are then superimposed on a fluorescence background, which can be several orders of magnitude larger than the Raman signal. To eliminate the disturbing fluorescence background, several approaches are available. Among instrumentational methods shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) has been widely applied and studied. Similarly, computational techniques, for instance extended multiplicative scatter correction (EMSC), have also been employed to remove undesired background contributions. Here, we present a theoretical and experimental evaluation and comparison of fluorescence background removal approaches for Raman spectra based on SERDS and EMSC.

  15. Preventing Raman Lasing in High-Q WGM Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute

    2007-01-01

    A generic design has been conceived to suppress the Raman effect in whispering- gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators that have high values of the resonance quality factor (Q). Although it is possible to exploit the Raman effect (even striving to maximize the Raman gain to obtain Raman lasing), the present innovation is intended to satisfy a need that arises in applications in which the Raman effect inhibits the realization of the full potential of WGM resonators as frequency-selection components. Heretofore, in such applications, it has been necessary to operate high-Q WGM resonators at unattractively low power levels to prevent Raman lasing. (The Raman-lasing thresholds of WGM optical resonators are very low and are approximately proportional to Q(sup -2)). Heretofore, two ways of preventing Raman lasting at high power levels have been known, but both entail significant disadvantages: A resonator can be designed so that the optical field is spread over a relatively large mode volume to bring the power density below the threshold. For any given combination of Q and power level, there is certain mode volume wherein Raman lasing does not start. Unfortunately, a resonator that has a large mode volume also has a high spectral density, which is undesirable in a typical photonic application. A resonator can be cooled to the temperature of liquid helium, where the Raman spectrum is narrower and, therefore, the Raman gain is lower. However, liquid-helium cooling is inconvenient. The present design overcomes these disadvantages, making it possible to operate a low-spectral-density (even a single-mode) WGM resonator at a relatively high power level at room temperature, without risk of Raman lasing.

  16. A quarter century of stimulated Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloembergen, N.

    1987-01-01

    To round out a quarter century of SRS the timing of this writing (1986) requires a look ahead of only one year into the future. The proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy present a picture of current activity. Further progress will be made in time-resolved spectroscopy with subpicosecond resolution, in the study of hyper-Raman and other higher order effects with CARS, in extension of resonant Raman excitation in the UV region of spectrum, and in the development of Raman laser sources. During past few years extensive theoretical investigations have been made for four-wave light mixing in the case of one or more very strong light beams. The perturbation approach for those fields ceases to be valid. If only one light field is strong, the usual approach is to make a transformation to a rotating coordinate system so that the strong Hamiltonian for this light field becomes time-independent. Very recently these techniques have been extended to the case of two or more strong fields. CARS-type experiments with strong beams are likely to receive more attention. Extrapolation of the current activities instills confidence in the vitality of stimulated Raman scattering for the foreseeable future

  17. Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jason R.

    Clinical diagnoses of bone health and fracture risk typically rely upon measurements of bone density or structure, but the strength of a bone is also dependent upon its chemical composition. One technology that has been used extensively in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies to measure the chemical composition of bone is Raman spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique provides chemical information about a sample by probing its molecular vibrations. In the case of bone tissue, Raman spectra provide chemical information about both the inorganic mineral and organic matrix components, which each contribute to bone strength. To explore the relationship between bone strength and chemical composition, our laboratory has contributed to ex vivo, exposed-bone animal studies of rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, and prolonged lead exposure. All of these studies suggest that Raman-based predictions of biomechanical strength may be more accurate than those produced by the clinically-used parameter of bone mineral density. The utility of Raman spectroscopy in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies has inspired attempts to perform bone spectroscopy transcutaneously. Although the results are promising, further advancements are necessary to make non-invasive, in vivo measurements of bone that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk. In order to separate the signals from bone and soft tissue that contribute to a transcutaneous measurement, we developed an overconstrained extraction algorithm that is based upon fitting with spectral libraries derived from separately-acquired measurements of the underlying tissue components. This approach allows for accurate spectral unmixing despite the fact that similar chemical components (e.g., type I collagen) are present in both soft tissue and bone and was applied to experimental data in order to transcutaneously detect, to our knowledge for the first time, age- and disease-related spectral

  18. On the Contribution of Raman Spectroscopy to Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzini, Patrick; Massonnet, Genevieve

    2010-08-01

    Raman spectroscopy has only recently sparked interest from forensic laboratories. The Raman technique has demonstrated important advantages such as its nondestructive nature, its fast analysis time, and especially the possibility of performing microscopical in situ analyses. In forensic applications, it is a versatile technique that covers a wide spectrum of substances such as trace evidence, illicit drugs and inks. An overview of the recent developments of Raman spectroscopy in forensic science will be discussed. Also, the requirements for an analytical technique for the examination of physical evidence will be described. Examples of casework will be depicted.

  19. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Physics and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kneipp, Katrin; Kneipp, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Almost 30 years after the first reports on surface-enhanced Raman signals, the phenomenon of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is now well established. Yet, explaining the enhancement of a spectroscopic signal by fouteen orders of magnitude continues to attract the attention of physicists and chemists alike. And, at the same time and rapidly growing, SERS is becoming a very useful spectroscopic tool with exciting applications in many fields. SERS gained particular interest after single-molecule Raman spectroscopy had been demonstrated. This bookl summarizes and discusses present theoretical approaches that explain the phenomenon of SERS and reports on new and exciting experiments and applications of the fascinating spectroscopic effect.

  20. Determination of ripeness stages of Mazafati variety of date fruit by Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Khodabakhshian

    2016-04-01

    with a Deuterated Triglycine Sulfate (DTGS detector and a solid substrate beam splitter. The spectra were collected with rapid scan software running under OMNIC (Nicolet, Madion, Wis., U.S.A and a resolution of 4 cm-1 by coadding of 128 scans. FT-Raman has three main advantages over dispersive Raman systems: (1 reducing the laser-induced fluorescence that a number of samples exhibit; (2 easing the operation as with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrometer; and (3 showing a high spectral resolution with a good wavelength accuracy (Yang and Ying, 2011. Furthermore, the Raman spectra of pure tannin were measured as a reference spectrum. The original data were used for further analysis only after subtracting dark current spectra. For obtaining dark current spectra, the laser was set to zero. Results and Discussion: Physical properties of date fruits: The results of some physical parameters of the studied date fruit are shown in Table1. The changes in the physical properties were dependent on the internal quality in different ripeness stages. This justification also was revealed for date fruits by Al-Hooti et al. (1995. The obtained relations between ripening stages and internal quality of studied samples are represented in the next part. Raman spectra of tannin: Raman features of the tannin in the wavelength range of 200-2500 cm-1 are shown in Figure 3. As shown in the figure, major Raman features of the tannin were observed in the spectral region of 600-1600 cm-1. Three main Raman peaks were identified in this region. The tannin showed its highest Raman intensity at 1590 cm-1, which was higher than that at 1357 cm-1. The other peak (650 cm-1 showed low intensity. As stated by many researchers (Shahidi and Naczk, 2004; Al-Farsi et al., 2005; Biglari et al., 2008, these bands are assigned to stretching C-C, C=C and C-H bonds which compose the structure of phytochemicals. Beyond 1600 cm-1, no notable Raman scattering signals were observed. Themain Raman features of

  1. Raman fiber lasers

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book serves as a comprehensive, up-to-date reference about this cutting-edge laser technology and its many new and interesting developments. Various aspects and trends of Raman fiber lasers are described in detail by experts in their fields. Raman fiber lasers have progressed quickly in the past decade, and have emerged as a versatile laser technology for generating high power light sources covering a spectral range from visible to mid-infrared. The technology is already being applied in the fields of telecommunication, astronomy, cold atom physics, laser spectroscopy, environmental sensing, and laser medicine. This book covers various topics relating to Raman fiber laser research, including power scaling, cladding and diode pumping, cascade Raman shifting, single frequency operation and power amplification, mid-infrared laser generation, specialty optical fibers, and random distributed feedback Raman fiber lasers. The book will appeal to scientists, students, and technicians seeking to understand the re...

  2. Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy of Oral Streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Brooke D.

    Raman spectroscopy has been used in a variety of applications throughout the field of biomedical optics. It has the ability to acquire chemically-specific information in a non-invasive manner, without the need for exogenous markers. This makes it useful in the identification of bacterial species, as well as in the study of tissues and other cells. In this work, a species identification model has been created in order to discriminate between the oral bacterial species Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans. These are two of the most prevalent species within the human mouth and their relative concentrations can be an indicator of a patient's oral health and risk of tooth decay. They are predominantly found within plaque on the tooth's surface. To study a simplified model for dental plaque, we have examined S. sanguinis and S. mutans grown in biofilm forms. Raman spectroscopy has been implemented here through a confocal microscope. The optical system has been equipped with computationally controlled stages to allow for automated scanning, including autofocusing to probe a consistent depth within a sample. A spectrum has been acquired from each position within a scan and sent for spectral preprocessing before being submitted for species identification. This preprocessing includes an algorithm that has been developed to remove fluorescence features from known contaminants within the confocal volume, to include signal from a fluorescent substrate. Species classification has been accomplished using a principal component score-fed logistic regression model constructed from a variety of biofilm samples that have been transferred and allowed to dry, as might occur with the study of plaque samples. This binary classification model has been validated on other samples with identical preparations. The model has also been transferred to determine the species of hydrated biofilms studied in situ. Artificially mixed biofilms have been examined to test the spatial

  3. Theory of hyperbolic stratified nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Herman M. K.; Dezfouli, Mohsen Kamandar; Axelrod, Simon; Hughes, Stephen; Helmy, Amr S.

    2017-11-01

    We theoretically investigate the enhancement of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using hyperbolic stratified nanostructures and compare to metal nanoresonators. The photon Green function of each nanostructure within its environment is first obtained from a semianalytical modal theory, which is used in a quantum optics formalism of the molecule-nanostructure interaction to model the SERS spectrum. An intuitive methodology is presented for calculating the single-molecule enhancement factor (SMEF), which is also able to predict known experimental SERS enhancement factors of a gold nanodimer. We elucidate the important figures-of-merit of the enhancement and explore these for different designs. We find that the use of hyperbolic stratified materials can enhance the photonic local density of states (LDOS) by close to two times in comparison to pure metal nanostructures, when both designed to work at the same operating wavelengths. However, the increased LDOS is accompanied by higher electric field concentration within the lossy hyperbolic material, which leads to increased quenching that serves to reduce the overall detected SERS enhancement in the far field. For nanoresonators with resonant localized surface plasmon wavelengths in the near-infrared, the SMEF for the hyperbolic stratified nanostructure is approximately one order of magnitude lower than the pure metal counterpart. Conversely, we show that by detecting the Raman signal using a near-field probe, hyperbolic materials can provide an improvement in SERS enhancement compared to using pure metal nanostructures when the probe is sufficiently close (<50 nm ) to the Raman active molecule at the plasmonic hotspot.

  4. In-situ Raman spectroscopy and high-speed photography of a shocked triaminotrinitrobenzene based explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Amans, C.; Hébert, P., E-mail: philippe.hebert@cea.fr; Doucet, M. [CEA, DAM, Le RIPAULT, F-37620 Monts (France); Resseguier, T. de [Institut P' , UPR CNRS 3346, ENSMA, Université de Poitiers, F-86961 Futuroscope, Chasseneuil (France)

    2015-01-14

    We have developed a single-shot Raman spectroscopy experiment to study at the molecular level the initiation mechanisms that can lead to sustained detonation of a triaminotrinitrobenzene-based explosive. Shocks up to 30 GPa were generated using a two-stage laser-driven flyer plate generator. The samples were confined by an optical window and shock pressure was maintained for at least 30 ns. Photon Doppler Velocimetry measurements were performed at the explosive/window interface to determine the shock pressure profile. Raman spectra were recorded as a function of shock pressure and the shifts of the principal modes were compared to static high-pressure measurements performed in a diamond anvil cell. Our shock data indicate the role of temperature effects. Our Raman spectra also show a progressive extinction of the signal which disappears around 9 GPa. High-speed photography images reveal a simultaneous progressive darkening of the sample surface up to total opacity at 9 GPa. Reflectivity measurements under shock compression show that this opacity is due to a broadening of the absorption spectrum over the entire visible region.

  5. Optimizing laser crater enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednev, V. N.; Sdvizhenskii, P. A.; Grishin, M. Ya.; Fedorov, A. N.; Khokhlova, O. V.; Oshurko, V. B.; Pershin, S. M.

    2018-05-01

    The laser crater enhanced Raman scattering (LCERS) spectroscopy technique has been systematically studied for chosen sampling strategy and influence of powder material properties on spectra intensity enhancement. The same nanosecond pulsed solid state Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 10 ns, 0.1-1.5 mJ/pulse) was used for laser crater production and Raman scattering experiments for L-aspartic acid powder. Increased sampling area inside crater cavity is the key factor for Raman signal improvement for the LCERS technique, thus Raman signal enhancement was studied as a function of numerous experimental parameters including lens-to-sample distance, wavelength (532 and 1064 nm) and laser pulse energy utilized for crater production. Combining laser pulses of 1064 and 532 nm wavelengths for crater ablation was shown to be an effective way for additional LCERS signal improvement. Powder material properties (particle size distribution, powder compactness) were demonstrated to affect LCERS measurements with better results achieved for smaller particles and lower compactness.

  6. High pressure Raman scattering study on the phase stability of LuVO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Rekha; Garg, Alka B.; Sakuntala, T.; Achary, S.N.; Tyagi, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    High pressure Raman spectroscopic investigations have been carried out on rare earth orthovanadate LuVO 4 upto 26 GPa. Changes in the Raman spectrum around 8 GPa across the reported zircon to scheelite transition are investigated in detail and compared with those observed in other vanadates. Co-existence of the zircon and scheelite phases is observed over a pressure range of about 8-13 GPa. The zircon to scheelite transition is irreversible upon pressure release. Subtle changes are observed in the Raman spectrum above 16 GPa which could be related to scheelite ↔ fergusonite transition. Pressure dependencies of the Raman active modes in the zircon and the scheelite phases are reported. - Graphical abstract: Study of scheelite-fergusonite transition in RVO 4 by Raman spectroscopy is rare. Here we report Raman spectroscopic investigations of LuVO 4 at high pressure to obtain insight into nature of post-scheelite phases.

  7. Allergic reactions in red tattoos: Raman spectroscopy for 'fingerprint' detection of chemical risk spectra in tattooed skin and culprit tattoo inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Køcks, M; Sepehri, M; Serup, J

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy as a screening technique for chemical characterisation of tattoo pigments in pathologic reacting tattoos and tattoo ink stock products to depict unsafe pigments and metabolites of pigments. Twelve dermatome shave biopsies from allergic reactions in red tattoos were analysed with Raman spectroscopy (A 785-nm 300 mW diode laser). These were referenced to samples of 10 different standard tattoo ink stock products, three of these identified as the culprit inks used by the tattooist and thus by history the source of the allergy. Three primary aromatic amine (PAA) laboratory standards (aniline, o-anisidine and 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine) were also studied. Application of Raman spectroscopy to the shave biopsies was technically feasible. In addition, all ten inks and the three PAA standards could be discriminated. 10/12 shave biopsies provided clear fingerprint Raman signals which differed significantly from background skin, and Raman spectra from 8/12 biopsies perfectly matched spectra from the three culprit ink products. The spectrum of one red ink (a low cost product named 'Tattoo', claimed to originate from Taiwan, no other info on label) was identified in 5/12 biopsies. Strong indications of the inks 'Bright Red' and 'Crimson Red' were seen in three biopsies. The three PAA's could not be unambiguously identified. This study, although on a small-scale, demonstrated Raman spectroscopy to be feasible for chemical analysis of red pigments in allergic reactions. Raman spectroscopy has a major potential for fingerprint screening of problematic tattoo pigments in situ in skin, ex vivo in skin biopsies and in tattoo ink stock products, thus, to eliminate unsafe ink products from markets. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Electron enhanced Raman scattering and its applications in solution chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yui, Hiroharu

    2007-01-01

    The present review describes a new enhancement technique for Raman scattering in aqueous solutions. Raman scattering spectroscopy has an inherent ability to distinguish between molecules with great similarity and provides useful information on local physical and chemical environments at their functional groups' level. Since the Raman scattering signals from water molecules are quite weak, Raman spectroscopy has great advantage for detection or discrimination of a trace amount of analytes in aqueous environments. However, Raman scattering cross-sections are inherently small and it generally requires high power excitation and long acquisition times to obtain high-quality Raman spectra. These conditions create disadvantages for the analyses for living cells and real-time monitoring for environmental analyses. Here, I describe a new Raman enhancement technique, namely electron enhanced Raman scattering (EERS)', where artificially generated electrons additionally affect the polarizability of target molecular systems and enhance their inherent Raman cross-section. Principles of the EERS and its applications to aqueous solution are presented. (author)

  9. Blind spectrum reconstruction algorithm with L0-sparse representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hai; Zhang, Zhaoli; Liu, Sanyan; Shu, Jiangbo; Liu, Tingting; Zhang, Tianxu

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectrum often suffers from band overlap and Poisson noise. This paper presents a new blind Poissonian Raman spectrum reconstruction method, which incorporates the L 0 -sparse prior together with the total variation constraint into the maximum a posteriori framework. Furthermore, the greedy analysis pursuit algorithm is adopted to solve the L 0 -based minimization problem. Simulated and real spectrum experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively preserve spectral structure and suppress noise. The reconstructed Raman spectra are easily used for interpreting unknown chemical mixtures. (paper)

  10. Raman spectroscopy measurement of CH4 gas and CH4 dissolved in water for laser remote sensing in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somekawa, Toshihiro; Fujita, Masayuki

    2018-04-01

    We examined the applicability of Raman spectroscopy as a laser remote sensing tool for monitoring CH4 in water. The Raman technique has already been used successfully for measurements of CO2 gas in water. In this paper, considering the spectral transmittance of water, third harmonics of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm (UV region) was used for detection of CH4 Raman signals. The Raman signal at 2892 cm-1 from CH4 dissolved in water was detected at a tail of water Raman signal.

  11. Stimulated Raman scattering in soft glass fluoride fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian; Dupont, Sune; Agger, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We have measured the absolute Raman gain spectrum in short fluoride soft glass fibers with a pump wavelength of 1650nm. We found a peak gain of gR ¼ 4:0 2 × 10−14mW−1.......We have measured the absolute Raman gain spectrum in short fluoride soft glass fibers with a pump wavelength of 1650nm. We found a peak gain of gR ¼ 4:0 2 × 10−14mW−1....

  12. Raman spectroscopy of triolein under high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefelski, D. B.; Jastrzębski, C.; Wierzbicki, M.; Siegoczyński, R. M.; Rostocki, A. J.; Wieja, K.; Kościesza, R.

    2010-03-01

    This article presents results of the high pressure Raman spectroscopy of triolein. Triolein, a triacylglyceride (TAG) of oleic acid, is an unsaturated fat, present in natural oils such as olive oil. As a basic food component and an energy storage molecule, it has considerable importance for food and fuel industries. To generate pressure in the experiment, we used a high-pressure cylindrical chamber with sapphire windows, presented in (R.M. Siegoczyński, R. Kościesza, D.B. Tefelski, and A. Kos, Molecular collapse - modification of the liquid structure induced by pressure in oleic acid, High Press. Res. 29 (2009), pp. 61-66). Pressure up to 750 MPa was applied. A Raman spectrometer in "macro"-configuration was employed. Raman spectroscopy provides information on changes of vibrational modes related to structural changes of triolein under pressure. Interesting changes in the triglyceride C‒H stretching region at 2650-3100 cm-1 were observed under high-pressures. Changes were also observed in the ester carbonyl (C˭ O) stretching region 1700-1780 cm-1 and the C‒C stretching region at 1050-1150 cm-1. The overall luminescence of the sample decreased under pressure, making it possible to set longer spectrum acquisition time and obtain more details of the spectrum. The registered changes suggest that the high-pressure solid phase of triolein is organized as β-polymorphic, as was reported in (C. Akita, T. Kawaguchi, and F. Kaneko, Structural study on polymorphism of cis-unsaturated triacylglycerol: Triolein, J. Phys. Chem. B 110 (2006), pp. 4346-4353; E. Da Silva and D. Rousseau, Molecular order and thermodynamics of the solid-liquid transition in triglycerides via Raman spectroscopy, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10 (2008), pp. 4606-4613) (with temperature-induced phase transitions). The research has shown that Raman spectroscopy in TAGs under pressure reveals useful information about its structural changes.

  13. Raman scattering investigation of Bi2Te3 hexagonal nanoplates prepared by a solvothermal process in the absence of NaOH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yujie; Wang Wenzhong; Zeng Baoqing; Zhang Guling; Huang Jing; Li Jin; Li Te; Song Yangyang; Zhang Xiuyu

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Hexagonal Bi 2 Te 3 thin nanoplates were synthesized by a simple solvothermal method. → Optical properties of the nanoplates were investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. → Infrared (IR) active mode (A 1u ) is greatly activated in Raman scattering spectrum. → Infrared (IR) active mode (A 1u ) shows up in Raman spectrum of hexagonal nanoplates. → Raman spectrum clearly shows crystal symmetry breaking of hexagonal nanoplates. - Abstract: Hexagonal Bi 2 Te 3 nanoplates were synthesized by a simple solvothermal process in the absence of NaOH. The composition, morphology and size of the as-prepared products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman scattering optical properties of the as-prepared Bi 2 Te 3 nanoplates were investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectrum shows that infrared (IR) active mode (A 1u ), which must be odd parity and is Raman forbidden for bulk crystal due to its inversion symmetry, is greatly activated and shown up clearly in Raman scattering spectrum. We attribute the appearance of infrared active (A 1u ) in Raman spectrum to crystal symmetry breaking of Bi 2 Te 3 hexagonal nanoplates. The as-grown Bi 2 Te 3 hexagonal nanoplates, exhibiting novel Raman optical properties compared with bulk crystals, may find potential applications in thermoelectric devices.

  14. Confocal Raman microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Dieing, Thomas; Hollricher, Olaf

    2018-01-01

    This second edition provides a cutting-edge overview of physical, technical and scientific aspects related to the widely used analytical method of confocal Raman microscopy. The book includes expanded background information and adds insights into how confocal Raman microscopy, especially 3D Raman imaging, can be integrated with other methods to produce a variety of correlative microscopy combinations. The benefits are then demonstrated and supported by numerous examples from the fields of materials science, 2D materials, the life sciences, pharmaceutical research and development, as well as the geosciences.

  15. Modulated Raman Spectroscopy for Enhanced Cancer Diagnosis at the Cellular Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Anna Chiara; Dholakia, Kishan; Mazilu, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is emerging as a promising and novel biophotonics tool for non-invasive, real-time diagnosis of tissue and cell abnormalities. However, the presence of a strong fluorescence background is a key issue that can detract from the use of Raman spectroscopy in routine clinical care. The review summarizes the state-of-the-art methods to remove the fluorescence background and explores recent achievements to address this issue obtained with modulated Raman spectroscopy. This innovative approach can be used to extract the Raman spectral component from the fluorescence background and improve the quality of the Raman signal. We describe the potential of modulated Raman spectroscopy as a rapid, inexpensive and accurate clinical tool to detect the presence of bladder cancer cells. Finally, in a broader context, we show how this approach can greatly enhance the sensitivity of integrated Raman spectroscopy and microfluidic systems, opening new prospects for portable higher throughput Raman cell sorting. PMID:26110401

  16. Raman-in-SEM, a multimodal and multiscale analytical tool: performance for materials and expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Guillaume; Bourrat, Xavier; Maubec, Nicolas; Lahfid, Abdeltif

    2014-12-01

    The availability of Raman spectroscopy in a powerful analytical scanning electron microscope (SEM) allows morphological, elemental, chemical, physical and electronic analysis without moving the sample between instruments. This paper documents the metrological performance of the SEMSCA commercial Raman interface operated in a low vacuum SEM. It provides multiscale and multimodal analyses as Raman/EDS, Raman/cathodoluminescence or Raman/STEM (STEM: scanning transmission electron microscopy) as well as Raman spectroscopy on nanomaterials. Since Raman spectroscopy in a SEM can be influenced by several SEM-related phenomena, this paper firstly presents a comparison of this new tool with a conventional micro-Raman spectrometer. Then, some possible artefacts are documented, which are due to the impact of electron beam-induced contamination or cathodoluminescence contribution to the Raman spectra, especially with geological samples. These effects are easily overcome by changing or adapting the Raman spectrometer and the SEM settings and methodology. The deletion of the adverse effect of cathodoluminescence is solved by using a SEM beam shutter during Raman acquisition. In contrast, this interface provides the ability to record the cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum of a phase. In a second part, this study highlights the interest and efficiency of the coupling in characterizing micrometric phases at the same point. This multimodal approach is illustrated with various issues encountered in geosciences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Raman tweezers spectroscopy of live, single red and white blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseefhali Bankapur

    Full Text Available An optical trap has been combined with a Raman spectrometer to make high-resolution measurements of Raman spectra of optically-immobilized, single, live red (RBC and white blood cells (WBC under physiological conditions. Tightly-focused, near infrared wavelength light (1064 nm is utilized for trapping of single cells and 785 nm light is used for Raman excitation at low levels of incident power (few mW. Raman spectra of RBC recorded using this high-sensitivity, dual-wavelength apparatus has enabled identification of several additional lines; the hitherto-unreported lines originate purely from hemoglobin molecules. Raman spectra of single granulocytes and lymphocytes are interpreted on the basis of standard protein and nucleic acid vibrational spectroscopy data. The richness of the measured spectrum illustrates that Raman studies of live cells in suspension are more informative than conventional micro-Raman studies where the cells are chemically bound to a glass cover slip.

  18. Compact Raman Lidar Measurement of Liquid and Vapor Phase Water Under the Influence of Ionizing Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiina Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact Raman lidar has been developed for studying phase changes of water in the atmosphere under the influence of ionization radiation. The Raman lidar is operated at the wavelength of 349 nm and backscattered Raman signals of liquid and vapor phase water are detected at 396 and 400 nm, respectively. Alpha particles emitted from 241Am of 9 MBq ionize air molecules in a scattering chamber, and the resulting ions lead to the formation of liquid water droplets. From the analysis of Raman signal intensities, it has been found that the increase in the liquid water Raman channel is approximately 3 times as much as the decrease in the vapor phase water Raman channel, which is consistent with the theoretical prediction based on the Raman cross-sections. In addition, the radius of the water droplet is estimated to be 0.2 μm.

  19. Estimating and suppressing background in Raman spectra with an artificial neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Larsen, Jan; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2003-01-01

    In this report we address the problem of skin fluorescence in feature extraction from Raman spectra of skin lesions. We apply a highly automated neural network method for suppressing skin fluorescence from Raman spectrum of skin lesions before dimension reduction with principal components analysi...

  20. Cholesterol esters are detected by Raman microspectroscopy in HeLa cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, H.J.; Otto, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    The detection of trans-unsaturated lipids in single HeLa cells by Raman microspectroscopy was recently reported in this journal by Onogi et al. Based on our previously published Raman microspectroscopy data of individual macrophage foam cells, a detailed comparison between our spectra and spectrum

  1. Optical trapping and Raman spectroscopy of single nanostructures using standing-wave Raman tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mu-ying; He, Lin; Chen, Gui-hua; Yang, Guang; Li, Yong-qing

    2017-08-01

    Optical tweezers integrated with Raman spectroscopy allows analyzing a single trapped micro-particle, but is generally less effective for individual nano-sized objects in the 10-100 nm range. The main challenge is the weak gradient force on nanoparticles that is insufficient to overcome the destabilizing effect of scattering force and Brownian motion. Here, we present standing-wave Raman tweezers for stable trapping and sensitive characterization of single isolated nanostructures with a low laser power by combining a standing-wave optical trap (SWOT) with confocal Raman spectroscopy. This scheme has stronger intensity gradients and balanced scattering forces, and thus is more stable and sensitive in measuring nanoparticles in liquid with 4-8 fold increase in the Raman signals. It can be used to analyze many nanoparticles that cannot be measured with single-beam Raman tweezers, including individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), graphene flakes, biological particles, polystyrene beads (100 nm), SERS-active metal nanoparticles, and high-refractive semiconductor nanoparticles with a low laser power of a few milliwatts. This would enable sorting and characterization of specific SWCNTs and other nanoparticles based on their increased Raman fingerprints.

  2. Raman spectroscopic analysis of real samples: Brazilian bauxite mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulstich, Fabiano Richard Leite; Castro, Harlem V.; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Cappa; Neumann, Reiner

    2011-10-01

    In this investigation, Raman spectroscopy with 1064 and 632.8 nm excitation was used to investigate real mineral samples of bauxite ore from mines of Northern Brazil, together with Raman mapping and X-rays diffraction. The obtained results show clearly that the use of microRaman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the identification of all the minerals usually found in bauxites: gibbsite, kaolinite, goethite, hematite, anatase and quartz. Bulk samples can also be analysed, and FT-Raman is more adequate due to better signal-to-noise ratio and representativity, although not efficient for kaolinite. The identification of fingerprinting vibrations for all the minerals allows the acquisition of Raman-based chemical maps, potentially powerful tools for process mineralogy applied to bauxite ores.

  3. A classification model for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) using confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jie; Yu, Yang; Kang, Jeon Woong; Tam, Zhi Yang; Xu, Shuoyu; Fong, Eliza Li Shan; Singh, Surya Pratap; Song, Ziwei; Tucker Kellogg, Lisa; So, Peter; Yu, Hanry

    2017-07-01

    We combined Raman micro-spectroscopy and machine learning techniques to develop a classification model based on a well-established non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) mouse model, using spectrum pre-processing, biochemical component analysis (BCA) and logistic regression.

  4. In Situ Raman Study of Liquid Water at High Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, Alexandr V; Rashchenko, Sergey V; Goryainov, Sergey V; Likhacheva, Anna Yu; Korsakov, Andrey V

    2018-06-01

    A pressure shift of Raman band of liquid water (H 2 O) may be an important tool for measuring residual pressures in mineral inclusions, in situ barometry in high-pressure cells, and as an indicator of pressure-induced structural transitions in H 2 O. However, there was no consensus as to how the broad and asymmetric water Raman band should be quantitatively described, which has led to fundamental inconsistencies between reported data. In order to overcome this issue, we measured Raman spectra of H 2 O in situ up to 1.2 GPa using a diamond anvil cell, and use them to test different approaches proposed for the description of the water Raman band. We found that the most physically meaningful description of water Raman band is the decomposition into a linear background and three Gaussian components, associated with differently H-bonded H 2 O molecules. Two of these components demonstrate a pronounced anomaly in pressure shift near 0.4 GPa, supporting ideas of structural transition in H 2 O at this pressure. The most convenient approach for pressure calibration is the use of "a linear background + one Gaussian" decomposition (the pressure can be measured using the formula P (GPa) = -0.0317(3)·Δν G (cm -1 ), where Δν G represents the difference between the position of water Raman band, fitted as a single Gaussian, in measured spectrum and spectrum at ambient pressure).

  5. The substrate matters in the Raman spectroscopy analysis of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikoliunaite, Lina; Rodriguez, Raul D.; Sheremet, Evgeniya; Kolchuzhin, Vladimir; Mehner, Jan; Ramanavicius, Arunas; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.

    2015-08-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful analytical method that allows deposited and/or immobilized cells to be evaluated without complex sample preparation or labeling. However, a main limitation of Raman spectroscopy in cell analysis is the extremely weak Raman intensity that results in low signal to noise ratios. Therefore, it is important to seize any opportunity that increases the intensity of the Raman signal and to understand whether and how the signal enhancement changes with respect to the substrate used. Our experimental results show clear differences in the spectroscopic response from cells on different surfaces. This result is partly due to the difference in spatial distribution of electric field at the substrate/cell interface as shown by numerical simulations. We found that the substrate also changes the spatial location of maximum field enhancement around the cells. Moreover, beyond conventional flat surfaces, we introduce an efficient nanostructured silver substrate that largely enhances the Raman signal intensity from a single yeast cell. This work contributes to the field of vibrational spectroscopy analysis by providing a fresh look at the significance of the substrate for Raman investigations in cell research.

  6. Raman spectroscopic studies of hydrogen clathrate hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Timothy A; Sloan, E Dendy; Koh, Carolyn A

    2009-01-07

    Raman spectroscopic measurements of simple hydrogen and tetrahydrofuran+hydrogen sII clathrate hydrates have been performed. Both the roton and vibron bands illuminate interesting quantum dynamics of enclathrated H(2) molecules. The complex vibron region of the Raman spectrum has been interpreted by observing the change in population of these bands with temperature, measuring the absolute H(2) content as a function of pressure, and with D(2) isotopic substitution. Quadruple occupancy of the large sII clathrate cavity shows the highest H(2) vibrational frequency, followed by triple and double occupancies. Singly occupied small cavities display the lowest vibrational frequency. The vibrational frequencies of H(2) within all cavity environments are redshifted from the free gas phase value. At 76 K, the progression from ortho- to para-H(2) occurs over a relatively slow time period (days). The rotational degeneracy of H(2) molecules within the clathrate cavities is lifted, observed directly in splitting of the para-H(2) roton band. Raman spectra from H(2) and D(2) hydrates suggest that the occupancy patterns between the two hydrates are analogous, increasing confidence that D(2) is a suitable substitute for H(2). The measurements suggest that Raman is an effective and convenient method to determine the relative occupancy of hydrogen molecules in different clathrate cavities.

  7. Raman Spectroscopy of Carbon Dust Samples from NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Y.; Skinner, C.H.; Jiang, F.; Duffy, T.S.

    2008-01-01

    The Raman spectrum of dust particles exposed to the NSTX plasma is different from the spectrum of unexposed particles scraped from an unused graphite tile. For the unexposed particles, the high energy G-mode peak (Raman shift ∼1580 cm -1 ) is much stronger than the defect-induced D-mode peak (Raman shift ∼1350 cm -1 ), a pattern that is consistent with Raman spectrum for commercial graphite materials. For dust particles exposed to the plasma, the ratio of G-mode to D-mode peaks is lower and becomes even less than 1. The Raman measurements indicate that the production of carbon dust particles in NSTX involves modifications of the physical and chemical structure of the original graphite material. These modifications are shown to be similar to those measured for carbon deposits from atmospheric pressure helium arc discharge with an ablating anode electrode made from a graphite tile material. We also demonstrate experimentally that heating to 2000-2700 K alone can not explain the observed structural modifications indicating that they must be due to higher temperatures needed for graphite vaporization, which is followed either by condensation or some plasma-induced processes leading to the formation of more disordered forms of carbon material than the original graphite.

  8. Features of the non-collinear one-phonon anomalous light scattering controlled by elastic waves with elevated linear losses: potentials for multi-frequency parallel spectrum analysis of radio-wave signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Alexandre S; Arellanes, Adan Omar

    2017-12-01

    During subsequent development of the recently proposed multi-frequency parallel spectrometer for precise spectrum analysis of wideband radio-wave signals, we study potentials of new acousto-optical cells exploiting selected crystalline materials at the limits of their capabilities. Characterizing these wide-aperture cells is non-trivial due to new features inherent in the chosen regime of an advanced non-collinear one-phonon anomalous light scattering by elastic waves with significantly elevated acoustic losses. These features can be observed simpler in uniaxial, tetragonal, and trigonal crystals possessing linear acoustic attenuation. We demonstrate that formerly studied additional degree of freedom, revealed initially for multi-phonon regimes of acousto-optical interaction, can be identified within the one-phonon geometry as well and exploited for designing new cells. We clarify the role of varying the central acoustic frequency and acoustic attenuation using the identified degree of freedom. Therewith, we are strongly restricted by a linear regime of acousto-optical interaction to avoid the origin of multi-phonon processes within carrying out a multi-frequency parallel spectrum analysis of radio-wave signals. Proof-of-principle experiments confirm the developed approaches and illustrate their applicability to innovative technique for an advanced spectrum analysis of wideband radio-wave signals with the improved resolution in an extended frequency range.

  9. Temperature dependence of Raman spectra of Basub(0.25)Srsub(0.75)Nbsub(2)Osub(6) crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustamov, Kh.Sh.; Gorelik, V.S.; Kuz'minov, Yu.S.; Peregudov, G.V.; Sushchinskij, M.M.

    1976-01-01

    The nature of the changes is studied in the Raman spectra in a crystal of Basub(x)Srsub(1-x)Nasub(2)Osub(6) (x=0.25) with the temperature range of 80 to 373 K. Normal procedure was applied with the use of an argon laser (Λ=4880 A) and a DFS-12 spectrometer. It has been established that at low temperatures the spectrum becomes more clear-cut; in the low-frequency range some sharp lines appear in the immediate vicinity of the exciting line. On heating of the crystal one observes a redistribution of the intensity in the Raman spectrum and a general displacement of the low-frequency Raman spectrum and a general displacement of the low-frequency Raman spectrum toward the exciting line. The nature of the frequency shifts some Raman maxima was investigated, and certain anomalies were observed in the vicinity of the phase transition point

  10. The pH dependent Raman spectroscopic study of caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Gu, Huaimin; Zhong, Liang; Hu, Yongjun; Liu, Fang

    2011-02-01

    First of all the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and normal Raman spectra of caffeine aqueous solution were obtained at different pH values. In order to obtain the detailed vibrational assignments of the Raman spectroscopy, the geometry of caffeine molecule was optimized by density functional theory (DFT) calculation. By comparing the SERS of caffeine with its normal spectra at different pH values; it is concluded that pH value can dramatically affect the SERS of caffeine, but barely affect the normal Raman spectrum of caffeine aqueous solution. It can essentially affect the reorientation of caffeine molecule to the Ag colloid surface, but cannot impact the vibration of functional groups and chemical bonds in caffeine molecule.

  11. Quantitative monitoring of yeast fermentation using Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jens A.; Berg, Rolf W.; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    2014-01-01

    of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation process using a Raman spectroscopy instrument equipped with a robust sapphire ball probe.A method was developed to correct the Raman signal for the attenuation caused by light scattering cell particulate, hence enabling quantification of reaction components and possibly...... measurement of yeast cell concentrations. Extinction of Raman intensities to more than 50 % during fermentation was normalized with approximated extinction expressions using Raman signal of water around 1,627 cm−1 as internal standard to correct for the effect of scattering. Complicated standard multi...... was followed by linear regression. In situ quantification measurements of the fermentation resulted in root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of 2.357, 1.611, and 0.633 g/L for glucose, ethanol, and yeast concentrations, respectively....

  12. Surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy of quinomethionate adsorbed on silver colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mak Soon; Kang, Jae Soo; Park, Si Bum; Lee, Mu Sang

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) spectrum of quinomethionate (6-methyl-1,3-dithiolo(4,5-b)quinoxalin-2-one), which is an insecticide or fungicide used on vegetables and wheat. We observed no signals in the ordinary Raman spectra of solid-state quinomethionate, but when it was adsorbed on a colloidal silver surface, strong vibrational signals were obtained at a very low concentration. The SERS spectra were obtained by silver colloids prepared by the Creighton et al. method. The influence of pH and the aggregation inductors (Cl - , Br - , I - , F - ) on the adsorption mechanism was investigated. Two different adsorption mechanisms were deduced, depending on the experimental conditions: The one N atom or two N atoms are chemisorbed on an Ag surface. An important contribution of the chemical mechanism was inferred when the one N atom was perpendicularly adsorbed on a surface. It is possible that quinomethionate can be detected to about 10 -5 M

  13. 天宫一号大气质谱信号与地磁M15秒数据能量谱对比分析%Comparison and analysis about energy spectrum between Tiangong-1 atmospheric spectrum signals and geomagnetic M15 seconds data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷晴; 杨福喜; 史勇军; 郭春生

    2016-01-01

    利用Matlab软件采用小波变化分别对空间大气质谱信号和地面地磁秒数据进行能量谱分析。空间数据来自“天宫一号”航天器所采集到的大气质谱信号,地面地磁数据采用乌鲁木齐基准地震台自动化地磁台站系统FHDZ-M15采集的秒数据资料。在同一次中小地磁扰动时段,分析相同频率下空间粒子信号和M15秒数据的能量。通过对比分析可知:在磁扰日时段,空间大气质谱信号的能量谱幅值达到最大且能量最为集中,地面地磁M15各要素的能量谱幅值或达到最大值或变化幅度较大;在平静日时段,空间大气质谱信号能量与地磁M15秒数据各要素的能量均相对较低。实验表明:在同一中小磁扰时段下相同频率下,空间大气质谱信号的能量变化与地磁M15秒数据的能量变化具有正相关特性。%In this paper, we use wavelet method in Matlab software to analyze energy spectrum about Tiangong-1 Atmospheric spectrum signals data and geomagnetic M15 second data. Atmospheric spectrum signals data form Tiangong-1, and geomagnetic second data form FHDZ-M15 in Urumqi Seismic Station. Under the same frequency, we analyze energy spectrum about space particles signal and M15 second data in the same small and medium-sized geomagnetic disturbance time. The major results were as follows: In the geomagnetic disturbance time, amplitude value of energy spectrum both atmospheric spectrum signals and M15 second data are most maximum, and the energy of atmospheric spectrum signals are most concentrated. In clam days, amplitude value of energy both atmospheric spectrum signals and each element of M15 second data are relatively low. In the same geomagnetic disturbance time, experiments show that atmospheric spectrum signals and M15 second data is of positive correlation.

  14. Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy by six-wave mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molesky, Brian P.; Guo, Zhenkun; Moran, Andrew M., E-mail: ammoran@email.unc.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (FSRS) is motivated by the knowledge of the molecular geometry changes that accompany sub-picosecond chemical reactions. The detection of vibrational resonances throughout the entire fingerprint region of the spectrum with sub-100-fs delay precision is fairly straightforward to accomplish with the FSRS technique. Despite its utility, FSRS must contend with substantial technical challenges that stem from a large background of residual laser light and lower-order nonlinearities when all laser pulses are electronically resonant with the equilibrium system. In this work, a geometry based on five incident laser beams is used to eliminate much of this undesired background in experiments conducted on metmyoglobin. Compared to a three-beam FSRS geometry with all electronically resonant laser pulses, the five-beam approach described here offers major improvements in the data acquisition rate, sensitivity, and background suppression. The susceptibility of the five-beam geometry to experimental artifacts is investigated using control experiments and model calculations. Of particular concern are undesired cascades of third-order nonlinearities, which are known to challenge FSRS measurements carried out on electronically off-resonant systems. It is generally understood that “forbidden” steps in the desired nonlinear optical processes are the origin of the problems encountered under off-resonant conditions. In contrast, the present experiments are carried out under electronically resonant conditions, where such unfortunate selection rules do not apply. Nonetheless, control experiments based on spectroscopic line shapes, signal phases, and sample concentrations are conducted to rule out significant contributions from cascades of third-order processes. Theoretical calculations are further used to estimate the relative intensities of the direct and cascaded responses. Overall, the control experiments and model calculations presented in

  15. Fast Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of a Free Radical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn; Hansen, K. B.

    1975-01-01

    The resonance Raman spectrum of a 10−3 molar solution of the stable diphenyl-pikryl-hydrazyl radical in benzene was obtained using a single laser pulse of 10 mJ energy and 600 ns duration from a flashlamp pumped tunable dye laser. Spectra were recorded using an image intensifier coupled to a TV...

  16. Raman scattering in La1−xSrxFeO3−δ thin films: annealing-induced reduction and phase transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Mohammad A; Xie, Yujun; Scafetta, Mark D; May, Steven J; Spanier, Jonathan E

    2015-01-01

    Raman scattering in thin film La 0.2 Sr 0.8 FeO 3−δ on MgO(0 0 1) collected at 300 K after different stages of annealing at selected temperatures T (300 K < T < 543 K, to 10 h) and analysis reveal changes in spectral characteristics due to a loss of oxygen, onset of oxygen vacancy-induced disorder, and activation of Raman-inactive modes that are attributed to symmetry lowering. The interpretation is further supported by carrier transport measurements under identical conditions showing orders of magnitude increase in the resistivity induced by oxygen loss. After prolonged annealing in air, evolution of the spectrum signals the appearance of a possible topotactic transformation of the crystal structure from that of the rhombohedral ABO 3 perovskites to that of Brownmillerite-like structure consisting of octahedrally and tetrahedrally coordinated Fe atoms. (paper)

  17. Measurement of the cosmic positrons' spectrum with the experiment AMS-02 and search for exotic signals; Mesure du spectre de positons cosmiques avec l'experience AMS-02 et recherche de signaux exotiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochon, J

    2005-06-15

    The AMS-02 experiment is a particle detector that will be installed on the international space station (ISS) in 2008 for at least 3 years. The physics motivations are cosmic ray measurements (e-, e+, p, p-bar, {gamma}, He, C,...), antimatter search for Z>2 and gamma ray studies from GeV to TeV. The HEAT experiment has measured positron spectrum up to 30 GeV, and shown a possible distortion around 8 GeV, which can be interpreted as a dark matter signal. The cosmic positrons spectrum measurement needs positron/proton separation close to 10{sup 5}, which will be obtained combining all AMS-02 sub-detectors. A neural network analysis has been developed on test beam data taken in 2002, to estimate the electron/proton rejection for the electromagnetic calorimeter. This technique, based on discriminant variables and which was tuned on data, was used to determine the positron acceptance combining other sub-detectors information. The number of conventional positrons can be estimated and AMS ability to detect cold dark matter signals has been determined. This study was presented for signal from supersymmetric neutralinos and from Kaluza-Klein stable particles. Fluxes are naturally too low to be detected. Signal can be enhanced thanks to local dark matter over-densities which appear naturally in galaxy formation models. A model for those over-densities has been tuned and presented. (author)

  18. Experimental characterization of Raman overlaps between mode-groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Nicolai; Koefoed, Jacob Gade; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk

    2016-01-01

    Mode-division multiplexing has the potential to further increase data transmission capacity through optical fibers. In addition, distributed Raman amplification is a promising candidate for multi-mode signal amplification due to its desirable noise properties and the possibility of mode-equalized......Mode-division multiplexing has the potential to further increase data transmission capacity through optical fibers. In addition, distributed Raman amplification is a promising candidate for multi-mode signal amplification due to its desirable noise properties and the possibility of mode......-equalized gain. In this paper, we present an experimental characterization of the intermodal Raman intensity overlaps of a few-mode fiber using backward-pumped Raman amplification. By varying the input pump power and the degree of higher order mode-excitation for the pump and the signal in a 10km long two......-mode fiber, we are able to characterize all intermodal Raman intensity overlaps. Using these results, we perform a Raman amplification measurement and demonstrate a mode-differential gain of only 0.25dB per 10dB overall gain. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest mode differential gain achieved...

  19. Laser frequency stabilisation by the Pound - Drever - Hall method using an acousto-optic phase modulator operating in the pure Raman - Nath diffraction regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshev, Vyacheslav N

    2012-01-01

    Frequency stabilisation of diode laser radiation has been implemented by the Pound - Drever - Hall method using a new acousto-optic phase modulator, operating in the pure Raman - Nath diffraction regime. It is experimentally shown that, as in the case of saturated-absorption spectroscopy in atomic vapour, the spatial divergence of the frequency-modulated output spectrum of this modulator does not interfere with obtaining error signals by means of heterodyne frequency-modulation spectroscopy with a frequency discriminator based on a high-Q Fabry - Perot cavity with finesse of several tens of thousands.

  20. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 2. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy - Recent Advancement of Raman Spectroscopy. Ujjal Kumar Sur. General Article Volume 15 Issue 2 February 2010 pp 154-164 ...

  1. Quantum-mechanical DFT calculation supported Raman spectroscopic study of some amino acids in bovine insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tah, Bidisha; Pal, Prabir; Roy, Sourav; Dutta, Debodyuti; Mishra, Sabyashachi; Ghosh, Manash; Talapatra, G B

    2014-08-14

    In this article Quantum mechanical (QM) calculations by Density Functional Theory (DFT) have been performed of all amino acids present in bovine insulin. Simulated Raman spectra of those amino acids are compared with their experimental spectra and the major bands are assigned. The results are in good agreement with experiment. We have also verified the DFT results with Quantum mechanical molecular mechanics (QM/MM) results for some amino acids. QM/MM results are very similar with the DFT results. Although the theoretical calculation of individual amino acids are feasible, but the calculated Raman spectrum of whole protein molecule is difficult or even quite impossible task, since it relies on lengthy and costly quantum-chemical computation. However, we have tried to simulate the Raman spectrum of whole protein by adding the proportionate contribution of the Raman spectra of each amino acid present in this protein. In DFT calculations, only the contributions of disulphide bonds between cysteines are included but the contribution of the peptide and hydrogen bonds have not been considered. We have recorded the Raman spectra of bovine insulin using micro-Raman set up. The experimental spectrum is found to be very similar with the resultant simulated Raman spectrum with some exceptions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fast radio burst search: cross spectrum vs. auto spectrum method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zheng, Weimin; Yan, Zhen; Zhang, Juan

    2018-06-01

    The search for fast radio bursts (FRBs) is a hot topic in current radio astronomy studies. In this work, we carry out a single pulse search with a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) pulsar observation data set using both auto spectrum and cross spectrum search methods. The cross spectrum method, first proposed in Liu et al., maximizes the signal power by fully utilizing the fringe phase information of the baseline cross spectrum. The auto spectrum search method is based on the popular pulsar software package PRESTO, which extracts single pulses from the auto spectrum of each station. According to our comparison, the cross spectrum method is able to enhance the signal power and therefore extract single pulses from data contaminated by high levels of radio frequency interference (RFI), which makes it possible to carry out a search for FRBs in regular VLBI observations when RFI is present.

  3. Development of Raman spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, A.I.

    2008-05-01

    In this work, the Raman spectrophotometer HG.2S Jobin Yvon rebuilt and developed, the Raman setup provided as a gift for Neelian University from Amsterdam University. The main parts, which were replaced, include monochromator, an air-cooled photomultiplier tube RCA IP 28, log amplifier, hand scanning lab VIEW card for computer interfacing. The components assembled and the whole device was tested successfully. The developed setup was checked using some standard solutions, which showed perfect consistency with literature in the references and published papers. Solutions included hexane, cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, benzene and sodium sulfate.(Author)

  4. Spectrum and network measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Witte, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    This new edition of Spectrum and Network Measurements enables readers to understand the basic theory, relate it to measured results, and apply it when creating new designs. This comprehensive treatment of frequency domain measurements successfully consolidates all the pertinent theory into one text. It covers the theory and practice of spectrum and network measurements in electronic systems. It also provides thorough coverage of Fourier analysis, transmission lines, intermodulation distortion, signal-to-noise ratio and S-parameters.

  5. Raman spectroscopic analysis of cyanogenic glucosides in plants: development of a Flow Injection Surface-Enhanced Raman Scatter (FI-SERS) method for determination of cyanide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2004-01-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides were studied using Raman spectroscopy. Spectra of the crystal forms of linamarin, linustatin, neolinustatin, amygdalin, sambunigrin, and dhurrin were obtained using a Raman spectrograph microscope equipped with a 532 nm laser. The position of the signal from the CdropN tripl...

  6. RAMAN SCATTERING BY MOLECULAR HYDROGEN AND NITROGEN IN EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oklopčić, Antonija [California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Hirata, Christopher M. [Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Heng, Kevin, E-mail: oklopcic@astro.caltech.edu [Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012, Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-11-20

    An important source of opacity in exoplanet atmospheres at short visible and near-UV wavelengths is Rayleigh scattering of light on molecules. It is accompanied by a related, albeit weaker process—Raman scattering. We analyze the signatures of Raman scattering imprinted in the reflected light and the geometric albedo of exoplanets, which could provide information about atmospheric properties. Raman scattering affects the geometric albedo spectra of planets in the following ways. First, it causes filling-in of strong absorption lines in the incident radiation, thus producing sharp peaks in the albedo. Second, it shifts the wavelengths of spectral features in the reflected light causing the so-called Raman ghost lines. Raman scattering can also cause a broadband reduction of the albedo due to wavelength shifting of a stellar spectrum with red spectral index. Observing the Raman peaks in the albedo could be used to measure the column density of gas, thus providing constraints on the presence of clouds in the atmosphere. Observing the Raman ghost lines could be used to spectroscopically identify the main scatterer in the atmosphere, even molecules like H{sub 2} or N{sub 2}, which do not have prominent spectral signatures in the optical wavelength range. If detected, ghost lines could also provide information about the temperature of the atmosphere. In this paper, we investigate the effects of Raman scattering in hydrogen- and nitrogen-dominated atmospheres. We analyze the feasibility of detecting the signatures of Raman scattering with the existing and future observational facilities, and of using these signatures as probes of exoplanetary atmospheres.

  7. Conjugated Polymer with Intrinsic Alkyne Units for Synergistically Enhanced Raman Imaging in Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengliang; Chen, Tao; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Libing; Lv, Fengting; Li, Zhiliang; Huang, Yanyi; Schanze, Kirk S; Wang, Shu

    2017-10-16

    Development of Raman-active materials with enhanced and distinctive Raman vibrations in the Raman-silent region (1800-2800 cm -1 ) is highly required for specific molecular imaging of living cells with high spatial resolution. Herein, water-soluble cationic conjugated polymers (CCPs), poly(phenylene ethynylene) (PPE) derivatives, are explored for use as alkyne-state-dependent Raman probes for living cell imaging due to synergetic enhancement effect of alkyne vibrations in Raman-silent region compared to alkyne-containing small molecules. The enhanced alkyne signals result from the integration of alkyne groups into the rigid backbone and the delocalized π-conjugated structure. PPE-based conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) were also prepared as Raman-responsive nanomaterials for distinct imaging application. This work opens a new way into the development of conjugated polymer materials for enhanced Raman imaging. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Tuning the EDTA-induced self-assembly and plasmonic spectral properties of gold nanorods: application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian-jun [Xi’an Jiaotong University, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, Institute of Biomedical Analytical Technology and Instrumentation, School of Life Science and Technology (China); Zhang, Ning; Wang, Jingyuan [The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Department of Clinical Laboratory (China); Yang, Chun-yu; Zhu, Jian, E-mail: nanoptzj@163.com; Zhao, Jun-wu, E-mail: nanoptzhao@163.com [Xi’an Jiaotong University, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, Institute of Biomedical Analytical Technology and Instrumentation, School of Life Science and Technology (China)

    2016-02-15

    Self-assembly of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-protected colloidal gold nanorods with different aspect ratios has been studied by adding the ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Both the assembly strength and assembly configuration fashion of the gold nanorods could be tuned by changing the aspect ratio. For gold nanorods with small aspect ratio, side-by-side assembly takes the major role in the aggregation. In this case, the blue shift of the longitudinal absorption and the increase of the transverse absorption lead to the great uplift of the middle spectrum dip as the EDTA is increased. For gold nanorods with large aspect ratio, end-to-end assembly takes the major role in the aggregation. In this case, the longitudinal absorption peak fades down rapidly and a tailing absorption peak at longer wavelength uplifts greatly as the EDTA is increased. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of the assembled gold nanorods has been studied using alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) as the Raman active probe. It has been found that both the side-by-side assembly and end-to-end assembly of the gold nanorods could effectively improve the Raman signal of the AFP. And the gold nanorod substrate with side-by-side assembly has higher SERS activity. Graphical Abstract: Side-by-side assembly of gold nanorods leads to the middle spectrum dip of LSPR uplift greatly as the EDTA is increased, which also effectively improves the SERS activity.

  9. Tuning the EDTA-induced self-assembly and plasmonic spectral properties of gold nanorods: application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jian-jun; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Jingyuan; Yang, Chun-yu; Zhu, Jian; Zhao, Jun-wu

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembly of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-protected colloidal gold nanorods with different aspect ratios has been studied by adding the ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Both the assembly strength and assembly configuration fashion of the gold nanorods could be tuned by changing the aspect ratio. For gold nanorods with small aspect ratio, side-by-side assembly takes the major role in the aggregation. In this case, the blue shift of the longitudinal absorption and the increase of the transverse absorption lead to the great uplift of the middle spectrum dip as the EDTA is increased. For gold nanorods with large aspect ratio, end-to-end assembly takes the major role in the aggregation. In this case, the longitudinal absorption peak fades down rapidly and a tailing absorption peak at longer wavelength uplifts greatly as the EDTA is increased. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of the assembled gold nanorods has been studied using alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) as the Raman active probe. It has been found that both the side-by-side assembly and end-to-end assembly of the gold nanorods could effectively improve the Raman signal of the AFP. And the gold nanorod substrate with side-by-side assembly has higher SERS activity. Graphical Abstract: Side-by-side assembly of gold nanorods leads to the middle spectrum dip of LSPR uplift greatly as the EDTA is increased, which also effectively improves the SERS activity

  10. Raman spectra of graphene ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, R; Furukawa, M; Dresselhaus, G; Dresselhaus, M S

    2010-01-01

    Raman spectra of graphene nanoribbons with zigzag and armchair edges are calculated within non-resonant Raman theory. Depending on the edge structure and polarization direction of the incident and scattered photon beam relative to the edge direction, a symmetry selection rule for the phonon type appears. These Raman selection rules will be useful for the identification of the edge structure of graphene nanoribbons.

  11. Electronic resonances in broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batignani, G.; Pontecorvo, E.; Giovannetti, G.; Ferrante, C.; Fumero, G.; Scopigno, T.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy is a formidable tool to probe molecular vibrations. Under electronic resonance conditions, the cross section can be selectively enhanced enabling structural sensitivity to specific chromophores and reaction centers. The addition of an ultrashort, broadband femtosecond pulse to the excitation field allows for coherent stimulation of diverse molecular vibrations. Within such a scheme, vibrational spectra are engraved onto a highly directional field, and can be heterodyne detected overwhelming fluorescence and other incoherent signals. At variance with spontaneous resonance Raman, however, interpreting the spectral information is not straightforward, due to the manifold of field interactions concurring to the third order nonlinear response. Taking as an example vibrational spectra of heme proteins excited in the Soret band, we introduce a general approach to extract the stimulated Raman excitation profiles from complex spectral lineshapes. Specifically, by a quantum treatment of the matter through density matrix description of the third order nonlinear polarization, we identify the contributions which generate the Raman bands, by taking into account for the cross section of each process.

  12. Analysis of 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate in sunscreen products by HPLC and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J; Li, Y S; L Roberts, R; Walker, G

    1997-10-01

    The analyses of 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) using HPLC and Raman spectroscopy have been undertaken and compared. EHMC, which is one of the most widely used sunscreen agents in suncare products in the US, exhibits a strong Raman signal. This signal clearly appears in both ethanol solutions of EHMC as well as in commercial sunscreen lotions containing this sun screen agent. A method for the direct detection and analysis of EHMC has been developed using Raman spectroscopy. This was accomplished by correlating the Raman intensities with the HPLC assays for a series of prototype suncare formulations. Based upon this information, it would be possible to employ Raman spectroscopy as an in-process control method in the commercial production of suncare products containing EHMC. The possibility of applying surface-enhanced Raman scattering for trace analysis was discussed.

  13. Analysis of tooth tissues using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timchenko, E.V.; Timchenko, P.E.; Kulabukhova, A.Yu.; Volova, L.T.; Rosenbaum, A.Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental studies of healthy tooth tissue and tooth tissues during caries disease are presented. Features of Raman spectrum of tooth tissues during caries disease are obtained: the main changes are detected at wavenumbers 956 cm -1 .1069 cm -1 . corresponding to phosphates. and 1241 cm -1 . 1660 cm -1 . corresponding to collagen III and collagen I. respectively. Were introduced criteria allowing to detect caries and to identify weakening of tooth tissues. preceding the caries. The reliability of research results is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. (paper)

  14. Zirconium(IV) oxide: New coating material for nanoresonators for shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajczewski, Jan; Abdulrahman, Heman Burhanalden; Kołątaj, Karol; Kudelski, Andrzej

    2018-03-01

    One tool that can be used for determining the structure and composition of surfaces of various materials (even in in situ conditions) is shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS). In SHINERS measurements, the surface under investigation is covered with a layer of surface-protected plasmonic nanoparticles, and then the Raman spectrum of the surface analysed is recorded. The plasmonic cores of the used core-shell structures act as electromagnetic nanoresonators, significantly locally enhancing the intensity of the electric field of the incident radiation, leading to a large increase in the efficiency of the generation of the Raman signal from molecules in the close proximity to the deposited SHINERS nanoresonators. A protective layer (from transparent dielectrics such as SiO2, Al2O3 or TiO2) prevents direct interaction between the plasmonic metal and the analysed surface (such interactions may lead to changes in the structure of the surface) and, in the case of plasmonic cores other than gold cores, the dielectric layer increases the chemical stability of the metal core. In this contribution, we show for the first time that core-shell nanoparticles having a silver core (both a solid and hollow one) and a shell of zirconium(IV) oxide are very efficient SHINERS nanoresonators that are significantly more stable in acidic and alkaline media than the silver-silica core-shell structures typically used for SHINERS experiments.

  15. Designing of Raman laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidan, M. D.; Al-Awad, F.; Alsous, M. B.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we describe the design of the Raman laser pumped by Frequency doubled Nd-YAG laser (λ=532 nm) to generate new laser wavelengths by shifting the frequency of the Nd-YAG laser to Stokes region (λ 1 =683 nm, λ 2 =953.6 nm, λ 3 =1579.5 nm) and Antistokes region (λ ' 1 =435 nm, λ ' 2 =369.9 nm, λ ' 3=319.8 nm). Laser resonator has been designed to increase the laser gain. It consists of two mirrors, the back mirror transmits the pump laser beam (λ=532 nm) through the Raman tube and reflects all other generated Raman laser lines. Four special front mirrors were made to be used for the four laser lines λ 1 =683 nm, λ 2 =953.6 nm and λ ' 1 = 435 nm, λ ' 2 =369.9 nm. The output energy for the lines υ 1 s, υ 2 s, υ 1 as,υ 2 as was measured. The output energy of the Raman laser was characterized for different H 2 pressure inside the tube. (Author)

  16. Double-wall carbon nanotubes doped with different Br2 doping levels: a resonance Raman study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Gustavo M; Hou, Taige; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Takuya; Endo, Morinobu; Akuzawa, Noboru; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2008-12-01

    This report focuses on the effects of different Br2 doping levels on the radial breathing modes of "double-wall carbon nanotube (DWNT) buckypaper". The resonance Raman profile of the Br2 bands are shown for different DWNT configurations with different Br2 doping levels. Near the maximum intensity of the resonance Raman profile, mainly the Br2 molecules adsorbed on the DWNT surface contribute strongly to the observed omega(Br-Br) Raman signal.

  17. Raman Imaging Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Raman imaging has long been used to probe the chemical nature of a sample, providing information on molecular orientation, symmetry and structure with sub-micron spatial resolution. Recent technical developments have pushed the limits of micro-Raman microscopy, enabling the acquisition of Raman spectra with unprecedented speed, and opening a pathway to fast chemical imaging for many applications from material science and semiconductors to pharmaceutical drug development and cell biology, and even art and forensic science. The promise of tip-enhanced raman spectroscopy (TERS) and near-field techniques is pushing the envelope even further by breaking the limit of diffraction and enabling nano-Raman microscopy.

  18. Effect of hormonal variation on in vivo high wavenumber Raman spectra improves cervical precancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Zheng, Wei; Ng, Joseph; Low, Jeffrey J. H.; Ilancheran, A.; Huang, Zhiwei

    2012-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a unique analytical probe for molecular vibration and is capable of providing specific spectroscopic fingerprints of molecular compositions and structures of biological tissues. The aim of this study is to improve the classification accuracy of cervical precancer by characterizing the variations in the normal high wavenumber (HW - 2800-3700cm-1) Raman spectra arising from the menopausal status of the cervix. A rapidacquisition near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopic system was used for in vivo tissue Raman measurements at 785 nm excitation. Individual HW Raman spectrum was measured with a 5s exposure time from both normal and precancer tissue sites of 15 patients recruited. The acquired Raman spectra were stratified based on the menopausal status of the cervix before the data analysis. Significant differences were noticed in Raman intensities of prominent band at 2924 cm-1 (CH3 stretching of proteins) and the broad water Raman band (in the 3100-3700 cm-1 range) with a peak at 3390 cm-1 in normal and dysplasia cervical tissue sites. Multivariate diagnostic decision algorithm based on principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was utilized to successfully differentiate the normal and precancer cervical tissue sites. By considering the variations in the Raman spectra of normal cervix due to the hormonal or menopausal status of women, the diagnostic accuracy was improved from 71 to 91%. By incorporating these variations prior to tissue classification, we can significantly improve the accuracy of cervical precancer detection using HW Raman spectroscopy.

  19. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of collotelinite, fusinite and macrinite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes, A.; Valentim, B.; Rodrigues, S.; Noronha, F. [Centro de Geologia e Departamento de Geociencias, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Territorio da Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, 4169-007-Porto (Portugal); Prieto, A.C. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Cristalografia y Mineralogia Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011-Valladolid (Spain)

    2010-09-01

    The Raman spectra and the Raman parameters have been correlated with changes in the structure of carbon materials, and most of the studies have revealed different development of the Raman spectrum. In the present study micro-Raman spectroscopy was conducted on coal bulk samples and on individual coal macerals (collotelinite, fusinite, and macrinite) from a set of Penn State Coal Bank coals of increasing rank to study the variation of their spectral parameters with rank, and considering coal heterogeneity. The spectral parameters that better correlate with the increasing coal rank, for the coals studied are the full width at half maximum of graphitic band (G: at {proportional_to} 1580 cm{sup -} {sup 1}), the position of disordered band (D: at {proportional_to} 1350 cm{sup -} {sup 1}), and the integrated intensity ratio of the D band to G band (ID/IG). With increasing coal rank a narrower G band, a shift of D band to lower wavenumber, and an increase of integrated intensity ratio ID/IG are observed. For each coal, the Raman parameters obtained on fusinites and macrinites are similar and differ from those obtained on coal bulk samples and collotelinites. The variation of the Raman parameters with rank is very well reflected on the analyses of collotelinites. (author)

  20. Raman microprobe measurements of stress in ion implanted materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, K W; Prawer, S; Weiser, P S; Dooley, S P [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1994-12-31

    Raman microprobe measurements of ion implanted diamond and silicon have shown significant shifts in the Raman line due to stresses in the materials. The Raman line shifts to higher energy if the stress is compressive and to lower energy for tensile stress{sup 1}. The silicon sample was implanted in a 60 {mu}m square with 2.56 x 10{sup 17} ions per square centimeter of 2 MeV Helium. This led to the formation of raised squares with the top 370mm above the original surface. In Raman studies of silicon using visible light, the depth of penetration of the laser beam into the sample is much less than one micron. It was found that the Raman line is due to the silicon overlying the damage region. The diamond sample was implanted with 2 x 10{sup 15} ions per square centimeter of 2.8 MeV carbon. It was concluded that the Raman spectrum could provide information concerning both the magnitude and the direction of stress in an ion implanted sample. It was possible in some cases to determine whether the stress direction is parallel or perpendicular to the sample surface. 1 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Raman microprobe measurements of stress in ion implanted materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S.; Weiser, P.S.; Dooley, S.P. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    Raman microprobe measurements of ion implanted diamond and silicon have shown significant shifts in the Raman line due to stresses in the materials. The Raman line shifts to higher energy if the stress is compressive and to lower energy for tensile stress{sup 1}. The silicon sample was implanted in a 60 {mu}m square with 2.56 x 10{sup 17} ions per square centimeter of 2 MeV Helium. This led to the formation of raised squares with the top 370mm above the original surface. In Raman studies of silicon using visible light, the depth of penetration of the laser beam into the sample is much less than one micron. It was found that the Raman line is due to the silicon overlying the damage region. The diamond sample was implanted with 2 x 10{sup 15} ions per square centimeter of 2.8 MeV carbon. It was concluded that the Raman spectrum could provide information concerning both the magnitude and the direction of stress in an ion implanted sample. It was possible in some cases to determine whether the stress direction is parallel or perpendicular to the sample surface. 1 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Raman spectroscopy an intensity approach

    CERN Document Server

    Guozhen, Wu

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the highlights of our work on the bond polarizability approach to the intensity analysis. The topics covered include surface enhanced Raman scattering, Raman excited virtual states and Raman optical activity (ROA). The first chapter briefly introduces the Raman effect in a succinct but clear way. Chapter 2 deals with the normal mode analysis. This is a basic tool for our work. Chapter 3 introduces our proposed algorithm for the Raman intensity analysis. Chapter 4 heavily introduces the physical picture of Raman virtual states. Chapter 5 offers details so that the readers can have a comprehensive idea of Raman virtual states. Chapter 6 demonstrates how this bond polarizability algorithm is extended to ROA intensity analysis. Chapters 7 and 8 offer details on ROA, showing many findings on ROA mechanism that were not known or neglected before. Chapter 9 introduces our proposed classical treatment on ROA which, as combined with the results from the bond polarizability analysis, leads to a com...

  3. Studies of Minerals, Organic and Biogenic Materials through Time-Resolved Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Christopher S.; Abedin, M. Nurul; Ismail, Syed; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Nyugen, Trac; Elsayed-Ali, hani

    2009-01-01

    A compact remote Raman spectroscopy system was developed at NASA Langley Research center and was previously demonstrated for its ability to identify chemical composition of various rocks and minerals. In this study, the Raman sensor was utilized to perform time-resolved Raman studies of various samples such as minerals and rocks, Azalea leaves and a few fossil samples. The Raman sensor utilizes a pulsed 532 nm Nd:YAG laser as excitation source, a 4-inch telescope to collect the Raman-scattered signal from a sample several meters away, a spectrograph equipped with a holographic grating, and a gated intensified CCD (ICCD) camera system. Time resolved Raman measurements were carried out by varying the gate delay with fixed short gate width of the ICCD camera, allowing measurement of both Raman signals and fluorescence signals. Rocks and mineral samples were characterized including marble, which contain CaCO3. Analysis of the results reveals the short (approx.10-13 s) lifetime of the Raman process, and shows that Raman spectra of some mineral samples contain fluorescence emission due to organic impurities. Also analyzed were a green (pristine) and a yellow (decayed) sample of Gardenia leaves. It was observed that the fluorescence signals from the green and yellow leaf samples showed stronger signals compared to the Raman lines. Moreover, it was also observed that the fluorescence of the green leaf was more intense and had a shorter lifetime than that of the yellow leaf. For the fossil samples, Raman shifted lines could not be observed due the presence of very strong short-lived fluorescence.

  4. Corrosion product characterisation by fibre optic raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzonas, D.A.; Rochefort, P.A.; Turner, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Fibre optic Raman spectroscopy has been used to characterise secondary-side deposits removed from CANDU steam generators. The deposits examined were in the form of powders, millimetre-sized flakes, and deposits on the surfaces of pulled steam generator tubes. The compositions of the deposits obtained using Raman spectroscopy are similar to the compositions obtained using other ex-situ analytical techniques. A semi-quantitative estimate of amounts of the major components can be obtained from the spectra. It was noted that the signal-to-noise ratio of the Raman spectra decreased as the amount of magnetite in the deposit increased, as a result of absorption of the laser light by the magnetite. The conversion of magnetite to hematite by the laser beam was observed when high laser powers were used. The Raman spectra of larger flake samples clearly illustrate the inhomogeneous nature of the deposits. (author)

  5. Raman microscopy of individual living human embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, S. M.; Beermann, J.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Harkness, L. M.; Kassem, M.

    2010-04-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of mapping the distribution of different biomolecules in living human embryonic stem cells grown on glass substrates, without the need for fluorescent markers. In our work we improve the quality of measurements by finding a buffer that gives low fluorescence, growing cells on glass substrates (whose Raman signals are relatively weak compared to that of the cells) and having the backside covered with gold to improve the image contrast under direct white light illumination. The experimental setup used for Raman microscopy is the commercially available confocal scanning Raman microscope (Alpha300R) from Witec and sub-μm spatially resolved Raman images were obtained using a 532 nm excitation wavelength.

  6. Raman spectra of ordinary and deuterated liquid ammonias; Spectres Raman des ammoniacs ordinaire et deuteries liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceccaldi, M; Leicknam, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, direction des materiaux et des combustibles nucleaires, departement de physico-chimie, service des isotopes stables, service de spectrometrie de masse

    1968-12-01

    The three deuterated ammonia molecules, as well as ordinary ammonia, have been examined in the liquid state by Raman spectroscopy using a high-pressure cell described elsewhere. This work thus completes the infrared spectrometry studies. We have examined the NH and ND valency absorption regions. The polarization measurements and isotope effect considerations make it possible to confirm most of the attributions recently proposed for interpreting the infrared spectra of the four isotopic molecules: the apparent disagreement between the NH{sub 3} and ND{sub 3} spectra obtained in this region by infrared and Raman spectroscopy is discussed: by the first technique the number of bands in the spectra corresponds well to the theoretically expected number, and the relative intensities conform more or less to expectations; the Raman spectra however have a strong supplementary band in the same region, produced by a Fermi resonance; it is possible to explain, from theoretical considerations, why this resonance appears so easily in the Raman spectrum, whereas it is detected in the infrared only by a very detailed analysis of the effects of solvents on the ammonia. (authors) [French] Les trois ammoniacs deuteries, ainsi que l'ammoniac ordinaire, sont examines a l'etat liquide par spectrometrie Raman, a l'aide d'une cuve haute pression decrite par ailleurs. Ce travail complete donc les etudes effectuees par spectrometrie infra-rouge. Nous avons examine les regions d'absorption de valence NH et ND. Les mesures de polarisation et des considerations sur les effets isotopiques permettent de confirmer la plupart des attributions proposees recemment pour interpreter les spectres infra-rouges des quatre molecules isotopiques: on discute egalement l'apparent desaccord entre les spectres de NH{sub 3} et de ND{sub 3} obtenus dans cette region par infra-rouge et Raman: par la premiere technique le nombre de bandes relevees sur les spectres correspond bien au nombre theoriquement attendu et

  7. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in Tm3+:YAG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, A. L.; Lauro, R.; Louchet, A.; Chaneliere, T.; Le Goueet, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the experimental demonstration of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a Tm 3+ :YAG crystal. Tm 3+ :YAG is a promising material for use in quantum information processing applications, but as yet there are few experimental investigations of coherent Raman processes in this material. We investigate the effect of inhomogeneous broadening and Rabi frequency on the transfer efficiency and the width of the two-photon spectrum. Simulations of the complete Tm 3+ :YAG system are presented along with the corresponding experimental results

  8. Effects of moderate pump and Stokes chirp on chirped-probe pulse femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Mingming

    2018-01-08

    The effects of moderate levels of chirp in the pump and Stokes pulses on chirped-probe-pulse femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CPP fs CARS) were investigated. The frequency chirp in the pump and Stokes pulses was introduced by placing SF11 glass disks with thicknesses of 10 mm or 20 mm in the optical path for these beams. The magnitude of the chirp in the probe beam was much greater and was induced by placing a 30-cm rod of SF10 glass in the beam path. The temperature measurements were performed in hydrogen/air non-premixed flames stabilized on a Hencken burner at equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 1.0. We performed measurements with no disks in pump and Stokes beam paths, and then with disks of 10 mm and 20 mm placed in both beam paths. The spectrum of the nonresonant background four-wave mixing signal narrowed considerably with increasing pump and Stokes chirp, while the resonant CARS signal was relatively unaffected. Consequently, the interference of the nonresonant background with the resonant CARS signal in the frequency-spread dephasing region of the spectrum was minimized. The increased rate of decay of the resonant CARS signal with increasing temperature was thus readily apparent. We have started to analyze the CPP fs CARS thermometry data and initial results indicate improved accuracy and precision are obtained due to moderate chirp in the pump and Stokes laser pulses.

  9. Resonance Raman investigation of the radical cation of 1,3,5-hexatriene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keszhelyi, T.; Wilbrandt, R.; Cave, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The resonance Raman spectrum of the 1,3,5-hexatriene radical cation generated by gamma-irradiation in a Freon glass is reported. The spectrum is excited at 395 nm in resonance with the second absorption band. Identical spectra are obtained from ionized (E)- and (Z)-1,3,5-hexatriene. The presence...

  10. Surface enhanced raman scattering at Ag-Pyridine interface by use of long range surface plasmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Moon Gu; Ko, Eu; Kwan, Do Kyeong; Lee, Ja Hyung; Chang, Joon Sung

    1990-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) experiment of pyridine (C 5 H 5 N) has been performed at silverpyridine interface by use of long range surface plasmon (LRSP) which is generated in the Sarid-type attenuated total reflection (ATR) structure consisting of prism, dielectic, metal and dielectic media. Generation of LRSP has been confirmed by observing the propagation of the LRSP. Raman signal of pyridine adsorbed on the silver surface in the above layered structure has been observed and compared with the bulk Raman signal and SERS signal from the chemically adsorbed pyridine. SERS experiment by use of LRSP has not yet reported to the best of our knowledge. (Author)

  11. Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Candace Elise

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and most fatal malignant brain tumor, is highly infiltrative and incurable. Although improved prognosis has been demonstrated by surgically resecting the bulk tumor, a lack of clear borders at the tumor margins complicates the selection decision during surgery. This dissertation investigates the potential of Raman spectroscopy for distinguishing between normal and malignant brain tissue and sets the groundwork for a surgical diagnostic guide for resection of gross malignant gliomas. These studies revealed that Raman spectroscopy was capable of discriminating between normal scid mouse brain tissue and human xenograft tumors induced in those mice. The spectra of normal and malignant tissue were normalized by dividing by the respective magnitudes of the peaks near 1440 cm -1. Spectral differences include the shape of the broad peaks near 1440 cm-1 and 1660 cm-1 and the relative magnitudes of the peaks at 1264 cm-1, 1287 cm-1, 1297 cm-1, 1556 cm -1, 1586 cm-1, 1614 cm-1, and 1683 cm-1. From these studies emerged questions regarding how to objectively normalize and compare spectra for future automation. Some differences in the Raman spectra were shown to be inherent in the disease states of the cells themselves via differences in the Raman spectra of normal human astrocytes in culture and cultured cells derived from GBM tumors. The spectra of astrocytes and glioma cells were normalized by dividing by the respective magnitudes of the peaks near 1450 cm-1. The differences between the Raman spectra of normal and transformed cells include the ratio of the 1450 cm-1/1650 cm-1 peaks and the relative magnitudes of the peaks at 1181 cm-1, 1191 cm-1, 1225 cm-1, 1263 cm -1, 1300 cm-1, 1336 cm-1, 1477 cm-1, 1494 cm-1, and 1695 cm -1. Previous Raman spectroscopic studies of biological cells have shown that the magnitude of the Raman signal decreases over time, indicating sample damage. Cells exposed to laser excitation at similar power

  12. Label-Free Raman Imaging to Monitor Breast Tumor Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciu, Felicia S; Ciubuc, John D; Parra, Karla; Manciu, Marian; Bennet, Kevin E; Valenzuela, Paloma; Sundin, Emma M; Durrer, William G; Reza, Luis; Francia, Giulio

    2017-08-01

    Although not yet ready for clinical application, methods based on Raman spectroscopy have shown significant potential in identifying, characterizing, and discriminating between noncancerous and cancerous specimens. Real-time and accurate medical diagnosis achievable through this vibrational optical method largely benefits from improvements in current technological and software capabilities. Not only is the acquisition of spectral information now possible in milliseconds and analysis of hundreds of thousands of data points achieved in minutes, but Raman spectroscopy also allows simultaneous detection and monitoring of several biological components. Besides demonstrating a significant Raman signature distinction between nontumorigenic (MCF-10A) and tumorigenic (MCF-7) breast epithelial cells, our study demonstrates that Raman can be used as a label-free method to evaluate epidermal growth factor activity in tumor cells. Comparative Raman profiles and images of specimens in the presence or absence of epidermal growth factor show important differences in regions attributed to lipid, protein, and nucleic acid vibrations. The occurrence, which is dependent on the presence of epidermal growth factor, of new Raman features associated with the appearance of phosphothreonine and phosphoserine residues reflects a signal transduction from the membrane to the nucleus, with concomitant modification of DNA/RNA structural characteristics. Parallel Western blotting analysis reveals an epidermal growth factor induction of phosphorylated Akt protein, corroborating the Raman results. The analysis presented in this work is an important step toward Raman-based evaluation of biological activity of epidermal growth factor receptors on the surfaces of breast cancer cells. With the ultimate future goal of clinically implementing Raman-guided techniques for the diagnosis of breast tumors (e.g., with regard to specific receptor activity), the current results just lay the foundation for

  13. Raman scattering in three-cation diluted magnetic semiconductor Cd1-x-yMnxMgyTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agekyan, V.F.; Gridneva, L.K.; Karpov, S.V.; Serov, A.Yu.

    1995-01-01

    Investigations of Raman scattering (RS) in quaternary compounds were conducted to determine and interpret LO and TO frequencies, characterizing CdTe, MnTe, MgTe components in mixed crystal. Raman spectrum in the range of low frequencies is interpreted as interaction of quasi local vibrations with acoustic continuum

  14. Dual-modal cancer detection based on optical pH sensing and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soogeun; Lee, Seung Ho; Min, Sun Young; Byun, Kyung Min; Lee, Soo Yeol

    2017-10-01

    A dual-modal approach using Raman spectroscopy and optical pH sensing was investigated to discriminate between normal and cancerous tissues. Raman spectroscopy has demonstrated the potential for in vivo cancer detection. However, Raman spectroscopy has suffered from strong fluorescence background of biological samples and subtle spectral differences between normal and disease tissues. To overcome those issues, pH sensing is adopted to Raman spectroscopy as a dual-modal approach. Based on the fact that the pH level in cancerous tissues is lower than that in normal tissues due to insufficient vasculature formation, the dual-modal approach combining the chemical information of Raman spectrum and the metabolic information of pH level can improve the specificity of cancer diagnosis. From human breast tissue samples, Raman spectra and pH levels are measured using fiber-optic-based Raman and pH probes, respectively. The pH sensing is based on the dependence of pH level on optical transmission spectrum. Multivariate statistical analysis is performed to evaluate the classification capability of the dual-modal method. The analytical results show that the dual-modal method based on Raman spectroscopy and optical pH sensing can improve the performance of cancer classification. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  15. Dual-modal cancer detection based on optical pH sensing and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soogeun; Lee, Seung Ho; Min, Sun Young; Byun, Kyung Min; Lee, Soo Yeol

    2017-10-01

    A dual-modal approach using Raman spectroscopy and optical pH sensing was investigated to discriminate between normal and cancerous tissues. Raman spectroscopy has demonstrated the potential for in vivo cancer detection. However, Raman spectroscopy has suffered from strong fluorescence background of biological samples and subtle spectral differences between normal and disease tissues. To overcome those issues, pH sensing is adopted to Raman spectroscopy as a dual-modal approach. Based on the fact that the pH level in cancerous tissues is lower than that in normal tissues due to insufficient vasculature formation, the dual-modal approach combining the chemical information of Raman spectrum and the metabolic information of pH level can improve the specificity of cancer diagnosis. From human breast tissue samples, Raman spectra and pH levels are measured using fiber-optic-based Raman and pH probes, respectively. The pH sensing is based on the dependence of pH level on optical transmission spectrum. Multivariate statistical analysis is performed to evaluate the classification capability of the dual-modal method. The analytical results show that the dual-modal method based on Raman spectroscopy and optical pH sensing can improve the performance of cancer classification.

  16. Raman study of ? crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, M. A.; Oliveira, M. A. S.; Bourson, P.; Crettez, J. M.

    1997-09-01

    In this work we present a polarized Raman study of 0953-8984/9/37/020/img7 single crystals for several values of the concentration 0953-8984/9/37/020/img8 made using different scattering geometries. The Raman spectra, composed of broad bands, have been fitted in accordance with a symmetry analysis which allowed us to assign the vibrational modes, and determine their frequencies and damping constants. The results are compatible with an average hexagonal symmetry for the solid solutions with x in the range 0953-8984/9/37/020/img9. In each of the spectra we found two bands at about 590 and 0953-8984/9/37/020/img10, probably associated with the existence of 0953-8984/9/37/020/img11 structures in the solid solutions.

  17. Surface enhanced Raman scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Furtak, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    In the course of the development of surface science, advances have been identified with the introduction of new diagnostic probes for analytical characterization of the adsorbates and microscopic structure of surfaces and interfaces. Among the most recently de­ veloped techniques, and one around which a storm of controversy has developed, is what has now been earmarked as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Within this phenomenon, molecules adsorbed onto metal surfaces under certain conditions exhibit an anomalously large interaction cross section for the Raman effect. This makes it possible to observe the detailed vibrational signature of the adsorbate in the ambient phase with an energy resolution much higher than that which is presently available in electron energy loss spectroscopy and when the surface is in contact with a much larger amount of material than that which can be tolerated in infrared absorption experiments. The ability to perform vibrational spectroscopy under these conditions would l...

  18. Raman Plus X: Biomedical Applications of Multimodal Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nandan K; Dai, Yichuan; Liu, Peng; Hu, Chuanzhen; Tong, Lieshu; Chen, Xiaoya; Smith, Zachary J

    2017-07-07

    Raman spectroscopy is a label-free method of obtaining detailed chemical information about samples. Its compatibility with living tissue makes it an attractive choice for biomedical analysis, yet its translation from a research tool to a clinical tool has been slow, hampered by fundamental Raman scattering issues such as long integration times and limited penetration depth. In this review we detail the how combining Raman spectroscopy with other techniques yields multimodal instruments that can help to surmount the translational barriers faced by Raman alone. We review Raman combined with several optical and non-optical methods, including fluorescence, elastic scattering, OCT, phase imaging, and mass spectrometry. In each section we highlight the power of each combination along with a brief history and presentation of representative results. Finally, we conclude with a perspective detailing both benefits and challenges for multimodal Raman measurements, and give thoughts on future directions in the field.

  19. Enhanced noise and Raman scattering in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, A.; Short, R.W.

    1987-04-01

    Observations of Raman scattering from laser-produced plasma have shown a number of puzzling features. These can be explained by assuming the presence of a bump-on-tail electron distribution created by pulses of fast electrons arising from instabilities at the critical (n/sub c/) or the quarter-critical (n/sub c//4) surface. Experiments using thin foils, in which the target density drops below n/sub c/ and even n/sub c//4 early in the laser pulse, have continued to show the same agreement as is seen for thick targets between the observed Raman spectrum and the predictions of this theory. This raises the issue of the time scale on which such directed pulses of fast electrons can continue to exist in the plasma after their source at n/sub c/ or n/sub c//4 disappears. We show that the classical degradation process is quite slow (of the order of 100 ps or more). Collective processes would appear to broaden and flatten the beam on a faster time scale. However, inclusion of finite spatial size strongly reduces the effect. Furthermore, we will show that broadening of the beam has little effect on the predicted spectrum

  20. An in situ Raman spectroscopy system for long-term corrosion experiments in high temperature water up to 673 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domae, Masafumi; Tani, Jun-ichi; Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2006-01-01

    A Raman spectroscopy system has been developed, in order to identify oxides formed on the surfaces of metals and steels in high temperature water up to 673 K. A supercritical water loop system including a Raman cell was installed. The design of the loop system is up to 673 K and 40 MPa. The Raman cell has a diamond window without window-to-metal packing. Raman spectrum of alumina plate was measured at room temperature, at 523 and at 673 K under pressure of 25 MPa. A long-term measurement was also performed at 523 K and 25 MPa for 117.5 h. In all cases intense Raman peaks attributed to alumina were observed. Raman spectrum of anatase particles in suspension was measured at 673 K and 25 MPa. The results show that the Raman spectroscopy system developed in the present study works well not only for plate sample but also for suspension. Raman spectra observed for titanium plate in high temperature water of 673 K and 25 MPa show growth of several Raman peaks with time up to 257 h. The peaks disappeared after cooled down to room temperature. The experimental results have demonstrated importance of in situ Raman spectroscopy. (author)

  1. Physical chemistry of Nanogap-Enhanced Raman Scattering (NERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Yung Doug; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2017-08-01

    Plasmonically coupled electromagnetic field localization has generated a variety of new concepts and applications, and this has been one of the hottest topics in nanoscience, materials science, chemistry, physics and engineering and increasingly more important over the last decade. In particular, plasmonically coupled nanostructures with ultra-small gap ( 1-nm or smaller) gap have been of special interest due to their ultra-strong optical properties that can be useful for a variety of signal enhancements such surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and nanoantenna. These promising nanostructures with extraordinarily strong optical signal, however, have rendered a limited success in widespread use and commercialization largely due to the lack of designing principles, high-yield synthetic strategies with nm-level structural controllability and reproducibility and lack of systematic single-molecule and single-particle level studies. All these are extremely important challenges because even small changes ( 1 nm) of the coupled nanogap structures can significant affect plasmon mode and signal intensity and therefore structural and signal reproducibility and controllability can be in question. The plasmonic nanogap-enhanced Raman scattering (NERS) is defined as the plasmonic nanogap-based Raman signal enhancement within plasmonic nanogap particles with 1 nm gap and a Raman dye positioned inside the gap.

  2. Comparison of time-gated surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TG-SERS) and classical SERS based monitoring of Escherichia coli cultivation samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kögler, Martin; Paul, Andrea; Anane, Emmanuel; Birkholz, Mario; Bunker, Alex; Viitala, Tapani; Maiwald, Michael; Junne, Stefan; Neubauer, Peter

    2018-06-08

    The application of Raman spectroscopy as a monitoring technique for bioprocesses is severely limited by a large background signal originating from fluorescing compounds in the culture media. Here we compare time-gated Raman (TG-Raman)-, continuous wave NIR-process Raman (NIR-Raman) and continuous wave micro-Raman (micro-Raman) approaches in combination with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for their potential to overcome this limit. For that purpose, we monitored metabolite concentrations of Escherichia coli bioreactor cultivations in cell-free supernatant samples. We investigated concentration transients of glucose, acetate, AMP and cAMP at alternating substrate availability, from deficiency to excess. Raman and SERS signals were compared to off-line metabolite analysis of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and nucleotides. Results demonstrate that SERS, in almost all cases, led to a higher number of identifiable signals and better resolved spectra. Spectra derived from the TG-Raman were comparable to those of micro-Raman resulting in well-discernable Raman peaks, which allowed for the identification of a higher number of compounds. In contrast, NIR-Raman provided a superior performance for the quantitative evaluation of analytes, both with and without SERS nanoparticles when using multivariate data analysis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. Molecular selectivity of graphene-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengxi; Ling, Xi; Liang, Liangbo; Song, Yi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Jin; Kong, Jing; Meunier, Vincent; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2015-05-13

    Graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS) is a recently discovered Raman enhancement phenomenon that uses graphene as the substrate for Raman enhancement and can produce clean and reproducible Raman signals of molecules with increased signal intensity. Compared to conventional Raman enhancement techniques, such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS), in which the Raman enhancement is essentially due to the electromagnetic mechanism, GERS mainly relies on a chemical mechanism and therefore shows unique molecular selectivity. In this paper, we report graphene-enhanced Raman scattering of a variety of different molecules with different molecular properties. We report a strong molecular selectivity for the GERS effect with enhancement factors varying by as much as 2 orders of magnitude for different molecules. Selection rules are discussed with reference to two main features of the molecule, namely its molecular energy levels and molecular structures. In particular, the enhancement factor involving molecular energy levels requires the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies to be within a suitable range with respect to graphene's Fermi level, and this enhancement effect can be explained by the time-dependent perturbation theory of Raman scattering. The enhancement factor involving the choice of molecular structures indicates that molecular symmetry and substituents similar to that of the graphene structure are found to be favorable for GERS enhancement. The effectiveness of these factors can be explained by group theory and the charge-transfer interaction between molecules and graphene. Both factors, involving the molecular energy levels and structural symmetry of the molecules, suggest that a remarkable GERS enhancement requires strong molecule-graphene coupling and thus effective charge transfer between the molecules and graphene. These conclusions are further

  4. Raman spectra of ruthenium and tantalum trimers in argon matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li; Shen, Xiaole; Chen, Xiaoyu; Lombardi, John R.

    2000-12-01

    The resonance Raman spectra of ruthenium trimers (Ru 3) in argon matrices have been obtained. Three resonance Raman transitions were observed between 570 and 590 nm. Two of them (303.4 and 603.7 cm -1) are assigned to the totally symmetric vibrational progression, giving k e=1.86 mdyne/ Å. The line at 581.5 cm-1 is assigned as the origin of a low-lying electronic state. We also report on the observation of a resonance Raman spectrum of tantalum trimers (Ta 3). Observed lines include 251.2 and 501.9 cm-1 which we assign to the fundamental and the first overtone of the symmetric stretch in Ta 3. This gives k e=2.25 mdyne/ Å.

  5. Raman scattering studies on PEG functionalized hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamini, D.; Devanand Venkatasubbu, G.; Kumar, J.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2014-01-01

    The pure hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized by wet chemical precipitation method. Raman spectral measurements have been made for pure HAP, pure Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 and PEG coated HAP in different mass ratios (sample 1, sample 2 and sample 3). The peaks observed in Raman spectrum of pure HAP and the XRD pattern have confirmed the formation of HAP NPs. Vibrational modes have been assigned for pure HAP and pure PEG 6000. The observed variation in peak position of Raman active vibrational modes of PEG in PEG coated HAP has been elucidated in this work, in terms of intermolecular interactions between PEG and HAP. Further these results suggest that the functionalization of nanoparticles may be independent of PEG mass.

  6. Optimally shaped narrowband picosecond pulses for femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David P; Valley, David; Ellis, Scott R; Creelman, Mark; Mathies, Richard A

    2013-09-09

    A comparison between a Fabry-Pérot etalon filter and a conventional grating filter for producing the picosecond (ps) Raman pump pulses for femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is presented. It is shown that for pulses of equal energy the etalon filter produces Raman signals twice as large as that of the grating filter while suppressing the electronically resonant background signal. The time asymmetric profile of the etalon-generated pulse is shown to be responsible for both of these observations. A theoretical discussion is presented which quantitatively supports this hypothesis. It is concluded that etalons are the ideal method for the generation of narrowband ps pulses for FSRS because of the optical simplicity, efficiency, improved FSRS intensity and reduced backgrounds.

  7. Design and Calibration of a Raman Spectrometer for use in a Laser Spectroscopy Instrument Intended to Analyze Martian Surface and Atmospheric Characteristics for NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, John F.; Hornef, James

    2016-01-01

    This project's goal is the design of a Raman spectroscopy instrument to be utilized by NASA in an integrated spectroscopy strategy that will include Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser-Induced Florescence Spectroscopy (LIFS) for molecule and element identification on Mars Europa, and various asteroids. The instrument is to be down scaled from a dedicated rover mounted instrument into a compact unit with the same capabilities and accuracy as the larger instrument. The focus for this design is a spectrometer that utilizes Raman spectroscopy. The spectrometer has a calculated range of 218 nm wavelength spectrum with a resolution of 1.23 nm. To filter out the laser source wavelength of 532 nm the spectrometer design utilizes a 532 nm wavelength dichroic mirror and a 532 nm wavelength notch filter. The remaining scatter signal is concentrated by a 20 x microscopic objective through a 25-micron vertical slit into a 5mm diameter, 1cm focal length double concave focusing lens. The light is then diffracted by a 1600 Lines per Millimeter (L/mm) dual holographic transmission grating. This spectrum signal is captured by a 1-inch diameter double convex 3 cm focal length capture lens. An Intensified Charge Couple Device (ICCD) is placed within the initial focal cone of the capture lens and the Raman signal captured is to be analyzed through spectroscopy imaging software. This combination allows for accurate Raman spectroscopy to be achieved. The components for the spectrometer have been bench tested in a series of prototype developments based on theoretical calculations, alignment, and scaling strategies. The mounting platform is 2.5 cm wide by 8.8 cm long by 7 cm height. This platform has been tested and calibrated with various sources such as a neon light source and ruby crystal. This platform is intended to be enclosed in a ruggedized enclosure for mounting on a rover platform. The size and functionality of the Raman spectrometer allows for the rover to

  8. Resonant Impulsive Stimulated Raman Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, A; Chesnoy, J

    1988-03-15

    Using a femtosecond dye laser, we observe in real-time vibrational oscillations excited by impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) close to an electronic resonance. We perform single-beam Raman excitation and probe the driven coherence by a polarization-sensitive detection. We demonstrate for the first time impulsively Raman-induced dichroism, birefringence as well as frequency and time delay shifts. We analyse the characteristics of resonant ISRS on a vibrational mode of a dye molecule (malachite green) in solution.

  9. Resonant Impulsive Stimulated Raman Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, A.; Chesnoy, J.

    1988-01-01

    Using a femtosecond dye laser, we observe in real-time vibrational oscillations excited by impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) close to an electronic resonance. We perform single-beam Raman excitation and probe the driven coherence by a polarization-sensitive detection. We demonstrate for the first time impulsively Raman-induced dichroism, birefringence as well as frequency and time delay shifts. We analyse the characteristics of resonant ISRS on a vibrational mode of a dye molecule (malachite green) in solution

  10. Raman spectroscopic analysis for gastric and colorectal cancer in surgical treatment toward molecular-guided surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Shigehiro; Watanabe, Yuji; Oshima, Yusuke

    2018-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy provides a wealth of diagnostic information to the surgeon with in situ cancer detection and label-free histopathology in intraoperative conditions. Raman spectroscopy is a promising optical technique which can analyze biological tissues with light scattering. The difference in frequencies between the incident light and the scattering light are called Raman shifts, which correspond to the vibrational energy of the molecular bonds. Raman spectrum gives information about the molecular structure and composition in biological specimens. We had been previously reported that Raman spectroscopy could distinguish various histological types of human lung cancer cells from normal cells in vitro, and also confirmed that Raman spectra obtained from cancer cells and their environment including other cells and extracellular matrix in xenograft models and spontaneous metastasis models were distinguishable using Raman spectroscopy combined with fluorescence microscopy and photoluminescence imaging. Malignancy can be characterized not only by the cancer cells but also by the environmental factors including immune cells, stroma cells, secretion vesicles and extracellular matrix, but to identify and detect cancer diagnostic biomarkers in vivo on Raman spectroscopy is still challenging. Here we investigate morphological and molecular dynamics in advanced cancer specimens obtained from patients. We are also constructing a customdesigned Raman spectral imaging system for both in vitro and in vivo assay of tumor tissues to reveal the metastasis process and to evaluate therapeutic effects of anti-cancer drugs and their drug delivery toward the clinical application of the technique.

  11. [In Vivo Study of Chitin in Fungal Hyphae Based on Confocal Raman Microscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-li; Luo, Liu-bin; Zhou, Bin-xiong; Hu, Xiao-qian; Sun, Chan-jun; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Chitin is an important structural polysaccharide of fungal cell wall. In this paper, aerial hyphae of Colletotrichum camelliae Massee was first studied by confocal Raman microscopy in vivo. Firstly, the optimal experimental parameters of hyphae for collecting the Raman spectra were determined, and the typical Raman spectra of hyphae, chitin standard and background were acquired. By comparing analysis, characteristic peaks of chitin were found in hyphae. Then, a region of interesting on hyphae was selected for Raman scanning. Through principal component analysis, the Raman signal of hyphae and background in the scanning area can be separated clearly. Combined with loading weight plot, two main characteristic peaks of hyphae were obtained, 1 622 cm(-1) was belong to chitin and 1 368 cm(-1) was assigned to pectic polysaccharide. Finally, two and three dimension chemical images of fungal hyphae were realized based on Raman fingerprint spectra of chitin in a nondestructive way.

  12. Polarized Raman scattering of single ZnO nanorod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J. L.; Lai, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Z.; Cheng, S. Y.; Chen, Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    Polarized Raman scattering measurement on single wurtzite c-plane (001) ZnO nanorod grown by hydrothermal method has been performed at room temperature. The polarization dependence of the intensity of the Raman scattering for the phonon modes A 1 (TO), E 1 (TO), and E 2 high in the ZnO nanorod are obtained. The deviations of polarization-dependent Raman spectroscopy from the prediction of Raman selection rules are observed, which can be attributed to the structure defects in the ZnO nanorod as confirmed by the comparison of the transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectra as well as the polarization dependent Raman signal of the annealed and unannealed ZnO nanorod. The Raman tensor elements of A 1 (TO) and E 1 (TO) phonon modes normalized to that of the E 2 high phonon mode are |a/d|=0.32±0.01, |b/d|=0.49±0.02, and |c/d|=0.23±0.01 for the unannealed ZnO nanorod, and |a/d|=0.33±0.01, |b/d|=0.45±0.01, and |c/d|=0.20±0.01 for the annealed ZnO nanorod, which shows strong anisotropy compared to that of bulk ZnO epilayer

  13. Diterpenoic acids analysis using a coupled TLC-surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orinak, A.; Talian, I.; Efremov, E.V.; Ariese, F.; Oriaakova, R.

    2008-01-01

    Hyphenation of thin layer chromatography (TLC) with surface-based spectral methods requires a homogeneous surface for direct and quantitative analysis on the chromatographic plate after separation. Since most chromatographic materials do not produce strong background signals in Raman spectroscopy

  14. [Research Progress of Raman Spectroscopy on Dyestuff Identification of Ancient Relics and Artifacts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiu-ju; Wang, Li-qin

    2016-02-01

    As the birthplace of Silk Road, China has a long dyeing history. The valuable information about the production time, the source of dyeing material, dyeing process and preservation status were existed in organic dyestuff deriving from cultural relics and artifacts. However, because of the low contents, complex compositions and easily degraded of dyestuff, it is always a challenging task to identify the dyestuff in relics analyzing field. As a finger-print spectrum, Raman spectroscopy owns unique superiorities in dyestuff identification. Thus, the principle, characteristic, limitation, progress and development direction of micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS/µ-Raman), near infrared reflection and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (NIR-FT-Raman), surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and resonance raman spectroscopy (RRS) have been introduced in this paper. Furthermore, the features of Raman spectra of gardenia, curcumin and other natural dyestuffs were classified by MRS technology, and then the fluorescence phenomena of purpurin excitated with different wavelength laser was compared and analyzed. At last, gray green silver colloidal particles were made as the base, then the colorant of madder was identified combining with thin layer chromatography (TLC) separation technology and SERS, the result showed that the surface enhancement effect of silver colloidal particles could significantly reduce fluorescence background of the Raman spectra. It is pointed out that Raman spectroscopy is a rapid and convenient molecular structure qualitative methodology, which has broad application prospect in dyestuff analysis of cultural relics and artifacts. We propose that the combination of multi-Raman spectroscopy, separation technology and long distance transmission technology are the development trends of Raman spectroscopy.

  15. A pseudo-Voigt component model for high-resolution recovery of constituent spectra in Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Rindzevicius, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a well-known analytical technique for identifying and analyzing chemical species. Since Raman scattering is a weak effect, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is often employed to amplify the signal. SERS signal surface mapping is a common method for detecting trace...... to directly and reliably identify the Raman modes, with overall performance similar to the state of the art non-negative matrix factorization approach. However, the model provides better interpretation and is a step towards enabling the use of SERS in detection of trace amounts of molecules in real-life...

  16. Raman spectroscopy as a tool for investigating lipid protein interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Frederic Nicolas Rønne; Helix Nielsen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    ]) as well as improved technical equipment for signal capture (such as improved sensitivity of charge-coupled devices [CCDs]). Combined, these technological advances have brought Raman spectroscopy into a new era in which hitherto inaccessible or hardly accessible research areas now are becoming possible...

  17. Spectrum Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes several methods of executing lecture demonstrations involving the recombination of the spectrum. Groups the techniques into two general classes: bringing selected portions of the spectrum together using lenses or mirrors and blurring the colors by rapid movement or foreshortening. (JM)

  18. Stochastic phenomena in a fiber Raman amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalashnikov, Vladimir [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Institute of Photonics, Vienna University of Technology (Austria); Sergeyev, Sergey V. [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Ania-Castanon, Juan Diego [Instituto de Optica CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Jacobsen, Gunnar [Acreo, Kista (Sweden); Popov, Sergei [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-01-15

    The interplay of such cornerstones of modern nonlinear fiber optics as a nonlinearity, stochasticity and polarization leads to variety of the noise induced instabilities including polarization attraction and escape phenomena harnessing of which is a key to unlocking the fiber optic systems specifications required in high resolution spectroscopy, metrology, biomedicine and telecommunications. Here, by using direct stochastic modeling, the mapping of interplay of the Raman scattering-based nonlinearity, the random birefringence of a fiber, and the pump-to-signal intensity noise transfer has been done in terms of the fiber Raman amplifier parameters, namely polarization mode dispersion, the relative intensity noise of the pump laser, fiber length, and the signal power. The obtained results reveal conditions for emergence of the random birefringence-induced resonance-like enhancement of the gain fluctuations (stochastic anti-resonance) accompanied by pulse broadening and rare events in the form of low power output signals having probability heavily deviated from the Gaussian distribution. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Coupled wave equations theory of surface-enhanced femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnally, Michael O; McMahon, Jeffrey M; Van Duyne, Richard P; Schatz, George C

    2016-09-07

    We present a coupled wave semiclassical theory to describe plasmonic enhancement effects in surface-enhanced femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering (SE-FSRS). A key result is that the plasmon enhanced fields which drive the vibrational equation of motion for each normal mode results in dispersive lineshapes in the SE-FSRS spectrum. This result, which reproduces experimental lineshapes, demonstrates that plasmon-enhanced stimulated Raman methods provide unique sensitivity to a plasmonic response. Our derived SE-FSRS theory shows a plasmonic enhancement of |gpu|(2)ImχR(ω)gst (2)/ImχR(ω), where |gpu|(2) is the absolute square of the plasmonic enhancement from the Raman pump, χR(ω) is the Raman susceptibility, and gst is the plasmonic enhancement of the Stokes field in SE-FSRS. We conclude with a discussion on potential future experimental and theoretical directions for the field of plasmonically enhanced coherent Raman scattering.

  20. Intricate Resonant Raman Response in Anisotropic ReS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, Amber; Simpson, Jeffrey R; Wang, Yuanxi; Rhodes, Daniel; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Balicas, Luis; Dubey, Madan; Crespi, Vincent H; Terrones, Mauricio; Hight Walker, Angela R

    2017-10-11

    The strong in-plane anisotropy of rhenium disulfide (ReS 2 ) offers an additional physical parameter that can be tuned for advanced applications such as logic circuits, thin-film polarizers, and polarization-sensitive photodetectors. ReS 2 also presents advantages for optoelectronics, as it is both a direct-gap semiconductor for few-layer thicknesses (unlike MoS 2 or WS 2 ) and stable in air (unlike black phosphorus). Raman spectroscopy is one of the most powerful characterization techniques to nondestructively and sensitively probe the fundamental photophysics of a 2D material. Here, we perform a thorough study of the resonant Raman response of the 18 first-order phonons in ReS 2 at various layer thicknesses and crystal orientations. Remarkably, we discover that, as opposed to a general increase in intensity of all of the Raman modes at excitonic transitions, each of the 18 modes behave differently relative to each other as a function of laser excitation, layer thickness, and orientation in a manner that highlights the importance of electron-phonon coupling in ReS 2 . In addition, we correct an unrecognized error in the calculation of the optical interference enhancement of the Raman signal of transition metal dichalcogenides on SiO 2 /Si substrates that has propagated through various reports. For ReS 2 , this correction is critical to properly assessing the resonant Raman behavior. We also implemented a perturbation approach to calculate frequency-dependent Raman intensities based on first-principles and demonstrate that, despite the neglect of excitonic effects, useful trends in the Raman intensities of monolayer and bulk ReS 2 at different laser energies can be accurately captured. Finally, the phonon dispersion calculated from first-principles is used to address the possible origins of unexplained peaks observed in the Raman spectra, such as infrared-active modes, defects, and second-order processes.

  1. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of synthetic and biological calcium phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, G R; Zunic, W B; Durig, J R; Wuthier, R E

    1994-05-01

    Fourier-transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the organic and mineral components of biological and synthetic calcium phosphate minerals. Raman spectroscopy provides information on biological minerals that is complimentary to more widely used infrared methodologies as some infrared-inactive vibrational modes are Raman-active. The application of FT-Raman technology has, for the first time, enabled the problems of high sample fluorescence and low signal-to-noise that are inherent in calcified tissues to be overcome. Raman spectra of calcium phosphates are dominated by a very strong band near 960 cm-1 that arises from the symmetric stretching mode (v1) of the phosphate group. Other Raman-active phosphate vibrational bands are seen at approximately 1075 (v3), 590 (v4), and 435 cm-1 (v2). Minerals containing acidic phosphate groups show additional vibrational modes. The different calcium phosphate mineral phases can be distinguished from one another by the relative positions and shapes of these bands in the Raman spectra. FT-Raman spectra of nascent, nonmineralized matrix vesicles (MV) show a distinct absence of the phosphate v1 band even though these structures are rich in calcium and phosphate. Similar results were seen with milk casein and synthetic Ca-phosphatidyl-serine-PO4 complexes. Hence, the phosphate and/or acidic phosphate ions in these noncrystalline biological calcium phosphates is in a molecular environment that differs from that in synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate. In MV, the first distinct mineral phase to form contained acidic phosphate bands similar to those seen in octacalcium phosphate. The mineral phase present in fully mineralized MV was much more apatitic, resembling that found in bones and teeth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Schwinger–Keldysh canonical formalism for electronic Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yuehua, E-mail: suyh@ytu.edu.cn

    2016-03-01

    Inelastic low-energy Raman and high-energy X-ray scatterings have made great progress in instrumentation to investigate the strong electronic correlations in matter. However, theoretical study of the relevant scattering spectrum is still a challenge. In this paper, we present a Schwinger–Keldysh canonical perturbation formalism for the electronic Raman scattering, where all the resonant, non-resonant and mixed responses are considered uniformly. We show how to use this formalism to evaluate the cross section of the electronic Raman scattering off an one-band superconductor. All the two-photon scattering processes from electrons, the non-resonant charge density response, the elastic Rayleigh scattering, the fluorescence, the intrinsic energy-shift Raman scattering and the mixed response, are included. In the mean-field superconducting state, Cooper pairs contribute only to the non-resonant response. All the other responses are dominated by the single-particle excitations and are strongly suppressed due to the opening of the superconducting gap. Our formalism for the electronic Raman scattering can be easily extended to study the high-energy resonant inelastic X-ray scattering.

  3. Identification of color development potential of quartz by Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkmim, Danielle G.; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Almeida, Frederico O.T.

    2013-01-01

    Colorless quartz is usually exposed to ionizing radiation (gamma rays or high energy electron beams) to acquire different colors for jewelry. Color development is due to the presence of traces of some elements such as aluminum, iron, hydrogen, lithium, or sodium. Most quartz crystals are extracted colorless from nature and it is necessary to separate those that can develop colors from those that cannot. Irradiation tests can be used to accomplish this separation, but they take a long time. Infrared signature of colorless quartz can also be used. However, infrared spectroscopy is quite expensive, especially when using portable devices. Raman spectroscopy is now available as an inexpensive and portable technique that could provide identification of the samples of colorless quartz still in the field, facilitating the prediction for their economic exploitation. In addition, Raman spectroscopy usually requires a minimum or no sample preparation. This paper presents an investigation of the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy as a substitute for infrared spectroscopy to predict the potential for color development of quartz. A band at 3595 cm -1 in the Raman shift spectrum was observed only along the c axis of a prasiolite excited by a high power 514 nm laser. This band was not observed in quartz samples that do not develop color after irradiation. Further studies are required to identify the potential for color development by Raman spectroscopy of other types of colorless quartz. (author)

  4. Enhanced optical coupling and Raman scattering via microscopic interface engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jonathan V.; Hokr, Brett H.; Kim, Wihan; Ballmann, Charles W.; Applegate, Brian E.; Jo, Javier A.; Yamilov, Alexey; Cao, Hui; Scully, Marlan O.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2017-11-01

    Spontaneous Raman scattering is an extremely powerful tool for the remote detection and identification of various chemical materials. However, when those materials are contained within strongly scattering or turbid media, as is the case in many biological and security related systems, the sensitivity and range of Raman signal generation and detection is severely limited. Here, we demonstrate that through microscopic engineering of the optical interface, the optical coupling of light into a turbid material can be substantially enhanced. This improved coupling facilitates the enhancement of the Raman scattering signal generated by molecules within the medium. In particular, we detect at least two-orders of magnitude more spontaneous Raman scattering from a sample when the pump laser light is focused into a microscopic hole in the surface of the sample. Because this approach enhances both the interaction time and interaction region of the laser light within the material, its use will greatly improve the range and sensitivity of many spectroscopic techniques, including Raman scattering and fluorescence emission detection, inside highly scattering environments.

  5. Dynamic Raman imaging system with high spatial and temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Dai, Yinzhen; He, Hao; Lv, Ruiqi; Zong, Cheng; Ren, Bin

    2017-09-01

    There is an increasing need to study dynamic changing systems with significantly high spatial and temporal resolutions. In this work, we integrated point-scanning, line-scanning, and wide-field Raman imaging techniques into a single system. By using an Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD) with a high gain and high frame rate, we significantly reduced the time required for wide-field imaging, making it possible to monitor the electrochemical reactions in situ. The highest frame rate of EMCDD was ˜50 fps, and the Raman images for a specific Raman peak can be obtained by passing the signal from the sample through the Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter. The spatial resolutions of scanning imaging and wide-field imaging with a 100× objective (NA = 0.9) are 0.5 × 0.5 μm2 and 0.36 × 0.36 μm2, respectively. The system was used to study the surface plasmon resonance of Au nanorods, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal distribution for Au Nanoparticle aggregates, and dynamic Raman imaging of an electrochemical reacting system.

  6. Industrial Raman gas sensing for real-time system control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buric, M.; Mullen, J.; Chorpening, B.; Woodruff, S.

    2014-06-01

    Opportunities exist to improve on-line process control in energy applications with a fast, non-destructive measurement of gas composition. Here, we demonstrate a Raman sensing system which is capable of reporting the concentrations of numerous species simultaneously with sub-percent accuracy and sampling times below one-second for process control applications in energy or chemical production. The sensor is based upon a hollow-core capillary waveguide with a 300 micron bore with reflective thin-film metal and dielectric linings. The effect of using such a waveguide in a Raman process is to integrate Raman photons along the length of the sample-filled waveguide, thus permitting the acquisition of very large Raman signals for low-density gases in a short time. The resultant integrated Raman signals can then be used for quick and accurate analysis of a gaseous mixture. The sensor is currently being tested for energy applications such as coal gasification, turbine control, well-head monitoring for exploration or production, and non-conventional gas utilization. In conjunction with an ongoing commercialization effort, the researchers have recently completed two prototype instruments suitable for hazardous area operation and testing. Here, we report pre-commercialization testing of those field prototypes for control applications in gasification or similar processes. Results will be discussed with respect to accuracy, calibration requirements, gas sampling techniques, and possible control strategies of industrial significance.

  7. Theory of Raman scattering in coupled electron-phonon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Raman spectrum is calculated for a coupled conduction-electron-phonon system in the zero-momentum-transfer limit. The Raman scattering is due to electron-hole excitations and phonons as well. The phonons of those branches that contribute to the electron self-energy and the correction of the electron-phonon vertex are assumed to have flat energy dispersion (the Einstein phonons). The effect of electron-impurity scattering is also incorporated. Both the electron-phonon interaction and the electron-impurity interaction cause the fluctuation of the electron distribution between different parts of the Fermi surface, which results in overdamped zero-sound modes of various symmetries. The scattering cross section is obtained by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The spectrum shows a lower threshold at the smallest Einstein phonon energy when only the electron-phonon interaction is taken into consideration. When impurities are also taken into consideration, the threshold disappears.

  8. A Raman spectroscopic study of barium copper oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loo, B.H.; burns, D.H.; Roloin, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    Various physical treatments of BaCuO 2 samples result in irreversible changes in its Raman spectrum. The prominent peaks at 576 and 628 cm -1 in the spectra of sintered pellets of BaCuO 2 disappear upon further annealing in air or oxygen or upon mere regrinding of the pellets. Further annealing in air, oxygen, or vacuum does not restore these peaks. Similar but less intense peaks reappear upon exposure of pellets to laboratory environment for several weeks, but these broaden and disappear upon further exposure. These spectral characteristics contrast with those observed in Y123 Raman spectrum. It is concluded that the peaks at 582 cm -1 and 636 cm -1 in the spectra of sintered pellets of Y123 are not due to the presence of BaCuO 2

  9. Spectral quantum fluctuations in a stimulated Raman generator: a description in terms of temporally coherent modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, I A

    1992-03-15

    The probability density of the single-shot mean Stokes frequency from a linear Raman generator is calculated. It is shown that the fluctuations in the Stokes pulse energy spectrum that arise from the quantum initiation of the Stokes light are reduced in the transient regime of amplification. Also, it appears that saturation of the Raman gain does not reduce the phase fluctuations of the Stokes light below those present in the unsaturated gain (linear) regime.

  10. A Raman Flow Cytometer: An Innovative Microfluidic Approach for Continuous Label-Free Analysis of Cells via Raman Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    De Grazia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    of calcium fluoride (which gives a negligible signal in Raman analyses), a photosensitive resist containing a pattern with channels and another slide of calcium fluoride in order for the channels to be sealed on both sides. The chip is, in turn, connected

  11. Electron Raman scattering in a cylindrical quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Qinghu; Yi Xuehua

    2012-01-01

    Electron Raman scattering (ERS) is investigated in a CdS cylindrical quantum dot (QD). The differential cross section is calculated as a function of the scattering frequency and the size of the QD. Single parabolic conduction and valence bands are assumed, and singularities in the spectrum are found and interpreted. The selection rules for the processes are also studied. The ERS studied here can be used to provide direct information about the electron band structure of these systems. (semiconductor physics)

  12. Single Molecule Raman Detection of Enkephalin on Silver Colloidal Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kneipp, Katrin; Kneipp, Holger; Abdali, Salim

    2004-01-01

    the Raman signal the enkephalin molecules have been attached to silver colloidal cluster structures. The experiments demonstrate that the SERS signal of the strongly enhanced ring breathing vibration of phenylalanine at 1000 cm-1 can be used as “intrinsic marker” for detecting a single enkephalin molecule...... and for monitoring its diffusion on the surface of the silver colloidal cluster without using a specific label molecule....

  13. Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Shapiro, Alexander; Berg, Rolf W.

    Poster "Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy", See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/petroday2004.ppt......Poster "Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy", See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/petroday2004.ppt...

  14. Imaging with extrinsic Raman labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, N M; Duindam, J J; Puppels, G J; Otto, C; Greve, J

    1996-01-01

    In two separate examples we demonstrate the use of extrinsic Raman scattering probes for imaging of biological samples. First, the distribution of cholesterol in a rat eye Lens is determined with the use of the Raman scattered light from filipin, a molecule which binds specifically to cholesterol.

  15. Identification of monoclinic calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate and hydroxyapatite in human sclera using Raman microspectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ko-Hua; Li, Mei-Jane; Cheng, Wen-Ting

    2009-01-01

    Raman microspectroscopy was first used to determine the composition of a calcified plaque located at the pterygium-excision site of a 51-year-old female patient's left nasal sclera after surgery. It was unexpectedly found that the Raman spectrum of the calcified sample at 1149, 1108, 1049, 756, 5...... to the characteristic peak at 958/cm of hydroxyapatite (HA). This is the first study to report the spectral biodiagnosis of both monoclinic CPPD and HA co-deposited in the calcified plaque of a patient with sclera dystrophic calcification using Raman microspectroscopy....

  16. Raman scattering in a two-dimensional Fermi liquid with spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Saurabh; Maslov, Dmitrii L.

    2017-04-01

    We present a microscopic theory of Raman scattering in a two-dimensional Fermi liquid (FL) with Rashba and Dresselhaus types of spin-orbit coupling and subject to an in-plane magnetic field (B ⃗). In the long-wavelength limit, the Raman spectrum probes the collective modes of such a FL: the chiral spin waves. The characteristic features of these modes are a linear-in-q term in the dispersion and the dependence of the mode frequency on the directions of both q ⃗ and B ⃗. All of these features have been observed in recent Raman experiments on Cd1 -xMnxTe quantum wells.

  17. A comparative study on defect estimation using XPS and Raman spectroscopy in few layer nanographitic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, K; Ghosh, Subrata; Gopala Krishna, Nanda; Ilango, S; Kamruddin, M; Tyagi, A K

    2016-08-10

    Defects in planar and vertically oriented nanographitic structures (NGSs) synthesized by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) have been investigated using Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. While Raman spectra reveal the dominance of vacancy and boundary type defects respectively in vertical and planar NGSs, XPS provides additional information on vacancy related defect peaks in the C 1s spectrum, which originate from non-conjugated carbon atoms in the hexagonal lattice. Although an excellent correlation prevails between these two techniques, our results show that estimation of surface defects by XPS is more accurate than Raman analysis. Nuances of these techniques are discussed in the context of assessing defects in nanographitic structures.

  18. Bare and protected sputtered-noble-metal films for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, David; Bonhommeau, Sébastien

    2014-11-01

    Sputtered silver and gold films with different surface morphologies have been prepared and coated with a benzenethiol self-assembled monolayer. Rough noble metal films showed strong Raman features assigned to adsorbed benzenethiol molecules upon irradiation over a wide energy range in the visible spectrum, which disclosed the occurrence of a significant surface-enhanced Raman scattering with maximal enhancement factors as high as 6 × 106. In addition, the adsorption of ethanethiol onto silver surfaces hinders their corrosion over days while preserving mostly intact enhancement properties of naked silver. This study may be applied to develop stable and efficient metalized probes for tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  19. Miniature Raman spectrometer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvallet, Joseph; Auz, Bryan; Rodriguez, John; Olmstead, Ty

    2018-02-01

    The development of techniques to rapidly identify samples ranging from, molecule and particle imaging to detection of high explosive materials, has surged in recent years. Due to this growing want, Raman spectroscopy gives a molecular fingerprint, with no sample preparation, and can be done remotely. These systems can be small, compact, lightweight, and with a user interface that allows for easy use and sample identification. Ocean Optics Inc. has developed several systems that would meet all these end user requirements. This talk will describe the development of different Ocean Optics Inc miniature Raman spectrometers. The spectrometer on a phone (SOAP) system was designed using commercial off the shelf (COTS) components, in a rapid product development cycle. The footprint of the system measures 40x40x14 mm (LxWxH) and was coupled directly to the cell phone detector camera optics. However, it gets roughly only 40 cm-1 resolution. The Accuman system is the largest (290x220X100 mm) of the three, but uses our QEPro spectrometer and get 7-11 cm-1 resolution. Finally, the HRS-30 measuring 165x85x40 mm is a combination of the other two systems. This system uses a modified EMBED spectrometer and gets 7-12 cm-1 resolution. Each of these units uses a peak matching algorithm that then correlates the results to the pre-loaded and customizable spectral libraries.

  20. Raman scattering in a Heisenberg S = 1/2 antiferromagnet on the anisotropic triangular lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, Natalia; Brenig, Wolfram

    2009-01-01

    We investigate two-magnon Raman scattering from the S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the triangular lattice (THAF), considering both isotropic and anisotropic exchange interactions. We find that the Raman intensity for the isotropic THAF is insensitive to the scattering geometry, while both the line profile and the intensity of the Raman response for the anisotropic THAF shows a strong dependence on the scattering geometry. For the isotropic case we present an analytical and numerical study of the Raman intensity including both the effect of renormalization of the one-magnon spectrum by 1 = S corrections and final-state magnonmagnon interactions. The bare Raman intensity displays two peaks related to one-magnon van-Hove singularities. We find that 1 = S self-energy corrections to the one-magnon spectrum strongly modify this intensity profile. The central Raman-peak is significantly enhanced due to plateaus in the magnon dispersion, the high frequency peak is suppressed due to magnon damping, and the overall spectral support narrows considerably. Additionally we investigate final-state interactions by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation to O(1 = S). In contrast to collinear antiferromagnets, the non-collinear nature of the magnetic ground state leads to an irreducible magnon scattering which is retarded and non-separable already to lowest order. We show that final-state interactions lead to a rather broad Raman-continuum centered around approximately twice the 'roton'-energy.

  1. Label-Free Raman Hyperspectral Imaging of Single Cells Cultured on Polymer Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinjab, Faris; Sicilia, Giovanna; Shipp, Dustin W; Marlow, Maria; Notingher, Ioan

    2017-12-01

    While Raman hyperspectral imaging has been widely used for label-free mapping of biomolecules in cells, these measurements require the cells to be cultured on weakly Raman scattering substrates. However, many applications in biological sciences and engineering require the cells to be cultured on polymer substrates that often generate large Raman scattering signals. Here, we discuss the theoretical limits of the signal-to-noise ratio in the Raman spectra of cells in the presence of polymer signals and how optical aberrations may affect these measurements. We show that Raman spectra of cells cultured on polymer substrates can be obtained using automatic subtraction of the polymer signals and demonstrate the capabilities of these methods in two important applications: tissue engineering and in vitro toxicology screening of drugs. Apart from their scientific and technological importance, these applications are examples of the two most common measurement configurations: (1) cells cultured on an optically thick polymer substrate measured using an immersion/dipping objective; and (2) cells cultured on a transparent polymer substrate and measured using an inverted optical microscope. In these examples, we show that Raman hyperspectral data sets with sufficient quality can be successfully acquired to map the distribution of common biomolecules in cells, such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids, as well as detecting the early stages of apoptosis. We also discuss strategies for further improvements that could expand the application of Raman hyperspectral imaging on polymer substrates even further in biomedical sciences and engineering.

  2. Two-magnon Raman scattering in LiMnPO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon Filho, C.J. [Instituto de Física ”Gleb Wataghin”, UNICAMP, 13083-859, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Gomes, P.F. [Instituto de Física ”Gleb Wataghin”, UNICAMP, 13083-859, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Goiás, 75801-615, Jataí, Goiás (Brazil); García-Flores, A.F.; Barberis, G.E. [Instituto de Física ”Gleb Wataghin”, UNICAMP, 13083-859, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Granado, E., E-mail: egranado@ifi.unicamp.br [Instituto de Física ”Gleb Wataghin”, UNICAMP, 13083-859, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-03-01

    Two-magnon Raman scattering is observed in the orthophosphate LiMnPO{sub 4}, carrying quantitative information on the magnetic interactions between local Mn{sup 2+} moments. A simulated annealing fitting procedure of the Raman signal to theoretical curves derived from a magnetic Hamiltonian was carried out, taking exchange and anisotropy constants as free fitting parameters. Previously reported inelastic neutron scattering (INS) data [J. Li et al., Phys. Rev. B 79, 144410 (2009)] were also used in the fit. It is shown that the combined application of INS and Raman scattering data in the fit reduces the ambiguity of the determined set of exchange parameters with respect to fitting procedures using INS or Raman data independently. The temperature dependence of the Raman signal does not show a collapse of the two-magnon excitations at the long-range magnetic ordering temperature, T{sub N}=34K, supporting significant short-range spin correlations above T{sub N}. - Highlights: • A two-magnon Raman scattering signal was observed in the orthophosphate LiMnPO{sub 4}. • Calculations under the Fleury–Loudon were carried out to simulate the observed signal. • A combined fit using Raman and neutron data yields a robust set of magnetic parameters. • The nearest-neighbor interaction is largely dominant over the remaining terms. • This work is a step forward in combining techniques to obtain exchange constants.

  3. Power frequency spectrum analysis of surface EMG signals of upper limb muscles during elbow flexion - A comparison between healthy subjects and stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Silvija; Ribagin, Simeon; Raikova, Rositsa; Veneva, Ivanka

    2018-02-01

    After a stroke, motor units stop working properly and large, fast-twitch units are more frequently affected. Their impaired functions can be investigated during dynamic tasks using electromyographic (EMG) signal analysis. The aim of this paper is to investigate changes in the parameters of the power/frequency function during elbow flexion between affected, non-affected, and healthy muscles. Fifteen healthy subjects and ten stroke survivors participated in the experiments. Electromyographic data from 6 muscles of the upper limbs during elbow flexion were filtered and normalized to the amplitudes of EMG signals during maximal isometric tasks. The moments when motion started and when the flexion angle reached its maximal value were found. Equal intervals of 0.3407 s were defined between these two moments and one additional interval before the start of the flexion (first one) was supplemented. For each of these intervals the power/frequency function of EMG signals was calculated. The mean (MNF) and median frequencies (MDF), the maximal power (MPw) and the area under the power function (APw) were calculated. MNF was always higher than MDF. A significant decrease in these frequencies was found in only three post-stroke survivors. The frequencies in the first time interval were nearly always the highest among all intervals. The maximal power was nearly zero during first time interval and increased during the next ones. The largest values of MPw and APw were found for the flexor muscles and they increased for the muscles of the affected arm compared to the non-affected one of stroke survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Blood analysis by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enejder, Annika M K; Koo, Tae-Woong; Oh, Jeankun; Hunter, Martin; Sasic, Slobodan; Feld, Michael S; Horowitz, Gary L

    2002-11-15

    Concentrations of multiple analytes were simultaneously measured in whole blood with clinical accuracy, without sample processing, using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were acquired with an instrument employing nonimaging optics, designed using Monte Carlo simulations of the influence of light-scattering-absorbing blood cells on the excitation and emission of Raman light in turbid medium. Raman spectra were collected from whole blood drawn from 31 individuals. Quantitative predictions of glucose, urea, total protein, albumin, triglycerides, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were made by means of partial least-squares (PLS) analysis with clinically relevant precision (r(2) values >0.93). The similarity of the features of the PLS calibration spectra to those of the respective analyte spectra illustrates that the predictions are based on molecular information carried by the Raman light. This demonstrates the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy for quantitative measurements of biomolecular contents in highly light-scattering and absorbing media.

  5. Digital micromirror devices in Raman trace detection of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glimtoft, Martin; Svanqvist, Mattias; Ågren, Matilda; Nordberg, Markus; Östmark, Henric

    2016-05-01

    Imaging Raman spectroscopy based on tunable filters is an established technique for detecting single explosives particles at stand-off distances. However, large light losses are inherent in the design due to sequential imaging at different wavelengths, leading to effective transmission often well below 1 %. The use of digital micromirror devices (DMD) and compressive sensing (CS) in imaging Raman explosives trace detection can improve light throughput and add significant flexibility compared to existing systems. DMDs are based on mature microelectronics technology, and are compact, scalable, and can be customized for specific tasks, including new functions not available with current technologies. This paper has been focusing on investigating how a DMD can be used when applying CS-based imaging Raman spectroscopy on stand-off explosives trace detection, and evaluating the performance in terms of light throughput, image reconstruction ability and potential detection limits. This type of setup also gives the possibility to combine imaging Raman with non-spatially resolved fluorescence suppression techniques, such as Kerr gating. The system used consists of a 2nd harmonics Nd:YAG laser for sample excitation, collection optics, DMD, CMOScamera and a spectrometer with ICCD camera for signal gating and detection. Initial results for compressive sensing imaging Raman shows a stable reconstruction procedure even at low signals and in presence of interfering background signal. It is also shown to give increased effective light transmission without sacrificing molecular specificity or area coverage compared to filter based imaging Raman. At the same time it adds flexibility so the setup can be customized for new functionality.

  6. Time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy of intermediates of bacteriorhodopsin: The bK(590) intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terner, J; Hsieh, C L; Burns, A R; El-Sayed, M A

    1979-07-01

    We have combined microbeam and flow techniques with computer subtraction methods to obtain the resonance Raman spectrum of the short lived batho-intermediate (bK(590)) of bacteriorhodopsin. Comparison of the spectra obtained in (1)H(2)O and (2)H(2)O, as well as the fact that the bK(590) intermediate shows large optical red shifts, suggests that the Schiff base linkage of this intermediate is protonated. The fingerprint region of the spectrum of bK(590), sensitive to the isomeric configuration of the retinal chromophore, does not resemble the corresponding region of the parent bR(570) form. The resonance Raman spectrum of bK(590) as well as the spectra of all of the other main intermediates in the photoreaction cycle of bacteriorhodopsin are discussed and compared with resonance Raman spectra of published model compounds.

  7. Improving surface-enhanced Raman scattering effect using gold-coated hierarchical polystyrene bead substrates modified with postgrowth microwave treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Clement; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2008-01-01

    We report a novel postgrowth microwave heating implementation by selectively modifying hierarchical polystyrene (PS) bead substrates coated with gold (Au) films to effectively improve the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect on the analytes. The SERS signal of probe molecule rhodamine 6G (Rh 6G) on the microwave-treated Au-PS substrates can be improved by 10-fold, while the detection limit of Rh 6G in concentration can be enhanced by two orders of magnitude compared to the as-growth substrates. The high-quality SERS spectrum of saliva can also be acquired using the modified substrates, demonstrating the potential for the realization of the high-performance SERS substrates for biomedical applications.

  8. Kernel principal component analysis residual diagnosis (KPCARD): An automated method for cosmic ray artifact removal in Raman spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Boyan; Calvet, Amandine; Casamayou-Boucau, Yannick; Ryder, Alan G.

    2016-01-01

    A new, fully automated, rapid method, referred to as kernel principal component analysis residual diagnosis (KPCARD), is proposed for removing cosmic ray artifacts (CRAs) in Raman spectra, and in particular for large Raman imaging datasets. KPCARD identifies CRAs via a statistical analysis of the residuals obtained at each wavenumber in the spectra. The method utilizes the stochastic nature of CRAs; therefore, the most significant components in principal component analysis (PCA) of large numbers of Raman spectra should not contain any CRAs. The process worked by first implementing kernel PCA (kPCA) on all the Raman mapping data and second accurately estimating the inter- and intra-spectrum noise to generate two threshold values. CRA identification was then achieved by using the threshold values to evaluate the residuals for each spectrum and assess if a CRA was present. CRA correction was achieved by spectral replacement where, the nearest neighbor (NN) spectrum, most spectroscopically similar to the CRA contaminated spectrum and principal components (PCs) obtained by kPCA were both used to generate a robust, best curve fit to the CRA contaminated spectrum. This best fit spectrum then replaced the CRA contaminated spectrum in the dataset. KPCARD efficacy was demonstrated by using simulated data and real Raman spectra collected from solid-state materials. The results showed that KPCARD was fast ( 1 million) Raman datasets. - Highlights: • New rapid, automatable method for cosmic ray artifact correction of Raman spectra. • Uses combination of kernel PCA and noise estimation for artifact identification. • Implements a best fit spectrum replacement correction approach.

  9. Raman microscopy of individual living human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikov, Sergey M.; Beermann, Jonas; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of mapping the distribution of different biomolecules in living human embryonic stem cells grown on glass substrates, without the need for fluorescent markers. In our work we improve the quality of measurements by finding a buffer that gives low fluorescence, growing...... cells on glass substrates (whose Raman signals are relatively weak compared to that of the cells) and having the backside covered with gold to improve the image contrast under direct white light illumination. The experimental setup used for Raman microscopy is the commercially available confocal...

  10. Electromagnetic attenuation of eight earthquakes registered in Mexico using FFT-based spectrum and t-test statistical analysis for ULF Q-R ratios signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Chavez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A method to improve the detection of seismo-magnetic signals is presented herein. Eight events registered for periods of 24 hours with seismic activity were analyzed and compared with non-seismic periods of the same duration. The distance between the earthquakes (EQs and the ultra-low frequency detector is of  ρ = (1.8 100.45M, where M is the magnitude of the EQ reported by the Seismological National Service of Mexico, in a period of three years. An improved fast Fourier transform analysis in the form of the ratio of the vertical magnetic field component to the horizontal one (Q = Bz/Bx has been developed. There are important differences between the frequencies obtained during the days of seismic activity compared with those with no seismic activity.

  11. [Study of alkaline lignin from Arundo donax linn based on FT Raman spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ting-ting; Ma, Jian-feng; Guo, Si-qin; Xu, Feng

    2014-08-01

    Arundo donax linn, as a perennial energy crop, has promising application prospect. In the present study, Fourier transform Raman (FT Raman) spectroscopy was applied to determine the structural information of materials, milled wood lignin (MWL), and alkaline lignins (AL, under different treated time) from A. donax stem nondestructively. The results indicated that, extractable compounds in A. donax had negative contribution to the Raman spectra without rising new Raman peaks. FT Raman spectrum of MWL indicated that MWL from A. donax was HGS type lignins. Compared with the spectra of MWL from wood materials, the peak at 1173 cm(-1) was much higher in intensity for the MWL from A. donax stem, which may be assigned to hydroxycinnamic acid by analyzing the standard. With respect to FT Raman spectra of ALs, the relatively highest intensity of 1173 cm(-1) was found in alkaline lignin (AL2), which was treated for 40 min by alkaline. Moreover, the peak of coniferaldehyde/sinapaldehyde (1630 cm(-1)) was lowest in intensity while the band attributed to coniferyl alcohol/sinapyl alcohol (1660 cm(-1)) was almost disappeared in AL2. It could be inferred that AL2 demonstrated a highest content of phenolic acid, which may improve its potential application, such as for antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the results obtained by FT Raman spectra were verified by two dimensional heteronuclear singlequantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. Above all, FT Raman spectroscopy provided alternative safe, rapid, accurate, and nondestructive technology for lignin structure determination.

  12. Time-Gated Raman Spectroscopy for Quantitative Determination of Solid-State Forms of Fluorescent Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipiäinen, Tiina; Pessi, Jenni; Movahedi, Parisa; Koivistoinen, Juha; Kurki, Lauri; Tenhunen, Mari; Yliruusi, Jouko; Juppo, Anne M; Heikkonen, Jukka; Pahikkala, Tapio; Strachan, Clare J

    2018-04-03

    Raman spectroscopy is widely used for quantitative pharmaceutical analysis, but a common obstacle to its use is sample fluorescence masking the Raman signal. Time-gating provides an instrument-based method for rejecting fluorescence through temporal resolution of the spectral signal and allows Raman spectra of fluorescent materials to be obtained. An additional practical advantage is that analysis is possible in ambient lighting. This study assesses the efficacy of time-gated Raman spectroscopy for the quantitative measurement of fluorescent pharmaceuticals. Time-gated Raman spectroscopy with a 128 × (2) × 4 CMOS SPAD detector was applied for quantitative analysis of ternary mixtures of solid-state forms of the model drug, piroxicam (PRX). Partial least-squares (PLS) regression allowed quantification, with Raman-active time domain selection (based on visual inspection) improving performance. Model performance was further improved by using kernel-based regularized least-squares (RLS) regression with greedy feature selection in which the data use in both the Raman shift and time dimensions was statistically optimized. Overall, time-gated Raman spectroscopy, especially with optimized data analysis in both the spectral and time dimensions, shows potential for sensitive and relatively routine quantitative analysis of photoluminescent pharmaceuticals during drug development and manufacturing.

  13. A fast and reliable readout method for quantitative analysis of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes on chip surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hyejin; Jeong, Sinyoung; Ko, Eunbyeol; Jeong, Dae Hong, E-mail: yslee@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com, E-mail: jeongdh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry Education, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Homan [Interdisciplinary Program in Nano-Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon-Sik, E-mail: yslee@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com, E-mail: jeongdh@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Nano-Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho-Young, E-mail: yslee@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com, E-mail: jeongdh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering techniques have been widely used for bioanalysis due to its high sensitivity and multiplex capacity. However, the point-scanning method using a micro-Raman system, which is the most common method in the literature, has a disadvantage of extremely long measurement time for on-chip immunoassay adopting a large chip area of approximately 1-mm scale and confocal beam point of ca. 1-μm size. Alternative methods such as sampled spot scan with high confocality and large-area scan method with enlarged field of view and low confocality have been utilized in order to minimize the measurement time practically. In this study, we analyzed the two methods in respect of signal-to-noise ratio and sampling-led signal fluctuations to obtain insights into a fast and reliable readout strategy. On this basis, we proposed a methodology for fast and reliable quantitative measurement of the whole chip area. The proposed method adopted a raster scan covering a full area of 100 μm × 100 μm region as a proof-of-concept experiment while accumulating signals in the CCD detector for single spectrum per frame. One single scan with 10 s over 100 μm × 100 μm area yielded much higher sensitivity compared to sampled spot scanning measurements and no signal fluctuations attributed to sampled spot scan. This readout method is able to serve as one of key technologies that will bring quantitative multiplexed detection and analysis into practice.

  14. Abnormal anti-Stokes Raman emission as a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering-like process in disordered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltog, Ioan; Baibarac, Mihaela; Smaranda, Ion; Lefrant, Serge

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that, by continuous single beam excitation, one can generate an abnormal anti-Stokes Raman emission (AASRE) whose properties are similar to a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). The effect has been observed in materials which possess intrinsically nonlinear properties (LiNbO 3 and CdS), which have the electric susceptibility of third order different from zero, χ (3) ≠ 0, as well as in materials that become nonlinear under resonant optical excitation. In the latter case, we used poly-3,4-ethylendioxythiophene (PEDOT) in its undoped state deposited electrochemically on Au support. Raman studies corroborated with images of optical microscopy demonstrate that the production of AASRE is conditioned by the existence of a particular morphology of the sample able to ensure efficient transport of the light inside the sample through a multiple light scattering mechanism. In this context, it was found that LiNbO 3 and CdS in powder form as well as the PEDOT films layered on a rough Au substrate are suitable morphological forms. We explain AASRE as resulting from a wave-mixing mechanism of the incident laser light ω l with a Stokes-shifted Raman light ω S produced by a spontaneous Raman light scattering process, both strongly scattered inside the sample. As a CARS process, AASRE is conditioned by the achievement of phase-matching requirements, which makes the difference between the wave vectors of mixing light close to zero, Δk =/2k l - k S - k CARS /∼ 0. In condensed media, the small dispersion of the refractive index makes Δk ∼ 0 so that the formation of a favourable phase-matching geometry may be accomplished even at a crossing angle θ of travelling scattered light ω l and ω S . For tightly focused beams, the requirement of phase matching relaxes; it is no longer sensitive to the Raman shift, so that a wide intense anti-Stokes Raman spectrum is observed at an angle larger than the Stokes Raman spectrum.

  15. Scanning angle Raman spectroscopy: Investigation of Raman scatter enhancement techniques for chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Matthew W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis outlines advancements in Raman scatter enhancement techniques by applying evanescent fields, standing-waves (waveguides) and surface enhancements to increase the generated mean square electric field, which is directly related to the intensity of Raman scattering. These techniques are accomplished by employing scanning angle Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. A 1064 nm multichannel Raman spectrometer is discussed for chemical analysis of lignin. Extending dispersive multichannel Raman spectroscopy to 1064 nm reduces the fluorescence interference that can mask the weaker Raman scattering. Overall, these techniques help address the major obstacles in Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis, which include the inherently weak Raman cross section and susceptibility to fluorescence interference.

  16. Applications of the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picquart, M.; Haro P, E.; Bernard, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Vibration spectroscopy techniques are used for many times to identify substances, determine molecular structure and quantify them, independently of their physical state. Raman spectroscopy as infrared absorption permit to access the vibration energy levels of molecules. In the second case, the permanent dipolar moment is involved while in the first one it is the polarizability (and the induced dipolar moment). Unfortunately, the classical Raman spectroscopy is low sensitive in particular in the case of biological molecules. On the opposite, the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) offers great potentialities. In this case, the molecules are adsorbed on a rough surface or on nanoparticles of gold or silver and the: signal can be increased by a factor of 10 7 to 10 8 . Moreover, the spectral enhancement is greater for the vibrations of the functional group of the molecule adsorbed on the substrate. In this work, we present the main theoretical bases of SERS, and some results obtain on different systems. (Author)

  17. Raman analysis of gold on WSe2 single crystal film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Bablu; Sun Leong, Wei; Li, Yida; Thong, John T L; Gong, Hao; Sun, Linfeng; Xiang Shen, Ze; Simsek, Ergun

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis and characterization of high-quality single-crystal tungsten diselenide (WSe 2 ) films on a highly insulating substrate is presented. We demonstrate for the first time that the presence of gold (Au) nanoparticles in the basal plane of a WSe 2 film can enhance its Raman scattering intensity. The experimentally observed enhancement ratio in the Raman signal correlates well with the simulated electric field intensity using both three-dimensional electromagnetic software and theoretical calculation considering layered medium coupled-dipole approximation (LM-CDA). This work serves as a guideline for the use of Au nanoparticles on WSe 2 single-crystal thin films for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications in the future. (paper)

  18. Determination of nutritional parameters of yoghurts by FT Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Tomasz; Baranowska, Maria; Mazurek, Sylwester; Szostak, Roman

    2018-05-01

    FT-Raman quantitative analysis of nutritional parameters of yoghurts was performed with the help of partial least squares models. The relative standard errors of prediction for fat, lactose and protein determination in the quantified commercial samples equalled to 3.9, 3.2 and 3.6%, respectively. Models based on attenuated total reflectance spectra of the liquid yoghurt samples and of dried yoghurt films collected with the single reflection diamond accessory showed relative standard errors of prediction values of 1.6-5.0% and 2.7-5.2%, respectively, for the analysed components. Despite a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio in the obtained spectra, Raman spectroscopy, combined with chemometrics, constitutes a fast and powerful tool for macronutrients quantification in yoghurts. Errors received for attenuated total reflectance method were found to be relatively higher than those for Raman spectroscopy due to inhomogeneity of the analysed samples.

  19. Regression filter for signal resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthes, W.

    1975-01-01

    The problem considered is that of resolving a measured pulse height spectrum of a material mixture, e.g. gamma ray spectrum, Raman spectrum, into a weighed sum of the spectra of the individual constituents. The model on which the analytical formulation is based is described. The problem reduces to that of a multiple linear regression. A stepwise linear regression procedure was constructed. The efficiency of this method was then tested by transforming the procedure in a computer programme which was used to unfold test spectra obtained by mixing some spectra, from a library of arbitrary chosen spectra, and adding a noise component. (U.K.)

  20. Detection of latent prints by Raman imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Linda Anne [Andersonville, TN; Connatser, Raynella Magdalene [Knoxville, TN; Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur

    2011-01-11

    The present invention relates to a method for detecting a print on a surface, the method comprising: (a) contacting the print with a Raman surface-enhancing agent to produce a Raman-enhanced print; and (b) detecting the Raman-enhanced print using a Raman spectroscopic method. The invention is particularly directed to the imaging of latent fingerprints.

  1. Raman spectra of lithium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Bi, Dongxue; Voinov, Y. P.; Vodchits, A. I.; Gorshunov, B. P.; Yurasov, N. I.; Yurasova, I. I.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to the results of investigating the spontaneous Raman scattering spectra in the lithium compounds crystals in a wide spectral range by the fibre-optic spectroscopy method. We also present the stimulated Raman scattering spectra in the lithium hydroxide and lithium deuteride crystals obtained with the use of powerful laser source. The symmetry properties of the lithium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide monohydrate and lithium deuteride crystals optical modes were analyzed by means of the irreducible representations of the point symmetry groups. We have established the selection rules in the Raman and infrared absorption spectra of LiOH, LiOH·H2O and LiD crystals.

  2. Subsampling for graph power spectrum estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar; Leus, Geert

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we focus on subsampling stationary random signals that reside on the vertices of undirected graphs. Second-order stationary graph signals are obtained by filtering white noise and they admit a well-defined power spectrum. Estimating the graph power spectrum forms a central component of stationary graph signal processing and related inference tasks. We show that by sampling a significantly smaller subset of vertices and using simple least squares, we can reconstruct the power spectrum of the graph signal from the subsampled observations, without any spectral priors. In addition, a near-optimal greedy algorithm is developed to design the subsampling scheme.

  3. Subsampling for graph power spectrum estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar

    2016-10-06

    In this paper we focus on subsampling stationary random signals that reside on the vertices of undirected graphs. Second-order stationary graph signals are obtained by filtering white noise and they admit a well-defined power spectrum. Estimating the graph power spectrum forms a central component of stationary graph signal processing and related inference tasks. We show that by sampling a significantly smaller subset of vertices and using simple least squares, we can reconstruct the power spectrum of the graph signal from the subsampled observations, without any spectral priors. In addition, a near-optimal greedy algorithm is developed to design the subsampling scheme.

  4. Conservation laws, vertex corrections, and screening in Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Saurabh; Chubukov, Andrey V.; Hirschfeld, P. J.

    2017-07-01

    We present a microscopic theory for the Raman response of a clean multiband superconductor, with emphasis on the effects of vertex corrections and long-range Coulomb interaction. The measured Raman intensity, R (Ω ) , is proportional to the imaginary part of the fully renormalized particle-hole correlator with Raman form factors γ (k ⃗) . In a BCS superconductor, a bare Raman bubble is nonzero for any γ (k ⃗) and diverges at Ω =2 Δmax , where Δmax is the largest gap along the Fermi surface. However, for γ (k ⃗) = constant, the full R (Ω ) is expected to vanish due to particle number conservation. It was sometimes stated that this vanishing is due to the singular screening by long-range Coulomb interaction. In our general approach, we show diagrammatically that this vanishing actually holds due to vertex corrections from the same short-range interaction that gives rise to superconductivity. We further argue that long-range Coulomb interaction does not affect the Raman signal for any γ (k ⃗) . We argue that vertex corrections eliminate the divergence at 2 Δmax . We also argue that vertex corrections give rise to sharp peaks in R (Ω ) at Ω <2 Δmin (the minimum gap along the Fermi surface), when Ω coincides with the frequency of one of the collective modes in a superconductor, e.g., Leggett and Bardasis-Schrieffer modes in the particle-particle channel, and an excitonic mode in the particle-hole channel.

  5. Cell Imaging by Spontaneous and Amplified Raman Spectroscopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Rusciano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy (RS is a powerful, noninvasive optical technique able to detect vibrational modes of chemical bonds. The high chemical specificity due to its fingerprinting character and the minimal requests for sample preparation have rendered it nowadays very popular in the analysis of biosystems for diagnostic purposes. In this paper, we first discuss the main advantages of spontaneous RS by describing the study of a single protozoan (Acanthamoeba, which plays an important role in a severe ophthalmological disease (Acanthamoeba keratitis. Later on, we point out that the weak signals that originated from Raman scattering do not allow probing optically thin samples, such as cellular membrane. Experimental approaches able to overcome this drawback are based on the use of metallic nanostructures, which lead to a huge amplification of the Raman yields thanks to the excitation of localized surface plasmon resonances. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS and tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS are examples of such innovative techniques, in which metallic nanostructures are assembled on a flat surface or on the tip of a scanning probe microscope, respectively. Herein, we provide a couple of examples (red blood cells and bacterial spores aimed at studying cell membranes with these techniques.

  6. Syntheses and multi-NMR study of fac- and mer-OsO(3)F(2)(NCCH(3)) and the X-ray crystal structure (n = 2) and Raman spectrum (n = 0) of fac-OsO(3)F(2)(NCCH(3)).nCH(3)CN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael J; Gerken, Michael; Mercier, Hélène P A; Schrobilgen, Gary J

    2010-06-07

    Dissolution of the infinite chain polymer, (OsO(3)F(2))(infinity), in CH(3)CN solvent at -40 degrees C followed by solvent removal under vacuum at -40 degrees C yielded fac-OsO(3)F(2)(NCCH(3)).nCH(3)CN (n >/= 2). Continued pumping at -40 degrees C with removal of uncoordinated CH(3)CN yielded fac-OsO(3)F(2)(NCCH(3)). Both fac-OsO(3)F(2)(NCCH(3)).nCH(3)CN and fac-OsO(3)F(2)(NCCH(3)) are yellow-brown solids and were characterized by low-temperature (-150 degrees C) Raman spectroscopy. The crystal structure (-173 degrees C) of fac-OsO(3)F(2)(NCCH(3)).2CH(3)CN consists of two co-crystallized CH(3)CN molecules and a pseudo-octahedral OsO(3)F(2).NCCH(3) molecule in which three oxygen atoms are in a facial arrangement and CH(3)CN is coordinated trans to an oxygen atom in an end-on fashion. The Os---N bond length (2.205(3) A) is among the shortest M---N adduct bonds observed for a d(0) transition metal oxide fluoride. The (19)F NMR spectrum of (OsO(3)F(2))(infinity) in CH(3)CN solvent (-40 degrees C) is a singlet (-99.6 ppm) corresponding to fac-OsO(3)F(2)(NCCH(3)). The (1)H, (15)N, (13)C, and (19)F NMR spectra of (15)N-enriched OsO(3)F(2)(NCCH(3)) were recorded in SO(2)ClF solvent (-84 degrees C). Nitrogen-15 enrichment resulted in splitting of the (19)F resonance of fac-OsO(3)F(2)((15)NCCH(3)) into a doublet ((2)J((15)N-(19)F), 21 Hz). In addition, a doublet of doublets ((2)J((19)F(ax)-(19)F(eq)), 134 Hz; (2)J((15)N-(19)F(eq)), 18 Hz) and a doublet ((2)J((19)F(ax)-(19)F(eq)), 134 Hz) were observed in the (19)F NMR spectrum that have been assigned to mer-OsO(3)F(2)((15)NCCH(3)); however, coupling of (15)N to the axial fluorine-on-osmium environment could not be resolved. The nitrogen atom of CH(3)CN is coordinated trans to a fluorine ligand in the mer-isomer. Quantum-chemical calculations at the SVWN and B3LYP levels of theory were used to calculate the energy-minimized gas-phase geometries, vibrational frequencies of fac- and mer-OsO(3)F(2)(NCCH(3)) and of CH(3)CN. The

  7. Shape-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering in gold–Raman-probe–silica sandwiched nanoparticles for biocompatible applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Cushing, Scott K; Lankford, Jessica; Wu, Nianqiang; Zhang Jianming; Ma Dongling; Aguilar, Zoraida P

    2012-01-01

    To meet the requirement of Raman probes (labels) for biocompatible applications, a synthetic approach has been developed to sandwich the Raman-probe (malachite green isothiocyanate, MGITC) molecules between the gold core and the silica shell in gold–SiO 2 composite nanoparticles. The gold–MGITC–SiO 2 sandwiched structure not only prevents the Raman probe from leaking out but also improves the solubility of the nanoparticles in organic solvents and in aqueous solutions even with high ionic strength. To amplify the Raman signal, three types of core, gold nanospheres, nanorods and nanostars, have been chosen as the substrates of the Raman probe. The effect of the core shape on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been investigated. The colloidal nanostars showed the highest SERS enhancement factor while the nanospheres possessed the lowest SERS activity under excitation with 532 and 785 nm lasers. Three-dimensional finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulation showed significant differences in the local electromagnetic field distributions surrounding the nanospheres, nanorods, and nanostars, which were induced by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The electromagnetic field was enhanced remarkably around the two ends of the nanorods and around the sharp tips of the nanostars. This local electromagnetic enhancement made the dominant contribution to the SERS enhancement. Both the experiments and the simulation revealed the order nanostars > nanorods > nanospheres in terms of the enhancement factor. Finally, the biological application of the nanostar–MGITC–SiO 2 nanoparticles has been demonstrated in the monitoring of DNA hybridization. In short, the gold–MGITC–SiO 2 sandwiched nanoparticles can be used as a Raman probe that features high sensitivity, good water solubility and stability, low-background fluorescence, and the absence of photobleaching for future biological applications. (paper)

  8. A Raman Flow Cytometer: An Innovative Microfluidic Approach for Continuous Label-Free Analysis of Cells via Raman Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    De Grazia, Antonio

    2015-05-05

    In this work a Raman flow cytometer is presented. It is a whole new microfluidic device that takes advantage of basic principles of Raman spectroscopy and fluorescent flow cytometry mixed together in a system of particularly shaped channels. These are indeed composed by specific shape and sizes – thanks to which cells can flow one-by-one – and a trap by means of which cells are trapped in order to perform Raman analysis on single ones in a constant and passive way. In this sense the microfluidic device promotes a fast method to look for single cells in a whole multicellular sample. It is a label-free analysis and this means that, on the contrary of what happens with fluorescent flow cytometry, the sample does not need to undergo any particular time-consuming pretreatment before being analyzed. Moreover it gives a complete information about the biochemical content of the sample thanks to the involvement of Raman spectroscopy as method of analysis. Many thought about a device like this, but eventually it is the first one being designed, fabricated and tested. The materials involved in the production of the Raman flow cytometer are chosen wisely. In particular the chip – the most important component of the device – is multilayered, being composed by a slide of calcium fluoride (which gives a negligible signal in Raman analyses), a photosensitive resist containing a pattern with channels and another slide of calcium fluoride in order for the channels to be sealed on both sides. The chip is, in turn, connected to gaskets and external frames. Several fabrication processes are followed to ultimately get the complete Raman flow cytometer and experiments on red blood cells demonstrate its validity in this field.

  9. Raman spectroscopy of white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Coralie; Bruneel, Jean-Luc; Guyon, François; Médina, Bernard; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Guillaume, François

    2015-08-15

    The feasibility of exploiting Raman scattering to analyze white wines has been investigated using 3 different wavelengths of the incoming laser radiation in the near-UV (325 nm), visible (532 nm) and near infrared (785 nm). To help in the interpretation of the Raman spectra, the absorption properties in the UV-visible range of two wine samples as well as their laser induced fluorescence have also been investigated. Thanks to the strong intensity enhancement of the Raman scattered light due to electronic resonance with 325 nm laser excitation, hydroxycinnamic acids may be detected and analyzed selectively. Fructose and glucose may also be easily detected below ca. 1000 cm(-1). This feasibility study demonstrates the potential of the Raman spectroscopic technique for the analysis of white wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Suppression of resonance Raman scattering via ground state depletion towards sub-diffraction-limited label-free microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieger, S.; Fischedick, M.; Boller, Klaus J.; Fallnich, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first experimental demonstration of the suppression of spontaneous Raman scattering via ground state depletion. The concept of Raman suppression can be used to achieve sub-diffraction-limited resolution in label-free microscopy by exploiting spatially selective signal suppression

  11. Spectral watermarking in femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy: resolving the nature of the carotenoid S-star state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloz, Miroslav; Weissenborn, J.; Polivka, T.; Frank, H.A.; Kennis, J.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    A new method for recording femtosecond stimulated Raman spectra was developed that dramatically improves and automatizes baseline problems. Instead of using a narrowband Raman source, the experiment is performed using shaping of a broadband source. This allows locking the signal into carefully

  12. Heating by the Raman instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estabrook, K.G.; Kruer, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    Computer simulations are presented of the reflection and heating due to stimulated Raman backscatter of intense laser light in large regions of underdense plasma. The heated electron distribution is found to be approximately a Maxwellian of temperature (m/sub e//2)v/sub p/ 2 , where v/sub p/ is the phase velocity of the electron plasma wave. A simple model of the reflection is presented. Raman may cause a pre-heat problem with large laser fusion reactor targets

  13. Cyclic organic peroxides identification and trace analysis by Raman microscopy and open-air chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena-Quevedo, Alvaro Javier

    The persistent use of cyclic organic peroxides in explosive devices has increased the interest in study these compounds. Development of methodologies for the detection of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) has become an urgent priority. However, differences in physical properties between cyclic organic peroxides make difficult the development of a general method for peroxide analysis and detection. Following this urgency, the first general technique for the analysis of any peroxide, regarding its structural differences is reported. Characterization and detection of TATP and HMTD was performed using an Open-Air Chemical Ionization High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer. The first spectrometric analysis for tetramethylene diperoxide dicarbamide (TMDD) and other nitrogen based peroxides using Raman Microscopy and Mass Spectrometry is reported. Analysis of cyclic peroxides by GC-MS was also conducted to compare results with OACI-HRTOF data. In the OACI mass spectrum, HMTD showed a clear signal at m/z 209 MH + and a small adduct peak at m/z 226 [M+NH4]+ that allowed its detection in commercial standard solutions and lab made standards. TMDD presented a molecular peak of m/z 237 MH+ and an adduct peak of m/z 254 [M+NH4]+. TATP showed a single peak at m/z 240 [M+NH4]+, while the peak of m/z 223 or 222 was completely absent. This evidence suggests that triperoxides are stabilized by the ammonium ion. TATP samples with deuterium enrichment were analyzed to compare results that could differentiate from HMTD. Raman microscopy was used as a complementary characterization method and was an essential tool for cyclic peroxides identification, particularly for those which could not be extensively purified. All samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy to confirm the Mass Spectrometry results. Peroxide O-O vibrations were observed around 750-970 cm-1. D18-TATP studies had identified ketone triperoxide nu(O-O) vibration around

  14. The Ring Monstrance from the Loreto treasury in Prague: handheld Raman spectrometer for identification of gemstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehlička, Jan; Culka, Adam; Baštová, Markéta; Bašta, Petr; Kuntoš, Jaroslav

    2016-12-13

    A miniature lightweight portable Raman spectrometer and a palm-sized device allow for fast and unambiguous detection of common gemstones mounted in complex jewels. Here, complex religious artefacts and the Ring Monstrance from the Loreto treasury (Prague, Czech Republic; eighteenth century) were investigated. These discriminations are based on the very good correspondence of the wavenumbers of the strongest Raman bands of the minerals. Very short laser illumination times and efficient collection of scattered light were sufficient to obtain strong diagnostic Raman signals. The following minerals were documented: quartz and its varieties, beryl varieties (emerald), corundum varieties (sapphire), garnets (almandine, grossular), diamond as well as aragonite in pearls. Miniature Raman spectrometers can be recommended for common gemmological work as well as for mineralogical investigations of jewels and cultural heritage objects whenever the antiquities cannot be transported to a laboratory.This article is part of the themed issue 'Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and spontaneous Raman scattering diagnostics of nonequilibrium plasmas and flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Walter R.; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2014-10-01

    The paper provides an overview of the use of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and spontaneous Raman scattering for diagnostics of low-temperature nonequilibrium plasmas and nonequilibrium high-enthalpy flows. A brief review of the theoretical background of CARS, four-wave mixing and Raman scattering, as well as a discussion of experimental techniques and data reduction, are included. The experimental results reviewed include measurements of vibrational level populations, rotational/translational temperature, electric fields in a quasi-steady-state and transient molecular plasmas and afterglow, in nonequilibrium expansion flows, and behind strong shock waves. Insight into the kinetics of vibrational energy transfer, energy thermalization mechanisms and dynamics of the pulse discharge development, provided by these experiments, is discussed. Availability of short pulse duration, high peak power lasers, as well as broadband dye lasers, makes possible the use of these diagnostics at relatively low pressures, potentially with a sub-nanosecond time resolution, as well as obtaining single laser shot, high signal-to-noise spectra at higher pressures. Possibilities for the development of single-shot 2D CARS imaging and spectroscopy, using picosecond and femtosecond lasers, as well as novel phase matching and detection techniques, are discussed.

  16. Review on Raman scattering in semiconductor nanowires: I. theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Raman scattering is a nondestructive technique that is able to supply information on the crystal and electronic structures, strain, temperature, phonon-phonon, and electron-phonon interaction. In the particular case of semiconductor nanowires, Raman scattering provides additional information related to surfaces. Although correct, a theoretical approach to analyze the surface optical modes loses critical information when retardation is neglected. A comparison of the retarded and unretarded approaches clarifies the role of the electric and magnetic polarization in the Raman selection rules. Since most III-V compounds growing in the zincblende phase change their crystal structure to wurtzite when growing as nanowires, the polariton description will be particularized for these two important crystal phases. Confined phonons exist in cylindrical nanowires and couple with longitudinal and transverse modes due to the presence of the nanowire's surface. This coupling vanishes in the case of rotational symmetry. The boundary conditions of the electromagnetic fields on small-size nanowires (antenna effect) have a dramatic effect on the polarization properties of a Raman spectrum.

  17. Contributions of Raman spectroscopy to the understanding of bone strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandair, Gurjit S; Morris, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is increasingly commonly used to understand how changes in bone composition and structure influence tissue-level bone mechanical properties. The spectroscopic technique provides information on bone mineral and matrix collagen components and on the effects of various matrix proteins on bone material properties as well. The Raman spectrum of bone not only contains information on bone mineral crystallinity that is related to bone hardness but also provides information on the orientation of mineral crystallites with respect to the collagen fibril axis. Indirect information on collagen cross-links is also available and will be discussed. After a short introduction to bone Raman spectroscopic parameters and collection methodologies, advances in in vivo Raman spectroscopic measurements for animal and human subject studies will be reviewed. A discussion on the effects of aging, osteogenesis imperfecta, osteoporosis and therapeutic agents on bone composition and mechanical properties will be highlighted, including genetic mouse models in which structure-function and exercise effects are explored. Similarly, extracellular matrix proteins, proteases and transcriptional proteins implicated in the regulation of bone material properties will be reviewed.

  18. Breast cancer diagnosis using FT-RAMAN spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Renata A.; Martin, Airton A.; Criollo, Carlos J. T.; Ramalho, Leandra N. Z.

    2005-04-01

    In this study FT-RAMAN spectra of breast tissue from 35 patients were obtained and separated into nine groups for histopathologic analysis, which are as follows: normal breast tissue, fibrocystic condition, in situ ductal carcinoma, in situ ductal carcinoma with necrosis, infiltrate ductal carcinoma, infiltrate inflammatory ductal carcinoma, infiltrate medullar ductal carcinoma, infiltrate colloid ductal carcinoma, and infiltrate lobular carcinoma. Using spectrum averages taken from each group a qualitative analysis was performed to compare these molecular compositions to those known to be present in abnormal concentrations in pathological situations, e.g. the development of desmoplastic lesions with a stroma of dense collagen in tumoral breast tissues which substitute adipose stroma of non-diseased breast tissue. The band identified as amino acids, offered basis for observation in the existence of alterations in the proteins, thus proving Raman Spectroscopic capacity in identification of primary structures of proteins; secondary protein structure was also identified through the peptic links, Amide I and Amide III, which have also been identified by various authors. Alterations were also identified in the peaks and bandwidths of nucleic acids demonstrating the utilization of Raman Spectroscopy in the analysis of the cells nucleus manifestations. All studies involving Raman Spectroscopy and breast cancer have shown excellent result reliability and therefore a basis for the technical theory.

  19. Breast cancer study in rats by using Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez E, J. C.; Cordova F, T.; Roca Ch, J. M.; Hernandez R, A.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: The use of Raman scattering to differentiate the biochemistry and hence distinguish between normal and abnormal samples of breast cancer with induced stress was investigated. Twelve different rat serum samples (5 control samples and 7 breast cancer samples) were measured. 25 spectra per sample were acquired in a region of 50 X 50 microns. Three hundred spectra were recorded and the spectral diagnostic models were constructed by using multivariate statistical analysis on the spectral matrix to carry out the discrimination between the control samples and cancers samples with induced stress. The spectral recording was performed with Raman microscopy system Thermo Scientific XRD in the range from 200 to 2000 cm -1 with a laser source of 780 nm, 24 m W of power and 50 s and exposure time were used for each spectrum. It is shown that the serum samples from rats with breast cancer and the control group can be discriminate when the multivariate analysis methods are applied to their Raman data set. The ratios were significant and correspond to proteins and phospholipids. The preliminary results suggest that the Raman spectroscopy could be an alternative technique to study the breast cancer in humans in a near future. (Author)

  20. Breast cancer study in rats by using Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez E, J. C. [IPN, Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria, Campus Guanajuato, Av. Mineral de Valenciana 200, Col. Fracc. Industrial Puerto Interior, 36275 Silao, Guanajuato (Mexico); Cordova F, T.; Roca Ch, J. M.; Hernandez R, A., E-mail: jcmartineze@ipn.mx [Universidad de Guanajuato, Division de Ciencias e Ingenierias, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, Loma del Bosque 103, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: The use of Raman scattering to differentiate the biochemistry and hence distinguish between normal and abnormal samples of breast cancer with induced stress was investigated. Twelve different rat serum samples (5 control samples and 7 breast cancer samples) were measured. 25 spectra per sample were acquired in a region of 50 X 50 microns. Three hundred spectra were recorded and the spectral diagnostic models were constructed by using multivariate statistical analysis on the spectral matrix to carry out the discrimination between the control samples and cancers samples with induced stress. The spectral recording was performed with Raman microscopy system Thermo Scientific XRD in the range from 200 to 2000 cm{sup -1} with a laser source of 780 nm, 24 m W of power and 50 s and exposure time were used for each spectrum. It is shown that the serum samples from rats with breast cancer and the control group can be discriminate when the multivariate analysis methods are applied to their Raman data set. The ratios were significant and correspond to proteins and phospholipids. The preliminary results suggest that the Raman spectroscopy could be an alternative technique to study the breast cancer in humans in a near future. (Author)

  1. Dermal fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition sustained by αvß3 integrin-ILK-Snail1/Slug signaling is a common feature for hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and hypermobility spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppi, Nicoletta; Chiarelli, Nicola; Binetti, Silvia; Ritelli, Marco; Colombi, Marina

    2018-04-01

    Hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hEDS) is a heritable connective tissue disorder with unknown molecular basis mainly characterized by generalized joint hypermobility, joint instability complications, and minor skin changes. The phenotypic spectrum is broad and includes multiple associated symptoms shared with chronic inflammatory systemic diseases. The stricter criteria defined in the 2017 EDS nosology leave without an identity many individuals with symptomatic joint hypermobility and/or features of hEDS; for these patients, the term Hypermobility Spectrum Disorders (HSD) was introduced. We previously reported that in vitro cultured hEDS and HSD patients' skin fibroblasts show a disarray of several extracellular matrix (ECM) components and dysregulated expression of genes involved in connective tissue homeostasis and inflammatory/pain/immune responses. Herein, we report that hEDS and HSD skin fibroblasts exhibit in vitro a similar myofibroblast-like phenotype characterized by the organization of α-smooth muscle actin cytoskeleton, expression of OB-cadherin/cadherin-11, enhanced migratory capability associated with augmented levels of the ECM-degrading metalloproteinase-9, and altered expression of the inflammation mediators CCN1/CYR61 and CCN2/CTGF. We demonstrate that in hEDS and HSD cells this fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition is triggered by a signal transduction pathway that involves αvβ3 integrin-ILK complexes, organized in focal adhesions, and the Snail1/Slug transcription factor, thus providing insights into the molecular mechanisms related to the pathophysiology of these protean disorders. The indistinguishable phenotype identified in hEDS and HSD cells resembles an inflammatory-like condition, which correlates well with the systemic phenotype of patients, and suggests that these multisystemic disorders might be part of a phenotypic continuum rather than representing distinct clinical entities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Zellweger Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe defect, resulting in essentially nonfunctional peroxisomes. This phenomenon produces the range of severity of the disorders. How is the Zellweger Spectrum Diagnosed? The distinctive shape of the head and face of a child born with one of the diseases of the ...

  3. Rapid surface enhanced Raman scattering detection method for chloramphenicol residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Yao, Weirong

    2015-06-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a widely used amide alcohol antibiotics, which has been banned from using in food producing animals in many countries. In this study, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) coupled with gold colloidal nanoparticles was used for the rapid analysis of CAP. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were conducted with Gaussian 03 at the B3LYP level using the 3-21G(d) and 6-31G(d) basis sets to analyze the assignment of vibrations. Affirmatively, the theoretical Raman spectrum of CAP was in complete agreement with the experimental spectrum. They both exhibited three strong peaks characteristic of CAP at 1104 cm-1, 1344 cm-1, 1596 cm-1, which were used for rapid qualitative analysis of CAP residues in food samples. The use of SERS as a method for the measurements of CAP was explored by comparing use of different solvents, gold colloidal nanoparticles concentration and absorption time. The method of the detection limit was determined as 0.1 μg/mL using optimum conditions. The Raman peak at 1344 cm-1 was used as the index for quantitative analysis of CAP in food samples, with a linear correlation of R2 = 0.9802. Quantitative analysis of CAP residues in foods revealed that the SERS technique with gold colloidal nanoparticles was sensitive and of a good stability and linear correlation, and suited for rapid analysis of CAP residue in a variety of food samples.

  4. Performance Assessment of a Plate Beam Splitter for Deep-Ultraviolet Raman Measurements with a Spatial Heterodyne Raman Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Nirmal; Angel, S Michael

    2017-06-01

    In earlier works, we demonstrated a high-resolution spatial heterodyne Raman spectrometer (SHRS) for deep-ultraviolet (UV) Raman measurements, and showed its ability to measure UV light-sensitive compounds using a large laser spot size. We recently modified the SHRS by replacing the cube beam splitter (BS) with a custom plate beam splitter with higher light transmission, an optimized reflectance/transmission ratio, higher surface flatness, and better refractive index homogeneity than the cube beam splitter. Ultraviolet Raman measurements were performed using a SHRS modified to use the plate beam splitter and a matching compensator plate and compared to the previously described cube beam splitter setup. Raman spectra obtained using the modified SHRS exhibit much higher signals and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and show fewer spectral artifacts. In this paper, we discuss the plate beam splitter SHRS design features, the advantages over previous designs, and discuss some general SHRS issues such as spectral bandwidth, S/N ratio characteristics, and optical efficiency.

  5. Surface-enhanced Raman effect in hybrid metal–semiconductor nanoparticle assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lughi, Vanni; Bonifacio, Alois; Barbone, Matteo; Marsich, Lucia; Sergo, Valter

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid metal–semiconductor nanoparticles consisting of silver nanoparticle cores (AgNPs) coated with a layer of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) have been studied by Raman spectroscopy. The hybrid nanoparticles were prepared via electrostatic interaction by mixing aqueous suspensions of QDs and AgNPs, where opposite charges on the AgNPs and QDs surfaces were induced by opportunely selected capping agents. Assemblies of such hybrid nanoparticles show an increased intensity of the Raman spectrum of up to 500 times, when compared to that of the sole QDs. This enhancement is attributed to the SERS effect (Surface-enhanced Raman scattering). Such enhancement of the Raman modes suggests several opportunities for further research, both in imaging and sensing applications.

  6. Resonance Raman and UV-visible spectroscopy of black dyes on textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Laurence C; Batchelor, Stephen N; Smith, John R Lindsay; Moore, John N

    2010-10-10

    Resonance Raman and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded from samples of cotton, viscose, polyester, nylon, and acrylic textile swatches dyed black with one of seven single dyes, a mixture of two dyes, or one of seven mixtures of three dyes. The samples generally gave characteristic Raman spectra of the dyes, demonstrating that the technique is applicable for the forensic analysis of dyed black textiles. Survey studies of the widely used dye Reactive Black 5 show that essentially the same Raman spectrum is obtained on bulk sampling from the dye in solution, on viscose, on cotton at different uptakes, and on microscope sampling from the dye in cotton threads and single fibres. The effects of laser irradiation on the Raman bands and emission backgrounds from textile samples with and without dye are also reported. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy study of transformed zones in magnesia-partially-stabilized zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davskardt, R.H.; Veirs, D.K.; Ritchie, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    Raman vibrational spectroscopy provides an effective phase characterization technique in materials systems containing particle dispersions of the tetragonal and monoclinic polymorphs of zirconia, each of which yields a unique Raman spectrum. An investigation is reported to assess a novel, spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy system in the study of transformed zones surrounding cracks in partially stabilized MgO-ZrO 2 (PSZ). The experimental arrangement uses an imaging (two-dimensional) photomultiplier tube to produce a one-dimensional Raman profile of phase compositions along a slitlike laser beam without translation of either the sample or the laser beam and without scanning the spectrometer. Results from phase characterization studies of the size, frontal morphology, and extent of transformation of transformation zones surrounding cracks produced under monotonic and cyclic loading conditions are presented

  8. Contrastive Analysis of the Raman Spectra of Polychlorinated Benzene: Hexachlorobenzene and Benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjun Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated benzene in environment in trace amounts is challenging, but important. It is more difficult to distinguish homologues and isomers of organic pollutantd when present in trace amounts because of their similar physical and chemical properties. In this work we simulate the Raman spectra of hexachlorobenzene and benzene, and figure out the vibration mode of each main peak. The effect on the Raman spectrum of changing substituents from H to Cl is analyzed to reveal the relations between the Raman spectra of homologues and isomers of polychlorinated benzene, which should be helpful for distinguishing one kind of polychlorinated benzene from its homologues and isomers by surface enhanced Raman scattering.

  9. Cloud Liquid Water, Mean Droplet Radius and Number Density Measurements Using a Raman Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, David N.; Melfi, S. Harvey

    1999-01-01

    A new technique for measuring cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius and droplet number density is outlined. The technique is based on simultaneously measuring Raman and Mie scattering from cloud liquid droplets using a Raman lidar. Laboratory experiments on liquid micro-spheres have shown that the intensity of Raman scattering is proportional to the amount of liquid present in the spheres. This fact is used as a constraint on calculated Mie intensity assuming a gamma function particle size distribution. The resulting retrieval technique is shown to give stable solutions with no false minima. It is tested using Raman lidar data where the liquid water signal was seen as an enhancement to the water vapor signal. The general relationship of retrieved average radius and number density is consistent with traditional cloud physics models. Sensitivity to the assumed maximum cloud liquid water amount and the water vapor mixing ratio calibration are tested. Improvements to the technique are suggested.

  10. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Carbon Nanomembranes from Aromatic Self-Assembled Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianghui; Mainka, Marcel; Paneff, Florian; Hachmeister, Henning; Beyer, André; Gölzhäuser, Armin; Huser, Thomas

    2018-02-27

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy (SERS) was employed to investigate the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of biphenylthiol, 4'-nitro-1,1'-biphenyl-4-thiol, and p-terphenylthiol on Au surfaces and their structural transformations into carbon nanomembranes (CNMs) induced by electron irradiation. The high sensitivity of SERS allows us to identify two types of Raman scattering in electron-irradiated SAMs: (1) Raman-active sites exhibit similar bands as those of pristine SAMs in the fingerprint spectral region, but with indications of an amorphization process and (2) Raman-inactive sites show almost no Raman-scattering signals, except a very weak and broad D band, indicating a lack of structural order but for the presence of graphitic domains. Statistical analysis showed that the ratio of the number of Raman-active sites to the total number of measurement sites decreases exponentially with increasing the electron irradiation dose. The maximum degree of cross-linking ranged from 97 to 99% for the three SAMs. Proof-of-concept experiments were conducted to demonstrate potential applications of Raman-inactive CNMs as a supporting membrane for Raman analysis.

  11. Real time near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Lim Chwee; Gangodu, Nagaraja Rao; Loh, Thomas; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Jianfeng; Lin, Kan; Zhiwei, Huang

    2017-07-25

    Near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy has been investigated as a tool to differentiate nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) from normal nasopharyngeal tissue in an ex-vivo setting. Recently, we have miniaturized the fiber-optic Raman probe to investigate its utility in real time in-vivo surveillance of NPC patients. A posterior probability model using partial linear square (PLS) mathematical technique was constructed to verify the sensitivity and specificity of Raman spectroscopy in diagnosing NPC from post-irradiated and normal tissue using a diagnostic algorithm from three significant latent variables. NIR-Raman signals of 135 sites were measured from 79 patients with either newly diagnosed NPC (N = 12), post irradiated nasopharynx (N = 37) and normal nasopharynx (N = 30). The mean Raman spectra peaks identified differences at several Raman peaks at 853 cm-1, 940 cm-1, 1078 cm-1, 1335 cm-1, 1554 cm-1, 2885 cm-1 and 2940 cm-1 in the three different nasopharyngeal conditions. The sensitivity and specificity of distinguishing Raman signatures among normal nasopharynx versus NPC and post-irradiated nasopharynx versus NPC were 91% and 95%; and 77% and 96% respectively. Real time near-infrared Raman spectroscopy has a high specificity in distinguishing malignant from normal nasopharyngeal tissue in vivo, and may be investigated as a novel non-invasive surveillance tool in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer.

  12. Time domain diffuse Raman spectrometer based on a TCSPC camera for the depth analysis of diffusive media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konugolu Venkata Sekar, S; Mosca, S; Tannert, S; Valentini, G; Martelli, F; Binzoni, T; Prokazov, Y; Turbin, E; Zuschratter, W; Erdmann, R; Pifferi, A

    2018-05-01

    We present a time domain diffuse Raman spectrometer for depth probing of highly scattering media. The system is based on, to the best of our knowledge, a novel time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) camera that simultaneously acquires both spectral and temporal information of Raman photons. A dedicated non-contact probe was built, and time domain Raman measurements were performed on a tissue mimicking bilayer phantom. The fluorescence contamination of the Raman signal was eliminated by early time gating (0-212 ps) the Raman photons. Depth sensitivity is achieved by time gating Raman photons at different delays with a gate width of 106 ps. Importantly, the time domain can provide time-dependent depth sensitivity leading to a high contrast between two layers of Raman signal. As a result, an enhancement factor of 2170 was found for our bilayer phantom which is much higher than the values obtained by spatial offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS), frequency offset Raman spectroscopy (FORS), or hybrid FORS-SORS on a similar phantom.

  13. Resonance Raman spectroscopy in the picosecond time scale: the carboxyhemoglobin photointermediate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terner, J.; Spiro, T.G.; Nagumo, M.; Nicol, M.F.; El-Sayed, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    A picosecond resonance Raman detection technique is described. The technique is described as specifically applied to the analysis of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). Irradiaton of COHb with a tightly focused laser produced three distinct bands between 1540 and 1620cm -1 that are distinct from bands of COHb or deoxyHb, and the bands are attributed to an intermediate in the photolysis of COHb which develops within 30ps of the excitation. Computer subtraction of the COHb spectrum yielded a spectrum of the photointermediate

  14. Raman spectral feature selection using ant colony optimization for breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahzadeh, Omid; Dehghani-Bidgoli, Zohreh; Assarian, Mohammad

    2018-06-04

    Pathology as a common diagnostic test of cancer is an invasive, time-consuming, and partially subjective method. Therefore, optical techniques, especially Raman spectroscopy, have attracted the attention of cancer diagnosis researchers. However, as Raman spectra contain numerous peaks involved in molecular bounds of the sample, finding the best features related to cancerous changes can improve the accuracy of diagnosis in this method. The present research attempted to improve the power of Raman-based cancer diagnosis by finding the best Raman features using the ACO algorithm. In the present research, 49 spectra were measured from normal, benign, and cancerous breast tissue samples using a 785-nm micro-Raman system. After preprocessing for removal of noise and background fluorescence, the intensity of 12 important Raman bands of the biological samples was extracted as features of each spectrum. Then, the ACO algorithm was applied to find the optimum features for diagnosis. As the results demonstrated, by selecting five features, the classification accuracy of the normal, benign, and cancerous groups increased by 14% and reached 87.7%. ACO feature selection can improve the diagnostic accuracy of Raman-based diagnostic models. In the present study, features corresponding to ν(C-C) αhelix proline, valine (910-940), νs(C-C) skeletal lipids (1110-1130), and δ(CH2)/δ(CH3) proteins (1445-1460) were selected as the best features in cancer diagnosis.

  15. Sum-Frequency-Generation-Based Laser Sidebands for Tunable Femtosecond Raman Spectroscopy in the Ultraviolet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangdong Zhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS is an emerging molecular structural dynamics technique for functional materials characterization typically in the visible to near-IR range. To expand its applications we have developed a versatile FSRS setup in the ultraviolet region. We use the combination of a narrowband, ~400 nm Raman pump from a home-built second harmonic bandwidth compressor and a tunable broadband probe pulse from sum-frequency-generation-based cascaded four-wave mixing (SFG-CFWM laser sidebands in a thin BBO crystal. The ground state Raman spectrum of a laser dye Quinolon 390 in methanol that strongly absorbs at ~355 nm is systematically studied as a standard sample to provide previously unavailable spectroscopic characterization in the vibrational domain. Both the Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman spectra can be collected by selecting different orders of SFG-CFWM sidebands as the probe pulse. The stimulated Raman gain with the 402 nm Raman pump is >21 times larger than that with the 550 nm Raman pump when measured at the 1317 cm−1 peak for the aromatic ring deformation and ring-H rocking mode of the dye molecule, demonstrating that pre-resonance enhancement is effectively achieved in the unique UV-FSRS setup. This added tunability in the versatile and compact optical setup enables FSRS to better capture transient conformational snapshots of photosensitive molecules that absorb in the UV range.

  16. Measurements of stratospheric Pinatubo aerosol extinction profiles by a Raman lidar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo, Makoto; Nagasawa, Chikao.

    1992-01-01

    The Raman lidar has been used for remote measurements of water vapor, ozone and atmospheric temperature in the lower troposphere because the Raman cross section is three orders smaller than the Rayleigh cross section. The authors estimated the extinction coefficients of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol in the stratosphere using a Raman lidar. If the precise aerosol extinction coefficients are derived, the backscatter coefficient of a Mie scattering lidar will be more accurately estimated. The Raman lidar has performed to measure density profiles of some species using Raman scattering. Here the authors used a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser for transmitter and received nitrogen vibrational Q-branch Raman scattering signal. Ansmann et al. (1990) derived tropospherical aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar. The authors think that this method can apply to dense stratospheric aerosols such as Pinatubo volcanic aerosols. As dense aerosols are now accumulated in the stratosphere by Pinatubo volcanic eruption, the error of Ramen lidar signal regarding the fluctuation of air density can be ignored

  17. Fluorescence suppression using wavelength modulated Raman spectroscopy in fiber-probe-based tissue analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Bavishna B; Ashok, Praveen C; Mazilu, Michael; Riches, Andrew; Herrington, Simon; Dholakia, Kishan

    2012-07-01

    In the field of biomedical optics, Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for probing the chemical composition of biological samples. In particular, fiber Raman probes play a crucial role for in vivo and ex vivo tissue analysis. However, the high-fluorescence background typically contributed by the auto fluorescence from both a tissue sample and the fiber-probe interferes strongly with the relatively weak Raman signal. Here we demonstrate the implementation of wavelength-modulated Raman spectroscopy (WMRS) to suppress the fluorescence background while analyzing tissues using fiber Raman probes. We have observed a significant signal-to-noise ratio enhancement in the Raman bands of bone tissue, which have a relatively high fluorescence background. Implementation of WMRS in fiber-probe-based bone tissue study yielded usable Raman spectra in a relatively short acquisition time (∼30  s), notably without any special sample preparation stage. Finally, we have validated its capability to suppress fluorescence on other tissue samples such as adipose tissue derived from four different species.

  18. Instant detection and identification of concealed explosive-related compounds: Induced Stokes Raman versus infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbasuney, Sherif; El-Sherif, Ashraf F

    2017-01-01

    The instant detection of explosives and explosive-related compounds has become an urgent priority in recent years for homeland security and counter-terrorism applications. Modern techniques should offer enhancement in selectivity, sensitivity, and standoff distances. Miniaturisation, portability, and field-ruggedisation are crucial requirements. This study reports on instant and standoff identification of concealed explosive-related compounds using customized Raman technique. Stokes Raman spectra of common explosive-related compounds were generated and spectrally resolved to create characteristic finger print spectra. The scattered Raman emissions over the band 400:2000cm -1 were compared to infrared absorption using FTIR. It has been demonstrated that the two vibrational spectroscopic techniques were opposite and completing each other. Molecular vibrations with strong absorption in infrared (those involve strong change in dipole moments) induced weak signals in Raman and vice versa. The tailored Raman offered instant detection, high sensitivity, and standoff detection capabilities. Raman demonstrated characteristic fingerprint spectra with stable baseline and sharp intense peaks. Complete correlations of absorption/scattered signals to certain molecular vibrations were conducted to generate an entire spectroscopic profile of explosive-related compounds. This manuscript shades the light on Raman as one of the prevailing technologies for instantaneous detection of explosive-related compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Raman microscopic studies of PVD deposited hard ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constable, C.P.

    2000-01-01

    PVD hard ceramic coatings grown via the combined cathodic arc/unbalance magnetron deposition process were studied using Raman microscopy. Characteristic spectra from binary, multicomponent, multilayered and superlattice coatings were acquired to gain knowledge of the solid-state physics associated with Raman scattering from polycrystalline PVD coatings and to compile a comprehensive spectral database. Defect-induced first order scattering mechanisms were observed which gave rise to two pronounced groups of bands related to the acoustical (150- 300cm -1 ) and optical (400-7 50cm -1 ) parts of the phonon spectrum. Evidence was gathered to support the theory that the optic modes were mainly due to the vibrations of the lighter elements and the acoustic modes due to the vibrations of the heavier elements within the lattice. A study into the deformation and disordering on the Raman spectral bands of PVD coatings was performed. TiAIN and TiZrN coatings were intentionally damaged via scratching methods. These scratches were then analysed by Raman mapping, both across and along, and a detailed spectral interpretation performed. Band broadening occurred which was related to 'phonon relaxation mechanisms' as a direct result of the breaking up of coating grains resulting in a larger proportion of grain boundaries per-unit-volume. A direct correlation of the amount of damage with band width was observed. Band shifts were also found to occur which were due to the stresses caused by the scratching process. These shifts were found to be the largest at the edges of scratches. The Raman mapping of 'droplets', a defect inherent to PVD deposition processes, found that higher compressive stresses and large amounts of disorder occurred for coating growth onto droplets. Strategies designed to evaluate the ability of Raman microscopy to monitor the extent of real wear on cutting tools were evaluated. The removal of a coating layer and subsequent detection of a base layer proved

  20. Circumventing substrate interference in the Raman spectroscopic identification of blood stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Gregory; Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Lednev, Igor K

    2013-09-10

    Raman spectroscopy has demonstrated remarkable capabilities in identifying blood in controlled laboratory conditions. However, substrate interference presents a significant challenge toward characterizing body fluid traces with Raman spectroscopy at a crime scene. Here, several possible solutions are explored, including the selection of laser excitation, isolating the signal of blood using spectral subtraction and using a favorable substrate for collection which minimizes interference. Simulated blood stain evidence was prepared and analyzed using a Raman microscope with variable laser capabilities. It is shown that the best approach for detecting blood depends on the nature of the substrate and the type of interference encountered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Click chemistry based biomolecular conjugation monitoring using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palla, Mirko; Kumar, Shiv; Li, Zengmin

    2016-01-01

    We describe here a novel surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based technique for monitoring the conjugation of small molecules by the well-known click reaction between an alkyne and azido moiety on the partner molecules. The monitoring principle is based on the loss of the characteristic...... alkyne/azide Raman signal with triazole formation in the reaction as a function of time. Since these universal Raman reporter groups are specific for click reactions, this method may facilitate a broad range of applications for monitoring the conjugation efficiency of molecules in diverse areas...

  2. Raman probes based on optically-poled double-clad fiber and coupler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, Anna Chiara; Margulis, Walter; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    of a sample of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), when illuminating the waveguide with 1064nm laser light. The Raman signal is collected in the inner cladding, from which it is retrieved with either a bulk dichroic mirror or a double-clad fiber coupler. The coupler allows for a substantial reduction of the fiber......Two fiber Raman probes are presented, one based on an optically-poled double-clad fiber and the second based on an optically-poled double-clad fiber coupler respectively. Optical poling of the core of the fiber allows for the generation of enough 532nm light to perform Raman spectroscopy...

  3. Wavelength modulated surface enhanced (resonance) Raman scattering for background-free detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Bavishna B; Steuwe, Christian; Mazilu, Michael; Dholakia, Kishan; Mahajan, Sumeet

    2013-05-21

    Spectra in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) are always accompanied by a continuum emission called the 'background' which complicates analysis and is especially problematic for quantification and automation. Here, we implement a wavelength modulation technique to eliminate the background in SERS and its resonant version, surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS). This is demonstrated on various nanostructured substrates used for SER(R)S. An enhancement in the signal to noise ratio for the Raman bands of the probe molecules is also observed. This technique helps to improve the analytical ability of SERS by alleviating the problem due to the accompanying background and thus making observations substrate independent.

  4. Raman selection rule of surface optical phonon in ZnS nanobelts

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Chih-Hsiang; Varadhan, Purushothaman; Wang, Hsin-Hua; Chen, Cheng-Ying; Fang, Xiaosheng; He, Jr-Hau

    2016-01-01

    We report Raman scattering results of high-quality wurtzite ZnS nanobelts (NBs) grown by chemical vapor deposition. In Raman spectrum, the ensembles of ZnS NBs exhibit first order phonon modes at 274 cm-1 and 350 cm-1, corresponding to A1/E1 transverse optical and A1/E1 longitudinal optical phonons, in addition with strong surface optical (SO) phonon mode at 329 cm-1. The existence of SO band is confirmed by its shift with different surrounding dielectric media. Polarization dependent Raman spectrum was performed on a single ZnS NB and for the first time SO phonon band has been detected on a single nanobelt. Different selection rules of SO phonon modeshown from their corresponding E1/A1 phonon modeswere attributed to the anisotropic translational symmetry breaking on the NB surface.

  5. Raman selection rule of surface optical phonon in ZnS nanobelts

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Chih-Hsiang

    2016-02-18

    We report Raman scattering results of high-quality wurtzite ZnS nanobelts (NBs) grown by chemical vapor deposition. In Raman spectrum, the ensembles of ZnS NBs exhibit first order phonon modes at 274 cm-1 and 350 cm-1, corresponding to A1/E1 transverse optical and A1/E1 longitudinal optical phonons, in addition with strong surface optical (SO) phonon mode at 329 cm-1. The existence of SO band is confirmed by its shift with different surrounding dielectric media. Polarization dependent Raman spectrum was performed on a single ZnS NB and for the first time SO phonon band has been detected on a single nanobelt. Different selection rules of SO phonon modeshown from their corresponding E1/A1 phonon modeswere attributed to the anisotropic translational symmetry breaking on the NB surface.

  6. Raman Optical Activity and Raman Spectra of Amphetamine Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Shim, Irene; White, Peter Cyril

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical calculations and preliminary measurements of vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra of different species of amphetamine (amphetamine and amphetamine-H+) are reported for the first time. The quantum chemical calculations were carried out as hybrid ab initio DFT-molecular orbi......Theoretical calculations and preliminary measurements of vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra of different species of amphetamine (amphetamine and amphetamine-H+) are reported for the first time. The quantum chemical calculations were carried out as hybrid ab initio DFT...... are employed for identification purposes. The DFT calculations show that the most stable conformations are those allowing for close contact between the aromatic ring and the amine hydrogen atoms. The internal rotational barrier within the same amphetamine enanti- omer has a considerable influence on the Raman...

  7. Two-magnon Raman scattering in a spin density wave antiferromagnet

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenfeld, Friedhelm; Kampf, Arno P.; Mueller-Hartmann, Erwin

    1996-01-01

    We present the results for a model calculation of resonant two-magnon Raman scattering in a spin density wave (SDW) antiferromagnet. The resonant enhancement of the two-magnon intensity is obtained from a microscopic analysis of the photon-magnon coupling vertex. By combining magnon-magnon interactions with `triple resonance` phenomena in the vertex function the resulting intensity line shape is found to closely resemble the measured two-magnon Raman signal in antiferromagnetic cuprates. Both...

  8. Chapter 1.1 Crystallinity of Nanocellulose Materials by Near-IR FT-Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard S. Reiner; Sally A. Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Considering that crystallinity is one of the important properties that influence the end use of cellulose nanomaterials, it is important that the former be measured accurately. Recently, a new method based on near-IR FTRaman spectroscopy was proposed to determine cellulose I crystallinity. It was reported that in the Raman spectrum of cellulose materials, the...

  9. SERS spectrum of gallic acid obtained from a modified silver colloid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, C.; Diaz-Fleming, G.; Campos-Vallette, M. M.

    2016-06-01

    Two different crystals of the gallic acid were microscopically separated from a p.a. commercial product. The Raman spectra analysis allowed distinguishing monomeric and dimeric structures. The vibrational wave numbers were computed using DFT quantum chemical calculations. The data obtained from wave number calculations are used to assign vibrational bands obtained in the Raman spectrum. The dimer, characterized as ellagic acid, involves the carboxyl and hydroxyl moieties. The Raman spectrum in water solution of each species is dominated by the monomeric form. A low negatively charged Ag colloid allowed obtain to the best of our knowledge, the first surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum of the gallic acid. The possible electrophilic attacking sites of the title molecule are identified using MEP surface plot study and the orientation of the analyte on the metal surface is proposed tilted to the surface.

  10. Spread spectrum image steganography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, L M; Boncelet, C R; Retter, C T

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method of digital steganography, entitled spread spectrum image steganography (SSIS). Steganography, which means "covered writing" in Greek, is the science of communicating in a hidden manner. Following a discussion of steganographic communication theory and review of existing techniques, the new method, SSIS, is introduced. This system hides and recovers a message of substantial length within digital imagery while maintaining the original image size and dynamic range. The hidden message can be recovered using appropriate keys without any knowledge of the original image. Image restoration, error-control coding, and techniques similar to spread spectrum are described, and the performance of the system is illustrated. A message embedded by this method can be in the form of text, imagery, or any other digital signal. Applications for such a data-hiding scheme include in-band captioning, covert communication, image tamperproofing, authentication, embedded control, and revision tracking.

  11. Raman chemical imaging technology for food and agricultural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents Raman chemical imaging technology for inspecting food and agricultural products. The paper puts emphasis on introducing and demonstrating Raman imaging techniques for practical uses in food analysis. The main topics include Raman scattering principles, Raman spectroscopy measurem...

  12. Raman scattering spectra of superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, D.; Bozovic, I.; Geballe, T.H.; Kapitulnik, A.; Mitzi, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Raman spectra of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 single crystals with superconducting phase-transition temperature of 90 K have been studied. The spectra contained phonon lines and electronic continuum. Phonon energies and polarization selection rules were measured. A gap in the electronic continuum spectrum was observed in a superconducting state. Noticeable similarity between Raman spectra of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 was found

  13. Raman scattering spectra of superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, D.; Bozovic, I.; Geballe, T. H.; Kapitulnik, A.; Mitzi, D. B.

    1988-12-01

    Raman spectra of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 single crystals with superconducting phase-transition temperature of 90 K have been studied. The spectra contained phonon lines and electronic continuum. Phonon energies and polarization selection rules were measured. A gap in the electronic continuum spectrum was observed in a superconducting state. Noticeable similarity between Raman spectra of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 and YBa2Cu3O7 was found.

  14. FT-Raman spectra of cellulose and lignocellulose materials : “self-absorption” phenomenon and its implications for quantitative work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh Agarwal; Nancy Kawai

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of “self-absorption” was found to exist in the FT-Raman spectra of cellulose and thermomechanical pulp (TMP), but not in the spectrum of milled wood lignin. For cellulose and TMP, the effect was responsible for reducing the intensity of the Raman bands in the C-H stretch region. Several factors including sampling position, sample thickness, and moisture...

  15. Pressure-induced change in the Raman spectra of ionic liquid [DEME][BF4]-H2O mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Y; Abe, H; Goto, T; Miyashita, T; Yoshimura, Y

    2010-01-01

    We have measured Raman spectral changes of N,N,diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium tetrafluoroborate, [DEME][BF 4 ]-H 2 O mixtures under high pressure. All the Raman spectra of mixtures of water concentrations below 50.0 mol% H 2 O changed at around 1 GPa at room temperature. The spectrum at high pressure is completely different from that obtained by cooling the sample at a normal pressure.

  16. 85 km Long Reach PON System Using a Reflective SOA-EA Modulator and Distributed Raman Fiber Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Öhman, Filip; Yvind, Kresten

    2006-01-01

    We report on a bidirectional 85 km long reach PON system supported by distributed fiber Raman amplification with a record 7.5 Gb/s remote carrier modulated upstream signal by employing a reflective SOA-EA monolithically integrated circuit......We report on a bidirectional 85 km long reach PON system supported by distributed fiber Raman amplification with a record 7.5 Gb/s remote carrier modulated upstream signal by employing a reflective SOA-EA monolithically integrated circuit...

  17. Raman and infrared investigations of glass and glass-ceramics with composition 2Na2O·1CaO·3SiO2

    OpenAIRE

    Ziemath, Ervino C.; Aegerter, Michel A.

    1994-01-01

    Precursor glass and glass-ceramics with molar composition 2Na2O·1CaO·3SiO2 are studied by infrared, conventional, and microprobe Raman techniques. The Gaussian deconvoluted Raman spectrum of the glass presents bands at 625 and 660 cm-1, attributed to bending vibrations of Si-O-Si bonds, and at 860, 920, 975 and 1030 cm-1, attributed to symmetric stretching vibrations of SiO4 tetrahedra with 4, 3, 2, and 1 nonbridging oxygens, respectively. The Raman microprobe spectrum of a highly crystalliz...

  18. In vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy of the human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, N J; Hendrikse, F; March, W F

    1999-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility of a confocal Raman spectroscopic technique for the noninvasive assessment of corneal hydration in vivo in two legally blind subjects. A laser beam (632.8 nm; 15 mJ) was maintained on the cornea by using a microscope objective lens (x25 magnification, NA = 0.5, f = 10 mm) both for focusing the incident light as well as collecting the Raman backscattered light, in a 180 degrees backscatter configuration. An optical fiber, acting as the confocal pinhole for elimination of light from out-of-focus places, was coupled to a spectrometer that dispersed the collected light onto a sensitive array detector for rapid spectral data acquisition over a range from 2,890 to 3,590/cm(-1). Raman spectra were recorded from the anterior 100-150 microm of the cornea over a period before and after topical application of a mild dehydrating solution. The ratio between the amplitudes of the signals at 3,400/cm(-1) (OH-vibrational mode of water) and 2,940/cm(-1) (CH-vibrational mode of proteins) was used as a measure for corneal hydration. High signal-to-noise ratio (SNR = 25) Raman spectra were obtained from the human corneas by using 15 mJ of laser light energy. Qualitative changes in the hydration of the anteriormost part of the corneas could be observed as a result of the dehydrating agent. With adequate improvements in system safety, confocal Raman spectroscopy could potentially be applied clinically as a noninvasive tool for the assessment of corneal hydration in vivo.

  19. Nanophotonics with Surface Enhanced Coherent Raman Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Alexander

    Nonlinear nanophotonics is a rapidly developing field of research that aims at detecting and disentangling weak congested optical signatures on the nanoscale. Sub-wavelength field confinement of the local electromagnetic fields and the resulting field enhancement is achieved by utilizing plasmonic near-field antennas. This allows for probing nanoscopic volumes, a property unattainable by conventional far-field microscopy techniques. Combination of plasmonics and nonlinear optical microscopy provides a path to visualizing a small chemical and spatial subset of target molecules within an ensemble. This is achieved while maintaining rapid signal acquisition, which is necessary for capturing biological processes in living systems. Herein, a novel technique, wide-field surface enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (wfSE-CARS) is presented. This technique allows for isolating weak vibrational signals in nanoscopic proximity to the surface by using chemical sensitivity of coherent Raman microspectroscopy (CRM) and field confinement from surface plasmons supported on a thin gold film. Uniform field enhancement over a large field of view, achieved with surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) in wfSE-CARSS, allows for biomolecular imaging demonstrated on extended structures like phospholipid droplets and live cells. Surface selectivity and chemical contrast are achieved at 70 fJ/mum2 incident energy densities, which is over five orders of magnitude lower than used in conventional point scanning CRM. Next, a novel surface sensing imaging technique, local field induced metal emission (LFIME), is introduced. Presence of a sample material at the surface influences the local fields of a thin flat gold film, such that nonlinear fluorescence signal of the metal can be detected in the far-field. Nanoscale nonmetallic, nonfluorescent objects can be imaged with high signal-to-background ratio and diffraction limited lateral resolution using LFIME. Additionally, structure of the

  20. Laser ablation surface-enhanced Raman microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Pablo S; Lombardi, John R; Leona, Marco

    2013-06-04

    Improved identification of trace organic compounds in complex matrixes is critical for a variety of fields such as material science, heritage science, and forensics. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a vibrational spectroscopy technique that can attain single-molecule sensitivity and has been shown to complement mass spectrometry, but lacks widespread application without a robust method that utilizes the effect. We demonstrate a new, highly sensitive, and widely applicable approach to SERS analysis based on laser ablation in the presence of a tailored plasmonic substrate. We analyze several challenging compounds, including non-water-soluble pigments and dyed leather from an ancient Egyptian chariot, achieving sensitivity as high as 120 amol for a 1:1 signal-to-noise ratio and 5 μm spatial resolution. This represents orders of magnitude improvement in spatial resolution and sensitivity compared to those of other SERS approaches intended for widespread application, greatly increasing the applicability of SERS.

  1. Theory of Graphene Raman Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Eric J; Yang, Yuan; Kocia, Lucas; Chen, Wei; Fang, Shiang; Borunda, Mario; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2016-02-23

    Raman scattering plays a key role in unraveling the quantum dynamics of graphene, perhaps the most promising material of recent times. It is crucial to correctly interpret the meaning of the spectra. It is therefore very surprising that the widely accepted understanding of Raman scattering, i.e., Kramers-Heisenberg-Dirac theory, has never been applied to graphene. Doing so here, a remarkable mechanism we term"transition sliding" is uncovered, explaining the uncommon brightness of overtones in graphene. Graphene's dispersive and fixed Raman bands, missing bands, defect density and laser frequency dependence of band intensities, widths of overtone bands, Stokes, anti-Stokes anomalies, and other known properties emerge simply and directly.

  2. Raman fiber distributed feedback lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Paul S; Abedin, Kazi S; Nicholson, Jeffrey W; Kremp, Tristan; Porque, Jerome

    2011-08-01

    We demonstrate fiber distributed feedback (DFB) lasers using Raman gain in two germanosilicate fibers. Our DFB cavities were 124 mm uniform fiber Bragg gratings with a π phase shift offset from the grating center. Our pump was at 1480 nm and the DFB lasers operated on a single longitudinal mode near 1584 nm. In a commercial Raman gain fiber, the maximum output power, linewidth, and threshold were 150 mW, 7.5 MHz, and 39 W, respectively. In a commercial highly nonlinear fiber, these figures improved to 350 mW, 4 MHz, and 4.3 W, respectively. In both lasers, more than 75% of pump power was transmitted, allowing for the possibility of substantial amplification in subsequent Raman gain fiber. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  3. Higher order mode optical fiber Raman amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations.......We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations....

  4. Field Raman spectrograph for environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrabba, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    The use of Raman Spectroscopy in the screening of soils, ground water, and surface waters for pollutants is described. A probe accessory for conducting surface enhanced Raman Spectroscopy is undergoing testing for dilute chlorinated solvents

  5. Raman and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy in Mineral Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, J. W.

    2014-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy is particularly useful for rapid identification of minerals and gemstones. Raman spectrometers also allow PL studies for authentication of samples and geological provenance, diamond type screening and detection of HPHT treatments.

  6. Dynamics of long ring Raman fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, Sergey V.; Melnikov, Leonid A.; Mazhirina, Yulia A.

    2016-04-01

    The numerical model for dynamics of long fiber ring Raman laser is proposed. The model is based on the transport equations and Courant-Isaacson-Rees numerical method. Different regimes of a long ring fiber Raman laser are investigated.

  7. Electromagnetic Modelling of Raman Enhancement from Nanoscale Structures as a Means to Predict the Efficacy of SERS Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. C. Brown

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The requirement to optimise the balance between signal enhancement and reproducibility in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS is stimulating the development of novel substrates for enhancing Raman signals. This paper describes the application of finite element electromagnetic modelling to predict the Raman enhancement produced from a variety of SERS substrates with differently sized, spaced and shaped morphologies with nanometre dimensions. For the first time, a theoretical comparison between four major generic types of SERS substrate (including metal nanoparticles, structured surfaces, and sharp tips has been performed and the results are presented and discussed. The results of the modelling are consistent with published experimental data from similar substrates.

  8. Raman Spectroscopy of Microbial Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapid nondestructive technique providing spectroscopic and structural information on both organic and inorganic molecular compounds. Extensive applications for the method in the characterization of pigments have been found. Due to the high sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy for the detection of chlorophylls, carotenoids, scytonemin, and a range of other pigments found in the microbial world, it is an excellent technique to monitor the presence of such pigments, both in pure cultures and in environmental samples. Miniaturized portable handheld instruments are available; these instruments can be used to detect pigments in microbiological samples of different types and origins under field conditions. PMID:24682303

  9. Micro-raman and tip-enhanced raman spectroscopy of carbon allotropes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, G.G.; With, de G.; Loos, J.

    2008-01-01

    Raman spectroscopic data are obtained on various carbon allotropes like diamond, amorphous carbon, graphite, graphene and single wall carbon nanotubes by micro-Raman spectroscopy, tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy imaging, and the potentials of these techniques for

  10. Multivariate reference technique for quantitative analysis of fiber-optic tissue Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2013-12-03

    We report a novel method making use of multivariate reference signals of fused silica and sapphire Raman signals generated from a ball-lens fiber-optic Raman probe for quantitative analysis of in vivo tissue Raman measurements in real time. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression modeling is applied to extract the characteristic internal reference Raman signals (e.g., shoulder of the prominent fused silica boson peak (~130 cm(-1)); distinct sapphire ball-lens peaks (380, 417, 646, and 751 cm(-1))) from the ball-lens fiber-optic Raman probe for quantitative analysis of fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy. To evaluate the analytical value of this novel multivariate reference technique, a rapid Raman spectroscopy system coupled with a ball-lens fiber-optic Raman probe is used for in vivo oral tissue Raman measurements (n = 25 subjects) under 785 nm laser excitation powers ranging from 5 to 65 mW. An accurate linear relationship (R(2) = 0.981) with a root-mean-square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 2.5 mW can be obtained for predicting the laser excitation power changes based on a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation, which is superior to the normal univariate reference method (RMSE = 6.2 mW). A root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 2.4 mW (R(2) = 0.985) can also be achieved for laser power prediction in real time when we applied the multivariate method independently on the five new subjects (n = 166 spectra). We further apply the multivariate reference technique for quantitative analysis of gelatin tissue phantoms that gives rise to an RMSEP of ~2.0% (R(2) = 0.998) independent of laser excitation power variations. This work demonstrates that multivariate reference technique can be advantageously used to monitor and correct the variations of laser excitation power and fiber coupling efficiency in situ for standardizing the tissue Raman intensity to realize quantitative analysis of tissue Raman measurements in vivo, which is particularly appealing in

  11. Summary report of FY 1995 Raman spectroscopy technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, J.G.

    1995-11-01

    US DOE is sponsoring development of remote, fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for rapid chemical characterization of Hanford high-level radioactive tank waste. Deployment targets for this technology are analytical hot cells and, via the Light-Duty Utility Arm and cone penetrometer, the waste tanks themselves. Perceived benefits of fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy are (1) rapid generation of tank-waste safety-related data, (2) reduced personnel exposure to highly radioactive waste, (3) reduced tank-waste sampling and analysis costs, and (4) reduced radioactive analytical waste. This document presents the results from the investigation of two dispersive, transmission-grating Raman systems and four fiber-optic Raman probe designs with non-radioactive tank waste simulants. One Raman system used a 532-nm, 400 mW, solid-state laser; the other used a 785-nm, 500 mW, solid-state diode laser. We found (1) the transmission-grating systems had better wavelength stability than previously tried Czerny-Turner-Based systems and (2) the 785-nm system's specie detection limits in the spectral fingerprint regiion were at least as good as those for the 532-nm system. Based on these results, and the fact that some tank wastes luminesce with 514.5nm excitation, we selected the 785-nm system for hot-cell use. Of the four probes tested, three had a ''six-around-on'' fiber probe design; the fourth probe was a one-fiber-in-one-fiber-out, diffuse-relectance design. Comparison of the four probes' signal-to-noise rations, rations, transmission/collection efficiencies, and probe-silica Raman backgrounds showed that the best probe for use with Hanford-Site tank waste should (1) be filtered as close to the probe tip as possible to reduce the probe-silica Raman background and (2) have multiple collection fibers. The responses of all the probes tested showed a strong dependence on probe-sample distance, and the presence of a probe window appeared to increase the probe's silica Raman background

  12. Subfemtosecond pulse generation by cascade-stimulated Raman scattering with modulated Raman excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Kun; Wu Jian; Zeng Heping

    2003-01-01

    Subfemtosecond (sub-fs) pulses can be generated by cascade-stimulated Raman scattering in a Raman medium with modulated Raman excitations, driven by two sufficiently intense laser beams, one of which is amplitude modulated. The nonadiabatic Raman interaction establishes a strong modulated Raman coherence, which supports compression of the generated broadband Raman sidebands to a train of sub-fs pulses regardless of whether the carrier frequencies of the driving lasers are tuned above, below or on two-photon Raman resonance. (letter to the editor)

  13. Raman spectra of lignin model compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard S. Reiner; Ashok K. Pandey; Sally A. Ralph; Kolby C. Hirth; Rajai H. Atalla

    2005-01-01

    To fully exploit the value of Raman spectroscopy for analyzing lignins and lignin containing materials, a detailed understanding of lignins’ Raman spectra needs to be achieved. Although advances made thus far have led to significant growth in application of Raman techniques, further developments are needed to improve upon the existing knowledge. Considering that lignin...

  14. High precision stress measurements in semiconductor structures by Raman microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlig, Benjamin

    2009-07-01

    Stress in silicon structures plays an essential role in modern semiconductor technology. This stress has to be measured and due to the ongoing miniaturization in today's semiconductor industry, the measuring method has to meet certain requirements. The present thesis deals with the question how Raman spectroscopy can be used to measure the state of stress in semiconductor structures. In the first chapter the relation between Raman peakshift and stress in the material is explained. It is shown that detailed stress maps with a spatial resolution close to the diffraction limit can be obtained in structured semiconductor samples. Furthermore a novel procedure, the so called Stokes-AntiStokes-Difference method is introduced. With this method, topography, tool or drift effects can be distinguished from stress related influences in the sample. In the next chapter Tip-enhanced Raman Scattering (TERS) and its application for an improvement in lateral resolution is discussed. For this, a study is presented, which shows the influence of metal particles on the intensity and localization of the Raman signal. A method to attach metal particles to scannable tips is successfully applied. First TERS scans are shown and their impact on and challenges for high resolution stress measurements on semiconductor structures is explained. (orig.)

  15. Water-Vapor Raman Lidar System Reaches Higher Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, I. Stewart

    2010-01-01

    A Raman lidar system for measuring the vertical distribution of water vapor in the atmosphere is located at the Table Mountain Facility (TMF) in California. Raman lidar systems for obtaining vertical water-vapor profiles in the troposphere have been in use for some time. The TMF system incorporates a number of improvements over prior such systems that enable extension of the altitude range of measurements through the tropopause into the lower stratosphere. One major obstacle to extension of the altitude range is the fact that the mixing ratio of water vapor in the tropopause and the lower stratosphere is so low that Raman lidar measurements in this region are limited by noise. Therefore, the design of the TMF system incorporates several features intended to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. These features include (1) the use of 355-nm-wavelength laser pulses having an energy (0.9 J per pulse) that is high relative to the laser-pulse energy levels of prior such systems, (2) a telescope having a large aperture (91 cm in diameter) and a narrow field of view (angular width .0.6 mrad), and (3) narrow-bandpass (wavelength bandwidth 0.6 nm) filters for the water-vapor Raman spectral channels. In addition to the large-aperture telescope, three telescopes having apertures 7.5 cm in diameter are used to collect returns from low altitudes.

  16. Identification of bacteria causing acute otitis media using Raman microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Oscar D.; Wakeman, Catherine A.; Skaar, Eric P.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2016-03-01

    Otitis media (OM) is the leading cause of acute physician visits and prescription of antibiotics for children. Current standard techniques to diagnose acute otitis media (AOM) are limited by their ability to probe only changes in symptoms of the bacterial infection that cause AOM. Furthermore, they are not able to detect the presence of or identify bacteria causing AOM, which is important for diagnosis and proper antibiotic treatment. Our goal is to detect the presence of and identify the pathogens involved in causing AOM based on their biochemical profile using Raman spectroscopy (RS). An inVia confocal Raman microscope (Renishaw) at 785 nm was used to detect bacteria causing AOM in vitro. The three main bacteria that cause AOM, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were cultured in chocolate agar and Mueller-Hinton agar to determine which agar type would minimize Raman signal from the growth agar. Preliminary results identified specific Raman spectral features characteristic of S. pneumoniae. RS has the potential to accurately diagnose AOM, which will help in identifying the antibiotic that will be most beneficial for the patient and ultimately decrease the course of infection.

  17. Highly Enhanced Raman Scattering on Carbonized Polymer Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jong-Chul; Hwang, Jongha; Thiyagarajan, Pradheep; Ruoff, Rodney S; Jang, Ji-Hyun

    2017-06-28

    We have discovered a carbonized polymer film to be a reliable and durable carbon-based substrate for carbon enhanced Raman scattering (CERS). Commercially available SU8 was spin coated and carbonized (c-SU8) to yield a film optimized to have a favorable Fermi level position for efficient charge transfer, which results in a significant Raman scattering enhancement under mild measurement conditions. A highly sensitive CERS (detection limit of 10 -8 M) that was uniform over a large area was achieved on a patterned c-SU8 film and the Raman signal intensity has remained constant for 2 years. This approach works not only for the CMOS-compatible c-SU8 film but for any carbonized film with the correct composition and Fermi level, as demonstrated with carbonized-PVA (poly(vinyl alcohol)) and carbonized-PVP (polyvinylpyrollidone) films. Our study certainly expands the rather narrow range of Raman-active material platforms to include robust carbon-based films readily obtained from polymer precursors. As it uses broadly applicable and cheap polymers, it could offer great advantages in the development of practical devices for chemical/bio analysis and sensors.

  18. Raman effect in ferroelectric Cd2Nb2O7 and in other crystals with pyrochlorine-type structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarev, R.V.; Sinij, I.G.; Kuz'minov, E.G.; Myl'nikova, I.E.

    1976-01-01

    Vibrational structure of cadmium and lead pyroniobates and a number of other crystals with a pyrochlore structure has been investigated by Raman scattering. The scattering has been studied using a double monochromator, HeNe laser, and a photons counter. In the Raman spectrum of cadmium and lead pyroniobates three frequency band1 can be distinguished. In the spectrum of rhombohedral lead pyroniobate the band structure in resolved much better than in the spectrum of cubic cadmium pyroniobate. The spectrum of lead pyroniobate crystals doped with magnesium and zinc ions has a medium (in the sense of complexity) structure, because big lead ions deteriorate the pyrochlore structure but doping of lead pyroniobate with Mg 2+ and Zn 2+ ions improves it. More than six bands in the Raman spectrum is associated with the presence of impurities in cubic cadmium pyroniobate that deteriorate its cubic structure. The decrease of temperature leads to a big change of the Cd 2 Nb 2 O 7 spectrum. However, the spectrum of Pb 2 Nb 2 O 7 -Zn cubic crystal measured ar temperatures below 100 deg K remais unchanged. The chages of the Cd 2 Nb 2 O 7 spectrum are associated with phase transitions at 200 and 85 K and also with ferroelectric transition at 185 K

  19. Detection and characterization of stomach cancer and atrophic gastritis with fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Lin, Junxiu; Jia, Chunde; Wang, Rong

    2003-12-01

    In this paper, we attempt to find a valid method to distinguish gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis. Auto-fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy of laser induced (514.5 nm and 488.0 nm) was measured. The serum spectrum is different between normal and cancer. Average value of diagnosis parameter for normal serum, red shift is less than 12 nm and Raman relative intensity of peak C by 514.5 nm excited is stronger than that of 488.0 nm. To gastric cancer, its red shift of average is bigger than 12 nm and relative intensity of Raman peak C by 514.5 nm excited is weaker than that by 488.0 nm. To atrophic gastritis, the distribution state of Raman peaks is similar with normal serum and auto-fluorescence spectrum's shape is similar to that of gastric cancer. Its average Raman peak red shift is bigger than 12 nm and the relative intensity of peak C by 514.5 excited is stronger than that of by 488.0. We considered it as a criterion and got an accuracy of 85.6% for diagnosis of gastric cancer compared with the result of clinical diagnosis.

  20. Shortwave-infrared Raman spectroscopic classification of water fractions in articular cartilage ex vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Mustafa; Akkus, Ozan

    2018-01-01

    Water loss is an early onset indicator of osteoarthritis. Although Raman spectroscopy (RS) holds the potential for measurement of cartilage hydration, the knowledge of Raman OH-stretch bands of biological tissue is very limited. We assesed here the sensitivity of RS to identify and classify water types in the cartilage. Raman spectrum measurements over the high wavenumber range were employed to identify different water fractions in articular cartilage. Raman spectra were collected from wet and sequentially dehydrated cartilage along with pure collagen type II and chondroitin sulfate standards. OH-stretch band of cartilage is dominated by mobile water, up to 95% of total intensities. We identified six peaks in cartilage spectrum using second-derivative analysis: peaks at 3200 and 3650 cm-1 are associated with organic matrix (both collagen and proteglycan) and matrix-bound water molecules. Peaks at 3250, 3453, and 3630 cm-1 are associated with collagen and collagen-related water molecules, whereas the peak at 3520 cm-1 is associated with proteoglycan (PG) and PG-related water molecules. The current work is the first thorough analysis of the Raman OH-stretch band of the cartilage and with the knowledge generated by this study, it may now be possible to study on cartilage hydration by RS.