WorldWideScience

Sample records for rajamiseks load kes

  1. Tallinna Sadam peab plaani tööstuspargi rajamiseks / Alyona Stadnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stadnik, Alyona

    2011-01-01

    Tallinna Sadam peab läbirääkimisi tööstuspargi rajamiseks India investeerimisettevõttega Platinum Corporations, kes on huvitatud vanametalli töötlemise tehase rajamisest Eestisse ja kellele pakutakse maad Paldiski Lõunasadama tööstuspargis. Firma esindajatega on kohtunud ka majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts

  2. Kes liigutavad ettureid? / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2007-01-01

    Mängufilm "Kes liigutavad ettureid" ("Lions for Lambs") : režissöör ja näitleja Robert Redford : stsenarist Matthew Michael Carnahan : produtsent ja näitleja Tom Cruise : näitleja Meryl Streep : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2007

  3. 11th KES International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Kusek, Mario; Chen-Burger, Yun-Heh; Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2017-01-01

    This volume highlights new trends and challenges in research on agents and the new digital and knowledge economy, and includes 23 papers classified into the following categories: business process management, agent-based modeling and simulation, and anthropic-oriented computing. All papers were originally presented at the 11th International KES Conference on Agents and Multi-Agent Systems – Technologies and Applications (KES-AMSTA 2017) held June 21–23, 2017 in Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal. Today’s economy is driven by technologies and knowledge. Digital technologies can free, shift and multiply choices, and often intrude on the territory of other industries by providing new ways of conducting business operations and creating value for customers and companies. The topics covered in this volume include software agents, multi-agent systems, agent modeling, mobile and cloud computing, big data analysis, business intelligence, artificial intelligence, social systems, computer embedded systems and nature insp...

  4. 8th International Conference KES-AMSTA

    CERN Document Server

    Kusek, Mario; Lovrek, Ignac; Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2014-01-01

    Agents and multi-agent systems are related to a modern software paradigm which has long been recognized as a promising technology for constructing autonomous, complex and intelligent systems. The topics covered in this volume include agent-oriented software engineering, agent co-operation, co-ordination, negotiation, organization and communication, distributed problem solving, multi-agent communities, rational and clustering agents, learning paradigms, agent cognitive models, and heterogenous multi-agent environments.   The volume highlights new trends and challenges in agent and multi-agent research and includes 30 papers classified in five specific topics: Modeling and logic agents, Knowledge based agent systems, Cognitive and cooperative multi-agent systems, Agent-based Modeling and Simulation, and Learning Paradigms and Applications: Agent-based Approach. The published papers have been presented at the 8th KES Conference on Agent and Multi-Agent Systems – Technologies and Applications (KES-AMSTA 2014) ...

  5. Leedi, kes armastas jõge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Inglise taimemaalijast Margaret Ursula Mee'st (1909-1988), kellest sai 1975. a. Rio de Janeiro aukodanik ja kes 1979. a. pälvis Brasiilia kõrgeima välismaalastele mõeldud autasu: Cruzeiro do Sul. Kunstniku viimaseks tööks jäi maal Amazonase öökuningannast. 1998. a. ilmus M. Mee Amazonase reiside päeviku põhjal raamat "In Search of Flowers of the Amazon Forest"

  6. Kes ikkagi asutas Pirita kloostri? / Kersti Markus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Markus, Kersti, 1962-

    2012-01-01

    Tegelik kloostri ülesehitaja oli Hinrich Swalbart. Kuna birgitiinide kloostrid allusid kohalikule piiskopile ning Swalbart oli kloostri rajamisega seotud alates 1405. aastast, siis võiks väita, et Pirita kloostri rajamise idee pärineb Saksa ordu kõrgmeistri Konrad von Jungingeni lähikonnast. Nimelt sai 1405. aastal Tallinna uueks piiskopiks Johannes III Aken, kes oli eelnevalt olnud ordu kõrgmeistri kaplan

  7. Kes on kes ehk Tulgu uus taevas / Ervin Õunapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õunapuu, Ervin, 1956-

    2002-01-01

    Tuntud tegijad, kes on oma sõnul ateistid, agnostikud või umbuskliku suhtumisega ristiusu kirikusse: William Seward Burroughs, Vincent Van Gogh, Oscar Niemeyer, Sven Alur Reinans, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Diego Rivera, Neil Rogers, John Ruskin, Matt Wagner, Frank Lloyd Wright, Ervin Õunapuu jne. Ilmunud ka kogumikus "Öövöö", lk.109-124

  8. Edmund Valtmann - mees, kes joonistas Ameerika presidente / Heiki Raudla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudla, Heiki, 1949-

    2004-01-01

    2004.a. Eesti Ekspressis ilmus nimekiri sajast eestlasest, kes on kõige rohkem muutnud maailma. Nende seas ainus Pulitzeri preemia (1962) saanud eestlane karikaturist Edmund Valtman, kes tähistas tänavu 31. mail USA-s Duncasteris oma 90. sünnipäeva

  9. Eestlane, kes tunneb Kreekat / Virve Liivanõmm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liivanõmm, Virve

    2011-01-01

    Maria Blauhut'ist, kes õppis Ateena ülikoolis vanakreeka, Bütsantsi-aegset ja uuskreeka keelt ja on nüüd magister Bütsantsi filoloogia erialal, õpetades uuskreeka keelt Tallinna keeltekoolis ja eraviisiliselt

  10. Mees, kes vihkas sotsiaalabisüsteemi / Oudekki Loone

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loone, Oudekki, 1979-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: Larsson, Stieg. Lohetätoveeringuga tüdruk. Tallinn: Varrak, 2009 ; Larsson, Stieg. Tüdruk, kes mängis tulega. Tallinn: Varrak, 2009 ; Larsson, Stieg. Purustatud õhuloss. Tallinn : Varrak, 2010

  11. Naine, kes muudab võõrad omadeks / Verni Leivak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leivak, Verni, 1966-

    2016-01-01

    Vestlusest Amino Põldaruga, kes on Tallinna ülikooli Rakvere kolledži õppejõud, koolitanud täiskasvanuid ning tegelenud töötute koolitamisega. Tema kogemusi pagulaste koolitamisel ja ühiskonda integreerimisel

  12. 7th KES International Conference on Intelligent Decision Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Howlett, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the 57 papers accepted for presentation at the Seventh KES International Conference on Intelligent Decision Technologies (KES-IDT 2015), held in Sorrento, Italy, in June 2015. The conference consists of keynote talks, oral and poster presentations, invited sessions and workshops on the applications and theory of intelligent decision systems and related areas. The conference provides an opportunity for the presentation and discussion of interesting new research results, promoting knowledge transfer and the generation of new ideas. The book will be of interest to all those whose work involves the development and application of intelligent decision systems.

  13. EO Domain Specific Knowledge Enabled Services (KES-B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas, J.; Busto, J.; Torguet, R.

    2004-09-01

    This paper recovers and describes a number of major statements with respect to the vision, mission and technological approaches of the Technological Research Project (TRP) "EO Domain Specific Knowledge Enabled Services" (project acronym KES-B), which is currently under development at the European Space Research Institute (ESRIN) under contract "16397/02/I- SB". Resulting from the on-going R&D activities, the KES-B project aims are to demonstrate with a prototype system the feasibility of the application of innovative knowledge-based technologies to provide services for easy, scheduled and controlled exploitation of EO resources (e.g.: data, algorithms, procedures, storage, processors, ...), to automate the generation of products, and to support users in easily identifying and accessing the required information or products by using their own vocabulary, domain knowledge and preferences. The ultimate goals of KES-B are summarized in the provision of the two main types of KES services: 1st the Search service (also referred to as Product Exploitation or Information Retrieval; and 2nd the Production service (also referred to as Information Extraction), with the strategic advantage that they are enabled by Knowledge consolidated (formalized) within the system. The KES-B system technical solution approach is driven by a strong commitment for the adoption of industry (XML-based) language standards, aiming to have an interoperable, scalable and flexible operational prototype. In that sense, the Search KES services builds on the basis of the adoption of consolidated and/or emergent W3C semantic-web standards. Remarkably the languages/models Dublin Core (DC), Universal Resource Identifier (URI), Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Ontology Web Language (OWL), and COTS like Protege [1] and JENA [2] are being integrated in the system as building bricks for the construction of the KES based Search services. On the other hand, the Production KES services builds on top of

  14. Physical Double Stars in the SLoWPoKES Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Wilfried

    2017-10-01

    The ongoing research on binaries is lately supported by very comprehensive and precise new catalogs like SLoWPoKES (Sloan Low-mass Wide Pairs of Kinematically Equivalent Stars). This report counter-checks the claim that all objects in this catalog should be physi-cal double stars by testing a small, randomly selected sample of objects for potential common proper motion.

  15. Islamist, kes viib Türgit Euroopa Liitu / Karin Volmer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Volmer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Ennetähtaegsed üldvalimised Türgis võitis islamistlik valitsuserakond Õigluse ja Arengu Partei, kes kogus 46,4 protsenti häältest. Taasvalitud peaministri Recep Tayyip Erdogani valimiskampaaniast ja senisest poliitilisest tegevusest. Lisa: 5 fakti

  16. Meie mees Reykjavikis - see, kes julges / Rein Veidemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veidemann, Rein, 1946-

    2015-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilmist "Need, kes julgevad", režissöör Ólafur Rögnvaldsson (Island-Eesti-Läti-Leedu 2015) ETV-s. Film Baltimaade iseseisvumisest ja Islandi tolleaegsest välisministrist Jón Baldvin Hannibalssonist selles protsessis

  17. Lugu mehest, kes kannab kaasas vikerkaart / Gennadi Švarjov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Švarjov, Gennadi

    2008-01-01

    Joķar-Ola nelipühi kiriku pastorist Gennadi Švarjovist, kes esindas Marimaad 18.-21. oktoobrini Tallinnas peetud Uurali konsultatsioonidel, soome-ugri rahvaste kristlike liidrite ja misjoniorganisatsiooni Ljus i Öster misjonäride kohtumusel

  18. Firmad, kes meisterdavad disaini juhtimisest kasumit / Piret Potisepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Potisepp, Piret

    2011-01-01

    Köögitarvete tootjast Lekue, prilliraame tootvast Austria perefirmast Rolf Spectacles, Portugali bussitootjast Caetano Bus, kohvikust Supelsaksad ja Eesti ettevõttest Velvet Creative, kes kandideerivad sel aastal Euroopa kõige innovaatilisema ja dünaamilisema ettevõtte tiitlile

  19. Kes tooks Liibüa tagasi naftakaardile? / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Kodusõda Liibüas on naftatootmise samahästi kui seisma pannud, nüüd oodatakse välisfirmasid tootmist taaskäivitama. Uue võimuga koostööst on huvitatud Itaalia nafta- ja gaasikompanii ENI. Energiahiid BP on valmis Liibüasse naasma kohe, kui tingimused võimaldavad. Hiina, kes importis Liibüast naftat 150 000 barrelit päevas, tahab säilitada oma privileege

  20. 8th KES International Conference on Intelligent Decision Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, Alfonso; Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2016-01-01

    The KES-IDT-2016 proceedings give an excellent insight into recent research, both theoretical and applied, in the field of intelligent decision making. The range of topics explored is wide, and covers methods of grouping, classification, prediction, decision support, modelling and many more in such areas as finance, linguistics, medicine, management and transportation. This proceedings contain several sections devoted to specific topics, such as: · Specialized Decision Techniques for Data Mining, Transportation and Project Management · Pattern Recognition for Decision Making Systems · New Advances of Soft Computing in Industrial and Management Engineering · Recent Advances in Fuzzy Systems · Intelligent Data Analysis and Applications · Reasoning-based Intelligent Systems · Intelligent Methods for Eye Movement Data Processing and Analysis · Intelligent Decision Technologies for Water Resources Management · Intelligent Decision Making for Uncertain Unstructured Big Data · Decision Making Theory for Ec...

  1. Palvelujen ja markkinoinnin kehittäminen : : case: Samppalinnan kesäteatteri

    OpenAIRE

    Karhula, Jenna

    2010-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli tutkia palvelujen ja teatterin markkinointia. Tutkimus tehtiin yhteistyössä Samppalinnan kesäteatterin kanssa. Tarkoituksena oli selvittää asiakkaiden tyytyväisyyttä Samppalinnan kesäteatterin palveluihin sekä markkinointiin. Haluttiin myös tietoa siitä mikä asiakkaita kiinnostaa. Tavoitteena oli tulosten avulla pohtia miten Samppalinnan kesäteatteri voi kehittää palveluja ja markkinointia. Tutkimuksen teoriaosuus käsittelee palvelua käsitteenä ja palvelu orga...

  2. Tuumajaama rajamiseks pooled seadused olemas / Toomas Viks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viks, Toomas, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    Eesti on ühinenud mitme tuumateemat puudutava rahvusvahelise konventsiooniga, kuid seadusandlik baas vajab olulist täiendamist. Ilmunud ka Tallinna Teataja : Nõmme ja Mustamäe, dets. 2008, lk. 5 ; Tallinna Teataja : Haabersti, Kristiine ja Põhja-Tallinn, dets. 2008, lk. 5 ; Eesti Teataja : Järvamaa, Jõgevamaa, Tartumaa, Põlvamaa, Võrumaa, Valgamaa ja Viljandimaa, dets. 2008, lk. 5 ; Eesti Teataja : Hiiumaa, Saaremaa, Läänemaa ja Pärnumaa, dets. 2008, lk. 5 ; Eesti Teataja : Rapla- ja Harjumaa, dets. 2008, lk. 5 ; Eesti Teataja : Virumaa, dets. 2008, lk. 5

  3. Kes kaitseb röövelliku kiirlaenu eest? / Katrin Saks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saks, Katrin, 1956-

    2008-01-01

    Kiirlaenudest ja nendega seonduvatest probleemidest Eestis, seaduseelnõust, mis suurendab SMS-laenu võtnute võimalusi kaitsta oma õigusi laenuandjate ees ning olukorra ohjeldamisest Rootsis ja Soomes. Ilmunud ka Pärnu Postimees 31. okt. 2008, lk. 11, pealkiri kujul: kaitse röövelliku kiirlaenu vastu ja tarbijakaitsepoliitika ; Lõunaleht 6. nov. 2008, lk. 4, pealkiri kujul: kes kaitseb röövelliku kiirlaenu eest ehk tarbijakaitsepoliitika lakmustest ; Vali Uudised 7. nov. 2008, lk. 2 ; Harju Ekspress 7. nov. 2008, lk. 8, pealkiri kujul: kes kaitseb röövelliku kiirlaenu vastu ehk tarbijakaitsepoliitika lakmustest ; Türi Rahvaleht 14. nov. 2008, lk. 4 ; Virumaa Teataja 14. nov. 2008, lk. 11, pealkiri kujul: kiirlaenud on test tarbijakaitsepoliitikale ; Kuulutaja 14. nov. 2008, lk. 4, pealkiri kujul: kes kaitseb kiirlaenu vastu ; Vooremaa 18. nov. 2008, lk. 2 ; Sõnumitooja 26. nov. 2008, lk. 2 ; Koit : Tarbijaleht 27. nov. 2008, lk. 10

  4. Kes julges säästud Venemaale investeerida, võitis kõige rohkem / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2005-01-01

    Sel aastal kasvas vara kõige rohkem Venemaa aktsiaturuga seotud investeerimisfondides, vara suurenes ka neil, kes on investeerinud Tallinna börsil ning kes on kinnisvara omanikud. Diagramm: Kus kasvas vara 2005. aastal enim. Lisa: Järgmisel aastal sama edukalt

  5. fs - kes ta on ja kust ta tuleb : [luuletused] / [Mesikepp, Indrek] fs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    fs, pseud., 1971-

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: fs - kes ta on ja kust ta tuleb ; "töötasin arhiivis..." ; mustad puud mustas vees ; "on päev. on kylm. on öö..." ; "tead ju kyll..." ; "päiksest paistes päevad..." ; "mida sa teed kui on öö..."

  6. "Ma veel ei tea, kes olen ma..." : [luuletused] / Mihhail Fedotov ; tlk. Arvo Valton

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fedotov, Mihhail

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: "Ma veel ei tea, kes olen ma..." ; Multani lokulaud ; "Need külateed siit linna lähevad..." ; "Linna kohal laiub mürgipilv..." ; Lahkumine ; "Te sõbrad, ärge langetage pead..." ; Jamps ; "Tuul öine ulus kurja hundina...". Luuletused paralleelselt udmurdi ja eesti keeles

  7. Kes kardab Lähis-Ida raha? / Emily Thornton, Stanley Reed

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thornton, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Lähis-Ida riikide investeerimisfondide tegevusest. Mehed, kes haldavad selle piirkonna riiklikke investeerimisfonde, muudavad Pärsia lahe naftamiljarditega maailma rahanduse palet. Lisa: Hea on olla emiir. Kuuele Lähis-Ida emiraadile kuulub umbes pool kogu maailma riiklike investeerimisfondide varadest

  8. "Need, kes on käest libisenud..." : [luuletused] / Kalev Kesküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kesküla, Kalev, 1959-2010

    2000-01-01

    Sisu: "Need, kes on käest libisenud..." ; Armastuse kolmjalg ; Inimese määratlus ; Aja määratlus ; Taasleitud Pariis ; Dr. Faustus ; "Päev, mu tegus tööandja..." ; "Mõned kadunud asjad..." ; "Keskealine mees..." ; "Unustuse keha..."

  9. Kes on Hans Sidbäck? / Sari Vasenkari ja Saija Huttunen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vasenkari, Sari

    2012-01-01

    Rootsis elavast soomlasest Hans Sidbäckist, kes on lisaks rakendisõidu ja -hobuste koolitamisele spetsialiseerunud ka täkkude, varssade ja noorte ning probleemsete hobuste koolitamisele. Ta on töötanud ka Ypäjä hobumajanduskoolis sõidumeistrina

  10. Richard Branson : mässaja, kes unistab kosmosest / Triin Thalheim

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thalheim, Triin, 1982-

    2005-01-01

    TV3 näitab USA tõsielusarja "Miljardärist mässaja: Branson otsib mantlipärijat". Sarja peategelane on maailma rikkamaid mehi, Virgini kontserni omanik Richard Branson, kes otsib oma firmasse noort juhti

  11. Curveball - mees, kes pettis Ühendriike / Inga Höglund

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Höglund, Inga

    2011-01-01

    Saksamaal elavast iraaklasest Rafid Ahmed Alwan- al-Janabist, kes teatas USA julgeolekunõukogule, et on pealt näinud biorelva tootmist Iraagis, millist fakti kasutati ühe ettekäändena Iraaki tungimiseks. 8 aastat hiljem on al-Janab varjunimega Curveball tunnistanud, et see oli väljamõeldis

  12. Mees, kes käib kiiresti ja räägib kiiresti / Arthur Seppern ; interv. Tiia Linnard

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seppern, Arthur

    2001-01-01

    Intervjuu mehega, kes on teinud maakonnas ajalugu muusikuna, klubitöötajana, kolhoosiesimehena, kultuuriosakonna juhatajana ja peab nüüd kutsekooli direktori ametit. Vt. ka Severnoje Poberezhje : Subbota 10. nov. 2001

  13. Raimond Valgre noorem vend - kes ta oli? : Kuno-Enn Valgre (30.05.1918-02.03.1987) / Valdur Ohmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ohmann, Valdur, 1958-

    2011-01-01

    Vastukäivad andmed ärgitasid uurima, kes õigupoolest oli Valgre noorem vend. Kõige ehedamalt annab Enn Valgre sõjaaegse käekäigu edasi ülekuulamisprotokoll 11. novembrist 1944. Ülekuulamisprotokolli tekst

  14. Expansion of Kes 73, A Shell Supernova Remnant Containing a Magnetar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.

    2017-09-01

    Of the 30 or so Galactic magnetars, about 8 are in supernova remnants (SNRs). One of the most extreme magnetars, 1E 1841-045, is at the center of the SNR Kes 73 (G27.4+0.0), whose age is uncertain. We measure its expansion using three Chandra observations over 15 years, obtaining a mean rate of 0.023 % +/- 0.002 % yr-1. For a distance of 8.5 kpc, we obtain a shell velocity of 1100 km s-1 and infer a blast wave speed of 1400 km s-1. For Sedov expansion into a uniform medium, this gives an age of 1800 years. Derived emission measures imply an ambient density of about 2 cm-3 and an upper limit on the swept-up mass of about 70 {M}⊙ , with lower limits of tens of {M}⊙ , confirming that Kes 73 is in an advanced evolutionary stage. Our spectral analysis shows no evidence for enhanced abundances as would be expected from a massive progenitor. Our derived total energy is 1.9× {10}51 erg, giving a very conservative lower limit to the magnetar’s initial period of about 3 ms, unless its energy was lost by non-electromagnetic means. We see no evidence of a wind-blown bubble as would be produced by a massive progenitor, or any evidence that the progenitor of Kes 73/1E 1841-045 was anything but a normal red supergiant producing a Type IIP supernova, though a short-lived stripped-envelope progenitor cannot be absolutely excluded. Kes 73's magnetar thus joins SGR 1900+14 as magnetars resulting from relatively low-mass progenitors.

  15. Suunnitelma kesähotelli Karelia-Parkin uusien internet-sivujen toteuttamiseksi

    OpenAIRE

    Hulkkonen, Jenni

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää, millaiset ovat toimivat, myyvät ja nykyaikaiset pienen majoituspalveluyrityksen internet-sivut sekä mitä seikkoja internet-sivuja suunniteltaessa tulisi nykypäivänä huomioida. Opinnäytetyö laadittiin kesähotelli Karelia-Parkille, joka toimi opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana. Tarkoitus oli perehtyä siihen, millaista sisältöä pienen majoitusyrityksen sivuilla tulisi olla ja miten internet-sivut teknisesti toteutetaan. Opinnäytetyössä käytettiin t...

  16. Five Guys Named Moe : pukusuunnittelu Samppalinnan Kesäteatterin näytelmään

    OpenAIRE

    Kopola, Kaarina

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli suunnitella 50-luvun ja swing-tanssimuodin tunnelmaa henkivä pukusuunnittelu vuoden 2013 kesän Samppalinnan Kesäteatterin Five Guys Named Moe. Opinnäytetyö rajattiin koskemaan vain kuuden miespääroolin pukujen suunnittelua ja valmistusta. Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin miesten 50-luvun muodin ja swing-tanssimuodin pukuhistoriaa sekä vaatteiden toiminnallisuutta, eli mitä tulee ottaa huomioon tehtäessä pukusuunnittelua tanssilliseen ulkoilmateatteriesitykseen. Tau...

  17. 2nd international KES conference on Smart Education and Smart e-Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented at the 2nd international KES conference on Smart Education and Smart e-Learning, which took place in Sorrento, Italy, June 17-19, 2015. It contains a total of 45 peer-reviewed book chapters that are grouped into several parts: Part 1 - Smart Education, Part 2 – Smart Educational Technology, Part 3 – Smart e-Learning, Part 4 – Smart Professional Training and Teachers’ Education, and Part 5 – Smart Teaching and Training related Topics.  This book can be a useful source of research data and valuable information for faculty, scholars, Ph.D. students, administrators, and practitioners  - those who are interested in innovative areas of smart education and smart e-learning.  .

  18. 3rd international KES conference on Smart Education and Smart e-Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2016-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented at the 3rd international KES conference on Smart Education and Smart e-Learning, which took place in Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain, June 15-17, 2016. It contains a total of 56 peer-reviewed book chapters that are grouped into several parts: Part 1 - Smart University: Conceptual Modeling, Part 2 – Smart Education: Research and Case Studies, Part 3 – Smart e-Learning, Part 4 – Smart Education: Software and Hardware Systems, and Part 5 – Smart Technology as a Resource to Improve Education and Professional Training. We believe that the book will serve as a useful source of research data and valuable information for faculty, scholars, Ph.D. students, administrators, and practitioners - those who are interested in innovative areas of smart education and smart e-learning. .

  19. Häiden suunnittelu ja toteutus : case: pienet kesähäät

    OpenAIRE

    Puustelli, Vilma

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli suunnitella ja toteuttaa häämenu toimeksiantajieni hääjuhlaan. Häitä juhlittiin viime kesänä 1.8.2015. Opinnäytetyö toteutettiin toiminnallisena tutkimuksena, joka rakentuu teoriaosuudesta ja toteutuksesta. Teoriaosuus toimii pohjana opinnäytetyön toteutukselle. Työn tavoitteena oli tehdä häämenusta toimeksiantajien toiveet ja mieltymykset täyttävä sekä häiden teeman mukainen. Teoriaosuudessa käsiteltiin ensimmäisenä toiminnallista opinnäytetyötä ja sen tutkimusm...

  20. 9th KES International Conference on Intelligent Interactive Multimedia Systems and Services

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, Luigi; Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi; IIMSS-16; Intelligent Interactive Multimedia Systems and Services 2016

    2016-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented at the ninth international KES conference on Intelligent Interactive Multimedia: Systems and Services, which took place in Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain, June 15-17, 2016. It contains 65 peer-reviewed book chapters that focus on issues ranging from intelligent image or video storage, retrieval, transmission and analysis to knowledge-based technologies, from advanced information technology architectures for video processing and transmission to advanced functionalities of information and knowledge-based services. We believe that this book will serve as a useful source of knowledge for both academia and industry, for all those faculty members, research scientists, scholars, Ph.D. students and practitioners, who are interested in fundamental and applied facets of intelligent interactive multimedia.

  1. 8th International KES Conference on Intelligent Interactive Multimedia : Systems and Services

    CERN Document Server

    Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi; Gallo, Luigi; Pietro, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent interactive multimedia systems and services will be ever more important in computer systems. Nowadays, computers are widespread and computer users range from highly qualified scientists to non-computer expert professionals. Therefore, designing dynamic personalization and adaptivity methods to store, process, transmit and retrieve information is critical for matching the technological progress with the consumer needs. This book contains the contributions presented at the eighth international KES conference on Intelligent Interactive Multimedia: Systems and Services, which took place in Sorrento, Italy, June 17-19, 2015. It contains 33 peer-reviewed scientific contributions that focus on issues ranging from intelligent image or video storage, retrieval, transmission and analysis to knowledge-based technologies, from advanced information technology architectures for video processing and transmission to advanced functionalities of information and knowledge-based services. We believe that this book w...

  2. SLoWPoKES-II: 100,000 WIDE BINARIES IDENTIFIED IN SDSS WITHOUT PROPER MOTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhital, Saurav [Department of Physical Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 600 South Clyde Morris Blvd., Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); West, Andrew A.; Schluns, Kyle J.; Massey, Angela P. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Stassun, Keivan G., E-mail: dhitals@erau.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN, 37235 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We present the Sloan Low-mass Wide Pairs of Kinematically Equivalent Stars (SLoWPoKES)-II catalog of low-mass visual binaries identified from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by matching photometric distances. The candidate pairs are vetted by comparing the stellar information. The candidate pairs are vetted by comparing the stellar density at their respective Galactic positions to Monte Carlo realizations of a simulated Milky Way. In this way, we are able to identify large numbers of bona fide wide binaries without the need for proper motions. Here, 105,537 visual binaries with angular separations of ∼1–20″ were identified, each with a probability of chance alignment of ≤5%. This is the largest catalog of bona fide wide binaries to date, and it contains a diversity of systems—in mass, mass ratios, binary separations, metallicity, and evolutionary states—that should facilitate follow-up studies to characterize the properties of M dwarfs and white dwarfs. There is a subtle but definitive suggestion of multiple populations in the physical separation distribution, supporting earlier findings. We suggest that wide binaries are composed of multiple populations, most likely representing different formation modes. There are 141 M7 or later wide binary candidates, representing a seven-fold increase over the number currently known. These binaries are too wide to have been formed via the ejection mechanism. Finally, we found that 6% of spectroscopically confirmed M dwarfs are not included in the SDSS STAR catalog; they are misclassified as extended sources due to the presence of a nearby or partially resolved companion. The SLoWPoKES-II catalog is publicly available to the entire community on the World Wide Web via the Filtergraph data visualization portal.

  3. Inimesed nutsid. Valus oli näha inimvaret, kes veel äsja oli tark ja vaimukas / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin

    2008-01-01

    Julian Schnabeli mängufilm "Tuukrikell ja liblikas" ("The Diving Bell and the Butterfly") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2007. Film on tõestisündinud lugu Prantsuse ajakirja Elle peatoimetajast Jean-Dominique Bauby'st, kes üle keha halvatuks jäänuna hakkas dikteerima raamatut, mis sai nimeks "Tuukrikell ja liblikas". Lisaks "Režissöör : see film aitas mul surmaga leppida"

  4. Ilona Gurjanova - mootor, kes veab disaini uutesse kõrgustesse / Ilona Gurjanova ; intervjueerinud Maris Meiessaar, Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gurjanova, Ilona, 1958-

    2009-01-01

    Eesti Disainerite Liidu esimees, Design Management OÜ juhataja Ilona Gurjanova disainiürituste korraldamiset, 25.-27. septembrini Rotermanni kvartalis toimuvast Disainiööst ja selle eesmärgist, disainipoe avamise võimalustest, eesti disaini olukorrast ja disaineritest, kes võiksid maailmas läbi lüüa, eetilise suveniiri konkursist jm. Ilona Gurjanova eluloolisi andmeid, tähtsamad projektid, näitused, autasud

  5. Using the SLoWPoKES Catalog to Study the Spectroscopic Properties and Constrain Empirical Models of M Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Saurav; West, A. A.; Stassun, K. G.; Bochanski, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Sloan Wide Pairs of Kinematically Equivalent Stars (SLoWPoKES) catalog comprises of a sample of 1342 very wide, low-mass common proper motion pairs. The identification was based on angular separation, photometric distance, and component proper motions. A Galactic model, based on empirical stellar number density and space velocity distributions, was used to select pairs with a probability of chance alignment astro/slowpokes/ for more details.

  6. "Kes oskab kirjutada õigesti kajakas ..." = "Hvem kan stave måke riktig ..." : [luuletused] / Steinar Opstad ; tlk. Elvi Lumet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Opstad, Steinar

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: "Kes oskab kirjutada õigesti kajakas ..." = "Hvem kan stave måke riktig ..."; "Suviti, kui põllud ja juuniõhtud on soojad ..." = "Om somrene når åkrene og junikveldene er varme ..."; Bibliofiil = Bibliofil; "Lohkus põskedega käib ringi mu vend ..." = "Med innhula kinn går broren min ..."; "Ma ei ole prohvet ega kirjanik ..." = "Jag er ikke profet eller forfatter ..."; Jumala grimassid = Guds grimasser

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The GAMBLES extension of the SLoWPoKES catalog (Oelkers+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelkers, R. J.; Stassun, K. G.; Dhital, S.

    2017-08-01

    We identify systems previously excluded in the Sloan Low-mass Pairs of Kinematically Equivalent Stars (SLoWPoKES; Dhital et al. 2010, Cat. J/AJ/139/2566; Dhital et al. 2015, Cat. J/AJ/150/57) sample: high- to medium-mass wide-binary pairs. We use the proper motions, parallaxes, and positions from the first Gaia data release, combined with the photometry, astrometry, and proper motions from SDSS to identify binary pairs between multiple Tycho-2 stars and between Tycho-2 and SDSS point sources. We call this extension of the SLoWPoKES catalog the Gaia Assorted Mass Binaries Long Excluded from SLoWPoKES (GAMBLES). Table1 provides the position and magnitude information for each long-lived wide binary in the GAMBLES sample; Table2 provides the proper motion, distance and Galactic model information for each long-lived wide binary in the GAMBLES sample; and Table3 provides the estimated physical quantities for each long-lived binary in the GAMBLES sample. Quantities for GAMBLES binaries that are not in the final sample can be found on the Filtergraph portal with the URL https://filtergraph.com/gambles. (3 data files).

  8. Á la carte -listan uudistaminen kevät- ja kesäsesongille : case Hotelli Ravintola Ruukin Kievari

    OpenAIRE

    Räsänen, Rebekka

    2016-01-01

    Tämän toiminnallisen opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli uudistaa Hotelli Ravintola Ruukin Kievarin á la carte -lista kevät- ja kesäsesongille 2015. Sain toimeksiannoksi suunnitella yhteistyössä henkilökunnan ja ravintoloitsijan kanssa uuden ruokalistan, joka noudattelisi aiemman ruokalistan mutkatonta ja maukasta tyyliä. Ruokalistasta haluttiin luonnollisesti myyvä sekä asiakkaiden tarpeiden ja liikeidean mukainen. Ruoka-annosten haluttiin olevan yksinkertaisen maistuvia ja hyvistä ja tuoreista ra...

  9. Kolm geograafiat : Jared Diamondi "Collapse" ja Andrus Kiviräha "Mees, kes teadis ussisõnu" võrdlus / Hannes Palang

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palang, Hannes, 1968-

    2007-01-01

    Tsivilisatsiooni, ühiskonna jätkusuutlikkuse ja keskkonna teemade võrdlus raamatutes: J. Diamondi "Collapse : How societies choose to fail or succeed" (Penguin Books, 2005) ja A. Kivirähki "Mees, kes teadis ussisõnu" (Eesti Kirjanduse Sihtasutus, 2007)

  10. Kes andis Pirita kloostrile nime? : Püha Birgitta võis saada nägemusi oma langetõve tõttu / Virkko Lepassalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepassalu, Virkko, 1971-

    2013-01-01

    Pirita klooster sai nime pühakuks kuulutatud Birgitta Birgersdotteri järgi, kes oli prohvet ja müstik. Püha Birgitta ilmutused levisid käsikirjade ja trükistena kogu keskaegses Euroopas ning mõjutasid ka kujutavat kunsti

  11. Chandra and XMM-Newton Study of the Supernova Remnant Kes 73 Hosting the Magnetar 1E 1841-045

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Harsha S.; Safi-Harb, Samar; Slane, Patrick O.; Gotthelf, E. V.

    2014-01-01

    We present a Chandra and XMM-Newton study of the supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 73 hosting the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 1841-045. The Chandra image reveals clumpy structures across the remnant with enhanced emission along the western rim. The X-ray emission fills the radio shell and spatially correlates with the infrared image. The global X-ray spectrum is described by a two-component thermal model with a column density N H = 2.6^{+0.4}_{-0.3}\\times1022 cm-2 and a total luminosity of LX = 3.3^{+0.7}_{-0.5}\\times1037 erg s-1 (0.5-10 keV, at an assumed distance of 8.5 kpc). The soft component is characterized by a temperature kTs = 0.5^{+0.1}_{-0.2} keV, a high ionization timescale, and enhanced Si and S abundances, suggesting emission that is dominated by shocked ejecta. The hard component has a temperature kTh = 1.6^{+0.8}_{-0.7} keV, a relatively low ionization timescale, and mostly solar abundances suggesting emission that is dominated by interstellar/circumstellar shocked material. A spatially resolved spectroscopy study reveals no significant variations in the spectral properties. We infer an SNR age ranging between 750 yr and 2100 yr, an explosion energy of 3.0^{+2.8}_{-1.8}\\times1050 erg and a shock velocity of (1.2 ± 0.3)×103 km s-1 (under the Sedov phase assumption). We also discuss the possible scenario for Kes 73 expanding into the late red-supergiant wind phase of its massive progenitor. Comparing the inferred metal abundances to core-collapse nucleosynthesis model yields, we estimate a progenitor mass gsim20 M ⊙, adding a candidate to the growing list of highly magnetized neutron stars proposed to be associated with very massive progenitors.

  12. "Kes kaunis on, peab andma vastse võsu..." : [sonetid] / William Shakespeare ; tlk. Harald Rajamets, Ants Oras

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: "Kes kaunis on, peab andma vastse võsu..." ; "Sa peeglist näed: need palgejooned nüüd..." ; "Seesama aeg, mis kunstipeenelt voolib..." ; "Miks muusika teeb nukraks sind, kes ise..." ; "Ei, armastust ei tunne sinu rind..." ; "Nii ruttu, kui sa hääbud, uueks sirgud..." ; "Kui kuulen, kuidas aega mõõdab kell..." ; "Kuid miks sa ise tõhusamal moel..." ; "Kas suvepäeva sarnaseks sind kiita?..." ; "Aeg, õgard, küüned lõvil tömbiks kääna... ; "Ei veena peegel mind, et olen vana..." ; "Just nagu näitleja, kel kinni keel..." ; "Mu silm kui taidur võttis pilti teha..." ; "Mu armu isand, kelle truu vasall..." ; "Ma reisist väsinuna heidan sängi..." ; "Kui õnnest hüljatuna nutan sala..." ; "Kui vaikse leebe mõtte kohtu ette..." ; "Ma olen näinud küll, kuis tõusev päike..." ; "Ma tunnistan, et meid on siiski kaks..." ; "Nii nagu isa, vanadusest nõrka..." ; "Kui sulen laud, mu silmad hästi näevad..." ; "Nii ränk on reisida mul tüütul teel..." ; "Mis on su olemus, mis tuum su, miks..." ; "Ei kuningate uhked marmorsambad..." ; "Arm, uuenda end, nii et öelda sust..." ; "Kui uut ei olegi, vaid kõik on sama..." ; "Nii nagu lained ulgumerelt randa..." ; "Neiks päeviks, kui kord aeg mu armsal palge..." ; "Et näen, kuis aja käsi kõike lõhub..." ; "Kui pronksi, kivi, maad ja merd võib neelda..." ; "Mu tusk on ränk, nüüd surma kutsuks küll..." ; "Kui suren, ära leina mind sa kaua..." ; "Sa minus seda aastaaega näed..." ; "Mul sinust kirjutades arg on meel..." ; "Oo hüvasti! Liig kallis mul su hind..." ; "Siis vihka mind, kui pead, ja kohe praegu..." ; "Mõnd uhkeks teeb ta kunst, mõnd sünnipära..." ; "Sust eemal olin kevadel, mu arm..." ; "Kui möödaläinud aja kroonikais..." ; "Mis on veel ajul paberile kanda..." ; "Jah, tõsi, olen käinus siin ja seal..." ; "Ma uskuda ei saa, et murda suudab..." ; "On parem olla halb kui halvaks peetud..." ; "Ei, aeg, sa ära hoople, et mind muudad..." ; "Mu muusika, kui muusikat sa teed

  13. Gaia Assorted Mass Binaries Long Excluded from SLoWPoKES (GAMBLES): Identifying Ultra-wide Binary Pairs with Components of Diverse Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelkers, Ryan J.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Dhital, Saurav

    2017-06-01

    The formation and evolution of binary star systems are some of the remaining key questions in modern astronomy. Wide binary pairs (separations >103 au) are particularly intriguing because their low binding energies make it difficult for the stars to stay gravitationally bound over extended timescales, and thus to probe the dynamics of binary formation and dissolution. Our previous SLoWPoKES catalogs, I and II, provided the largest and most complete sample of wide-binary pairs of low masses. Here we present an extension of these catalogs to a broad range of stellar masses: the Gaia Assorted Mass Binaries Long Excluded from SloWPoKES (GAMBLES), comprising 8660 statistically significant wide pairs that we make available in a living online database. Within this catalog we identify a subset of 543 long-lived (dissipation timescale >1.5 Gyr) candidate binary pairs, of assorted mass, with typical separations between 103 and 105.5 au (0.002-1.5 pc), using the published distances and proper motions from the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution and Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry. Each pair has at most a false positive probability of 0.05; the total expectation is 2.44 false binaries in our sample. Among these, we find 22 systems with 3 components, 1 system with 4 components, and 15 pairs consisting of at least 1 possible red giant. We find the largest long-lived binary separation to be nearly 3.2 pc even so, >76% of GAMBLES long-lived binaries have large binding energies and dissipation lifetimes longer than 1.5 Gyr. Finally, we find that the distribution of binary separations is clearly bimodal, corroborating the findings from SloWPoKES and suggesting multiple pathways for the formation and dissipation of the widest binaries in the Galaxy.

  14. Kes sõjaväes käinud, see metsas ära ei eksi / Urmas Roosimägi ; interv. Roman Starapopov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosimägi, Urmas

    2008-01-01

    Linnaleht : na russkom jazõke 12. sept. 2008, lk. 8-9, Linnaleht : Tartu 12. sept. 2008, lk. 7-8, Linnaleht : Pärnu 12. sept. 2008, lk. 5-6. Intervjuu maaväe staabiülema kolonel Urmas Roosimäega, kes vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad sõdimist Nõukogude Liidu armee koosseisus Afganistanis, Eesti sõjaväelaste ja ajateenijate ettevalmistust. Vt. samas: Poisid püssi alla; Kommenteerib Madis Morel

  15. Infrared and X-Ray Spectroscopy of the KES 75 Supernova Remnant Shell: Characterizing the Dust and Gas Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli; Slane, Patrick; Arendt, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    We present deep Chandra observations and Spitzer Space Telescope infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the shell in the composite supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 75 (G29.7-0.3). The remnant is composed of a central pulsar wind nebula and a bright partial shell in the south that is visible at radio, IR, and X-ray wavelengths. The X-ray emission can be modeled by either a single thermal component with a temperature of 1.5 keV, or with two thermal components with temperatures of 1.5 and 0.2 keV. Previous studies suggest that the hot component may originate from reverse-shocked SN ejecta. However, our new analysis shows no definitive evidence for enhanced abundances of Si, S, Ar, Mg, and Fe, as expected from supernova (SN) ejecta, or for the IR spectral signatures characteristic of confirmed SN condensed dust, thus favoring a circumstellar or interstellar origin for the X-ray and IR emission. The X-ray and ill emission in the shell are spatially correlated, suggesting that the dust particles are collisionally heated by the X-ray emitting gas. The IR spectrum of the shell is dominated by continuum emission from dust with little, or no line emission. Modeling the IR spectrum shows that the dust is heated to a temperature of 140 K by a relatively dense, hot plasma, that also gives rise to the hot X-ray emission component. The density inferred from the IR emission is significantly higher than the density inferred from the X-ray models, suggesting a low filling factor for this X-ray emitting gas. The total mass of the warm dust component is at least 1.3 x 10(exp -2) solar mass, assuming no significant dust destruction has occurred in the shell. The IR data also reveal the presence of an additional plasma component with a cooler temperature, consistent with the 0.2 keV gas component. Our IR analysis therefore provides an independent verification of the cooler component of the X-ray emission. The complementary analyses of the X-ray and IR emission provide quantitative estimates of

  16. INFRARED AND X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY OF THE Kes 75 SUPERNOVA REMNANT SHELL: CHARACTERIZING THE DUST AND GAS PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temim, Tea; Arendt, Richard G. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Slane, Patrick [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dwek, Eli, E-mail: tea.temim@nasa.gov [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-01-20

    We present deep Chandra observations and Spitzer Space Telescope infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the shell in the composite supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 75 (G29.7-0.3). The remnant is composed of a central pulsar wind nebula and a bright partial shell in the south that is visible at radio, IR, and X-ray wavelengths. The X-ray emission can be modeled by either a single thermal component with a temperature of {approx}1.5 keV, or with two thermal components with temperatures of 1.5 and 0.2 keV. Previous studies suggest that the hot component may originate from reverse-shocked supernova (SN) ejecta. However, our new analysis shows no definitive evidence for enhanced abundances of Si, S, Ar, Mg, and Fe, as expected from SN ejecta, or for the IR spectral signatures characteristic of confirmed SN condensed dust, thus favoring a circumstellar or interstellar origin for the X-ray and IR emission. The X-ray and IR emission in the shell are spatially correlated, suggesting that the dust particles are collisionally heated by the X-ray emitting gas. The IR spectrum of the shell is dominated by continuum emission from dust with little, or no line emission. Modeling the IR spectrum shows that the dust is heated to a temperature of {approx}140 K by a relatively dense, hot plasma that also gives rise to the hot X-ray emission component. The density inferred from the IR emission is significantly higher than the density inferred from the X-ray models, suggesting a low filling factor for this X-ray emitting gas. The total mass of the warm dust component is at least 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} M{sub Sun }, assuming no significant dust destruction has occurred in the shell. The IR data also reveal the presence of an additional plasma component with a cooler temperature, consistent with the 0.2 keV gas component. Our IR analysis therefore provides an independent verification of the cooler component of the X-ray emission. The complementary analyses of the X-ray and IR emission provide

  17. Infrared and X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Kes 75 Supernova Remnant Shell: Characterizing the Dust and Gas Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temim, Tea; Slane, Patrick; Arendt, Richard G.; Dwek, Eli

    2011-01-01

    We present deep Chandra observations and Spitzer Space Telescope infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the shell in the composite supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 75 (G29.7-0.3). The remnant is composed of a central pulsar wind nebula and a bright partial shell in the south that is visible at radio, IR, and X-ray wavelengths. The X-ray emission can be modeled by either a single thermal component with a temperature of approximately 1.5 keY, or with two thermal components with temperatures of 1.5 and 0.2 keY. Previous studies suggest that the hot component may originate from reverse-shocked supernova (SN) ejecta. However, our new analysis shows no definitive evidence for enhanced abundances of Si, S, Ar, Mg, and Fe, as expected from SN ejecta, or for the IR spectral signatures characteristic of confirmed SN condensed dust, thus favoring a circumstellar or interstellar origin for the X-ray and IR emission. The X-ray and IR emission in the shell are spatially correlated, suggesting that the dust particles are collisionally heated by the X-ray emitting gas. The IR spectrum of the shell is dominated by continuum emission from dust with little, or no line emission. Modeling the IR spectrum shows that the dust is heated to a temperature of approximately 140 K by a relatively dense, hot plasma that also gives rise to the hot X-my emission component. The density inferred from the IR emission is significantly higher than the density inferred from the X-ray models, suggesting a low filling factor for this X-my emitting gas. The total mass of the warm dust component is at least 1.3 x 10(exp -2) x solar mass, assuming no significant dust destruction has occurred in the shell. The IR data also reveal the presence of an additional plasma component with a cooler temperature, consistent with the 0.2 keV gas component. Our IR analysis therefore provides an independent verification of the cooler component of the X-ray emission. The complementary analyses of the X-ray and IR emission provide

  18. Infrared and X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Kes 75 Supernova Shell Characterizing the Dust and Gas Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temim, Tea; Arendt, Richard G.; Dwek, Eli; Slane, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    We present deep Chandra observations and Spitzer Space Telescope infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the shell in the composite supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 75 (G29.7-0.3). The remnant is composed of a central pulsar wind nebula and a bright partial shell in the south that is visible at radio, IR, and X-ray wavelengths. The X-ray emission can be modeled by either a single thermal component with a temperature of approx 1.5 keV, or with two thermal components with temperatures of 1.5 and 0.2 keY. Previous studies suggest that the hot component may originate from reverse-shocked SN ejecta. However, our new analysis shows no definitive evidence for enhanced abundances of Si, S, Ar, Mg, and Fe, as expected from supernova (SN) ejecta, or for the IR spectral signatures characteristic of confirmed SN condensed dust, thus favoring a circumstellar or interstellar origin for the X-ray and IR emission. The X-ray and IR emission in the shell are spatially correlated, suggesting that the dust particles are collisionally heated by the X-ray emitting gas. The IR spectrum of the shell is dominated by continuum emission from dust with little, or no line emission. Modeling the IR spectrum shows that the dust is heated to a temperature of approx 140 K by a relatively dense, hot plasma, that also gives rise to the hot X-ray emission component. The density inferred from the IR emission is significantly higher than the density inferred from the X-ray models, suggesting a low filling factor for this X-ray emitting gas. The total mass of the warm dust component is at least 1.3 x 10(exp -2) Solar Mass, assuming no significant dust destruction has occurred in the shell. The IR data also reveal the presence of an additional plasma component with a cooler temperature, consistent with the 0.2 keV gas component. Our IR analysis therefore provides an independent verification of the cooler component of the X-ray emission. The complementary analyses of the X-ray and IR emission provide quantitative

  19. Kunda puitmassitehase ehitus võib alata / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2003-01-01

    Norra kapitalil põhineval firmal Estonian Cell on kõik load Kundasse haavapuitmassitehase rajamiseks. Ehitus algab 2004. aasta alguses, selle kestuseks on planeeritud poolteist aastat. Lisa: Estonian Cell

  20. MANAGING THE LOAD SCHEDULE OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE BUILDING TAKING INTO ACCOUNT EMERGING RISKS WHEN CONNECTING THE KINETIC ENERGY STORAGE TO THE POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Shevchenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the paper is to analyze load schedules of the administrative building and develop a structural scheme for connecting the kinetic energy storage in the power supply system of this building, which will allow using it as a consumer regulator, as well as a theoretical study of the risks that arise. Methodology. To conduct the research, the theory of designing internal electrical networks of buildings, the theory of plotting electric load graphs, methods of the theory of electromechanical systems and for analyzing the risk system, the T. Saati method of hierarchies were used. Results. The structure of kinetic energy storage (KES connection to the power supply system of the administrative building is developed and the structural diagram of the KES proposed for installation is given, the average daily winter and summer load schedules are presented, a set of groups and subgroups of risks and their influence on the work of the power supply system of the building are connected with the connection of the KES. Originality. For the first time, the application of the kinetic energy storage in the power supply system of the building with the analysis of emerging risks is considered, which makes it possible to improve the reliability of the developed system and the efficiency of load regulation. Practical value. The application of the proposed scheme will make it possible to use administrative buildings as load regulators of the external power supply system, and also effectively manage the load in the internal power supply system of the building.

  1. Tėvų, auginančių 5-6 metų vaikus, lūkesčiai ugdant juos profesinei veiklai

    OpenAIRE

    Klimavičienė, Vaida

    2014-01-01

    Šiandien visuomenė labai pasitiki švietimu. Visas vaikų ugdymo problemas užkrauna pedagogams, ko neturėtų būti. Pedagogai nėra pajėgūs vieni visapusiškai ugdyti vaikų, šiuo atveju ugdyti ir profesinei veiklai. Prie pedagogo ugdymo turėtų prisijungti tėvai, visuomenė ir valstybė, nors šiai dienai tai yra labai sunku įgyvendinti. Tėvai ugdydami savo vaikus profesinei veiklai taip pat turi lūkesčių kaip ir patys vaikai ir neretai bando juos įgyvendinti. Remiantis S. Kregždės (1988), L. Jovaišos ...

  2. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  3. Harjutusvälja rajamiseks kulub kuni 50 miljonit krooni / Gerli Romanovitš

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Romanovitš, Gerli, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    Kaitseministeeriumi eelprojektis on Sirgalasse ette nähtud mitu väljaõppeala ja -rajatist, kuni kolm ohutustehnika nõuetele vastavat tranšeedesse paigutatud lasketiiru, mitmele eri relvaliigile mõeldud avamaastiku laskeväli, lõhkamiskoht ning teeninduskeskuse ja välimajutuse ala

  4. Selvin päin kesään : Ehkäisevän päihdetyön tapahtuman järjestäminen ja testaaminen Kouvolassa

    OpenAIRE

    Ala-Mäyry, Henrietta; Pasi, Janika

    2017-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli kehittää Selvin päin kesään-tapahtumaa ja ohessa testata tapahtuman toimivuutta Kouvolassa. Tapahtumassa vanhempia kan-nustetaan jalkautumaan koulujen päättymisviikonloppuna nuorten pariin rauhoitta-maan illan tunnelmaa läsnäolollaan sekä näyttämään päihteettömän hauskanpidon esimerkkiä. Tuloksia arvioitiin havainnoimalla paikanpäällä koulujen päättymisiltana ja arvioimalla mainostuksen tehokkuutta. Projektissa toimittiin yhteistyössä Kouvolan kaupun...

  5. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  6. Kes võidab ja kes kaotab kogumispensioniga? / Mai Treial

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treial, Mai, 1952-

    2001-01-01

    Pensionireformi teise samba ehk kogumispensioni eelnõust. Autor: ERL. Parlamendisaadik. Ilmunud ka: Virumaa Teataja, 22. juuni 2001, lk. 11; Nädaline, 22. juuni 2001, lk. 4; Koit, 21. juuni 2001, lk. 6; Meie Maa, 21. juni 2001, lk. 2; Põhjarannik, 22. juuni 2001, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 22. juuni 2001, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 26. juuni 2001, lk. 2; Valgamaalane, 26. juuni 2001, lk. 2; Pärnu Postimees, 27. juuni 2001, lk. 2; Vooremaa, 28. juuni 2001, lk. 3; Järva Teataja, 6. juuli 2001, lk. 2; Sakala, 25. juuli 2001, lk. 2; ERL Teataja, juuli/aug., nr. 7-8, 2001, lk. 9

  7. Kes oli Litvinenko? Miks ta tapeti? Kes Tappis? / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2007-01-01

    Andrei Nekrassovi ja Olga Konskaja dokumentaalfilmist "Vastuhakk: Litvinenko juhtum" ("Rebellion: The Litvinenko Case"/"Bunt. Delo Litvinenko") : Suurbritannia - Venemaa 2007. Filmi näidati Cannes'i festivalil

  8. Kes "teeb" uudiseid? / Ruta Pels

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pels, Ruta, 1960-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Buhgalterskije Novosti, 2006, nr. 1, lk. 57-58. Global Media Monitoring Projecti (GMMP) 2005. aasta 16. veebruari meediauuringust, mille eesmärk oli selgitada naiste esindatus massiteabevahendites. Eesti uuringu tulemustest. Tabel. Diagramm

  9. Kes on Borat? / Timo Diener

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Diener, Timo

    2006-01-01

    Eesti kinodesse on jõudnud briti koomiku Sacha Baron Coheni loodud peategelasega USA film "Borat - kultuurialased õppetunnid Ameerikast abiks suursuguse Kasahstani riigi ülesehitamisel" : režissöör Larry Charles. Filmi peaosalisest ja filmi seiklusrikkast võtteperioodist

  10. Kes kardab talve? / Jussa Nieminen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nieminen, Jussa

    2015-01-01

    Võrdlustestis talveauto 2015: BMW 218i Active Tourer, Citroën C4 Cactus Puretech 110, Ford Mondeo Wagon 2,0 TDCi A, Hyundai i10 1,0, Jeep Renegade 1,4 Twinair, Kia Soul 1,6, Mercedes-Benz C 220 dT, Mini Cooper 5-ukseline, Mitsubishi Space Star 1,2 CVT, Nissan Qashqai 1,2 DIG-T, Opel Corsa 1,0T, Peugeot 108 e-VTI 68, Renault Twingo 1,0 SCe, Smart Fortwo 1,0, Škoda Fabia 1,2 TSI, Toyota Aygo 1,0, Volkswagen Passat 2,0 TDI DSG

  11. Kes kirjutas Lolita? / Jaanus Vaiksoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaiksoo, Jaanus

    2004-01-01

    Saksa kirjandusteadlane Michael Marr väidab, et Vladimir Nabokov omastas romaani "Lolita" pealkirja ja süžeeliinid saksa kirjaniku Heinz von Lichberg (kodanikunimega Heinz von Eschwege) novellist (1916)

  12. Electrical load detection aparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A load detection technique for a load comprising multiple frequency-dependant sub-loads comprises measuring a representation of the impedance characteristic of the load; providing stored representations of a multiplicity of impedance characteristics of the load; each one of the stored representat...

  13. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  14. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  15. İbn Kes̠īr’in İsrā’īliyyāta Yaklaşımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Savut

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetKitap ehline dayanan bilgilerin güvenilirliği ilk asırlardan itibaren İslam âlimlerinin gündemini meşgul etmiştir. İsrā’īliyyāt kavramı etrafında şekillenen tartışmalar günümüzde de devam etmektedir. İsrā’īliyyāt konusunda öne çıkan âlimlerden birisi belki de en önemlisi İbn Kes̠īr’dir (ö.774/1373. O, seleften gelen rivayet ve değerlendirmeleri göz önünde bulundurarak İsrā’īliyyātı belli kriterler çerçevesinde ele almıştır. İbn Kes̠īr İsrā’īliyyātı toptan reddetmemiş, meseleyi İslam’a uyup uymaması açısından değerlendirmiş, tek tek rivayetler üzerinde uyguladığı tahlil ve analizlerle hangi nakillerin alınıp hangilerinin alınamayacağını hükme bağlamıştır. Onun İsrā’īlî haberler karşısındaki tutumunun bilinmesi, günümüzde konu üzerinden yürütülen tartışmaları sağlam bir zemine oturtabilmek açısından önemlidir. Çünkü onun Tefsīru’l-Ḳur’āni’l-‘aẓīm adlı eseri, İsrā’īliyyāt başlığı altında yapılan çalışmalarda müracaat edilen en önemli kaynaklardan birisidir. Onun konuya yaklaşımı anlaşıldığı oranda önceki âlimlerin İsrā’īliyyāt ile neyi kastettikleri, karşı çıktıkları rivayetlerin neler olduğu, bu tür materyalleri nerelerde kullanma ihtiyacı hissettikleri netleşecektir.AbstractThe authenticity of the reports coming from the people of the book occupied the agenda of the Muslim scholars from the first centuries onwards. Controversies regarding the term İsrā’īliyyāt keep continue even today. Ibn Kathir (d.774/1373 is one of the most outstanding scholars on İsrā’īliyyāt, perhaps the most significant one. He dealt with İsrā’īliyyāt within the framework of certain criteria taking the reports and interpretations of his predecessors into account. He didn’t reject İsrā’īliyyāt as a whole, but considered the issue in terms of relevance to Islam, and

  16. Carbohydrate-Loading Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your calories from carbohydrates. The role of carbohydrates Carbohydrates, also known as starches and sugars, are ... to consume some energy sources during your event. Carbohydrate loading Carbohydrate loading is done the week before ...

  17. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  18. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  19. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  20. Concentrated loads on concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  1. Electrical load modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valgas, Helio Moreira; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R.; Franca, Carlos [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lambert-Torres, Germano; Silva, Alexandre P. Alves da; Pires, Robson Celso; Costa Junior, Roberto Affonso [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Accurate dynamic load models allow more precise calculations of power system controls and stability limits, which are critical mainly in the operation planning of power systems. This paper describes the development of a computer program (software) for static and dynamic load model studies using the measurement approach for the CEMIG system. Two dynamic load model structures are developed and tested. A procedure for applying a set of measured data from an on-line transient recording system to develop load models is described. (author) 6 refs., 17 figs.

  2. Critical Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Wells

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.

  3. Load Induced Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of…

  4. Mechanism isolates load weighing cell during lifting of load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigler, J. S.

    1966-01-01

    Load weighing cell used in conjuction with a hoist is isolated during lifting and manipulation of the load. A simple mechanism, attached to a crane hook, provides a screw adjustment for engaging the load cell during weighing of the load and isolating it from lift forces during hoisting of the load.

  5. Load flow analysis using decoupled fuzzy load flow under critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The conventional load flow methods like Newton-Raphson load flow (NRLF), Fast Decoupled load flow (FDLF) provide poor performance under critical conditions such as high R/X ratio, heavily loading condition etc. Exploiting the decoupling properties of power system, reliable fuzzy load flow is developed to overcome the ...

  6. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  7. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for...

  8. Plug Load Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We provide MATLAB binary files (.mat) and comma separated values files of data collected from a pilot study of a plug load management system that allows for the...

  9. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Science.gov (United States)

    LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for simulating hydrology, sediment, and general water quality

  10. HIV Viral Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle ... used each time. Will exercise, nutrition, and other lifestyle modifications help decrease my HIV viral load? There ...

  11. Lumbriculus variegatus loading study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Results from sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus with evaluating the effects of organism loading density. This dataset is associated with the...

  12. Static Loads Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to perform large-scale structural loads testing on spacecraft and other structures. Results from these tests can be used to verify...

  13. Assessing molecular initiating events (MIEs), key events (KEs) and modulating factors (MFs) for styrene responses in mouse lungs using whole genome gene expression profiling following 1-day and multi-week exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Melvin E; Cruzan, George; Black, Michael B; Pendse, Salil N; Dodd, Darol; Bus, James S; Sarang, Satinder S; Banton, Marcy I; Waites, Robbie; McMullen, Patrick D

    2017-11-15

    Styrene increased lung tumors in mice at chronic inhalation exposures of 20ppm and greater. MIEs, KEs and MFs were examined using gene expression in three strains of male mice (the parental C57BL/6 strain, a CYP2F2(-/-) knock out and a CYP2F2(-/-) transgenic containing human CYP2F1, 2A13 and 2B6). Exposures were for 1-day and 1, 4 and 26weeks. After 1-day exposures at 1, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 120ppm significant increases in differentially expressed genes (DEGs) occurred only in parental strain lungs where there was already an increase in DEGs at 5ppm and then many thousands of DEGs by 120ppm. Enrichment for 1-day and 1-week exposures included cell cycle, mitotic M-M/G1 phases, DNA-synthesis and metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins pathways. The numbers of DEGs decreased steadily over time with no DEGs meeting both statistical significance and fold-change criteria at 26weeks. At 4 and 26weeks, some key transcription factors (TFs) - Nr1d1, Nr1d2, Dbp, Tef, Hlf, Per3, Per2 and Bhlhe40 - were upregulated (|FC|>1.5), while others - Npas, Arntl, Nfil3, Nr4a1, Nr4a2, and Nr4a3 - were down-regulated. At all times, consistent changes in gene expression only occurred in the parental strain. Our results support a MIE for styrene of direct mitogenicity from mouse-specific CYP2F2-mediated metabolites activating Nr4a signaling. Longer-term MFs include down-regulation of Nr4a genes and shifts in both circadian clock TFs and other TFs, linking circadian clock to cellular metabolism. We found no gene expression changes indicative of cytotoxicity or activation of p53-mediated DNA-damage pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Composite Load Model Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ning; Qiao, Hong (Amy)

    2007-09-30

    The WECC load modeling task force has dedicated its effort in the past few years to develop a composite load model that can represent behaviors of different end-user components. The modeling structure of the composite load model is recommended by the WECC load modeling task force. GE Energy has implemented this composite load model with a new function CMPLDW in its power system simulation software package, PSLF. For the last several years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has taken the lead and collaborated with GE Energy to develop the new composite load model. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and BPA joint force and conducted the evaluation of the CMPLDW and test its parameter settings to make sure that: • the model initializes properly, • all the parameter settings are functioning, and • the simulation results are as expected. The PNNL effort focused on testing the CMPLDW in a 4-bus system. An exhaustive testing on each parameter setting has been performed to guarantee each setting works. This report is a summary of the PNNL testing results and conclusions.

  15. Load power device, system and method of load control and management employing load identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yi; Luebke, Charles John; Schoepf, Thomas J.

    2018-01-09

    A load power device includes a power input, at least one power output for at least one load, a plurality of sensors structured to sense voltage and current at the at least one power output, and a processor. The processor provides: (a) load identification based upon the sensed voltage and current, and (b) load control and management based upon the load identification.

  16. Dielectrically Loaded Biconical Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusseibeh, Fouad Ahmed

    1995-01-01

    Biconical antennas are of great interest to those who deal with broadband applications including the transmission/reception of pulses. In particular, wide-angle conical antennas are an attractive choice in many applications including Electronic Support Measures (ESM) and the measurements of transient surface currents and charge densities on aircraft. Dielectric loading in the interior region of a conical antenna can be used to reduce the size of the antenna especially at low frequencies and/or for structural strength. Therefore, having an analytical solution for the input impedance and the frequency response is very helpful in optimizing the design and understanding the behavior of the antenna. From the quasi-analytical solution for the input impedance and the electric field of a wide-angle conical antenna, it can be seen that the dielectric loading in the antenna region improves the input impedance at low frequencies, but increases the number of resonance points and the magnitude of these peaks. When an inhomogeneous dielectric load is used, the magnitude of the resonance peaks is decreased (depending on the way the load is distributed), improving the input impedance of the antenna significantly. Introducing a dielectric load in the interior region of an electrically short receiving cone makes the antenna behave as an electrically longer antenna. However, this is not true for the case for electrical1y long antennas. For the case of pulse transmission, the dielectric load affects only the amplitude. Of course, if the dielectric fills the whole space, both transmitting and receiving antennas behave as electrically longer antennas.

  17. Wave Loads on Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area.......Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area....

  18. Load research and load estimation in electricity distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1996-12-31

    The topics introduced in this thesis are: the Finnish load research project, a simple form customer class load model, analysis of the origins of customers load distribution, a method for the estimation of the confidence interval of customer loads and Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) which utilises both the load models and measurements from distribution networks. The Finnish load research project started in 1983. The project was initially coordinated by the Association of Finnish Electric Utilities and 40 utilities joined the project. Now there are over 1000 customer hourly load recordings in a database. A simple form customer class load model is introduced. The model is designed to be practical for most utility applications and has been used by the Finnish utilities for several years. The only variable of the model is the customers annual energy consumption. The model gives the customers average hourly load and standard deviation for a selected month, day and hour. The statistical distribution of customer loads is studied and a model for customer electric load variation is developed. The model results in a lognormal distribution as an extreme case. Using the `simple form load model`, a method for estimating confidence intervals (confidence limits) of customer hourly load is developed. The two methods selected for final analysis are based on normal and lognormal distribution estimated in a simplified manner. The estimation of several cumulated customer class loads is also analysed. Customer class load estimation which combines the information from load models and distribution network load measurements is developed. This method, called Distribution Load Estimation (DLE), utilises information already available in the utilities databases and is thus easy to apply

  19. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...

  20. Fuel Load (FL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan C. Lutes; Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fuel Load method (FL) is used to sample dead and down woody debris, determine depth of the duff/ litter profile, estimate the proportion of litter in the profile, and estimate total vegetative cover and dead vegetative cover. Down woody debris (DWD) is sampled using the planar intercept technique based on the methodology developed by Brown (1974). Pieces of dead...

  1. Probabilistic Load Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the probabilistic load flow (PLF) techniques. Applications of the PLF techniques in different areas of power system steady-state analysis are also discussed. The purpose of the review is to identify different available PLF techniques and their corresponding...

  2. Robust surgery loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, Elias W.; Wullink, Gerhard; van Houdenhoven, Mark; Kazemier, Geert

    2008-01-01

    We consider the robust surgery loading problem for a hospital’s operating theatre department, which concerns assigning surgeries and sufficient planned slack to operating room days. The objective is to maximize capacity utilization and minimize the risk of overtime, and thus cancelled patients. This

  3. Duration of load revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    A duration of load study representing 13 years of testing was recently terminated. Preliminary results have been published over the years. This paper represents the final account of the study, which was focused on the influ-ence of moisture content on time to failure for structural timber subject...

  4. Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  5. Vene talent, kes valis Eesti / Neeme Korv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Korv, Neeme, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    Vestlusest Eesti meistrivõistluste hõbemedaliomaniku Andrei Kalinitsheviga, kellele äsja saavutatud hõbemedal annab võimaluse esindada Eestit Euroopa võistkondlikel esivõistlustel. Kommenteerib maleliidu juhatuse esimees Hendrik Olde

  6. Habemeajaja, kes polnud deemonlik / Aarne Ruben

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruben, Aarne, 1971-

    2008-01-01

    Õudusmuusikal "Sweeney Todd : Fleet Streeti deemonlik habemeajaja" Stephen Sondheimi muusikali alusel : režissöör Tim Burton : peaosades Johnny Depp, Helena Bonham Carter : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Suurbritannia 2007

  7. Sars. Kes on esimene Eestis? / Katrin Vaga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaga, Katrin, 1977-

    2003-01-01

    Kas Eesti tervisekaitsjad ja ühiskond on SARSiks valmis? Küsimustele vastavad: Riigi peaepidemioloog Kuulo Kutsar, nakkustõrje spetsialist Aino Rõõm, Tallinna Kiirabi peaarst Raul Adlas. Lisad: Ajatelg: Sarsi areng maailmas, lk. 26-30, 35-38. SARSiohvrite hulk maailmas 7. mai seisuga, lk. 38

  8. Kes on Depoo? / interv. Mart Niineste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Intervjuu noortebändi Depoo liikmetega heliplaadist "Amazing!" (plaadi esitluskontserdid 17. märtsil Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja Noortebänd 2006 finaalvõistlusel klubis Hollywood, 18. märtsil Tartus klubis Illusion, 24. märtsil Riias klubi Depo sünnipäevaüritusel)

  9. Mehed, kes kujundavad Keskerakonna maine / Koit Brinkmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brinkmann, Koit

    2006-01-01

    Keskerakonna valimisvõitude taga on reklaamifirma Idea töötajad Mark Eikner ja Paavo Pettai. Vt. samas: K-kohuke vallutab turge vaid sõnades; K-kohukese uurimine alles pooleli; Keskerakond on toonud Ideasse ligi 35 mln krooni; Idea saab Tallinnalt miljoneid. Diagramm: Majandusnäitajad

  10. Kes kardab tiblasid? : [Art.] / Sergei Stadnikov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stadnikov, Sergei, 1956-

    1996-01-01

    Vastukaja : Kukli, Tõnis. Mina ei karda tiblasid... // Eesti Ekspress. - 1996. - 8. nov. - Lk.A5; Stadnikov, Sergei. Isemõtlejale ja traktoristile // Eesti Ekspress. - 1996. - 15. nov. - Lk.A5; Veel vene küsimusest // Eesti Ekspress. - 1996. - 20. dets. - Lk.A5. - Allk.: Lehelugeja Ots Tallinnast

  11. Kes lavastas Suure Paugu? / Maris Johannes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johannes, Maris, 1959-

    2007-01-01

    Eest Muusika päevade raames Tallinna tollilaos etendunud Stephen Hawkingi raamatu "A Brief History of Time" ("Aja lühilugu") ainelisest multimeedialavastusest "Õnne valem", Von Krahli teatrile ja NYYD Ensemble'ile originaalmuusika autor Gavin Bryars, autor ja lavastaja Peeter Jalakas

  12. Kes joonistab uue kunstilaine kaardi? / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti noorema kunsti näitus "Uus laine. 21. sajandi eesti kunstnikud" (kuraatorid Anders Härm, Hanno Soans) Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Kunstihoone galeriis. Non Grata kollektiivnäitus "Uus laine. 20. sajandi kunst" Kultuuritehases Polymer

  13. Kes joonistab uue kunstilaine kaardi? / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    Anders Härmi ja Hanno Soansi kureeritud näitusest "Uus laine. 21. sajandi eesti kunstnikud" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Kunstihoone galeriis ning Non Grata kollektiivnäitusest "Uus laine. 20. sajandi kunst" Kultuuritehases Polymer

  14. Filosoof, kes uskus surematust / Aivar Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Aivar, 1955-

    1997-01-01

    Rets. rmt.: Unamuno, Miguel de. Inimeste ja rahvaste traagilisest elutundest / tlk. Ruth Lias. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 1996. (Avatud Eesti raamat). Vaata ka: Kull, Aivar. Kulli pilk. - Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005, lk. 101-104

  15. Naine, kes ei vaadanud tagasi / Ilona Martson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Martson, Ilona, 1970-

    2008-01-01

    Raamatututvuistus: Bona, Dominique. Gala : [Dalí võimukas muusa] / prantsuse keelest tõlkinud Margot Endjärv. [Tallinn] : Kunst, 2008. Venelanna Jelena Djakonova (Gala) suhetest prantsuse luuletaja Paul Eluard'iga ja hispaania maalikunstniku Salvador Daliga

  16. Kes neist juhib väikelennukit, kes unistas surnukuuris töötamisest, kes on armunud, kes on vasakukäeline?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Tantsusaate "Tantsud tähtedega" osalejate kohta faktiandmeid. Lisatud ka eelmise aasta statistika "Eelmise tantsusaate tuludest sai abi 158 last" ja "Tantsusaate võitjateks pakutakse Koitu (Toome) ja Kerttut (Tänav)"

  17. Mees, kes valitses vahendeid valimata / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2003-01-01

    Võimuloleku aja jooksul jõudis Serbia peaminister Zoran Djindjic koguda endale vaenlasi nii poliitiliste vastaste leeris kui ta kuritegelikus maailmas. Tabel: peaministrite tapmisi. Lisa: Dissident, pagulane, filosoof

  18. Harry, kes vallutab maailma / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2001-01-01

    Joanne Rowling'u lasteraamatu "Harry Potter ja Tarkade kivi" ekraniseeringu esilinastus Eestis on 21. detsembril Coca-Cola Plazas. Selle USA filmi režissöör on Chris Columbus ja peaosas 12-aastane Daniel Radcliffe

  19. Kes varjas merereostajat? / Siim Randla, Allar Viivik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randla, Siim, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Peaminister Andrus Ansip sõnas valitsuse pressikonverentsil, et Eesti ajaloo suurima õlireostuse võimalik süüdlane on Libeeria lippu kandev tanker Flawless. Peaministri sõnul ei jõudnud avariiteave, millest tanker 25. jaanuaril Eesti piirivalvele teada andis, õigel ajal avalikkuse ega valitsuseni. Lisa: Tanker Flawless

  20. Kes peidab end vihmavarju all? / Paul Kennedy

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kennedy, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Autor kirjutab USA osast NATO-s, NATO aluslepingust ja momendiolukorrast organisatsioonis. Võimalik, et järgmine Valge Maja administratsioon suudab asjad järjel hoida ja USA säilitab oma juhtpositsiooni veel mõnikümmend aastat, arvab ta. Vt. samas: NATO alusleping

  1. Naised, kes teevad suurt raha / Katrin Kapara

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kapara, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    Maailma rikkaimate inimeste edetabelit koostava ajakirja Forbes nimestikus oli tänavu 99 naist. Liliane Bettencourt - kosmeetikaimpeeriumi LþOreal pärija, Zhang Xin - firma SOHO China omanik, Cristina Green - jaekaubanduskettide omanik, Jelena Baturina - Vene ärinaine, Meg Whitman - eBay käivitaja, Oprah Winfrey - Ameerika telesaatejuht

  2. Kes kardab saksa teatrit? / Madli Pesti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pesti, Madli, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    5.-20. maini Berliinis toimunud festivalist "Theatertreffen". Lavastustest: Yasmina Reza "Barbaarsuse jumal" ("Der Gott des Gemetzels"), lavastaja Jürgen Gosch, Schauspielhaus Zürich. Goethe "Noore Wertheri kannatused", lavastaja Jan Bosse, Berliini Gorki teater. Aischylose "Oresteia", lavastaja Michael Thalheimer, kunstnik Olaf Altmann. Moliere'i "Tartuffe", lavastaja Dimiter Gotscheff, Hamburgi Thalia teater

  3. Kolm meest, kes ostsid Thulema / Koit Brinkmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brinkmann, Koit

    2006-01-01

    Mööblifirma Thulemast 60% ostnud Wallenium Grupp OÜ omanikud Henri Rüüsak, Endrus Arge ja Sparry Kivilo tahavad ettevõttest teha Baltimaade suurima mööblitootja. Diagramm. Kommenteerivad Jussi Aine, August Kull, Siiri Maask ja Tõnis Tarbe

  4. Naisfotograafid, kes avavad meie silmad / Katie Breen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Breen, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Fotograafid Ami Vitale, Helene David, Stephanie Sinclair, Lauren Greenfield, Deirdre Brennan, Veronique de Viguerie, Christine Spengler pildistavad võõraid kultuure Aafrikas, Alaskal, Afganistanis, Iraagis. 9 fotot. Portreefotod fotograafidest

  5. Herman kes? Catherine kuidas? / Jochen Bittner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bittner, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    Autor analüüsib, miks valiti Euroopa Parlamendi presidendiks Belgia peaminister Herman Van Rompuy ning välis- ja julgeolekupoliitika kõrgemaks esindajaks Euroopa komisjoni kaubandusvolinik Catherine Ashton

  6. Talendid, kes tulid tagasi koju / Laura Mallene

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mallene, Laura

    2010-01-01

    IsePankuri asutajast Pärtel Tombergist, start-up firmaga Cutefund tegelevast Enn Metsarist, riigikantselei EL-i sekretariaadi konsultandist Katrin Juhandist, Küberkaitse Kompetentsikeskuse töötajast Anna-Maria Talihärmist, LHV Turunduse töötajast Ellen Murulast, Elioni finantsanalüütikust Artur Elmest

  7. Kes maksab kinni Suure Kõrva? / Erki Urva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Urva, Erki, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Elektroonilise side seaduse ja rahvatervise seaduse muutmise seadusest ning EL direktiivist 2006/24/EÜ, mis kohustavad sideoperaatoreid salvestama ja säilitama telefonikõnedega ja internetikasutusega seotud infot

  8. Kes ei maga, see vaatab / Jaanus Kulli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kulli, Jaanus, 1955-

    2004-01-01

    Peale mängufilmi "Täna öösel me ei maga" esilinastust Coca-Cola Plazas : režissöör Ilmar Taska : produtsent ning üks stsenariste Kristian Taska. Lisaks vastavad Signe Kivi ja Urmas Paet küsimusele "Millised on teie esmamuljed filmist?"

  9. Iraan Suurbritannia vastu : kes paindus? / Francis Fukuyama

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fukuyama, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 17. apr. lk. 7. Iraani sisepoliitikast seoses 15 Briti mereväejalaväelase arreteerimise ja vabastamisega, Iraani probleemist Islami Revolutsioonilise Kaardiväe (IRGC või Pasradan) ja sellega liidusuhetes olevate institutsioonidega nagu Basj sõjaväeline rühmitus. Autori arvates tahtsid mõned Iraani rühmitused teravdada vastasseisu Suurbritannia ja USA-ga

  10. Inimesed, kes on armunud filmi / Annika Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Annika

    2001-01-01

    UNICA festivali korraldaja Jaak Järvise abiga antud ülevaade Tallinnas 3.-12. augustini toimuvast UNICA 63. ülemaailmsest amatöörfilmide festivalist. Ka nimekiri selle raames toimunud üheminutiliste filmide maailmameistrivõistluste tulemustest, kus ühe kolmanda preemia sai Tõnu Aru ja Eve Esteri "Friendly". Põhiprogrammis võistleb ka Tõnu Aru "Elu on niisugune"

  11. Kuidas ma sain selleks, kes ma olen?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Kultuurikoja juurest alguse saanud töörühm on sel õppeaastal eesti koolides korraldanud Elamusaastat. Elamusaasta raames käivad eri loomevaldkondade esindajad kooliõpilastele rääkimas oma elu märgilistest sündmustest ja elamustest

  12. Heavy-Load Lifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Oturai, Peter; Steele, Megan L

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite a paucity of evidence, prevention guidelines typically advise avoidance of heavy lifting in an effort to protect against breast cancer-related lymphedema. This study compared acute responses in arm swelling and related symptoms after low- and heavy-load resistance exercise among...... women at risk of lymphedema while receiving adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy. METHODS: This is a randomized, cross-over equivalence trial. Women receiving adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy for breast cancer who had undergone axillary lymph node dissection (n=21) participated in low- (60-65% 1...... repetition maximum (RM), two sets of 15-20 repetitions) and heavy-load (85-90% 1RM, three sets of 5-8 repetition) upper-extremity resistance exercise separated by a one-week wash-out period. Swelling was determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, with breast cancer...

  13. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  14. Nutrient and Coliform Loading (NCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of available fecal coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci bacteria, and nutrient loading data. Loading for contaminants other than fecal coliform...

  15. Load Estimation from Modal Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández

    2007-01-01

    In Natural Input Modal Analysis the modal parameters are estimated just from the responses while the loading is not recorded. However, engineers are sometimes interested in knowing some features of the loading acting on a structure. In this paper, a procedure to determine the loading from a FRF...... the accuracy in the load estimation. Finally, the results of an experimental program carried out on a simple structure are presented....

  16. Research of Impact Load in Large Electrohydraulic Load Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongguang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The stronger impact load will appear in the initial phase when the large electric cylinder is tested in the hardware-in-loop simulation. In this paper, the mathematical model is built based on AMESim, and then the reason of the impact load is investigated through analyzing the changing tendency of parameters in the simulation results. The inhibition methods of impact load are presented according to the structural invariability principle and applied to the actual system. The final experimental result indicates that the impact load is inhibited, which provides a good experimental condition for the electric cylinder and promotes the study of large load simulator.

  17. Pollution Load Estimation Based on Characteristic Section Load Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Song, JinXi; Liu, WanQing

    2017-12-01

    Weihe River Watershed above Linjiacun Section is taken as the research objective in this paper and COD is chosen as the water quality parameter. According to the discharge characteristics of point source pollutions and non-point source pollutions, a new method to estimate pollution loads-Characteristic Section Load Method(CSLM) is proposed and point source pollution and non-point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Linjiacun Section are calculated in the rainy, normal and dry season in the year 2007. The results show that the monthly point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Linjiacun Section are discharged stably, the monthly non-point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Linjiacun Section change greatly, the non-point source pollution load proportions of total pollution load of COD are gradually decreased in the rainy, normal and wet periods.

  18. Android Fully Loaded

    CERN Document Server

    Huddleston, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Fully loaded with the latest tricks and tips on your new Android! Android smartphones are so hot, they're soaring past iPhones on the sales charts. And the second edition of this muscular little book is equally impressive--it's packed with tips and tricks for getting the very most out of your latest-generation Android device. Start Facebooking and tweeting with your Android mobile, scan barcodes to get pricing and product reviews, download your favorite TV shows--the book is positively bursting with practical and fun how-tos. Topics run the gamut from using speech recognition, location-based m

  19. Variable loading roller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel M.

    1989-01-01

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves on the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first.

  20. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...... of nail row, edge distance, fixed nail-plate, bending direction, unloading, and grain direction, plate and load direction on the load-displacement curves are analysed. Mean load-displacement curves from all the tests are given....

  1. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  2. Estimating constituent loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, T.A.; DeLong, L.L.; Gilroy, E.J.; Hirsch, R.M.; Wells, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper compares the bias and variance of three procedures that can be used with log linear regression models: the traditional rating curve estimator, a modified rating curve method, and a minimum variance unbiased estimator (MVUE). Analytical derivations of the bias and efficiency of all three estimators are presented. It is shown that for many conditions the traditional and the modified estimator can provide satisfactory estimates. However, other conditions exist where they have substantial bias and a large mean square error. These conditions commonly occur when sample sizes are small, or when loads are estimated during high-flow conditions. The MVUE, however, is unbiased and always performs nearly as well or better than the rating curve estimator or the modified estimator provided that the hypothesis of the log linear model is correct. Since an efficient unbiased estimator is available, there seems to be no reason to employ biased estimators. -from Authors

  3. Load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Aalborg Nielsen, Henrik

    This report presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. The load for refrigeration is the sum of all cabinets in the supermarket, both low and medium temperature cabinets, and spans a period of one year. As input to the forecasting models the ambient temperature observed near the supermarket together with weather forecasts are used. Every hour...... the hourly load for refrigeration for the following 42 hours is forecasted. The forecast models are adaptive linear time-series models which are fitted with a computationally efficient recursive least squares scheme. The dynamic relations between the inputs and the load is modeled by simple transfer...

  4. Load forecasting of supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Buth; Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel study of models for forecasting the electrical load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. Every hour the hourly electrical load for refrigeration is forecasted for the following 42 h. The forecast models are adaptive linear time series models. The model has two regimes; one for opening hours and one for closing hours, this is modeled by a regime switching model and two different...

  5. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  6. Metamaterial Loadings for Waveguide Miniaturization

    CERN Document Server

    Odabasi, H

    2013-01-01

    We show that a rectangular metallic waveguide loaded with metamaterial elements consisting of electric-field coupled (ELC) resonators placed at the side walls can operate well below the cutoff frequency of the respective unloaded waveguide. The dispersion diagrams indicate that propagating modes in ELC-loaded waveguides are of forward-type for both TE and TM modes. We also study the dispersion diagram and transmission characteristics of rectangular metallic waveguides simultaneously loaded with ELCs and split ring resonators (SRRs). Such doubly-loaded waveguides can support both forward wave and backward waves, and provide independent control of the propagation characteristics for the respective modes.

  7. electrical load survey electrical load survey and forecast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    paper reports the results of electrical load demand and forecast for Elebu rural community located in Kwara State,. Nigeria. The expected peak ... Keywords: hybrid system, renewable energy, optimization, electrical energy, load survey and forecasts. 1. ..... vehicle renewable energy, Monaco, March 26-29,. 2009, pp. 1-9.

  8. Crane-Load Contact Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Cox, Robert

    2005-01-01

    An electronic instrument has been developed as a prototype of a portable crane-load contact sensor. Such a sensor could be helpful in an application in which the load rests on a base in a horizontal position determined by vertical alignment pins (see Figure 1). If the crane is not positioned to lift the load precisely vertically, then the load can be expected to swing once it has been lifted clear of the pins. If the load is especially heavy, large, and/or fragile, it could hurt workers and/or damage itself and nearby objects. By indicating whether the load remains in contact with the pins when it has been lifted a fraction of the length of the pins, the crane-load contact sensor helps the crane operator determine whether it is safe to lift the load clear of the pins: If there is contact, then the load is resting against the sides of the pins and, hence, it may not be safe to lift; if contact is occasionally broken, then the load is probably not resting against the pins, so it should be safe to lift. It is assumed that the load and base, or at least the pins and the surfaces of the alignment holes in the load, are electrically conductive, so the instrument can use electrical contact to indicate mechanical contact. However, DC resistance cannot be used as an indicator of contact for the following reasons: The load and the base are both electrically grounded through cables (the load is grounded through the lifting cable of the crane) to prevent discharge of static electricity. In other words, the DC resistance between the load and the pins is always low, as though they were always in direct contact. Therefore, instead of DC resistance, the instrument utilizes the AC electrical impedance between the pins and the load. The signal frequency used in the measurement is high enough (.1 MHz) that the impedance contributed by the cables and the electrical ground network of the building in which the crane and the base are situated is significantly greater than the contact

  9. Probabilistic Load Models for Simulating the Impact of Load Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    to simulate the impact of load management. The joint-normal model is superior in modeling the tail region of the hourly load distribution and implementing the change of hourly standard deviation. Whereas the AR(12) model requires much less parameter and is superior in modeling the autocorrelation......This paper analyzes a distribution system load time series through autocorrelation coefficient, power spectral density, probabilistic distribution and quantile value. Two probabilistic load models, i.e. the joint-normal model and the autoregressive model of order 12 (AR(12)), are proposed....... It is concluded that the AR(12) model is favored with limited measurement data and that the joint-normal model may provide better results with a large data set. Both models can be applied in general to model load time series and used in time-sequential simulation of distribution system planning....

  10. Fatigue Reliability under Random Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talreja, R.

    1979-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the probability of survival (non-failure) and the probability of safe operation (strength greater than a limiting value) of structures subjected to random loads. These probabilities are formulated in terms of the probability distributions of the loads and the...... propagation stage. The consequences of this behaviour on the fatigue reliability are discussed....

  11. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  12. Load forecasting of supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Buth; Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel study of models for forecasting the electrical load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. Every hour the hourly electrical load for refrigeration is forecasted for the following 42 h. The forecast models are adaptive linear time series models. The model has two regimes; one for opening hours and one for closing hours, this is modeled by a regime switching model and two different...... methods for predicting the regimes are tested. The dynamic relation between the weather and the load is modeled by simple transfer functions and the non-linearities are described using spline functions. The results are thoroughly evaluated and it is shown that the spline functions are suitable...

  13. Kes räägib tõtt, kes ebatõtt? / Elmar Truu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Truu, Elmar-Johannes, 1942-

    2001-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Sakala, 27. nov. 2001, lk. 2; Meie Maa, 28. nov. 2001, lk. 2; Valgamaalane, 27. nov, 2001, lk. 2; Virumaa Teataja, 28. nov. 2001, lk. 7; Nädaline, 29. nov. 2001, lk. 4; ERL Teataja, dets. 2001, nr. 12, lk. 4. Riigikogu 14. nov. infotunnis pöördumisest sotsiaalministri Eiki Nestori poole küsimustega ravimite hinna järjekindlast tõstmisest. Autor: ERL. Parlamendisaadik

  14. Kes maksab maksud ausalt ära, kes otsib optimeerimisvõimalusi / Eva Veinberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veinberg, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Auditeerimise, raamatupidamise, maksu-, äri- ja õigusnõustamise firma Grant Thornton Rimess Balticu uuringu International Business Report toob välja erinevuse Põhjamaade ja Lõuna-Euroopa riikide vahel suhtumises maksuküsimustesse: Põhjamaade ettevõtete juhid on tunduvalt rohkem valmis aktepteerima oma riigis kehtivaid maksumäärasid

  15. Hydrodynamic loading of tensegrity structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroldsen, Anders S.; Johansen, Vegar; Skelton, Robert E.; Sørensen, Asgeir J.

    2006-03-01

    This paper introduces hydrodynamic loads for tensegrity structures, to examine their behavior in marine environments. Wave compliant structures are of general interest when considering large marine structures, and we are motivated by the aquaculture industry where new concepts are investigated in order to make offshore installations for seafood production. This paper adds to the existing models and software simulations of tensegrity structures exposed to environmental loading from waves and current. A number of simulations are run to show behavior of the structure as a function of pretension level and string stiffness for a given loading condition.

  16. 14 CFR 23.301 - Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... load would significantly change the distribution of external or internal loads, this redistribution...) and ultimate loads (limit loads multiplied by prescribed factors of safety). Unless otherwise provided... validated by flight test measurement unless the methods used for determining those loading conditions are...

  17. Structural Impact of Construction Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Numerous bridge construction accidents have occurred across the country because of construction loadings, which are an underemphasized : topic in many DOT specifications and design manuals. Bridge girders are least stable when they are subjected to c...

  18. Training load quantification in triathlon

    OpenAIRE

    Cejuela Anta, Roberto; Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    There are different Indices of Training Stress of varying complexity, to quantification Training load. Examples include the training impulse (TRIMP), the session (RPE), Lucia’s TRIMP or Summated Zone Score. But the triathlon, a sport to be combined where there are interactions between different segments, is a complication when it comes to quantify the training. The aim of this paper is to review current methods of quantification, and to propose a scale to quantify the training load in triathl...

  19. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...... of windhe interaction between wind and structures, where it is shown that wind loading depends strongly on this interaction...

  20. Aircraft ditching loads simulation tool

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanni, A.; Vandewaeter, L.; Havill, C.; Kanyoo, P.; Taunton, D.J.; Blake, J.I.R.; Cropper, E.; Hancock, S.

    2015-01-01

    The present work presents a novel methodology developed for calculating the steady loads acting on aircraft structures in the event of ditching in water. It represents the preliminary result of Stirling Dynamics as part of a NATEP research project. The overall objective of the project is to expand the capabilities of the Stirling Dynamics proprietary software SD-GLOAD (originally designed for ground and crash loads dynamic simulations) to aircraft ditching simulations. The methodology present...

  1. Load Estimation from Natural input Modal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Canteli, Alfonso Fernández

    2005-01-01

    One application of Natural Input Modal Analysis consists in estimating the unknown load acting on structures such as wind loads, wave loads, traffic loads, etc. In this paper, a procedure to determine loading from a truncated modal model, as well as the results of an experimental testing programme, are presented. The method involves the inversion of the FRF matrix partly solving the numerical problems that appear because of the truncation of the modal space. However, the error in the load est...

  2. Calibration set up for load cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T. V. Govinda; Venkatesh, C. S.; Shivashankar, N.

    1989-05-01

    The planning, designing, fabrication, and calibration of 30, 50, and 100 ton tension load cells and 30 ton shear load cells are described. The tension load cells are for monitoring the force developed by earth moving vehicles and the shear load cells are for monitoring the load that tipplers unload form platform to ground. The shear load cells were incorporated into a rotary wagon tippler.

  3. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

    1994-01-18

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

  4. A gravity loading countermeasure skinsuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldie, James M.; Newman, Dava J.

    2011-04-01

    Despite the use of several countermeasures, significant physiological deconditioning still occurs during long duration spaceflight. Bone loss - primarily due to the absence of loading in microgravity - is perhaps the greatest challenge to resolve. This paper describes a conceptual Gravity Loading Countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) that induces loading on the body to mimic standing and - when integrated with other countermeasures - exercising on Earth. Comfort, mobility and other operational issues were explored during a pilot study carried out in parabolic flight for prototype suits worn by three subjects. Compared to the 1- or 2-stage Russian Pingvin Suits, the elastic mesh of the GLCS can create a loading regime that gradually increases in hundreds of stages from the shoulders to the feet, thereby reproducing the weight-bearing regime normally imparted by gravity with much higher resolution. Modelling shows that the skinsuit requires less than 10 mmHg (1.3 kPa) of compression for three subjects of varied gender, height and mass. Negligible mobility restriction and excellent comfort properties were found during the parabolic flights, which suggests that crewmembers should be able to work normally, exercise or sleep while wearing the suit. The suit may also serve as a practical 1 g harness for exercise countermeasures and vibration applications to improve dynamic loading.

  5. Mental load: helping clinical learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoff

    2011-09-01

    The quality of an individual's learning is influenced significantly by the quantity of mental processing they are required to manage in a clinical learning situation. Some clinical learning settings require the learner to process high levels of complex knowledge and skills, whilst simultaneously monitoring and responding to challenging social or emotional inputs. This paper introduces the concept of 'cognitive load', its negative impacts upon novice learners in particular, and its real-world implications for teaching and supervision. Narrative review and discussion. The concept of cognitive load is reviewed, and examples of its application to clinical learning and teaching are provided. Teaching and supervision strategies for managing the cognitive load of learners are presented. The clinical teacher has significant capacity to reduce the cognitive load of learners by creating safe and supportive learning environments, establishing trusting relationships with the learner, and implementing structured learning experiences that are designed to support the learner's growth in knowledge, understanding and skills. A threefold focus on the nature of the learning task, the learning environment and the learner's perceptions of these elements, which characterises cognitive load, provides a useful framework for diagnosing poor learning behaviours and maximising learning outcomes. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  6. Ultimate loading of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Ronold, K.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    1999-01-01

    to establish partial safety factors for design of such components against this failure mode, structuralreliability methods must be applied. This type of analysis accounts for the variability of the external (wind) loading (as addressed in the analyses of the general wind climate) - and thereby the induced......An extreme loading study has been conducted comprising a general wind climate analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution of the (horizontal) turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the meanwind speed, has been approximated by fitting......, a design turbulence intensity for off-shore application is proposed which, in the IEC code framework, is applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue loaddetermination. In order to establish a rational method to analyse wind turbine components with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and in addition...

  7. Load flow analysis using decoupled fuzzy load flow under critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    mismatch and summation of power mismatches are taken as two inputs for fuzzy logic controller. Considering magnitude of power mismatch and sign of power mismatch, new 25 fuzzy rules are created from two sets of inputs. The proposed Decoupled. Fuzzy Load Flow (FDLF) is applied to IEEE 14 bus, IEEE 30 bus, IEEE ...

  8. RF Loads for Energy Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Caspers, F

    2012-01-01

    Different conceptional designs for RF high power loads are presented. One concept implies the use of solid state rectifier modules for direct RF to DC conversion with efficiencies beyond 80%. In addition, robust metallic low-Q resonant structures, capable of operating at high temperatures (>150 ◦C) are discussed. Another design deals with a very high temperature (up to 800 ◦C) air cooled load using a ceramic foam block inside a metal enclosure. This porous ceramic block is the microwave absorber and is not brazed to the metallic enclosure.

  9. Load Estimation by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ivar Chr. Bjerg; Hansen, Søren Mosegaard; Brincker, Rune

    2007-01-01

    When performing operational modal analysis the dynamic loading is unknown, however, once the modal properties of the structure have been estimated, the transfer matrix can be obtained, and the loading can be estimated by inverse filtering. In this paper loads in frequency domain are estimated...... and the errors on the estimated loads are determined....

  10. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false External loads. 27.865 Section 27.865... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction External Loads § 27.865 External loads. (a) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for...

  11. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false External loads. 29.865 Section 29.865... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction External Loads § 29.865 External loads. (a) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for...

  12. Analyses of tunnel stability under dynamic loads

    OpenAIRE

    Oraee, B; Hosseini, N.; Oraee, K; Gholinejad, M

    2011-01-01

    Tunnels as any other structures are affected by different loads and stresses. Generally, the loads on tunnels consist of both static and dynamic loads. These loads must both be considered in the tunnel design process. In this paper, the stability state of Jiroft water-transform tunnel is evaluated. Firstly, the in-situ stresses and then using Kirschs equations the induced stresses due to static loads in walls and crown of tunnel are calculated. Consequently, the strain caused by probable eart...

  13. Numerical prediction of slamming loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seng, Sopheak; Jensen, Jørgen J; Pedersen, Preben T

    2012-01-01

    It is important to include the contribution of the slamming-induced response in the structural design of large vessels with a significant bow flare. At the same time it is a challenge to develop rational tools to determine the slamming-induced loads and the prediction of their occurrence. Today i...

  14. Resource augmentation in load balancing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Azar; L. Epstein (Lea); R. van Stee (Rob)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe consider load-balancing in the following setting. The on-line algorithm is allowed to use $n$ machines, whereas the optimal off-line algorithm is limited to $m$ machines, for some fixed $m < n$. We show that while the greedy algorithm has a competitive ratio which decays linearly in

  15. Soil Profiles and Seismic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janotka, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution estimates different geotechnical profiles of site condition change and their influences on the computed seismic response spectra and time histories final values and forms applying on the seismic structures loading. The mentioned problems methodics attitude solution is based on the computed seismic motion parameters.

  16. Fracture load of ceramic restorations after fatigue loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladhandayutham, Balasudha; Lawson, Nathaniel C; Burgess, John O

    2015-08-01

    A clinician must decide what ceramic coping and veneer material to prescribe based on the amount of tooth reduction possible and the desired esthetic outcome of the restoration. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the fracture strength of monolithic and bilayered lithium disilicate (IPS e.max) and zirconia (LAVA) crowns at clinically relevant thicknesses after load cycling. Crowns (n=8) were fabricated from 6 groups: 1.2-mm monolithic lithium disilicate, 1.5-mm monolithic lithium disilicate, 1.5-mm bilayered lithium disilicate with hand-layered veneer, 0.6 mm monolithic zirconia, 1.2-mm bilayered zirconia with hand-layered veneer, and 1.2-mm bilayered zirconia with milled veneer (dimension represents thickness at the occlusal pit). Crowns were cemented to identical milled resin dies with resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Cemented crowns were stored at 37°C for 24 hours and load cycled for 200,000 cycles at 25 N at a rate of 40 cycles/minute. The ultimate fracture load for each specimen was measured in a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed with a 1-way ANOVA and Tukey honest significant difference post hoc analysis (α=.05). Mean ±SD fracture load values were 1465 ±330 N for monolithic lithium disilicate (1.2-mm thickness) and 2027 ±365 N (1.5-mm thickness) and 1732 ±315 N for bilayered hand-veneered lithium disilicate (1.5-mm thickness). Fracture loads were 1669 ±311 N for monolithic zirconia crowns (0.6mm thickness), 2625 ±300 N for zirconia milled-veneered (1.2-mm thickness), and 2655 ±590N for zirconia hand-veneered crowns (1.2mm thickness). One-way ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference among the groups (PVeneered zirconia crowns showed the highest fracture strength, 1.2-mm hand veneered zirconia was similar to that of 1.5-mm monolithic zirconia, and all other groups were not statistically different. Crowns of 1.2-mm bilayered zirconia had higher fracture loads than 0.6-mm zirconia or 1.2-mm lithium disilicate

  17. Experimental investigation of ultimate loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, S.M.; Larsen, G.C.; Antoniou, I.; Lind, S.O.; Courtney, M. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Verification of the structural integrity of a wind turbine involves analysis of fatigue loading as well as ultimate loading. With the trend of persistently growing turbines, the ultimate loading seems to become relatively more important. For wind turbines designed according to the wind conditions prescribed in the IEC-61400 code, the ultimate load is often identified as the leading load parameter. Exemplified by the use of an extensive measurement campaign a procedure for evaluation of the extreme flap-wise bending moments, occurring during normal operating of a wind turbine, is presented. The structural measurements are made on a NEG Micon 650 kW wind turbine erected at a complex high wind site in Oak Creek, California. The turbine is located on the top of a ridge. The prevailing wind direction is perpendicular to the ridge, and the annual mean wind speed is 9.5 m/s. The associated wind field measurement, are taken from two instrumented masts erected less than one rotor diameter in front of the turbine in direction of the prevailing wind direction. Both masts are instrumented at different heights in order to gain insight of the 3D-wind speed structure over the entire rotor plane. Extreme distributions, associated with a recurrence period of 10 minutes, conditioned on the mean wind speed and the turbulence intensity are derived. Combined with the wind climate model proposed in the IEC standard, these distributions are used to predict extreme distributions with recurrence periods equal to one and fifty years, respectively. The synthesis of the conditioned PDF`s and the wind climate model is performed by means of Monte Carlo simulation. (au)

  18. 46 CFR 154.1730 - Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. 154.1730... Operating Requirements § 154.1730 Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. (a) The master shall ensure that before ethylene oxide is loaded into a cargo tank: (1) The tank is thoroughly clean, dry, and free of...

  19. Load Estimation from Natural input Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Canteli, Alfonso Fernández

    2005-01-01

    One application of Natural Input Modal Analysis consists in estimating the unknown load acting on structures such as wind loads, wave loads, traffic loads, etc. In this paper, a procedure to determine loading from a truncated modal model, as well as the results of an experimental testing programme...... estimation. In the experimental program a small structure subjected to vibration was used to estimate the loading from the measurements and the experimental modal space. The modal parameters were estimated by Natural Input Modal Analysis and the scaling factors of the mode shapes obtained by the mass change...

  20. Trailer-loading of horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Payana; Elmgreen, Katrine; Ladewig, Jan

    2011-01-01

    trailer-loading problems were selected and exposed to trailer-loading. They were randomly assigned to one of the 2 methods. NR consisted of various degrees of pressure (lead rope pulling, whip tapping). Pressure was removed as soon as the horse complied. PR horses were exposed to clicker training......The traditional way to train horses is by the application of negative reinforcement (NR). In the past few years, however, the use of positive reinforcement (PR) has become more common. To evaluate the effectiveness and the possible stressor effect of the 2 training methods, 12 horses showing severe...... and taught to follow a target into the trailer. Heart rate (HR) was recorded every 5 seconds and behavior denoting discomfort was observed using one-zero sampling with 10 seconds sampling intervals. Training was completed when the horse could enter the trailer upon a signal, or was terminated after a maximum...

  1. Efficiency of Capacitively Loaded Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Huang, Lina; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the characteristic of capacitance versus voltage for dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuator, 2kV polypropylene film capacitor as well as 3kV X7R multi layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) at the beginning. An energy efficiency for capacitively loaded converters...... is introduced as a definition of efficiency. The calculated and measured efficiency curves for charging DEAP actuator, polypropylene film capacitor and X7R MLCC are provided and compared. The attention has to be paid for the voltage dependent capacitive load, like X7R MLCC, when evaluating the charging...... efficiency of converter. Based on the capacitancevoltage curve, the correct capacitance should be chosen when calculating the stored energy; otherwise misleading optimistic efficiency can always be obtained. Actually, when DEAP actuator is not available at the early developing stage, the voltage independent...

  2. Polymer brushes under high load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M Balko

    Full Text Available Polymer coatings are frequently used to provide repulsive forces between surfaces in solution. After 25 years of design and study, a quantitative model to explain and predict repulsion under strong compression is still lacking. Here, we combine experiments, simulations, and theory to study polymer coatings under high loads and demonstrate a validated model for the repulsive forces, proposing that this universal behavior can be predicted from the polymer solution properties.

  3. Fatigue Performance under Multiaxial Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Fatigue Strength (Study fatigue strength in cor. connect, in box struc.)." Prog. Rpt. 1, Res. Inst. Ishikawajima - Harima Heavy Ind. Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan...1," Ishikawajima - Harima Heavy Ind. Co., Ltd. Research Inst., Tokyo, Japan, IIW Doc. No XIII-573-70. Mall, G., and R. Zirn, "Load Carrying Behavior of...1972. Anonymous, "Application of Program Fatigue Test to Member Joints of Hulls," Mitsubishi Heavy Industries LTD, Mitsubishi Technical Bulletin No

  4. Inducer Hydrodynamic Load Measurement Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelley, Stephen E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has demonstrated two measurement devices for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on fluid machinery. The first - a derivative of the six component wind tunnel balance - senses the forces and moments on the rotating device through a weakened shaft section instrumented with a series of strain gauges. This "rotating balance" was designed to directly measure the steady and unsteady hydrodynamic loads on an inducer, thereby defining both the amplitude and frequency content associated with operating in various cavitation modes. The second device - a high frequency response pressure transducer surface mounted on a rotating component - was merely an extension of existing technology for application in water. MSFC has recently completed experimental evaluations of both the rotating balance and surface-mount transducers in a water test loop. The measurement bandwidth of the rotating balance was severely limited by the relative flexibility of the device itself, resulting in an unexpectedly low structural bending mode and invalidating the higher frequency response data. Despite these limitations, measurements confirmed that the integrated loads on the four-bladed inducer respond to both cavitation intensity and cavitation phenomena. Likewise, the surface-mount pressure transducers were subjected to a range of temperatures and flow conditions in a non-rotating environment to record bias shifts and transfer functions between the transducers and a reference device. The pressure transducer static performance was within manufacturer's specifications and dynamic response accurately followed that of the reference.

  5. High Temperature Radio Frequency Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Grudiev, A; Montesinos, E; Syratchev, I

    2011-01-01

    In the context of energy saving and recovery requirements the design of reliable and robust RF power loads which permit a high outlet temperature and high pressure of the cooling water is desirable. Cooling water arriving at the outlet withmore than 150 ◦C and high pressure has a higher value than water with 50 ◦C under low pressure. Conventional RF power loads containing dielectric and magnetic materials as well as sensitive ceramic windows usually do not permit going much higher than 90 ◦C. Here we present and discuss several design concepts for "metal only" RF high power loads. One concept is the application of magnetic steel corrugated waveguides near cutoff – this concept could find practical use above several GHz. Another solution are resonant structures made of steel to be installed in large waveguides for frequencies of 500 MHz or lower. Similar resonant structures above 100 MHz taking advantage of the rather high losses of normal steel may also be used in coaxial line geometries with large di...

  6. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  7. Probabilistic Meteorological Characterization for Turbine Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the existing, limited IEC prescription to describe fatigue loads on wind turbines, we look towards probabilistic characterization of the loads via analogous characterization of the atmospheric flow, particularly for today's "taller" turbines with rotors well above the atmospheric surface...

  8. Acid loading test (pH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003615.htm Acid loading test (pH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the ...

  9. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  10. Simulation of Stochastic Loads for Fatigue Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Brincker, Rune

    A simple direct simulation method for stochastic fatigue load generation is described in this paper. The simulation method is based on the assumption that only the peaks of the load process significantly affect the fatigue life. The method requires the conditional distribution functions of load...... second using an IBM PC. Finally the proposed simulation method for fatigue load generation is tested by comparing some fatigue damage measures obtained by the simulation methods....

  11. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  12. Load Bearing Equipment for Bone and Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Griffith, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Resistance exercise on ISS has proven effective in maintaining bone mineral density and muscle mass. Exploration missions require exercise with similar high loads using equipment with less mass and volume and greater safety and reliability than resistance exercise equipment used on ISS (iRED, ARED, FWED). Load Bearing Equipment (LBE) uses each exercising person to create and control the load to the partner.

  13. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  14. 10 CFR 434.512 - Internal loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal loads. 434.512 Section 434.512 Energy DEPARTMENT... RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.512 Internal loads. 512.1The systems... Schedules. Internal loads for other building types shall be modeled as noted in this subsection. Table 512.2...

  15. 49 CFR 195.110 - External loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External loads. 195.110 Section 195.110 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.110 External loads. (a) Anticipated external loads (e.g.), earthquakes...

  16. Load balancing in integrated optical wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars; Wong, S-W.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the load balancing problem in Integrated Optical Wireless Networks, where cell breathing technique is used to solve congestion by changing the coverage area of a fully loaded cell tower. Our objective is to design a load balancing mechanism which works closely...

  17. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into service...

  18. Local Dynamic Stability Associated with Load Carrying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Current study confirmed the sensitivity of local dynamic stability measure in load carrying situation. It was concluded that load carrying tasks were associated with declined local dynamic stability, which may result in increased risk of fall accident. This finding has implications in preventing fall accidents associated with occupational load carrying.

  19. Determining large deflections in rectangular combined loaded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, large deflection of cantilever beams of Ludwick type material subjected to a combined loading consisting of a uniformly distributed load and one vertical concentrated load at the free end was investigated. In calculations, both material and geometrical non-linearity have been considered. Horizontal and vertical ...

  20. Response of Rubble Foundation to Dynamic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1993-01-01

    The soil beneath vertical monolithic structures is subjected to a combination of static load due to the submerged weight of the structure and stochastic non-stationary loads as a result of the wave loads on the vertical wall. The stress conditions in the soil below a foundation exposed to both...

  1. Determining large deflections in rectangular combined loaded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this study, large deflection of cantilever beams of Ludwick type material subjected to a combined loading consisting of a uniformly distributed load and one vertical concentrated load at the free end was investigated. In calcula- tions, both material and geometrical non-linearity have been considered. Horizon-.

  2. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...

  3. Response of Rubble Foundation to Dynamic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1994-01-01

    The soil beneath vertical monolithic structures is subjected to a combination of static load due to the submerged weight of the structure and stochastic non-stationary loads as a result of the wave loads on the vertical wall. The stress conditions in the soil below a foundation exposed to both st...

  4. Wind loads on solar energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, B.J.M. van; Geurts, C.P.W.; Borsboom, W.A.; Blackmore, P.

    2005-01-01

    Wind loads on solar energy systems are not covered by current wind loading standards. This paper describes results of a parametric study into the wind loads 0on solar energy systems,. which are placed on flat roofs. Wind tunnel measurements have been carried out on a number of configurations. The

  5. Beam heat load in superconducting wigglers

    CERN Document Server

    Casalbuoni, S.

    2013-04-22

    The beam heat load is a fundamental input parameter for the design of superconducting wigglers since it is needed to specify the cooling power. In this presentation I will review the possible beam heat load sources and the measurements of beam heat load performed and planned onto the cold vacuum chambers installed at different synchrotron light sources.

  6. Soil Behavior Under Blast Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    compressive stress of creep loading causes the pore water pressure to increase. If drainage is possible an outflow of water then takes place into...behavior such as creep and temperature-dependency. Those aspects are not discussed here because they are beyond the scopes in this study. 2.2.2...0.00060 0.0012 0.0020 0.0040 0.0060 $ P9 P10 0.0080 0.041 *MAT_USER_DEFINED_MATERIAL_MODELS $ MID RO

  7. Spatial peak-load pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano, M. Soledad; Serra, Pablo [Universidad de Chile, Dept. of Industrial Engineering, Santiago (Chile)

    2007-03-15

    This article extends the traditional electricity peak-load pricing model to include transmission costs. In the context of a two-node, two-technology electric power system, where suppliers face inelastic demand, we show that when the marginal plant is located at the energy-importing center, generators located away from that center should pay the marginal capacity transmission cost; otherwise, consumers should bear this cost through capacity payments. Since electric power transmission is a natural monopoly, marginal-cost pricing does not fully cover costs. We propose distributing the revenue deficit among users in proportion to the surplus they derive from the service priced at marginal cost. (Author)

  8. Critical loads - assessment of uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkman, A.

    1998-10-01

    The effects of data uncertainty in applications of the critical loads concept were investigated on different spatial resolutions in Sweden and northern Czech Republic. Critical loads of acidity (CL) were calculated for Sweden using the biogeochemical model PROFILE. Three methods with different structural complexity were used to estimate the adverse effects of S0{sub 2} concentrations in northern Czech Republic. Data uncertainties in the calculated critical loads/levels and exceedances (EX) were assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. Uncertainties within cumulative distribution functions (CDF) were aggregated by accounting for the overlap between site specific confidence intervals. Aggregation of data uncertainties within CDFs resulted in lower CL and higher EX best estimates in comparison with percentiles represented by individual sites. Data uncertainties were consequently found to advocate larger deposition reductions to achieve non-exceedance based on low critical loads estimates on 150 x 150 km resolution. Input data were found to impair the level of differentiation between geographical units at all investigated resolutions. Aggregation of data uncertainty within CDFs involved more constrained confidence intervals for a given percentile. Differentiation as well as identification of grid cells on 150 x 150 km resolution subjected to EX was generally improved. Calculation of the probability of EX was shown to preserve the possibility to differentiate between geographical units. Re-aggregation of the 95%-ile EX on 50 x 50 km resolution generally increased the confidence interval for each percentile. Significant relationships were found between forest decline and the three methods addressing risks induced by S0{sub 2} concentrations. Modifying S0{sub 2} concentrations by accounting for the length of the vegetation period was found to constitute the most useful trade-off between structural complexity, data availability and effects of data uncertainty. Data

  9. Automated Loads Analysis System (ATLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Stephen; Frere, Scot; O’Reilly, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS is a generalized solution that can be used for launch vehicles. ATLAS is used to produce modal transient analysis and quasi-static analysis results (i.e., accelerations, displacements, and forces) for the payload math models on a specific Shuttle Transport System (STS) flight using the shuttle math model and associated forcing functions. This innovation solves the problem of coupling of payload math models into a shuttle math model. It performs a transient loads analysis simulating liftoff, landing, and all flight events between liftoff and landing. ATLAS utilizes efficient and numerically stable algorithms available in MSC/NASTRAN.

  10. Online load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. Every hour the hourly load for refrigeration for the following 42 hours is forecasted. The forecast models are time adaptive linear time-series models. The dynamic relations between the inputs and the load is modeled by simple transfer functions. The system operates in two regimes: one...

  11. Novel Musculoskeletal Loading and Assessment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Meghan E.

    2017-01-01

    Ground based and ISS (International Space Station) exercise research have shown that axial loading via two-point loading at the shoulders and load quality (i.e. consistent load and at least 1:1 concentric to eccentric ratio) are extremely important to optimize musculoskeletal adaptations to resistance exercise. The Advanced Resistance Exercise Device (ARED) is on ISS now and is the "state of the art" for resistance exercise capabilities in microgravity; however, the ARED is far too large and power consuming for exploration vehicles. The single cable exercise device design selected for MPCV (Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle), does not readily allow for the two-point loading at the shoulders.

  12. Concurrent Working Memory Load Can Facilitate Selective Attention: Evidence for Specialized Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soojin; Kim, Min-Shik; Chun, Marvin M.

    2007-01-01

    Load theory predicts that concurrent working memory load impairs selective attention and increases distractor interference (N. Lavie, A. Hirst, J. W. de Fockert, & E. Viding, see record 2004-17825-003). Here, the authors present new evidence that the type of concurrent working memory load determines whether load impairs selective attention or not.…

  13. Effect of loading rate on the fracture behavior of nuclear piping materials under cyclic loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Weon; Choi, Myung Rak [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Jae [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This study investigated the loading rate effect on the fracture resistance under cyclic loading conditions to understand clearly the fracture behavior of piping materials under seismic conditions. J-R fracture toughness tests were conducted under monotonic and cyclic loading conditions at various displacement rates at room temperature and the operating temperature of nuclear power plants (i.e., 316°C). SA508 Gr.1a low-alloy steel and SA312 TP316 stainless steel piping materials were used for the tests. The fracture resistance under a reversible cyclic load was considerably lower than that under monotonic load regardless of test temperature, material, and loading rate. Under both cyclic and monotonic loading conditions, the fracture behavior of SA312 TP316 stainless steel was independent of the loading rate at both room temperature and 316°C. For SA508 Gr.1a low-alloy steel, the loading rate effect on the fracture behavior was appreciable at 316°C under cyclic and monotonic loading conditions. However, the loading rate effect diminished when the cyclic load ratio of the load (R) was -1. Thus, it was recognized that the fracture behavior of piping materials, including seismic loading characteristics, can be evaluated when tested under a cyclic load of R = -1 at a quasistatic loading rate.

  14. Effect of Loading Rate on the Fracture Behavior of Nuclear Piping Materials Under Cyclic Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Weon Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the loading rate effect on the fracture resistance under cyclic loading conditions to understand clearly the fracture behavior of piping materials under seismic conditions. J–R fracture toughness tests were conducted under monotonic and cyclic loading conditions at various displacement rates at room temperature and the operating temperature of nuclear power plants (i.e., 316°C. SA508 Gr.1a low-alloy steel and SA312 TP316 stainless steel piping materials were used for the tests. The fracture resistance under a reversible cyclic load was considerably lower than that under monotonic load regardless of test temperature, material, and loading rate. Under both cyclic and monotonic loading conditions, the fracture behavior of SA312 TP316 stainless steel was independent of the loading rate at both room temperature and 316°C. For SA508 Gr.1a low-alloy steel, the loading rate effect on the fracture behavior was appreciable at 316°C under cyclic and monotonic loading conditions. However, the loading rate effect diminished when the cyclic load ratio of the load (R was −1. Thus, it was recognized that the fracture behavior of piping materials, including seismic loading characteristics, can be evaluated when tested under a cyclic load of R = −1 at a quasistatic loading rate.

  15. 14 CFR 23.511 - Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... multiple-wheel units. 23.511 Section 23.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units... distribution, to the dual wheels and tires in each dual wheel landing gear unit. (c) Deflated tire loads. For...

  16. 14 CFR 25.511 - Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... multiple-wheel units. 25.511 Section 25.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Loads § 25.511 Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units. (a) General. Multiple-wheel...-wheel unit; and (2) In determining the total load on a gear unit with respect to the provisions of...

  17. Detection of Unexpected High Correlations between Balance Calibration Loads and Load Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.; Volden, T.

    2014-01-01

    An algorithm was developed for the assessment of strain-gage balance calibration data that makes it possible to systematically investigate potential sources of unexpected high correlations between calibration load residuals and applied calibration loads. The algorithm investigates correlations on a load series by load series basis. The linear correlation coefficient is used to quantify the correlations. It is computed for all possible pairs of calibration load residuals and applied calibration loads that can be constructed for the given balance calibration data set. An unexpected high correlation between a load residual and a load is detected if three conditions are met: (i) the absolute value of the correlation coefficient of a residual/load pair exceeds 0.95; (ii) the maximum of the absolute values of the residuals of a load series exceeds 0.25 % of the load capacity; (iii) the load component of the load series is intentionally applied. Data from a baseline calibration of a six-component force balance is used to illustrate the application of the detection algorithm to a real-world data set. This analysis also showed that the detection algorithm can identify load alignment errors as long as repeat load series are contained in the balance calibration data set that do not suffer from load alignment problems.

  18. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  19. APS high heat load monochromator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

  20. Comparison of load parameters for stored materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, J.; Nielsen, J.

    1997-01-01

    that the wall friction measured in a silo might be significantly larger than the value obtained from shear tests. The load parameters depend on the load level, perhaps in a way not reflected by the internal friction angle. It is not necessarily on the safe side to determine the parameters for a high load level.......The load parameters listed in the european prestandard and those derived from the material tests conform reasonably well in many cases. There are, however, also many cases where the agreement is not satisfactory, especially due to larger variability of the measured values. This yields cretainly...... in several cases. The measurement of reliable and relevant wall friction coefficients is a severe problem. If the wall friction depends on if the normal load is increasing or decreasing, it is the value for increasing load which should be the relevant load parameter, but for coal and wheat it is seen...

  1. Loads in the design of flight vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simion TĂTARU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of flight loads is a critical part of air vehicle design. On the other hand, the prediction of accurate loads is a sophisticated and complex process that requires skilled and experienced engineers. They must integrate results from wind tunnel tests, computer simulations, historical data and empirical formulations into a number of loads cases that provide a realistic assessment of the flight vehicle’s environment. Under these conditions, the vehicle must satisfy requirements imposed by regulatory agencies as part of the vehicle certification process.Loads and boundary conditions can be associated to either the finite element model or the underlying geometry. By associating loads and boundary conditions to the geometry the finite element model mesh and elements can be modified without redefining and applying the loads to the model. Loads and boundary conditions are associated to the model geometry by default.

  2. Effect of loading parameter on fretting fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowser, Md. Arefin; Chowdhury, Mohammad Asaduzzaman; Shah, Quazi Md. Zobaer

    2017-06-01

    Fretting fatigue has become one of the major concern in the recent few decades since developed designs both structure's and complex engineering are facing with fatigue accompanied by friction. In this study, load factors as normal and bending forces influence on stress distribution along contact surface as well as fatigue life has been experimented by FEM analysis. Fatigue life is influenced prominently by variable fretting loads than variable tensile loadings. Maximum Von mises Stress and strain shows uniform horizontal straight line is found for maximum loading while for both type of bending, minimum loads yield the same character. It has been observed that stress distribution is more uniform for varying bending loads when variable fretting loads yield stress singularity nearer to the tip of contact between fretting pad and beam.

  3. Immediate non-occlusal loading vs. early loading in partially edentulous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testori, Tiziano; Bianchi, Francesca; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Szmukler-Moncler, Serge; Francetti, Luca; Weinstein, Roberto Ludovico

    2003-01-01

    Immediate loading of dental implants can reduce treatment time and management concerns, thus increasing patient acceptance. This paper reports the authors' preliminary experience with partially edentulous patients having received non-occlusally loaded provisional restorations within 24 hours of surgery, compared to patients treated according to an early loading protocol. The present data suggest that implant supported fixed partial prostheses can be immediately non-occlusally loaded and restored with a predictability similar to early loaded implants.

  4. Dynamic loading of galvanized parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is divided into two parts: the theoretical part includes actual knowledge and points of view about degradation processes in construction materials, anticorrosion protection, zinc coat composition and high frequency fatigue. The laboratory part follow-up existing regulations contents Czech standards and formulate specifications for acquisition of objective information from acceleration la­bo­ra­to­ry tests in condensation chests, mechanical high frequency fatigue tests on pulsator machine and possibilities of evaluation of fatigue tests. Laboratory findings declare to fundamental types of damage of constructions with anticorrosion protection in real loading conditions with dynamic high frequency character. Laboratory tests were made in sulphide and chloride environments.

  5. Greywater pollution variability and loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Madsen, Toke S.

    2009-01-01

    was proved not to be readily degradable. Ammonium content, presumably from urine contamination, was found to undergo nitrification in the RBC. Mass flow (daily loads) for individual substances was calculated for several pollutants. Macropollutants were found to be generated in low numbers of grams per person......Small on-site greywater treatment and reuse plants are susceptible to high short-term variation in flow and pollutant concentrations. As demonstrated in this study of a bathroom greywater plant in Copenhagen, Denmark, the flow ranges from no-flow periods to high-flow periods reaching 34 l min−1....... Concentrations of both macro- and micro-pollutants (organic matter and parabens) were found to range by several orders of magnitude in the influent, based on sampling every 20 min. Paraben degradation was proven to occur in the rotating biological contactor (RBC), while the remnant organic matter in the effluent...

  6. Impaired sleep and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Understanding the mechanisms linking sleep impairment to morbidity and mortality is important for future prevention, but these mechanisms are far from elucidated. We aimed to determine the relation between impaired sleep, both in terms of duration and disturbed sleep, and allostatic load...... Biobank with comprehensive information on sleep duration, disturbed sleep, objective measures of an extensive range of biological risk markers, and physical conditions. Results: Long sleep (mean difference 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13, 0.32) and disturbed sleep (0.14; 0.06, 0.22) were associated...... with higher AL as well as with high-risk levels of risk markers from the anthropometric, metabolic, and immune system. Sub-analyses suggested that the association between disturbed sleep and AL might be explained by underlying disorders. Whereas there was no association between short sleep and AL...

  7. Active load control using microtabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Dora Te-Lun

    2001-11-01

    Micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) translational tabs are introduced for enhancing and controlling the aerodynamic loading on lifting surfaces. These microtabs are mounted near the trailing edge of lifting surfaces, retract and extend approximately normal to the surface and have a maximum deployment height on the order of the boundary-layer thickness. Deployment of the device effectively modifies the camber distribution of the lifting surface and hence, the lift generated. The effect of the microtabs on lift is shown to be as powerful as conventional control surfaces with lift changes of 30%--50% in the linear range of the lift curve using a tab with a height of 1% of airfoil chord placed at 5% of chord upstream of the trailing edge on the lower surface. A multi-disciplinary approach incorporating aspects of experimental and computational aerodynamics, mechanical design and microfabrication techniques has been taken to develop and test a "proof of concept" model. Flow simulations, using a Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes solver, have been conducted to optimize the size and placement of the devices based on trailing edge volume constraints. Numerical and experimental wind tunnel results are in good agreement, and both confirm that these micro-scale devices create macro-scale changes in aerodynamic loading. Application of this rather simple but innovative lift control system based on microfabrication techniques introduces a robust, dynamic control device and will allow for the miniaturization of conventional high lift and control systems. The result is a significant reduction in typical control system weight, complexity and cost. Also due to the minute size of these tabs, their activation and response times are much faster than that of conventional trailing edge devices. The "proof of concept" tab design, fabrication techniques, computational and experimental setup, and test results using a representative airfoil are presented in this research. (For more information, see

  8. Load to Failure and Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Amanda O.; Duncan, Douglas D.; Dobrasevic, Nikola; Marsh, Stephanie M.; Lemos, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rotator cuff tendinopathy is a frequent cause of shoulder pain that can lead to decreased strength and range of motion. Failures after using the single-row technique of rotator cuff repair have led to the development of the double-row technique, which is said to allow for more anatomical restoration of the footprint. Purpose: To compare 5 different types of suture patterns while maintaining equality in number of anchors. The hypothesis was that the Mason-Allen–crossed cruciform transosseous-equivalent technique is superior to other suture configurations while maintaining equality in suture limbs and anchors. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: A total of 25 fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were randomized into 5 suture configuration groups: single-row repair with simple stitch technique; single-row repair with modified Mason-Allen technique; double-row Mason-Allen technique; double-row cross-bridge technique; and double-row suture bridge technique. Load and displacement were recorded at 100 Hz until failure. Stiffness and bone mineral density were also measured. Results: There was no significant difference in peak load at failure, stiffness, maximum displacement at failure, or mean bone mineral density among the 5 suture configuration groups (P sutures in the repair should be considered to judge the strength of the repair. Clinical Relevance: Previous in vitro studies have shown the double-row rotator cuff repair to be superior to the single-row repair; however, clinical research does not necessarily support this. This study found no difference when comparing 5 different repair methods, supporting research that suggests the number of sutures and not the pattern can affect biomechanical properties. PMID:26665053

  9. Allostatic load and biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edes, Ashley N; Crews, Douglas E

    2017-01-01

    Multiple stressors affect developing and adult organisms, thereby partly structuring their phenotypes. Determining how stressors influence health, well-being, and longevity in human and nonhuman primate populations are major foci within biological anthropology. Although much effort has been devoted to examining responses to multiple environmental and sociocultural stressors, no holistic metric to measure stress-related physiological dysfunction has been widely applied within biological anthropology. Researchers from disciplines outside anthropology are using allostatic load indices (ALIs) to estimate such dysregulation and examine life-long outcomes of stressor exposures, including morbidity and mortality. Following allostasis theory, allostatic load represents accumulated physiological and somatic damage secondary to stressors and senescent processes experienced over the lifespan. ALIs estimate this wear-and-tear using a composite of biomarkers representing neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune systems. Across samples, ALIs are associated significantly with multiple individual characteristics (e.g., age, sex, education, DNA variation) of interest within biological anthropology. They also predict future outcomes, including aspects of life history variation (e.g., survival, lifespan), mental and physical health, morbidity and mortality, and likely health disparities between groups, by stressor exposures, ethnicity, occupations, and degree of departure from local indigenous life ways and integration into external and commodified ones. ALIs also may be applied to similar stress-related research areas among nonhuman primates. Given the reports from multiple research endeavors, here we propose ALIs may be useful for assessing stressors, stress responses, and stress-related dysfunction, current and long-term cognitive function, health and well-being, and risk of early mortality across many research programs within biological anthropology. © 2017 American

  10. Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  11. Multi-Capacity Load Cell Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seif. M. OSMAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Force measuring systems are usually used to calibrate force generated systems, it is not preferable to use load cells to measure forces less than 10 % of its nominal capacity. Several load cells are required to offer calibration facilities at sites to cover different ranges, this lead to difficulties in handling procedures, through the need for several carrying cases to carry this overweight in addition to the over cost of purchasing several load cells. This article concerns with introducing a new concept for designing a multi-capacity load cell as a new force standard in the field of measuring the force. This multi-capacity load cell will replace a set of load cells and reflects economically on the total cost and on easiness of handling procedures.

  12. Static Load Distribution in Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Mario

    2010-01-01

    A numerical procedure for computing the internal loading distribution in statically loaded, single-row, angular-contact ball bearings when subjected to a known combined radial and thrust load is presented. The combined radial and thrust load must be applied in order to avoid tilting between inner and outer rings. The numerical procedure requires the iterative solution of Z + 2 simultaneous nonlinear equations - where Z is the number of the balls - to yield an exact solution for axial and radial deflections, and contact angles. Numerical results for a 218 angular-contact ball bearing have been compared with those from the literature and show significant differences in the magnitudes of the ball loads, contact angles, and the extent of the loading zone.

  13. 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-12-01

    This study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates our 1990 study. BPS's long-range planning incorporates resource availability with a range of forecasted electrical consumption. The forecasted future electrical demands-firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, then additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. This study analyzes the Pacific Northwest's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional profile, which includes loads and resources in addition to the federal system. This study presents the federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for 1992- 2012.

  14. Loads in the design of flight vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Simion TĂTARU; Radu BÎSCĂ; Dorin LOZICI-BRÎNZEI

    2010-01-01

    The calculation of flight loads is a critical part of air vehicle design. On the other hand, the prediction of accurate loads is a sophisticated and complex process that requires skilled and experienced engineers. They must integrate results from wind tunnel tests, computer simulations, historical data and empirical formulations into a number of loads cases that provide a realistic assessment of the flight vehicle’s environment. Under these conditions, the vehicle must satisfy requirements im...

  15. Cyclic Triaxial Loading of Cohesionless Silty Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2015-01-01

    To engineer efficient structures offshore, we need to extend our knowledge of soil response. Cyclic loading and high water pressure encountered offshore greatly influence cohesionless soil performance. Silty sand from Frederikshavn wind turbine farm was tested using single diameter height samples...... with lubricated, smooth boundary piston heads in a Danish triaxial apparatus. Samples were successfully subjected to loading histories of high complexity. Loading include high strains and stresses, post liquefaction response, transitioning through multiple densities and restoring initial soil properties after...

  16. Fatigue durability under random cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, S. S.; Struzhanov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    Methods for predicting the durability of metals have been developed while taking into account the effect of random loads acting during the service life of structures. Methods of the theory of functions of random variables are applied. Normal distribution and the Rayleigh distribution are used to estimate the random loads from the experimental histogram. A numerical example illustrates the influence of the statistical parameters of the load distribution on the predicted number of cycles before failure.

  17. Valproic acid loading during intensive monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, W E; Leppik, I E; Gates, J R; Mireles, R E

    1987-07-01

    Of 35 patients who had generalized tonic-clonic seizures during antiepileptic drug therapy withdrawal, "loading" with valproic acid was effective in limiting these seizures in 32 patients. A loading dose of approximately 12.5 mg/kg was used. This dose resulted in valproic acid levels between 284 and 458 mumol/L (41 and 66 mg/L) 1.5 hours after "loading" in six of the eight patients in whom serum concentrations were measured.

  18. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...... integral nail-plates and nailed steel and plywood gussets. The report is intended for designers and researchers in timber engineering....

  19. The load intesity of florbal players

    OpenAIRE

    Niklas, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Title: The load intensity of floorball players. Objectives: The aim of the work is to compare the load intensity of floorball players in training unit and in competitive match. Methods: To measure the intensity of loading was selected set of floorbal players from extraleague team. Then was performed their measuring heart rate by sport testers in the training unit and in the competitive match. Results: The results of measurement showed a higher average and maximum heart rate of players during ...

  20. Assessment of wind turbine load measurement instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfiadakis, E.; Papadopoulos, K. [CRES (Greece); Borg, N. van der [ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Petersen, S.M. [Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Seifert, H. [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    In the framework of Sub-Task3 `Wind turbine load measurement instrumentation` of EU-project `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development`, the load measurement techniques have been assessed by laboratory, full scale and numerical tests. The existing methods have been reviewed with emphasis on the strain gage application techniques on composite materials and recommendations are provided for the optimisation of load measurement techniques. (au) EU. 14 refs.

  1. Load relaxation studies of zircaloy-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F.H.; Sabol, G.P.; McDonald, S.G.; Li, C.Y.

    1976-01-01

    The results of the present work have shown (1) the load relaxation data of Zircaloy-4 in the temperature range of 200/sup 0/C to 385/sup 0/C can be represented by the phenomenological model based on Hart's plastic equation of state; (2) the room temperature load relaxation data reflect the effects of deformation twinning; (3) at higher temperatures the load relaxation data suggest the contribution of grain boundary sliding; and (4) the effects of strain aging can be identified based on the load relaxation data.

  2. Behaviour of Cohesionless Soils During Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajarati, Amir; Sørensen, Kris Wessel; Nielsen, Søren Kjær

    Offshore wind turbine foundations are typically subjected to cyclic loading from both wind and waves, which can lead to unacceptable deformations in the soil. However, no generally accepted standardised method is currently available, when accounting for cyclic loading during the design of offshore...... wind turbine foundations. Therefore a literature study is performed in order to investigate existing research treating the behaviour of cohesionless soils, when subjected to cyclic loading. The behaviour of a soil subjected to cyclic loading is found to be dependent on; the relative density, mean...

  3. Load prediction of stall regulated wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerck, A.; Dahlberg, J.Aa. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden); Carlen, I. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Marine Structural Engineering; Ganander, H. [Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentua (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Measurements of blade loads on a turbine situated in a small wind farm shows that the highest blade loads occur during operation close to the peak power i.e. when the turbine operates in the stall region. In this study the extensive experimental data base has been utilised to compare loads in selected campaigns with corresponding load predictions. The predictions are based on time domain simulations of the wind turbine structure, performed by the aeroelastic code VIDYN. In the calculations a model were adopted in order to include the effects of dynamic stall. This paper describes the work carried out so far within the project and key results. 5 refs, 10 figs

  4. Comparison of Temperature Loadings of Bridge Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Římal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the effect of temperature changes on the superstructure of bridges, above all the effect of non-uniform temperature. Loadings according to standards ESN 73 6203, ENV 1991-1-5 and DIN 1072 are compared here. The paper shows a short summary of temperature loading according to each standard and shows the comparison of bending moments arisen from these temperature loadings on superstructure made from continuous girder from a steel-concrete box girder with a composite concrete slab. With respect to a variety of design processes, the comparison is made without any coefficient of loading, combination or material. 

  5. Safety Harness For Work Under Suspended Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunoo, Su Young

    1994-01-01

    Safety device protects worker under suspended engine or other heavy load. Mechanically linked with load so if load should fall, worker yanked safely away. Worker wears chest-plate vest with straps crossing eye on back. Lower safety cable connected to eye extends horizontally away from worker to nearby wall, wrapped on pulley and extends upward to motion amplifier or reducer. Safety cables transform any sudden downward motion of overhanging load into rapid sideways motion of worker. Net catches worker, preventing worker from bumping against wall.

  6. System and method employing a self-organizing map load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Harley, Ronald G.; Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K.; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A.

    2014-06-17

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a self-organizing map load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types and a plurality of neurons, each of the load types corresponding to a number of the neurons; employing a weight vector for each of the neurons; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the loads; determining a load feature vector including at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the loads; and identifying by a processor one of the load types by relating the load feature vector to the neurons of the database by identifying the weight vector of one of the neurons corresponding to the one of the load types that is a minimal distance to the load feature vector.

  7. Measuring training load in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Michael Ian; Borresen, Jill

    2010-09-01

    The principle of training can be reduced to a simple "dose-response" relationship. The "response" in this relationship can be measured as a change in performance or the adaptation of a physiological system. The "dose" of training, or physiological stress associated with the training load, is more difficult to measure as there is no absolute "gold standard" which can be used in the field, making it difficult to validate procedures. Attempts have been made to use heart rate as a marker of intensity during training, but the theoretical attractiveness of this method is not supported by the accuracy and the practicality of using this method during training or competition. The session RPE, based on the product of training duration and perceived intensity is more practical and can be used in a variety of sports. However, the score depends on a subjective assessment, and the intersubject comparisons may be inaccurate. The demands of different sports vary and therefore the methods of assessing training need to vary accordingly. The time has come to reach consensus on assessing training accurately in different sports. There is a precedent for this consensus approach with scientists having already done so for the assessment of physical activity, and for defining injuries in rugby, football and cricket. Standardizing these methods has resulted in the quality of research in these areas increasing exponentially.

  8. Wind loading on solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaduri, S.; Murphy, L.M.

    1985-06-01

    The present design methodology for the determination of wind loading on the various solar collectors has been reviewed and assessed. The total force coefficients of flat plates of aspect ratios 1.0 and 3.0, respectively, at various angles of attack obtained by using the guidelines of the ANSI A58.1-1982, have been compared with those obtained by using the methodology of the ASCE Task Committee, 1961, and the experimental results of the full-scale test of heliostats by Peglow. The turbulent energy spectra, currently employed in the building code, are compared with those of Kaimal et al., Lumley, and Ponofsky for wind velocities of 20.0 m/s and 40.24 m/s at an elevation of 9.15 m. The longitudinal spectra of the building code overestimates the Kaimal spectra in the frequency range of 0.007 Hz to 0.08 Hz and underestimates beyond the frequency of 0.08 Hz. The peak angles of attack, on the heliostat, stowed in horizontal position, due to turbulent vertical and lateral components of wind velocity, have been estimated by using Daniel's methodology for three wind velocities and compared with the value suggested by the code. The experimental results of a simple test in the laboratory indicate the feasibility of decreasing the drag forces of the flat plate by reducing the solidity ratio.

  9. Procedures for Calculating Residential Dehumidification Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Residential building codes and voluntary labeling programs are continually increasing the energy efficiency requirements of residential buildings. Improving a building's thermal enclosure and installing energy-efficient appliances and lighting can result in significant reductions in sensible cooling loads leading to smaller air conditioners and shorter cooling seasons. However due to fresh air ventilation requirements and internal gains, latent cooling loads are not reduced by the same proportion. Thus, it's becoming more challenging for conventional cooling equipment to control indoor humidity at part-load cooling conditions and using conventional cooling equipment in a non-conventional building poses the potential risk of high indoor humidity. The objective of this project was to investigate the impact the chosen design condition has on the calculated part-load cooling moisture load, and compare calculated moisture loads and the required dehumidification capacity to whole-building simulations. Procedures for sizing whole-house supplemental dehumidification equipment have yet to be formalized; however minor modifications to current Air-Conditioner Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J load calculation procedures are appropriate for calculating residential part-load cooling moisture loads. Though ASHRAE 1% DP design conditions are commonly used to determine the dehumidification requirements for commercial buildings, an appropriate DP design condition for residential buildings has not been investigated. Two methods for sizing supplemental dehumidification equipment were developed and tested. The first method closely followed Manual J cooling load calculations; whereas the second method made more conservative assumptions impacting both sensible and latent loads.

  10. Mechanical behavior of cyclically loaded PZT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.S.; Hill, M.D.; Freiman, S.W. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Hwang, C.S. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-31

    Uses of intelligent materials which involve the application of force or the generation of displacements will require the incorporation of some form of actuator material into the overall structure. Typically, these types of applications will result in the generation of cyclic loads on the actuator; depending upon the specific application, the frequency of the loading could be low, e.g., for positioning components, or relatively high, e.g., for damping out vibrations in machining tools. Nevertheless, the cyclic nature of the loading raises the specter of damage and, ultimately, failure arising from cyclic loading processes which would not be predicted by traditional mechanical properties test methods. It has been found that PZT loaded cyclically sometimes fails at loads below its nominal strength, as measured by traditional, monotonically increasing load tests. Damage mechanisms which come into play as a result of the cyclic loading conditions have been postulated as the reasons for this behavior. Recent work investigating the cyclic loading of a PZT-8 material at resonance frequency determined that microcracks were generated in the high stress region of the material. Recent results demonstrate that macrocrack extension appears to be accompanied by domain reorientation whereas microcracks can propagate around PZT grains without affecting the domains, (2) morphology and distribution of microcracks generated under different loading conditions can change dramatically that the qualitative mechanical response of PZT-8 to cyclic loading appears to be insensitive to grain morphology. The results presented imply that stresses generated at the tips of macrocracks are much larger than those at microcracks, that temperature strongly affects the rate of microcrack generation, and that wide distributions in grain size and the presence of large voids do not necessarily result in increased microcrack generation over that seen in 2 {micro}m grain size, small pore material.

  11. Behaviour of glass plates under wind loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavanski, Eri

    Glazing damage during strong windstorms has been considered to result mainly from windborne debris. However, recent windstorm damage reports have revealed the necessity of studying fluctuating wind loads, which appear to be another factor contributing to this damage. From an experimental point of view, studies on this topic have been limited to the application of rather simple loading patterns. Moreover, there is an uncertainty surrounding both load resistance and design load used in the current North American window glass design codes. It is of concern that these regulations may not offer sufficient accuracy on account of the limited understanding of time-dependent glass strength derived from the technology available at the time of codification. Unprecedented full-scale glass breakage tests under realistic wind pressure loading were conducted to investigate these issues. The obtained results revealed significant new information about the behavior of glass plates under fluctuating loads. Along with these tests, a numerical simulation using the Monte-Carlo technique was also performed with a subtle modification of the initial glass strength. This adjustment resulted in better correspondence with test results. Using the test and numerical simulation results, the current window glass design method was examined. The calculation methods of LR, and the reference time conversion used in the codes, were found to require further investigation. By creating a particular wind pressure time history, the practice of using peak pressures from ASCE7-05 as the design load was investigated. The results showed that there are cases when the current practice may underestimate the design load because of the duration of windstorms. KEYWORDS: Glass, Fluctuating load, Full-scale test, Load resistance, Design load, Static fatigue, Numerical simulation, Monte-Carlo technique, Brown's integral.

  12. Demonstration of load rating capabilities through physical load testing : Johnson County bridge case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work, Pilot Project - Demonstration of Capabilities and Benefits of Bridge Load Rating through Physical Testing, was to demonstrate the capabilities for load testing and rating bridges in Iowa, study the economic benefit of perf...

  13. Demonstration of load rating capabilities through physical load testing : Sioux County bridge case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work, Pilot Project - Demonstration of Capabilities and Benefits of Bridge Load Rating through Physical Testing, was to demonstrate the capabilities for load testing and rating bridges in Iowa, study the economic benefit of perf...

  14. Demonstration of load rating capabilities through physical load testing : Ida County bridge case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work, Pilot Project - Demonstration of Capabilities and Benefits of Bridge Load Rating through Physical Testing, was to demonstrate the capabilities for load testing and rating bridges in Iowa, study the economic benefit of perf...

  15. Definition of a Comprehensive Loads Process in the DLR Project iLOADS

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Wolf R.; Klimmek, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The determination of loads acting on the aircraft is one of the main tasks during aircraft development. The knowledge of loads is important for aircraft design, e.g. for the sizing of the airframe structure, and also for certification. The definition of realistic loads assumptions is important, as well as the generation of loads from simulation and experiment. DLR is involved in a large number of aircraft design activities, and operates a fleet of research aircraft; thus DLR requires in-depth...

  16. Strategies for Controlling Plug Loads. A Tool for Reducing Plug Loads in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bonnema, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheppy, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Plug loads are often not considered as part of the energy savings measures in Commercial Buildings; however, they can account for up to 50% of the energy used in the building. These loads are numerous and often scattered throughout a building. Some of these loads are purchased by the owner and some designed into the building or the tenant finishes for a space. This document provides a strategy and a tool for minimizing these loads.

  17. Load power device and system for real-time execution of hierarchical load identification algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yi; Madane, Mayura Arun; Zambare, Prachi Suresh

    2017-11-14

    A load power device includes a power input; at least one power output for at least one load; and a plurality of sensors structured to sense voltage and current at the at least one power output. A processor is structured to provide real-time execution of: (a) a plurality of load identification algorithms, and (b) event detection and operating mode detection for the at least one load.

  18. Comparison of the loading rate in various types of swimming with load.

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšek, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Title of work Comparison of the loading rate in various types of swimming with load. Work objective Comparison of physical intensity in selected types of swimming with load used in the ACR. The level of physical intensity was determined on the basis of measured heart rate at different styles of swimming with load. Used methods The method used in this work was quantitative research with the observation of how the organism responds to the stress. There were 4 people tested. The measurement was ...

  19. Reducing the Cognitive Load on Novice Programmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Stuart

    Computer programming is a domain of knowledge that is generally considered difficult by students, many of whom experience low levels of achievement and become disillusioned. This paper suggests that cognitive load theory needs to be taken into account when designing instructional materials for this domain. The cognitive load that is experienced by…

  20. A case study of micromachined load cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    silicon dioxide grown on a silicon substrate. When the load is applied, the sensing element deforms and causes the change in resistance due to stresses and the piezo-resistive property change. The proposed layout of the sensing element to be used in the load cell is shown in figure 1. All the four gauges are deposited on ...

  1. Controllable Load Management Approaches in Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshuang Shen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With rapid smart grid technology development, the customer can actively participate in demand-side management (DSM with the mutual information communication between the distributor operation company and the smart devices in real-time. Controllable load management not only has the advantage of peak shaving, load balance, frequency regulation, and voltage stability, but is also effective at providing fast balancing services to the renewable energy grid in the distributed power system. The load management faces an enormous challenge as the customer has a large number of both small residential loads and dispersed renewable sources. In this paper, various controllable load management approaches are discussed. The traditional controllable load approaches such as the end users’ controllable appliances, storage battery, Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G, and heat storage are reviewed. The “broad controllable loads” management, such as the microgrid, Virtual Power Plant (VPP, and the load aggregator are also presented. Furthermore, the load characteristics, control strategies, and control effectiveness are analyzed.

  2. Load-Bearing Capacity of Roof Trusses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Damkilde, Lars; Munch-Andersen, J.

    2004-01-01

    systems such as roof trusses are established and statistical characteristics of the load bearing capacity are determined. The results show that there is a significant increase in the characteristic (nominal) value and a reduction in the coefficient of variation (COV) for typical loads such as permanent...

  3. Cell Load Balancing in Heterogeneous Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eduardo, Simao; Rodrigues, Antonio; Mihovska, Albena D.

    2013-01-01

    Cell load imbalances in wireless networks degrade performance. Macro and small cell collocated deployments (heterogeneous scenario) constitutes a new problem for load balancing. This paper proposes a novel admission control algorithm for an optimal solution to the assignment of traffic flows...

  4. Modelling and Simulation of Wave Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1985-01-01

    A simple model of the wave load on stender members of offshore structures is described . The wave elevation of the sea stateis modelled by a stationary Gaussian process. A new procedure to simulate realizations of the wave loads is developed. The simulation method assumes that the wave particle...

  5. Using Electroencephalography to Measure Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenko, Pavlo; Paas, Fred; Grabner, Roland; van Gog, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    Application of physiological methods, in particular electroencephalography (EEG), offers new and promising approaches to educational psychology research. EEG is identified as a physiological index that can serve as an online, continuous measure of cognitive load detecting subtle fluctuations in instantaneous load, which can help explain effects of…

  6. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from

  7. Baseline axle load survey in Malawi - 2014

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the project to update the Malawian Directorate of Road Transport and Safety Services’ (DRTSS) 2005 Axle Load Control Strategy and to provide a five-year implementation plan, a country-wide axle load survey was undertaken to assess...

  8. Concrete structures under impact loading rate effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Various structures may be subjected to accidental, impact loading. The behaviour of structures under that kind of extreme loading conditions is of vital importance for people's safety and environmental damage prevention. There is a need for reliable assessment methods for the local and the overall

  9. Critical loads of heavy metals for soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Lofts, S.; Tipping, E.; Posch, M.

    2012-01-01

    To enable a precautionary risk assessment for future inputs of metals, steady-state methods have been developed to assess critical loads of metals avoiding long-term risks to food quality and eco-toxicological effects on organisms in soils and surface waters. A critical load for metals equals the

  10. Identification of dynamic load for prosthetic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dequan; Han, Xu; Zhang, Zhongpu; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Chao; Yoda, Nobuhiro; Meng, Xianghua; Li, Qing

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic load exists in numerous biomechanical systems, and its identification signifies a critical issue for characterizing dynamic behaviors and studying biomechanical consequence of the systems. This study aims to identify dynamic load in the dental prosthetic structures, namely, 3-unit implant-supported fixed partial denture (I-FPD) and teeth-supported fixed partial denture. The 3-dimensional finite element models were constructed through specific patient's computerized tomography images. A forward algorithm and regularization technique were developed for identifying dynamic load. To verify the effectiveness of the identification method proposed, the I-FPD and teeth-supported fixed partial denture structures were investigated to determine the dynamic loads. For validating the results of inverse identification, an experimental force-measuring system was developed by using a 3-dimensional piezoelectric transducer to measure the dynamic load in the I-FPD structure in vivo. The computationally identified loads were presented with different noise levels to determine their influence on the identification accuracy. The errors between the measured load and identified counterpart were calculated for evaluating the practical applicability of the proposed procedure in biomechanical engineering. This study is expected to serve as a demonstrative role in identifying dynamic loading in biomedical systems, where a direct in vivo measurement may be rather demanding in some areas of interest clinically. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Load Extrapolation During Operation for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    In the recent years load extrapolation for wind turbines has been widely considered in the wind turbine industry. Loads on wind turbines during operations are normally dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and the type and settings of the control system. All these parameters...

  12. 14 CFR 23.427 - Unsymmetrical loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Balancing Surfaces § 23.427 Unsymmetrical loads. (a) Horizontal surfaces other than main wing and their..., wings, horizontal surfaces other than main wing, and fuselage shape: (1) 100 percent of the maximum loading from the symmetrical flight conditions may be assumed on the surface on one side of the plane of...

  13. Multi-Capacity Load Cell Concept

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seif M Osman; Ebtisam H Hasan; H M El-Hakeem; R M Rashad; F Kouta

    2014-01-01

    ... to carry this overweight in addition to the over cost of purchasing several load cells. This article concerns with introducing a new concept for designing a multi-capacity load cell as a new force standard in the field of measuring the force...

  14. Traffic load effects in prestrssed concrete bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Allaix, D.L.; Courage, W.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    The traffic load effect of a two-span prestressed concrete bridge with two traffic lanes is analyzed in this paper. The design value of the result-ing bending moment in some prescribed sections is estimated by means of a Monte Carlo simulation. The model for the vehicular loads is derived from a set

  15. Macrophyte Community Response to Nitrogen Loading and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Empirical determination of nutrient loading thresholds that negatively impact seagrass communities have been elusive due to the multitude of factors involved. Using a mesocosm system that simulated Pacific Northwest estuaries, we evaluated macrophyte metrics across gradients of NO3 loading (0, 1.5, 3 and 6x ambient) and temperature (10 and 20 °C). Macroalgal growth, biomass, and C:N responded positively to increased NO3 load and floating algal mats developed at 20 ºC. Zostera japonica metrics, including C:N, responded more to temperature than to NO3 loading. Z. marina biomass exhibited a negative temperature effect and in some cases a negative NO3 effect, while growth rate increased with temperature. Shoot survival decreased at 20 ºC but was not influenced by NO3 loading. Wasting disease index exhibited a significant temperature by NO3 interaction consistent with increased disease susceptibility. Community shifts observed were consistent with the nutrient loading hypothesis at 20 ºC, but there was no evidence of other eutrophication symptoms due to the short residence time. The Nutrient Pollution Index tracked the NO3 gradient at 10 ºC but exhibited no response at 20 ºC. We suggest that systems characterized by cool temperatures, high NO3 loads, and short residence time may be resilient to many symptoms of eutrophication. Estuarine systems characterized by cool temperatures, high nutrient loads and rapid flushing may be resilient to some symptoms

  16. Duration of load effects of solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan

    Test methods for studying the effect of long-term loading on the load carrying capacity of structural wood are discussed. The impact of sampling procedures on test results is investigated and is exemplified. It is concluded from this investigation that the sampling method has a significant impact...

  17. Suction caissons subjected to monotonic combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penzes, P.; Jensen, M.R.; Zania, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    for offshore wind turbines. The combined loading imposed typically to a suction caisson has led to the estimation of their bearing capacity by means of 3D failure envelopes. This study aims to analyse the behaviour of suction caissons for offshore wind turbines subjected to combined loading. Finite element...

  18. Simulating liquid loading in gas wells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiferli, W.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Savenko, S.; Veeken, C.A.M.; Hu, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes work performed by the authors over the last several years to better understand the factors affecting the onset of liquid loading. To further improve the prediction of onset of liquid loading, efforts were undertaken to better model the process. Dedicated codes as well as a

  19. Damage Accumulation in Vertical Breakwaters due to Combined Impact Loading and Pulsating Wave Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    1999-01-01

    Vertical wall breakwaters used to protect for example an harbour from large waves usually consist of large concrete caissons placed on the seabed. The wave loads can be divided in two types, pulsating and impact loads. For some types of breakwaters especially the impact wave loads can be very large...

  20. on the correctness of load loss factor correctness of load loss factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Author Tel: +44 -753-526-7242. TECHNICAL NOTE: TECHNICAL NOTE: ON THE CORRECTNESS OF LOAD LOSS FACTOR. CORRECTNESS OF LOAD LOSS FACTOR. CORRECTNESS OF LOAD LOSS FACTOR. A. O. Ekwue*. JACOBS ENGINEERING INC/BRUNEL UNIVERSITY LONDON,UNITED KINGDOM.

  1. 14 CFR 29.511 - Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... multiple-wheel units. 29.511 Section 29.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Requirements Ground Loads § 29.511 Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units. (a) In dual-wheel gear units, 60 percent of the total ground reaction for the gear unit must be applied to one wheel and...

  2. Modelling of Generic Slung Load System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; La Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the result of modelling and verification of a generic slung load system using a small-scale helicopter. The model is intended for use in simulation, pilot training, estimation, and control. The model is derived using a redundant coordinate formulation based on Gauss Principle...... of Least Constraint using the Udwadia-Kalaba equation and can be used to model all body to body slung load suspension types. The model gives an intuitive and easy-to-use way of modelling and simulating di erent slung load suspension types and it includes detection and response of wire slacking...... and tightening, and aerodynamical coupling between the helicopter and the load. Furthermore, it is shown how the model can be easily used for multi-lift systems either with multiple helicopers or multiple loads. A numerical stabilisation algorithm as well as a trim algorithm is presented for the complete...

  3. Modeling of Generic Slung Load System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; la Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the result of the modelling and verification of a generic slung load system using a small-scale helicopter. The model is intended for use in simulation, pilot training, estimation, and control. The model is derived using a redundant coordinate formulation based on Gauss......' Principle of Least Constraint using the Udwadia-Kalaba equation and can be used to model all body to body slung load suspension types. The model provides intuitive and easy-to-use means of modelling and simulating different slung load suspension types. It includes detection of, and response to, wire...... slackening and tightening as well as aerodynamic coupling between the helicopter and the load. Furthermore, it is shown how the model can be easily used for multi-lift systems either with multiple helicopters or multiple loads. A numerical stabilisation algorithm is introduced and finally the use...

  4. A methodology for Electric Power Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisa Almeshaiei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity demand forecasting is a central and integral process for planning periodical operations and facility expansion in the electricity sector. Demand pattern is almost very complex due to the deregulation of energy markets. Therefore, finding an appropriate forecasting model for a specific electricity network is not an easy task. Although many forecasting methods were developed, none can be generalized for all demand patterns. Therefore, this paper presents a pragmatic methodology that can be used as a guide to construct Electric Power Load Forecasting models. This methodology is mainly based on decomposition and segmentation of the load time series. Several statistical analyses are involved to study the load features and forecasting precision such as moving average and probability plots of load noise. Real daily load data from Kuwaiti electric network are used as a case study. Some results are reported to guide forecasting future needs of this network.

  5. Simulation of Stochastic Loads for Fatigue Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Brincker, Rune

    1989-01-01

    A simple direct simulation method for stochastic fatigue-load generation is described in this paper. The simulation method is based on the assumption that only the peaks of the load process significantly affect the fatigue life. The method requires the conditional distribution functions of load...... process by a Markov process. Two different spectra from two tubular joints in an offshore structure (one narrow banded and one wide banded) are considered in an example. The results show that the simple direct method is quite efficient and results in a simulation speed of about 3000 load cycles per second...... ranges given the last peak values. Analytical estimates of these distribution functions are presented in the paper and compared with estimates based on a more accurate simulation method. In the more accurate simulation method samples at equidistant times are generated by approximating the stochastic load...

  6. Improved Load Shedding Scheme considering Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Nitsas, Antonios; Altin, Müfit

    2017-01-01

    With high penetration of distributed generation (DG), the conventional under-frequency load shedding (UFLS) face many challenges and may not perform as expected. This article proposes new UFLS schemes, which are designed to overcome the shortcomings of traditional load shedding scheme. These sche......With high penetration of distributed generation (DG), the conventional under-frequency load shedding (UFLS) face many challenges and may not perform as expected. This article proposes new UFLS schemes, which are designed to overcome the shortcomings of traditional load shedding scheme....... These schemes utilize directional relays, power flow through feeders, wind and PV measurements to optimally select the feeders to be disconnected during load shedding such that DG disconnection is minimized while disconnecting required amount of consumption. These different UFLS schemes are compared in terms...

  7. High power s-band vacuum load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Michael [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Dudas, Alan [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Krasnykh, Anatoly [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-12-29

    Through a combination of experimentation and calculation the components of a novel room temperature dry load were successfully fabricated. These components included lossy ceramic cylinders of various lengths, thicknesses, and percent of silicon carbide (SiC). The cylinders were then assembled into stainless steel compression rings by differential heating of the parts and a special fixture. Post machining of this assembly provided a means for a final weld. The ring assemblies were then measured for S-parameters, individually and in pairs using a low-cost TE10 rectangular to TE01 circular waveguide adapter specially designed to be part of the final load assembly. Matched pairs of rings were measured for assembly into the final load, and a sliding short designed and fabricated to assist in determining the desired short location in the final assembly. The plan for the project was for Muons, Inc. to produce prototype loads for long-term testing at SLAC. The STTR funds for SLAC were to upgrade and operate their test station to ensure that the loads would satisfy their requirements. Phase III was to be the sale to SLAC of loads that Muons, Inc. would manufacture. However, an alternate solution that involved a rebuild of the old loads, reduced SLAC budget projections, and a relaxed time for the replacement of all loads meant that in-house labor will be used to do the upgrade without the need for the loads developed in this project. Consequently, the project was terminated before the long term testing was initiated. However, SLAC can use the upgraded test stand to compare the long-term performance of the ones produced in this project with their rebuilt loads when they are available.

  8. Quantifying Training Loads in Contemporary Dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Annie C; Wallace, Lee; Coutts, Aaron J

    2017-07-01

    To describe the training demands of contemporary dance and determine the validity of using the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) to monitor exercise intensity and training load in this activity. In addition, the authors examined the contribution of training (ie, accelerometry and heart rate) and non-training-related factors (ie, sleep and wellness) to perceived exertion during dance training. Training load and ActiGraphy for 16 elite amateur contemporary dancers were collected during a 49-d period, using heart-rate monitors, accelerometry, and sRPE. Within-individual correlation analysis was used to determine relationships between sRPE and several other measures of training intensity and load. Stepwise multiple regressions were used to determine a predictive equation to estimate sRPE during dance training. Average weekly training load was 4283 ± 2442 arbitrary units (AU), monotony 2.13 ± 0.92 AU, strain 10677 ± 9438 AU, and average weekly vector magnitude load 1809,707 ± 1015,402 AU. There were large to very large within-individual correlations between training-load sRPE and various other internal and external measures of intensity and load. The stepwise multiple-regression analysis also revealed that 49.7% of the adjusted variance in training-load sRPE was explained by peak heart rate, metabolic equivalents, soreness, motivation, and sleep quality (y = -4.637 + 13.817%HR peak + 0.316 METS + 0.100 soreness + 0.116 motivation - 0.204 sleep quality). The current findings demonstrate the validity of the sRPE method for quantifying training load in dance, that dancers undertake very high training loads, and a combination of training and nontraining factors contribute to perceived exertion in dance training.

  9. Euroopa kinnisvara : kes kukub järgmisena?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Finansovõi menedzhment : infovõpusk mai nr. 24 lk. 2-3. Kinnisvarahindade langus on alanud ka mitmes Lääne-Euroopa riigis ning Baltimaade kõrval ka mujal Ida-Euroopas. Tabelid: Lääne-Euroopa elamukinnisvara turgude põhiomadused; Ida-Euroopa riikide makro- ja finantsnäitajad 2007. aastal; Eurotsooni riikide elamukinnisvara indeks

  10. Naised, kes juhivad mehi / Esme Kassak ; interv. Esme Kassak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kassak, Esme

    2008-01-01

    Politseiameti kriminaalosakonna juhataja Krista Aas, Agentuuride Royal Service ja Spring Advertising tegevjuht Rika Soopa, Eesti Päevalehe sporditoimetuse juhataja Kristi Vahemaa, Hansapanga IT infrastruktuuri projektide osakonna juhataja Anna Lizunova, Skype Eesti veebitiimi juht Elina Kostabi valdavalt meestest koosneva kollektiivi juhtimisest. Lisad: Hillary Clinton, Condoleezza Rice, Segolene Royal. Küsimusele, millised on naisjuhtide tugevused, vastavad Mart Mikk, Aavo Kokk, Ants Lusti, Margus Alviste ja Tiit Paananen. Küsimusele, mida arvata mehelikest naistest, vastavad Mart Mikk, Ants Lusti ja Margus Alviste

  11. Pimeduses kobab see, kes otsib kuningat / Veiko Märka

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Märka, Veiko, 1964-

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia lavakunstikooli XXIII lennu bakalaureusetööst, 18. jaan. Estonia kammersaalis esietendunud Rabindranath Tagore näidendist "Pimeda toa Kuningas", lavastaja Jaan Tooming, lavastaja assistent Anne Türnpu

  12. Kes meist ei mäletaks oma esimest lastetuba

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    USA kompanii Stanley on välja töötanud kollektsioonide seeria "Young America", mis peavad silmas 21. sajandi lapse unistusi ning fantaasiaid. Väikese tüdruku toa kollektsioonist "Isabella". Väikese poisi toa kollektsioonist "Harbour Town". Teismeliste toa kollektsioonist "Teen Bungalow". Eestis on kollektsioonid müügil LUXOR Mööblisalongis. 6 värv. ill

  13. Kes kardab punast, kollast ja sinist? / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    2002-01-01

    Ameerika kunstniku Barnett Newmani (1905-1970) tööde näitus Londonis Tate Modernis 5. jaanuarini 2003. 13. XI avati saksa päritolu ameerika kunstniku Eva Hesse (1936-1970) retrospektiivnäitus, mis sisaldab üle 130 skulptuuri, maali ja joonistuse

  14. Kes kardab kõrgemaid palku? / Eiki Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Eiki, 1953-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Meie Maa, 23. nov. 2007, lk. 2; Põhjarannik, 23. nov. 2007, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 23. nov. 2007, lk. 2; Linnaleht : Pärnu, 23. nov. 2007, lk. 7; Hiiu Leht, 27. nov. 2007, lk. 2; Vali Uudised, 28. nov. 2007, lk. 2; Lääne Elu, 29. nov. 2007, lk. 2; Oma Saar, 29. nov. 2007, lk. 5; Kuulutaja, 30. nov. 2007, lk. 4; Sõnumitooja, 5. dets. 2007, lk. 2; Koit, 6. dets. 2007, lk. 6. Parlamendiliige selgitab 2008. aasta riigieelarves ettenähtud avaliku sektori palkade tõusu

  15. Kes on järgmine? / Feliks Mägus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägus, Feliks, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Nordic Hotels OÜ juhatuse esimees taunib valitsuse kava tõsta majutusteenuste käibemaksu praeguselt 5 protsendilt 18 protsendini ning ta kirjeldab, mida tõi majutuse käibemaksu tõstmine kaasa Iirimaal 1980-ndatel aastatel

  16. Lugu mehest, kes oli iseenda naine / Kaja Roomets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roomets, Kaja

    2008-01-01

    Doug Wrighti "Ma olen iseenda naine" Endla teatris, lavastaja Tiit Palu. Esietendus 27. juunil. Lisaks saksa päritolu transvestiidist Charlotte von Mahlsdofist (1928-2002) : "Charlotte oli fenomen" ja Kati Murutari ning Raivo Järvi arvamus : "Mis tunde esietenduselt kaasa saite?"

  17. Suurbritannias võttis võidu "Kuninganna", kes muu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Stephen Frearsi mängufilm "Kuninganna" ("The Queen") sai parima filmi tiitli ja kuninganna Elizabeth II kehastanud Helen Mirren parima naisnäitleja Bafta (Briti filmiakadeemia auhind). Ka teistest võitjatest : parim lavastaja Paul Greengrass ("United 93"), parim meesnäitleja Forest Whitaker (parim briti film "Shotimaa viimane kuningas"), parim võõrkeelne film "Paani labürint" (Guillermo del Toro)

  18. Mees, kes sõdib maailmaga / Alo Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Alo

    2001-01-01

    USA hilinenud rünnak bin Ladeni treeninglaagritele Afganistanis 1998.a. Osama bin Ladeni elust alates 1967.a. Terrorirünnakud 1992., 1993., 1995., 1996. ja 1998.a. USA vasturünnak. Osama bin Ladeni terrorivõrk. Skeem. Osama bin Ladeni peakorter. Kaardid: Osama bin Ladeni maailm

  19. Kes tegelikult lõid Res Publica? / Valeri Kalabugin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalabugin, Valeri

    2005-01-01

    Enne erakonnaks kuulutamist oli Res Publica Eesti iseseisvust ja demokraatiat taotlev ühendus, kuhu on kuulunud mitmed poliitika- ning ühiskonnategelased. Vt. samas: Ühendus Res Publica avaldus. Küsimustele vastavad Res Publica avalike suhete juht Riina Vändre, Riigikogu liige Mart Nutt, ajakirjanik Toomas Kümmel

  20. Kes oli rännumees Karl Feyerabend? / Urmas Sutrop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sutrop, Urmas, 1956-

    2001-01-01

    Feyerabend, Karl. Kosmopolitische Wanderungen durch Preussen, Curland, Liefland, Litthauen, Vollhynien, Podolien und Schlesien, in der jahren 1795 bis 1798. In Briefen an einen Freund. Bd. 3. 1801. Eestile on pühendatud reisiraamatu 40. kiri

  1. Kuus, kes kuidagi kokku ei saa / Veiko Märka

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Märka, Veiko, 1964-

    1999-01-01

    Arvustus: Merca [Jääger, Merle]. Vana libu hommik; Ruitlane, Olavi. Inemise sisu; Contra [Konnula, Margus]. Päike ja lamp; Ilves, Aapo. Üks pedajas; Pai, Tiina. Armastab mõrvatud haldjaid; Tamme, Villu. Sorlimeki plät. Kõik : Tartu : Eesti Kostabi $eltsi Kaasaegse Kirjanduse Keskus, 1998

  2. "Beverly Hills 90210" : kes mida teeb / Tiina Lepiste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepiste, Tiina

    2003-01-01

    Aaron Spellingu produtseeritud ja 2000. aastal lõpetatud menuseriaalis "Beverly Hills 90210" osalenud näitlejate edaspidisest elust seoses plaaniga teha täispikk mängufilm "10 Year High School Reunion"

  3. Kes annab klaverile hinge? / Alo Põldmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põldmäe, Alo, 1945-

    2010-01-01

    Sihtasutuse Tallinn 2011 koostööpartneri Eesti Rahvusliku Kalverimuuseumi ja Tartu Saksa Kultuuriinstituudi korraldatavast muusikaõhtust "Hingega klaver - ajaloorännakud eesti ja saksa klaveritel". Eesti tiibklaveri Astron ja saksa tiibklaveri C. Bechstein ajaloost, klaverimeister Ernst Hiis'i tegevusest

  4. Kes tahab rahu Lähis-Idas? / Shimon Peres

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peres, Shimon

    2007-01-01

    Iisraeli asepeaminister selgitab, et kui praegune Palestiina juhtkond muudab oma hoiakut Iisraeli suhtes, ei ole Iisraelil midagi rahuläbirääkimiste vastu, kuid palestiinlaste õigus naasta oma põlistele aladele on vastuolus kahe riigi lahenduse ideega, sest see tähendaks juudiriigi lõppu. Lisa: Kuuepäevane sõda. Kaart: 1967. aasta Lähis-Ida sõda

  5. Term majas - kes võiks arvata / Marta Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Tüüpmaja uuselamurajoonis Tartu maantee ääres, mille sisearhitekt on Ville Lausmäe ja kus pearõhk on avatusel ning kodu südameks on auru- ja leilisaunaga hiiglaslik vannituba. Suur osa mööblist on valmistatud spetsiaalselt maja mõõtude järgi ja elutoa diivanid on Pascal Mourgue disainitud. Põhiplaan

  6. Meie "oma" Unabomber - kes ta on? / Valdek Kiiver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiiver, Valdek

    2005-01-01

    1995. a. tabasid USA võimud riiki 17 aastat kirjapommidega terroriseerinud kurjategija, keda kutsuti Unabomberiks. Theodore Kaczynsky (Unabomberi) tegevusest ja tabamisest. Vt. samas: Oklahoma, 1995. Timothy McVeigh kui Oklahoma föderaalkohtuhoones plahvatuse organiseerija

  7. Kes kardab poeete? / Giuseppe Provenzano ; tõlk. Katrin Tombak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Provenzano, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Tallinna Harjumäele rajatavast Vabaduse monumendist, ummiku äärele jõudnud avalikust diskussioonist, monumendi tähendusest. Õnnestunud monument peab esmajoones puudutama meie hinge ja tal ei tohiks puududa ilu

  8. Maailmapärand Tallinnas - kes vastutab? / Riin Alatalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alatalu, Riin, 1968-

    2007-01-01

    UNESCO maailmapärandist ja selle kaitsest. Tallinna vanalinn pääses UNESCO maailmapärandi nimekirja 1997. a. Maailmapärandi objekte valib ja valvab UNESCO Maailmapärandikomitee. Tallinnale antud ülesannetest vanalinna kaitsevööndis. Aastakoosolekul tulipunkti tõusnud kohtulahenditest jm

  9. Kes võidavad Euroopa Põhiseaduse lepingust? / Jo Leinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leinen, Jo

    2005-01-01

    Jo Leinen on Euroopa Parlamendi põhiseaduskomisjoni esimees. Ilmunud ka Pärnu Postimees 14. jaan. 2005, lk. 15 ; Hiiu Leht 6. jaan. 2005, lk. 2 ; Sakala 14. jaan. 2005, lk. 2, artiklis pealkiri kujul: Euroopa põhiseaduse leping tuleb ellu äratada ; Õpetajate Leht 21. jaan. 2005, lk. 14, artiklis pealkiri kujul: Euroopa põhiseaduse lepingust ; Meie Maa 2. veeb. 2005, artiklis pealkiri kujul: Euroopa põhiseadusest võidavad kodanikud

  10. Kes kardab ametiühingut / Harri Taliga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taliga, Harri, 1957-

    2005-01-01

    Töötajate usaldusisiku seaduse eelnõust. Sama ka Põhjarannik 16. nov. 2005, lk. 2 ; Vooremaa 17. nov. 2005, lk. 2 ; Koit 19. nov. 2005, lk. 6 ; Virumaa Nädalaleht 18. nov. 2005, lk. 4, artiklis pealkiri kujul: Räige rünnak ametiühingute vastu ; Sakala 23. nov. 2005, lk. 2 ; Valgamaalane 24. nov. 2005, lk. 2 ; Meie Maa 22. nov. 2005, lk. 2

  11. Kes siirdab esimesena näo? / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2004-01-01

    Prantsuse kirurg Laurent Lantieri teeb ettevalmistusi surnud inimese näo siirdamiseks tugevasti moonutatud näoga patsiendile. Analoogiliseks operatsiooniks valmistuvad ka inglane Peter Butler ja ameeriklane John Barker

  12. ... kes elab oma elu siin Piimmetsa vilus / Sven Karja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karja, Sven, 1968-

    2000-01-01

    Viljandi Kultuurikolledzhi näitekunsti eriala kolmanda lennu külalisetendused Tartu teatrilaboris 27. ja 28. okt. - Antti Tuuri "Novembri lõpp" (lav. Ingomar Vihmar) ja Dylan Thomase "Piimmmetsa vilus" (lav. Ingomar Vihmar)

  13. Naised, kes toovad naeratuse näole / Katrin Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Katrin

    2006-01-01

    Heast teenindusest räägivad Eesti Gaasi juhatuse esimehe assistent, Aasta Sekretär 2005 Tiivi Lind, lounge 8 baaridaam Kadri Kask ja Sampo Panga koolitusspetsialist, Aasta Teenindaja 2006 Aires Rühka. Kommenteerivad nende ülemused - Sampo Panga koolitusosakonna juhataja Külli Meier, Eesti Gaasi juhatuse esimees Aarne Saar ja lounge 8 mänedžer Heinar Õispuu

  14. Kes keelas C. R. Jakobsoni lugemisraamatu teise osa? / Vello Paatsi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paatsi, Vello, 1948-2015

    2016-01-01

    Carl Robert Jakobsoni "Kooli Lugemise raamatu" teist jagu (Tartu : H. Laakmann, 1875) ei lubatud rahvakoolides kasutada rahvusliku sisu ning usuleiguse tõttu. Keelu taga oli Liivimaa Ülem-maakoolivalitsus

  15. Kes meid söödab tulevikus? / Kuldar Leis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leis, Kuldar, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 24. sept. lk. 10. Suuremad jaeketid pakuvad oma kauplustes odavaid toidukaupu oma märgi all (private label), mis on sisse ostetud odavama hinnaga. Eesti tootjad on tootnud oma märgi all, millega kaasneb kõrge kvaliteet ja hind. Tarbijate ostujõu langedes kaotab aga kodumaine tootja

  16. Kes tahab teie kinnisvara 2030. aastal? / Villu Zirnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirnask, Villu, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Autor analüüsib, kuidas Eesti rahvaarvu vähenemine hakkab siinset kinnisvaraturgu mõjutama. Tabel: Kasulik pind leibkonnaliikme kohta 2002. Diagramm: Keskmine eluruumi pind elaniku kohta. Graafik: Eesti rahvastiku minevik ja tulevik

  17. Kes kõlbab Pärnu maavanemaks? / Riina Kuru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuru, Riina

    2004-01-01

    Pärnu Postimehe küsitlusest Pärnu maavanemaks sobiva kandidaadi kohta. Arvamust avaldavad Väino Linde, Ahti Kõo, Vello Muliin, Kuno Erkmann, Urmas Aava, Toomas Kuuda, Riho Erismaa. Lisa: Maavanema kandidaadilt nõutakse

  18. Kes saavad riiklikke teenetemärke? / Kalev Uustalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uustalu, Kalev, 1951-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik 22. aug. lk. 2, Severnoje Poberezhje 22. aug. lk. 2, Virumaa Teataja 24. aug. lk. 7, Järva Teataja 25. aug, lk. 2, Nädaline 25. aug., lk. 6-7, Koit 25. aug. lk. 6, Valgamaalane 30. aug., lk. 4, Hiiu Leht 30. aug. lk. 4, Sakala 31. aug. lk. 2. Riigikantselei sümboolikaosakonna juhataja selgitab riiklike teenetemärkide süsteemi ja nende andmise korda

  19. Kes on need soome-ugri kirjanikud...? / Arvo Valton

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valton, Arvo

    2007-01-01

    Hõimurahvaste nädalal on Eestis Larissa Mardanova, Pjotr Zahharov, Larissa Orehhova, Mush Nadii ja Arzami Otshei Udmurtiast, Vassili Krigin Mordvast ning Niina Obrezkova ja Aljona Jeltsova Komist. Sisaldab raamatuesitluste ajakava

  20. Saaremaa Muuseum - kes on "õigem" omanik? / Olavi Pesti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pesti, Olavi, 1950-

    2013-01-01

    Saaremaa Muuseumi saamisloost (asutatud 1865) ja tegevusest 19. sajandil. Muuseumi kogudest. Esimene maailmasõda kahjustas muuesumi tuntavalt. Linnusehoone rõskuse tõttu tuli muuseumil aastail 1919-1925 ühest linnamajast teise kolida. 1934. aastal anti linnus üle linnavalitsusele. Suurimasse ohtu saatus linnus 1944. aasta sügisel kui taganevatel saksa vägedel oli kindel plaan see süüdata.1946. aastal andsid Nõukogude väed linnuse üle linna täitevkomiteele. Ligi kolmkümmend aastat juhtis muuseumi direktor Timoteus Linna

  1. Kes on tõusmas relvile? / Jürgen Rooste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rooste, Jürgen, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Oja, Martin., keelatud raamat : tekste 1996-2000. Tallinn : 9 Koma, 2003 ; Klaus, Eduard. Pommikutsikas. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2003 ; Mölter, Artur. Leitud hing... ja purunenud süda. Põltsamaa : A. Mölter, 2003 ; Kera, Mihkel. Tähelepanekuid noorusaastatest. I. k. : Kirja Kerrallaan, 2003 ; Valme, Villem. Artur Tõhu unenägu. Tallinn : Paala Järv, 2003 ; Valdmann, Astrid, Kagovere, Ott. Haiged lapsed. Sutlema (Raplamaa) : A. Valdmann, 2004 ; Olematu, Olev. Ederlezi. [Tallinn] : Huma, 2003

  2. Naine, kes jääb meelde / Paavo Piik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piik, Paavo, 1983-

    2011-01-01

    VAT-teatri "Nisa" (Marjorie Shostaki raamatu põhjal), dramatiseerija, lavastaja ja esitaja Katariina Unt, kaaslavastaja Aare Toikka, muusikaline kujundaja ja esitaja Tanel Ruben. Rolliportree 14. aprilli ja 13. augusti etenduse põhjal

  3. Kes teevad ülikooli keelekeskuse rahvusvaheliseks? Saage tuttavaks!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Küsimustele "Mida Eestis oma keelt õpetades raskeimaks peate?" ja "Mis teid Eestis kõige rohkem üllatas?" vastavad Tartu Ülikooli keelekeskuse läti keele lektor Ilze Zagorska, itaalia keele lektor Federica Bossi, prantsuse keele lektor Charlène Manil, korea keele lektor Jinseok Seo, jaapani keele lektor Eri Miyano, ukraina keele lektor Ljudmilla Dulitšenko, hispaania keele lektor Manuel Neftalí Peral Joris, inglise keele lektor Casey Collins ja türgi keele lektor Hagani Gayibli

  4. Lavastaja, kes ei vasta ootustele : Sebastian Hartmann Saksamaalt / Eero Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Epner, Eero, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    6. apr. NO99 teatris esietendunud NO92 Andrei Tarkovski ja vendade Strugatskite stsenaariumi järgi loodud filmil põhinevast lavastusest "Stalker", lavastaja Sebastian Hartmann ja kunstnik Peter Schubert (mõlemad Saksamaalt)

  5. Aitab vestlusringidest! : kes vastutab? / Priit Hõbemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hõbemägi, Priit, 1957-

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnasse püstitatud Vabadussõja võidusamba paneelid koosnevad odavast akrüülmassist ja on vaid kaetud klaasiga. Tšehhi firmaga Sans Souci sõlmitud lepingu järgi peaksid plaadid aga olema klaasist

  6. Filmihuvilise märkmeid. Kes on narr? / Lembit Sarapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarapuu, Lembit, 1930-

    2001-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilmist "Narr Jumala kojas", milles näeb Norra, Rootsi, Taani, Soome ja Eesti vanades kirikutes asuvaid narri kujutavaid pildikompositsioone ning kujusid. Autor Karl Kello, režissöör Ruta Celma, operaator Arvo Vilu. Narrist kui sümbolist

  7. Kes määras õpetajad parteisse? / Jaan Laas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laas, Jaan

    2002-01-01

    Õpetajate ebaseaduslikust erakondade nimekirjadesse nimetamisest. Demokraatliku Partei poliitika ei ole kunagi olnud mõne valitud näitleja või õpetaja parteisse määramine ning nende poolvägisi hingekarjas hoidmine. Autor: EDP

  8. Kes teevad meile süüa? / Vesta Reest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reest, Vesta, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Eestisse kolinud ja siin töötavad kokad itaallane Rocco Russo, belglane Emmanuel Wille, soomlane Juha Rantanen ning tailane Gusisara Tosirisakun räägivad eesti toidust, toiduvalmistamisest ning toitumistavadest

  9. Miks 80% neist, kes tulemuspalka kasutavad, rahul ei ole

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Palgasüsteemide konsultant, Gowri päevasärkide tehase direktor Mart Kirsipuu ja palgamaksja Aavo Kokku arutlevad teemal tulemuspalk ning palgasüsteemid ettevõttes. Lisad: Motivaatorid, mis panevad inimesed tublisti tööle. Mis on Hay palgasüsteem. Vt. samas: Indrek Orro. Mis on äririski palk?; Kaspars Kaulinsh. Kui firmal läheb halvasti, peavad kannatama ka töötajad

  10. Kes kardab Park Chan-Wooki? / Karlo Funk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Funk, Karlo, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Vägivalla ajendite teemadel. USA meedia süüdistas peale Virginia koolitulistamist filmikunsti. Seoseid ja/või põhjusi otsiti korealase Park Chan-Wooki filmist "Vana poiss" ("Old Boy") ja John Woo filmidest

  11. Kes? : Sergei Bondartšuk / Aune Unt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Unt, Aune, 1954-

    1985-01-01

    Tõlge S. Bondartšuki raamatust "Želanije tšuda". Moskva, 1981; I. Talankini artiklist "Magija iskusstva", Iskusstvo kino, 1983, nr. 2 ja intervjuust "Avtor stsenarija - Puškin", Sovetskaja kultura, 1984, nr. 141

  12. Kes saab kuningriigi ja pool printsessi? / Peeter Kreitzberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreitzberg, Peeter, 1948-2011

    2005-01-01

    Sotsiaalliberaal Peeter Kreitzberg analüüsib praegu Tallinna võimukoalitsioonis toimuvat ning leiab, et praeguse olukorra jätkudes Reformierakond oma reitingut ei säilita ja et Keskerakonna eesmärk on ka võimuvahetus Toompeal. Autori sõnul on nii Res Publicat kui ka Keskerakonda häirinud pidevalt mure sotsiaalliberaalide võimu pärast Riigikogus

  13. USING BENCH PRESS LOAD TO PREDICT UPPER BODY EXERCISE LOADS IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del P. Wong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m-2 were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p < 0.01. The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p < 0.01. Linear regression revealed that the bench press load was a significant (R2 range from 0.64 to 0.86, p < 0.01 predictor for the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a Hammer curl = Bench press load (0.28 + 6.30 kg, (b Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33 + 6.20 kg, (c Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33 - 0.60 kg, and (d Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42 + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  14. Using bench press load to predict upper body exercise loads in physically active individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A; Smith, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m(-2)) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p press load was a significant (R(2) range from 0.64 to 0.86, p press load (0.28) + 6.30 kg, (b) Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key pointsThe bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises.No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations.6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  15. Heat Load Estimator for Smoothing Pulsed Heat Loads on Supercritical Helium Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, C.; Lagier, B.; Rousset, B.; Bonnay, P.; Michel, F.

    Superconducting magnets for fusion are subjected to large variations of heat loads due to cycling operation of tokamaks. The cryogenic system shall operate smoothly to extract the pulsed heat loads by circulating supercritical helium into the coils and structures. However the value of the total heat loads and its temporal variation are not known before the plasma scenario starts. A real-time heat load estimator is of interest for the process control of the cryogenic system in order to anticipate the arrival of pulsed heat loads to the refrigerator and finally to optimize the operation of the cryogenic system. The large variation of the thermal loads affects the physical parameters of the supercritical helium loop (pressure, temperature, mass flow) so those signals can be used for calculating instantaneously the loads deposited into the loop. The methodology and algorithm are addressed in the article for estimating the heat load deposition before it reaches the refrigerator. The CEA patented process control has been implemented in a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and has been successfully validated on the HELIOS test facility at CEA Grenoble. This heat load estimator is complementary to pulsed load smoothing strategies providing an estimation of the optimized refrigeration power. It can also effectively improve the process control during the transient between different operating modes by adjusting the refrigeration power to the need. This way, the heat load estimator participates to the safe operation of the cryogenic system.

  16. Effect of Internal Clearance on Load Distribution and Life of Radially Loaded Ball and Roller Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of internal clearance on radially loaded deepgroove ball and cylindrical roller bearing load distribution and fatigue life was determined for four clearance groups defined in the bearing standards. The analysis was extended to negative clearance (interference) conditions to produce a curve of life factor versus internal clearance. Rolling-element loads can be optimized and bearing life maximized for a small negative operating clearance. Life declines gradually with positive clearance and rapidly with increasing negative clearance. Relationships were found between bearing life and internal clearance as a function of ball or roller diameter, adjusted for load. Results are presented as life factors for radially loaded bearings independent of bearing size or applied load. In addition, a modified Stribeck Equation is presented that relates the maximum rolling-element load to internal bearing clearance.

  17. Probabilistic model of bridge vehicle loads in port area based on in-situ load testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ming; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jianren; Wang, Rei; Yan, Yanhong

    2017-11-01

    Vehicle load is an important factor affecting the safety and usability of bridges. An statistical analysis is carried out in this paper to investigate the vehicle load data of Tianjin Haibin highway in Tianjin port of China, which are collected by the Weigh-in- Motion (WIM) system. Following this, the effect of the vehicle load on test bridge is calculated, and then compared with the calculation result according to HL-93(AASHTO LRFD). Results show that the overall vehicle load follows a distribution with a weighted sum of four normal distributions. The maximum vehicle load during the design reference period follows a type I extremum distribution. The vehicle load effect also follows a weighted sum of four normal distributions, and the standard value of the vehicle load is recommended as 1.8 times that of the calculated value according to HL-93.

  18. The Statistical Properties of Host Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Dinda

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how host load changes over time is instrumental in predicting the execution time of tasks or jobs, such as in dynamic load balancing and distributed soft real‐time systems. To improve this understanding, we collected week‐long, 1 Hz resolution traces of the Digital Unix 5 second exponential load average on over 35 different machines including production and research cluster machines, compute servers, and desktop workstations. Separate sets of traces were collected at two different times of the year. The traces capture all of the dynamic load information available to user‐level programs on these machines. We present a detailed statistical analysis of these traces here, including summary statistics, distributions, and time series analysis results. Two significant new results are that load is self‐similar and that it displays epochal behavior. All of the traces exhibit a high degree of self‐similarity with Hurst parameters ranging from 0.73 to 0.99, strongly biased toward the top of that range. The traces also display epochal behavior in that the local frequency content of the load signal remains quite stable for long periods of time (150–450 s mean and changes abruptly at epoch boundaries. Despite these complex behaviors, we have found that relatively simple linear models are sufficient for short‐range host load prediction.

  19. Hood River Conservation Project load analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, T.K.

    1987-11-01

    As a part of the Hood River Conservation Project (HRCP), 314 homes were monitored to measure electrical energy use. The total electrical load, space heating load, water heating load (in about 200 homes), wood-stove heat output (in about 100 homes), and indoor temperature were monitored. Data were collected for one full year before and one full year after these homes were retrofit with conservation measures. Local weather information was also collected on a 15-min basis. This data base was used to evaluate the load savings attributable to HRCP. Two methods of weather normalization were used and showed close agreement. The weather-normalized diversified residential load savings on the Pacific Power and Light system and Hood River area peak days were >0.5 kW/household. The average spring, summer, and fall savings were much smaller, <0.1 kW/household. The load factor for the diversified residential load decreased following the conservation retrofit actions. 11 refs., 40 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Electricity Crisis and Load Management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Kanti Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a densely populated country. Only a small part of her area is electrified which cover around 18% of total population. The people who are in the electrified area are suffering from severe load shedding. A systematic load management procedure related to demand side may improve the situation is the research problem. The major objectives serve by the research are to analyze contemporary electricity status with a view to drawing inference about demand supply gap and extracting benefits from load management. Data supplied by the Bangladesh Power Development Board, World Bank and outcome of survey are analyzed with some simple statistical tools to test the hypothesis. Analysis discloses that with properly managed uses of electricity with load switch and rotation week-end can improve the concurrent condition of electricity. Moreover, introducing smart distribution system, reducing system loss, shifting load to off-peak, large scale use of prepaid mete, observing energy week and using energy efficient home and office appliance are recommended to improve load through demand side management. Some other recommendations such as introducing alternative energy, public private partnership and using renewable energy development and producing energy locally are made for load management from the supply side.

  1. Factor structure underlying components of allostatic load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne M McCaffery

    Full Text Available Allostatic load is a commonly used metric of health risk based on the hypothesis that recurrent exposure to environmental demands (e.g., stress engenders a progressive dysregulation of multiple physiological systems. Prominent indicators of response to environmental challenges, such as stress-related hormones, sympatho-vagal balance, or inflammatory cytokines, comprise primary allostatic mediators. Secondary mediators reflect ensuing biological alterations that accumulate over time and confer risk for clinical disease but overlap substantially with a second metric of health risk, the metabolic syndrome. Whether allostatic load mediators covary and thus warrant treatment as a unitary construct remains to be established and, in particular, the relation of allostatic load parameters to the metabolic syndrome requires elucidation. Here, we employ confirmatory factor analysis to test: 1 whether a single common factor underlies variation in physiological systems associated with allostatic load; and 2 whether allostatic load parameters continue to load on a single common factor if a second factor representing the metabolic syndrome is also modeled. Participants were 645 adults from Allegheny County, PA (30-54 years old, 82% non-Hispanic white, 52% female who were free of confounding medications. Model fitting supported a single, second-order factor underlying variance in the allostatic load components available in this study (metabolic, inflammatory and vagal measures. Further, this common factor reflecting covariation among allostatic load components persisted when a latent factor representing metabolic syndrome facets was conjointly modeled. Overall, this study provides novel evidence that the modeled allostatic load components do share common variance as hypothesized. Moreover, the common variance suggests the existence of statistical coherence above and beyond that attributable to the metabolic syndrome.

  2. Standardized Loads Acting in Knee Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Georg; Bender, Alwina; Graichen, Friedmar; Dymke, Jörn; Rohlmann, Antonius; Trepczynski, Adam; Heller, Markus O.; Kutzner, Ines

    2014-01-01

    The loads acting in knee joints must be known for improving joint replacement, surgical procedures, physiotherapy, biomechanical computer simulations, and to advise patients with osteoarthritis or fractures about what activities to avoid. Such data would also allow verification of test standards for knee implants. This work analyzes data from 8 subjects with instrumented knee implants, which allowed measuring the contact forces and moments acting in the joint. The implants were powered inductively and the loads transmitted at radio frequency. The time courses of forces and moments during walking, stair climbing, and 6 more activities were averaged for subjects with I) average body weight and average load levels and II) high body weight and high load levels. During all investigated activities except jogging, the high force levels reached 3,372–4,218N. During slow jogging, they were up to 5,165N. The peak torque around the implant stem during walking was 10.5 Nm, which was higher than during all other activities including jogging. The transverse forces and the moments varied greatly between the subjects, especially during non-cyclic activities. The high load levels measured were mostly above those defined in the wear test ISO 14243. The loads defined in the ISO test standard should be adapted to the levels reported here. The new data will allow realistic investigations and improvements of joint replacement, surgical procedures for tendon repair, treatment of fractures, and others. Computer models of the load conditions in the lower extremities will become more realistic if the new data is used as a gold standard. However, due to the extreme individual variations of some load components, even the reported average load profiles can most likely not explain every failure of an implant or a surgical procedure. PMID:24465856

  3. Standardized loads acting in knee implants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Bergmann

    Full Text Available The loads acting in knee joints must be known for improving joint replacement, surgical procedures, physiotherapy, biomechanical computer simulations, and to advise patients with osteoarthritis or fractures about what activities to avoid. Such data would also allow verification of test standards for knee implants. This work analyzes data from 8 subjects with instrumented knee implants, which allowed measuring the contact forces and moments acting in the joint. The implants were powered inductively and the loads transmitted at radio frequency. The time courses of forces and moments during walking, stair climbing, and 6 more activities were averaged for subjects with I average body weight and average load levels and II high body weight and high load levels. During all investigated activities except jogging, the high force levels reached 3,372-4,218N. During slow jogging, they were up to 5,165N. The peak torque around the implant stem during walking was 10.5 Nm, which was higher than during all other activities including jogging. The transverse forces and the moments varied greatly between the subjects, especially during non-cyclic activities. The high load levels measured were mostly above those defined in the wear test ISO 14243. The loads defined in the ISO test standard should be adapted to the levels reported here. The new data will allow realistic investigations and improvements of joint replacement, surgical procedures for tendon repair, treatment of fractures, and others. Computer models of the load conditions in the lower extremities will become more realistic if the new data is used as a gold standard. However, due to the extreme individual variations of some load components, even the reported average load profiles can most likely not explain every failure of an implant or a surgical procedure.

  4. A combined loading system integrated with portable winch and polyethylene chutes for loading of timber products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hulusi Acar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Truck loading operation is an important task during timber production operations in forestry. In Turkey, approximately 50 million timbers/logs are being produced per year, and then they are loaded into the logging trucks. The timber/logs are transported over the forest roads with an average of one million roundtrips. However, the traditional loading methods using manpower are mostly performed while some part is done by using loading machines which can be very costly and risky. This study aims developing a combined loading system in which heavy logs are loaded into logging trucks by pulling them by a log-line powered by a portable crane within the chute system. The slope of the log-line from ground to logging truck varied between 1% and 25%. Within the each work cycle of loading operation, only one log was loaded by pulling with portable crane. The average loading time was found as 161.8 seconds per cycle, in which 67% of the time was spent on pulling the log into the logging truck. The results indicated that the average pulling speed with crane power was 840.4 m/hr and productivity was calculated as 4.94 m3/hr. The result on system speed and productivity indicated close relations with results from previous studies. The hydraulic grapple loader or cranes are widely used and common loading machines, but they cannot be efficiently used in forestry operations, especially ones having a low timber productivity rate or having low economic value timber. In these conditions, loading methods that are cost efficient and do not require higher production rate should be employed. Therefore, a combined loading system introduced in this study can be a feasible solution for loading operations in those cases. Furthermore, it is believed that this loading system integrated with a portable crane can be cost efficient and time saving solution, as well as ergonomic and safe method in the field.

  5. Strength of concrete structures under dynamic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpyak, O. G., E-mail: ogkumpyak@yandex.ru; Galyautdinov, Z. R., E-mail: gazr@yandex.ru; Kokorin, D. N., E-mail: kokorindenn@yandex.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The use of elastic supports is one the efficient methods of decreasing the dynamic loading. The paper describes the influence of elastic supports on the stress-strain state of steel concrete structures exposed to one-time dynamic loading resulting in failure. Oblique bending beams on elastic supports and their elastic, elastoplastic, and elastoplastic consolidation behavior are considered in this paper. For numerical calculations the developed computer program is used based on the finite element method. Research findings prove high efficiency of elastic supports under dynamic loading conditions. The most effective behavior of elastic supports is demonstrated at the elastoplastic stage. A good agreement is observed between the theoretical and experimental results.

  6. Feasability Study of Electronic Load Sensing Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Andersen, Torben O.; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2006-01-01

    circuit axial piston pump. Emphasis is on performance robustness with respect to both variations in internal physical parameters of the pump as well as the type of application dependant load that the pump is expected to drive.The research reflect mechatronics as an integrated design process, while......Electronic load sensing (ELS) systems have long been expected to start replacing traditional (hydro-mechanical) load sensing (LS) systems, which today are the standard on most medium and high-end mobile hydraulic applications. The reason for this being the potentials that ELS brings relative...

  7. A Server for ARINC 615A Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The development of the next generation of Saab's multirole combat aircraft the JAS 39 Gripen includes developing a lot of new software for the aircraft's on-board computers. The new software has to be loaded into these computers routinely, in order to carry out testing on it. This is currently a slow and tedious process. In order to load the computers a protocol defined in the ARINC 615A standard is used. Today Saab uses commercial software applications implementing this protocol for the load...

  8. Numerical Analyses of Plate Loading Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ-Ovidiu Toma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical simulation of plate loading test, in order to underlines the size effect on settlements and derived values of geotechnical parameters, is shown. The study is based on the comparison between the results obtained by Finite Element Method (FEM using the Mohr-Coulomb soil model and by some observations from literature. The obtained numerical results revealed that the subgrade reaction coefficient is strictly dependent on parameters like size of the loaded area and loading magnitude, and thus completely general and generic, and not a fundamental material property of soil that can somehow be determined rationally, as often one claims to be.

  9. Synthesis of polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin J

    2014-10-07

    The synthesis of a polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy uses a one-step cure by applying an external stimulus to release the acid from the polyoxometalate and thereby catalyze the cure reaction of the epoxy resin. Such polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites afford the cured epoxy unique properties imparted by the intrinsic properties of the polyoxometalate. For example, polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites can be used as corrosion resistant epoxy coatings, for encapsulation of electronics with improved dielectric properties, and for structural applications with improved mechanical properties.

  10. Wind turbine blade testing under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roczek-Sieradzan, Agnieszka; Nielsen, Magda; Branner, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents full-scale blade tests under a combined flap- and edgewise loading. The main aim of this paper is to present the results from testing a wind turbine blade under such conditions and to study the structural behavior of the blade subjected to combined loading. A loading method using...... anchor plates was applied, allowing transverse shear distortion. The global and local deformation of the blade as well as the reproducibility of the test was studied and the results from the investigations are presented....

  11. Integrating Autonomous Load Controllers in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James

    and reliability constraints in power systems are motivating research into new control architectures suitable for such a large and complex system. The focus of this thesis is on an intermediate stage of evolution between today's largely passive loads and a future "Internet of Things". Specifically...... to the fluctuating production. The large number and geographic dispersion of loads make coordinating their behavior challenging. New telecommunication technology has reduced the cost of linking devices, promising a future "Internet of Things" where loads are fully networked. Strict real-time constraints...

  12. Modelling and Simulation of Wave Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    A simple model of the wave load on slender members of offshore structures is described. The wave elevation of the sea state is modelled by a stationary Gaussian process. A new procedure to simulate realizations of the wave loads is developed. The simulation method assumes that the wave particle...... velocity can be approximated by a Gaussian Markov process. Known approximate results for the first-passage density or equivalently, the distribution of the extremes of wave loads are presented and compared with rather precise simulation results. It is demonstrated that the approximate results...

  13. Load control system. [for space shuttle external tank ground tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The load control system developed for the shuttle external structural tests is described. The system consists of a load programming/display module, and a load control module along with the following hydraulic system components: servo valves, dump valves, hydraulic system components, and servo valve manifold blocks. One load programming/display subsystem can support multiple load control subsystem modules.

  14. 46 CFR 196.40-15 - Load line marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Load line marks. 196.40-15 Section 196.40-15 Shipping... Markings on Vessels § 196.40-15 Load line marks. (a) Vessels assigned a load line shall have the deck line and the load line marks permanently marked or embossed as required by Subchapter E (Load Lines) of...

  15. Success of immediate loading implants compared to conventionally-loaded implants: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sawai, Abdul-Aziz; Labib, Hussein

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this systematic literature review was to compare the clinical performance between conventionally- (delayed) and immediately-loaded implants. A literature search of studies published between 1995 and 2012 was performed using several electronic databases and the following key words: "immediate loading", "dental implants", "immediate function", "early loading", "oral implants", "immediate restoration", and "systematic review" was performed. The electronic search was supplemented with hand-searching in dental journals and cross-referencing within the selected articles. Studies were considered for inclusion if they analyzed the success of the immediate loading protocol for implants, with emphasis given to randomized, controlled clinical trials. Among the clinical studies extracted from the literature, 120 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this systematic review. These studies included trials that involved yielded consistent results of success rates of immediately-loaded implants comparable to those known from conventionally-loaded implants, which were subjected to the immediate loading protocol or other loading protocols. According to the findings, there is evidence to suggest that immediate loading protocols demonstrate high implant survival rates and could be cautiously recommended for certain clinical situations. However, studies with a high level of evidence, especially randomized, controlled trials, performed over a longer timeframe are required to show a clear benefit over conventional and other loading types. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of Muscle Mechanical Capacities through the Two-load Method: Optimization of the Load Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Castilla, Alejandro; Jaric, Slobodan; Feriche, Belén; Padial, Paulino; García-Ramos, Amador

    2017-04-25

    Recent research has revealed that the force-velocity relationship obtained from the 'two-load method' (i.e., functional movements tested against just 2 external loads) could be a feasible method for the selective assessment of muscle force, velocity, and power-producing capacities. The study investigated the reliability and concurrent validity of the outcomes of the two-load method observed from (1) farther vs. closer data points (20-70%1RM, 30-60%1RM, and 40-50%1RM), and (2) force-biased (50-70%1RM) vs. velocity-biased (20-40%1RM) data points. Twenty-two men were tested on a ballistic bench press throw performed against 6 incremental loads ranging from 20% to 70% of the bench press one-repetition maximum (1RM). The two-load methods were constructed based on pairs of individually selected external loads and compared with the outcome of the force-velocity regression method applied to all 6 loads. The reliability and validity of the force-velocity relationship parameters decreased with the proximity of the data points (40-50%1RM loads (i.e., lighter and heavier loads, respectively) revealed a similar, but relatively moderate reliability and validity. Overall, the farthest pair of loads (i.e., 20%1RM and 70%1RM) revealed the highest reliability (CV = 5.5%, ICC = 0.89) and validity (r = 0.98) among all the two-load methods evaluated. These results demonstrate that the 20-70%1RM two-load method could be a feasible approach for testing individual muscle mechanical capacities, while the observed outcomes could be the most reliable and valid when obtained from the farthest pairs of applied loads.

  17. multilevel buck converter for automotive electrical load

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    MULTILEVEL BUCK CONVERTER FOR AUTOMOTIVE ELECTRICAL LOAD. E. T. Yabefa1,* and D. Ebregbe2. 1ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT, BAYELSA STATE COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCE (BYCAS) YENAGOA, BAYELSA STATE NIGERIA. 2ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, NIGER DELTA UNIVERSITY, ...

  18. Handball load and shoulder injury rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, M; Nielsen, R O; Attermann, J

    2017-01-01

    by scapular control, isometric shoulder strength or glenohumeral range of motion (ROM). Methods 679 players (14-18 years) provided weekly reports on shoulder injury and handball load (training and competition hours) over 31 weeks using the SMS, phone and medical examination system. Handball load in a given......Background Knowledge of injury patterns, an essential step towards injury prevention, is lacking in youth handball. Aim To investigate if an increase in handball load is associated with increased shoulder injury rates compared with a minor increase or decrease, and if an association is influenced...... week was categorised into (1) 60% relative to the weekly average amount of handball load the preceding 4 weeks. Assessment of shoulder isometric rotational and abduction strength, ROM and scapular control...

  19. Weapons Load Crew Management Program Update

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richardson, Allan

    1997-01-01

    .... Widely used throughout the Air Force (including Air National Guard and Reserve units), WLCMP is a efficient way of managing load crew training, eliminating much of the time and manpower that is required by manual tracking procedures...

  20. Development of Engine Loads Methodology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR seeks to improve the definition of design loads for rocket engine components such that higher performing, lighter weight engines can be developed more...

  1. Introduction to Single Piles under Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The purpose of this chapter is to give a short introduction to single piles subjected to lateral loading. First, the observed behaviour of laterally loaded piles is described, i.e. the effects of loading conditions, installation procedure, pile type etc. on pile behaviour are presented (section 1.......2). The description is based on results of laboratory tests, full-scale field tests as well as numerical investigations presented in literature. Second, general methods that attempt to model lateral pile response are discussed in section 1.4. Third, focus is paid to a widely used method for prediction of the response...... of a lateral loaded pile, namely the Winkler approach in which the pile is modelled as an elastic beam on an elastic foundation (section 1.5). The soil response and thereby the elastic foundation is represented by springs with nonlinear behaviour (p-y curves). In section 1.6 different types and formulations...

  2. Exercise Load Measurement Insole (ELMI) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Exercise Load Measurement Insole (ELMI) is a system that is designed to measure normal and shear foot forces during exercise. The ELMI system is lightweight,...

  3. Load balancing multimodule switching power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T.; Wester, G. W.

    1979-01-01

    Regulating system individually adjusts duty cycles of modules so that all share load equally, thus, protects individual modules and their components from overload and increases reliability and life expectancy. Converters are alternative to high-power, single unit systems.

  4. Final Project Report Load Modeling Transmission Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesieutre, Bernard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bravo, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yinger, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chassin, Dave [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Huang, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Ning [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hiskens, Ian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Venkataramanan, Giri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The research presented in this report primarily focuses on improving power system load models to better represent their impact on system behavior. The previous standard load model fails to capture the delayed voltage recovery events that are observed in the Southwest and elsewhere. These events are attributed to stalled air conditioner units after a fault. To gain a better understanding of their role in these events and to guide modeling efforts, typical air conditioner units were testing in laboratories. Using data obtained from these extensive tests, new load models were developed to match air conditioner behavior. An air conditioner model is incorporated in the new WECC composite load model. These models are used in dynamic studies of the West and can impact power transfer limits for California. Unit-level and systemlevel solutions are proposed as potential solutions to the delayed voltage recovery problem.

  5. Quantum load balancing in ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanpour, M.; Shariat, S.; Barnaghi, P.; Hoseinitabatabaei, S. A.; Vahid, S.; Tafazolli, R.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a novel approach in targeting load balancing in ad hoc networks utilizing the properties of quantum game theory. This approach benefits from the instantaneous and information-less capability of entangled particles to synchronize the load balancing strategies in ad hoc networks. The quantum load balancing (QLB) algorithm proposed by this work is implemented on top of OLSR as the baseline routing protocol; its performance is analyzed against the baseline OLSR, and considerable gain is reported regarding some of the main QoS metrics such as delay and jitter. Furthermore, it is shown that QLB algorithm supports a solid stability gain in terms of throughput which stands a proof of concept for the load balancing properties of the proposed theory.

  6. Predicting reinforced concrete response to blast loads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacques, Eric; Lloyd, Alan; Saatcioglu, Murat

    2013-01-01

    .... The results are presented in graphical format in terms of structural load-deformation characteristics, single degree of freedom displacement--time histories and iso-displacement pressure-impulse diagrams...

  7. Multifrequency Printed Antennas Loaded with Metamaterial Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Segovia-Vargas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of printed antennas loaded with metamaterial particles. This novel technique allows developing printed antennas with interesting features such as multifrequency (simultaneous operation over two or more frequency bands and multifunctionality (e. g. radiation pattern diversity. Moreover, compactness is also achieved and the main advantages of conventional printed antennas (light weight, low profile, low cost ... are maintained. Different types of metamaterial-loaded printed antennas are reviewed: printed dipoles and patch antennas. Several prototypes are designed, manufactured and measured showing good results. Furthermore, simple but accurate equivalent models are proposed. These models allow an easy and quick design of metamaterial-loaded printed antennas. Finally, two interesting applications based on the proposed antennas are reviewed: the patch antennas are used as radiating elements of emerging active RFID systems in the microwave band and the metamaterial-loaded printed dipoles are employed to increase the performance of log-periodic arrays.

  8. Home Appliance Load Scheduling with SEMIAH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Ghasem Azar, Armin; Zhang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The European research project SEMIAH aims at designing a scalable infrastructure for residential demand response. This paper presents the progress towards a centralized load scheduling algorithm for controlling home appliances taking power grid constraints and satisfaction of consumers into account....

  9. LIGHT-WEIGHT LOAD-BEARING STRUCTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a light-weight load-bearing structure (1) with optimized compression zone (2), where along one or more compression zones (2) in the structure (1) to be cast a core (3) of strong concrete is provided, which core (3) is surrounded by concrete of less strength (4) compared...... to the core (3) of strong concrete. The invention also relates to a method of casting of light-weight load-bearing structures (1) with optimized compression zone (2) where one or more channels, grooves, ducts, pipes and/or hoses (5) formed in the load-bearing structure (1) serves as moulds for moulding one...... or more cores (3) of strong concrete in the light-weight load-bearing structure (1)....

  10. Radiopure Metal-Loaded Liquid Scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosero, Richard [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Yeh, Minfang [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.

    2015-03-18

    Metal-loaded liquid scintillator plays a key role in particle and nuclear physics experiments. The applications of metal ions in various neutrino experiments and the purification methods for different scintillator components are discussed in this paper.

  11. Loaded Gelled Bipropellants for Optimized Performance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The focus of this program is the development and validation of formulations, and development methodologies, for optimizing high-performance particulate-loaded...

  12. Heat loads in hypersonic vehicle design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschel, E.H. [Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Heat loads are the major issue in high-speed vehicle design. Heat loads prediction capabilities need to be improved with regard to the materials and structure concept, and the aerodynamic and propulsion performance. Surface radiation cooling is the basic means to reduce heat loads on high-speed vehicles. Strong couplings can exist with the aerodynamic performance of vehicles, the structure and materials design, and flow-physics and thermochemical phenomena. Qualitative knowledge is available to interpret (computation) results and flight data, and to give the designer insight into related disciplinary and interdisciplinary vehicle design problems. Flow-physics and thermo-chemical models in prediction tools are inadequate. Heat loads and the related surface-temperature effects pose very important and challenging research and development problems. (orig.)

  13. Design of sandwich beams for concentrated loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongman

    Although sandwich construction offers well-known advantages for high stiffness with light-weight, the problem of designing a sandwich structure to withstand localized loading such as might result from accidental impact, for example, is important. The review of the literature and experimental results performed by the author has shown that current design and analysis procedures are not suitable for predictions of the response of sandwich structures for concentrated loading. To investigate the response of sandwich structures to concentrated loading, experiments were carried out on beam specimens with polyurethane foam core with various densities and thickness, and faces made of AS4/3501-6 carbon/epoxy fiber composite of various thickness under three point loading, which gives a concentrated loading. Overall deformation was measured, along with strains from both surface and embedded gages. Additionally, compression tests and torsion tests have been done for the polyurethane foam used as core in the sandwich beam to characterize its yield properties. Many theories, including classical theory, first order shear deformation theory, higher order theory, elasticity and FE analysis, were compared with the three-point bending experiments. A two-dimensional elasticity solution, which is suitable for sandwich beams under simply support boundary conditions, was used to obtain the strain/stress distribution, failure prediction and optimization work. The common failure modes of sandwich beams have been observed, including core failure in compression and shear failure in core, delamination, and fiber failure in the face. The failure modes can be predicted for sandwich beams under localized loading using elasticity theory and the failure is controlled by a failure mode with the lowest load. An algorithm developed by Swanson and Kim was used to predict the optimum design of sandwich structures for strength to weight under concentrated loading and compared with experimental yield or

  14. LTE Load Balancing dengan Skenario Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Putri Mardela

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Adanya multi user yang meminta untuk dilayani dengan baik dalam kondisi apapun terutama dalam kondisi cell yang congested tentunya menjadi hal yang sangat penting untuk diperhatikan dalam sistem komunikasi wireless termasuk dalam hal ini untuk teknologi Long Term Evolution (LTE sehingga diperlukan suatu proses dalam jaringan yang dapat menanggulangi permintaan user ini. Proses yang dapat dilakukan adalah dengan load balancing. Untuk memodelkan interaksi dari elemen jaringan yang melakukan load balancing , maka dibutuhkan suatu teknik atau skenario sehingga dicapai suatu keputusan yang rasional untuk dilakukannya load balancing. Teknik yang dapat digunakan adalah skenario game theory. Dalam tugas akhir yang berjudul LTE Load Balancing dengan Skenario Game Theory ini diusulkan metode Load Balancing Cooperative Game pada LTE dimana setiap tindakan yang dilakukan dalam rangka load balancing didasarkan terhadap nilai utilitas yang akan didapatkan, dan setiap eNB berhak memilih tindakan yang memiliki nilai utilitas maksimum. Efek dari load balancing yang diinginkan adalah penurunan jumlah drop call sebagai indikasi peningkatan layanan dan peningkatan utilitas eNB sebagai indikasi pengoptimalan utilitas bandwidth yang tidak terpakai. Dengan menerapkan LTE Load Balancing dengan Skenario Game Theory ini maka dapat dicapai penurunan jumlah drop call sebesar 92,33%, peningkatan utilitas eNB penolong sebesar 41,24%, dan 0,249% untuk peningkatan utilitas eNB congested yang meminta bantuan. Apabila dalam skema handover user dari eNB cell sumber yang congested ke eNB cell tetangga yang tidak congested ditambahkan syarat bahwa RSRP user dari eNB cell tetangga lebih besar dari pada eNB cell sumber maka penurunan drop call yang dicapai adalah sebesar 37,12%, peningkatan utilitas eNB penolong adalah sebesar 9,375%, dan peningkatan utilitas eNB congested yang meminta bantuan adalah sebesar 0,249%.

  15. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) Description and Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyague, F.

    2011-11-01

    This document describes simulated turbine load cases in accordance to the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 standard, which is representative of the typical wind turbine design process. The information presented herein is intended to provide a broad understanding of the gearbox reliability collaborative 750kW drivetrain and turbine configuration. In addition, fatigue and ultimate strength drivetrain loads resulting from simulations are presented. This information provides the bases for the analytical work of the gearbox reliability collaborative effort.

  16. Foot Marching, Load Carriage, and Injury Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Knapik, and J.J. 1994. Exercise, training and injuries. Sports Med 18(3): 202-1. 35. APHC (Prov) Blister Prevention Factsheet. 2015. Available at...1.5 Flashlight, other equipment 2 Approach Load Fighting Load + 32*pounds = 102* pounds Assault rucksack with attachments 9 Hydration bladder...Men 475,745) Source: Knapik J et al. Stress Fracture Risk Factors in Basic Combat Training, 2012. Int J Sports Med, 33: 940–946. Men n

  17. MCO loading and cask loadout technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PRAGA, A.N.

    1998-10-01

    A compilation of the technical basis for loading a multi-canister overpack (MCO) with spent nuclear fuel and then placing the MCO into a cask for shipment to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The technical basis includes a description of the process, process technology that forms the basis for loading alternatives, process control considerations, safety considerations, equipment description, and a brief facility structure description.

  18. ANTHROPOGENIC LOAD ON RIVERS OF URBAN AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Kurochkina Valentina Aleksandrovna; Bogomolova Tat’yana Gennad’evna; Kirov Borislav Lyubomirov

    2016-01-01

    The increasing speed of urbanization and population growth lead to the increasing anthropogenic load on water bodies. The urbanization processes in Russia are more intensive than in other countries. The dense population and great industrial potential lead to the fact that the urbanized territories become the main sources of water pollution. That’s why the environmental control of the state of water objects is needed. In the article the authors study the problem of anthropogenic load impact on...

  19. Economic Load Dispatch Using Grey Wolf Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sudhir Sharma; Shivani Mehta

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents grey wolf optimization (GWO) to solve convex economic load dispatch (ELD) problem. Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO) is a new meta-heuristic inspired by grey wolves. The leadership hierarchy and hunting mechanism of the grey wolves is mimicked in GWO. The objective of ELD problem is to minimize the total generation cost while fulfilling the different constraints, when the required load of power system is being supplied. The proposed technique is implemented on two d...

  20. Mechanical Predictors of Discomfort during Load Carriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D Wettenschwiler

    Full Text Available Discomfort during load carriage is a major issue for activities using backpacks (e.g. infantry maneuvers, children carrying school supplies, or outdoor sports. It is currently unclear which mechanical parameters are responsible for subjectively perceived discomfort. The aim of this study was to identify objectively measured mechanical predictors of discomfort during load carriage. We compared twelve different configurations of a typical load carriage system, a commercially available backpack with a hip belt. The pressure distribution under the hip belt and the shoulder strap, as well as the tensile force in the strap and the relative motion of the backpack were measured. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate possible predictors of discomfort. The results demonstrate that static peak pressure, or alternatively, static strap force is a significant (p<0.001 predictor of discomfort during load carriage in the shoulder and hip region, accounting for 85% or more of the variation in discomfort. As an additional finding, we discovered that the regression coefficients of these predictors are significantly smaller for the hip than for the shoulder region. As static peak pressure is measured directly on the body, it is less dependent on the type of load carriage system than static strap force. Therefore, static peak pressure is well suited as a generally applicable, objective mechanical parameter for the optimization of load carriage system design. Alternatively, when limited to load carriage systems of the type backpack with hip belt, static strap force is the most valuable predictor of discomfort. The regionally differing regression coefficients of both predictors imply that the hip region is significantly more tolerant than the shoulder region. In order to minimize discomfort, users should be encouraged to shift load from the shoulders to the hip region wherever possible, at the same time likely decreasing the risk of low

  1. Optimizing Preseason Training Loads in Australian Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, David L; Crow, Justin; Ong, Kok-Leong; Blanch, Peter; Morris, Meg E; Dascombe, Ben J; Crossley, Kay M

    2018-02-14

    To investigate whether preseason training plans for Australian football can be computer generated using current training-load guidelines to optimize injury-risk reduction and performance improvement. A constrained optimization problem was defined for daily total and sprint distance, using the preseason schedule of an elite Australian football team as a template. Maximizing total training volume and maximizing Banister-model-projected performance were both considered optimization objectives. Cumulative workload and acute:chronic workload-ratio constraints were placed on training programs to reflect current guidelines on relative and absolute training loads for injury-risk reduction. Optimization software was then used to generate preseason training plans. The optimization framework was able to generate training plans that satisfied relative and absolute workload constraints. Increasing the off-season chronic training loads enabled the optimization algorithm to prescribe higher amounts of "safe" training and attain higher projected performance levels. Simulations showed that using a Banister-model objective led to plans that included a taper in training load prior to competition to minimize fatigue and maximize projected performance. In contrast, when the objective was to maximize total training volume, more frequent training was prescribed to accumulate as much load as possible. Feasible training plans that maximize projected performance and satisfy injury-risk constraints can be automatically generated by an optimization problem for Australian football. The optimization methods allow for individualized training-plan design and the ability to adapt to changing training objectives and different training-load metrics.

  2. Environmental stress, psychological stress and allostatic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Michael S; Bond, Malcolm J; Hecker, Jane R

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism by which chronic caregiving stress results in poor health is not well understood. The objective was to determine whether such a mechanism may be allostatic load, a novel concept specifying physiological systems that may suffer cumulative wear and tear following chronic stress, leading collectively to poor health. The study examines the association of allostatic load with environmental and psychological stress in the contexts of dementia caregiving and relinquishment of care, and is a 2-year longitudinal comparison of three groups: 80 new dementia spouse caregivers, 120 veteran caregivers, and 60 non-caregivers. Data comprised allostatic load markers and environmental and psychological stress measures. Cross-lagged analyses produced a statistically significant association between psychological stress and one allostatic load component (primary mediators). Psychological stress was a better predictor of primary mediators than environmental stress. Primary mediators rose with time for caregivers, but not for non-caregivers. A greater rise was evident for caregivers who had relinquished their role by the second year, although the level of psychological stress actually declined. Primary mediators are a key component of the relationship between allostatic load and prior stress. When allostatic load is treated as an outcome of stress, it is important to distinguish environmental and psychological stress.

  3. Characteristics of Braced Excavation under Asymmetrical Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjie Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous excavation practices have shown that large discrepancies exist between field monitoring data and calculated results when the conventional symmetry-plane method (with half-width is used to design the retaining structure under asymmetrical loads. To examine the characteristics of a retaining structure under asymmetrical loads, we use the finite element method (FEM to simulate the excavation process under four different groups of asymmetrical loads and create an integrated model to tackle this problem. The effects of strut stiffness and wall length are also investigated. The results of numerical analysis clearly imply that the deformation and bending moment of diaphragm walls are distinct on different sides, indicating the need for different rebar arrangements when the excavation is subjected to asymmetrical loads. This study provides a practical approach to designing excavations under asymmetrical loads. We analyze and compare the monitoring and calculation data at different excavation stages and find some general trends. Several guidelines on excavation design under asymmetrical loads are drawn.

  4. DNS load balancing in the CERN cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguero Naredo, Ignacio; Lobato Pardavila, Lorena

    2017-10-01

    Load Balancing is one of the technologies enabling deployment of large-scale applications on cloud resources. A DNS Load Balancer Daemon (LBD) has been developed at CERN as a cost-effective way to balance applications accepting DNS timing dynamics and not requiring persistence. It currently serves over 450 load-balanced aliases with two small VMs acting as master and slave. The aliases are mapped to DNS subdomains. These subdomains are managed with DDNS according to a load metric, which is collected from the alias member nodes with SNMP. During the last years, several improvements were brought to the software, for instance: support for IPv6, parallelization of the status requests, implementing the client in Python to allow for multiple aliases with differentiated states on the same machine or support for application state. The configuration of the Load Balancer is currently managed by a Puppet type. It discovers the alias member nodes and gets the alias definitions from the Ermis REST service. The Aiermis self-service GUI for the management of the LB aliases has been produced and is based on the Ermis service above that implements a form of Load Balancing as a Service (LBaaS). The Ermis REST API has authorisation based in Foreman hostgroups. The CERN DNS LBD is Open Software with Apache 2 license.

  5. Predicting Lifetime of a Thermomechanically Loaded Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Mital, Subodh; Brewer, David N.

    2006-01-01

    NASALIFE is a computer program for predicting the lifetime, as affected by low cycle fatigue (LCF) and creep rupture, of a structural component subject to temporally varying, multiaxial thermomechanical loads. The component could be, for example, part of an aircraft turbine engine. Empirical data from LCF tests, creep rupture tests, and static tensile tests are used as references for predicting the number of missions the component can withstand under a given thermomechanical loading condition. The user prepares an input file containing the creep-rupture and cyclic-fatigue information, temperature-dependent material properties, and mission loading and control flags. The creep rupture information can be entered in tabular form as stress versus life or by means of parameters of the Larson-Miller equation. The program uses the Walker mean-stress model to adjust predicted life for ranges of the ratio between the maximum and minimum stresses. Data representing complex load cycles are reduced by the rainflow counting method. Miner's rule is utilized to combine the damage at different load levels. Finally, the program determines the total damage due to creep and combines it with the fatigue damage due to the cyclic loading and predicts the approximate number of missions a component can endure before failing.

  6. Mass loading effect of shock accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lixue; Wong, George S. K.; Hanes, Peter; Ohm, Won-Suk

    2005-04-01

    Mass loading affects the sensitivity of an accelerometer. The mass loading effect can be corrected using mass loading correction curves published by manufacturers. These curves, however, are only applicable to the sinusoidal acceleration below 500 m/s2. The mass loading effect on the sensitivity of an Endevco 2270 accelerometer in shock calibration, from 500 m/s2 and up, was investigated using a laser vibrometer. A new method for conversion of a velocity signal to an acceleration signal was developed. With this method, the sensitivities of the above accelerometer for different mass loads at different shock levels were measured. The mass loading effect in shock calibration for this accelerometer was then obtained. The limitations of the sensitivity measurements were also studied. The variance of the measured sensitivity was mainly due to the resolution limitation (8-bit) of the A/D converter in the digital oscilloscope. A correlation matching algorithm was then developed that utilizes the similarity between the measured acceleration signal and that converted from the velocity signal to further improve the resolution of the digital oscilloscope.

  7. Fatigue life prediction under service load considering strengthening effect of loads below fatigue limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lihui; Zheng, Songlin; Feng, Jinzhi

    2014-11-01

    Lightweight design requires an accurate life prediction for structures and components under service loading histories. However, predicted life with the existing methods seems too conservative in some cases, leading to a heavy structure. Because these methods are established on the basis that load cycles would only cause fatigue damage, ignore the strengthening effect of loads. Based on Palmgren-Miner Rule (PMR), this paper introduces a new method for fatigue life prediction under service loadings by taking into account the strengthening effect of loads below the fatigue limit. In this method, the service loadings are classified into three categories: damaging load, strengthening load and none-effect load, and the process for fatigue life prediction is divided into two stages: stage I and stage II, according to the best strengthening number of cycles. During stage I, fatigue damage is calculated considering both the strengthening and damaging effect of load cycles. While during stage II, only the damaging effect is considered. To validate this method, fatigue lives of automobile half shaft and torsion beam rear axle are calculated based on the new method and traditional methods, such as PMR and Modified Miner Rule (MMR), and fatigue tests of the two components are conducted under service loading histories. The tests results show that the percentage errors of the predicted life with the new method to mean life of tests for the two components are -3.78% and -1.76% separately, much lesser than that with PMR and MMR. By considering the strengthening effect of loads below the fatigue limit, the new method can significantly improve the accuracy for fatigue life prediction. Thus lightweight design can be fully realized in the design stage.

  8. Evaluation of load rejection to house load test at 50% power for UCN 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Gyun; Sohn, Suk Whun; Sohn, Jong Joo; Seo, Jong Tae; Lee, Sang Keun [KOPEC, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Sung; Nam, Kyu Won; Jung, Yang Mook; Chae, Kyeong Sik; Koh, Bum Jae; Oh, Chul Sung; Park, Hee Chool [KEPCO, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The Load Rejection to House Load test at 50% power was successfully performed during the UCN 3 PAT period. In this test, all plant control systems automatically controlled the plant from 50% power to house load operation mode. The KISPAC code, which was used in the performance analysis during the design process of UCN 3 and 4, predictions of the test agreed with the measured data demonstrating the validity of the code as well as completeness of the plant design.

  9. Design and analysis of a novel mechanical loading machine for dynamic in vivo axial loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macione, James; Nesbitt, Sterling; Pandit, Vaibhav; Kotha, Shiva

    2012-02-01

    This paper describes the construction of a loading machine for performing in vivo, dynamic mechanical loading of the rodent forearm. The loading machine utilizes a unique type of electromagnetic actuator with no mechanically resistive components (servotube), allowing highly accurate loads to be created. A regression analysis of the force created by the actuator with respect to the input voltage demonstrates high linear correlation (R(2) = 1). When the linear correlation is used to create dynamic loading waveforms in the frequency (0.5-10 Hz) and load (1-50 N) range used for in vivo loading, less than 1% normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) is computed. Larger NRMSE is found at increased frequencies, with 5%-8% occurring at 40 Hz, and reasons are discussed. Amplifiers (strain gauge, linear voltage displacement transducer (LVDT), and load cell) are constructed, calibrated, and integrated, to allow well-resolved dynamic measurements to be recorded at each program cycle. Each of the amplifiers uses an active filter with cutoff frequency at the maximum in vivo loading frequencies (50 Hz) so that electronic noise generated by the servo drive and actuator are reduced. The LVDT and load cell amplifiers allow evaluation of stress-strain relationships to determine if in vivo bone damage is occurring. The strain gauge amplifier allows dynamic force to strain calibrations to occur for animals of different sex, age, and strain. Unique features are integrated into the loading system, including a weightless mode, which allows the limbs of anesthetized animals to be quickly positioned and removed. Although the device is constructed for in vivo axial bone loading, it can be used within constraints, as a general measurement instrument in a laboratory setting.

  10. Mapping of Critical Loads and Critical Load Exceedances in the Killarney Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Hindar, A.; Henriksen, A.

    1998-01-01

    Calculations of critical loads for inputs of strong acids to lakes and exceedances of critical load can be a useful tool for the management of polluted areas. In Sudbury, Canada, large emissions of sulfur dioxide have resulted in widespread lake acidification in parts of northeastern Canada. Due to its vicinity to Sudbury, extensive lake acidification and fish loss has occurred in the Killarney Provincial Park. We have linked measured water quality to critical loads and strong acid deposition...

  11. The Optimal Choice of Promotional Vehicles: Front-Loaded or Rear-Loaded Incentives?

    OpenAIRE

    Z. John Zhang; Aradhna Krishna; Sanjay K. Dhar

    2000-01-01

    We examine the key factors that influence a firm's decision whether to use front-loaded or rear-loaded incentives. When using price packs, direct mail coupons, FSI coupons or peel-off coupons, consumers obtain an immediate benefit upon purchase or a front-loaded incentive. However, when buying products with in-pack coupons or products affiliated with loyalty programs, promotion incentives are obtained on the next purchase occasion or later, i.e., a rear-loaded incentive. Our analysis shows th...

  12. Static ice loads on hydro-electric structures: ice load monographs: Volume 1: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comfort, G.; Abdelnour, R.; Gong, Y.; Dinovitzer, A.

    1996-07-01

    Ice loads on hydro-electric structures were measured during a four-year field program. Loads were measured at Hydro-Quebec`s Paugan dam, Ontario Hydro`s Arnprior and Otto Holden dams, and in a large outdoor basin at the National Research Council (NRC) during one winter. Ice loads were measured in the reservoir ice sheet, near the concrete face of the dam, and near the gate and pier of the Paugan dam. Ice stresses were measured continuously by stressmeters that were deployed in the ice. Loads at the Paugan dam and the NRC basin resulted mostly from ice temperature changes. The loads at the Arnprior and Otto Holden dams were produced by a combination of ice temperature and water level changes. The collected data was analyzed in detail and efforts were made to improve techniques for predicting ice loads. Significant progress was made towards the development of detailed, quantitative understanding of static ice loads on hydro-electric structures, and the factors controlling them. However, the ice load predictors are subject to a number of limitations and further work is required before changes to design practices can be recommended with confidence. More field data collection would also improve the definition of loads arising from a combination of water level and ice temperature changes. Additional numerical analyses was also recommended to better define the effects of ice confinement. Appendices were published separately in volume 2 of this report. 43 refs., 18 tabs., 96 figs.

  13. Application of PSAT to Load Flow Analysis with STATCOM under Load Increase Scenario and Line Contingencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telang, Aparna S.; Bedekar, P. P.

    2017-09-01

    Load flow analysis is the initial and essential step for any power system computation. It is required for choosing better options for power system expansion to meet with ever increasing load demand. Implementation of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) device like STATCOM, in the load flow, which is having fast and very flexible control, is one of the important tasks for power system researchers. This paper presents a simple and systematic approach for steady state power flow calculations with FACTS controller, static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) using command line usage of MATLAB tool-power system analysis toolbox (PSAT). The complexity of MATLAB language programming increases due to incorporation of STATCOM in an existing Newton-Raphson load flow algorithm. Thus, the main contribution of this paper is to show how command line usage of user friendly MATLAB tool, PSAT, can extensively be used for quicker and wider interpretation of the results of load flow with STATCOM. The novelty of this paper lies in the method of applying the load increase pattern, where the active and reactive loads have been changed simultaneously at all the load buses under consideration for creating stressed conditions for load flow analysis with STATCOM. The performance have been evaluated on many standard IEEE test systems and the results for standard IEEE-30 bus system, IEEE-57 bus system, and IEEE-118 bus system are presented.

  14. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation

  15. Multilayered elastic analysis formulation for surface moment loading

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maina, JW

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available into consideration surface moment loading. GOVERNING EQUATIONS The governing equations may be presented by using cylindrical coordinate system and assume that a circular load, with radius a , is acting on the pavement surface and the magnitude of the load varies... of Equation (1a) is the uniformly distributed vertical load, while the second item represents the load, which is anti-symmetric about the y - axis. The loading distribution obtained from Equation (1a) is a sum of uniformly distributed load and the load...

  16. Laterally cyclic loading of monopile in dense sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte; Hededal, Ole; Svensson, M.

    2011-01-01

    the loading conditions. In these tests the load conditions are controlled by two load characteristics, one controlling the level of the cyclic loading and one controlling the characteristic of the cyclic loading. The centrifuge tests were performed in dense dry sand on a pile with prototype dimensions...... used for wind turbine foundation. This is important in order to get the right failure mechanism in the sand. The load frame is controlled with a feedback system which enables force controlled load series. A total number of 8 tests have been carried. In all of the tests, the pile was loaded with 500...

  17. Load forecasting method considering temperature effect for distribution network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xiao Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the accuracy of load forecasting, the temperature factor was introduced into the load forecasting in this paper. This paper analyzed the characteristics of power load variation, and researched the rule of the load with the temperature change. Based on the linear regression analysis, the mathematical model of load forecasting was presented with considering the temperature effect, and the steps of load forecasting were given. Used MATLAB, the temperature regression coefficient was calculated. Using the load forecasting model, the full-day load forecasting and time-sharing load forecasting were carried out. By comparing and analyzing the forecast error, the results showed that the error of time-sharing load forecasting method was small in this paper. The forecasting method is an effective method to improve the accuracy of load forecasting.

  18. Distributed dynamic load on composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langella, A.; Lopresto, V.; Caprino, G.

    2016-05-01

    An experimental activity conducted in order to assess the impact behavior at room and low temperature of carbon fibre in vinylester resin laminates used in the shipbuilding industry, was reported. The conditions which reproduce the impact of a hull at low temperature with a solid body suspended in the water was reproduced. A test equipment was designed and realized to reproduce the real material behaviour in water to obtain a load distribution on the entire surface of the specimen. The results were obtained impacting the laminates placed between the cilyndrical steel impactor and a bag containing water. A falling weight machine, equipped with an instrumented steel impactor and a thermal chamber, was adopted for the experimental tests. The impact behaviour in hostile environments was compared to the behaviour at room temperature and the data obtained under distributed load conditions were compared with the results from concentrated loads: a completely different behaviour was observed between the two different loading conditions in terms of load-displacement curve. The effect of the impact on the laminates has been related with the delaminations, evaluated by ultrasonic scanning, and the indentation.

  19. Power transformer additional load losses separation procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miloje M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed procedure is based on the fact that total transformer losses (PLL1,n, determined by short circuit test, can be separated into two components: the eddy current losses in the windings (PEC1,n and stray flux losses (PSL1,n in iron parts of construction as well as in the transformer tank walls. The total additional load losses, PLLd1 and PLLdh, are determined by short circuit test results, conducted at rated frequency (f1 and at increased harmonic frequency (fh=h*f1. Using so obtained total additional load losses, PLLd1 and PLLdh, which can be expressed in the form PLLdh=PEC1,n*h2 + PSL1,n*h, the corresponding rate additional load losses values PEC1,n and PSL1,n are derived. At the end, for given load with predefined high harmonics content, (Ih/I1n, relative to rated current, the total additional load losses value ΣPLLdh > PLLd1, is found. In such a way all harmonics up to hmax are taken into account.

  20. Concrete structures under impact loading: general aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Baeră

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic loading conditions distress the structural integrity of a structure differently than the static ones. Such actions transfer high rate strains and instant energy waves to the structure, inducing the possibility of imminent collapse and casualties as a direct consequence. In the latest years, considering the dramatic increase of terrorist threats and global warming, the structural safety criteria imply more than ever the need to withstand this kind of loading (e.g., missiles and blast, projectiles, strong winds, tornados and earthquakes in addition to the static ones. The aim of this paper is to provide a general overview with regard to impact loading in terms of defining the phenomenon from physical and mechanical perspective, its complex local or global effect on the targeted structure, relevant material characteristics, main research approaches, namely theoretical studies and experimental procedures developed for improving the predictability of the dynamic loads and their effects. New directions in developing superior cementitious composites, with better characteristics in terms of dynamic loading performance are also emphasized.

  1. Short term load forecasting: two stage modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOARES, L. J.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the hourly electricity load demand in the area covered by a utility situated in the Seattle, USA, called Puget Sound Power and Light Company. Our proposal is put into proof with the famous dataset from this company. We propose a stochastic model which employs ANN (Artificial Neural Networks to model short-run dynamics and the dependence among adjacent hours. The model proposed treats each hour's load separately as individual single series. This approach avoids modeling the intricate intra-day pattern (load profile displayed by the load, which varies throughout days of the week and seasons. The forecasting performance of the model is evaluated in similiar mode a TLSAR (Two-Level Seasonal Autoregressive model proposed by Soares (2003 using the years of 1995 and 1996 as the holdout sample. Moreover, we conclude that non linearity is present in some series of these data. The model results are analyzed. The experiment shows that our tool can be used to produce load forecasting in tropical climate places.

  2. Phloem Loading through Plasmodesmata: A Biophysical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comtet, Jean; Turgeon, Robert; Stroock, Abraham D

    2017-10-01

    In many species, Suc en route out of the leaf migrates from photosynthetically active mesophyll cells into the phloem down its concentration gradient via plasmodesmata, i.e. symplastically. In some of these plants, the process is entirely passive, but in others phloem Suc is actively converted into larger sugars, raffinose and stachyose, and segregated (trapped), thus raising total phloem sugar concentration to a level higher than in the mesophyll. Questions remain regarding the mechanisms and selective advantages conferred by both of these symplastic-loading processes. Here, we present an integrated model-including local and global transport and kinetics of polymerization-for passive and active symplastic loading. We also propose a physical model of transport through the plasmodesmata. With these models, we predict that (1) relative to passive loading, polymerization of Suc in the phloem, even in the absence of segregation, lowers the sugar content in the leaf required to achieve a given export rate and accelerates export for a given concentration of Suc in the mesophyll and (2) segregation of oligomers and the inverted gradient of total sugar content can be achieved for physiologically reasonable parameter values, but even higher export rates can be accessed in scenarios in which polymers are allowed to diffuse back into the mesophyll. We discuss these predictions in relation to further studies aimed at the clarification of loading mechanisms, fitness of active and passive symplastic loading, and potential targets for engineering improved rates of export. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. PMID:26802540

  4. Modular load flow for restructured power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hariharan, M V; Gupta, Pragati P

    2016-01-01

    In the subject of power systems, authors felt that a re-look is necessary at some conventional methods of analysis. In this book, the authors have subjected the time-honoured load flow to a close scrutiny. Authors have discovered and discussed a new load flow procedure – Modular Load Flow. Modular Load Flow explores use of power – a scalar – as source for electrical circuits which are conventionally analysed by means of phasors – the ac voltages or currents. The method embeds Kirchhoff’s circuit laws as topological property into its scalar equations and results in a unique wonderland where phase angles do not exist! Generators are shown to have their own worlds which can be superimposed to obtain the state of the composite power system. The treatment is useful in restructured power systems where stakeholders and the system operators may desire to know individual generator contributions in line flows and line losses for commercial reasons. Solution in Modular Load Flow consists of explicit expression...

  5. Power-load curve in trained sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, Pedro E; Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Vila, Helena; Ferragut, Carmen

    2011-11-01

    The levels of lower-limb strength and power can distinguish between athletes of different levels in a number of sports, specifically in sprinting. In this sense, the purposes of this study were (a) to define the power–load curve in a modified half squat machine in trained sprinters in the competitive cycle and (b) to correlate the peak power (PP) production with 60-m sprint performance. In this sense, a cross-sectional study was carried out with 10 national level sprinters. After the calculation of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) of the participants, a progressive test, which consisted of moving loads of 30, 45, 60, 70, and 80% of the 1RM as quickly as possible in the concentric phase, was performed. It was found that PP occurred at 60% of 1RM. The power output with all loads was not significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) from each other. No significant correlations were found between 60-m performance and PP with the different loads. Therefore, we may conclude that the sprinters of national level analyzed present values of PP output, in the competitive period, near to 60% of 1RM in the half squat exercise; however, this power is not significantly different from the other loads.

  6. Cognitive load measurement as a means to advance cognitive load theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paas, F.; Tuovinen, J.E.; Tabbers, H.; van Gerven, P.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses cognitive load measurement techniques with regard to their contribution to cognitive load theory (CLT). CLT is concerned with the design of instructional methods that efficiently use people's limited cognitive processing capacity to apply acquired knowledge and skills to new

  7. Fractographic study of epoxy fractured under mode I loading and mixed mode I/III loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Fei [ORNL; Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Bertelsen, Williams D. [Gougeon Brothers, Inc.

    2011-01-01

    Fiber reinforced polymeric composite materials are widely used in structural components such as wind turbine blades, which are typically subject to complicated loading conditions. Thus, material response under mixed mode loading is of great significance to the reliability of these structures. Epoxy is a thermosetting polymer that is currently used in manufacturing wind turbine blades. The fracture behavior of epoxy is relevant to the mechanical integrity of the wind turbine composite materials. In this study, a novel fracture testing methodology, the spiral notch torsion test (SNTT), was applied to study the fracture behavior of an epoxy material. SNTT samples were tested using either monotonic loading or cyclic loading, while both mode I and mixed mode I/III loading conditions were used. Fractographic examination indicated the epoxy samples included in this study were prone to mode I failure even when the samples were subject to mixed mode loading. Different fatigue precracks were observed on mode I and mixed mode samples, i.e. precracks appeared as a uniform band under mode I loading, and a semi-ellipse under mixed mode loading. Fracture toughness was also estimated using quantitative fractography.

  8. System ID Modern Control Algorithms for Active Aerodynamic Load Control and Impact on Gearbox Loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, D.; Wilson, D.; Resor, B.; Berg, J.; Barlas, J.; Crowther, A.; Halse, C.

    2010-01-01

    Prior work on active aerodynamic load control (AALC) of wind turbine blades has demonstrated that appropriate use of this technology has the potential to yield significant reductions in blade loads, leading to a decrease in wind cost of energy. While the general concept of AALC is usually discussed

  9. Method and device for loading packed goods using an intermediate load unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, R.; Ross, L.H.A.; Houlleberghs, B.R.Y.; Naber, J.; Van der Meulen, R.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a device for loading packed goods into a transport unit (8b), the device comprising an orientation unit for orienting each packed good in a predetermined direction, means for transferring the packed goods in the order of a predetermined loading sequence to the orientation

  10. A Microstructural Study of Load Distribution in Cartilage: A Comparison of Stress Relaxation versus Creep Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvin Thambyah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The compressive response of articular cartilage has been extensively investigated and most studies have focussed largely on the directly loaded matrix. However, especially in relation to the tissue microstructure, less is known about load distribution mechanisms operating outside the directly loaded region. We have addressed this issue by using channel indentation and DIC microscopy techniques that provide visualisation of the matrix microstructural response across the regions of both direct and nondirect loading. We hypothesise that, by comparing the microstructural response following stress relaxation and creep compression, new insights can be revealed concerning the complex mechanisms of load bearing. Our results indicate that, with stress relaxation, the initial mode of stress decay appears to primarily involve relaxation of the surface layer. In the creep loading protocol, the main mode of stress release is a lateral distribution of load via the mid matrix. While these two modes of stress redistribution have a complex relationship with the zonally differentiated tissue microstructure and the depth of strain, four mechanostructural mechanisms are proposed to describe succinctly the load responses observed.

  11. Bit Loading Algorithms for Cooperative OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gui

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the resource allocation problem for an OFDM cooperative network with a single source-destination pair and multiple relays. Assuming knowledge of the instantaneous channel gains for all links in the entire network, we propose several bit and power allocation schemes aiming at minimizing the total transmission power under a target rate constraint. First, an optimal and efficient bit loading algorithm is proposed when the relay node uses the same subchannel to relay the information transmitted by the source node. To further improve the performance gain, subchannel permutation, in which the subchannels are reallocated at relay nodes, is considered. An optimal subchannel permutation algorithm is first proposed and then an efficient suboptimal algorithm is considered to achieve a better complexity-performance tradeoff. A distributed bit loading algorithm is also proposed for ad hoc networks. Simulation results show that significant performance gains can be achieved by the proposed bit loading algorithms, especially when subchannel permutation is employed.

  12. Integrated microelectromechanical gyroscope under shock loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterenko, T. G.; Koleda, A. N.; Barbin, E. S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a new design of a shock-proof two-axis microelectromechanical gyroscope. Without stoppers, the shock load enables the interaction between the silicon sensor elements. Stoppers were installed in the gyroscope to prevent the contact interaction between electrodes and spring elements with fixed part of the sensor. The contact of stoppers occurs along the plane, thereby preventing the system from serious contact stresses. The shock resistance of the gyroscope is improved by the increase in its eigenfrequency at which the contact interaction does not occur. It is shown that the shock load directed along one axis does not virtually cause the movement of sensing elements along the crosswise axes. Maximum stresses observed in the proposed gyroscope at any loading direction do not exceed the value allowable for silicon.

  13. Free Material Design with Multiple Load Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2012-01-01

    Multiple load cases and the consideration of strength is a reality that most structural designs are exposed to. Improved possibility to produce specific materials, say by fiber lay-up, put focus on research on free material optimization. A formulation for such design problems together with a prac......Multiple load cases and the consideration of strength is a reality that most structural designs are exposed to. Improved possibility to produce specific materials, say by fiber lay-up, put focus on research on free material optimization. A formulation for such design problems together...... with a practical recursive design procedure is presented and illustrated with examples. The presented finite element analysis involve many elements as well as many load cases. Separating the local amount of material from a description with unit trace for the local anisotropy, gives the free materials formulation...

  14. Design Load Basis for Offshore Wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Wang, Shaofeng

    2016-01-01

    DTU Wind Energy is not designing and manufacturing wind turbines and does therefore not need a Design Load Basis (DLB) that is accepted by a certification body. However, to assess the load consequences of innovative features and devices added to existing offshore turbine concepts or new offshore...... turbine concept developed in our research, it is useful to have a full DLB that follows the current design standard and is representative of a general DLB used by the industry. It will set a standard for the offshore wind turbine design load evaluations performed at DTU Wind Energy, which is aligned...... with the challenges faced by the industry and therefore ensures that our research continues to have a strong foundation in this interaction. Furthermore, the use of a full DLB that follows the current standard can improve and increase the feedback from the research at DTU Wind Energy to the international...

  15. Managing the Training Load in Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    While historically adolescents were removed from their parents to prepare to become warriors, this process repeats itself in modern times but with the outcome being athletic performance. This review considers the process of developing athletes and managing load against the backdrop of differing approaches of conserving and maximizing the talent available. It acknowledges the typical training "dose" that adolescent athletes receive across a number of sports and the typical "response" when it is excessive or not managed appropriately. It also examines the best approaches to quantifying load and injury risk, acknowledging the relative strengths and weaknesses of subjective and objective approaches. Making evidence-based decisions is emphasized, while the appropriate monitoring techniques are determined by both the sporting context and individual situation. Ultimately a systematic approach to training-load monitoring is recommended for adolescent athletes to both maximize their athletic development and allow an opportunity for learning, reflection, and enhancement of performance knowledge of coaches and practitioners.

  16. Contact Sliding under Relatively Low Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeong Hee Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanowires have received much interest owing to their particular structural and piezoelectric properties. For widespread application of ZnO nanowires in various nanotechnologies, the mechanical reliability of the nanowires should be assessed. In this paper, the damage characteristics of vertically grown ZnO nanowires due to contact sliding against a 2 mm diameter steel ball under relatively low loads were investigated. Frictional behavior and wear characteristics of the specimens were assessed. Furthermore, contact sliding tests were performed inside an SEM to monitor the progression of damage of the nanowires. It was found that the friction coefficient was about 0.35 under all loads while the damage characteristics of the nanowires were quite different for each load. The large diameter nanowires tended to fracture earlier than the small diameter nanowires. Wear tests performed inside the SEM confirmed the surface damage characteristics observed during the friction tests.

  17. Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Yuen, W.W.; Angelini, S.; Freeman, K.; Chen, X.; Salmassi, T. [Center for Risk Studies and Safety, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Sienicki, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads in an AP600-like reactor design is considered. The assessment is the second part of an evaluation of the in-vessel retention idea as a severe accident management concept, the first part (DOE/ID-10460) dealing with thermal loads. The assessment is conducted in terms of the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM), and includes the comprehensive evaluation of all relevant severe accident scenarios, melt conditions and timing of release from the core region, fully 3D mixing and explosion wave dynamics, and lower head fragility under local, dynamic loading. All of these factors and brought together in a ROAAM Probabilistic Framework to evaluate failure likelihood. The conclusion is that failure is `physically unreasonable`. (author)

  18. Radio Frequency Power Load and Associated Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V. Karthik (Inventor); Freestone, Todd M. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A radio frequency power load and associated method. A radio frequency power load apparatus may include a container with an ionized fluid therein. The apparatus may include one conductor immersed in a fluid and another conductor electrically connected to the container. A radio frequency transmission system may include a radio frequency transmitter, a radio frequency amplifier connected to the transmitter and a radio frequency power load apparatus connected to the amplifier. The apparatus may include a fluid having an ion source therein, one conductor immersed in a fluid, and another conductor electrically connected to the container. A method of dissipating power generated by a radio frequency transmission system may include constructing a waveguide with ionized fluid in a container and connecting the waveguide to an amplifier of the transmission system.

  19. Bit Loading Algorithms for Cooperative OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Bo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate the resource allocation problem for an OFDM cooperative network with a single source-destination pair and multiple relays. Assuming knowledge of the instantaneous channel gains for all links in the entire network, we propose several bit and power allocation schemes aiming at minimizing the total transmission power under a target rate constraint. First, an optimal and efficient bit loading algorithm is proposed when the relay node uses the same subchannel to relay the information transmitted by the source node. To further improve the performance gain, subchannel permutation, in which the subchannels are reallocated at relay nodes, is considered. An optimal subchannel permutation algorithm is first proposed and then an efficient suboptimal algorithm is considered to achieve a better complexity-performance tradeoff. A distributed bit loading algorithm is also proposed for ad hoc networks. Simulation results show that significant performance gains can be achieved by the proposed bit loading algorithms, especially when subchannel permutation is employed.

  20. Phloem loading through plasmodesmata: a biophysical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Comtet, Jean; Stroock, Abraham D

    2016-01-01

    In many species, sucrose en route out of the leaf migrates from photosynthetically active mesophyll cells into the phloem down its concentration gradient via plasmodesmata, i.e., symplastically. In some of these plants the process is entirely passive, but in others phloem sucrose is actively converted into larger sugars, raffinose and stachyose, and segregated (trapped), thus raising total phloem sugar concentration to a level higher than in the mesophyll. Questions remain regarding the mechanisms and selective advantages conferred by both of these symplastic loading processes. Here we present an integrated model - including local and global transport and the kinetics of oligomerization - for passive and active symplastic loading. We also propose a physical model of transport through the plasmodesmata. With these models, we predict that: 1) relative to passive loading, oligomerization of sucrose in the phloem, even in the absence of segregation, lowers the sugar content in the leaf required to achieve a given...

  1. Compensator configurations for load currents' symmetrization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinaru, D.; Manescu, L. G.; Dinu, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    This paper approaches aspects regarding the mitigation effects of asymmetries in 3-phase 3-wire networks. The measure consisting in connecting of load current symmetrization devices at the load coupling point is presented. A time-variation of compensators parameters is determined as a function of the time-recorded electrical values. The general sizing principle of the load current symmetrization reactive components is based on a simple equivalent model of the unbalanced 3-phase loads. By using these compensators a certain control of the power components transits is ensured in the network. The control is based on the variations laws of the compensators parameters as functions of the recorded electrical values: [B] = [T]·[M]. The link between compensator parameters and measured values is ensured by a transformation matrix [T] for each operation conditions of the supply network. Additional conditions for improving of energy and efficiency performance of the compensator are considered: i.e. reactive power compensation. The compensator sizing algorithm was implemented into a MATLAB environment software, which generate the time-evolution of the parameters of load current symmetrization device. The input data of application takes into account time-recording of the electrical values. By using the compensator sizing software, some results were achieved for the case of a consumer connected at 20 kV busbar of a distribution substation, during 24 hours measurement session. Even the sizing of the compensators aimed some additional network operation aspects (power factor correction) correlated with the total or major load symmetrizations, the harmonics aspects of the network values were neglected.

  2. Laguna Verde annulus pressurization loads evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, M. A.; Cruz, M. A.; Cardenas, J. B.; Vargas, A.; Cruz, H. J.; Mercado, J. J., E-mail: miguel.castaneda01@cfe.gob.m [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde, Km. 42.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    Annulus pressurization, jet impingement, pipe whip restraint and jet thrust are phenomena related to postulated pipe ruptures. A postulated pipe rupture at the weld between recirculation, or feedwater piping and a reactor nozzle safe end, will lead to a high flow rate of flashing water/steam mixture into the annulus between the reactor pressure vessel and the biological shield wall. The total effect of the vessel and pipe inventory blowdown from the break being postulated must be accounted for in the evaluation. A recirculation line break will give rise to an angular dependent short term pressure differential around the vessel, followed by a longer term pressure buildup in the annulus. A recirculation line postulated rupture may not produce worst case conditions and reference to time intervals for only the recirculation break should be treated superficially. A postulated rupture of the feedwater piping may produce the extreme case for determining: 1) the shield wall and reactor vessel to pedestal interactions, 2) loading on the reactor vessel internals, or 3) responses for the balance of piping attached to the vessel. Recently it was identified a potential issue regarding the criteria used to determine which cases were evaluated for Annulus Pressurization (A P) loads for new loads plants. The original A P loads methodology in the late 1970 and early 1980 years separated the mass/energy release calculation from the structural response calculation based on the implicit assumption that the maximum overall mass/energy release will result in maximizing the structural response and corresponding stresses on the reactor pressure vessel, internals, and containment structures. This process did not consider the dynamic response in the primary and secondary safety related structures, components and equipment. Consequently, the A P loads used as input for design adequacy evaluations of Nuclear Steam Supply System safety related components for new loads plants might have

  3. Reduction of date microbial load with ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Davood; Qorbanpoor, Ali; Rafati, Hasan; Isfeedvajani, Mohsen Saberi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Date is one of the foodstuffs that are produced in tropical areas and used worldwide. Conventionally, methyl bromide and phosphine are used for date disinfection. The toxic side effects of these usual disinfectants have led food scientists to consider safer agents such as ozone for disinfection, because food safety is a top priority. The present study was performed to investigate the possibility of replacing common conventional disinfectants with ozone for date disinfection and microbial load reduction. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, date samples were ozonized for 3 and 5 hours with 5 and 10 g/h concentrations and packed. Ozonized samples were divided into two groups and kept in an incubator which was maintained at 25°C and 40°C for 9 months. During this period, every 3 month, microbial load (bacteria, mold, and yeast) were examined in ozonized and non-ozonized samples. Results: This study showed that ozonization with 5 g/h for 3 hours, 5 g/h for 5 hours, 10 g/h for 3 hours, and 10 g/h for 5 hours leads to about 25%, 25%, 53%, and 46% reduction in date mold and yeast load and about 6%, 9%, 76%, and 74.7% reduction in date bacterial load at baseline phase, respectively. Appropriate concentration and duration of ozonization for microbial load reduction were 10 g/h and 3 hours. Conclusion: Date ozonization is an appropriate method for microbial load reduction and leads to an increase in the shelf life of dates. PMID:24124432

  4. INFLUENCE OF MOVING LOADS ON CURVED BRIDGES

    OpenAIRE

    Thamer A. Z*, Jabbbar S. A

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of a curved slab bridge decks with uniform thickness under moving load is investigated in this study. Three radii of curvature "R" are used (25, 50 and 75m) along with the straight bridge, R = ∞. The decks are simply supported or clamped along the radial edges and free at the circular edges. The AASHTO[1] standard axle load of the truck H20-44 is used and assumed to move in three track positions on the bridge. The finite element method is employed for the analysis and the ANSYS 5...

  5. Practical Hydrogen Loading of Air Silica Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm

    2005-01-01

    A method for hydrogen-loading air-silica optical fibres has been developed allowing out-diffusion times comparable to standard step-index fibres. Examples of the first grating written in Ge-doped air-silica fibres using a 266nm UV-laser are shown.......A method for hydrogen-loading air-silica optical fibres has been developed allowing out-diffusion times comparable to standard step-index fibres. Examples of the first grating written in Ge-doped air-silica fibres using a 266nm UV-laser are shown....

  6. Inferential Framework for Autonomous Cryogenic Loading Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchinsky, Dmitry G.; Khasin, Michael; Timucin, Dogan; Sass, Jared; Perotti, Jose; Brown, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    We address problem of autonomous cryogenic management of loading operations on the ground and in space. As a step towards solution of this problem we develop a probabilistic framework for inferring correlations parameters of two-fluid cryogenic flow. The simulation of two-phase cryogenic flow is performed using nearly-implicit scheme. A concise set of cryogenic correlations is introduced. The proposed approach is applied to an analysis of the cryogenic flow in experimental Propellant Loading System built at NASA KSC. An efficient simultaneous optimization of a large number of model parameters is demonstrated and a good agreement with the experimental data is obtained.

  7. Load and Global Response of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    The present monograph covers wave load and global structural response for ships. It is primary written as a textbook for students with an introductionary background in naval architecture and a basic knowledge of statistics and strength of materials. The subjects are treated in details starting from...... first principles. The aim has been to derive and present the necessary theoretical framework for predicting the extreme loads and the corresponding hull girder stresses the ship may be subjected to during its operational lifetime.Although some account is given to reliabiity analysis, the present...

  8. Pressure Hull Analysis under Shock Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Jung Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The hull of high performance submarines must resist underwater shock loading due to exploding torpedoes or depth bombs. An underwater shock involving an initial shock wave and successive bubble pulsating waves is so complex that a theoretical technique for deriving shock pressure distribution is required for improving simulation efficiency. Complete shock loading is obtained theoretically in this work, and responses of a submarine pressure hull are calculated using ABAQUS USA (Underwater Shock Analysis codes. In the long run, this deflection and stress data will assist in examining the structural arrangement of the submarine pressure hull.

  9. Stochastic Extreme Load Predictions for Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1999-01-01

    Development of rational design criteria for marine structures requires reliable estimates for the maximum wave-induced loads the structure may encounter during its operational lifetime. The paper discusses various methods for extreme value predictions taking into account the non-linearity of the ......Development of rational design criteria for marine structures requires reliable estimates for the maximum wave-induced loads the structure may encounter during its operational lifetime. The paper discusses various methods for extreme value predictions taking into account the non...

  10. Design of Vickers Hardness Loading Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihai Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally Vickers testing needs manual works, as a result, it will induce low precision and automatization. So this paper design a new type of loading controlling system, it is based on single chip computer 89S52, used PZT as the force generator in micro Vickers hardness testing. It primarily includes the designing of hardware, software of collecting data and PZT signals by AD667. This article has given the sketch of electrical circuit and controlling software, it also offers the experiment data. The experiments have showed that using this system can exactly control the loading results, and the average tolerance is less than 0.43 %.

  11. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Ford, Justin R.; Spires, Shannon V.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-10-27

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  12. Pile Load Capacity – Calculation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrana Bogumił

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of the current problems of the foundation pile capacity calculations. The article considers the main principles of pile capacity calculations presented in Eurocode 7 and other methods with adequate explanations. Two main methods are presented: α – method used to calculate the short-term load capacity of piles in cohesive soils and β – method used to calculate the long-term load capacity of piles in both cohesive and cohesionless soils. Moreover, methods based on cone CPTu result are presented as well as the pile capacity problem based on static tests.

  13. Gust loading on streamlined bridge decks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larose, Guy; Mann, Jakob

    1998-01-01

    The current analytical description of the buffeting action of wind on long-span bridges is based on the strip assumption. However, recent experiments on closed-box girder bridge decks have shown that this assumption is not valid and is the source of an important part of the error margin...... of the analytical prediction methods. In this paper, an analytical model that departs from the strip assumption is used to describe the gust loading on a thin airfoil. A parallel is drawn between the analytical model and direct measurements of gust loading on motionless closed-box girder bridge decks. Empirical...

  14. Comparison of Deterministic and Probabilistic Radial Distribution Systems Load Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Atma Ram; Kumar, Ashwani

    2017-08-01

    Distribution system network today is facing the challenge of meeting increased load demands from the industrial, commercial and residential sectors. The pattern of load is highly dependent on consumer behavior and temporal factors such as season of the year, day of the week or time of the day. For deterministic radial distribution load flow studies load is taken as constant. But, load varies continually with a high degree of uncertainty. So, there is a need to model probable realistic load. Monte-Carlo Simulation is used to model the probable realistic load by generating random values of active and reactive power load from the mean and standard deviation of the load and for solving a Deterministic Radial Load Flow with these values. The probabilistic solution is reconstructed from deterministic data obtained for each simulation. The main contribution of the work is: Finding impact of probable realistic ZIP load modeling on balanced radial distribution load flow. Finding impact of probable realistic ZIP load modeling on unbalanced radial distribution load flow. Compare the voltage profile and losses with probable realistic ZIP load modeling for balanced and unbalanced radial distribution load flow.

  15. Comparison of Deterministic and Probabilistic Radial Distribution Systems Load Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Atma Ram; Kumar, Ashwani

    2017-12-01

    Distribution system network today is facing the challenge of meeting increased load demands from the industrial, commercial and residential sectors. The pattern of load is highly dependent on consumer behavior and temporal factors such as season of the year, day of the week or time of the day. For deterministic radial distribution load flow studies load is taken as constant. But, load varies continually with a high degree of uncertainty. So, there is a need to model probable realistic load. Monte-Carlo Simulation is used to model the probable realistic load by generating random values of active and reactive power load from the mean and standard deviation of the load and for solving a Deterministic Radial Load Flow with these values. The probabilistic solution is reconstructed from deterministic data obtained for each simulation. The main contribution of the work is: Finding impact of probable realistic ZIP load modeling on balanced radial distribution load flow. Finding impact of probable realistic ZIP load modeling on unbalanced radial distribution load flow. Compare the voltage profile and losses with probable realistic ZIP load modeling for balanced and unbalanced radial distribution load flow.

  16. 46 CFR 154.355 - Bow and stern loading piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bow and stern loading piping. 154.355 Section 154.355... Arrangements § 154.355 Bow and stern loading piping. (a) Bow and stern loading piping must: (1) Meet § 154.310... other openings to accommodation, service, or control spaces that face the bow or stern loading area must...

  17. 14 CFR 23.393 - Loads parallel to hinge line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loads parallel to hinge line. 23.393... Control Surface and System Loads § 23.393 Loads parallel to hinge line. (a) Control surfaces and supporting hinge brackets must be designed to withstand inertial loads acting parallel to the hinge line. (b...

  18. 24 CFR 3285.315 - Special snow load conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special snow load conditions. 3285... Special snow load conditions. (a) General. Foundations for homes designed for and located in areas with roof live loads greater than 40 psf must be designed by the manufacturer for the special snow load...

  19. 14 CFR 23.371 - Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. 23.371... Flight Loads § 23.371 Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the gyroscopic, inertial, and aerodynamic loads that result, with the engine...

  20. Transient Monotonic and Cyclic Load Effects on Mono Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Dam

    and when hitting the foundation they induce high impact loads with a short duration. It is important that the foundation is able to resists these huge loads. Fortunately, the conducted research showed that the capacity of the mono bucket foundation is high to impact loads. When exposed to a huge wave load...

  1. The inverse effects of load transfer and load sharing on axial compressive stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haher, T R; Yeung, A W; Ottaviano, D M; Merola, A A; Caruso, S A

    2001-01-01

    The goal of spinal instrumentation is to stabilize involved motion segments while fusion occurs. Although some degree of load sharing is necessary for fusion, the ability of the instrumentation system to transfer the load may vary. The purpose of this study is to formulate a mathematical relationship between load sharing and load transfer of specific spinal instrumentation systems using a well-accepted mechanical model. Forty-eight American Society for Testing Materials standard ultra high molecular weight polyethylene cylinders were used as per designation F 1717-96, standard test methods for static and fatigue for spinal implant constructs in a corpectomy model. Twenty-four spinal assemblies consisting of anterior plates, anterior rod, and posterior rods were subjected to compression bending tests using a MTS Bionix servo-hydraulic material testing apparatus. Each implant was tested in compression bending with and without the addition of a titanium load-sharing cage. The force applied was the independent variable, and the displacement was the dependent variable. The stiffness was determined for each setup with and without the addition of an anterior load-sharing cage. The average axial compressive stiffness of a system increased by a factor of 8.5 with the addition of the load-sharing cage. An inverse relationship existed between the compressive stiffness of the construct and its relative increase achieved with the addition of the load-sharing cage. The compressive stiffness of the system with the addition of the load-sharing cage approached that of the anterior device itself as the system flexibility increased. The ability of instrumentation systems to load share or load transfer and their respective stiffness was determined. The 5-mm rod screw posterior system was compared with the 7-mm Ti posterior system with the addition of one and two devices for transverse traction (DTTs). The rods with the increased diameter had a stiffness of 1723 n/mm with one DTT and

  2. Allocation of Load-Loss Cost Caused by Voltage Sag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.

    2017-10-01

    This paper focuses on the allocation of load-loss cost caused by voltage sag in the environment of electricity market. To compensate the loss of loads due to voltage sags, the load-loss cost is allocated to both sources and power consumers. On the basis of Load Drop Cost (LDC), a quantitative evaluation index of load-loss cost caused by voltage sag is identified. The load-loss cost to be allocated to power consumers themselves is calculated according to load classification. Based on the theory of power component the quantitative relation between sources and loads is established, thereby a quantitative calculation method for load-loss cost allocated to each source is deduced and the quantitative compensation from individual source to load is proposed. A simple five-bus system illustrates the main features of the proposed method.

  3. Outlier robustness for wind turbine extrapolated extreme loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Verelst, David Robert

    2012-01-01

    simulation is demonstrated and compared with published results. Further effects of varying wind inflow angles and shear exponent is brought out. Parametric fitting techniques that consider all extreme loads including ‘outliers’ are proposed, and the physical reasons that result in isolated high extreme loads...... dependencies is utilized to estimate a probability for the largest extreme load to occur at a specific mean wind speed. This inherently weights extreme loads that occur frequently within mean wind speed bins higher than isolated occurrences of extreme loads. Primarily, the results for the blade root out......-of-plane loads are presented here as those extrapolated loads have shown wide variability in literature, but the method can be generalized to any other component load. The convergence of the 1 year extrapolated extreme blade root out-of-plane load with the number of turbulent wind samples used in the loads...

  4. 46 CFR 78.50-15 - Load line marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Load line marks. 78.50-15 Section 78.50-15 Shipping... Vessels § 78.50-15 Load line marks. (a) Vessels assigned a load line shall have the deck line and the load line marks permanently scribed or embossed as required by subchapter E (Load Lines) of this chapter. (b) ...

  5. A grid-tied PV system for commercial load and peak load reduction: South African case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Senatla, Mamahloko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available in the analysis with the objective of reducing both the load demand and peak load for a South African commercial entity. The results show load and peak load reductions of 3.4% and 4.5 % respectively. This shows that if such or similar systems are adopted...

  6. Load Management in District Heating Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Wang, Stephen Jia

    2015-01-01

    Smooth operation of district heating system will avoid installation of expensive peak heat boilers, improve plant partial load performance, increase the system redundancy for further network expansion and improve its resilience to ensure security of supply during severe heating seasons. The peak...

  7. Work load and musculoskeletal complaints during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, J. A.; van Dijk, F. J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    Many pregnant women have musculoskeletal complaints, the onset and aggravation of which are thought to be associated with their activity or work postures. The purpose of this paper was to obtain more insight into the influence of pregnancy on the load of the musculoskeletal system at work to provide

  8. Preparation and Evaluation of Glibenclamide-Loaded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of stirring speed (250, 1000, 1500 and 2500 rpm) and drug: polymer ratio (1:1, 1: 2, 1:3 and 2:1) on particle size, size distribution, zeta potential, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and drug release was also studied. Results: Stable NPs were successfully prepared without any incompatibility, as indicated by ...

  9. The chemistry induced by mechanical load

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    Results in the field of mechanochemistry are summarized. For example under mechanical load often a solvolysis is observed instead of a simple homolytic bond rupture. Also a mechanically induced redox reaction was reported experimentally and could be modelled theoretically. With CPMD simulations it is possible to understand multi-step mechanisms in full detail.

  10. 14 CFR 23.443 - Gust loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Vertical Surfaces § 23.443... specified in § 23.333(c)(2)(i). (c) In the absence of a more rational analysis, the gust load must be...

  11. 14 CFR 23.425 - Gust loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Horizontal Stabilizing and...) In the absence of a more rational analysis, the incremental load due to the gust must be computed as...

  12. Load capacity of hollowed timber piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a reliable load-rating methodology for timber piles based on the level of documented damage. Louisiana currently has over 4,000 timber bridges in its inventory of over 13,800 bridges. A quarter of these 4,000 tim...

  13. Vocal Loading in Speaking a Foreign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Kati; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether speaking a foreign language affects the subjective notions of vocal fatigue, and whether acoustic measurements reveal a higher vocal loading. The speech samples of 20 native Finnish-speaking and 23 native English-speaking subjects were recorded in Finnish and in English. From the speech samples, fundamental frequency, equivalent sound level, total duration of voiced speech, speech rate, alpha ratio and L1-L0 level difference were analyzed. Vocal doses were calculated. According to subjective notions, the voice gets tired more quickly when speaking a foreign language. The mean fundamental frequency increased but the speech rate and total duration of voiced speech decreased significantly when speaking a foreign language. Thus, the vocal doses decreased. The subjective sensations of increased vocal fatigue may be due to increased mental stress rather than to higher vocal loading. However, a trend that speaking a foreign language may involve more loading was found in L1-L0 level difference and in the doses normalized to time dose. Longer speech samples should be studied. Voice quality-based indicators of vocal loading are worth testing in addition to the measures based on the amount of voicing in speech. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Maritime Load Dependent Lead Times - An Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahl, Julia; Voss, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, the maritime sector follows a very conservative approach towards sharing information and adopting information technology (IT) to stream-line logistic activities. Late arrivals of ships create problems especially with the trend to build large ships leading to peak loads of process...

  15. Critical Buckling Load on Large Spherical Shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedellsborg, B. W.

    1962-01-01

    Approximate evaluation for watertanks, hortonspheres, vapor containers, containment vessels for nuclear reactors, and so forth, has been computed, taking into account out-of-roundness and local flattened areas; graphs have been plotted giving critical buckling load as function of maximum radial...

  16. Stormwater contaminant loading following southern California wildfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Eric D; Brown, Jeffrey S; Hogue, Terri S; Burke, Megan P; Kinoshita, Alicia

    2012-11-01

    Contaminant loading associated with stormwater runoff from recently burned areas is poorly understood, despite the fact that it has the potential to affect downstream water quality. The goal of the present study is to assess regional patterns of runoff and contaminant loading from wildfires in urban fringe areas of southern California. Postfire stormwater runoff was sampled from five wildfires that each burned between 115 and 658 km(2) of natural open space between 2003 and 2009. Between two and five storm events were sampled per site over the first one to two years following the fires for basic constituents, metals, nutrients, total suspended solids, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results were compared to data from 16 unburned natural areas and six developed sites. Mean copper, lead, and zinc flux (kg/km(2)) were between 112- and 736-fold higher from burned catchments and total phosphorus was up to 921-fold higher compared to unburned natural areas. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon flux was four times greater from burned areas than from adjacent urban areas. Ash fallout on nearby unburned watersheds also resulted in a threefold increase in metals and PAHs. Attenuation of elevated concentration and flux values appears to be driven mainly by rainfall magnitude. Contaminant loading from burned landscapes has the potential to be a substantial contribution to the total annual load to downstream areas in the first several years following fires. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  17. Effects of Cognitive Load on Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattys, Sven L.; Wiget, Lukas

    2011-01-01

    The effect of cognitive load (CL) on speech recognition has received little attention despite the prevalence of CL in everyday life, e.g., dual-tasking. To assess the effect of CL on the interaction between lexically-mediated and acoustically-mediated processes, we measured the magnitude of the "Ganong effect" (i.e., lexical bias on phoneme…

  18. Liquid loading experiments with tube wall modifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid, S.P.C.; Schiferli, W.; Veltin, J.; Veeken, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the multiphase flow mechanism responsible for gas-well liquid loading. It demonstrates that the conventional idea of droplet flow reversal (Turner et al. (1)) does not capture reality and that actual observations are better described by film flow reversal phenomenon. The

  19. A heavy load for heavy ions

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 25 September, the two large coils for the dipole magnet of ALICE, the LHC experiment dedicated to heavy ions, arrived at Point 2 on two heavy load trucks after a 1200 km journey from their assembly in Vannes, France.

  20. Global Cryptosporidium Loads from Livestock Manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen-Henstra, Lucie; Benders, Jorien; Medema, Gertjan; Hofstra, Nynke

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the environmental pathways of Cryptosporidium is essential for effective management of human and animal cryptosporidiosis. In this paper we aim to quantify livestock Cryptosporidium spp. loads to land on a global scale using spatially explicit process-based modeling, and to explore the

  1. Measuring Cognitive Load in Embodied Learning Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulmowski, Alexander; Rey, Günter Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, research on embodied cognition has inspired a number of studies on multimedia learning and instructional psychology. However, in contrast to traditional research on education and multimedia learning, studies on embodied learning (i.e., focusing on bodily action and perception in the context of education) in some cases pose new problems for the measurement of cognitive load. This review provides an overview over recent studies on embodied learning in which cognitive load was measured using surveys, behavioral data, or physiological measures. The different methods are assessed in terms of their success in finding differences of cognitive load in embodied learning scenarios. At the same time, we highlight the most important challenges for researchers aiming to include these measures into their study designs. The main issues we identified are: (1) Subjective measures must be appropriately phrased to be useful for embodied learning; (2) recent findings indicate potentials as well as problematic aspects of dual-task measures; (3) the use of physiological measures offers great potential, but may require mobile equipment in the context of embodied scenarios; (4) meta-cognitive measures can be useful extensions of cognitive load measurement for embodied learning. PMID:28824473

  2. Large Scale Demand Response of Thermostatic Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Totu, Luminita Cristiana

    the temperature limits and other operational constraints, and by using only limited communication, it is possible to make use of the individual thermostat deadband flexibility to step-up or step-down the power consumption of the population as if it were a power plant. The individual thermostatic loads experience...

  3. Immediate implant loading: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Dhamankar, Dilip; Gupta, Arun R.; Mahadevan, Janani

    2010-01-01

    Dental implants have long provided an excellent treatment option to restore edentulous spaces. Successful formation of a direct bone to implant interface is the goal in implant therapy. Immediate loading is an alternative to two stage surgical procedure. Improved surgical instrumentation implants design, and surface topography changes the concept of two stages surgical to one stage surgical procedure.

  4. Automatic Multimodal Cognitive Load Measurement (AMCLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    activity is growing, measurement systems have yet to be prototyped. Future work will focus on prototypes that benefit the interaction between users and...Schmutz, P., Heinz, S., et al.,. 2009. Cognitive load in ecommerce applications: measurement and effects on user satisfaction. Adv. in Hum.-Comp

  5. Plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Corroded steel plate; plastic collapse; FEM; rough surface. ... The main aim of present work is to study plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates with irregular surfaces under tension. Non-linear finite element method ... Department of Ocean Engineering, AmirKabir University of Technology, 15914 Tehran, Iran ...

  6. Curable off-loading footwear and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    Custom footbed devices, methods of constructing the devices and kits for constructing custom footbeds are disclosed that may be particularly advantageous in the treatment of plantar ulcers. The devices offer the advantage of off-loading pressure from the plantar ulcers in a device that is easy to...

  7. Interior moisture design loads for residences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Iain S. Walker

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a methodology to obtain design values for indoor boundary conditions for moisture design calculations for residences. This is part of a larger effort by ASHRAE Standard Project Committee 160P, Design Criteria for Moisture Control in Buildings, to formulate criteria for moisture design loads, analysis techniques, and material and building performance...

  8. Measuring Cognitive Load in Embodied Learning Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Skulmowski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research on embodied cognition has inspired a number of studies on multimedia learning and instructional psychology. However, in contrast to traditional research on education and multimedia learning, studies on embodied learning (i.e., focusing on bodily action and perception in the context of education in some cases pose new problems for the measurement of cognitive load. This review provides an overview over recent studies on embodied learning in which cognitive load was measured using surveys, behavioral data, or physiological measures. The different methods are assessed in terms of their success in finding differences of cognitive load in embodied learning scenarios. At the same time, we highlight the most important challenges for researchers aiming to include these measures into their study designs. The main issues we identified are: (1 Subjective measures must be appropriately phrased to be useful for embodied learning; (2 recent findings indicate potentials as well as problematic aspects of dual-task measures; (3 the use of physiological measures offers great potential, but may require mobile equipment in the context of embodied scenarios; (4 meta-cognitive measures can be useful extensions of cognitive load measurement for embodied learning.

  9. CDMA coverage under mobile heterogeneous network load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saban, D.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Endrayanto, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    We analytically investigate coverage (determined by the uplink) under non-homogeneous and moving traffic load of third generation UMTS mobile networks. In particular, for different call assignment policies, we investigate cell breathing and the movement of the coverage gap occurring between cells

  10. ANTHROPOGENIC LOAD ON RIVERS OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurochkina Valentina Aleksandrovna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing speed of urbanization and population growth lead to the increasing anthropogenic load on water bodies. The urbanization processes in Russia are more intensive than in other countries. The dense population and great industrial potential lead to the fact that the urbanized territories become the main sources of water pollution. That’s why the environmental control of the state of water objects is needed. In the article the authors study the problem of anthropogenic load impact on river hydraulics processes and on the properties of river sediments that determine river channels evolution and general ecological state of water bodies. The interrelation between ecological state of water bodies, the quality of water in it and the level of contamination with sediments was determined. It is established that the conditions of long-term aquatic life as a whole and of water quality in particular depend on the contamination level with sediments. The author proposes a method of estimation of anthropogenic load on rivers. The paper analyses the calculation results of the value of anthropogenic load on different rivers of Russia.

  11. Direct Load Control by AC Frequency Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James; You, Shi

    2012-01-01

    from this technology because their low inertia. The paper proposes a operating procedure for utilizing DFCR loads for energy balancing, expanding DFCR’s well known role as a power balancing resource. The system operator can use DFCR for energy balancing by adjusting the frequency controller...

  12. Load Response Analysis of Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the filed data of Fuzhou test road, load response regulation of nonlinear pavement structure was analyzed in this paper; Mechanics software was adopted to analyze linear elastic and nonlinear of the pavement structure, analyzed results and road filed data were compared, and determine the correlation between them and the field data.

  13. Loads of Sewer Manholes within Mining Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zięba

    2014-01-01

    Originality/Value: The presented method is an original concept. It enables the determination of additional external horizontal loads acting on sewer manholes within mining areas, in particular the flexible manholes made of thermoplastics. It also enables the determination of dependencies of changes in the cross-sections of risers of flexible sewer manholes (with different circumferential stiffness on the horizontal soil strains.

  14. Fatigue Reliability under Multiple-Amplitude Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talreja, R.

    1979-01-01

    A method to determine the fatigue of structures subjected to multiple-amplitude loads is presented. Unlike the more common cumulative damage methods, which are usually based on fatigue life data, the proposed method is based on tensile strength data. Assuming the Weibull distribution for the init...

  15. Monopod Bucket Foundations Under Cyclic Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The monopod bucket foundation has the potential to become a cost-reducing substructure for offshore wind turbines. To avoid problems during the energy converter operation, the long-term effect of cyclic loading must be considered in the design of the foundation. In this paper, a 1-g testing rig...

  16. Monopod bucket foundations under cyclic lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The monopod bucket foundation can be a cost-reducing sub-structure for offshore wind turbines. To avoid problems during the turbine operation, the long-term effect of cyclic loading must be considered in the design of the foundation. In this paper a 1g testing rig is adopted to extend the knowledge...

  17. Material properties under intensive dynamic loading

    CERN Document Server

    Cherne, Frank J; Zhernokletov, Mikhail V; Glushak, B L; Zocher, Marvin A

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the physical and thermomechanical response of materials subjected to intensive dynamic loading is a challenge of great significance in engineering today. This volume assumes the task of gathering both experimental and diagnostic methods in one place, since not much information has been previously disseminated in the scientific literature.

  18. Characterization Of Glipizide-Loaded Polymethacrylate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glipizide in the drug-loaded microspheres. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the microspheres were spherical in nature. From the in vitro drug dissolution studies it was found that the sustaining effect of microspheres depended on the polymer concentration, amount of dispersant used and the type of polymer used ...

  19. Lake Erie phosphorus loading and Cladophora updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation will focus on updates or progress being made on each Phosphorus Loadings and Cladophora for Lake Erie. The format will give a brief summary of data, findings, and results that were used by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) Annex 4 Nutrients Modeli...

  20. Robust control investigations for equipment loaded panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aglietti, G.S.; Langley, R.S.; Rogers, E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a modelling technique for equipment load panels which directly produces (adequate) models of the underlying dynamics on which to base robust controller design/evaluations. This technique is based on the use of the Lagrange's equations of motion and the resulting models...

  1. RPL LOAD BALANCING IN INTERNET OF THINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Parsaei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:  The wide address space provided by Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6 lets any thing to be identified uniquely. consistency of the modified version of IPv6 protocol stack with smart objects, facilitated the Internet interconnection of the networks of smart objects and introduced Internet of things. A smart object is a small micro-electronic device that consists of a communication device, a small microprocessor and a sensor or an actuator. A network made of such devices is called low-power and lossy network. RPL routing protocol that is consistent to IPv6, is designed to be used in these kinds of networks. Load balancing is not considered in the RPL design process. Whenever RPL is used in large scale low-power and lossy networks some nodes will suffer from congestion and this problem severely degrades network performance. In this paper, we consider solutions provided to tackle RPL load balancing problems. Load balancing algorithms and protoclos are evaluated through simulation. We evaluate IETF RPL implementation and LB-RPL method with Contiki OS Java (COOJA simulator. They are assessed comprehensively through metrics such as Packet delivery Ratio, Average End to End delay, and Gateway Throughput. LB-RPL improves RPL in terms of Packet delivery Ratio and throughput but increases Average End to End delay. Simulations results show that RPL load balancing needs extensive works to be performed yet.

  2. Cervical human spine loads during traumatomechanical investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallieris, D.; Rizzetti, A.; Mattern. R.; Thunnissen, J.G.M.; Philippens, M.M.G.M.

    1996-01-01

    The last decade's improvements in automotive safety resulted into a significant decrease of fatal injuries. However, due to the use of belts and airbags it can be observed that cervical spine injuries, non-severe and severe, have become more important. It seems that inertial loading of the neck by

  3. Bayesian techniques for surface fuel loading estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathy Gray; Robert Keane; Ryan Karpisz; Alyssa Pedersen; Rick Brown; Taylor Russell

    2016-01-01

    A study by Keane and Gray (2013) compared three sampling techniques for estimating surface fine woody fuels. Known amounts of fine woody fuel were distributed on a parking lot, and researchers estimated the loadings using different sampling techniques. An important result was that precise estimates of biomass required intensive sampling for both the planar intercept...

  4. Interactive Distance Education: A Cognitive Load Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyuga, Slava

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based approaches to the design of the next generation of interactive distance education need to take into account established multimedia learning principles. Cognitive load theory is a theory that has significantly contributed to the development of such principles. It has applied our knowledge of major features and processing limitations…

  5. Technical note: Spine loading in automotive seating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenk, R.; Franz, M.; Bubb, H.; Vink, P.

    2012-01-01

    For car manufacturers, seat comfort is becoming more important in distinguishing themselves from their competitors. Therefore, many studies on participative seat comfort are carried out. In this paper, an objective assessment approach is reported which evaluates the concept of "optimal load

  6. Preparation of embolic NEMs loading capecitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuangang; He, Peng; Wang, Shibin; Sun, Xuezhan; Chen, Aizheng

    2013-01-01

    The nanoparticles-embedded microcapsules (NEMs) with smooth surface, good sphericity, excellent dispersivity and uniform particle size distribution were prepared by emulsification combined with electrospraying to extend the sustained release performance of the embolic microcapsules loading capecitabine (CAP). The sodium alginate and chitosan with good biocompatibility were used as the materials and CAP as a small-molecule model drug. The drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and drug release of CAP in the NEMs were investigated. The results showed that the drug-loading and encapsulation efficiency both increased with the increment of chitosan and CAP concentration. The maximum values of drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were 1.97 and 18.01 % respectively when initial CAP concentration was 5.0 g/L and chitosan molecular weight 100 kDa. The cumulative release rate of CAP released from the NEMs was lower than 30 % in 0.5 h, which indicated that there was no obvious initial burst release behavior. In the subsequent 240 h, the release results confirmed that the NEMs had better sustained release properties compared to pure microcapsules, and it might be a new anticancer drug delivery system in the future studies.

  7. Residual load carrying capacity of timber joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de

    1999-01-01

    Timber joints that have been preloaded for 2 to 8 years have been short term tested in accordance with EN 26891. The applied load levels varied between 30% and 50% of the average short term strength. The study comprised nailed, toothed-plate and split-ring joints. All joints were made of spruce and

  8. Dust Load on Surfaces in Animal Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, P.; Strøm, J. S.; Takai, H.

    To investigate the physical process of particle deposition on and resuspension from surfaces in animal buildings, a test facility and a sampling method is established. The influences of surface orientation and air turbulence and velocity just as other parameters on the dust load on a surface...

  9. A closer look at salt loaded microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, M.R. de

    2006-01-01

    Many walls of ancient buildings are covered with plaster layers. Amongst the most recurrent causes of damage of plasters and substrates are moisture and salt decay processes. To combat these salt problems, special salt resistant plasters have been developed for application on salt loaded substrates.

  10. The critical shear load of rectangular plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydel, Edgar

    1933-01-01

    This report gives formulas for analyzing the critical shear load of a simply supported square, isotropic (simple flat plate), or orthogonal anisotropic plate (a plate in which the rigidity in two directions perpendicular to each other is different, i.e. plywood or corrugated sheet), these formulas, although arrived at by approximation method, seem to agree fairly well with experimental results.

  11. A complete algorithm for fixture loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K. [Duksung Women`s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Computer Science; Goldberg, K.Y. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Industrial Engineering and Operations Research

    1998-11-01

    A fixture is a device for locating and holding parts. Since the initial position and orientation of a part may be uncertain, the act of loading the part into the fixture must compensate for this uncertainty. Machinists often refer to the 3-2-1 rule: place the part onto 3-point contact with a horizontal support plane, slide the part along this plane into 2-point contact with the fixture, then translate along this edge until a 1-point contact uniquely locates the part. This rule of thumb implicitly assumes both sensing and compliance: applied forces change as contacts are detected. In this paper, the authors geometrically formalize robotic fixture loading as a sensor-based compliant assembly problem and give a complete planning algorithm. They consider the class of modular fixtures that use three locators and one clamp (Brost and Goldberg 1996), and discuss a class of robot commands that cause the part to slide and rotate in the support plane. Sensing is achieved with binary contact sensors on each locator; compliance is achieved with a passive spring-loaded mechanism at the robot and effector. The authors extend the theory of sensor-based compliant motion planning to generalized polygonal C-spaces, and give a complete planning algorithm: it is guaranteed to find a loading plan when one exists and to return a negative report otherwise. The authors report on experiments using the resulting plans. Finally, they use this formalization to prove a sufficient condition for the 3-2-1 rule.

  12. Structural Loads Analysis for Wave Energy Converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Rij, Jennifer A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-03

    This study explores and verifies the generalized body-modes method for evaluating the structural loads on a wave energy converter (WEC). Historically, WEC design methodologies have focused primarily on accurately evaluating hydrodynamic loads, while methodologies for evaluating structural loads have yet to be fully considered and incorporated into the WEC design process. As wave energy technologies continue to advance, however, it has become increasingly evident that an accurate evaluation of the structural loads will enable an optimized structural design, as well as the potential utilization of composites and flexible materials, and hence reduce WEC costs. Although there are many computational fluid dynamics, structural analyses and fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) codes available, the application of these codes is typically too computationally intensive to be practical in the early stages of the WEC design process. The generalized body-modes method, however, is a reduced order, linearized, frequency-domain FSI approach, performed in conjunction with the linear hydrodynamic analysis, with computation times that could realistically be incorporated into the WEC design process.

  13. Electricity load modelling using computational intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Borg, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    As a consequence of the liberalisation of the electricity markets in Europe, market players have to continuously adapt their future supply to match their customers' demands. This poses the challenge of obtaining a predictive model that accurately describes electricity loads, current in this thesis.

  14. Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-05-19

    Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment must be right-sized to ensure energy performance and comfort. With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment that creates system efficiency, comfort, and cost penalties. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment that is oversized or inefficient and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of the needs of the multifamily building and attached single-family (duplex and townhouse) home market. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services for hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data that describe multifamily and attached single-family home characteristics. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) compiled and analyzed these data to outline the characteristics of low-load dwellings such as the heating and cooling design loads.

  15. Wind loads on solar energy roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Bentum, C.A. van

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the wind loads on roofs, equipped with solar energy products, so called Active Roofs. Values given in this paper have been based on wind tunnel and full scale measurements, carried out at TNO, and on an interpretation of existing rules and guidelines. The results

  16. Lower limb loading in step aerobic dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H-W; Hsieh, H-M; Chang, Y-W; Wang, L-H

    2012-11-01

    Participation in aerobic dance is associated with a number of lower extremity injuries, and abnormal joint loading seems to be a factor in these. However, information on joint loading is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetics of the lower extremity in step aerobic dance and to compare the differences of high-impact and low-impact step aerobic dance in 4 aerobic movements (mambo, kick, L step and leg curl). 18 subjects were recruited for this study. High-impact aerobic dance requires a significantly greater range of motion, joint force and joint moment than low-impact step aerobic dance. The peak joint forces and moments in high-impact step aerobic dance were found to be 1.4 times higher than in low-impact step aerobic dance. Understanding the nature of joint loading may help choreographers develop dance combinations that are less injury-prone. Furthermore, increased knowledge about joint loading may be helpful in lowering the risk of injuries in aerobic dance instructors and students. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Wave Load Prediction - a Design Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tommy

    of available theoretical methods for determining wave loads on a ship, three have been selected. The criteria areRobustness of the method in as wide a range of applications as possible.Reasonable computational time on a state-of-the art PC.Accuracy within engineering practive.Linear as well as non-linear...... predictions should be available....

  18. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is

  19. Mechanisms to absorb load in amputee running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strike, Siobhan C; Wickett, Oliver; Schoeman, Marlene; Diss, Ceri E

    2012-09-01

    We aimed to determine if a shock absorbing pylon (SAP) influenced the ground reaction force characteristics and the shock absorbing mechanisms compared to a rigid pylon (Rigid) during the loading phase in running. To determine if the SAP influences the mechanisms of loading compared to the Rigid condition. A convenience sample of transtibial amputees participated in a laboratory-based study. The prosthetic set-up was randomly altered fd\\sdsd. Five recreationally active male transtibial amputees age: 18-50 years; mean mass: 86.7 ± 17.5 kg; height: 1.77 ± 0.07 m) volunteered from a population-based sample. They completed a within-participant-designed study assessing a SAP and a Rigid condition during running. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected during two sessions following a one-week customization period. Loading rate, peak vertical and horizontal ground reaction forces and the time to each measure along with knee and hip angular displacement, absorbing powers and work done between the SAP and Rigid conditions were not systematically affected by the prosthetic condition. The effect of the SAP was minimal and inconsistent in the loading phase, with only some amputees presenting higher and others with lower values for the tested variables.

  20. Shaft Center Orbit in Dynamically Loaded Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate how to utilize the bearings damping coe±cients to estimate the orbit for a dynamically loaded journal bearing. The classical method for this analysis was developed by Booker in 1965 [1]and described further in 1972 [2]. Several authors have re¯ned this metho...