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Sample records for raising gestational choline

  1. Long-term improvements in sensory inhibition with gestational choline supplementation linked to α7 nicotinic receptors through studies in Chrna7 null mutation mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Karen E; Choo, Kevin S; Stitzel, Jerry A; Marks, Michael J; Adams, Catherine E

    2014-03-13

    Perinatal choline supplementation has produced several benefits in rodent models, from improved learning and memory to protection from the behavioral effects of fetal alcohol exposure. We have shown that supplemented choline through gestation and lactation produces long-term improvement in deficient sensory inhibition in DBA/2 mice which models a similar deficit in schizophrenia patients. The present study extends that research by feeding normal or supplemented choline diets to DBA/2 mice carrying the null mutation for the α7 nicotinic receptor gene (Chrna7). DBA/2 mice heterozygotic for Chrna7 were bred together. Dams were placed on supplemented (5 gm/kg diet) or normal (1.1 gm/kg diet) choline at mating and remained on the specific diet until offspring weaning. Thereafter, offspring were fed standard rodent chow. Adult offspring were assessed for sensory inhibition. Brains were obtained to ascertain hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor levels. Choline-supplemented mice heterozygotic or null-mutant for Chrna7 failed to show improvement in sensory inhibition. Only wildtype choline-supplemented mice showed improvement with the effect solely through a decrease in test amplitude. This supports the hypothesis that gestational-choline supplementation is acting through the α7 nicotinic receptor to improve sensory inhibition. Although there was a significant gene-dose-related change in hippocampal α7 receptor numbers, binding studies did not reveal any choline-dose-related change in binding in any hippocampal region, the interaction being driven by a significant genotype main effect (wildtype>heterozygote>null mutant). These data parallel a human study wherein the offspring of pregnant women receiving choline supplementation during gestation, showed better sensory inhibition than offspring of women on placebo. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Neuroprotective Actions of Dietary Choline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient for humans. It is a precursor of membrane phospholipids (e.g., phosphatidylcholine (PC, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and via betaine, the methyl group donor S-adenosylmethionine. High choline intake during gestation and early postnatal development in rat and mouse models improves cognitive function in adulthood, prevents age-related memory decline, and protects the brain from the neuropathological changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and neurological damage associated with epilepsy, fetal alcohol syndrome, and inherited conditions such as Down and Rett syndromes. These effects of choline are correlated with modifications in histone and DNA methylation in brain, and with alterations in the expression of genes that encode proteins important for learning and memory processing, suggesting a possible epigenomic mechanism of action. Dietary choline intake in the adult may also influence cognitive function via an effect on PC containing eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids; polyunsaturated species of PC whose levels are reduced in brains from AD patients, and is associated with higher memory performance, and resistance to cognitive decline.

  3. Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choline magnesium trisalicylate is used to relieve the pain, tenderness, inflammation (swelling), and stiffness caused by arthritis and painful ... used to relieve pain and lower fever. Choline magnesium trisalicylate is in a class of nonsteroidal anti- ...

  4. Dietary Reference Values for choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  5. Gestational diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000896.htm Gestational diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar (glucose) that starts or ...

  6. A brief history of choline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisel, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    In 1850, Theodore Gobley, working in Paris, described a substance “lecithine”, which he named after the Greek “lekithos” for egg yolk. Adolph Strecker noted in 1862 that when lecithin from bile was heated, it generated a new nitrogenous chemical that he named “choline”. Three years later, Oscar Liebreich identified a new substance, “neurine”, in the brain. After a period of confusion, neurine and choline were found to be the same molecule, and the name choline was adapted. Lecithin was eventually characterized chemically as being phosphatidylcholine. In 1954, Eugene Kennedy described the cytidine 5-dihphosphocholine pathway by which choline is incorporated into phosphatidylcholine. A second route, the phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase pathway, was identified by Jon Bremer and David Greenberg in 1960. The role of choline as part of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine was established by Otto Loewi and Henry Dale. Working in the 1930s at the University of Toronto, Charles Best showed that choline prevented fatty liver in dogs and rats. The importance of choline as an essential nutrient for human health was determined in the 1990s through controlled feeding studies in humans. Recently, an understanding of the role of genetic variation in setting the dietary requirement for choline in people is being unraveled. PMID:23183298

  7. Prenatal choline supplementation mitigates behavioral alterations associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer D; Idrus, Nirelia M; Monk, Bradley R; Dominguez, Hector D

    2010-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can alter physical and behavioral development, leading to a range of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Despite warning labels, pregnant women continue to drink alcohol, creating a need to identify effective interventions to reduce the severity of alcohol's teratogenic effects. Choline is an essential nutrient that influences brain and behavioral development. Recent studies indicate that choline supplementation can reduce the teratogenic effects of developmental alcohol exposure. The present study examined whether choline supplementation during prenatal ethanol treatment could mitigate the adverse effects of ethanol on behavioral development. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intubated with 6 g/kg/day ethanol in a binge-like manner from gestational days 5-20; pair-fed and ad libitum chow controls were included. During treatment, subjects from each group were intubated with either 250 mg/kg/day choline chloride or vehicle. Spontaneous alternation, parallel bar motor coordination, Morris water maze, and spatial working memory were assessed in male and female offspring. Subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol exhibited delayed development of spontaneous alternation behavior and deficits on the working memory version of the Morris water maze during adulthood, effects that were mitigated with prenatal choline supplementation. Neither alcohol nor choline influenced performance on the motor coordination task. These data indicate that choline supplementation during prenatal alcohol exposure may reduce the severity of fetal alcohol effects, particularly on alterations in tasks that require behavioral flexibility. These findings have important implications for children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Evaluation of the choline status in mink fed different levels and sources of choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Clausen, T.N.

    2012-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient but the daily need for choline in mink has never been determined. Two experiments were performed to evalutate the choline status in mink kits and full-grown mink fed different levels of choline. In the first experiment mink kits were fed a synthetic diet with chol...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. Ethical issues in gestational surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ber, R

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of contraceptive technologies has resulted in the separation of sex and procreation. The introduction of new reproductive technologies (mainly IVF and embryo transfer) has led not only to the separation of procreation and sex, but also to the redefinition of the terms mother and family. For the purpose of this essay, I will distinguish between: 1. the genetic mother--the donor of the egg; 2. the gestational mother--she who bears and gives birth to the baby; 3. the social mother--the woman who raises the child. This essay will deal only with the form of gestational surrogacy in which the genetic parents intend to be the social parents, and the surrogate mother has no genetic relationship to the child she bears and delivers. I will raise questions regarding medical ethical aspects of surrogacy and the obligation(s) of the physician(s) to the parties involved. I will argue that the gestational surrogate is "a womb to rent," that there is great similarity between gestational commercial surrogacy and organ transplant marketing. Furthermore, despite claims to freedom of choice and free marketing, I will claim that gestational surrogacy is a form of prostitution and slavery, exploitation of the poor and needy by those who are better off. The right to be a parent, although not constitutional, is intuitive and deeply rooted. However, the issue remains whether this right overrules all other rights, and at what price to the parties involved. I will finally raise the following provocative question to society: In the interim period between today's limited technology and tomorrow's extra-corporeal gestation technology (ectogenesis), should utilizing females in PVS (persistent vehetative state) for gestational surrogacy be socially acceptable/permissible--provided they have left permission in writing?

  11. Genetic Variation in Choline-Metabolizing Enzymes Alters Choline Metabolism in Young Women Consuming Choline Intakes Meeting Current Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel B. Ganz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in choline metabolizing genes are associated with disease risk and greater susceptibility to organ dysfunction under conditions of dietary choline restriction. However, the underlying metabolic signatures of these variants are not well characterized and it is unknown whether genotypic differences persist at recommended choline intakes. Thus, we sought to determine if common genetic risk factors alter choline dynamics in pregnant, lactating, and non-pregnant women consuming choline intakes meeting and exceeding current recommendations. Women (n = 75 consumed 480 or 930 mg choline/day (22% as a metabolic tracer, choline-d9 for 10–12 weeks in a controlled feeding study. Genotyping was performed for eight variant SNPs and genetic differences in metabolic flux and partitioning of plasma choline metabolites were evaluated using stable isotope methodology. CHKA rs10791957, CHDH rs9001, CHDH rs12676, PEMT rs4646343, PEMT rs7946, FMO3 rs2266782, SLC44A1 rs7873937, and SLC44A1 rs3199966 altered the use of choline as a methyl donor; CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890 altered the partitioning of dietary choline between betaine and phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the cytidine diphosphate (CDP-choline pathway; and CHKA rs10791957, CHDH rs12676, PEMT rs4646343, PEMT rs7946 and SLC44A1 rs7873937 altered the distribution of dietary choline between the CDP-choline and phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT denovo pathway. Such metabolic differences may contribute to disease pathogenesis and prognosis over the long-term.

  12. Gestational surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinsden, Peter R

    2003-01-01

    Gestational surrogacy is a treatment option available to women with certain clearly defined medical problems, usually an absent uterus, to help them have their own genetic children. IVF allows the creation of embryos from the gametes of the commissioning couple and subsequent transfer of these embryos to the uterus of a surrogate host. The indications for treatment include absent uterus, recurrent miscarriage, repeated failure of IVF and certain medical conditions. Treatment by gestational surrogacy is straightforward and follows routine IVF procedures for the commissioning mother, with the transfer of fresh or frozen-thawed embryos to the surrogate host. The results of treatment are good, as would be expected from the transfer of embryos derived from young women and transferred to fit, fertile women who are also young. Clinical pregnancy rates achieved in large series are up to 40% per transfer and series have reported 60% of hosts achieving live births. The majority of ethical or legal problems that have arisen out of surrogacy have been from natural or partial surrogacy arrangements. The experience of gestational surrogacy has been largely complication-free and early results of the follow-up of children, commissioning couples and surrogates are reassuring. In conclusion, gestational surrogacy arrangements are carried out in a few European countries and in the USA. The results of treatment are satisfactory and the incidence of major ethical or legal complications has been limited. IVF surrogacy is therefore a successful treatment for a small group of women who would otherwise not be able to have their own genetic children.

  13. Choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and MEK expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhai; Zhang, Yufang; Liang, Chen; Wang, Nasui; Zheng, Heping; Wang, Jundong

    2016-11-01

    Fluoride is known to cause male reproductive toxicity, and the elucidation of its underlying mechanisms is an ongoing research focus in reproductive toxicology and epidemiology. Choline, an essential nutrient, has been extensively studied for its benefits in nervous system yet was rarely discussed for its prospective effect in male reproductive system. This study aims to explore the potential protective role of choline against NaF-induced male reproductive toxicity via MAPK pathway. The male mice were administrated by 150mg/L NaF in drinking water, 5.75g/kg choline in diet, and their combination respectively from maternal gestation to postnatal 15weeks. The results showed that fluoride exposure reduced body weight growth, lowered sperm count and survival percentages, altered testicular histology, down-regulated the mRNA expressions of NGF, Ras, Raf, and MEK genes in testes, as well as significantly decreased the expressions of both NGF and phosphor-MEK proteins in testes. Examination of data from choline-treated mice revealed that choline supplementation ameliorated these fluoride-induced changes. Taken together, our findings suggest that choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and phosphor-MEK expression. The suitable dosage and supplementation periods of choline await further exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship Between Organophosphate Toxicity and Choline Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-06

    Results from studies on the actions of the organophosphates on the central nervus system have suggested that these compounds, through an action on...Grganophosphates alter the disposition and metabolism of choline and choline-containing compounds in the nervous system , the relationshi ý of these changes to...mechanisms regulating the metabolism of choline, as well as the specific interactions of the organophospha:es with biochemical systems , may differ

  15. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  16. Choline Theft-An Inside Job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Ortiz, Marina; Claus, Sandrine Paule

    2017-09-13

    Choline is a crucial methyl donor necessary for epigenetic regulation. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Romano et al. (2017) demonstrate that choline-utilizing gut bacteria compete with their host for this essential resource, calling for a systematic consideration of gut microbial composition for personalized diet recommendations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Factors influencing erythrocyte choline concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B L; Jenden, D J; Tang, C; Read, S

    1989-01-01

    Choline concentrations in human erythrocytes increase after freezing and thawing, during incubation in Krebs-phosphate for 30 min or on storage at 0 degrees C for 3-24 hr. The increase is prevented by protein precipitation by 10% perchloric acid, 10% zinc hydroxide, 10% sodium tungstate or boiling in water. It is not prevented by EDTA (10 mM) and is increased by oleate (5 mM). We suggest that the increase is due to the action of phospholipase D on erythrocyte phospholipids.

  18. Effect of choline chloride supplementation on milk production and milk composition of Etawah grade goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of choline chloride supplementation through forced drinking combined with concentrate diets containing Ca-fish oil on milk production and milk composition of Etawah Grade goats was evaluated. Choline chloride is an essential component in ruminant diets as it is required for fat metabolism. Method The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three types of treatments and eight replications. The trial had two successive experimental periods; the first, during the eight weeks of late pregnancy, and the second, during the first 12 weeks of lactation. Twenty-four Etawah Grade does in the second gestation period were divided into three treatment groups. Commercial choline chloride 60 % in corncobs-based powder was used as a source of choline chloride. The treatments were no supplementation (control and supplemented with either 4 g or 8 g/2days of choline chloride. Choline chloride was given to the animals through a forced drinking technique, after dissolving it in 60 ml drinking water. The initial body weight of does was 38.81 ± 3.66 kg. The does were penned individually, and were given fresh chopped King Grass ad libitum and 700 g/day of concentrate diets containing Ca-fish oil, starting eight weeks prior to expecting kidding and continuing for 12 weeks of parturition. Results All nutrient intakes were not significantly different (p > 0.05 among the treatments during the late pregnancy and the lactation periods. Supplementation did not affect (p > 0.05 the average daily gains and feed conversion ratio during pregnancy but gave effects (p < 0.05 on the average daily gains, feed conversion ratio and income over feed cost during lactation. The highest average daily milk yields and 4 % fat corrected milk yields were found in goats supplemented with 4 g/2days of choline chloride and increased by 17.00 % and 24.67 %, respectively, compared to the control. Moreover, milk

  19. Choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and MEK expression in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jianhai; Zhang, Yufang; Liang, Chen; Wang, Nasui; Zheng, Heping; Wang, Jundong

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride is known to cause male reproductive toxicity, and the elucidation of its underlying mechanisms is an ongoing research focus in reproductive toxicology and epidemiology. Choline, an essential nutrient, has been extensively studied for its benefits in nervous system yet was rarely discussed for its prospective effect in male reproductive system. This study aims to explore the potential protective role of choline against NaF-induced male reproductive toxicity via MAPK pathway. The male mice were administrated by 150 mg/L NaF in drinking water, 5.75 g/kg choline in diet, and their combination respectively from maternal gestation to postnatal 15 weeks. The results showed that fluoride exposure reduced body weight growth, lowered sperm count and survival percentages, altered testicular histology, down-regulated the mRNA expressions of NGF, Ras, Raf, and MEK genes in testes, as well as significantly decreased the expressions of both NGF and phosphor-MEK proteins in testes. Examination of data from choline-treated mice revealed that choline supplementation ameliorated these fluoride-induced changes. Taken together, our findings suggest that choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and phosphor-MEK expression. The suitable dosage and supplementation periods of choline await further exploration. - Highlights: • Fluoride exposure altered the growth and development, sperm count and sperm survival percentages, testicular histology • Fluoride exposure decreased NGF, Ras, and Mek mRNA and NGF and p-MEK protein expressions in testis of mice. • Choline supplementation diminishes fluoride-induced testicular toxicity.

  20. Choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and MEK expression in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianhai [Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Animal Science and Environmental Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801 (China); Zhang, Yufang [Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Animal Science and Environmental Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801 (China); Veterinary Station in Chen Villages of Lin Country, Linxian, Shanxi 033200 (China); Liang, Chen [Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Animal Science and Environmental Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801 (China); Wang, Nasui [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Zheng, Heping [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Wang, Jundong, E-mail: wangjd53@outlook.com [Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Animal Science and Environmental Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Fluoride is known to cause male reproductive toxicity, and the elucidation of its underlying mechanisms is an ongoing research focus in reproductive toxicology and epidemiology. Choline, an essential nutrient, has been extensively studied for its benefits in nervous system yet was rarely discussed for its prospective effect in male reproductive system. This study aims to explore the potential protective role of choline against NaF-induced male reproductive toxicity via MAPK pathway. The male mice were administrated by 150 mg/L NaF in drinking water, 5.75 g/kg choline in diet, and their combination respectively from maternal gestation to postnatal 15 weeks. The results showed that fluoride exposure reduced body weight growth, lowered sperm count and survival percentages, altered testicular histology, down-regulated the mRNA expressions of NGF, Ras, Raf, and MEK genes in testes, as well as significantly decreased the expressions of both NGF and phosphor-MEK proteins in testes. Examination of data from choline-treated mice revealed that choline supplementation ameliorated these fluoride-induced changes. Taken together, our findings suggest that choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and phosphor-MEK expression. The suitable dosage and supplementation periods of choline await further exploration. - Highlights: • Fluoride exposure altered the growth and development, sperm count and sperm survival percentages, testicular histology • Fluoride exposure decreased NGF, Ras, and Mek mRNA and NGF and p-MEK protein expressions in testis of mice. • Choline supplementation diminishes fluoride-induced testicular toxicity.

  1. Dietary choline levels modify the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; Breit, Kristen R; Thomas, Jennifer D

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a range of physical and behavioral alterations; however, the outcome among children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy varies widely. Some of this variation may be due to nutritional factors. Indeed, higher rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are observed in countries where malnutrition is prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown that many pregnant women throughout the world may not be consuming adequate levels of choline, an essential nutrient critical for brain development, and a methyl donor. In this study, we examined the influence of dietary choline deficiency on the severity of fetal alcohol effects. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive diets containing 40, 70, or 100% recommended choline levels. A group from each diet condition was exposed to ethanol (6.0g/kg/day) from gestational day 5 to 20 via intubation. Pair-fed and ad lib lab chow control groups were also included. Physical and behavioral development was measured in the offspring. Prenatal alcohol exposure delayed motor development, and 40% choline altered performance on the cliff avoidance task, independent of one another. However, the combination of low choline and prenatal alcohol produced the most severe impairments in development. Subjects exposed to ethanol and fed the 40% choline diet exhibited delayed eye openings, significantly fewer successes in hindlimb coordination, and were significantly overactive compared to all other groups. These data suggest that suboptimal intake of a single nutrient can exacerbate some of ethanol's teratogenic effects, a finding with important implications for the prevention of FASD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. [Gestational surrogacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, Roger; Bergoignan-Esper, Claudine

    2009-03-01

    After defining surrogate pregnancy and distinguishing cases in which the surrogate mother simply bears the child from those in which she is also the egg donor, the authors summarize foreign legislation in this area, together with the task force subs auditions and the literature. They list arguments for and against removing the current coup ban on surrogate motherhood. Arguments for include:--infertility due to the lack of a uterus, either congenitally or following hysterectomy, or to functional destruction of the uterus, repeated failure of in vitro fertilization, and the existence of a disorder that would threatening the future mother's life if she became pregnant;--perception of this infertility and the resulting suffering as an injustice;--the lack of alternative solutions;--the difficulties of adoption, and the fact that the adopted child does not carry the genes of the adopting parents;--the current recourse to surrogate mothers abroad, which is costly and discriminatory and leaves the child in a difficult legal situation on its return to France;--the generally satisfactory observed outcomes. Arguments against include:--the ban on financial exploitation of the human body;--possible exploitation of the surrogate mother;--the risk of undermining the symbolic value of maternity;--psychological and physical risks for the surrogate mother;--psychological and physical risks for the child;--risks for the surrogate mother's couple and her other children;--risks for the infertile couple;--the risk of abuse; and--financial issues. Two particular cases are envisaged: that in which the surrogate mother is also the biological mother, and that in which the surrogate mother is a member of the family. The French National Academy of Medicine considers that surrogate pregnancy is not only a medical matter but one that raises questions for society as a whole and should be dealt with principally by the legislator. In contrast, the Academy considers that it is within its remit to

  3. Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnant Avoiding Pregnancy Zika and Pregnancy Articles Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... diabetes must also take insulin. Problems of Gestational Diabetes in Pregnancy Blood sugar that is not well ...

  4. The effect of cytidine-diphosphate choline (CDP-choline) on brain lipid changes during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Medio, G.E.; Trovarelli, G.; Piccinin, G.L.; Porcellati, G.

    1984-01-01

    Lipid synthesis has been tested in vivo in different brain areas of 12-month-old male rats. Cortex, striatum, brainstem, and subcortex of brain have been examined. The cerebellum was discarded. Mixtures of (2- 3 H)glycerol and (Me- 14 C)choline were injected into the lateral ventricle of the brain as lipid precursors, and their incorporation into total lipid, water-soluble intermediates and choline-containing phospholipids was examined 1 hr after isotope injection. In another series of experiments cytidine-5'-diphosphate choline (CDP-choline) was injected intraventricularly to the aged rats 10 min before sacrifice with a simultaneous injection, and radioactivity assays were performed as above. Distribution of radioactivity content of CDP-choline among brain areas 10 min after its administration showed a noticeable enrichment of the nucleotide and water-soluble-related compounds in the examined areas, but to a lesser degree in the cerebral cortex. The incorporation of labelled glycerol, which is severely depressed in aged rats in all four areas [Gaiti et al, 1982, 1983], was increased only in the cortex, and apparently decreased in the other areas. This last result is probably due to a dilution effect brought about by the administered cold CDP-choline upon the ( 14 C)-containing water-soluble metabolites. As a consequence, the ( 3 H)/( 14 C) ratio in total lipid and in isolated phosphatidylcholine and choline plasmalogen increased after CDP-choline treatment

  5. The efflux of choline from nerve cells: mediation by ionic gradients and functional exchange of choline from glia to neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, D.; Ferret, B.; Massarelli, R.; Mykita, S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between ions and the efflux of choline, and suggests the possibility of a balance effect for choline fluxes which is produced and maintained by ioinic gradients. It is also suggested that glial cells may actively exchange choline with neurons during nerve actively exchange choline with neurons during nerve activity, and that they may function as a choline reservoir for neuronal needs. The study shows that neurons and glial cells spontaneously discharge choline into the incubation medium. The exiting choline is essentially of free origin, as can be seen in an illustration provided. Neurons and glial cells had been prelabelled with ( 14 C) choline overnight, and labelled for 15 min with tritium-choline. The higher amount of tritium-choline exiting the cells indicates that it is the freshly labelled choline which is preferentially released. The remaining of ( 14 C) - choline exiting the cells corresponds to the free choline of phospholipid origin which amounts to about one third of the total free choline content

  6. Raising the bar (6)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, Maria; Amaral, Pedro; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Corrado, Luisa; Doran, Justin; Fingleton, Bernard; Fuerst, Franz; Garretsen, Harry; Igliori, Danilo; Le Gallo, Julie; McCann, Philip; Monastiriotis, Vassilis; Quatraro, Francesco; Yu, Jihai

    2017-01-01

    Raising the bar (6). Spatial Economic Analysis. This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 12(4) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper addresses the question of whether 'jobs follow people' or 'people follow

  7. Raised intracranial pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is article presents an approach to raised intracranial pressure (ICP) constructed in a question-answer fashion. ..... Given that raised ICP is a serious and potentially life-threatening emergency, fast and reliable referral and transfer mechanisms should be established to ensure patients with this condition are effectively treated.

  8. Raising Confident Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Raising Confident Kids KidsHealth / For Parents / Raising Confident Kids What's in ...

  9. Effect of bite-raised condition on the hippocampal cholinergic system of aged SAMP8 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Tasuku; Mori, Daisuke; Miyake, Hidekazu; Fujiwara, Shuu; Ono, Yumie; Takahashi, Toru; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2012-06-27

    Occlusal disharmony induces chronic stress, which results in learning deficits in association with the morphologic changes in the hippocampus, e.g., neuronal degeneration and increased hypertrophied glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells. To investigate the mechanisms underlying impaired hippocampal function resulting from occlusal disharmony, we examined the effects of the bite-raised condition on the septohippocampal cholinergic system by assessing acetylcholine release in the hippocampus and choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the medial septal nucleus in aged SAMP8 mice that underwent the bite raising procedure. Aged bite-raised mice showed decreased acetylcholine release in the hippocampus and a reduced number of choline acetyltransferase-immunopositive neurons in the medial septal nucleus compared to age-matched control mice. These findings suggest that the bite-raised condition in aged SAMP8 mice enhances the age-related decline in the septohippocampal cholinergic system, leading to impaired learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Medical Students Raising Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Maralyn R; Hickey, Andrea; Warrens, Anthony N; Westwood, Olwyn M R

    2016-09-16

    After a number of high-profile incidents and national reports, it has become clear that all health professionals and all medical students must be able to raise concerns about a colleague's behavior if this behavior puts patients, colleagues, or themselves at risk.Detailed evidence from medical students about their confidence to raise concerns is limited, together with examples of barriers, which impair their ability to do so. We describe a questionnaire survey of medical students in a single-center, examining self-reported confidence about raising concerns in a number of possible scenarios. Thematic analysis was applied to comments about barriers identified.Although 80% of respondents felt confident to report a patient safety issue, students were less confident around issues of probity, attitude, and conduct. This needs to be addressed to create clear mechanisms to raise concerns, as well as support for students during the process.

  11. Raising the Titanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Romona

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which groups of students investigate engineering principles by writing a feasibility study to raise the luxury liner, Titanic. The problem statement and directions, and suggestions for problem solutions are included. (CW)

  12. Choline or methionine reverses impaired secretion of VLDL by hepatocytes from choline-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Z.; Vance, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Male rats fed a choline-deficient (CD) diet for three days accumulated triacylglycerol (TG) in the liver. Hepatocytes from these rats were cultured and maintained in a medium + choline. The rate of secretion of TG was reduced by 50% in the CD cells. Correspondingly, [ 3 H]oleate and [ 3 H]glycerol were incorporated at a 2-fold higher rate into TG secreted by choline-supplemented cells compared to CD cells. Isolation of lipoprotein fractions by ultracentrifugation showed that the reduced secretion of TG by CD hepatocytes was mainly due to an impaired secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). Incorporation of [ 3 H]leucine into secreted apoB/sub H/, apoB/sub L/ and apoE was markedly reduced in CD cells compared to choline-supplemented cells. Secretion of high density lipoprotein was not reduced in the CD hepatocytes. Normal secretion of VLDL was resumed upon addition of methionine to the CD cells

  13. Choline-PET/CT for imaging prostate cancer; Cholin-PET/CT zur Bildgebung des Prostatakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Bernd Joachim [Klinik- und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Treiber, U.; Schwarzenboeck, S.; Souvatzoglou, M. [Klinik fuer Urologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    PET and PET/CT using [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivatives are increasingly being used for imaging of prostate cancer. The value of PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivates in biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer has been examined in many studies and demonstrates an increasing importance. Primary prostate cancer can be detected with moderate sensitivity using PET and PET/CT using [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivatives - the differentiation between benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis or high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is not always possible. At the present time [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT is not recommended in the primary setting but may be utilized in clinically suspected prostate cancer with repeatedly negative prostate biopsies, in preparation of a focused re-biopsy. Promising results have been obtained for the use of PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivates in patients with biochemical recurrence. The detection rate of choline PET and PET/CT for local, regional, and distant recurrence in patients with a biochemical recurrence shows a linear correlation with PSA values at the time of imaging and reaches about 75% in patients with PSA > 3 ng/mL. At PSA values below 1 ng/mL, the recurrence can be diagnosed with choline PET/CT in approximately 1/3 of the patients. PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]choline derivates can be helpful for choosing a therapeutic strategy in the sense of an individualized treatment: since an early diagnosis of recurrence is crucial to the choice of optimal treatment. The localization of the site of recurrence - local recurrence, lymph node metastasis or systemic dissemination - has important influence on the therapy regimen. (orig.)

  14. Choline and Choline Metabolite Patterns and Associations in Blood and Milk during Lactation in Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artegoitia, Virginia M.; Middleton, Jesse L.; Harte, Federico M.; Campagna, Shawn R.; de Veth, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L). In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L), which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively), with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R 2 = 0.78). Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk. PMID:25157578

  15. Choline and choline metabolite patterns and associations in blood and milk during lactation in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia M Artegoitia

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L. In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L, which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively, with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R2 = 0.78. Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk.

  16. A comparison of choline:urea and choline:oxalic acid deep eutectic solvents at 338 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Mark; Moura, Leila M.; Turner, Adam H.; Swadźba-Kwaśny, Małgorzata; Callear, Samantha K.; McCune, Jade A.; Scherman, Oren A.; Holbrey, John D.

    2018-05-01

    1:2 choline chloride:urea and 1:1 choline chloride:oxalic acid deep eutectic solvents are compared at 338 K using liquid-phase neutron diffraction with H/D isotopic substitution to obtain differential neutron scattering cross sections and fitting of models to the experimental data using Empirical Potential Structure Refinement. In comparison to the previously reported study of choline chloride:urea at 303 K, we observed significant weakening and lengthening of choline-OH⋯Cl- and choline-OH⋯hydrogen-bond acceptor correlations.

  17. Raising the bar (7)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, Maria; Amaral, Pedro; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Corrado, Luisa; Doran, Justin; Fingleton, Bernard; Fuerst, Franz; Garretsen, Harry; Igliori, Danilo; Gallo, Julie Le; McCann, Philip; Monastiriotis, Vassilis; Quatraro, Francesco; Yu, Jihai

    2018-01-01

    This editorial summarises the papers published in issue 13.1 so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper adopts a scale neutral approach to investigate the spatial mechanisms that cause regional innovation and growth. The second paper claims

  18. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second

  19. How to Treat Gestational Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Listen En Español How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Be sure to see the latest Diabetes Forecast ... and a healthy start for your baby. Gestational Diabetes – Looking Ahead Gestational diabetes usually goes away after ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: gestational diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Gestational diabetes is a disorder characterized by abnormally high blood ...

  1. Gestational Diabetes and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This women's health podcast focuses on gestational diabetes (GDM) to help educate women who may have been diagnosed with GDM now or in the past. GDM is a condition that can lead to pregnancy complications.

  2. New approaches to the synthesis of diclofenac choline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Dąbrowska-Maś

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The process described herein proceeds to obtaining diclofenac choline from choline bicarbonate and diclofenac acid in mild conditions, using non-toxic solvent, with the same impurity profile deriving from diclofenac particle as for diclofenac sodium EP. The substance is also substantially free from impurities deriving from choline and free from inorganic by-products, what means that the quality may be accepted for use as an active substance in medicine.

  3. Formulation and utilization of choline based samples for dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, Sean; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2013-01-01

    their performance to more traditional sample formulations. Choline yields stable samples with exceptional polarization performance while simultaneously offering the capability to easily remove the choline after dissolution, perform experiments with the hyperpolarized choline, or anything in between....

  4. Contents of lecithin and choline in crude drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, K; Kikuoka, M; Nishi, H; Kokusenya, Y; Miyamoto, T; Matsuo, M; Sato, T

    1994-01-01

    The determination of lecithin and choline in crude drugs was established by a combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detector (ECD) and enzyme reaction. Lecithin in crude drugs extracted with a mixture of chloroform-methanol (2:1) at room temperature was hydrolyzed by phospholipase D. The hydrolyzate was injected to HPLC, and choline was separated from impurities by reverse phase column. The choline was converted to betaine and hydrogen peroxide by passing through column packed with immobilized choline oxidase. This hydrogen peroxide was detected by ECD. The peak area of hydrogen peroxide derived from lecithin was proportional to the concentration of lecithin from 0.10 to 1.52 microgram/ml. Choline in crude drugs was extracted with ethanol under reflux and determined under the same HPLC conditions as lecithin. The peak area of hydrogen peroxide derived from choline was proportional to the concentration of choline from 0.01 to 0.45 microgram/ml. The contents of lecithin and choline in 31 kinds of crude drugs were determined by these established methods. The results showed that Cervi Parvum Cornu, Kokurozin, Foenigraeci Semen and Psoraleae Semen contained more lecithin than other crude drugs, while Angelicae Radix, Foenigraeci Semen, Psoraleae Semen, and especially Hippocampus were found to contain more choline than other crude drugs.

  5. Choline transport via choline transporter-like protein 1 in conditionally immortalized rat syncytiotrophoblast cell lines TR-TBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, N-Y; Choi, H-M; Kang, Y-S

    2009-04-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient for phospholipids and acetylcholine biosynthesis in normal development of fetus. In the present study, we investigated the functional characteristics of choline transport system and inhibitory effect of cationic drugs on choline transport in rat conditionally immortalized syncytiotrophoblast cell line (TR-TBT). Choline transport was weakly Na(+) dependent and significantly influenced by extracellular pH and by membrane depolarization. The transport process of choline is saturable with Michaelis-Menten constants (K(m)) of 68microM and 130microM in TR-TBT 18d-1 and TR-TBT 18d-2 respectively. Choline uptake in the cells was inhibited by unlabeled choline and hemicholinium-3 as well as various organic cations including guanidine, amiloride and acetylcholine. However, the prototypical organic cation tetraethylammonium and cimetidine showed very little inhibitory effect of choline uptake in TR-TBT cells. RT-PCR revealed that choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1) and organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) are expressed in TR-TBT cells. The transport properties of choline in TR-TBT cells were similar or identical to that of CTL1 but not OCT2. CTL1 was also detected in human placenta. In addition, several cationic drugs such as diphenhydramine and verapamil competitively inhibited choline uptake in TR-TBT 18d-1 with K(i) of 115microM and 55microM, respectively. Our results suggest that choline transport system, which has intermediate affinity and weakly Na(+) dependent, in TR-TBT seems to occur through a CTL1 and this system may have relevance with the uptake of pharmacologically important organic cation drugs.

  6. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntyre, H David; Jensen, Dorte M; Jensen, Richard C

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define the prevalence and pregnancy outcomes related to elevated fasting venous plasma glucose (FVPG) in a Danish pregnancy cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was an observational cohort study including 1,516 women without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by Danish criteria....... FVPG measured at 28 weeks' gestation was related to pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: With use of the World Health Organization 2013 threshold of FVPG ≥5.1 mmol/L, 40.1% of the cohort qualified as having GDM. There was no evidence of excess fetal growth, hypertension in pregnancy, or caesarean delivery...

  7. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline...

  8. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this issue Health Capsule Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk En español Send us your comments Video technology ... distracted driving, especially among new drivers, raises the risk for car crashes and near crashes. The study ...

  9. Macroeconomic Conditions and Capital Raising

    OpenAIRE

    Isil Erel; Brandon Julio; Woojin Kim; Michael S. Weisbach

    2011-01-01

    Do macroeconomic conditions affect firms' abilities to raise capital? If so, how do they affect the manner in which the capital is raised? We address these questions using a large sample of publicly-traded debt issues, seasoned equity offers, bank loans and private placements of equity and debt. Our results suggest that a borrower's credit quality significantly affects its ability to raise capital during macroeconomic downturns. For noninvestment-grade borrowers, capital raising tends to be p...

  10. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, ß-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...

  11. CDP-choline modulates matrix metalloproteinases in rat sciatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Elif Basaran; Bekar, Ahmet; Turkyilmaz, Mesut; Gumus, Abdullah; Kafa, Ilker Mustafa; Cansev, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    CDP-choline (cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine) improves functional recovery, promotes nerve regeneration, and decreases perineural scarring in rat peripheral nerve injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of action of CDP-choline with regard to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in the rat-transected sciatic nerve injury model. Male Wistar rats were randomized into Sham, Saline, and CDP-choline groups. Rats in Sham group received Sham surgery, whereas rats in Saline and CDP-choline groups underwent right sciatic nerve transection followed by immediate primary saturation and injected intraperitoneally with 0.9% NaCl (1 mL/kg) and CDP-choline (600 μg/kg), respectively. Sciatic nerve samples were obtained 1, 3, and 7 d after the surgery and analyzed for levels and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9, levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-3, and axonal regeneration. CDP-choline treatment decreased the levels and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9, whereas increasing levels of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 significantly on the third and seventh day after injury compared to Saline group. In addition, CDP-choline administration resulted in new axon formation and formation and advancement of myelination on newly formed islets (compartments) of axonal regrowth. Our data show, for the first time, that CDP-choline modulates MMP activity and promotes the expression of TIMPs to stimulate axonal regeneration. These data help to explain one mechanism by which CDP-choline provides neuroprotection in peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease -Choriocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozik, M.

    2011-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic tumors are a group of a diseases from the benign hydatidiform mole, through the invasive mole to the highly malignant form of a choriocarcinoma. Choriocarcinoma is a rare tumor and it is the most malignant and aggressive neoplasm of all the gestational trophoblastic diseases. It grows rapidly and metastasizes to the lung, liver, and, less frequently, to the brain. The author presents the case of a 26-year-old woman who is indicated to the CT examination for suspected brain tumor based on the previous examinations. The patient was diagnosed with metastatic choriocarcinoma to the brain, kidney and adrenal gland on the basis of an anamnesis by her husband, a high value of beta-hCG and a gynecological examination. (author)

  13. Gestational surrogacy in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rozée , Virginie; Unisa , Sayeed; De La Rochebrochard , Elise

    2016-01-01

    International audience; While gestational surrogacy is illegal in France, it is authorized in other countries, such as India. Drawing upon a study of Indian surrogates, Indian and foreign intended parents pursuing surro­gacy, as well as physicians, lawyers and Indian clinic and agency managers, Virginie Rozée, Sayeed Unisa and Elise de La Rochebrochard describe how surrogacy services are organized in India and examine the expectations and rationales of the protagonists.

  14. Gestational Diabetes and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-12

    This women's health podcast focuses on gestational diabetes (GDM) to help educate women who may have been diagnosed with GDM now or in the past. GDM is a condition that can lead to pregnancy complications.  Created: 5/12/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/12/2009.

  15. Gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Peaceman, Alan M

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal care providers are advised to evaluate maternal weight at each regularly scheduled prenatal visit, monitor progress toward meeting weight gain goals, and provide individualized counseling if significant deviations from a woman's goals occur. Today, nearly 50% of women exceed their weight gain goals with overweight and obese women having the highest prevalence of excessive weight gain. Risks of inadequate weight gain include low birthweight and failure to initiate breast-feeding whereas the risks of excessive weight gain include cesarean deliveries and postpartum weight retention for the mother and large-for-gestational-age infants, macrosomia, and childhood overweight or obesity for the offspring. Prenatal care providers have many resources and tools to incorporate weight and other health behavior counseling into routine prenatal practices. Because many women are motivated to improve health behaviors, pregnancy is often considered the optimal time to intervene for issues related to eating habits and physical activity to prevent excessive weight gain. Gestational weight gain is a potentially modifiable risk factor for a number of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials report that diet or exercise interventions during pregnancy can help reduce excessive weight gain. However, health behavior interventions for gestational weight gain have not significantly improved other maternal and neonatal outcomes and have limited effectiveness in overweight and obese women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity are differentially sensitive to the availability of choline in adulthood as a function of choline supply in utero

    OpenAIRE

    Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J.E.; Glenn, Melissa J.; Mellott, Tiffany J.; Blusztajn, Jan K.; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2008-01-01

    Altered dietary choline availability early in life leads to persistent changes in spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity in adulthood. Developmental programming by early choline nutrition may determine the range of adult choline intake that is optimal for the types of neural plasticity involved in cognitive function. To test this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a choline chloride deficient (DEF), sufficient (CON), or supplemented (SUP) diet during embryonic days 12-17 and then re...

  17. The nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics of the dietary requirement for choline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Karen D; Zeisel, Steven H

    2012-01-01

    Advances in nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics have been instrumental in demonstrating that nutrient requirements vary among individuals. This is exemplified by studies of the nutrient choline, in which gender, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, estrogen status, and gut microbiome composition have been shown to influence its optimal intake level. Choline is an essential nutrient with a wide range of biological functions, and current studies are aimed at refining our understanding of its requirements and, importantly, on defining the molecular mechanisms that mediate its effects in instances of suboptimal dietary intake. This chapter introduces the reader to challenges in developing individual nutrition recommendations, the biological function of choline, current and future research paradigms to fully understand the consequences of inadequate choline nutrition, and some forward thinking about the potential for individualized nutrition recommendations to become a tangible application for improved health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Holford, M.

    2014-01-01

    Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W) is a 501c non profit corporation whose mission is to aid in increasing and retaining the number of women - especially underrepresented females - engaged in scientific teaching and research. Initiated by a Protein Chemist and an Astronomer, our ultimate goal has been to develop informational tools and create innovative outreach programs for women across all STEM fields. At present RAISE-W is recruiting women at the undergraduate, graduate, and early career stages to participate in a unique, 1-year, executive coaching program modeled after those used in the business sector.

  19. Genetic influence on prolonged gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Maja; Bille, Camilla; Olesen, Annette Wind

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test a possible genetic component to prolonged gestation. STUDY DESIGN: The gestational duration of single, first pregnancies by both female and male twins was obtained by linking the Danish Twin Registry, The Danish Civil Registration System, and the D...... factors. CONCLUSION: Maternal genes influence prolonged gestation. However, a substantial paternal genetic influence through the fetus was not found....

  20. Gestational surrogacy: Psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Ruiz-Robledillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in assisted reproductive technologies together with increased infertility and new family structures are increasing the use of gestational surrogacy as a means to have children. Before, during and after the process, it is necessary to study the psychosocial characteristics of triad members: the gestational surrogate, intended parents, and offspring. Research has indicated positive adaptation to the process and benefits for all members of the triad. Altruism is the main motivation of surrogates. Notably, psychological well-being has been found to be higher in individuals who have become parents through surrogacy than in those who have used egg donation or have followed a natural process of conception. Moreover, no differences in psychosocial characteristics have been observed in the offspring, compared with children born through natural conception or egg donation. Results highlight the positive aspects of surrogacy. Future research should investigate psychosocial factors that modulate the process, acting as risk and protective factors for well-being of the triad members, and identify the optimal profiles of surrogates for the process to be a success.

  1. Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Behrends, Ehrhard; Rodrigues, José Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This collective book aims to encourage and inspire actions directed towards raising public awareness of the importance of mathematical sciences for our contemporary society in a cultural and historical perspective. Mathematical societies, in Europe and around the world, can find ideas, blueprints and suggestions for activities - including concerted actions with other international organizations - directed towards raising public awareness of science, technology and other fields where mathematics plays a strong role. The material is divided into four parts: * National experiences * Exhibitions /

  2. RBC-choline: changes by lithium and relation to prophylactic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, M.; Haag, H.; Eisenried, F.; Greil, W.

    1984-01-01

    Red blod cell (RBC)- and plasma-choline levels were measured in patients on lithium (n=96), antidepressants (n=32) and neuroleptics (n=51) and in 25 healthy drug-free controls. Lithium patients exhibited highly increased RBC- and slightly increased plasma-choline levels compared with controls (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively); the choline ratio (RBC-/plasma-choline) was elevated almost to the same extent as RBC-choline (P<0.001). With antidepressants RBC-choline and choline ratios were slightly reduced (P<0.05), whereas neuroleptics showed no effect on choline levels. 79% of lithium patients were responders (reduction in hospitalizations with lithium) 21% were non-responders (no reduction or increase in hospitalizations). Choline ratio exhibited a significant relation to prophylactic lithium response, but lithium ratio did not. The percentage of non-responders was significantly higher in patients with a choline ratio exceeding 100 than in patients with a choline ratio below this cut-off (P<0.01). Thus, the increase of RBC-choline and choline ratios appears to be an effect specific for lithium and might be related to the outcome of lithium prophylaxis. (author)

  3. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demas, B.E.; Hricak, H.; Braga, C.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four women with suspected gestational trophoblastic neoplasms were evaluated prospectively to identify imaging algorithms optimal for treatment planning. All underwent chest radiography, chest CT, hepatic and cranial CT or MR imaging, and pelvic MR imaging. Ten also underwent pelvic CT, 13 pelvic US. The most sensitive imaging combination was chest CT, hepatic and cranial CT or MR imaging, and pelvic MR imaging. However, correct assignment to ACOG therapeutic categories was achieved by means of history, physical examination, beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin measurements, and chest radiography in 81% of patients. Hepatic and cranial imaging defined the need for radiation therapy. Chest CT was needed only when chest radiographs were negative. Pelvic imaging aided diagnosis but did not assist in treatment planning

  4. Gestational diabetes: A clinical update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Ulla; Madsen, Lene Ring; Skajaa, Gitte Oeskov

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing in prevalence in tandem with the dramatic increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Much controversy surrounds the diagnosis and management of gestational diabetes, emphasizing the importance and relevance...

  5. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risk of complications for mother and child. Along with the growing epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes, the prevalence of gestational diabetes is expected to rise. With adequate and timely treatment, the risk of complications is reduced.

  6. Controversies in gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Christopher J

    2011-02-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and controversy are old friends. However, several major studies in the field have clarified some of the main issues. There is now no doubt that hyperglycaemia, at levels less than those that occur in overt diabetes, is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as large-for-gestational age infants, neonatal hyperinsulinism, neonatal hypoglycaemia and pre-eclampsia. We also have evidence now that a standard approach to GDM with diagnosis at 24-28 weeks, dietary advice, self-monitoring of blood glucose and insulin therapy as needed reduces these adverse perinatal outcomes. Unknown, however, is if this same approach is effective at reducing long-term risks of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in both the mothers and babies. For example, could our management strategies miss critical time points of fuel-mediated injury to the foetus important for the baby's long-term metabolic health? The implications of a recent international consensus statement on new diagnostic criteria for GDM are discussed, as well as issues relating to the timing of diagnosis. The potential place for a risk calculator for adverse outcomes in GDM pregnancy that takes into account glycaemic and non-glycaemic risk factors is considered. Such a tool could help stratify GDM women to different levels of care. Ongoing issues relating to maternal glycaemic and foetal growth targets, and the use of oral hypoglycaemic agents in GDM are discussed. To resolve some of the remaining controversies, further carefully designed randomised controlled trials in GDM with long-term follow-up of both mothers and babies are necessary. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phosphorylation of the Yeast Choline Kinase by Protein Kinase C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mal-Gi; Kurnov, Vladlen; Kersting, Michael C.; Sreenivas, Avula; Carman, George M.

    2005-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CKI1-encoded choline kinase catalyzes the committed step in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway. The enzyme is phosphorylated on multiple serine residues, and some of this phosphorylation is mediated by protein kinase A. In this work, we examined the hypothesis that choline kinase is also phosphorylated by protein kinase C. Using choline kinase as a substrate, protein kinase C activity was dose- and time-dependent, and dependent on the concentrations of choline kinase (Km = 27 μg/ml) and ATP (Km = 15 μM). This phosphorylation, which occurred on a serine residue, was accompanied by a 1.6-fold stimulation of choline kinase activity. The synthetic peptide SRSSS25QRRHS (Vmax/Km = 17.5 mM-1 μmol min-1 mg-1) that contains the protein kinase C motif for Ser25 was a substrate for protein kinase C. A Ser25 to Ala (S25A) mutation in choline kinase resulted in a 60% decrease in protein kinase C phosphorylation of the enzyme. Phosphopeptide mapping analysis of the S25A mutant enzyme confirmed that Ser25 was a protein kinase C target site. In vivo, the S25A mutation correlated with a decrease (55%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway whereas an S25D phosphorylation site mimic correlated with an increase (44%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Whereas the S25A (protein kinase C site) mutation did not affect the phosphorylation of choline kinase by protein kinase A, the S30A (protein kinase A site) mutation caused a 46% reduction in enzyme phosphorylation by protein kinase C. A choline kinase synthetic peptide (SQRRHS30LTRQ) containing Ser30 was a substrate (Vmax/Km = 3.0 mM−1 μmol min−1 mg−1) for protein kinase C. Comparison of phosphopeptide maps of the wild type and S30A mutant choline kinase enzymes phosphorylated by protein kinase C confirmed that Ser30 was also a target site for protein kinase C. PMID:15919656

  8. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Eapen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  9. Biocompatible choline based ionic salts: Solubility in short-chain alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Joana M.; Paninho, Ana B.; Môlho, Marta F.; Nunes, Ana V.M.; Rocha, Angelo; Lourenço, Nuno M.T.; Najdanovic-Visak, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Biocompatible ionic liquids based on choline esters were synthesized in this work. • Solubility of choline and choline esters based ionic salt in alcohols were measured. • Activity coefficients were calculated. • Experimental data were correlated by means of the semi-empirical Grant equation. -- Abstract: In this work, we report data on solubility of choline chloride and choline acetate in short-chain linear alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol and 1-butanol) at various temperatures. Furthermore, we synthesize two choline derivatives: hydrogen choline chloride glutarate ([CholGlut][Cl]) and hydrogen choline chloride succinate ([CholSucc][Cl]). Their characterization and solubility in short-chain alcohols as a function of temperature are also included. Activity coefficients were calculated and their comparisons with ideal solutions were discussed. The experimental data were correlated successfully by means of the semi-empirical Grant equation

  10. Nutrition in pregnancy: the argument for including a source of choline

    OpenAIRE

    Zeisel, Steven H

    2013-01-01

    Steven H Zeisel Nutrition Research Institute at Kannapolis, Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Kannapolis, NC, USA Abstract: Women, during pregnancy and lactation, should eat foods that contain adequate amounts of choline. A mother delivers large amounts of choline across the placenta to the fetus, and after birth she delivers large amounts of choline in milk to the infant; this greatly increases the demand on the choline stores of the mother. Adequate inta...

  11. X-ray diffraction study of choline chloride's β form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrouleas, V.; Lemmon, R.M.; Christensen, A.

    1978-01-01

    The organic salt choline chloride exists in two crystalline polymorphs. One (the α form) is extraordinarily sensitive to ionizing radiation, the other (the β form) is not. The present report describes an x-ray diffraction study of the β form. The structure has been found to be highly disordered face centered cubic. A reasonable least-square refinement of the intensity data has been achieved in the centrosymmetric space group Fm3 or Fm3m by use of a molecular model with restrained bond lengths. The results show that in the β form the electronic density due to the choline cation is closely spaced around the N, so that hydrogen bonding to the chloride is unlikely. Comparison with infrared and NMR data indicates that the disordering is dynamic and can be ascribed to rotations of the choline ion around crystallographic symmetry axes. Possible connections of these results with the radiation stability of the β form are discussed

  12. Raising the Bar for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Jal; Doctor, Joe

    2013-01-01

    The past year has seen the emergence of a broad consensus on raising the standards for entering the teaching profession. The NEA, AFT, and Council of Chief State School Officers all have said they want higher entry standards. Such an exam would be modeled after other professions and is a potential game changer. If sufficiently rigorous, the exam…

  13. Fund Raising: An International Feast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Valorie; Marshall, Gene

    The procedure for planning an international dinner to raise funds and publicize foreign language study is described. The project, which netted several hundred dollars for a high school in North Dakota, involves careful planning over a period of months. Publicity and facilities are discussed, and the various culinary and other jobs to be…

  14. The management of gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wah Cheung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available N Wah CheungCentre for Diabetes and Endocrinology Research, Westmead Hospital, and University of Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: The incidence of gestational diabetes is increasing. As gestational diabetes is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and has long-term implications for both mother and child, it is important that it is recognized and appropriately managed. This review will examine the pharmacological options for the management of gestational diabetes, as well as the evidence for blood glucose monitoring, dietary and exercise therapy. The medical management of gestational diabetes is still evolving, and recent randomized controlled trials have added considerably to our knowledge in this area. As insulin therapy is effective and safe, it is considered the gold standard of pharmacotherapy for gestational diabetes, against which other treatments have been compared. The current experience is that the short acting insulin analogs lispro and aspart are safe, but there are only limited data to support the use of long acting insulin analogs. There are randomized controlled trials which have demonstrated efficacy of the oral agents glyburide and metformin. Whilst short-term data have not demonstrated adverse effects of glyburide and metformin on the fetus, and they are increasingly being used in pregnancy, there remain long-term concerns regarding their potential for harm.Keywords: gestational diabetes, insulin, oral antidiabetic agents, pregnancy, type 2 diabetes

  15. Spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity are differentially sensitive to the availability of choline in adulthood as a function of choline supply in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J E; Glenn, Melissa J; Mellott, Tiffany J; Blusztajn, Jan K; Meck, Warren H; Williams, Christina L

    2008-10-27

    Altered dietary choline availability early in life leads to persistent changes in spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity in adulthood. Developmental programming by early choline nutrition may determine the range of adult choline intake that is optimal for the types of neural plasticity involved in cognitive function. To test this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a choline chloride deficient (DEF), sufficient (CON), or supplemented (SUP) diet during embryonic days 12-17 and then returned to a control diet (1.1 g choline chloride/kg). At 70 days of age, we found that DEF and SUP rats required fewer choices to locate 8 baited arms of a 12-arm radial maze than CON rats. When switched to a choline-deficient diet (0 g/kg), SUP rats showed impaired performance while CON and DEF rats were unaffected. In contrast, when switched to a choline-supplemented diet (5.0 g/kg), DEF rats' performance was significantly impaired while CON and SUP rats were less affected. These changes in performance were reversible when the rats were switched back to a control diet. In a second experiment, DEF, CON, and SUP rats were either maintained on a control diet, or the choline-supplemented diet. After 12 weeks, DEF rats were significantly impaired by choline supplementation on a matching-to-place water-maze task, which was also accompanied by a decrease in dentate cell proliferation in DEF rats only. IGF-1 levels were elevated by both prenatal and adult choline supplementation. Taken together, these findings suggest that the in utero availability of an essential nutrient, choline, causes differential behavioral and neuroplastic sensitivity to the adult choline supply.

  16. Romania's flag raised at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    A ceremony was held for the raising of the Romanian flag alongside the flags of CERN’s 21 other Member States.   The Romanian flag is raised alongside the flags of CERN’s other Member States, in the presence of the Romanian President, CERN’s Director-General, the President of the CERN Council and a large Romanian delegation. (Image: Maximilien Brice/ Sophia Bennett/CERN) On Monday, 5 September, the Romanian flag was raised in front of CERN for the first time, marking the country’s accession to Membership of the Organization. The blue, yellow and red flag joined those of the other 21 Member States of CERN in a ceremony attended by the President of Romania, Klaus Iohannis, the Romanian Minister for Education and Scientific Research, Mircea Dumitru, and several other members of the President’s office, the government and academia in Romania. The country officially became a CERN Member State on 17 July 2016, after 25 years of collaboration between the...

  17. Choline transport in the isolated rabbit corneal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the present study, isolated epithelial sheets were obtained by performing two sequential anterior keratectomies, three weeks apart, on rabbit corneas. Light microscopy of the isolated sheets revealed a multilayered epithelium with an intact basal cell layer without contamination from other cell types. The accumulation of [ 3 H]choline into the epithelial sheets was studied at substrate concentrations varying from 1 to 100 μMoles with and without the addition of specific metabolic and stereochemical inhibitors. Accumulation of [ 3 H]choline into these sheets was saturable. Kinetic analysis, performed by estimation from double-reciprocal plots, revealed a single component system with a K m of 24.9 μM. The metabolic inhibitors potassium cyanide and ouabain showed no effect on the uptake of [ 3 H]choline; however, the stereochemical inhibitor hemicholinium-3 significantly reduced the accumulation of radiolabel at both high and low substrate concentrations. The results suggest a non-energy dependent yet a highly specific transport system for the accumulation of choline into the rabbit epithelium

  18. Transport and phosphorylation of choline in higher plant cells. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bligny, R.; Foray, M.F.; Roby, C.; Douce, R.

    1989-03-25

    When sycamore cells were suspended in basal medium containing choline, the latter was taken up by the cells very rapidly. A facilitated diffusion system appertained at low concentrations of choline and exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics. At higher choline concentrations simple diffusion appeared to be the principal mode of uptake. Addition of choline to the perfusate of compressed sycamore cells monitored by /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy resulted in a dramatic accumulation of P-choline in the cytoplasmic compartment containing choline kinase and not in the vacuole. The total accumulation of P-choline over a 10-h period exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics. During this period, in the absence of Pi in the perfusion medium there was a marked depletion of glucose-6-P, and the cytoplasmic Pi resonance disappeared almost completely. When a threshold of cytoplasmic Pi was attained, the phosphorylation of choline was sustained by the continuous release of Pi from the vacuole although at a much lower rate. However, when 100 microM inorganic phosphate was present in the perfusion medium, externally added Pi was preferentially used to sustain P-choline synthesis. It is clear, therefore, that cytosolic choline kinase associated with a carrier-mediated transport system for choline uptake appeared as effective systems for continuously trapping cytoplasmic Pi including vacuolar Pi entering the cytoplasm.

  19. Importance of Choline as Essential Nutrient and Its Role in Prevention of Various Toxicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somava Biswas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Choline is a water-soluble essential nutrient included as a member of the vitamin B12 group owing to its structural similarities with that of the other members of the group. Its roles and functions, however, extend much wider than that of the vitamins with which it is grouped. Choline is vital for maintenance of various key metabolic processes which play a role in the prevention or progression of various health impairments. The occurrence of diseases like neural tube defect (NTD and Alzheimer’s is prevented by the metabolic role of choline. It is also indispensable for mitigation of various forms of toxic contamination. While adequate level of choline in the body is essential, an excess of choline can result in various forms of disorder. To maintain the optimal level of choline in the body can be a challenge. The vital roles played by choline together with the range of contradictions and problems that choline presents make choline an interesting area of study. This paper attempts to summarize and review some recent publications on choline that have opened up new prospect in understanding the multiple role played by choline and in throwing light on the role played by this wonder essential nutrient in mitigating various forms of toxic contamination.

  20. Dysregulated choline metabolism in T-cell lymphoma: role of choline kinase-α and therapeutic targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, J; Bian, J; Wang, L; Zhou, J-Y; Wang, Y; Zhao, Y; Wu, L-L; Hu, J-J; Li, B; Chen, S-J; Yan, C; Zhao, W-L

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells have distinct metabolomic profile. Metabolic enzymes regulate key oncogenic signaling pathways and have an essential role on tumor progression. Here, serum metabolomic analysis was performed in 45 patients with T-cell lymphoma (TCL) and 50 healthy volunteers. The results showed that dysregulation of choline metabolism occurred in TCL and was related to tumor cell overexpression of choline kinase-α (Chokα). In T-lymphoma cells, pharmacological and molecular silencing of Chokα significantly decreased Ras-GTP activity, AKT and ERK phosphorylation and MYC oncoprotein expression, leading to restoration of choline metabolites and induction of tumor cell apoptosis/necropotosis. In a T-lymphoma xenograft murine model, Chokα inhibitor CK37 remarkably retarded tumor growth, suppressed Ras-AKT/ERK signaling, increased lysophosphatidylcholine levels and induced in situ cell apoptosis/necropotosis. Collectively, as a regulatory gene of aberrant choline metabolism, Chokα possessed oncogenic activity and could be a potential therapeutic target in TCL, as well as other hematological malignancies with interrupted Ras signaling pathways

  1. Williston Reservoir raising - environmental overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    This preliminary environmental overview report was prepared by B.C. Hydro in June 1987 and revised in July 1988 as an initial assessment of a possible 1.5 m (5 ft.) raise in the Williston Reservoir maximum normal level. The enviromental overview study and the associated engineering and property studies were undertaken to provide information for a decision on whether to initiate more detailed studies. Overview studies are based mainly on available reports, mapping and field data, supplemented by limited site reconnaissance and, in this case, input from key agencies and groups. The lack of adequate mapping of areas which could be affected by reservoir raising did not permit definitive conclusion to be reached. This mapping will be done over the next year to complete the overview assessment. This document covers the impact assessment of socio-economic factors, forestry, reservoir clearing, heritage, recreation, aquatic resources, and wilflife. Further studies in each of these areas are also included. 54 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Clinical diagnosis of gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Edmond A

    2013-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosis remains controversial. ACOG criteria are based on the long-term risk of maternal diabetes. ADA recently suggested diagnosing GDM with 1 elevated value on an oral glucose tolerance test based on a 1.75-fold risk of large-for-gestational age infants resulting in a 17.8% rate of GDM. Given the lack of neonatal-based outcomes for the traditional position and problems of reproducibility and benefit/harm balance of the ADA approach, an alternative is presented herein based on a 2-fold risk of a large-for-gestational age baby, requiring 2 separate abnormalities to reduce false positives giving a more balanced benefit/harm ratio (10% GDM rate).

  3. Influence of dietary protein and excess methionine on choline needs for young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) to investigate the effect of differing dietary protein levels and nondetrimental amounts of excess methionine on choline needs. Growth and feed consumption of quail fed an adequate (27.3%) protein purified diet supplemented with 2000 mg/kg of choline were unaffected by increasing the level of excess methionine to 1.75%; however, greater amounts (2.0%, 2.25%) of excess methionine depressed growth (P less than .01), reduced feed consumption (P less than .01), and decreased feed utilization (P less than .05). Quail fed a purified diet containing 13.85% protein and 515 mg/kg of choline grew poorly. Growth was unaffected by additional choline in this diet. Growth was suboptimal among quail fed purified diets containing adequate or high (41.55%) levels of protein in which choline was limiting; however, a high level of protein did not in itself affect performance. Growth was improved by supplemental choline in these diets. Growth of quail fed purified diets with up to 1.35% excess methionine which were limiting (531 mg/kg) in choline was less than that of groups fed 2000 mg/kg of added dietary choline (P less than .01); however, excess methionine did not significantly influence growth of quail fed choline-deficient diets. These experiments indicate that neither high dietary protein nor excess methionine, fed at non-growth-depressing levels, increases dietary choline needs for young Bobwhite quail.

  4. Multimodal elucidation of choline metabolism in a murine glioma model using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and 11C-choline positron emission tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wehrl, H.F.; Schwab, J.; Hasenbach, K.; Reischl, G.; Tabatabai, G.; Quintanilla-Martinez, L.; Jiru, F.; Chughtai, K; Kiss, A.; Cay, F.; Bukala, D.; Heeren, R.M.A.; Pichler, B.J.; Sauter, A.W.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolites, transporters, and enzymes involved in choline metabolism are regarded as biomarkers for disease progression in a variety of cancers, but their in vivo detection is not ideal. Both magnetic resonance spectroscopy [MRS using chemical shift imaging (CSI) total choline (tCho)] and

  5. A modified choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented diet reduces morbidity and retains a liver progenitor cell response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passman, Adam M; Strauss, Robyn P; McSpadden, Sarah B; Finch-Edmondson, Megan L; Woo, Ken H; Diepeveen, Luke A; London, Roslyn; Callus, Bernard A; Yeoh, George C

    2015-12-01

    The choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE) dietary model induces chronic liver damage, and stimulates liver progenitor cell (LPC)-mediated repair. Long-term CDE administration leads to hepatocellular carcinoma in rodents and lineage-tracing studies show that LPCs differentiate into functional hepatocytes in this model. The CDE diet was first modified for mice by our laboratory by separately administering choline-deficient chow and ethionine in the drinking water (CD+E diet). Although this CD+E diet is widely used, concerns with variability in weight loss, morbidity, mortality and LPC response have been raised by researchers who have adopted this model. We propose that these inconsistencies are due to differential consumption of chow and ethionine in the drinking water, and that incorporating ethionine in the choline-deficient chow, and altering the strength, will achieve better outcomes. Therefore, C57Bl/6 mice, 5 and 6 weeks of age, were fed an all-inclusive CDE diet of various strengths (67% to 100%) for 3 weeks. The LPC response was quantitated and cell lines were derived. We found that animal survival, LPC response and liver damage are correlated with CDE diet strength. The 67% and 75% CDE diet administered to mice older than 5 weeks and greater than 18 g provides a consistent and acceptable level of animal welfare and induces a substantial LPC response, permitting their isolation and establishment of cell lines. This study shows that an all-inclusive CDE diet for mice reproducibly induces an LPC response conducive to in vivo studies and isolation, whilst minimizing morbidity and mortality. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. A modified choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented diet reduces morbidity and retains a liver progenitor cell response in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Passman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE dietary model induces chronic liver damage, and stimulates liver progenitor cell (LPC-mediated repair. Long-term CDE administration leads to hepatocellular carcinoma in rodents and lineage-tracing studies show that LPCs differentiate into functional hepatocytes in this model. The CDE diet was first modified for mice by our laboratory by separately administering choline-deficient chow and ethionine in the drinking water (CD+E diet. Although this CD+E diet is widely used, concerns with variability in weight loss, morbidity, mortality and LPC response have been raised by researchers who have adopted this model. We propose that these inconsistencies are due to differential consumption of chow and ethionine in the drinking water, and that incorporating ethionine in the choline-deficient chow, and altering the strength, will achieve better outcomes. Therefore, C57Bl/6 mice, 5 and 6 weeks of age, were fed an all-inclusive CDE diet of various strengths (67% to 100% for 3 weeks. The LPC response was quantitated and cell lines were derived. We found that animal survival, LPC response and liver damage are correlated with CDE diet strength. The 67% and 75% CDE diet administered to mice older than 5 weeks and greater than 18 g provides a consistent and acceptable level of animal welfare and induces a substantial LPC response, permitting their isolation and establishment of cell lines. This study shows that an all-inclusive CDE diet for mice reproducibly induces an LPC response conducive to in vivo studies and isolation, whilst minimizing morbidity and mortality.

  7. Cerium(terbium, erbium)chloride-choline chloride aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajfutdinova, R.K.; Zhuravlev, E.F.; Bikbaeva, G.G.; Domrachev, V.N.; Vanskova, G.I.

    1985-01-01

    To clarify the effect of rare earth nature on mutual solubility of rare earth salts and amines the solubility of solid phases in the systems, consisting of choline chloride, water and cerium, terbium, erbium chlorides, has been studied. It is established, that solubility isotherms of all the systems, testify to the formation of new solid phases of the composition: Ce(Tb, Er)xCl 3 x2C 5 H 14 ONClx3H 2 O. Individuality of new solid phases is proved by DTA method, the composition is confirmed by chemical analysis and data of PMR spectra, for choline chloride and its complexes with rare earth chlorides of the given composition PMR and IR spectra are studied

  8. Gestational diabetes insipidus. Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejmocka-Ambroziak, Anna; Grzechocińska, Barbara; Jastrzebska, Helena; Kochman, Magdalena; Cyganek, Anna; Wielgoś, Mirosław; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus is a very rare complication. However, undiagnosed and untreated may lead to serious complications in both mother and fetus. In this study, a case of 34-year-old female patient with diabetes insipidus associated with pregnancy was reported. We discussed process of diagnosis and treatment with particular emphasis on the monitoring of water-electrolyte imbalance during labor.

  9. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Lynge; Olesen, Jesper; Jørgensen, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Within the last 20 years, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been reported to be increasing worldwide in correlation with ethnic and geographic variations. The actual prevalence of GDM throughout all of Greenland remains unknown. Objective. The aim of this study...

  10. Large for Gestational Age (LGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mother Other risk factors for having large-for-gestational-age newborns include Maternal obesity Having had previous LGA babies Genetic abnormalities or syndromes (for example, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome or Sotos syndrome) Excessive weight gain during pregnancy (the fetus gets more calories as ...

  11. EAMJ Feb. gestation.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-02-02

    Feb 2, 2009 ... Majority of the women studied were at a gestation of 8 to 11 weeks (38.9%). Most patients ... foetal risks, and management and follow-up of both entities are .... thyrotoxicosis in Asian women in Singapore and found-out that the ...

  12. Molecular Effects of Doxorubicin on Choline Metabolism in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglin Cheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal choline phospholipid metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. The magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS detected total choline (tCho signal can serve as an early noninvasive imaging biomarker of chemotherapy response in breast cancer. We have quantified the individual components of the tCho signal, glycerophosphocholine (GPC, phosphocholine (PC and free choline (Cho, before and after treatment with the commonly used chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin in weakly metastatic human MCF7 and triple-negative human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. While the tCho concentration did not change following doxorubicin treatment, GPC significantly increased and PC decreased. Of the two phosphatidylcholine-specific PLD enzymes, only PLD1, but not PLD2, mRNA was down-regulated by doxorubicin treatment. For the two reported genes encoding GPC phosphodiesterase, the mRNA of GDPD6, but not GDPD5, decreased following doxorubicin treatment. mRNA levels of choline kinase α (ChKα, which converts Cho to PC, were reduced following doxorubicin treatment. PLD1 and ChKα protein levels decreased following doxorubicin treatment in a concentration dependent manner. Treatment with the PLD1 specific inhibitor VU0155069 sensitized MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity. Low concentrations of 100 nM of doxorubicin increased MDA-MB-231 cell migration. GDPD6, but not PLD1 or ChKα, silencing by siRNA abolished doxorubicin-induced breast cancer cell migration. Doxorubicin induced GPC increase and PC decrease are caused by reductions in PLD1, GDPD6, and ChKα mRNA and protein expression. We have shown that silencing or inhibiting these genes/proteins can promote drug effectiveness and reduce adverse drug effects. Our findings emphasize the importance of detecting PC and GPC individually.

  13. Gold nanoparticle–choline complexes can block nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chur Chin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Chur Chin1, In Kyeom Kim2, Dong Yoon Lim3, Ki Suk Kim4, Hyang Ae Lee4, Eun Joo Kim41Department of Pediatrics, Fatima Hospital, Daegu, Korea; 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea; 3Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju, Korea; 4Korea Institute of Toxicology, Daejeon, KoreaAbstract: We identified a novel class of direct ion-channel blockers of ligand-gated ion channels called the gold nanoparticle–choline complex. Negatively charged gold nanoparticles (1.4 nm block ion pores by binding to the sulfur group of the cysteine loop of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, and currents evoked by acetylcholine (Ach can break these bonds. The current evoked by ACh in nAChRs was blocked directly in ion pores by the gold nanoparticle–choline complex. In adrenal-gland perfusion studies, the complex also blocked nAChRs by diminishing catecholamine release by about 75%. An in vivo study showed muscle relaxation in rats after injection of the complex. These results will foster the application of gold nanoparticles as a direct ion-channel blocker. Keywords: negatively charged gold nanoparticle, choline, gold–sulfur bond, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, direct ion-channel blocker

  14. Am I at Risk for Gestational Diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they control their blood sugar levels. Babies whose mothers had gestational diabetes are at higher risk for certain health ... best way to improve outcomes for babies whose mothers have gestational diabetes. Later in Life Babies whose mothers had ...

  15. Choline concentrations are lower in postnatal plasma of preterm infants than in cord plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Wolfgang; Raith, Marco; Kunze, Rebecca; Koch, Vera; Heni, Martin; Maas, Christoph; Abele, Harald; Poets, Christian F; Franz, Axel R

    2015-08-01

    Choline is essential to human development, particularly of the brain in the form of phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and acetylcholine, for bile and lipoprotein formation, and as a methyl group donator. Choline is actively transported into the fetus, and maternal supply correlates with cognitive outcome. Interruption of placental supply may therefore impair choline homeostasis in preterm infants. Determination of postnatal plasma concentrations of choline and its derivatives betaine and dimethylglycine (DMG) in preterm infants compared to cord and maternal blood matched for postmenstrual age (PMA). We collected plasma of very low-birth-weight infants undergoing neonatal intensive care (n = 162), cord plasma of term and preterm infants (n = 176, 24-42-week PMA), serum of parturients (n = 36), and plasma of healthy premenopausal women (n = 40). Target metabolites were analyzed with tandem mass spectrometry and reported as median (25th/75th percentiles). Cord plasma choline concentration was 41.4 (31.8-51.2) µmol/L and inversely correlated with PMA. In term but not in preterm infants, cord plasma choline was lower in girls than in boys. Prenatal glucocorticoid treatment did not affect choline levels in cord plasma, whereas betaine was decreased and DMG increased. In parturients and non-pregnant women, choline concentrations were 14.1 (10.3-16.9) and 8.8 (5.7-11.2) µmol/L, respectively, whereas betaine was lowest in parturients. After delivery, preterm infant plasma choline decreased to 20.8 (16.0-27.6) µmol/L within 48 h. Betaine and DMG correlated with plasma choline in all groups. In preterm infants, plasma choline decreases to 50 % of cord plasma concentrations, reflecting choline undernourishment and postnatal metabolic adaptation, and potentially contributing to impaired outcome.

  16. Choline-mediated modulation of hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Viktoria; Both, Martin; Draguhn, Andreas; Egorov, Alexei V

    2014-06-01

    The cholinergic system is critically involved in the modulation of cognitive functions, including learning and memory. Acetylcholine acts through muscarinic (mAChRs) and nicotinic receptors (nAChRs), which are both abundantly expressed in the hippocampus. Previous evidence indicates that choline, the precursor and degradation product of Acetylcholine, can itself activate nAChRs and thereby affects intrinsic and synaptic neuronal functions. Here, we asked whether the cellular actions of choline directly affect hippocampal network activity. Using mouse hippocampal slices we found that choline efficiently suppresses spontaneously occurring sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-R) and can induce gamma oscillations. In addition, choline reduces synaptic transmission between hippocampal subfields CA3 and CA1. Surprisingly, these effects are mediated by activation of both mAChRs and α7-containing nAChRs. Most nicotinic effects became only apparent after local, fast application of choline, indicating rapid desensitization kinetics of nAChRs. Effects were still present following block of choline uptake and are, therefore, likely because of direct actions of choline at the respective receptors. Together, choline turns out to be a potent regulator of patterned network activity within the hippocampus. These actions may be of importance for understanding state transitions in normal and pathologically altered neuronal networks. In this study we asked whether choline, the precursor and degradation product of acetylcholine, directly affects hippocampal network activity. Using mouse hippocampal slices we found that choline efficiently suppresses spontaneously occurring sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-R). In addition, choline reduces synaptic transmission between hippocampal subfields. These effects are mediated by direct activation of muscarinic as well as nicotinic cholinergic pathways. Together, choline turns out to be a potent regulator of patterned activity within hippocampal

  17. Rumen-protected choline: A significance effect on dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, G; Sathiyabarathi, M; Robert, M Arokia; Tamilmani, T

    2016-08-01

    Choline is a vitamin-like substance it has multi-function in animal production, reproduction, and health. The transition period is most crucial stage in lactation cycle of dairy cows due to its association with negative hormonal and energy balances. Unfortunately, unprotected choline easily degrades in the rumen; therefore, choline added to the diet in a rumen-protected form. The use of rumen-protected choline (RPC) is a preventive measurement for the fatty liver syndrome and ketosis; may improve milk production as well as milk composition and reproduction parameters. This review summarizes the effectiveness of RPC on animal production, health, and reproduction.

  18. Phospholipid biosynthesis in Candida albicans: Regulation by the precursors inositol and choline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klig, L.S.; Friedli, L.; Schmid, E.

    1990-01-01

    Phospholipid metabolism in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was examined. The phospholipid biosynthetic pathways of C. albicans were elucidated and were shown to be similar to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, marked differences were seen between these two fungi in the regulation of the pathways in response to exogenously provided precursors inositol and choline. In S. cerevisiae, the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine via methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine appears to be regulated in response to inositol and choline; provision of choline alone does not repress the activity of this pathway. The same pathway in C. albicans responds to the exogenous provision of choline. Possible explanations for the observed differences in regulation are discussed

  19. Anaerobic choline metabolism in microcompartments promotes growth and swarming of Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Eleanor; Fu, Tiantian; Brown, Ian R; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Purdy, Kevin J; Frank, Stefanie; Chen, Yin

    2016-09-01

    Gammaproteobacteria are important gut microbes but only persist at low levels in the healthy gut. The ecology of Gammaproteobacteria in the gut environment is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that choline is an important growth substrate for representatives of Gammaproteobacteria. Using Proteus mirabilis as a model, we investigate the role of choline metabolism and demonstrate that the cutC gene, encoding a choline-trimethylamine lyase, is essential for choline degradation to trimethylamine by targeted mutagenesis of cutC and subsequent complementation experiments. Proteus mirabilis can rapidly utilize choline to enhance growth rate and cell yield in broth culture. Importantly, choline also enhances swarming-associated colony expansion of P. mirabilis under anaerobic conditions on a solid surface. Comparative transcriptomics demonstrated that choline not only induces choline-trimethylamine lyase but also genes encoding shell proteins for the formation of bacterial microcompartments. Subsequent analyses by transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of such novel microcompartments in cells cultivated in liquid broth and hyper-flagellated swarmer cells from solid medium. Together, our study reveals choline metabolism as an adaptation strategy for P. mirabilis and contributes to better understand the ecology of this bacterium in health and disease. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. {sup 18}F-Choline, {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 11}C-acetate PET/CT: comparative analysis for imaging prostate cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogsitter, Claudia; Zoephel, Klaus; Kotzerke, Joerg [Carl Gustav Carus Medical School, University of Dresden, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Prostate cancer (PCA) is the second most common tumour in men worldwide. Whereas prostate specific antigen (PSA) is an established biochemical marker, the optimal imaging method for all clinical scenarios has not yet been found. With the rising number of PET centres there is an increasing availability and use of {sup 18}F-/{sup 11}C-choline or {sup 11}C-acetate for staging of PCA. However, to date no final conclusion has been reached as to whether acetate or choline tracers should be preferred. In this review we provide an overview of the performance of choline and acetate PET for staging the primary and recurrent disease and lymph nodes in PCA, based on the literature of the last 10 years. Although predominantly choline has been used rather than acetate, both tracers performed in a similar manner in published studies. Choline as well as acetate have insufficient diagnostic accuracy for the staging of the primary tumour, due to a minimum detectable tumour size of 5 mm and inability to differentiate PCA from benign prostate hyperplasia, chronic prostatitis and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. Regarding lymph node staging, choline tracers have demonstrated a high specificity. Unfortunately, the sensitivity is only moderate. For staging recurrent disease, sensitivity depends on the level of serum PSA (PSA should be >2 ng/ml). This applies to both choline and acetate. However, despite these limitations, a significant number of patients with recurrent disease can benefit from PET imaging by a change in treatment planning. (orig.)

  1. Gestational Hyperandrogenism in Developmental Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Christopher; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2017-01-01

    Androgen excess (hyperandrogenism) is a common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. The potential causes of androgen excess in women include polycystic ovary syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), adrenal tumors, and racial disparity among many others. During pregnancy, luteoma, placental aromatase deficiency, and fetal CAH are additional causes of gestational hyperandrogenism. The present report reviews the various phenotypes of hyperandrogenism during pregnancy and its origin, pathophysiology, and the effect of hyperandrogenism on the fetal developmental trajectory and offspring consequences. PMID:27967205

  2. Diabetes and Pregnancy: Gestational Diabetes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-14

    Gestational diabetes happens in a woman who develops diabetes during pregnancy. This podcast discusses its potential effects and action steps to avoid complications.  Created: 11/14/2007 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Diabetes Translation (DDT) and National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD), Prevention Research Branch.   Date Released: 11/27/2007.

  3. Are dietary choline and betaine intakes determinants of total homocysteine concentration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated homocysteine concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and a decline in cognitive function. Intakes of choline and betaine, as methyl donors, may affect homocysteine concentrations. The objective was to examine whether choline and betaine intakes, assess...

  4. Dietary restriction of choline reduces hippocampal acetylcholine release in rats: in vivo microdialysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A; Suzuki, Y; Umegaki, H; Ikari, H; Tajima, T; Endo, H; Iguchi, A

    2001-12-01

    We fed rats with a diet deficient in choline for 12 weeks and studied how dietary choline deficiency affected their behavior and their ability to release acetylcholine in discrete regions of rat brain using step-through passive avoidance task and in vivo microdialysis. In comparison with the control, rats fed the choline-deficient diet showed poorer retention of nociceptive memory in the passive avoidance task. Average choline level in cerebrospinal fluid in the choline-deficient group was significantly less (33.1%) than that of control rats. In vivo microdialysis showed no difference in the pattern of acetylcholine release enhanced by intraperitoneal administration of scopolamine hydrochloride (2 mg/kg) in the striatum between the two groups, whereas in the hippocampus, the maximum and subsequent increase of acetylcholine from the baseline by scopolamine injection was significantly lower in the choline-deficient group than in the control. From the results of our study, we speculate that long-term dietary restriction of choline can affect extra- and intracellular sources of substrates required for acetylcholine synthesis, and eventually limit the ability to release acetylcholine in the hippocampus. Reduced capacity to release acetylcholine in the hippocampus implies that the mechanism, maintaining acetylcholine synthesis on increased neuronal demand, may vary in discrete regions of the brain in response to dietary manipulation. The vulnerability of the mechanism in the hippocampus to dietary choline restriction is indicated by impaired mnemonic performance we observed.

  5. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippelt, Dominique; van der Kint, Sander; van Herk, Kevin; Naber, M.

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory

  6. Choline evokes fluid secretion by perfused rat mandibular gland without desensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murakami, M; Novak, I; Young, J A

    1986-01-01

    M and evoked secretory responses comparable with those of acetylcholine (0.05-1.0 microM) administered at similar Na concentrations. Continuous infusion of choline, in contrast to acetylcholine, did not lead to a fall off in the secretory response (desensitization or tachyphylaxis) until the choline...

  7. Umbilical choline and related methylamines betaine and dimethylglycine in relation to birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeveen, M.; Heijer, M. den; Semmekrot, B.A.; Sporken, J.M.J.; Ueland, P.M.; Blom, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality for the newborn and risk of chronic disease in adulthood. Choline plays an essential role in the integrity of cell membranes, methylation reactions, and memory development. We examined whether choline, betaine,

  8. Conductivity and electrochemical stability of concentrated aqueous choline chloride solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishina, E. P.; Kudryakova, N. O.

    2017-10-01

    The conductivity and electrochemical stability of choline chloride (ChCl) solutions with water contents ranging from 20 to 39 wt % are studied. Exposing ChCl to moist ambient air yields a highly concentrated aqueous solution that, as an electrolyte, exhibits the properties and variations in conductivity with temperature and concentration characteristic of other similar systems. Its electrochemical stability window, determined by cyclic voltammetry, is comparable to that of ChCl-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Products of the electrolysis of ChCl‒H2O mixtures seem to be less toxic than those of Reline, Ethaline, and Maline.

  9. Carbon Nanotubes/Gold Nanoparticles Composite Film for the Construction of a Novel Amperometric Choline Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyan Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a facile method to fabricate a novel choline biosensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs. Chitosan, a natural biocompatible polymer, was used to solubilize MWCNTs for constructing the aqueous Chit-MWCNTs solution. Then Chit-MWCNTs were first dropped on the surface of a cleaned platinum electrode. Finally, a thiolated silica sol containing AuNPs and choline oxidase (ChOx was immobilized on the surface of the Chit-MWCNTs-modified electrode. The MWCNTs/AuNPs/Pt electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity for choline. The resulting choline biosensor showed high sensitivity of choline (3.56 μA/mM, and wide linear range from 0.05 to 0.8 mM with the detection limit of 15 μM. In addition, good reproducibility and stability were obtained.

  10. Choline Alleviates Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Duodenal Motility Disorder in Infant Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Wu, Yang; Guo, Yonggao; Tang, Qingya; Lu, Ting; Cai, Wei; Huang, Haiyan

    2016-09-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) has been found to influence duodenal motility in animals. Choline is an essential nutrient, and its deficiency is related to PN-associated organ diseases. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the role of choline supplementation in an infant rat model of PN-associated duodenal motility disorder. Three-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed chow and water (controls), PN solution (PN), or PN plus intravenous choline (600 mg/kg) (PN + choline). Rats underwent jugular vein cannulation for infusion of PN solution or 0.9% saline (controls) for 7 days. Duodenal oxidative stress status, concentrations of plasma choline, phosphocholine, and betaine and serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were assayed. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of c-Kit proto-oncogene protein (c-Kit) and membrane-bound stem cell factor (mSCF) together with the electrophysiological features of slow waves in the duodenum were also evaluated. Rats on PN showed increased reactive oxygen species; decreased total antioxidant capacity in the duodenum; reduced plasma choline, phosphocholine, and betaine; and enhanced serum TNF-α concentrations, which were reversed by choline intervention. In addition, PN reduced mRNA and protein expression of mSCF and c-Kit, which were inversed under choline administration. Moreover, choline attenuated depolarized resting membrane potential and declined the frequency and amplitude of slow waves in duodenal smooth muscles of infant rats induced by PN, respectively. The addition of choline to PN may alleviate the progression of duodenal motor disorder through protecting smooth muscle cells from injury, promoting mSCF/c-Kit signaling, and attenuating impairment of interstitial cells of Cajal in the duodenum during PN feeding. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  11. Role of choline PET/CT in guiding target volume delineation for irradiation of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzenboeck, S.M.; Kurth, J. [University Medical Centre Rostock, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany); Gocke, C.; Kuhnt, T.; Hildebrandt, G. [University Medical Centre Rostock, Department of Radiotherapy, Rostock (Germany); Krause, B.J. [University Medical Centre Rostock, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany); Universitaet Rostock, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Universitaetsmedizin Rostock, Rostock (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Choline PET/CT has shown limitations for the detection of primary prostate cancer and nodal metastatic disease, mainly due to limited sensitivity and specificity. Conversely in the restaging of prostate cancer recurrence, choline PET/CT is a promising imaging modality for the detection of local regional and nodal recurrence with an impact on therapy management. This review highlights current literature on choline PET/CT for radiation treatment planning in primary and recurrent prostate cancer. Due to limited sensitivity and specificity in differentiating between benign and malignant prostatic tissues in primary prostate cancer, there is little enthusiasm for target volume delineation based on choline PET/CT. Irradiation planning for the treatment of single lymph node metastases on the basis of choline PET/CT is controversial due to its limited lesion-based sensitivity in primary nodal staging. In high-risk prostate cancer, choline PET/CT might diagnose lymph node metastases, which potentially can be included in the conventional irradiation field. Prior to radiation treatment of recurrent prostate cancer, choline PET/CT may prove useful for patient stratification by excluding distant disease which would require systemic therapy. In patients with local recurrence, choline PET/CT can be used to delineate local sites of recurrence within the prostatic resection bed allowing a boost to PET-positive sites. In patients with lymph node metastases outside the prostatic fossa and regional metastatic lymph nodes, choline PET/CT might influence radiation treatment planning by enabling extension of the target volume to lymphatic drainage sites with or without a boost to PET-positive lymph nodes. Further clinical randomized trials are required to assess treatment outcomes following choline-based biological radiation treatment planning in comparison with conventional radiation treatment planning. (orig.)

  12. Feeding a diet devoid of choline to lactating rodents restricts growth and lymphocyte development in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E D; Goruk, S; Richard, C; Dellschaft, N S; Curtis, J M; Jacobs, R L; Field, C J

    2016-09-01

    The nutrient choline is necessary for membrane synthesis and methyl donation, with increased requirements during lactation. The majority of immune development occurs postnatally, but the importance of choline supply for immune development during this critical period is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of maternal supply of choline during suckling on immune function in their offspring among rodents. At parturition, Sprague-Dawley dams were randomised to either a choline-devoid (ChD; n 7) or choline-sufficient (ChS, 1 g/kg choline; n 10) diet with their offspring euthanised at 3 weeks of age. In a second experiment, offspring were weaned to a ChS diet until 10 weeks of age (ChD-ChS, n 5 and ChS-ChS, n 9). Splenocytes were isolated, and parameters of immune function were measured. The ChD offspring received less choline in breast milk and had lower final body and organ weight compared with ChS offspring (P<0·05), but this effect disappeared by week 10 with choline supplementation from weaning. ChD offspring had a higher proportion of T cells expressing activation markers (CD71 or CD28) and a lower proportion of total B cells (CD45RA+) and responded less to T cell stimulation (lower stimulation index and less IFN-γ production) ex vivo (P<0·05). ChD-ChS offspring had a lower proportion of total and activated CD4+ T cells, and produced less IL-6 after mitogen stimulation compared with cells from ChS-ChS (P<0·05). Our study suggests that choline is required in the suckling diet to facilitate immune development, and choline deprivation during this critical period has lasting effects on T cell function later in life.

  13. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish...

  14. Vitamin D and gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Jan S; Lamont, Ronald F; Torloni, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vitamin D status (which is involved in glucose homeostasis) is related to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). GDM is characterized by increased resistance to and impaired secretion of insulin and results in higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes including operative delivery......, macrosomia, shoulder dystocia and neonatal hypoglycemia. Women with GDM and their babies are at increased risk for developing type II diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: International definitions of vitamin D deficiency and normality are inconsistent. Vitamin D deficiency is common in pregnant women particularly...

  15. Relationship between 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate concentrations and gestational age at delivery in twin gestation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Caritis, Steve N

    2012-11-01

    We sought to evaluate in women with twin gestation the relationship between 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC) concentration and gestational age at delivery and select biomarkers of potential pathways of drug action.

  16. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...

  17. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...

  18. The College President's Role in Fund Raising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael T.

    The role of the college president as one of the chief actors in academic fund raising is examined against the background of today's period of financial caution and increased competition for philanthropic support. The paper first provides an overview of the state of the art of fund raising and some ways in which college and universities have…

  19. "COMPARISON OF MATERNAL AND FETAL/NEONATAL COMPLICATIONS IN GESTATIONAL AND PRE-GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS "

    OpenAIRE

    F. Akhlaghi A. B. Hamedi

    2005-01-01

    Presence of maternal diabetes mellitus (DM) during pregnancy has important consequences for both mother and child. To determine maternal and fetal/neonatal complications of gestational DM and compare them with pre-gestational DM, a prospective study was performed in 100 diabetic women delivered in our hospital from January 2001 to April 2002. Pregnancy outcome in 27 women with gestational DM and 73 women with pre-gestational DM and their offspring were studied and analyzed. The mean age of wo...

  20. Choline and betaine intake and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min-Shan; Fang, Yu-Jing; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Zhong, Xiao; Zheng, Mei-Chun; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association of choline and betaine intake with colorectal cancer risk, although they might play an important role in colorectal cancer development because of their role as methyl donors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between consumption of choline and betaine and colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted between July 2010 and December 2013 in Guangzhou, China. Eight hundred and ninety consecutively recruited colorectal cancer cases were frequency matched to 890 controls by age (5-year interval) and sex. Dietary information was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. The logistic regression model was used to estimate multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Total choline intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk after adjustment for various lifestyle and dietary factors. The multivariate-adjusted OR was 0.54 (95%CI = 0.37-0.80, Ptrend colorectal cancer risk was associated with higher intakes of choline from phosphatidylcholine, glycerophosphocholine and sphingomyelin but not for free choline and phosphocholine. The inverse association of total choline intake with colorectal cancer risk was observed in both men and women, colon and rectal cancer. These inverse associations were not modified by folate intake. These results indicate that high intake of total choline is associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer.

  1. Intestinal absorption of cytidine diphosphate choline and its changes in the digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashima, Keisuke; Takamatsu, Masatoshi; Okuda, Kunio

    1975-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP-choline), its structural changes in the digestive tract, and hepatic uptake have been investigated in rats using 14 C-labeled ( 14 CH 3 attached to N of choline) and 3 H-labeled (at C 5 of pyrimidine) compounds. The results indicate that: 1) CDP-choline is relatively stable in the stomach, but is quickly degraded into cytidine and choline in the intestine; 2) The hepatic uptakes of 14 C and 3 H reach the maximum in two to three hours after oral administration; 3) Whereas the amount of 14 C remaining in the gut is inversely related to the hepatic uptake, no similar correlation is seen with 3 H-labeled CDP-choline, and 4) Extrahepatic uptake of 14 C and 3 H is very small. The possibility of phosphorylation in the mucosa of choline and cytidine has been discussed, based on the differences in relative amount of radioactivity in individual broken-down products in the intestinal lumen and mucosa. (auth.)

  2. Dietary Intake and Plasma Levels of Choline and Betaine in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna C. Hamlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism have been reported in many children with autism. Because inadequate choline and betaine can negatively affect folate metabolism and in turn downstream methylation and antioxidant capacity, we sought to determine whether dietary intake of choline and betaine in children with autism was adequate to meet nutritional needs based on national recommendations. Three-day food records were analyzed for 288 children with autism (ASDs who participated in the national Autism Intervention Research Network for Physical Health (AIR-P Study on Diet and Nutrition in children with autism. Plasma concentrations of choline and betaine were measured in a subgroup of 35 children with ASDs and 32 age-matched control children. The results indicated that 60–93% of children with ASDs were consuming less than the recommended Adequate Intake (AI for choline. Strong positive correlations were found between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of choline and betaine in autistic children as well as lower plasma concentrations compared to the control group. We conclude that choline and betaine intake is inadequate in a significant subgroup of children with ASDs and is reflected in lower plasma levels. Inadequate intake of choline and betaine may contribute to the metabolic abnormalities observed in many children with autism and warrants attention in nutritional counseling.

  3. Behavioural effects of chronic manipulations of dietary choline in senescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fundaro, A; Paschero, A

    1990-01-01

    1. Senescent rats were maintained on choline-deficient and choline-enriched diets. The modifications in rat behaviour caused by the chronic manipulations of dietary choline were studied in two schedules of operant conditioning. 2. In the "periodic conditioning" test, the schedule of reinforcement, in a 100 min trial, was changed from a fixed ratio to a fixed interval schedule. In the "reversal" test the contingency for food delivery was switched four times from one lever to the other in a two lever Skinner box. 3. In the "periodic conditioning" test, the choline enriched group (430 mg/Kg/day) showed the same reduction of responses/reinforcement as controls, from the beginning to the end of trial; in the same group the time course reduction of responses/reinforcement became significant earlier than in the control group. The deficient-choline group in the last 40 min of "periodic conditioning" trial gave a reduction of responses/reinforcement greater than controls and one rat in the group did not learn the change of experimental schedule and extinguished its operant behaviour. 4. In the "reversal" test, the choline-enriched diet (320 mg/Kg/day) improved the reinforced responses in the IV reversal; one rat of the deficient-choline group could not learn the new operant schedule since the first reversal and continued to respond on the same lever during the whole of the test.

  4. Comparison of the computational NMR chemical shifts of choline with the experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcorn, C; Cuperlovic-Culf, M; Ghandi, K

    2012-01-01

    One of the main biological markers of the presence of cancer in living patients is an over-expression of total choline (tCho), which is the sum of free choline and its derivatives. 1 H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, or H-MRS, enables the quantification of tCho via its proton spectra, and thus has the potential to be a diagnostic tool for the presence of cancer and an accurate early indicator of the response of cancer to treatment. However, it remains difficult to quantify individual choline derivatives, since they share a large structural similarity ((CH 3 ) 3 -N + -CH 2 -CH 2 -O-), of which the strongest signal detectable by MRS is that of the choline h ead group : the three methyl groups bonded to the nitrogen. This work used ACENet, a high performance computing system, to attempt to model the NMR parameters of choline derivatives, with the focus of this report being free choline. Optimized structures were determined using Density Functional Theory and the B3LYP electron correlation functional. The Polarizable Continuum Model was used to evaluate solvent effects. The Gauge-Invariant Atomic Orbital method was found to be the superior method for calculating the NMR parameters of cholines.

  5. Synthesis of acetylcholine from choline derived from phosphatidylcholine in a human neuronal cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blusztajn, J.K.; Liscovitch, M.; Richardson, U.I.

    1987-01-01

    Cholinergic neurons are unique among cells since they alone utilize choline not only as a component of major membrane phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine (Ptd-Cho), but also as a precursor of their neurotransmitter acetylcholine (AcCho). It has been hypothesized that choline-phospholipids might serve as a storage pool of choline for AcCho synthesis. The selective vulnerability of cholinergic neurons in certain neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer disease, motor neuron disorders) might result from the abnormally accelerated liberation of choline (to be used a precursor of AcCho) from membrane phospholipids, resulting in altered membrane composition and function and compromised neuronal viability. However, the proposed metabolic link between membrane turnover and AcCho synthesis has been difficult to demonstrate because of the heterogeneity of the preparations used. Here the authors used a population of purely cholinergic cells (human neuroblastomas, LA-N-2), incubated in the presence of [methyl- 3 H]methionine to selectively label PtdCho synthesized by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine, the only pathway of de novo choline synthesis. Three peaks of radioactive material that cochromatographed with authentic AcCho, choline, and phosphocholine were observed when the water-soluble metabolites of the [ 3 H]PtdCho were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results demonstrate that AcCho can be synthesized from choline derived from the degradation of endogenous PtdCho formed de novo by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine

  6. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippelt, D P; van der Kint, S; van Herk, K; Naber, M

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants.

  7. Estimating Gestational Age From Ultrasound Fetal Biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skupski, Daniel W; Owen, John; Kim, Sungduk; Fuchs, Karin M; Albert, Paul S; Grantz, Katherine L

    2017-08-01

    To compare the accuracy of a new formula with one developed in 1984 (and still in common use) and to develop and compare racial and ethnic-specific and racial and ethnic-neutral formulas. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Fetal Growth Studies-Singletons was a prospective cohort study that recruited women in four self-reported racial-ethnic groups-non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and Asian-with singleton gestations from 12 U.S. centers (2009-2013). Women with a certain last menstrual period confirmed by first-trimester ultrasonogram had longitudinal fetal measurements by credentialed study ultrasonographers blinded to the gestational age at their five follow-up visits. Regression analyses were performed with linear mixed models to develop gestational age estimating formulas. Repeated cross-validation was used for validation. The estimation error was defined as the mean squared difference between the estimated and observed gestational age and was used to compare the formulas' accuracy. The new formula estimated the gestational age (±2 SD) within ±7 days from 14 to 20 weeks of gestation, ±10 days from 21 to 27 weeks of gestation, and ±17 days from 28 to 40 weeks of gestation. The new formula performed significantly better than a formula developed in 1984 with an estimation error of 10.4 compared with 11.2 days from 21 to 27 weeks of gestation and 17.0 compared with 19.8 days at 28-40 weeks of gestation, respectively. Racial and ethnic-specific formulas did not outperform the racial and ethnic-neutral formula. The NICHD gestational age estimation formula is associated with smaller errors than a well-established historical formula. Racial and ethnic-specific formulas are not superior to a racial-ethnic-neutral one.

  8. Gestational diabetes mellitus screening and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktün, Hale Lebriz; Uyan, Derya; Yorgunlar, Betül; Acet, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    To verify the usefulness of the World Health Organization criteria for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women and its effectiveness in the prevention of maternal and neonatal adverse results in women younger than 35 years without apparent risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus. This is a retrospective study based on population involving 1360 pregnant women who delivered and who were followed-up in a university hospital in Istanbul. All women underwent the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test screening, usually in between the 24(th)-28(th) weeks of pregnancy. In all cases, the identification of gestational diabetes mellitus was determined in accordance with the World Health Organization criteria. Approximately 28% of the pregnant women aged younger than 35 years with no risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus were diagnosed with the oral glucose tolerance test in this study. In the gestational diabetes mellitus group, the primary cesarean section rate was importantly higher than that in the non-gestational diabetes mellitus group. Preterm delivery was also associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. The diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus was strongly associated with admittance to the neonatal intensive care unit. Neonatal respiratory problems didn't showed any significant deviation between the groups. There was a moderate association between gestational diabetes mellitus and metabolic complications. Pregnant women with no obvious risk factors were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus using the World Health Organization criteria. The treatment of these women potentially reduced their risk of adverse maternal and neonatal hyperglycemia-related events, such as cesarean section, polyhydramnios, preterm delivery, admission to neonatal intensive care unit, large for gestational age, and higher neonatal weight.

  9. Interaction between cytotoxic effects of γ-radiation and folate deficiency in relation to choline reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Vipen; Devasagayam, Thomas Paul Asir

    2009-01-01

    The search for non-toxic radio-protective drugs has yielded many potential agents but most of these compounds have certain amount of toxicity. Recent studies have indicated that bio-molecules such as folate and choline might be of radio-protective value as they are, within broad dose ranges, non-toxic to humans and experimental animals. The objective of the present study was to investigate choline dependent adaptive response to potential synergistic cytotoxic effect of folate deficiency and γ-radiation. Male Swiss mice maintained on folate sufficient diet (FSD) and folate free diet (FFD) based on AIN-93 M formula, were subjected to 1-4 Gy total body γ-irradiation. To investigate liver DNA damage, apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) were quantified. A significant increase in liver DNA AP sites with concomitant depletion of liver choline reserves was observed when γ-radiation was combined with folate deficiency. Further work in this direction suggested that cytotoxic interaction between folate deficiency and gamma radiation might induce utilization of choline and choline containing moieties by modifying levels of key regulatory enzymes dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and choline oxidase (ChoOx). Another major finding of these studies is that significant liver damage at higher doses of radiation (3-4 Gy), might release considerable amounts of choline reserves to serum. In conclusion, a plausible interpretation of the present studies is that folate deprivation and γ-radiation interact to mobilize additional choline reserves of hepatic tissue, for redistribution to other organs, which could not be utilized by folate deficiency alone. Present results clearly indicated a distinct choline pool in liver and kidney tissues that could be utilized by folate deficient animals only under radiation stress conditions

  10. Choline requirements of White Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z G; Tang, J; Hou, S S; Guo, Y M; Huang, W; Xie, M

    2014-12-01

    A dose-response experiment with 8 dietary choline levels (302, 496, 778, 990, 1,182, 1,414, 1,625, and 1,832 mg/kg) was conducted with male White Pekin ducks to estimate the choline requirement from hatch to 21 d of age. Three hundred eighty-four 1-d-old male White Pekin ducks were randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments, each containing 6 replicate pens with 8 birds per pen. At 21 d of age, weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain from each pen were calculated for feeding period, and 2 ducks selected randomly from each pen were euthanized and the liver was collected to determine total lipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids. In our study, perosis, poor growth, and high liver fat were all observed in choline-deficient ducks and incidence of perosis was zero when dietary choline was 1,182 mg/kg. As dietary choline increased, the weight gain and feed intake increased linearly or quadratically (P < 0.05). On the other hand, as dietary choline increased, the total lipid and triglyceride in liver decreased linearly and liver phospholipid increased linearly (P < 0.05), and the lipotropic activity of choline may be associated with increasing phospholipid at a high dietary choline level. According to broken-line regression, the choline requirements for weight gain and feed intake were 810 and 823 mg/kg, respectively, but higher requirement should be considered to prevent perosis and excess liver lipid deposition completely. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Choline and betaine intake and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Shan Lu

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the association of choline and betaine intake with colorectal cancer risk, although they might play an important role in colorectal cancer development because of their role as methyl donors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between consumption of choline and betaine and colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population.A case-control study was conducted between July 2010 and December 2013 in Guangzhou, China. Eight hundred and ninety consecutively recruited colorectal cancer cases were frequency matched to 890 controls by age (5-year interval and sex. Dietary information was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. The logistic regression model was used to estimate multivariate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Total choline intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk after adjustment for various lifestyle and dietary factors. The multivariate-adjusted OR was 0.54 (95%CI = 0.37-0.80, Ptrend <0.01 comparing the highest with the lowest quartile. No significant associations were observed for betaine or total choline+betaine intakes. For choline-containing compounds, lower colorectal cancer risk was associated with higher intakes of choline from phosphatidylcholine, glycerophosphocholine and sphingomyelin but not for free choline and phosphocholine. The inverse association of total choline intake with colorectal cancer risk was observed in both men and women, colon and rectal cancer. These inverse associations were not modified by folate intake.These results indicate that high intake of total choline is associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer.

  12. Probiotics for preventing gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Helen L; Dekker Nitert, Marloes; Conwell, Louise S; Callaway, Leonie K

    2014-02-27

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes for mother and infant. The prevention of GDM using lifestyle interventions has proven difficult. The gut microbiome (the composite of bacteria present in the intestines) influences host inflammatory pathways, glucose and lipid metabolism and, in other settings, alteration of the gut microbiome has been shown to impact on these host responses. Probiotics are one way of altering the gut microbiome but little is known about their use in influencing the metabolic environment of pregnancy. To assess the effects of probiotic supplementation when compared with other methods for the prevention of GDM. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 August 2013) and reference lists of the articles of retrieved studies. Randomised and cluster-randomised trials comparing the use of probiotic supplementation with other methods for the prevention of the development of GDM. Cluster-randomised trials were eligible for inclusion but none were identified. Quasi-randomised and cross-over design studies are not eligible for inclusion in this review. Studies presented only as abstracts with no subsequent full report of study results would also have been excluded. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included study. Data were checked for accuracy. Eleven reports (relating to five possible trials) were found. We included one study (six trial reports) involving 256 women. Four other studies are ongoing.The included trial consisted of three treatment arms: probiotic with dietary intervention, placebo and dietary intervention, and dietary intervention alone; it was at a low risk of bias. The study reported primary outcomes of a reduction in the rate of gestational diabetes mellitus (risk ratio (RR) 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20 to 0.70), with no statistical difference in the rates of

  13. Heritability of gestational weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Elina Scheers; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per

    2015-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is a complex trait involving intrauterine environmental, maternal environmental, and genetic factors. However, the extent to which these factors contribute to the total variation in GWG is unclear. We therefore examined the genetic and environmental influences...... on the variation in GWG in the first and second pregnancy in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin mother-pairs. Further, we explored if any co-variance existed between factors influencing the variation in GWG of the mothers’ first and second pregnancies. By using Swedish nationwide record-linkage data, we...... identified 694 twin mother-pairs with complete data on their first pregnancy and 465 twin mother-pairs with complete data on their second pregnancy during 1982–2010. For a subanalysis, 143 twin mother-pairs had complete data on two consecutive pregnancies during the study period. We used structural equation...

  14. Exercise: An Alternative Therapy for Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artal, Raul

    1996-01-01

    Exercise is encouraged in the management of pregnant women with gestational diabetes or women with Type II diabetes who become pregnant. Although non-weight-bearing exercises may be best for sedentary women, moderate workouts appear to be safe for most women with gestational diabetes. The role of exercise, risk factors, warning signs, and examples…

  15. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a broad term encompassing both benign and malignant growths arising from products of conception in the uterus. GTDs contain paternal chromosomes and are placental in origin. Find evidence-based information on gestational trophoblastic disease treatment.

  16. Experience in using ceretone (choline alfoscerate in brain concussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N G Voropay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nootropics are used to treat patients who have sustained concussion of the brain and complain of reductions in memory and working capacity, as well as emotional disorders. The efficacy of ceretone® (choline alfoscerate was studied in 76 patients (45 men and 31 women whose age was 21-56 years who had sustained brain concussion and had complaints of headache, easy fatigability, nocturnal sleep disorders, daytime sleepiness, anxiety, and bad mood. Thirty-nine patients received intravenous ceretone® in a dose of 1000 mg/day for 10 days; the other 37 patients formed a control group. A one-year follow-up indicated that ceretone® had a positive effect on health, autonomic, and emotional status and working capacity.

  17. Choline acetyltransferase-containing neurons in the human parietal neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Benagiano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of immunocytochemical studies have indicated the presence of cholinergic neurons in the cerebral cortex of various species of mammals. Whether such cholinergic neurons in the human cerebral cortex are exclusively of subcortical origin is still debated. In this immunocytochemical study, the existence of cortical cholinergic neurons was investigated on surgical samples of human parietal association neocortex using a highly specific monoclonal antibody against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, the acetylcholine biosynthesising enzyme. ChAT immunoreactivity was detected in a subpopulation of neurons located in layers II and III. These were small or medium-sized pyramidal neurons which showed cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in the perikarya and processes, often in close association to blood microvessels. This study, providing demonstration of ChAT neurons in the human parietal neocortex, strongly supports the existence of intrinsic cholinergic innervation of the human neocortex. It is likely that these neurons contribute to the cholinergic innervation of the intracortical microvessels.

  18. Neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity in rat cranial parasympathetic neurons: coexistence with vasoactive intestinal peptide and choline acetyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblanc, G.C.; Trimmer, B.A.; Landis, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely distributed in the sympathetic nervous system, where it is colocalized with norepinephrine. The authors report here that NPY-immunoreactive neurons are also abundant in three cranial parasympathetic ganglia, the otic, sphenopalatine, and ciliary, in the rat measured by radioimmunoassay. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the immunoreactive material present in the otic ganglion indicates that this material is very similar to porcine NPY and indistinguishable from the NPY-like immunoreactivity present in rat sympathetic neurons. These findings raise the possibility that NPY acts as a neuromodulator in the parasympathetic as well as the sympathetic nervous system. In contrast to what had been observed for sympathetic neurons, NPY-immunoreactive neurons in cranial parasympathetic ganglia do not contain detectable catecholamines or tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, and many do contain immunoreactivity for vasoactive intestinal peptide and/or choline acetyltransferase. These findings suggest that there is no simple rule governing coexpression of NPY with norepinephrine, acetylcholine, or vasoactive intestinal peptide in autonomic neurons. Further, while functional studies have indicated that NPY exerts actions on the peripheral vasculature which are antagonistic to those of acetylcholine and vasoactive intestinal peptide, the present results raise the possibility that these three substances may have complementary effects on other target tissues

  19. Parenting Skills: Tips for Raising Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adult is no small task. Understand the parenting skills you need to help guide your teen. By ... teen and encourage responsible behavior. Use these parenting skills to deal with the challenges of raising a ...

  20. Choline-based biodegradable ionic liquid catalyst for Mannich-type

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Choline-based biodegradable ionic liquid catalyst for Mannich-type reaction ... Abstract. A three-component Mannich-type reaction of aromatic aldehydes, ketones, and amines was catalyzed by a novel ... Journal of Chemical Sciences | News.

  1. Bronsted acid-functionalized choline chloride-butane sultone for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P PADMA PRIYA

    2018-03-21

    Mar 21, 2018 ... Choline chloride and 1,4-butane sultone were combined to obtain a sulphonic acid-functionalized ..... Knifton J F and Sanderson J R 1990 Method for produc- ... alkenes via the Knoevenagel condensation Tetrahedron. Lett.

  2. Loss of P53 Function in Colon Cancer Cells Results in Increased Phosphocholine and Total Choline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Mori

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the p53 gene are the most frequently observed genetic lesions in human cancers. Human cancers that contain a p53 mutation are more aggressive, more apt to metastasize, and more often fatal. p53 controls numerous downstream targets that can influence various outcomes such as apoptosis, growth arrest, and DNA repair. Based on previous observations using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, we have identified choline phospholipid metabolite intensities typical of increased malignancy. Here we have used 1H MRS to characterize the choline phospholipid metabolite levels of p53+/+ and p53−/– cells, and demonstrated that loss of p53 function results in increased phosphocholine and total choline. These data suggest that the increased malignancy of cancer cells resulting from loss of p53 may be mediated, in part, through the choline phospholipid pathway.

  3. Lewis acidic (choline chloride.3ZnCl2) ionic liquid: A green and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Choline chloride; zinc chloride; ionic liquid; one-pot; triarylmethane. 1. Introduction ... applications such as zinc electroplating11 and batter- ies.12 It has also been used as ... as indicated by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), the catalyst was ...

  4. Lecithin: a by-product of biodiesel production and a source of choline for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of soy lecithins (L, a by-product of the biodiesel production process, and choline chloride microencapsulated with hydrogenated vegetable oils (C on dry matter intake, milk yield,  milk quality traits, milk choline and haematological profile of dairy cows. A total of 12 mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows were assigned to one of two experimental groups and fed according to cross-over design (2 diets x 2 periods. Diets were isoenergetic, isofibrous and isonitrogenous and had the same content of choline. Dry matter intake was not affected by the diet, but L led to lower milk choline (P

  5. Choline metabolism as a basis for the selective vulnerability of cholinergic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The unique propensity of cholinergic neurons to use choline for two purposes--ACh and membrane phosphatidylcholine synthesis--may contribute to their selective vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease and other cholinergic neurodegenerative disorders. When physiologically active, the neurons use free choline taken from the 'reservoir' in membrane phosphatidylcholine to synthesize ACh; this can lead to an actual decrease in the quantity of membrane per cell. Alzheimer's disease (but not Down's syndrome, or other neurodegenerative disorders) is associated with characteristic neurochemical lesions involving choline and ethanolamine: brain levels of these compounds are diminished, while those of glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoethanolamine (breakdown products of their respective membrane phosphatides) are increased, both in cholinergic and noncholinergic brain regions. Perhaps this metabolic disturbance and the tendency of cholinergic neurons to 'export' choline--in the form of ACh--underlie the selective vulnerability of the neurons. Resulting changes in membrane composition could abnormally expose intramembraneous proteins such as amyloid precursor protein to proteases.

  6. Serial plasma choline measurements after cardiac arrest in patients undergoing mild therapeutic hypothermia: a prospective observational pilot trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Storm

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Choline is related to phospholipid metabolism and is a marker for global ischaemia with a small reference range in healthy volunteers. The aim of our study was to characterize the early kinetics of plasma free choline in patients after cardiac arrest. Additionally, we investigated the potential of plasma free choline to predict neurological outcome. METHODS: Twenty patients admitted to our medical intensive care unit were included in this prospective, observational trial. All patients were enrolled between May 2010 and May 2011. They received post cardiac arrest treatment including mild therapeutic hypothermia which was initiated with a combination of cold fluid and a feedback surface cooling device according to current guidelines. Sixteen blood samples per patient were analysed for plasma free choline levels within the first week after resuscitation. Choline was detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Most patients showed elevated choline levels on admission (median 14.8 µmol/L; interquartile range; IQR 9.9-20.1 which subsequently decreased. 48 hours after cardiac arrest choline levels in all patients reached subnormal levels at a median of 4.0 µmol/L (IQR 3-4.9; p = 0.001. Subsequently, choline levels normalized within seven days. There was no significant difference in choline levels when groups were analyzed in relation to neurological outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate a choline deficiency in the early postresucitation phase. This could potentially result in impaired cell membrane recovery. The detailed characterization of the early choline time course may aid in planning of choline supplementation trials. In a limited number of patients, choline was not promising as a biomarker for outcome prediction.

  7. Hidden from view: Canadian gestational surrogacy practices and outcomes, 2001-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Pamela M

    2016-05-01

    This paper raises some troubling questions about the fertility treatments provided to Canadian gestational surrogates, women not genetically related to the child that they carry. Using information published between 2003 and 2012 by Canada's Assisted Reproduction Registry, the paper traces the growing incidence of births to gestational surrogates. The transfer of more than one embryo increases the chance of pregnancy and the incidence of multiple births, and while the incidence of multiple births has declined overall since 2010, gestational surrogates consistently experience a higher proportion of multiple births and experienced higher levels of multiple embryo transfers. In 2012, just 26% of gestational surrogates received a single embryo transfer compared to 47% of other in vitro fertilisation (IVF) patients. The paper suggests that renewed attention needs to be paid to the counselling provided to gestational surrogates and treatment consenting mechanisms used by IVF clinics and that review of the 2007 Canadian Medical Association surrogate treatment guidelines is warranted. Finally, the paper describes the difficulties in obtaining accurate data about Canadian assisted reproductive medicine. Without good data, it becomes far more difficult to identify the possibility of potentially harmful practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Usual Choline Intakes Are Associated with Egg and Protein Food Consumption in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C. Wallace

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient with critical roles in several biological processes including neuronal development, cell signaling, nerve impulse transmission, and lipid transport and metabolism. The National Cancer Institute method was used to assess usual intakes of choline from foods according to data for participants enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2014 datasets and pregnant women in the 2005–2014 datasets. Suboptimal intakes of choline are present across many gender and life-stage subpopulations, as well as pregnant women in the U.S. Only 8.03 ± 0.56% of adults and 8.51 ± 2.89% pregnant women meet the AI for choline. Children 2–3 years were the most likely to meet their gender and life-stage specific AI, followed by children 4–8 years. Adults 19+ years who consume eggs were more likely to meet their gender and life-stage AI as compared to non-consumers (57.3 ± 1.45% and 2.43 ± 0.28%. Consumers of eggs had almost double the usual intake of choline as compared to non-consumers (525 ± 5.17 mg/d and 294 ± 1.98; p < 0.0001. Protein food (meat, poultry and seafood consumption also increased usual choline intakes compared to non-consumers (345 ± 2.21 mg/day and 235 ± 8.81; p < 0.0001 to a lesser degree, but did not result in substantial increases in the percent of individuals meeting the AI. No subpopulation exceeded the UL for choline. This research illustrates that it is extremely difficult to achieve the AI for choline without consuming eggs or taking a dietary supplement.

  9. Chronic choline supplementation improves cognitive and motor performance via modulating oxidative and neurochemical status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Saiqa; Haider, Saida; Ahmad, Saara; Madiha, Syeda; Parveen, Tahira

    2017-08-01

    Choline, an essential nutrient, accounts for multiple functions in the body and brain. While its beneficial effects on healthy adults are not clear, choline supplementation is important during pregnancy for brain development, in elderly patients for support of cognitive performance and in patients with neurological disorders to reduce memory deficits. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate whether choline administration in healthy adult rats beneficially impacts cognitive and locomotor performance, and associated oxidative and neurochemical outcomes. Two groups, control and choline, received tap water and choline bitartrate, respectively at the dose equivalent to adequate intake for five weeks. Food intake and body weight were monitored daily. Behavioral analysis comprising assessment of cognitive performance (by novel object recognition, passive avoidance and Morris Water Maze test) and locomotor performance (by Open field, Kondziela's inverted screen and beam walking test) were performed. Following testing, rats were decapitated and brain samples were collected for estimation of acetylcholine, redox profile and monoamine measurements. The results showed that chronic choline administration significantly improves cognitive and locomotor performance accompanied by a reduction in oxidative stress, enhanced cholinergic neurotransmission and monoamine levels in the brain of healthy adult rats. Hence, chronic choline intake was found to improve behavioral, oxidative and neurochemical outcomes in the normal population, so it can be suggested that choline tablets can be used as a safe and effective supplement for improving the neurological health of normal individuals and that they might also be beneficial in preventing cognitive and motor disorders later in life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Raised Vaginal Fluid Fibronectin Level Indicates Premature Rupture of Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Bhowmik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature rupture of membrane (PROM is one of the common complications of pregnancy that has major impact on fetal and neonatal outcome. It is the commonest clinical event where a normal pregnancy becomes suddenly a high-risk one for mother and fetus or neonate. Objective: The study was undertaken to investigate whether raised fibronectin level in vaginal fluid may indicate premature rupture of membrane. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka during the period of January 2006 to December 2007. A total of 114 pregnant women with gestational age 28th week up to 40th week were included. Sixty were PROM (Group I and 54 were non-PROM (Group II subjects. Fibronectin in vaginal fluid was measured by an immunochemical reaction by nephelometer. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 10.0. Results: The PROM patients had significantly higher concentration of fibronectin (225.77 ± 115.18 ng/mL compared to that in non-PROM subjects (8.04 ± 16.17 ng/mL (p < 0.001. Conclusion: It can be concluded that in cases of unequivocal rupture or intactness of the membranes, the result of the fibronectin test corresponds well with the clinical situation. So fibronectin is a sensitive test for detection of amniotic fluid in the vagina.

  11. Dietary iron intake, iron status, and gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuilin; Rawal, Shristi

    2017-12-01

    Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to iron deficiency and related adverse pregnancy outcomes and, as such, are routinely recommended for iron supplementation. Emerging evidence from both animal and population-based studies, however, has raised potential concerns because significant associations have been observed between greater iron stores and disturbances in glucose metabolism, including increased risk of type 2 diabetes among nonpregnant individuals. Yet, the evidence is uncertain regarding the role of iron in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a common pregnancy complication which has short-term and long-term adverse health ramifications for both women and their children. In this review, we critically and systematically evaluate available data examining the risk of GDM associated with dietary iron, iron supplementation, and iron status as measured by blood concentrations of several indicators. We also discuss major methodologic concerns regarding the available epidemiologic studies on iron and GDM. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Prenatal choline deficiency does not enhance hippocampal vulnerability after kainic acid-induced seizures in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J E; Tognoni, Christina M; Mellott, Tiffany J; Glenn, Melissa J; Blusztajn, Jan K; Williams, Christina L

    2011-09-21

    Choline is a vital nutrient needed during early development for both humans and rodents. Severe dietary choline deficiency during pregnancy leads to birth defects, while more limited deficiency during mid- to late pregnancy causes deficits in hippocampal plasticity in adult rodent offspring that are accompanied by cognitive deficits only when task demands are high. Because prenatal choline supplementation confers neuroprotection of the adult hippocampus against a variety of neural insults and aids memory, we hypothesized that prenatal choline deficiency may enhance vulnerability to neural injury. To examine this, adult offspring of rat dams either fed a control diet (CON) or one deficient in choline (DEF) during embryonic days 12-17 were given multiple injections (i.p.) of saline (control) or kainic acid to induce seizures and were euthanized 16 days later. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, DEF rats were not more susceptible to seizure induction and showed similar levels of seizure-induced hippocampal histopathology, GAD expression loss, upregulated hippocampal GFAP and growth factor expression, and increased dentate cell and neuronal proliferation as that seen in CON rats. Although prenatal choline deficiency compromises adult hippocampal plasticity in the intact brain, it does not appear to exacerbate the neuropathological response to seizures in the adult hippocampus at least shortly after excitotoxic injury. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceived psychosocial stress and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Kubo

    Full Text Available Growing evidence links perceived stress-a potentially modifiable psychosocial risk factor-with health behaviors and obesity. Yet little is known about the relationship between stress during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, particularly among women with pregnancy complications. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to examine associations between psychosocial stress during pregnancy and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes. We used baseline data from the Gestational Diabetes's Effects on Moms (GEM study: 1,353 women with gestational diabetes who delivered a term singleton within Kaiser Permanente Northern California were included. Perceived stress near the time of gestational diabetes diagnosis was measured using the validated Perceived Stress Scale (PSS10. Gestational weight gain was categorized according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations. Binomial regression analyses adjusted for gestational age and maternal age at the time of gestational diabetes diagnosis, and race/ethnicity and estimated rate ratios (RR and their 95% confidence interval (CI. Among women with a normal pregravid Body Mass Index (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2, there was a significant association between high (Q4 PSS score and risk of both exceeding and gaining below the Institute of Medicine recommendations compared to those with lower stress (Q1 [adjusted RR = 2.16 95% CI 1.45-3.21; RR = 1.39 95% CI 1.01-1.91, respectively.] Among women with pregravid overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2, there was no association. Although the temporal relationship could not be established from this study, there may be a complex interplay between psychosocial stress and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes. Further studies examining stress earlier in pregnancy, risk of developing gestational diabetes and excess/inadequate gestational weight gain are warranted to clarify these complex relationships.

  14. Hormones of Adipose Tissue and Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Payenok

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and gestational diabetes are the risk factors for complications both in the mother and in the fetus. Adipose tissue hormones (leptin, adiponectin, resistin are secreted by the human placenta and regulate the function of trophoblast. The review presents data from the literature on the role of adipocytokines in the development of gestational diabetes and preeclampsia in obese women. The article considers the criteria and algorithms for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes recommended by the World Health Organization and the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group.

  15. [Gestational diabetes insipidus during a twin pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mesmay, M; Rigouzzo, A; Bui, T; Louvet, N; Constant, I

    2013-02-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus is an uncommon clinical disease whose prevalence is approximately two to three pregnancies per 100,000. It may be isolated or associated with preeclampsia. We report a case of gestational diabetes insipidus in a twin pregnancy, originally isolated during two months, and secondarily complicated by HELLP-syndrome. We recall the specific pathophysiology of polyuric-polydipsic syndrome during pregnancy and summarize its various causes. Finally, we discuss the indications, in case of isolated gestational diabetes insipidus, of treatment by dDAVP. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  16. Uptake of [N-Me-3H]-choline by synaptosomes from the central nervous system of Locusta migratoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breer, H.

    1982-01-01

    The accumulation of 3H-choline by isolated synaptosomes from the central nervous system of locust was studied at concentrations varying from 0.05 to 40 microM. Kinetic analysis of the saturable process revealed a high-affinity and a low-affinity system. The high-affinity uptake was competitively inhibited by hemicholinium-3 and was absolutely dependent on external sodium. Elevated potassium concentrations inhibited choline uptake. The choline uptake by insect synaptosomes was found to be remarkably resistant to a variety of metabolic inhibitors. The reduced choline uptake under depolarizing conditions (high potassium concentration or veratridine) in the absence of calcium implies that electrochemical gradients are important for high-affinity choline uptake. Depolarization of preloaded synaptosomes under appropriate conditions resulted in a significant release of newly accumulated choline radioactivity

  17. Drugs Approved for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for gestational trophoblastic disease. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  18. The gestational age pattern of human mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöley, Jonas; Vaupel, James W.; Jacobsen, Rune

    -infant lifetable by gestational age spanning week 23 until week 100 after the last menstrual period of the mother. This joint lifetable shows a remarkable regularity in the gestational age profile of fetal- and infant mortality: Mortality rates are declining over the whole observed age range with the exception......In order to check hypotheses about the cause for "ontogenescense" -- the phenomenon of a declining force of mortality prior to maturity -- I analyse data on human mortality by gestational age. Based on extensive microdata on births, fetal- and infant deaths in the US 2009 I calculate a joint fetal...... of a "birth hump" peaking week 38. The absolute rate of decline slows down over age. The observed gestational age pattern of the force of mortality is consistent with three hypotheses concerning the causes for ontogenescense: 1) Adaptation: as the organism growths it becomes more resilient towards death, 2...

  19. Fetal programming and gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Lara J; Norman, Jane E; Rice, Gregory E; Illanes, Sebastián E

    2016-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is defined by new-onset glucose intolerance during pregnancy. About 2-5% of all pregnant women develop gestational diabetes during their pregnancies and the prevalence has increased considerably during the last decade. This metabolic condition is manifested when pancreatic β-cells lose their ability to compensate for increased insulin resistance during pregnancy, however, the pathogenesis of the disease remains largely unknown. Gestational diabetes is strongly associated with adverse pregnancy outcome as well as with long-term adverse effects on the offspring which likely occurs due to epigenetic modifications of the fetal genome. In the current review we address gestational diabetes and the short and long term complications for both mothers and offspring focusing on the importance of fetal programming in conferring risk of developing diseases in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Perceptions among women with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Judith; Ismail, Khalida; Amiel, Stephanie; Forbes, Angus

    2014-04-01

    Women with gestational diabetes are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes, which could be prevented or delayed by lifestyle modification. Lifestyle interventions need to take into account the specific situation of women with gestational diabetes. We aimed to gain a deeper understanding of women's experiences of gestational diabetes, their diabetes risk perceptions, and their views on type 2 diabetes prevention, to inform future lifestyle interventions. We conducted a metasynthesis that included 16 qualitative studies and identified 11 themes. Factors that require consideration when developing a type 2 diabetes prevention intervention in this population include addressing the emotional impact of gestational diabetes; providing women with clear and timely information about future diabetes risk; and offering an intervention that fits with women's multiple roles as caregivers, workers, and patients, and focuses on the health of the whole family.

  1. Raising venture capital in the biopharma industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leytes, Lev J

    2002-11-15

    Raising venture capital (VC) is both an art and a science. Future entrepreneurs should carefully consider the various issues of VC financing that have a strong impact on the success of their business. In addition to attracting the best venture capital firms, these issues include such subtle but important points as the timing of financing (especially of the first round), external support sources, desirable qualities of a VC firm, amount to be raised, establishing a productive interface between the founders and the venture capitalists, and most importantly the effects of well-executed VC funding on hiring senior executives and scientific leaders.

  2. Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans.To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study.A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses.Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF, percent trunk fat (%TF, percent android fat (%AF, percent gynoid fat (%GF and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all. Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001. Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes.Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are significantly associated with favorable body

  3. Choline kinase-alpha by regulating cell aggressiveness and drug sensitivity is a potential druggable target for ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Granata, A; Nicoletti, R; Tinaglia, V; De Cecco, L; Pisanu, M E; Ricci, A; Podo, F; Canevari, S; Iorio, E; Bagnoli, M; Mezzanzanica, D

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aberrant choline metabolism has been proposed as a novel cancer hallmark. We recently showed that epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) possesses an altered MRS-choline profile, characterised by increased phosphocholine (PCho) content to which mainly contribute over-expression and activation of choline kinase-alpha (ChoK-alpha). Methods: To assess its biological relevance, ChoK-alpha expression was downmodulated by transient RNA interference in EOC in vitro models. Gene expression profi...

  4. Gestational diabetes mellitus results in a higher prevalence of small for gestational age babies

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Avalos, G

    2011-09-01

    Background and aims: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased foetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that babies of diabetic mothers are more likely to be large for gestational age (LGA). This retrospective study aimed to assess whether the converse may also be true, that there may also a higher rate of small for gestational age (SGA) amongst babies of mothers with GDM.\\r\

  5. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    2004-01-01

    To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes.......To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....

  6. Understanding Gestational Diabetes: A Practical Guide to a Healthy Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This brochure addresses the problem of gestational diabetes and answers the most frequently asked questions about the disease. It begins by defining gestational diabetes and discussing its cause, then addresses such topics as: (1) how gestational diabetes differs from other types of diabetes; (2) who is at risk for developing gestational diabetes…

  7. Correlation between self-reported gestational age and ultrasound measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Thomsen, Sten Grove

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We studied the agreement between different measurements of gestational age, i.e. self-reported gestational age in the Danish National Birth Cohort Study, ultrasound-estimated gestational age from the medical records in one Danish county and gestational age from the Danish National...

  8. Detection of choline transporter-like 1 protein CTL1 in neuroblastoma × glioma cells and in the CNS, and its role in choline uptake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machová, Eva; O´Regan, S.; Newcombe, J.; Meunier, F. M.; Prentice, J.; Dove, R.; Lisá, Věra; Doležal, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 4 (2009), s. 1297-1309 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : CTL1 * choline * cell growth Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.999, year: 2009

  9. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  10. RAISING BRAND AWARENEES THROUGH INTERNET MARKETING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Išoraitė

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the opinions of different authors on brand awareness raising. It also describes and analyzes the concept of internet marketing, the implementation. The analysis of the most urgent and the most effective online marketing tools brand awareness. Article analysis website; internet advertising; social networks; search engine optimization.

  11. School Perceptions of Children Raised by Grandparents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Oliver W.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing numbers of children raised by grandparents are students in schools. Their substitute family structure and precursors to the emergence of this family structure have implications for the children's school performance. Research suggests teachers view these children as at risk for difficult school functioning. The aforementioned judgment is…

  12. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  13. Choline transporter mutations in severe congenital myasthenic syndrome disrupt transporter localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haicui; Salter, Claire G; Refai, Osama; Hardy, Holly; Barwick, Katy E S; Akpulat, Ugur; Kvarnung, Malin; Chioza, Barry A; Harlalka, Gaurav; Taylan, Fulya; Sejersen, Thomas; Wright, Jane; Zimmerman, Holly H; Karakaya, Mert; Stüve, Burkhardt; Weis, Joachim; Schara, Ulrike; Russell, Mark A; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A; Chilton, John; Blakely, Randy D; Baple, Emma L; Cirak, Sebahattin; Crosby, Andrew H

    2017-11-01

    The presynaptic, high-affinity choline transporter is a critical determinant of signalling by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at both central and peripheral cholinergic synapses, including the neuromuscular junction. Here we describe an autosomal recessive presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome presenting with a broad clinical phenotype due to homozygous choline transporter missense mutations. The clinical phenotype ranges from the classical presentation of a congenital myasthenic syndrome in one patient (p.Pro210Leu), to severe neurodevelopmental delay with brain atrophy (p.Ser94Arg) and extend the clinical outcomes to a more severe spectrum with infantile lethality (p.Val112Glu). Cells transfected with mutant transporter construct revealed a virtually complete loss of transport activity that was paralleled by a reduction in transporter cell surface expression. Consistent with these findings, studies to determine the impact of gene mutations on the trafficking of the Caenorhabditis elegans choline transporter orthologue revealed deficits in transporter export to axons and nerve terminals. These findings contrast with our previous findings in autosomal dominant distal hereditary motor neuropathy of a dominant-negative frameshift mutation at the C-terminus of choline transporter that was associated with significantly reduced, but not completely abrogated choline transporter function. Together our findings define divergent neuropathological outcomes arising from different classes of choline transporter mutation with distinct disease processes and modes of inheritance. These findings underscore the essential role played by the choline transporter in sustaining acetylcholine neurotransmission at both central and neuromuscular synapses, with important implications for treatment and drug selection. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Evaluation of the PET component of simultaneous [18F]choline PET/MRI in prostate cancer: comparison with [18F]choline PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetter, Axel; Lipponer, Christine; Nensa, Felix; Altenbernd, Jens-Christian; Schlosser, Thomas; Lauenstein, Thomas; Heusch, Philipp; Ruebben, Herbert; Bockisch, Andreas; Poeppel, Thorsten; Nagarajah, James

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the positron emission tomography (PET) component of [ 18 F]choline PET/MRI and compare it with the PET component of [ 18 F]choline PET/CT in patients with histologically proven prostate cancer and suspected recurrent prostate cancer. Thirty-six patients were examined with simultaneous [ 18 F]choline PET/MRI following combined [ 18 F]choline PET/CT. Fifty-eight PET-positive lesions in PET/CT and PET/MRI were evaluated by measuring the maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV max and SUV mean ) using volume of interest (VOI) analysis. A scoring system was applied to determine the quality of the PET images of both PET/CT and PET/MRI. Agreement between PET/CT and PET/MRI regarding SUV max and SUV mean was tested using Pearson's product-moment correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. All PET-positive lesions that were visible on PET/CT were also detectable on PET/MRI. The quality of the PET images was comparable in both groups. Median SUV max and SUV mean of all lesions were significantly lower in PET/MRI than in PET/CT (5.2 vs 6.1, p max of PET/CT and PET/MRI (R = 0.86, p mean of PET/CT and PET/MRI (R = 0.81, p max of PET/CT vs PET/MRI and -1.12 to +2.23 between SUV mean of PET/CT vs PET/MRI. PET image quality of PET/MRI was comparable to that of PET/CT. A highly significant correlation between SUV max and SUV mean was found. Both SUV max and SUV mean were significantly lower in [ 18 F]choline PET/MRI than in [ 18 F]choline PET/CT. Differences of SUV max and SUV mean might be caused by different techniques of attenuation correction. Furthermore, differences in biodistribution and biokinetics of [ 18 F]choline between the subsequent examinations and in the respective organ systems have to be taken into account. (orig.)

  15. Effect of change in posture on maternal functional hemodynamics at 35-37 weeks' gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, G P; Ling, H Z; Machuca, M; Poon, L C; Nicolaides, K H

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of posture change from the supine to the sitting position and before and after passive leg raising on maternal functional hemodynamics in pregnant women at 35-37 weeks' gestation, and to compare the changes in pregnancies that subsequently developed pre-eclampsia (PE) or gestational hypertension (GH) with those that remained normotensive. In 2764 singleton pregnancies at 35-37 weeks' gestation, maternal cardiovascular parameters were measured using an automated non-invasive cardiac monitor. The hemodynamic response to a change from the supine to the sitting position and before and after passive leg raising in the left lateral position was examined and compared between women who subsequently developed PE or GH and those who remained normotensive. In normotensive singleton pregnancies at 35-37 weeks' gestation, both change from the supine to the sitting position and passive leg raising were associated with an increase in cardiac index and stroke volume index and a decrease in total peripheral resistance index; there was a small increase in mean arterial pressure with both postural changes and a slight decrease in heart rate with passive leg raising. In pregnancies that subsequently developed PE or GH, compared with normotensive pregnancies, cardiac index and stroke volume index were lower and total peripheral resistance index was higher. In general, change from the supine to the sitting position and passive leg raising were associated with similar but less marked changes in cardiovascular parameters as in normotensive pregnancies. Paradoxically, in late third-trimester normal pregnancy, both change from the supine to a sitting position and passive leg raising may result in an increase in preload with a consequent increase in cardiac and stroke volume indices and a decrease in total peripheral resistance index. In pregnancies that develop PE or GH, the effects of postural change on cardiovascular parameters are similar but less marked than in

  16. Postnatal choline supplementation selectively attenuates hippocampal microRNA alterations associated with developmental alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaraman, Sridevi; Idrus, Nirelia M; Miranda, Rajesh C; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2017-05-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in a range of physical, neuropathological, and behavioral alterations, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We have shown that supplementation with the nutrient choline reduces the severity of developmental alcohol-associated deficits in hippocampal-dependent behaviors and normalizes some aspects of hippocampal cholinergic development and DNA methylation patterns. Alcohol's developmental effects may also be mediated, in part, by altering microRNAs (miRNAs) that serve as negative regulators of gene translation. To determine whether choline supplementation alters ethanol's long-lasting effects on miRNAs, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 5.25 g/kg/day ethanol from postnatal days (PD) 4-9 via intubation; controls received sham intubations. Subjects were treated with choline chloride (100 mg/kg/day) or saline vehicle subcutaneously (s.c.) from PD 4-21. On PD 22, subjects were sacrificed, and RNA was isolated from the hippocampus. MiRNA expression was assessed with TaqMan Human MicroRNA Panel Low-Density Arrays. Ethanol significantly increased miRNA expression variance, an effect that was attenuated with choline supplementation. Cluster analysis of stably expressed miRNAs that exceeded an ANOVA p < 0.05 criterion indicated that for both male and female offspring, control and ethanol-exposed groups were most dissimilar from each other, with choline-supplemented groups in between. MiRNAs that expressed an average 2-fold change due to ethanol exposure were further analyzed to identify which ethanol-sensitive miRNAs were protected by choline supplementation. We found that at a false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted criterion of p < 0.05, miR-200c was induced by ethanol exposure and that choline prevented this effect. Collectively, our data show that choline supplementation can normalize disturbances in miRNA expression following developmental alcohol exposure and can protect specific miRNAs from induction by

  17. Structure of choline oxidase in complex with the reaction product glycine betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Francesca; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Weber, Irene T; Gadda, Giovanni

    2014-02-01

    Choline oxidase from Arthrobacter globiformis, which is involved in the biosynthesis of glycine betaine from choline, has been extensively characterized in its mechanistic and structural properties. Despite the knowledge gained on the enzyme, the details of substrate access to the active site are not fully understood. The `loop-and-lid' mechanism described for the glucose-methanol-choline enzyme superfamily has not been confirmed for choline oxidase. Instead, a hydrophobic cluster on the solvent-accessible surface of the enzyme has been proposed by molecular dynamics to control substrate access to the active site. Here, the crystal structure of the enzyme was solved in complex with glycine betaine at pH 6.0 at 1.95 Å resolution, allowing a structural description of the ligand-enzyme interactions in the active site. This structure is the first of choline oxidase in complex with a physiologically relevant ligand. The protein structures with and without ligand are virtually identical, with the exception of a loop at the dimer interface, which assumes two distinct conformations. The different conformations of loop 250-255 define different accessibilities of the proposed active-site entrance delimited by the hydrophobic cluster on the other subunit of the dimer, suggesting a role in regulating substrate access to the active site.

  18. Enhancing the biodegradation of oil in sandy sediments with choline: A naturally methylated nitrogen compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, Behzad; Horel, Agota; Anders, Jennifer S.; Mirjafari, Arsalan; Beazley, Melanie J.; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated how additions of choline, a naturally occurring methylated nitrogen-containing compound, accelerated hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments contaminated with moderately weathered crude oil (4000 mg kg −1 sediment). Addition of lauroylcholine chloride (LCC) and tricholine citrate (TCC) to oil contaminated sediments resulted in 1.6 times higher hydrocarbon degradation rates compared to treatments without added choline derivatives. However, the degradation rate constant for the oil contaminated sediments amended with LCC was similar to that in contaminated sediments amended with inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, and glucose. Additions of LLC and TCC to sediments containing extensively weathered oil also resulted in enhanced mineralization rates. Cultivation-free 16S rRNA analysis revealed the presence of an extant microbial community with clones closely related to known hydrocarbon degraders from the Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla. The results demonstrate that the addition of minimal amounts of organic compounds to oil contaminated sediments enhances the degradation of hydrocarbons. -- Highlights: •Aerobic degradation of weathered crude oil in sandy sediments was determined. •The effect of input of choline on degradation rates was determined. •16S rRNA clone library analyses were used to examine the microbial phylogeny. •The bacterial community was consisted of clones related to hydrocarbon degraders. •Hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments was accelerated by addition of choline. -- Choline, a naturally occurring methylated nitrogen-containing compound, accelerated hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments by an extant microbial community

  19. Head raising analysis and case revaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ager Gondra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that Basque relative clause construction follows the Head Raising Analysis: the CP of the relative clause is a complement to the external D and the Head of the relative clause, base-generated inside the TP, moves to the specifier position of the CP. This analysis predicts that the raised DPwill show a TP-internal Case. However, this is not the case, and the DP manifests the Case associated with the main clause. In order to address these Case inconsistencies, Precariousness Condition is proposed. This condition states that a DCase valued u-feature is precarious until it is sent to Spell-Out and therefore, the value is visible for further targeting by a c-commanding Probe.  Evidence for this multiple Agree operation comes from a DP long distance extraction.

  20. Do Firms Go Public to Raise Capital?

    OpenAIRE

    Woojin Kim; Michael Weisbach

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the question of whether raising capital is an important reason why firms go public. Using a sample of 16,958 initial public offerings from 38 countries between 1990 and 2003, we consider differences between firms that sell new, primary shares to the public, and existing secondary shares that previously belonged to insiders. Our results suggest that the sale of primary shares is correlated with a number of factors associated with the firm's demand for capital. In particula...

  1. Wheat shorts in diets of gestating swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L G; King, G L

    1981-03-01

    Sixty-four gilts were assigned to be bred at first or third observed estrus and fed gestation diets of pelleted wheat shorts with a free choice mineral-vitamin supplement or fortified corn-soybean meal. Only the dietary effects are included in this report. The gilts were fed their respective diets starting at 25 days after insemination. The experiment continued through three gestation-lactation cycles. Females fed the wheat shorts received less digestible energy during gestation and weighed less at day 109 of gestation and days 1, 7 and 21 of lactation in each of the three gestation-lactation periods. Females fed wheat shorts had lighter pigs at birth, weaned more pigs per litter in each parity and returned to estrus more slowly after weaning than females fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Results of a metabolism trial conducted with 12 barrows revealed that wheat shorts contained approximately 2.93 kcal digestible energy/kg dry matter and had an apparent protein digestibility of 72%, compared with values of 4.0 kcal and 86%, respectively, for the corn-soybean meal diets.

  2. Determination of gestational age by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Kimberly; Lim, Ken

    2014-02-01

    To assist clinicians in assigning gestational age based on ultrasound biometry. To determine whether ultrasound dating provides more accurate gestational age assessment than menstrual dating with or without the use of ultrasound. To provide maternity health care providers and researchers with evidence-based guidelines for the assignment of gestational age. To determine which ultrasound biometric parameters are superior when gestational age is uncertain. To determine whether ultrasound gestational age assessment is cost effective. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library in 2013 using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (gestational age, ultrasound biometry, ultrasound dating). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies written in English. There were no date restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to July 31, 2013. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Accurate assignment of gestational age may reduce post-dates labour induction and may improve obstetric care through allowing the optimal timing of necessary interventions and the avoidance of unnecessary ones. More accurate dating allows for optimal performance of prenatal screening tests for aneuploidy. A national algorithm for the assignment of gestational age may reduce practice variations across Canada for clinicians and researchers. Potential harms include the possible reassignment of dates when significant fetal pathology

  3. Choline chloride based ionic liquid analogues as tool for the fabrication of agar films with improved mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present paper, we test the suitability of Choline-Cl/urea (DES-U) and Choline-Cl/glycerol (DES-G) eutectic mixtures at 1:2 molar ratios for the production of agar biodegradable films. A three-step process is proposed: pre-solubilization of polymer in DES followed by compression-molding and s...

  4. Dietary folate and choline status differentially affect lipid metabolism and behavior-mediated neurotransmitters in young rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between choline and folate metabolisms is an important issue due to the essential role of these nutrients in brain plasticity and cognitive functions. Present study was designed to investigate whether modification of the dietary folate-choline status in young rats would affect brain...

  5. Effects of CDP-choline on neurologic deficits and cerebral glucose metabolism in a rat model of cerebral ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakihana, M.; Fukuda, N.; Suno, M.; Nagaoka, A.

    1988-02-01

    The effects of cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) on neurologic deficits and cerebral glucose metabolism were studied in a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia was induced by occluding both common carotid arteries for 20 or 30 minutes 24 hours after the vertebral arteries were permanently occluded by electrocautery. CDP-choline was administered intraperitoneally twice daily for 4 days after reestablishing carotid blood flow. CDP-choline at two dosages (50 and 250 mg/kg) shortened the time required for recovery of spontaneous motor activity in a dose-related manner; recovery time was measured early after reperfusion. Neurologic signs were observed for 10 days. High-dose CDP-choline improved neurologic signs in the rats within 20-30 minutes of ischemia. When cerebral glucose metabolism was assessed on Day 4, increases in the levels of glucose and pyruvate were accompanied by decreases in the synthesis of labeled acetylcholine from uniformly labeled (/sup 14/C)glucose measured in the cerebral cortex of rats with 30 minutes of ischemia. High-dose CDP-choline also attenuated changes in these variables. CDP-(1,2-/sup 14/C)choline injected intravenously 10 minutes after reperfusion was used for membrane lipid biosynthesis. These results indicate that CDP-choline has beneficial effects on brain dysfunction induced by cerebral ischemia, which may be due in part to the restorative effects of CDP-choline on disturbed cerebral glucose metabolism, probably by stimulating phospholipid biosynthesis.

  6. Effects of CDP-choline on neurologic deficits and cerebral glucose metabolism in a rat model of cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakihana, M.; Fukuda, N.; Suno, M.; Nagaoka, A.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) on neurologic deficits and cerebral glucose metabolism were studied in a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia was induced by occluding both common carotid arteries for 20 or 30 minutes 24 hours after the vertebral arteries were permanently occluded by electrocautery. CDP-choline was administered intraperitoneally twice daily for 4 days after reestablishing carotid blood flow. CDP-choline at two dosages (50 and 250 mg/kg) shortened the time required for recovery of spontaneous motor activity in a dose-related manner; recovery time was measured early after reperfusion. Neurologic signs were observed for 10 days. High-dose CDP-choline improved neurologic signs in the rats within 20-30 minutes of ischemia. When cerebral glucose metabolism was assessed on Day 4, increases in the levels of glucose and pyruvate were accompanied by decreases in the synthesis of labeled acetylcholine from uniformly labeled [ 14 C]glucose measured in the cerebral cortex of rats with 30 minutes of ischemia. High-dose CDP-choline also attenuated changes in these variables. CDP-[1,2- 14 C]choline injected intravenously 10 minutes after reperfusion was used for membrane lipid biosynthesis. These results indicate that CDP-choline has beneficial effects on brain dysfunction induced by cerebral ischemia, which may be due in part to the restorative effects of CDP-choline on disturbed cerebral glucose metabolism, probably by stimulating phospholipid biosynthesis

  7. A Facile, Choline Chloride/Urea Catalyzed Solid Phase Synthesis of Coumarins via Knoevenagel Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosanagara N. Harishkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid in solid phase on the Knoevenagel condensation is demonstrated. The active methylene compounds such as meldrum’s acid, diethylmalonate, ethyl cyanoacetate, dimethylmalonate, were efficiently condensed with various salicylaldehydes in presence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid without using any solvents or additional catalyst. The reaction is remarkably facile because of the air and water stability of the catalyst, and needs no special precautions. The reactions were completed within 1hr with excellent yields (95%. The products formed were sufficiently pure, and can be easily recovered. The use of ionic liquid choline chloride/urea in solid phase offered several significant advantages such as low cost, greater selectivity and easy isolation of products.

  8. Selective retrograde labeling of cholinergic neurons with [3H]choline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnoli, P.; Beaudet, A.; Stella, M.; Cuenod, M.

    1981-01-01

    Evidence is presented which is consistent with a specific retrograde labeling of cholinergic neurons following [ 3 H]choline application in their zone of termination. [ 3 H]Choline injection in the rat hippocampus leads to perikaryal retrograde labeling in the ipsilateral medial septal nuclease and nucleus of the diagonal band, thus delineating an established cholinergic pathway, while only diffuse presumably anterograde labeling was observed in the lateral septum, the entorhinal cortex, and the opposite hippocampus. After [ 3 H]choline injection in the pigeon visual Wulst, only the ipsilateral thalamic relay, of all inputs, showed similar perikaryal retrograde labeling, an observation supporting the suggestion that at least some thalamo-Wulst neurons are cholinergic

  9. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates to Furanic Derivatives in the Presence of Choline Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Jérôme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of furanic derivatives (5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, furfural… from carbohydrates is of high interest for a wide range of applications. These reactions are carried out in the presence of various solvents, and among them choline chloride can be used. It is a salt that can form a low melting mixture with a carbohydrate (fructose, glucose… or a deep eutectic mixture with carboxylic acid. A review of the studies performed in the conversion of carbohydrates to furanic derivatives in the presence of choline chloride is presented here with the advantages and drawbacks of this solvent. Choline chloride can enhance the selectivity to HMF by stabilizing effect and allows the conversion of highly concentrated feed. However, the extraction of the products from these solvents still needs improvement.

  10. Synthesis and study of thiocarbonate derivatives of choline as potential inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, N A; Talesa, V; Giovannini, E; Rosi, G; Norton, S J

    1997-09-12

    Fourteen alkyl and aryl thiocarbonate derivatives of choline were synthesized and studied as potential inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Twelve of the compounds inhibited AChEs derived from calf forebrain, human red blood cells, and octopus brain ranging from low to moderately high inhibition potency. The concentration of each inhibitory compound giving 50% inhibition of enzyme activity (IC50 values, which ranged from 1 x 10(-2) to 8 x 10(-7) M) was determined and is reported; inhibitor constants (Ki values) for the most inhibitory compounds, (1-pentylthiocarbonyl)choline chloride and (1-heptylthiocarbonyl)choline chloride, were calculated from kinetic data and are also reported. The inhibitors are competitive with substrate, and they are not hydrolyzed by the AChE activities. Certain of these new compounds may provide direction for the development of new drugs that have anticholinesterase activity and may be used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Review on Carbon Dioxide Absorption by Choline Chloride/Urea Deep Eutectic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima J. Isaifan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past few years, deep eutectic solvents (DESs were developed sharing similar characteristics to ionic liquids but with more advantageous features related to preparation cost, environmental impact, and efficiency for gas separation processes. Amongst many combinations of DES solvents that have been prepared, reline (choline chloride as the hydrogen bond acceptor mixed with urea as the hydrogen bond donor was the first DES synthesized and is still the one with the lowest melting point. Choline chloride/urea DES has proven to be a promising solvent as an efficient medium for carbon dioxide capture when compared with amine alone or ionic liquids under the same conditions. This review sheds light on the preparation method, physical and chemical characteristics, and the CO2 absorption capacity of choline chloride/urea DES under different temperatures and pressures reported up to date.

  12. Immunohistochemical localization of two types of choline acetyltransferase in neurons and sensory cells of the octopus arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, Yuko; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Kimura, Shin; D'Este, Loredana; Takeuchi, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Cholinergic structures in the arm of the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris were studied by immunohistochemistry using specific antisera for two types (common and peripheral) of acetylcholine synthetic enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT): antiserum raised against the rat common type ChAT (cChAT), which is cross-reactive with molluscan cChAT, and antiserum raised against the rat peripheral type ChAT (pChAT), which has been used to delineate peripheral cholinergic structures in vertebrates, but not previously in invertebrates. Western blot analysis of octopus extracts revealed a single pChAT-positive band, suggesting that pChAT antiserum is cross-reactive with an octopus counterpart of rat pChAT. In immunohistochemistry, only neuronal structures of the octopus arm were stained by cChAT and pChAT antisera, although the pattern of distribution clearly differed between the two antisera. cChAT-positive varicose nerve fibers were observed in both the cerebrobrachial tract and neuropil of the axial nerve cord, while pChAT-positive varicose fibers were detected only in the neuropil of the axial nerve cord. After epitope retrieval, pChAT-positive neuronal cells and their processes became visible in all ganglia of the arm, including the axial and intramuscular nerve cords, and in ganglia of suckers. Moreover, pChAT-positive structures also became detectable in nerve fibers connecting the different ganglia, in smooth nerve fibers among muscle layers and dermal connective tissues, and in sensory cells of the suckers. These results suggest that the octopus arm has two types of cholinergic nerves: cChAT-positive nerves from brain ganglia and pChAT-positive nerves that are intrinsic to the arm.

  13. Factors affecting gestation duration in the bitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilts, Bruce E; Davidson, Autumn P; Hosgood, Giselle; Paccamonti, Dale L; Baker, David G

    2005-07-15

    A retrospective analysis was performed to determine the effects of age, breed, parity, and litter size on the duration of gestation in the bitch. Bitches at two locations were monitored from breeding to whelping. A total of 764 litters whelped from 308 bitches (36 large hounds, 34 Golden Retrievers, 23 German Shepherd Dogs (GSD), and 215 Labrador Retrievers). By breed, the number of whelpings was 152, 72, 58, and 482 for the hounds, Golden Retrievers, German Shepherd Dogs, and Labrador Retrievers, respectively. Whelping was predicted to be 57 d from the first day of cytologic diestrus in the hounds or 65 d from the initial progesterone rise in the other breeds. The average gestation duration (calculated as 8 d prior to Day 1 of cytologic diestrus in hounds or measured from the initial progesterone rise in other breeds) by breed (days +/- S.D.) was 66.0 +/- 2.8, 64.7 +/- 1.5, 63.6 +/- 2.1, and 62.9 +/- 1.3 for the hounds, Golden Retrievers, German Shepherd Dogs, and Labrador Retrievers, respectively. The relationship of age, breed, parity, and litter size with the difference in gestation duration was evaluated using log linear modeling. Age or parity had no effect on gestation duration. Compared to Labrador Retrievers, the German Shepherd Dogs, Golden Retrievers and hounds were more likely to have a longer gestation duration; three, four and nearly eight times as likely, respectively. Bitches whelping four or fewer pups were significantly more likely to have a longer gestation duration than those whelping five or more pups; the prolongation averaging 1 d.

  14. Genetic impairments in folate enzymes increase dependence on dietary choline for phosphatidylcholine production at the expense of betaine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Ariel B; Shields, Kelsey; Fomin, Vlad G; Lopez, Yusnier S; Mohan, Sanjay; Lovesky, Jessica; Chuang, Jasmine C; Ganti, Anita; Carrier, Bradley; Yan, Jian; Taeswuan, Siraphat; Cohen, Vanessa V; Swersky, Camille C; Stover, Julie A; Vitiello, Gerardo A; Malysheva, Olga V; Mudrak, Erika; Caudill, Marie A

    2016-10-01

    Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in folate-mediated pathways predict susceptibility to choline deficiency during severe choline deprivation, it is unknown if effects persist at recommended intakes. Thus, we used stable isotope liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methodology to examine the impact of candidate SNPs on choline metabolism in a long-term, randomized, controlled feeding trial among pregnant, lactating, and nonpregnant (NP) women consuming 480 or 930 mg/d choline (22% as choline-d 9 , with d 9 indicating a deuterated trimethyl amine group) and meeting folate-intake recommendations. Variants impairing folate metabolism, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) rs1801133, methionine synthase (MTR) rs1805087 [wild-type (WT)], MTR reductase (MTRR) rs1801394, and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (MTHFD1) rs2236225, influenced choline dynamics, frequently through interactions with reproductive state and choline intake, with fewer genotypic alterations observed among pregnant women. Women with these variants partitioned more dietary choline toward phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis via the cytidine diphosphate (CDP)-choline pathway at the expense of betaine synthesis even when use of betaine as a methyl donor was increased. Choline intakes of 930 mg/d restored partitioning of dietary choline between betaine and CDP-PC among NP (MTHFR rs1801133 and MTR rs1805087 WT) and lactating (MTHFD1 rs2236225) women with risk genotypes. Overall, our findings indicate that loss-of-function variants in folate-metabolizing enzymes strain cellular PC production, possibly via impaired folate-dependent phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT)-PC synthesis, and suggest that women with these risk genotypes may benefit from choline intakes exceeding current recommendations.-Ganz, A. B., Shields, K., Fomin, V. G., Lopez, Y. S., Mohan, S., Lovesky, J., Chuang, J

  15. Choline and its metabolites are differently associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, cardiovascular history and MRI documented cerebrovascular disease in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: There is a potential role of choline in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease through its involvement in lipid and one-carbon metabolism. Objective: We evaluated the associations of plasma choline and choline-related compounds with cardiometabolic risk factors, history of cardiovas...

  16. An electrochemiluminescence-based fibre optic biosensor for choline flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafack, V C; Marquette, C A; Leca, B; Blum, L J

    2000-01-01

    A fibre optic biosensor based on luminol electrochemiluminescence (ECL) integrated in a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was developed for the detection of choline. The electrochemiluminescence of luminol was generated by a glassy carbon electrode polarised at +425 mV vs. a platinum pseudo-reference electrode. Choline oxidase (Chx) was immobilised either covalently on polyamide (ABC type) or on UltraBind preactivated membranes, or by physical entrapment in a photo-cross-linkable poly(vinyl alcohol) polymer (PVA-SbQ) alone or after absorption on a weak anion exchanger, DEAE (diethylaminoethyl) Sepharose. The optimisation of the reaction conditions and physicochemical parameters influencing the FIA biosensor response demonstrated that the choline biosensor exhibited the best performances in a 30 mM veronal buffer containing 30 mM KCl and 1.5 mM MgCl2, at pH 9. The use of a 0.5 ml min-1 flow rate enabled the measurement of choline by the membrane-based ECL biosensors in 8 or 5 min, with ABC or UltraBind membranes, respectively, whereas the measurement required only 3 min with the DEAE-PVA system. For comparison, the detection of choline was performed with Chx immobilised using the four different supports. The best performances were obtained with the DEAE-PVA-Chx sensing layer, which allowed a detection limit of 10 pmol, whereas with the ABC, the UltraBind and the PVA systems, the detection limits were 300 pmol, 75 pmol and 220 pmol, respectively. The DEAE-based system also exhibited a good operational stability since 160 repeated measurements of 3 nmol of choline could be performed with an RSD of 4.5% whereas the stability under the best conditions was 45 assays with the other supports.

  17. Role of carbon-11 choline PET/CT in the management of uterine carcinoma. Initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofue, Keitaro; Sawada, Morio; Arai, Yasuaki; Tateishi, Ukihide; Inoue, Tomio; Maeda, Tetsuo; Sugimura, Kazuro; Terauchi, Takashi; Kano, Daisuke

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to clarify the role of carbon-11 choline ( 11 C-choline) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in the management of uterine carcinoma. Twenty-two patients who underwent 11 C-choline PET/CT and pelvic MRI were evaluated retrospectively. The images were reviewed by a board-certified radiologist and a nuclear medicine specialist who were unaware of any clinical information, and a consensus was reached. Diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT was evaluated for staging. The reference standard consisted of histological examination (n=17) and follow-up conventional CT (n=5). In five patients with cervical carcinoma, 11 C-choline PET/CT was performed before and after treatment that consisted of cisplatin infusion and subsequent radiotherapy. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was compared with unidimensional and volumetric measurements that were made on magnetic resonance images (MRI) before and after treatment. Based on PET/CT interpretations, the reviewers correctly classified tumor (T) stage in 8 patients (47%), nodes (N) stage in 21 patients (96%), metastasis (M) stage in 20 patients (91%), and tumor, nodes and metastasis (TNM) stage in 15 patients (88%). Tumor size, volume, and SUV decreased after treatment in five patients with cervical carcinoma. Using the Pearson correlation test, a significant correlation was found between the reduction rate of SUV and reduction rate of tumor volume. 11 C-choline PET/CT is an accurate means for the management of patients with uterine carcinoma. The combination of 11 C-choline PET/CT and MRI increases the accuracy of staging in patients with uterine carcinoma. (author)

  18. Prostate cancer: concordance between "1"8F-choline PET and CT in biochemical relapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herández Pinzón, J.; Ferrarotti, C.; Ferrari, L.; Larrañaga, N.; Gallo, J.C.; Mena, D.; Bastianello, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To establish the concordance between 18-fluor choline positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) for re-staging patients with biochemical relapse of prostate cancer according to the TNM system. Materials and methods: The medical records of the Molecular Imaging Section were retrospectively reviewed. The TNM classification was established by us for each method, and the Kappa concordance statistic was used to classify the results according to the Landis and Koch proposal. Results: The PET-choline reported 19 (59.4%) patients N0 and 13 (40.6%) N1, while CT reported 28 (87.5%) N0 and 4 (12.5%) N1. In metastasis classification PET-choline established M0 in 17 (53.1%) patients, M1a in 1 (3.1%), M1b in 5 (15.6%), M1c in 1 (3.1%), M1a + M1b in 7 (21.9%), and M1b + M1c in 1 (3.1%). On the other hand, CT was M0 in 23 (71.9%) patients, M1a in 2 (6.25%), M1a + M1b in 2 (6.25%), and M1b + M1c in 5 (15.6%). The correlation between PET-choline and CT in the TNM lymph node and metastasis classifications was 71.88%, with a Kappa of 0.3455 (standard error 0.1336; P=.0049) and 62.5% with Kappa 0.3725 (standard error 0.0847; P=.0001), respectively. Discussion: Several studies have shown a high diagnostic accuracy of PET-choline detecting the spread of the disease compared to conventional methods. Conclusion: There is poor concordance for metastatic and lymph node classifications according to the TNM system between choline-PET and CT. (authors) [es

  19. Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Infantile Colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndregaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard

    Background Infantile colic is a condition of unknown origin characterized by paroxysms of crying during the first months of life. A few studies have identified low birth weight (BW) as a risk factor among infants born at term, while the association between gestational age (GA) and infantile colic...... interviews of the mother during pregnancy and post partum. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (in brackets) are presented. Infantile colic was defined as crying for more than three hours per day and for more than three days per week (modified Wessel’s criteria). Results A total of 4...... with GA gestational weeks 32-40. Finally, after adjusting for GA...

  20. Live weight and body measurements of male and female native ducks raised in different raising systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Önk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine live weight and body measurements of male and female native ducks raised in different raising systems. One hundred and twenty native ducks (60 males, 60 females were used in the study. The ducks were raised in deep litter floor and cage systems. Live weight and body values were measured every two weeks, until they were 56 days old. Three-parameter logistic regression and Gompertz model were used to determine growth model of male and female ducks. Interactions of time-raising system and time-sex were statistically significant in terms of live weight. At the end of eight weeks, live weights of ducks raised in deep litter floor were higher than ducks raised in cage system. In addition, live weights of male ducks were higher than female ducks. Consequently, deep litter floor is more appropriate for live weight in native ducks. Accuracy rate of Three-parameter Logistic and Gompertz models for estimation of growth in ducks was between 0.91-0.95 and similar results were obtained from both models. The Gompertz model is appropriate for the data structure of this study because it contains fewer iterations than the Three-Parameter Logistic model.

  1. Effect of quinolinic acid in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis on cortical high-affinity choline uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalf, R.H.; Boegman, R.J.; Quirion, R.; Riopelle, R.J.; Ludwin, S.K.

    1987-08-01

    A transient 45% increase in cortical high-affinity choline uptake (HACU) was observed after an injection of quinolinic acid (QUIN) into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nbM) of the rat. This was followed by a steady decline in choline uptake, which resulted in a 46% decrease by day 7. Specific (/sup 3/H)hemicholinium-3 binding to coronal brain sections showed a similar pattern following injections of QUIN into the nbM. The increase in cortical HACU elicited by QUIN appeared to be dose dependent.

  2. A mechanism for suppression of the CDP-choline pathway during apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Craig C.; Aitchison, Adam J.; Gehrig, Karsten; Ridgway, Neale D.

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of the CDP-choline pathway during apoptosis restricts the availability of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) for assembly of membranes and synthesis of signaling factors. The N-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS) in CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT)α is removed during apoptosis but the caspase(s) involved and the contribution to suppression of the CDP-choline pathway is unresolved. In this study we utilized siRNA silencing of caspases in HEK293 cells and caspase 3-defi...

  3. Omega 3 fatty acids, gestation and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larqué, Elvira; Gil-Sánchez, Alfonso; Prieto-Sánchez, María Teresa; Koletzko, Berthold

    2012-06-01

    Pregnancy is associated with a reduction in maternal serum docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) percentage and its possible depletion in the maternal store. Since the synthesis of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in the fetus and placenta is low, both the maternal LCPUFA status and placental function are critical for their supply to the fetus. Maternal supplementation with DHA up to 1 g/d or 2·7 g n-3 LCPUFA did not have any harmful effect. DHA supplementation in large studies slightly the enhanced length of gestation (by about 2 days), which may increase the birth weight by about 50 g at delivery. However no advice can be given on their general using to avoid preterm deliveries in low or high risk pregnancies. Several studies, but not all, reported improvements of the offspring in some neurodevelopmental tests as a result of DHA supplementation during gestation, or, at least, positive relationships between maternal or cord serum DHA percentages and cognitive skills in young children. The effect seems more evident in children with low DHA proportions, which raises the question of how to identify those mothers who might have a poor DHA status and who could benefit from such supplementation. Most studies on the effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy on maternal depression were judged to be of low-to-moderate quality, mainly due to small sample sizes and failure to adhere to Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials guidelines. In contrast, the effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on reducing allergic diseases in offspring are promising.

  4. Linear quantum optical bare raising operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Jennifer C. J.; Oi, Daniel K. L.; Jeffers, John

    2017-11-01

    We propose a simple implementation of the bare raising operator on coherent states via conditional measurement, which succeeds with high probability and fidelity. This operation works well not only on states with a Poissonian photon number distribution but also for a much wider class of states. As a part of this scheme, we highlight an experimentally testable effect in which a single photon is induced through a highly reflecting beamsplitter by a large amplitude coherent state, with probability 1/e(≈ 37 % ) in the limit of large coherent state amplitude.

  5. 29 CFR 780.123 - Raising of bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of bees. 780.123 Section 780.123 Labor Regulations... Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.123 Raising of bees. The term “raising of * * * bees” refers to all of those activities customarily performed in connection with the...

  6. CASE REPORT A recurrent gestational choriocarcinoma case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    molar pregnancy (Luna Russo et al., 2015). To our knowledge recurrence resulting in rupture 14 month following a live pregnancy is an extremely rare event. Management of gestational trophoblastic disease in our setup poses multiple challenges as seen in this particular case. Serum β-HCG follow up for these patients ...

  7. High-Fibre feeding in gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meunier-Salaün, M.C.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Gestating sows are usually fed low levels of feed, which may not provide sufficient satiety, and does not allow sows to fully fulfil their motivation to express foraging and feeding behaviours. Feed restriction may therefore lead to high occurrences of non-feeding oral activities, including

  8. Mothers after Gestational Diabetes in Australia (MAGDA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O’Reilly, Sharleen L.; Dunbar, James A.; Versace, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an increasingly prevalent risk factor for type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the effectiveness of a group-based lifestyle modification program in mothers with prior GDM within their first postnatal year. Methods and Findings: In this study, 573 women...

  9. Serum chromium levels in gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P G Sundararaman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To measure serum chromium level in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM from Chennai, South India. Materials and Methods: Thirty women with gestational diabetes, 60 age matched controls. Inclusion criteria: Gestational age 22-28 weeks, age group 20-35 years. Exclusion Criteria: Gestational age beyond 28 weeks, malnutrition or presence of infection. Serum chromium was measured using inductive couple plasma emission spectrometer. Results: Serum chromium levels of women with GDM, 1.59+/-0.02 ng/ml (range: 0.16-4.0 ng/ml were lower than in controls (4.58+/-0.62 ng/ml; range 0.82-5.33 ng/ml (P < 0.001. However, there were no significant differences among cases and controls when subdivided by parity. Conclusions: Women with GDM from a South Indian city had lower levels of serum chromium compared to pregnant women without GDM. Studies may be done whether chromium supplementation is useful in this group of women.

  10. Gestation period and twinning in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEACOCK, L J; ROGERS, C M

    1959-04-10

    The length of the gestation period in 118 births in a colony of chimpanzees was found to be 226.8 days, with a standard deviation of 13.3 and a range of 196 to 260 days. Six pairs of twins were born in 120 parturitions; thus the apparent twinning rate is higher than that in man.

  11. Iron, Oxidative Stress and Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taifeng Zhuang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both iron deficiency and hyperglycemia are highly prevalent globally for pregnant women. Iron supplementation is recommended during pregnancy to control iron deficiency. The purposes of the review are to assess the oxidative effects of iron supplementation and the potential relationship between iron nutrition and gestational diabetes. High doses of iron (~relative to 60 mg or more daily for adult humans can induce lipid peroxidation in vitro and in animal studies. Pharmaceutical doses of iron supplements (e.g., 10× RDA or more for oral supplements or direct iron supplementation via injection or addition to the cell culture medium for a short or long duration will induce DNA damage. Higher heme-iron intake or iron status measured by various biomarkers, especially serum ferritin, might contribute to greater risk of gestational diabetes, which may be mediated by iron oxidative stress though lipid oxidation and/or DNA damage. However, information is lacking about the effect of low dose iron supplementation (≤60 mg daily on lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and gestational diabetes. Randomized trials of low-dose iron supplementation (≤60 mg daily for pregnant women are warranted to test the relationship between iron oxidative stress and insulin resistance/gestational diabetes, especially for iron-replete women.

  12. Gestational surrogacy: Viewpoint of Iranian infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Azad; Sattarzadeh, Nilofar; Gholizadeh, Leila; Sheikhalipour, Zahra; Allahbakhshian, Atefeh; Hassankhani, Hadi

    2011-09-01

    Surrogacy is a popular form of assisted reproductive technology of which only gestational form is approved by most of the religious scholars in Iran. Little evidence exists about the Iranian infertile women's viewpoint regarding gestational surrogacy. To assess the viewpoint of Iranian infertile women toward gestational surrogacy. This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The study sample consisted of 238 infertile women who were selected using the eligible sampling method. Data were collected by using a researcher developed questionnaire that included 25 items based on a five-point Likert scale. Data analysis was conducted by SPSS statistical software using descriptive statistics. Viewpoint of 214 women (89.9%) was positive. 36 (15.1%) women considered gestational surrogacy against their religious beliefs; 170 women (71.4%) did not assume the commissioning couple as owners of the baby; 160 women (67.2%) said that children who were born through surrogacy would better not know about it; and 174 women (73.1%) believed that children born through surrogacy will face mental problems. Iranian infertile women have positive viewpoint regarding the surrogacy. However, to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile women, further efforts are needed.

  13. Gestational surrogacy: Viewpoint of Iranian infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Rahmani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surrogacy is a popular form of assisted reproductive technology of which only gestational form is approved by most of the religious scholars in Iran. Little evidence exists about the Iranian infertile women′s viewpoint regarding gestational surrogacy. Aim: To assess the viewpoint of Iranian infertile women toward gestational surrogacy. Setting and Design: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 238 infertile women who were selected using the eligible sampling method. Data were collected by using a researcher developed questionnaire that included 25 items based on a five-point Likert scale. 0 Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was conducted by SPSS statistical software using descriptive statistics. 0 Results: Viewpoint of 214 women (89.9% was positive. 36 (15.1% women considered gestational surrogacy against their religious beliefs; 170 women (71.4% did not assume the commissioning couple as owners of the baby; 160 women (67.2% said that children who were born through surrogacy would better not know about it; and 174 women (73.1% believed that children born through surrogacy will face mental problems. Conclusion: Iranian infertile women have positive viewpoint regarding the surrogacy. However, to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile women, further efforts are needed.

  14. Screening for gestational diabetes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benhalima, Katrien; Damm, Peter; van Assche, Andre

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM) is rising globally and it represents an important modifiable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. GDM is also associated with negative long-term health outcomes for both mothers and offspring. Acceptance and implementation of the 2013 World Health...

  15. Gestational trophoblastic disease following complete hydatidiform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gestational trophoblastic disease following complete hydatidiform mole in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. ... The main outcome measures were pre- and post-evacuation serum hCG levels and complications associated with oral methotrexate use. Results : The prevalence of CHM was 3.42 per 1,000 deliveries.

  16. Gestational Age and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atladóttir, H Ó; Schendel, D.E.; Henriksen, T B

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder. Several previous studies have identified pre-term birth as a risk factor for ASD but none has studied whether the association between gestational age and ASD has changed over time. This is a Danish population-based follow...

  17. an alternative therapy for gestational diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic effects of glibenclamide in fetuses of normoglycemic rats: an alternative therapy for gestational diabetes mellitus. ... However, GLIB animals presented a light brownish precipitate into the center-lobular veins and in the liver parenchyma among the hepatocytes. These results indicated a possible passage of the drug ...

  18. Characterization and detection of a widely distributed gene cluster that predicts anaerobic choline utilization by human gut bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-del Campo, Ana; Bodea, Smaranda; Hamer, Hilary A; Marks, Jonathan A; Haiser, Henry J; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Balskus, Emily P

    2015-04-14

    Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the human gut microbiota's effects on health and disease has been complicated by difficulties in linking metabolic functions associated with the gut community as a whole to individual microorganisms and activities. Anaerobic microbial choline metabolism, a disease-associated metabolic pathway, exemplifies this challenge, as the specific human gut microorganisms responsible for this transformation have not yet been clearly identified. In this study, we established the link between a bacterial gene cluster, the choline utilization (cut) cluster, and anaerobic choline metabolism in human gut isolates by combining transcriptional, biochemical, bioinformatic, and cultivation-based approaches. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis and in vitro biochemical characterization of two cut gene products linked the entire cluster to growth on choline and supported a model for this pathway. Analyses of sequenced bacterial genomes revealed that the cut cluster is present in many human gut bacteria, is predictive of choline utilization in sequenced isolates, and is widely but discontinuously distributed across multiple bacterial phyla. Given that bacterial phylogeny is a poor marker for choline utilization, we were prompted to develop a degenerate PCR-based method for detecting the key functional gene choline TMA-lyase (cutC) in genomic and metagenomic DNA. Using this tool, we found that new choline-metabolizing gut isolates universally possessed cutC. We also demonstrated that this gene is widespread in stool metagenomic data sets. Overall, this work represents a crucial step toward understanding anaerobic choline metabolism in the human gut microbiota and underscores the importance of examining this microbial community from a function-oriented perspective. Anaerobic choline utilization is a bacterial metabolic activity that occurs in the human gut and is linked to multiple diseases. While bacterial genes responsible for

  19. Preterm birth and small for gestational age in relation to alcohol consumption during pregnancy: stronger associations among vulnerable women? results from two large Western-European studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfinder, M.; Kunst, A.E.; Feldmann, R.; van Eijsden, M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inconsistent data on the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and a range of pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth (PTB) and small for gestational age (SGA) raise new questions. This study aimed to assess whether the association between low-moderate prenatal alcohol exposure

  20. Preterm birth and small for gestational age in relation to alcohol consumption during pregnancy: stronger associations among vulnerable women? Results from two large Western-European studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfinder, Manuela; Kunst, Anton E.; Feldmann, Reinhold; van Eijsden, Manon; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Inconsistent data on the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and a range of pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth (PTB) and small for gestational age (SGA) raise new questions. This study aimed to assess whether the association between low-moderate prenatal alcohol exposure and PTB and

  1. Fluoxetine effect on gestation and fetal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ösz Bianca Eugenia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs is very controversial. There is no conclusive evidence for increased risk of malformations after SSRI use in pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine how fluoxetine is affecting gestation and fetal development in rats. Twenty sexually mature female Wistar rats weighting between 250-260 g received 20 mg/kg body weight fluoxetine from the first day of gestation and during the entire gestation period.The drug was administered by oral route. Healthy, primipareus animals were selected along with 20 female Wistar rats, as control group. Mature males were caged with virgin females for an entire week. Rat’s behaviour during gestation, after birth and rats body weight was examined. The number of healthy pups was also noted. The females not giving birth after 21 days to any pup were anesthetized (halothane through gas scavenging apparatus untilled death and the gravid uterus were dissected out and examined. Compared to the controlled group, in which weight gain was more significant, the animals from the experimental group had a slight increase in body weight. The weight gain normally induced by gestation, is less significant in fluoxetine treated rats due to the increase serotonin levels in the brain. The uteri examination of pregnant rats showed an increase in the number of dead and resorbed rat embryos. Preclinical studies suggest that the inclusion of fluoxetine in pregnancy category C is justified and the appropriateness of its administration in pregnancy is still an unresolved issue.

  2. Diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (WS 331-2011)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Medical Service Specialty Standard Committee of Mi

    2012-01-01

    The criteria provide the screening and diagnosis for gestational diabetes mellitus and it should be applied to all medical institutions and health care practitioners for gestational diabetes mellitus (DM) diagnosis in China.

  3. Effect of CDP-choline on the biosynthesis of phospholipids in brain regions during hypoxic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberghina, M.; Viola, M.; Serra, I.; Mistretta, A.; Giuffrida, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Acute administration of CDP-choline (i.p. 100 mg/Kg b.w.), 10 min before the intraventricular injection of labeled precursors, [2-3H] glycerol and [1-14C]-palmitate, was able to correct the impairment caused by hypoxic treatment of lipid metabolism in some brain regions, ie, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, and brainstem. After CDP-choline treatment, an increase of the specific radioactivity of total lipids and of phospholipids was observed in mitochondria purified from the three above-mentioned brain regions of the hypoxic animals, while no effect on the other subcellular fractions was found. CDP-Choline had a stimulating effect particularly on the incorporation of both precursors into mitochondrial PC, PE, and polyglycerophosphatides isolated form the three brain regions examined. The results obtained show that the action of CDP-choline in restoring lipid metabolism was more pronounced in brain mitochondria, which, among subcellular fractions, were the most affected by the hypoxic treatment

  4. Comparable stability of Hoogsteen and Watson-Crick base pairs in ionic liquid choline dihydrogen phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi-Karimata, Hisae; Nakano, Miki; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2014-01-08

    The instability of Hoogsteen base pairs relative to Watson-Crick base pairs has limited biological applications of triplex-forming oligonucleotides. Hydrated ionic liquids (ILs) provide favourable environments for a wide range of chemical reactions and are known to impact the stabilities of Watson-Crick base pairs. We found that DNA triplex formation was significantly stabilized in hydrated choline dihydrogen phosphate as compared with an aqueous buffer at neutral pH. Interestingly, the stability of Hoogsteen base pairs was found to be comparable with that of Watson-Crick base pairs in the hydrated IL. Molecular dynamics simulations of a DNA triplex in the presence of choline ions revealed that the DNA triplex was stabilized because of the binding of choline ion around the third strand in the grooves. Our finding will facilitate the development of new DNA materials. Our data also indicate that triplex formation may be stabilized inside cells where choline ions and their derivatives are abundant in vivo.

  5. Comparable Stability of Hoogsteen and Watson–Crick Base Pairs in Ionic Liquid Choline Dihydrogen Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi-Karimata, Hisae; Nakano, Miki; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    The instability of Hoogsteen base pairs relative to Watson–Crick base pairs has limited biological applications of triplex-forming oligonucleotides. Hydrated ionic liquids (ILs) provide favourable environments for a wide range of chemical reactions and are known to impact the stabilities of Watson–Crick base pairs. We found that DNA triplex formation was significantly stabilized in hydrated choline dihydrogen phosphate as compared with an aqueous buffer at neutral pH. Interestingly, the stability of Hoogsteen base pairs was found to be comparable with that of Watson–Crick base pairs in the hydrated IL. Molecular dynamics simulations of a DNA triplex in the presence of choline ions revealed that the DNA triplex was stabilized because of the binding of choline ion around the third strand in the grooves. Our finding will facilitate the development of new DNA materials. Our data also indicate that triplex formation may be stabilized inside cells where choline ions and their derivatives are abundant in vivo. PMID:24399194

  6. Maternal Choline Supplementation: A Potential Prenatal Treatment for Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strupp, Barbara J; Powers, Brian E; Velazquez, Ramon; Ash, Jessica A; Kelley, Christy M; Alldred, Melissa J; Strawderman, Myla; Caudill, Marie A; Mufson, Elliott J; Ginsberg, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    Although Down syndrome (DS) can be diagnosed prenatally, currently there are no effective treatments to lessen the intellectual disability (ID) which is a hallmark of this disorder. Furthermore, starting as early as the third decade of life, DS individuals exhibit the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with subsequent dementia, adding substantial emotional and financial burden to their families and society at large. A potential therapeutic strategy emerging from the study of trisomic mouse models of DS is to supplement the maternal diet with additional choline during pregnancy and lactation. Studies demonstrate that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) markedly improves spatial cognition and attentional function, as well as normalizes adult hippocampal neurogenesis and offers protection to basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. These effects on neurogenesis and BFCNs correlate significantly with spatial cognition, suggesting functional relationships. In this review, we highlight some of these provocative findings, which suggest that supplementing the maternal diet with additional choline may serve as an effective and safe prenatal strategy for improving cognitive, affective, and neural functioning in DS. In light of growing evidence that all pregnancies would benefit from increased maternal choline intake, this type of recommendation could be given to all pregnant women, thereby providing a very early intervention for individuals with DS, and include babies born to mothers unaware that they are carrying a fetus with DS.

  7. Studies on the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young Bobwhite quail. Quail fed purified diets deficient in either riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid or choline grew poorly and high mortality occurred by 5 weeks of age. Under the conditions of these experiments, it was found that: (1) young quail require approximately 3.8 mg. riboflavin/kg. diet for satisfactory growth and survival; (2) no more than 31 mg. niacin/kg. diet are required for normal growth and survival of young quail; (3) the requirement for pantothenic acid is higher than has previously been reported, quail in these studies requiring 12.6 mg. pantothenic acid/kg. feed for growth and survival; and (4) the requirement for choline for reducing mortality is approximately 1000 mg./kg., while the amount necessary for normal growth of young quail is no greater than 1500 mg./kg. when the diet contains ample amounts of methionine. Quail fed a niacin-deficient diet developed stiff, shortened feathers and an erythema about the head; those receiving a riboflavin-deficient ration developed enlarged hocks and bowed legs, as did quail fed diets low or devoid of choline. Aside from slow growth, poor feathering was the only other indication that a deficient diet was being fed when quail were placed on a basal ration without pantothenic acid for five weeks.

  8. Studies on the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid and choline requirements of young Embden geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, and choline requirements of young Embden geese fed purified diets. Goslings fed diets deficient in either riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, or choline grew poorly. Feeding a pantothenic acid-deficient diet resulted in 100% mortality. Goslings fed diets containing 530 mg/kg of choline or less developed perosis. Under the conditions of these experiments it was found that: 1) goslings require no more than 3.84 mg/kg of riboflavin and 31.2 mg/kg of nicotinic acid in the diet for rapid growth and normal development, 2) the pantothenic acid requirement of goslings is no more than 12.6 mg/kg of diet, and 3) a dietary choline level of 1530 mg/kg is adequate for both the prevention of perosis and rapid growth of goslings. The levels of vitamins found to support normal growth and development of goslings appear to be similar to requirements of other species that have been examined.

  9. Effect of herbal choline and rumen-protected methionine on lamb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth A Mendoza B MD

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... oral doses of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) (0 and 1.5 g/day) and ... and stimulating glucose and cholesterol synthesis. .... The in vitro gas production indicates that half of herbal choline is fermented at 18 hours (Table 2),.

  10. Prospective study on dietary intakes of folate, betaine, and choline and cardiovascular disease risk in women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmeijer, G.W.; Olthof, M.R.; Verhoef, P.; Bots, M.L.; van der Schouw, Y.T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between dietary intakes of folate, betaine and choline and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: Prospective cohort study. Subjects: A total of 16165 women aged 49-70 years without prior CVD. Subjects were breast cancer screening participants in

  11. Inhibition of high affinity choline uptake by N-allyl-3-quinuclidinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asermely, K.E.; O'Neill, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The peripheral actions of N-allyl-3-quinuclidinol (N-Al-3-OHQ) on high affinity choline uptake (HAChU) on rat phrenic nerve diaphragm are described. Endplate regions (EPA) identified by the Koelle histochemical techniques for acetylcholinesterase, were dissected from adult rat hemidiaphragms and placed in cold Krebs solution (pH-7.35). All measurements of HAChU were at 37 0 C in buffers containing tritium choline (5 μM 0.124 μC/mmole) at intervals of 1, 2, 4, 8, 15 and 30 min. Tissues were washed 3x, digested in 1N NaOH and counted for tritium in Chaikoff's solution. All data are expressed as pmole Ch/g wet weight. Comparison between EPA and non-EPA tissue demonstrate HAChU and slow choline diffusion, respectively. Steady state is observed in 15 min. N-Al-3-OHQ produces 15% inhibition at 5 x 10 -5 M compared with 50% inhibition on brain synaptosomes. At 5 x 10 -4 M N-Al-3-OHQ, 30% inhibition is observed. Attempts to deplete ACh by pre-stimulation with high K + -ion (25 mM) were unsuccessful; tissue 3 H-choline uptake appeared to oscillate over a 30 min period

  12. Inhibition of high affinity choline uptake by N-allyl-3-quinuclidinol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asermely, K.E.; O' Neill, J.J.

    1986-03-01

    The peripheral actions of N-allyl-3-quinuclidinol (N-Al-3-OHQ) on high affinity choline uptake (HAChU) on rat phrenic nerve diaphragm are described. Endplate regions (EPA) identified by the Koelle histochemical techniques for acetylcholinesterase, were dissected from adult rat hemidiaphragms and placed in cold Krebs solution (pH-7.35). All measurements of HAChU were at 37/sup 0/C in buffers containing tritium choline (5 ..mu..M 0.124 ..mu..C/mmole) at intervals of 1, 2, 4, 8, 15 and 30 min. Tissues were washed 3x, digested in 1N NaOH and counted for tritium in Chaikoff's solution. All data are expressed as pmole Ch/g wet weight. Comparison between EPA and non-EPA tissue demonstrate HAChU and slow choline diffusion, respectively. Steady state is observed in 15 min. N-Al-3-OHQ produces 15% inhibition at 5 x 10/sup -5/ M compared with 50% inhibition on brain synaptosomes. At 5 x 10/sup -4/ M N-Al-3-OHQ, 30% inhibition is observed. Attempts to deplete ACh by pre-stimulation with high K/sup +/-ion (25 mM) were unsuccessful; tissue /sup 3/H-choline uptake appeared to oscillate over a 30 min period.

  13. Choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents as additives for optimizing chromatographic behavior of caffeic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guizhen; Zhu, Tao; Lei, Yingjie

    2015-01-01

    A series of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were prepared using glycerol and choline chloride (ChCl), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) was used to analyze the spectra of glycerol, choline chloride and DESs based on glycerol and choline chloride. Then DESs were used as the additives of mobile phase to optimize chromatographic behavior of caffeic acid in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A 17-run Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to evaluate effect of DESs as additives by analyzing the maximum theoretical plate number. Three factors, reaction temperature (60 .deg. C, 80 .deg. C, 100 .deg. C), molar ratio of glycerol and choline chloride (2 : 1, 3 : 1, 4 : 1, n/n), and volume percent of additives (0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, v/v), were investigated in BBD. The optimum experiment condition was that of reaction temperature (80 .deg. C), molar ratio of glycerol and ChCl (3 : 1, n/n), and volume percent of additive (0.10%, v/v). The mean chromatographic theoretical plate number of the caffeic acid this condition was 1567.5, and DESs as additives shorten the retention time and modify the chromatogram shape, proving DESs as additives for effective theoretical plate number and column efficiency in HPLC.

  14. Choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents as additives for optimizing chromatographic behavior of caffeic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guizhen; Zhu, Tao; Lei, Yingjie [Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin (China)

    2015-10-15

    A series of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were prepared using glycerol and choline chloride (ChCl), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) was used to analyze the spectra of glycerol, choline chloride and DESs based on glycerol and choline chloride. Then DESs were used as the additives of mobile phase to optimize chromatographic behavior of caffeic acid in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A 17-run Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to evaluate effect of DESs as additives by analyzing the maximum theoretical plate number. Three factors, reaction temperature (60 .deg. C, 80 .deg. C, 100 .deg. C), molar ratio of glycerol and choline chloride (2 : 1, 3 : 1, 4 : 1, n/n), and volume percent of additives (0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, v/v), were investigated in BBD. The optimum experiment condition was that of reaction temperature (80 .deg. C), molar ratio of glycerol and ChCl (3 : 1, n/n), and volume percent of additive (0.10%, v/v). The mean chromatographic theoretical plate number of the caffeic acid this condition was 1567.5, and DESs as additives shorten the retention time and modify the chromatogram shape, proving DESs as additives for effective theoretical plate number and column efficiency in HPLC.

  15. 75 FR 760 - Choline chloride; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... affected. The North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes have been provided to assist... body functions including the maintenance of osmotic pressure, acid-base balance, muscular activity, and... nervous system and memory. Choline is necessary to promote proper development in the fetus and infant and...

  16. Raising the standards of the calf-raise test: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Newsham-West, Richard J; Schneiders, Anthony G; Sullivan, S John

    2009-11-01

    The calf-raise test is used by clinicians and researchers in sports medicine to assess properties of the calf muscle-tendon unit. The test generally involves repetitive concentric-eccentric muscle action of the plantar-flexors in unipedal stance and is quantified by the number of raises performed. Although the calf-raise test appears to have acceptable reliability and face validity, and is commonly used for medical assessment and rehabilitation of injuries, no universally acceptable test parameters have been published to date. A systematic review of the existing literature was conducted to investigate the consistency as well as universal acceptance of the evaluation purposes, test parameters, outcome measurements and psychometric properties of the calf-raise test. Nine electronic databases were searched during the period May 30th to September 21st 2008. Forty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria and were quality assessed. Information on study characteristics and calf-raise test parameters, as well as quantitative data, were extracted; tabulated; and statistically analysed. The average quality score of the reviewed articles was 70.4+/-12.2% (range 44-90%). Articles provided various test parameters; however, a consensus was not ascertained. Key testing parameters varied, were often unstated, and few studies reported reliability or validity values, including sensitivity and specificity. No definitive normative values could be established and the utility of the test in subjects with pathologies remained unclear. Although adapted for use in several disciplines and traditionally recommended for clinical assessment, there is no uniform description of the calf-raise test in the literature. Further investigation is recommended to ensure consistent use and interpretation of the test by researchers and clinicians.

  17. Effect of addition of Proline, ionic liquid [Choline][Pro] on CO2 separation properties of poly(amidoamine) dendrimer / poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, S. H.; Kai, T.; Chowdhury, F. A.; Taniguchi, I.; Kazama, S.

    2018-01-01

    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers were incorporated into cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGDMA) matrix to improve carbon dioxide (CO2) separation performance at elevated pressures. In our previous studies, PAMAM/PEGDMA hybrid membranes showed high CO2 separation properties from CO2/H2 mixed gases. In this study, proline, choline and ionic liquid [Choline][Pro] compounds were selected as rate promoters that were used to prepare PAMAM/PEGDMA hybrid membranes. The effect of addition of proline, choline, IL [Choline][Pro] on separation performance of PAMAM/PEGDMA) hybrid membranes for CO2/H2 separation was investigated. Amino acid proline, choline, and IL [Choline][Pro] were used to promote CO2 and amine reaction. With the addition of [Choline][Pro] into PAMAM/PEG membrane, CO2 permeance of PAMAM/PEG hybrid membranes are increased up to 46% without any change of selectivity of membrane for CO2.

  18. Galvanostatic bottom-up filling of TSV-like trenches: Choline-based leveler containing two quaternary ammoniums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Jun; Seo, Youngran; Kim, Hoe Chul; Lee, Yoonjae; Choe, Seunghoe; Kim, Young Gyu; Cho, Sung Ki; Kim, Jae Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The choline-based leveler having two quaternary ammoniums was synthesized. • The adsorption of this leveler with suppressor and accelerator was examined. • Galvanostatic Cu bottom-up filling was achieved with three-additive system. • The mechanism of gap-filling was elucidated based on the additive adsorption. - Abstract: Through Silicon Via (TSV) technology is essential to accomplish 3-dimensional packaging of electronics. Hence, more reliable and faster TSV filling by Cu electrodeposition is required. Our approach to improve Cu gap-filling in TSV is based on the development of new organic additives for feature filling. Here, we introduce our achievements from the synthesis of choline-based leveler to the feature filling using a synthesized leveler. The choline-based leveler, which includes two quaternary ammoniums at both ends of the molecule, is synthesized from glutaric acid. The characteristics of the choline-based additive are examined by the electrochemical analyses, and it is confirmed that the choline-based leveler shows a convection dependent adsorption behavior, which is essential for leveling. The interactions between the polymeric suppressor, accelerator, and the choline-based leveler are also investigated by changing the convection condition. Using the combination of suppressor, accelerator, and the choline-based leveler, the extreme bottom-up filling of Cu at trenches with dimensions similar to TSV are fulfilled. The mechanism of Cu gap-filling is demonstrated based on the results of electrochemical analyses and feature filling

  19. Effect of dimethylaminoethanol, an inhibitor of betaine production, on the disposition of choline in the rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, J.; Acara, M.

    1990-01-01

    The choline metabolite betaine has been shown to be an important organic osmoregulatory solute in the kidney. The isolated perfused rat kidney and kidney slice incubations were used to investigate the effect of 2-dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE), a choline oxidase inhibitor, on the renal excretion and metabolism of choline. In the isolated perfused kidney, [ 14 C]choline, at an initial perfusate concentration of 300 microM, was effectively removed from the perfusate over 25 min, with nearly all the 14 C in the perfusate accounted for by betaine during the remainder of the 90-min perfusion. DMAE at concentrations of 3.0 or 5.0 mM significantly decreased the rate of removal of [ 14 C]choline from the perfusate and the rate of addition of [ 14 C]betaine to the perfusate, yet [14C]betaine remained the only metabolite of choline in perfusate and urine. In kidney tissue slice experiments, conversion of [ 14 C]choline to [ 14 C]betaine was found in cortical, outer medullary and inner medullary regions of rat kidney. DMAE at 5.0 mM significantly inhibited [ 14 C]betaine production in each of the three regions studied. These data show that DMAE is an effective inhibitor of betaine production by the kidney and, as such, may be an important agent for the study of osmoregulation by the kidney

  20. Measurement of concentrations of whole blood levels of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine and their relations to plasma levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, Hussain Mohamad; Kirsch, Susanne H; Geisel, Juergen; Obeid, Rima

    2014-04-15

    We aimed at developing a method for the measurement of choline and its metabolites in whole blood (WB). After an extraction step, quantification of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine (DMG) was performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Plasma and WB metabolites were evaluated in a group of 61 elderly people. The calibration curves were linear (r(2)>0.997) for all compounds. The inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation for all analytes were 90% and the relative matrix effect were ≤4.0%. The median concentrations of choline, betaine, and DMG were 11.3, 27.8, and 5.9μmol/L in plasma and 66.6, 165, and 13.7μmol/L in WB, respectively. There were positive correlations between WB and plasma markers; for choline (r=0.42), betaine (r=0.61), and DMG (r=0.56) (all p≤0.001). The concentrations of betaine in WB and plasma were significantly higher in men than in women. The concentrations of WB choline and DMG did not differ significantly according to sex. In conclusion, we have established a reliable method for measuring choline metabolites in WB. The concentrations of WB choline, betaine, and DMG seem to reflect intracellular concentrations of these metabolites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Recent Declines in Induction of Labor by Gestational Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for singleton births per 100 singleton births. Gestational age categories : Early preterm: Births prior to 34 completed weeks of ... delivery is managed for multiple gestation pregnancies. The primary measure used to determine gestational age is the interval between the first day of ...

  2. Risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus in Sudanese pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Key words: Diabetes mellitus, gestation, risk factors, Sudan. INTRODUCTION. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a universal risk factor for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality.[1] Low gestational age, neonatal macrosomia, hypoglycemia, respiratory distress syndrome are frequent complications of GDM and ...

  3. Impact of metformin on reproductive tissues: an overview from gametogenesis to gestation

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoldo, Michael J.; Faure, Melanie; Dupont, Joelle; Froment, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Metformin is an oral anti-hyperglycemic drug that acts as an insulin sensitizer in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. It has also been widely used in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and gestational diabetes. This drug has been shown to activate a protein kinase called 5' AMP-activated protein kinase or AMPK. AMPK is present in many tissues making metformin’s effect multi factorial. However as metformin crosses the placenta, its use during pregnancy raises concerns re...

  4. Prenatal choline supplementation attenuates MK-801-induced deficits in memory, motor function, and hippocampal plasticity in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Chelsea A; Brown, Alexandra L; Yu, Waylin; Chun, Yoona; Glenn, Melissa J

    2017-10-11

    Choline is essential to the development and function of the central nervous system and supplemental choline during development is neuroprotective against a variety of insults, including neurotoxins like dizocilpine (MK-801). MK-801 is an NMDA receptor antagonist that is frequently used in rodent models of psychological disorders, particularly schizophrenia. At low doses, it causes cognitive impairments, and at higher doses it induces motor deficits, anhedonia, and neuronal degeneration. The primary goals of the present study were to investigate whether prenatal choline supplementation protects against the cognitive impairments, motor deficits, and neuropathologies that are precipitated by MK-801 administration in adulthood. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard or supplemented choline diet prenatally. Using the novelty preference test of object recognition, we found that only prenatal standard-fed rats displayed memory consolidation deficits induced by low-dose MK-801 administered immediately following study of sample objects; all other groups, including prenatal choline supplemented rats given MK-801, showed intact memory. Following high-dose MK-801, prenatal choline supplementation significantly alleviated rats' motor response to MK-801, particularly ataxia. Using doublecortin and Ki67 to mark neurogenesis and cell division, respectively, in the hippocampus, we found that prenatal choline supplementation, in the face of MK-801 toxicity, protected against reduced hippocampal plasticity. Taken together, the current findings suggest that prenatal choline supplementation protects against a variety of behavioral and neural pathologies induced by the neurotoxin, MK-801. This research contributes to the growing body of evidence supporting the robust neuroprotective capacity of choline. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Editor's Highlight: Perfluorooctane Sulfonate-Choline Ion Pair Formation: A Potential Mechanism Modulating Hepatic Steatosis and Oxidative Stress in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limin; Krishnan, Prasad; Ehresman, David J; Smith, Philip B; Dutta, Mainak; Bagley, Bradford D; Chang, Shu-Ching; Butenhoff, John L; Patterson, Andrew D; Peters, Jeffrey M

    2016-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)-induced steatosis remain unclear. The hypothesis that PFOS causes steatosis and other hepatic effects by forming an ion pair with choline was examined. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a control diet or a marginal methionine/choline-deficient (mMCD) diet, with and without 0.003, 0.006, or 0.012% potassium PFOS. Dietary PFOS caused a dose-dependent decrease in body weight, and increases in the relative liver weight, hepatic triglyceride concentration and serum markers of liver toxicity and oxidative stress. Some of these effects were exacerbated in mice fed the mMCD diet supplemented with 0.012% PFOS compared with those fed the control diet supplemented with 0.012% PFOS. Surprisingly, serum PFOS concentrations were higher while liver PFOS concentrations were lower in mMCD-fed mice compared with corresponding control-fed mice. To determine if supplemental dietary choline could prevent PFOS-induced hepatic effects, C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet, or a choline supplemental diet (1.2%) with or without 0.003% PFOS. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that PFOS caused alterations in hepatic lipid metabolism in the PFOS-fed mice compared with controls, and supplemental dietary choline prevented these PFOS-induced changes. Interestingly, dietary choline supplementation also prevented PFOS-induced oxidative damage. These studies are the first to suggest that PFOS may cause hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress by effectively reducing the choline required for hepatic VLDL production and export by forming an ion pair with choline, and suggest that choline supplementation may prevent and/or treat PFOS-induced hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Metabolism of choline in brain of the aged CBF-1 mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, M.; Kindel, G.; Karczmar, A.G.; Rosenberg, A.

    1986-01-01

    In order to quantify the changes that occur in the cholinergic central nervous system with aging, we have compared acetylcholine (Ach) formation in brain cortex slice preparations from 2-year-old aged CBF-1 mouse brains and compared the findings with those in 2-4-month-old young adult mouse brain slices. Incorporation of exogenous radioactively labelled choline (31 nM [ 3 H] choline) into acetyl choline in incubated brain slices was linear with time for 90 min. Percentage of total choline label distributed into Ach remained constant from 5 min after starting the incubation to 90 min. In contrast, distribution of label into intracellular free choline (Ch) and phosphorylcholine (Pch) changed continuously over this period suggesting that the Ch pool for Ach synthesis in brain cortex is different from that for Pch synthesis. Incorporation of radioactivity into Ach was not influenced by administration of 10 microM eserine, showing that the increment of radioactivity in Ach reflects rate of Ach formation, independently from degradation by acetylcholine esterases. Under our experimental conditions, slices from cortices of aged 24-month-old mouse brain showed a significantly greater (27%) incorporation of radioactivity into intracellular Ach than those from young, 2-4-month-old, brain cortices. Inhibitors of Ach release, 1 mM ATP or GABA, had no effect. Since concentration of radioactive precursor in the incubation medium was very low (31 nM), the Ch pool for Ach synthesis in slices was labelled without measurably changing the size of the endogenous pool. These data suggest a compensatory acceleration of Ach synthesis or else a smaller precursor pool specific for Ach synthesis into which labelled Ch migrated in aged brain

  7. Genetic signatures in choline and 1-carbon metabolism are associated with the severity of hepatic steatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Karen D.; Abdelmalek, Manal F.; Spencer, Melanie D.; da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Galanko, Joseph A.; Sha, Wei; Suzuki, Ayako; Guy, Cynthia D.; Cardona, Diana M.; Torquati, Alfonso; Diehl, Anna Mae; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    Choline metabolism is important for very low-density lipoprotein secretion, making this nutritional pathway an important contributor to hepatic lipid balance. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the cumulative effects of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across genes of choline/1-carbon metabolism and functionally related pathways increase susceptibility to developing hepatic steatosis. In biopsy-characterized cases of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and controls, we assessed 260 SNPs across 21 genes in choline/1-carbon metabolism. When SNPs were examined individually, using logistic regression, we only identified a single SNP (PNPLA3 rs738409) that was significantly associated with severity of hepatic steatosis after adjusting for confounders and multiple comparisons (P=0.02). However, when groupings of SNPs in similar metabolic pathways were defined using unsupervised hierarchical clustering, we identified groups of subjects with shared SNP signatures that were significantly correlated with steatosis burden (P=0.0002). The lowest and highest steatosis clusters could also be differentiated by ethnicity. However, unique SNP patterns defined steatosis burden irrespective of ethnicity. Our results suggest that analysis of SNP patterns in genes of choline/1-carbon metabolism may be useful for prediction of severity of steatosis in specific subsets of people, and the metabolic inefficiencies caused by these SNPs should be examined further.—Corbin, K. D., Abdelmalek, M. F., Spencer, M. D., da Costa, K.-A., Galanko, J. A., Sha, W., Suzuki, A., Guy, C. D., Cardona, D. M., Torquati, A., Diehl, A. M., Zeisel, S. H. Genetic signatures in choline and 1-carbon metabolism are associated with the severity of hepatic steatosis. PMID:23292069

  8. Against Raising Hope of Raising the Dead: Contra Moody and Kubler-Ross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicchio, Stephen J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Kubler-Ross and Moody have made assertions about survival after death. They argued that the subjects were not dead, but in the process of dying. An alternative explanation to this "glimpse of the afterlife" approach is offered. Other theological objections are raised to the Moody/Kubler-Ross approach. (Author)

  9. [Multiple gestation epidemiology--15 years survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carla T; Branco, Miguel R; Ferreira, Isabel D; Nordeste, Ana; Fonseca, Margarida; Taborda, Adelaide; Silva, Isabel S; Almeida, Maria do Céu

    2005-01-01

    Between January of 1987 and December of 2001 were born 1243 twins related to 609 multiple pregnancies, in Maternidade Bissaya-Barreto. Data were grouped in periods of three years and several parameters were studied. The rate of multiple gestation has increased probably due to the contribution of the assisted conception techniques, and to the increase of the number of multiple fetal pregnancies (two or more) and to the increase of the mother age. These more frequent obstetric problems were preterm birth, gestational hypertension and abnormal sonographic data of fetal growth. The average age of delivery was 34 weeks and the birth weight has decreased. The most important factors for neonatal morbidity were hyaline membranous disease, intraventricular haemorrhage and the twin-twin transfusion syndrome. The neonatal mortality decreased in the last studied period.

  10. Ethical and Legal Issues in Gestational Surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Claudia; Capasso, Emanuele; Terracciano, Lucia; Delbon, Paola; Fedeli, Piergiorgio; Salzano, Francesco Antonio; Policino, Fabio; Niola, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    This study originated from events that occurred in 2014 in an Italian hospital, where the embryos of a couple, obtained by means of homologous insemination, were mistakenly implanted into the uterus of another woman who, along with her husband, underwent the same treatment. Faced with this serious adverse circumstance, that gives rise to ethical and legal issues, the authors conducted a comparative examination of how to consider the division of maternity (between biological mother and uterine mother) and the related division of paternity (between genetic father and legal father, husband or partner of the gestational mother). Some preliminary observations are made concerning parenthood and filiation within the context of currently applicable Italian law. The following is a detailed analysis of the arguments in favour of the parental figures involved (gestational mother/genetic mother).

  11. Galectins in angiogenesis: consequences for gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Sandra M; Conrad, Melanie L; Freitag, Nancy; Barrientos, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Members of the galectin family have been shown to exert several roles in the context of reproduction. They contribute to placentation, maternal immune regulation and facilitate angiogenesis encompassing decidualisation and placenta formation during pregnancy. In the context of neo-vascularisation, galectins have been shown to augment signalling pathways that lead to endothelial cell activation, cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro in addition to angiogenesis in vivo. Angiogenesis during gestation ensures not only proper foetal growth and development, but also maternal health. Consequently, restriction of placental blood flow has major consequences for both foetus and mother, leading to pregnancy diseases. In this review we summarise both the established and the emerging roles of galectin in angiogenesis and discuss the possible implications during healthy and pathological gestation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hormone patterns in early human gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishell, D.R. Jr.; Thorneycroft, I.H.; Nagata, Y.; Murata, T.; Nakamura, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the low concentration of gonadotropins and steroid hormones present in human serum has been made possible by the development of sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques. With the use of RIA FSH and LH, progesterone and 17OH-progesterone have been previously measured in early normal pregnancy. In order to determine the daily pattern of hormone levels in early normal pregnancy, gonadotropins as well as steroid hormone levels were measured in serum samples obtained daily from three women from the time of the last menstrual period prior to conception throughout the first few months of gestation. To further identify the steroid hormone pattern in early normal pregnancy, concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, and 17OH-progesterone were measured in individual serum samples obtained from a group of 158 women with apparently normal gestations who subsequently had therapeutic abortions. (auth)

  13. Ethical and Legal Issues in Gestational Surrogacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Claudia; Capasso, Emanuele; Terracciano, Lucia; Delbon, Paola; Fedeli, Piergiorgio; Salzano, Francesco Antonio; Policino, Fabio; Niola, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This study originated from events that occurred in 2014 in an Italian hospital, where the embryos of a couple, obtained by means of homologous insemination, were mistakenly implanted into the uterus of another woman who, along with her husband, underwent the same treatment. Faced with this serious adverse circumstance, that gives rise to ethical and legal issues, the authors conducted a comparative examination of how to consider the division of maternity (between biological mother and uterine mother) and the related division of paternity (between genetic father and legal father, husband or partner of the gestational mother). Some preliminary observations are made concerning parenthood and filiation within the context of currently applicable Italian law. The following is a detailed analysis of the arguments in favour of the parental figures involved (gestational mother/genetic mother). PMID:29675478

  14. Pregnancy outcome following gestational exposure to azithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodland C Cindy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Azithromycin is an azalide antibiotic with an extensive range of indications and has become a common treatment option due to its convenient dosing regimen and therapeutic advantages. Human studies addressing gestational use of azithromycin have primarily focused on antibiotic efficacy rather than fetal safety. Our primary objective was to evaluate the possibility of teratogenic risk following gestational exposure to azithromycin. Methods There were 3 groups of pregnant women enrolled in our study: 1 women who took azithromycin. 2 women exposed to non-teratogenic antibiotics for similar indications, and 3 women exposed to non-teratogenic agents. They were matched for gestational age at time of call, maternal age, cigarette and alcohol consumption. Rates of major malformations and other endpoints of interest were compared among the three groups. Results Pregnancy outcome of 123 women in each group was ascertained. There were no statistically significant differences among the three groups in the rates of major malformations; 3.4% (exposed versus 2.3% (disease matched and 3.4% (non teratogen or any other endpoints that were examined. In the azithromycin group, 88 (71.6% women took the drug during the first trimester Conclusion Results suggest that gestational exposure to azithromycin is not associated with an increase in the rate of major malformations above the baseline of 1–3%. Our data adds to previous research showing that macrolide antibiotics, as a group, are generally safe in pregnancy and provides an evidence-based option for health professionals caring for populations with chlamydia.

  15. Lipotoxicity, β cell dysfunction, and gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Christopher J

    2014-04-01

    Gestational diabetes (GDM) is caused by failure of islet β cells to meet the increased insulin requirements of pregnancy. Recently, Prentice et al. (2014) discovered a 7-fold elevation of the furan fatty acid metabolite 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanopropanoic acid (CMPF) in plasma of women with GDM and showed that CMPF directly induces β cell dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Fetomaternal transfusion and diagnosis of gestational choriocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emin, L; Izard, A; Schiavone, S; Kermanach, P; Deramecourt, M; Duclusaud, A; Gertych, W; Girard, S

    2015-03-01

    Choriocarcinoma is a rare but agressive malignant trophoblastic neoplasm. Fetomaternal transfusion can be the first sign of choriocarcinoma. We describe two cases of gestational choriocarinoma whose first manifestation was a fetomaternal transfusion. Fetomaternal transfusion is a rare demonstration of choriocarcinoma but its diagnosis must lead to a placenta examination with specific research of choriocarcinoma. The more the therapeutic care is precise, the better is the forecast. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum adiponectin levels in gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Bhograj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy.[1] Pregnancy is a unique situation in which there is a physiological temporary increase in insulin resistance (IR. The mechanisms responsible for the gestational-induced IR are not completely understood. The current study was undertaken to compare adiponectin levels during 24–28 weeks period of gestation in drug-naive newly diagnosed GDM women with a cohort of normoglycemic pregnant women. Subjects and Methods: A total of 47 pregnant women in the age group of 18–40 years were included in this cross-sectional study, of which 13 were GDM cases and 34 were normoglycemic controls. Serum adiponectin level was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The mean adiponectin level was 16.92 ng/ml (standard deviation [SD] = 2.78 and 19.38 ng/ml (SD = 2.71 in case and control groups, respectively, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.008. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated decreased serum adiponectin levels in women with GDM when compared with age- and body mass index-matched euglycemic pregnant women.

  18. Comparison of gestational dating methods and implications ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVES: Estimating gestational age is usually based on date of last menstrual period (LMP) or clinical estimation (CE); both approaches introduce potential bias. Differences in methods of estimation may lead to misclassificat ion and inconsistencies in risk estimates, particularly if exposure assignment is also gestation-dependent. This paper examines a'what-if' scenario in which alternative methods are used and attempts to elucidate how method choice affects observed results.METHODS: We constructed two 20-week gestational age cohorts of pregnancies between 2000 and 2005 (New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, USA) using live birth certificates : one defined preterm birth (PTB) status using CE and one using LMP. Within these, we estimated risk for 4 categories of preterm birth (PTBs per 106 pregnancies) and risk differences (RD (95% Cl s)) associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM2. 5).RESULTS: More births were classified preterm using LMP (16%) compared with CE (8%). RD divergences increased between cohorts as exposure period approached delivery. Among births between 28 and 31 weeks, week 7 PM2.5 exposure conveyed RDs of 44 (21 to 67) for CE and 50 (18 to 82) for LMP populations, while week 24 exposure conveyed RDs of 33 (11 to 56) and -20 (-50 to 10), respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Different results from analyses restricted to births with both CE and LMP are most likely due to differences in dating methods rather than selection issues. Results are sensitive t

  19. Personality type influence the gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franik, Grzegorz; Lipka, Nela; Kopyto, Katarzyna; Kopocińska, Joanna; Owczarek, Aleksander; Sikora, Jerzy; Madej, Paweł; Chudek, Jerzy; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2017-08-01

    Pregnancy is frequently followed by the development of obesity. Aside from psychological factors, hormonal changes influence weight gain in pregnant women. We attempted to assess the potential association between personality type and the extent of gestational weight gain. The study group involved 773 women after term delivery (age 26.3 ± 3.9 years, body mass before pregnancy 61.2 ± 11.1 kg). Weight gain during pregnancy was calculated by using self-reported body mass prior to and during the 38th week of pregnancy. Personality type was assessed using the Polish version of the Framingham Type A Behavior Patterns Questionnaire (adapted by Juczynski). Two hundred forty-six (31.8%) study subjects represented type A personalities, 272 (35.2%) type B and 255 (33.0%) an indirect type. Gestational weight gain was related to the behavior patterns questionnaire score and age. In women gain was higher than in women with type B behavior of the same age. In women >30, the gestational weight gain was larger for type B personalities. Type A personality and increased urgency in younger pregnant women increases the risk of developing obesity during pregnancy in women below 30 years old. A higher level of competitiveness demonstrates a risk factor of excessive weight gain during pregnancy regardless of age.

  20. Colina e betaína em rações purificadas na nutrição da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Choline and betaine in purified diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vieira

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Problemas metabólicos observados em produções intensivas de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus têm sido relacionados à deficiência de colina nas rações. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da suplementação dietética da colina na nutrição da espécie, rações purificadas contendo 0; 375; 750; 1.125; 1.500 ou 1.875 mg de cloreto de colina por kg, foram administradas ad libitum por 42 dias a tilápias do Nilo (5,09 ± 0,14 g, estocados em gaiolas de PVC atóxico (volume = 60 L, alojadas em caixas de polipropileno de 1000 L, em ambiente com condições controladas de temperatura e luminosidade, num delineamento experimental em blocos incompletos casualizados, com três parcelas por bloco (n=5. O ganho de peso (GDP e o índice de conversão alimentar (ICA de todos os tratamentos foram superiores ao controle. Não foram observadas diferenças para a quantidade de lipídios no fígado e tecido corporal, e sobrevivência (S%. Num segundo experimento, os peixes foram alimentados com rações suplementadas com 1.250 ou 2.500 mg de cloreto de colina por kg; ou 1.000; 2.000 ou 3.000 mg de betaína por kg. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para S% e acúmulo de lipídeos hepáticos ou corporais; o ICA e GDP dos tratamentos suplementados com colina foram superiores aos dos tratamentos suplementados com betaína, mas não diferiram entre si. Níveis de suplementação superiores a 375 mg de cloreto de colina por kg de alimento melhoram o ICA e o GDP da tilápia do Nilo, mas a betaína não substitui efetivamente a colina em rações para a espécie.Metabolic problems detected in intensively raised Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus are credited to possible sub-supplementation of coline in commercial feeds. To investigate the utilization of choline and betaine as feed supplement for the Nile tilapia, groups of 10 fingerlings (5.09 ± 0.14 g stocked in 30 PVC cages (60 L, kept under controlled environmental conditions inside

  1. Radiosynthesis and pre-clinical evaluation of [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Graham [Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Zhao Yongjun [MDx Discovery (part of GE Healthcare) at Hammersmith Imanet, Ltd., Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Leyton, Julius [Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Shan Bo [MDx Discovery (part of GE Healthcare) at Hammersmith Imanet, Ltd., Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Nguyen, Quang-de; Perumal, Meg [Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Turton, David [GE-Imanet, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London, W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Arstad, Erik; Luthra, Sajinder K.; Robins, Edward G. [MDx Discovery (part of GE Healthcare) at Hammersmith Imanet, Ltd., Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Aboagye, Eric O., E-mail: eric.aboagye@imperial.ac.u [Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Introduction: Choline radiotracers are widely used for clinical PET diagnosis in oncology. [{sup 11}C]Choline finds particular utility in the imaging of brain and prostate tumor metabolic status, where 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ('FDG') shows high background uptake. More recently we have extended the clinical utility of [{sup 11}C]choline to breast cancer where radiotracer uptake correlates with tumor aggressiveness (grade). In the present study, a new choline analog, [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline, was synthesized and evaluated as a potential PET imaging probe. Methods: [{sup 18}F]Fluorocholine, [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1-{sup 2}H{sub 2}]choline and [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline were synthesized by alkylation of the relevant precursor with [{sup 18}F]fluorobromomethane or [{sup 18}F]fluoromethyl tosylate. Radiosynthesis of [{sup 18}F]fluoromethyl tosylate required extensive modification of the existing method. [{sup 18}F]Fluorocholine and [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline were then subjected to in vitro oxidative stability analysis in a chemical oxidation model using potassium permanganate and an enzymatic model using choline oxidase. The two radiotracers, together with the corresponding di-deuterated compound, [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1-{sup 2}H{sub 2}]choline, were then evaluated in vivo in a time-course biodistribution study in HCT-116 tumor-bearing mice. Results: Alkylation with [{sup 18}F]fluoromethyl tosylate proved to be the most reliable radiosynthetic route. Stability models indicate that [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline possesses increased chemical and enzymatic (choline oxidase) oxidative stability relative to [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine. The distribution of the three radiotracers, [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine, [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1-{sup 2}H{sub 2}]choline and [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline, showed a similar uptake profile in most organs. Crucially, tumor uptake of [{sup 18}F

  2. Crystal structure of CbpF, a bifunctional choline-binding protein and autolysis regulator from Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Rafael; González, Ana; Stelter, Meike; Pérez-Dorado, Inmaculada; Kahn, Richard; Morales, María; Moscoso, Miriam; Campuzano, Susana; Campillo, Nuria E; Mobashery, Shahriar; García, José L; García, Pedro; Hermoso, Juan A

    2009-03-01

    Phosphorylcholine, a crucial component of the pneumococcal cell wall, is essential in bacterial physiology and in human pathogenesis because it binds to serum components of the immune system and acts as a docking station for the family of surface choline-binding proteins. The three-dimensional structure of choline-binding protein F (CbpF), one of the most abundant proteins in the pneumococcal cell wall, has been solved in complex with choline. CbpF shows a new modular structure composed both of consensus and non-consensus choline-binding repeats, distributed along its length, which markedly alter its shape, charge distribution and binding ability, and organizing the protein into two well-defined modules. The carboxy-terminal module is involved in cell wall binding and the amino-terminal module is crucial for inhibition of the autolytic LytC muramidase, providing a regulatory function for pneumococcal autolysis.

  3. Choline PET based dose-painting in prostate cancer - Modelling of dose effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niyazi, Maximilian; Bartenstein, Peter; Belka, Claus; Ganswindt, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Several randomized trials have documented the value of radiation dose escalation in patients with prostate cancer, especially in patients with intermediate risk profile. Up to now dose escalation is usually applied to the whole prostate. IMRT and related techniques currently allow for dose escalation in sub-volumes of the organ. However, the sensitivity of the imaging modality and the fact that small islands of cancer are often dispersed within the whole organ may limit these approaches with regard to a clear clinical benefit. In order to assess potential effects of a dose escalation in certain sub-volumes based on choline PET imaging a mathematical dose-response model was developed. Based on different assumptions for α/β, γ50, sensitivity and specificity of choline PET, the influence of the whole prostate and simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) dose on tumor control probability (TCP) was calculated. Based on the given heterogeneity of all potential variables certain representative permutations of the parameters were chosen and, subsequently, the influence on TCP was assessed. Using schedules with 74 Gy within the whole prostate and a SIB dose of 90 Gy the TCP increase ranged from 23.1% (high detection rate of choline PET, low whole prostate dose, high γ50/ASTRO definition for tumor control) to 1.4% TCP gain (low sensitivity of PET, high whole prostate dose, CN + 2 definition for tumor control) or even 0% in selected cases. The corresponding initial TCP values without integrated boost ranged from 67.3% to 100%. According to a large data set of intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients the resulting TCP gains ranged from 22.2% to 10.1% (ASTRO definition) or from 13.2% to 6.0% (CN + 2 definition). Although a simplified mathematical model was employed, the presented model allows for an estimation in how far given schedules are relevant for clinical practice. However, the benefit of a SIB based on choline PET seems less than intuitively expected. Only under the

  4. Gestational overgrowth and undergrowth affect neurodevelopment: similarities and differences from behavior to epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Nicola M; Reyes, Teresa M

    2013-10-01

    The size of an infant at birth, a measure of gestational growth, has been recognized for many years as a biomarker of future risk of morbidity. Both being born small for gestational age (SGA) and being born large for gestational age (LGA), are associated with increased rates of obesity and metabolic disorder, as well as a number of mental disorders including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, anxiety, and depression. The common risks raise the question of what neurobiological mechanisms are altered in SGA and LGA offspring. Here we review recent findings allowing for direct comparison of neurobiological outcomes of SGA and LGA in human and animal models. We also present new data highlighting similarities and differences in behavior and neurobiology in our mouse models of SGA and LGA. Overall, there is significant data to support aberrant epigenetic mechanisms, particularly related to DNA methylation, in the brains of SGA and LGA offspring, leading to disruptions in the cell cycle in development and gene expression in adulthood. Copyright © 2012 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Four-week dietary supplementation with 10- and/or 15-fold basal choline caused decreased body weight in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Bradford D; Chang, Shu-Ching; Ehresman, David J; Eveland, Alan; Parker, George A; Peters, Jeffrey M; Butenhoff, John L

    2017-10-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient utilized for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and lipoprotein packaging and secretion. Recently, choline supplementation has been used by athletes and the public for weight loss. However, the potential toxicological impact of choline dietary supplementation requires further investigation. This study examined the effects of choline dietary supplementation in Sprague Dawley rats for 4 weeks. Rats were fed diets containing basal choline levels (control) or 5-, 10-, or 15-fold (5×, 10×, or 15×) basal diet concentration. In groups fed choline-supplemented diets, there were no toxicologically relevant findings in clinical observations, food intake, clinical chemistry, liver weights, or liver histopathology. However, decreased mean body weights (8.5-10.2%) and body weight gains (24-31%) were noted for the 10× choline-supplemented (females only) and 15× choline-supplemented (both sexes) groups relative to the control groups from day 3 onward. These body weight effects were not related to a persistent reduction in average food intake. Serum cholesterol was increased in the 15× choline-supplemented male rats relative to the controls, an expected effect of choline supplementation; however, there were no changes in the serum cholesterol of female rats. Serum choline concentrations were increased in female rats relative to the male rats across all treatment groups. The maximum tolerated dose for male and female rats were the 15× and 10× choline supplements, respectively, based on decreased mean body weight and body weight gains. This study supported the conclusions of a clinical trial that showed a high choline diet can decrease body weight in humans.

  6. 29 CFR 780.616 - Operations included in raising livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations included in raising livestock. 780.616 Section... Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.616 Operations included in raising livestock. Raising livestock includes such...

  7. RAISED BOGS ON THE NORTH-EAST OF EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. YURKOVSKAYA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeastern Europe 2 types of raised bogs are distinguished: coastal (Southern White Sea raised hogs and continental (Pechora-Onega raised bogs. They have been compared as to their flora, prevailing syntaxa, characteristics of their complexes, structure of mire massifs and composition of peat deposits.

  8. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into contractual...

  9. The Campus Green: Fund Raising in Higher Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittingham, Barbara E.; Pezzullo, Thomas R.

    This digest summarizes issues raised in a research report on fund raising in higher education. The following questions are addressed: What are the changes and trends since the early days of educational fund raising? What are the implications? What is known about spending? What is known about donor behavior? What are the major ethical issues? What…

  10. Long-term effects on biotransformation of labelled choline in different parts of the rat brain induced by single choline injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, A.; Wahlstroem, G.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term effects of single choline (Ch) injections on the uptake and metabolism of a tracer dose of /sup 3/H-Ch were studied in male rats. Choline was administered as a threshold infusion to obtain convulsions 10 and 4 weeks before sacrific (group 1). At a single threshold infusion of choline 4 weeks before sacrifice no convulsions were induced in 50% of the animals in a second group (group 2-) whereas convulsions were induced in the remainder of the animals in this group (group 2+). Group 3 contained control animals. One min. after administration of a tracer dose of /sup 3/H-Ch the animals were sacrificed and examined for /sup 3/H-total activity, /sup 3/H-Ch, /sup 3/H-acetylcholine (/sup 3/H-ACh) and /sup 3/H-phosphorylcholine (/sup 3/-H-PhCh). These activities were determined in three parts of the brain (cortex, striatum, midbrain + medulla oblongata). In the cortex a significant negative correlation between brain weight and /sup 3/H-ACh synthesis was seen in group 1. A comparison between group 2+ and group 2- indicated that induced convulsions were not critical for this effect. In the striatum there was a significant reduction in the total uptake of radioactivity in group 1 and group 2- when values were compared to the control group. Furthermore a significant positive correlation was detected between the concentration of radiolabel and /sup 3/H-ACh synthesis and a negative relationship with the level of /sup 3/H-Ch. In the midbrain preparation the synthesis of /sup 3/H-ACh was reduced in group 1 where a significant negative correlation was found between the average threshold dose of choline and both /sup 3/H-Ach and /sup 3/H-PhCh synthesis. Thus the Ch threshold doses given several weeks before testing seem to have long term effects on the uptake and utilization of a tracer dose of /sup 3/H-Ch in the cortex and striatum.

  11. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate-Induced Hepatic Steatosis in Male Sprague Dawley Rats Is Not Attenuated by Dietary Choline Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Bradford D; Chang, Shu-Ching; Ehresman, David J; Eveland, Alan; Zitzow, Jeremiah D; Parker, George A; Peters, Jeffrey M; Wallace, Kendall B; Butenhoff, John L

    2017-12-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an environmentally persistent chemical. Dietary 100 ppm PFOS fed to male mice and rats for 4 weeks caused hepatic steatosis through an unknown mechanism. Choline deficient diets can cause hepatic steatosis. A hepatic choline:PFOS ion complex was hypothesized to cause this effect in mice. This study tested whether dietary choline supplementation attenuates PFOS-induced hepatic steatosis in rats. Sprague Dawley rats (12/sex/group) were fed control, choline supplemented (CS), 100 ppm PFOS, or 100 ppm PFOS + CS diets for 3 weeks. Male rats fed both PFOS-containing diets had decreased serum cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs) on days 9, 16, and/or 23 and increased hepatic free fatty acids and TG (ie, steatosis). Female rats fed both PFOS diets had decreased serum cholesterol on days 9 and 16 and decreased hepatic free fatty acid and TG at termination (ie, no steatosis). Liver PFOS concentrations were similar for both sexes. Liver choline concentrations were increased in male rats fed PFOS (±CS), but the increase was lower in the PFOS + CS group. Female liver choline concentrations were not altered by any diet. These findings demonstrate a clear sex-related difference in PFOS-induced hepatic steatosis in the rat. Additional evaluated mechanisms (ie, nuclear receptor activation, mRNA upregulation, and choline kinase activity inhibition) did not appear to be involved in the hepatic steatosis. Dietary PFOS (100 ppm) induced hepatic steatosis in male, but not female, rats that was not attenuated by choline supplementation. The mechanism of lipid accumulation and the sex-related differences warrant further investigation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Verbal and visual memory improve after choline supplementation in long-term total parenteral nutrition: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, A L; Sohel, M; Brown, M; Jenden, D J; Ahn, C; Roch, M; Brawley, T L

    2001-01-01

    Previous investigations have demonstrated that choline deficiency, manifested in low plasma-free choline concentration and hepatic injury, may develop in patients who require long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Preliminary studies have suggested lecithin or choline supplementation might lead to improved visual memory in the elderly and reverse abnormal neuropsychological development in children. We sought to determine if choline-supplemented TPN would lead to improvement in neuropsychological test scores in a group of adult, choline-deficient outpatients receiving TPN. Eleven subjects (8 males, 3 females) who received nightly TPN for more than 80% of their nutritional needs for at least 12 weeks before entry in the study were enrolled. Exclusion criteria included active drug abuse, mental retardation, cerebral vascular accident, head trauma, hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, (prothrombin time [PT] >2x control), or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Patients were randomly assigned to receive their usual TPN regimen (n = 6, aged 34.0 +/- 12.6 years) over a 12-hour nightly infusion or their usual TPN regimen plus choline chloride (2 g) (n = 5, aged 37.3 +/- 7.3 years). The following neuropsychological tests were administered at baseline and after 24 weeks of choline supplementation (or placebo): Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R, intellectual functioning), Weschler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R, two subtests, verbal and visual memory), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (visuospatial functioning and perceptual organization), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (verbal fluency), Grooved Pegboard (manual dexterity and motor speed), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT, rote verbal learning ability), and Trail Making Parts A & B (visual scanning, psychomotor speed and set shifting). Scores were reported in terms of standard scores including z scores and percentile ranks. Mean absolute changes in raw scores were compared between groups

  13. Choline and/or folic acid deficiency is associated with genomic damage and cell death in human lymphocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Ni, Juan; Zhou, Tao; Xu, Weijiang; Fenech, Michael; Wang, Xu

    2012-04-01

    Choline and folate are interrelated methyl donors. Previous studies showed that folate prevents genomic damage in human lymphocytes in vitro; however, the association between choline and human genomic stability is uncertain. To explore the genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and cytostatic effects and possible interactions of choline and/or folate deficiency on the human genome, lymphocytes from 6 volunteers were cultured in 18 combinations of choline (CC) and folic acid (FA) media for 9 days. The genotoxicity was evaluated by micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges, and nuclear buds in the binucleated cell; the cytotoxicity indices included apoptosis and necrosis, and the cytostatic effects were indicated by nuclear division index (NDI). Across all choline concentrations, the frequencies of all biomarkers except NDI were diminished when FA concentration was more than or equal to 120 nmol/L. The frequencies of micronuclei, buds, and necrosis were significantly higher at lower levels of CC (0-6 μmol/L) compared with higher concentrations of CC (12-21.5 μmol/L) while maintaining the same FA concentration. We concluded that both choline and folate significantly impact genomic stability and cell death, although effects of folate were 2.5- to 6.2-fold greater, depending on the biomarker and dose. A combination of 12 μmol/L CC and 120 nmol/L FA appears to be optimal for genomic integrity in vitro.

  14. Effect of choline supplementation on rapid weight loss and biochemical variables among female taekwondo and judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsawy, Gehan; Abdelrahman, Osama; Hamza, Amr

    2014-03-27

    Taekwondo and judo competitions are divided into weight categories. Many athletes reduce their body mass a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast body mass reduction, athletes use a number of nutritional strategies, including choline supplementation. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of choline supplementation on body mass reduction and leptin levels among female taekwondo and judo athletes. Twenty-two female athletes (15 taekwondo and 7 judo athletes) were selected from different weight categories and divided into two groups, according to weight. The players in the experimental group took choline tablets for one week before a competition. The results revealed significant differences between pre- and post-competition measurements of leptin, free plasma choline, urine choline and urine malondialdehyde levels; body mass was also reduced in the post-competition measurements. In conclusion, choline supplementation could rapidly reduce body mass without any side effects on biochemical levels or static strength.

  15. Uptake of 3H-choline and synthesis of 3H-acetylcholine by human penile corpus cavernosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, R.; Saenz de Tejada, I.; Azadzoi, K.; Goldstein, I.; Krane, R.J.; Wotiz, H.H.; Cohen, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The neuroeffectors which relax penile smooth muscle and lead to erection are unknown; physiological studies of human corpus cavernosum, in vitro, have suggested a significant role of cholinergic neurotransmission. To further characterize the importance of cholinergic nerves, biopsies of human corpus cavernosum were obtained at the time of penile prosthesis implantation. Tissues were incubated in 3 H-choline (10 -5 M, 80 Ci/mmol) in oxygenated physiological salt solution at 37 0 C, pH 7.4 for 1 hour. Radiolabelled compounds were extracted with perchloric acid (0.4 M) and acetylcholine and choline were separated by HPLC; 14 C-acetylcholine was used as internal standard. 3 H-choline was accumulated by the tissues (20 +/- 1.9 fmol/mg), and 3 H-acetylcholine was synthesized (4.0 +/- 1.1 fmol/mg). In control experiments, heating of the tissue blocked synthesis of 3 H-acetylcholine. Inhibition of high affinity choline transport by hemicholinium-3 (10 -5 M) diminished tissue accumulation of 3 H-choline and significantly reduced the synthesis of 3 H-acetylcholine (0.5 +/ 0.2 fmol/mg, p < 0.05). These results provide direct evidence of neuronal accumulation of choline and enzymatic conversion to acetylcholine in human corpus cavernosum. Taken together with the physiological studies, it can be concluded that cholinergic neurotransmission in human corpus cavernosum plays a role in penile erection

  16. Usefulness of Choline-PET for the detection of residual hemangiopericytoma in the skull base: comparison with FDG-PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Shin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Choline is a new PET tracer that is useful for the detection of malignant tumor. Choline is a precursor of the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, a major phospholipid in the cell membrane of eukaryotic cells. Malignant tumors have an elevated level of phosphatidylcholine in cell membrane. Thus, choline is a marker of tumor malignancy. Method The patient was a 51-year-old man with repeated recurrent hemangiopericytoma in the skull base. We performed Choline-PET in this patient after various treatments and compared findings with those of FDG-PET. Results Choline accumulated in this tumor, but FDG did not accumulate. We diagnosed this tumor as residual hemangiopericytoma and performed the resection of the residual tumor. FDG-PET is not appropriate for skull base tumor detection because uptake in the brain is very strong. Conclusion We emphasize the usefulness of Choline-PET for the detection of residual hemangiopericytoma in the skull base after various treatments, compared with FDG-PET.

  17. Acetylcholine and choline contents of rat skeletal muscle determined by a radioenzymatic microassay: effects of drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consolo, S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a specific, radioenzymatic microassay for measuring picomole quantities of ACh in skeletal muscle. The levels of ACh as well ascholine in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL), soleus and gastrocnemiusmuscles of the rat are reported after focussed microwave irradiation to the hind limb to prevent post-mortem changes in ACh and choline contents. Particular attention was directed to the effect of some drugs potently affecting neuromuscular transmission at the end plate. Preparation of tissue samples, extraction and electrophoresis are described. A 26 ul portion of a second incubation mixture of tritium-acetylcoenzyme A and 14 ul of a partially purified choline acetyltransferase solution were added. A flow sheet giving an overview of he analytical steps involved in the method are shown

  18. Choline uptake in the hippocampus: inhibition of septal-hippocampal cholinergenic neurons by intraventricular barbiturates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The author attempts to determine where in the brain pentobarbital acts to cause the inhibition of high-affinity, sodium-dependent choline uptake, and what behavioral consequences result from this particular effect of barbituates. The experiments were done in male Wistar rats which had received an injection of Nivea cream injected directly to the acannula. In the experiments the drug solution injected into the lateral ventricle was also spiked with ( 14 C) - phenobarbital at a final specific activity of 5 dpm/nmole so that a more precise estimate of the spread of drug solution could be made. When a phenobarbital-Fast green Dye mixture was injected bilaterally into the lateral ventricles, the dye was found to have spread through the entire ventricular system when the rat was killed 10-20 min later. Choline uptake in the hippocampus was inhibited and the inhibition was apparently greater of 20 min rather than 10 min were allowed to elapse after the injection

  19. Achieving Appropriate Gestational Weight Gain: The Role of Healthcare Provider Advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deputy, Nicholas P; Sharma, Andrea J; Kim, Shin Y; Olson, Christine K

    2018-01-10

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) revised gestational weight gain recommendations in 2009. We examined associations between healthcare provider advice about gestational weight gain and inadequate or excessive weight gain, stratified by prepregnancy body mass index category. We analyzed cross-sectional data from women delivering full-term (37-42 weeks of gestation), singleton infants from four states that participated in the 2010-2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (unweighted n = 7125). Women reported the weight gain range (start and end values) advised by their healthcare provider; advice was categorized as follows: starting below recommendations, starting and ending within recommendations (IOM consistent), ending above recommendations, not remembered, or not received. We examined associations between healthcare provider advice and inadequate or excessive, compared with appropriate, gestational weight gain using adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, 26.3% of women reported receiving IOM-consistent healthcare provider advice; 26.0% received no advice. Compared with IOM-consistent advice, advice below recommendations was associated with higher likelihood of inadequate weight gain among underweight (aPR 2.22, CI 1.29-3.82) and normal weight women (aPR 1.57, CI 1.23-2.02); advice above recommendations was associated with higher likelihood of excessive weight gain among all but underweight women (aPR range 1.36, CI 1.08-1.72 to aPR 1.42, CI 1.19-1.71). Not remembering or not receiving advice was associated with both inadequate and excessive weight gain. Few women reported receiving IOM-consistent advice; not receiving IOM-consistent advice put women at-risk for weight gain outside recommendations. Strategies that raise awareness of IOM recommendations and address barriers to providing advice are needed.

  20. Choline and Working Memory Training Improve Cognitive Deficits Caused by Prenatal Exposure to Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaylyn Waddell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal ethanol exposure is associated with deficits in executive function such as working memory, reversal learning and attentional set shifting in humans and animals. These behaviors are dependent on normal structure and function in cholinergic brain regions. Supplementation with choline can improve many behaviors in rodent models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and also improves working memory function in normal rats. We tested the hypothesis that supplementation with choline in the postnatal period will improve working memory during adolescence in normal and ethanol-exposed animals, and that working memory engagement during adolescence will transfer to other cognitive domains and have lasting effects on executive function in adulthood. Male and female offspring of rats fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet (ET; 3% v/v or control dams given a non-ethanol liquid diet (CT were injected with choline (Cho; 100 mg/kg or saline (Sal once per day from postnatal day (P 16–P30. Animals were trained/tested on a working memory test in adolescence and then underwent attentional set shifting and reversal learning in young adulthood. In adolescence, ET rats required more training to reach criterion than CT-Sal. Choline improved working memory performance for both CT and ET animals. In young adulthood, ET animals also performed poorly on the set shifting and reversal tasks. Deficits were more robust in ET male rats than female ET rats, but Cho improved performance in both sexes. ET male rats given a combination of Cho and working memory training in adolescence required significantly fewer trials to achieve criterion than any other ET group, suggesting that early interventions can cause a persistent improvement.

  1. Gestational trophoblastic disease with hyperthyroidism: Anesthetic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Khanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of hyperthyroidism with gestational trophoblastic disease is a known albeit rare clinical condition. We herein report the successful anesthetic management of such a case in our institute. There are only few case reports in literature of this association. Often, the diagnosis of hyperthyroid state is retrospective one, as it can be missed in the emergency scenario of patient requiring molar evacuation. This case report highlights the perioperative management and optimization of hyperthyroid state prior to surgical evacuation of the invasive hydatidiform mole.

  2. 11C-Choline PET/pathology image coregistration in primary localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Prokic, Vesna; Weirich, Gregor; Wendl, Christina; Geinitz, Hans; Molls, Michael; Kirste, Simon; Souvatzoglou, Michael; Schwaiger, Markus; Gschwend, Juergen E.; Treiber, Uwe; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Krause, Bernd Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for the comparison of pathology specimens after prostatectomy (post-S) with PET images obtained before surgery (pre-S). This method was used to evaluate the merit of 11 C-choline PET/CT for delineation of gross tumour volume (GTV) in prostate cancer (PC). In 28 PC patients, 11 C-choline PET/CT was performed before surgery. PET/CT data were coregistered with the pathology specimens. GTV on PET images (GTV-PET) was outlined automatically and corrected manually. Tumour volume in the prostate (TVP) was delineated manually on the pathology specimens. Based on the coregistered PET/pathology images, the following parameters were assessed: SUVmax and SUVmean in the tumoral and nontumoral prostate (NP), GTV-PET (millilitres) and TVP (millilitres). PET/pathology image coregistration was satisfactory. Mean SUVmax in the TVP was lower than in the NP: 5.0 and 5.5, respectively (p = 0.093). Considering the entire prostate, SUVmax was located in the TVP in two patients, in the TVP and NP in 12 patients and exclusively in NP in 14 patients. Partial overlap the TVP and GTV-PET was seen in 71 % of patients, and complete overlap in 4 %. PET/pathology image coregistration can be used for evaluation of different imaging modalities. 11 C-Choline PET failed to distinguish tumour from nontumour tissue. (orig.)

  3. Choline Modulation of the Aβ P1-40 Channel Reconstituted into a Model Lipid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Meleleo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs, implicated in memory and learning, in subjects affected by Alzheimer's disease result altered. Stimulation of α7-nAChRs inhibits amyloid plaques and increases ACh release. β-amyloid peptide (AβP forms ion channels in the cell and model phospholipid membranes that are retained responsible in Alzheimer disease. We tested if choline, precursor of ACh, could affect the AβP1-40 channels in oxidized cholesterol (OxCh and in palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC:Ch lipid bilayers. Choline concentrations of 5 × 10−11 M–1.5 × 10−8 M added to the cis- or trans-side of membrane quickly increased AβP1-40 ion channel frequency (events/min and ion conductance in OxCh membranes, but not in POPC:Ch membranes. Circular Dichroism (CD spectroscopy shows that after 24 and 48 hours of incubation with AβP1-40, choline stabilizes the random coil conformation of the peptide, making it less prone to fibrillate. These actions seem to be specific in that ACh is ineffective either in solution or on AβP1-40 channel incorporated into PLMs.

  4. The use of choline in association with the Bangerter filters for the treatment of amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelio Sabetti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effects of choline combined with Bangerter filter in the treatment of amblyopia. All amblyopic subjects used a Bangerter filter on the corrective spectacle lens (1d over the left eye, 1d over the right eye. Choline was then administered orally to 39 patients once daily, five days per week for the entire study period. Subjects treated with the Bangerter filter showed a mean visual acuity of 0.27 logMAR; at 12mo of treatment, the mean visual acuity reached 0.09 logMAR. Patients treated with the Bangerter filter and citicoline showed a mean visual acuity of 0.35 logMAR; at 12mo of treatment, the mean visual acuity reached 0.01 logMAR. No significant changes in the angle of deviation were observed in both groups. Subjects in both forms of amblyopia therapies demonstrated an increase in visual acuity. However, these effects were markedly enhanced when coupled with the administration of choline. Findings suggest that the effects are particularly relevant in the more severe amblyopic cases.

  5. Choline-Deficient-Diet-Induced Fatty Liver Is a Metastasis-Resistant Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Miki; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Kosuke; Matsumoto, Takuro; Aoki, Hitomi; Kunisada, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masahito; Saji, Shigetoyo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-07-01

    Fatty liver disease is increasing in the developed and developing world. Liver metastasis from malignant lymphoma in the fatty liver is poorly understood. In a previous report, we developed color-coded imaging of the tumor microenvironment (TME) of the murine EL4-RFP malignant lymphoma during metastasis, including the lung. In the present report, we investigated the potential and microenvironment of the fatty liver induced by a choline-deficient diet as a metastatic site in this mouse lymphoma model. C57BL/6-GFP transgenic mice were fed with a choline-deficient diet in order to establish a fatty liver model. EL4-RFP cells were injected in the spleen of normal mice and fatty-liver mice. Metastases in mice with fatty liver or normal liver were imaged with the Olympus SZX7 microscope and the Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope. Metastases of EL4-RFP were observed in the liver, ascites and bone marrow. Primary tumors were imaged in the spleen at the injection site. The fewest metastases were observed in the fatty liver. In addition, the fewest cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) were observed in the fatty liver. The relative metastatic resistance of the fatty liver may be due to the reduced number of CAFs in the fatty livers. The mechanism of the effect of the choline-deficient diet is discussed. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  6. Bilateral Tubal Gestation Associated with Schistosomiasis in an African Woman

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    K. H. Odubamowo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of tubal ectopic gestation caused by schistosomiasis induced tubal pathology is undocumented in this environment, which may be due to rarity of this pathology. Bilateral tubal gestation is common in patients that have undergone in vitro fertilization. We report a hitherto undocumented case of spontaneous bilateral ectopic gestation following tubal schistosomiasis. Case Report. Mrs. OB was a 32-year-old G4P3+0 (3 alive woman who complained of abdominal pain and bleeding per vaginam of 4 and 2 days’ duration respectively following 8 weeks of amenorrhea. A clinical impression of ruptured ectopic gestation was confirmed by ultrasound scanning. She had bilateral salpingectomy with histology of specimens showing bilateral ectopic gestation with Schistosoma haematobium induced salpingitis (findings of Schistosoma haematobium ova noted on slide. Conclusion. Schistosoma induced salpingitis is a rare but possible cause of bilateral tubal gestation.

  7. Raising Crop Productivity in Africa through Intensification

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    Zerihun Tadele

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The population of Africa will double in the next 33 years to reach 2.5 billion by 2050. Although roughly 60% of the continent’s population is engaged in agriculture, the produce from this sector cannot feed its citizens. Hence, in 2013 alone, Africa imported 56.5 million tons of wheat, maize, and soybean at the cost of 18.8 billion USD. Although crops cultivated in Africa play a vital role in their contribution to Food Security, they produce inferior yields compared to those in other parts of the world. For instance, the average cereal yield in Africa is only 1.6 t·ha−1 compared to the global 3.9 t·ha−1. Low productivity in Africa is also related to poor soil fertility and scarce moisture, as well as a variety of insect pests, diseases, and weeds. While moisture scarcity is responsible for up to 60% of yield losses in some African staple cereals, insect pests inflict annually substantial crop losses. In order to devise a strategy towards boosting crop productivity on the continent where food insecurity is most prevalent, these production constraints should be investigated and properly addressed. This review focuses on conventional (also known as genetic intensification in which crop productivity is raised through breeding for cultivars with high yield-potential and those that thrive well under diverse and extreme environmental conditions. Improved crop varieties alone do not boost crop productivity unless supplemented with optimum soil, water, and plant management practices as well as the promotion of policies pertaining to inputs, credit, extension, and marketing. Studies in Kenya and Uganda have shown that the yield of cassava can be increased by 140% in farmers’ fields using improved varieties and management practices. In addition to traditional organic and inorganic fertilizers, biochar and African Dark Earths have been found to improve soil properties and to enhance productivity, although their availability and affordability to

  8. Hysteroscopic Differences in the Gestational Sac in Asymptomatic Blighted Ovum and Viable Pregnancy at Early Gestation

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    Fu-Tsai Kung

    2005-12-01

    Conclusions: The anatomic alterations of the gestational sac reflect impending sac necrosis and abortion in early-stage pregnancy loss. There were no morphologic differences between the two groups in the pattern of capillary distribution on the endometrium or the implantation base.

  9. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Future Cardiovascular Risk: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Burlina, S.; Dalfr?, M. G.; Chilelli, N. C.; Lapolla, A.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus is increasing in parallel with the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity around the world. Current evidence strongly suggests that women who have had gestational diabetes mellitus are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Given the growing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, it is important to identify appropriate reliable markers of cardiovascular disease and specific treatment strategies capable of contai...

  10. Trends and outcomes of gestational surrogacy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kiran M; Boulet, Sheree L; Jamieson, Denise J; Kissin, Dmitry M

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate trends and reproductive outcomes of gestational surrogacy in the United States. Retrospective cohort study. Infertility clinics. IVF cycles transferring at least one embryo. Use of a gestational carrier. Trends in gestational carrier cycles during 1999-2013, overall and for non-U.S. residents; reproductive outcomes for gestational carrier and nongestational carrier cycles during 2009-2013, stratified by the use of donor or nondonor oocytes. Of 2,071,984 assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles performed during 1999-2013, 30,927 (1.9%) used a gestational carrier. The number of gestational carrier cycles increased from 727 (1.0%) in 1999 to 3,432 (2.5%) in 2013. Among gestational carrier cycles, the proportion with non-U.S. residents declined during 1999-2005 (9.5% to 3.0%) but increased during 2006-2013 (6.3% to 18.5%). Gestational carrier cycles using nondonor oocytes had higher rates of implantation (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.26), clinical pregnancy (aRR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10-1.19), live birth (aRR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.12-1.21), and preterm delivery (aRR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05-1.23) compared with nongestational carrier cycles. When using donor oocytes, multiple birth rates were higher among gestational carrier compared with nongestational carrier cycles (aRR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08-1.19). Use of gestational carriers increased during 1999-2013. Gestational carrier cycles had higher rates of ART success than nongestational carrier cycles, but multiple birth and preterm delivery rates were also higher. These risks may be mitigated by transferring fewer embryos given the higher success rates among gestational carrier cycles. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Neighbourhood food environment and gestational diabetes in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Janevic, Teresa; Borrell, Luisa N.; Savitz, David A.; Herring, Amy H.; Rundle, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The association between neighbourhood characteristics and gestational diabetes has not been examined previously. We investigated the relationship between the number of healthy food outlets (supermarkets; fruit/vegetable and natural food stores), and unhealthy food outlets (fast food; pizza; bodegas; bakeries; convenience, candy/nut and meat stores) in census tract of residence, and gestational diabetes in New York City. Gestational diabetes, census tract and individual-level covariates were a...

  12. Fetal growth disorders in twin gestations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breathnach, Fionnuala M

    2012-06-01

    Twin growth is frequently mismatched. This review serves to explore the pathophysiologic mechanisms that underlie growth aberrations in twin gestations, the prenatal recognition of abnormal twin growth, and the critical importance of stratifying management of abnormal twin growth by chorionicity. Although poor in utero growth of both twins may reflect maternal factors resulting in global uteroplacental dysfunction, discordant twin growth may be attributed to differences in genetic potential between co-twins, placental dysfunction confined to one placenta only, or one placental territory within a shared placenta. In addition, twin-twin transfusion syndrome represents a distinct entity of which discordant growth is a common feature. Discordant growth is recognized as an independent risk factor for adverse perinatal outcome. Intertwin birth weight disparity of 18% or more should be considered to represent a discordance threshold, which serves as an independent risk factor for adverse perinatal outcome. At this cutoff, perinatal morbidity is found to increase both for the larger and the smaller twin within a discordant pair. There remains uncertainty surrounding the sonographic parameters that are most predictive of discordance. Although heightening of fetal surveillance in the face of discordant twin growth follows the principles applied to singleton gestations complicated by fetal growth restriction, the timing of intervention is largely influenced by chorionicity.

  13. Potential Mechanisms of Exercise in Gestational Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbidi, Saeid; Laher, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance first diagnosed during pregnancy. This condition shares same array of underlying abnormalities as occurs in diabetes outside of pregnancy, for example, genetic and environmental causes. However, the role of a sedentary lifestyle and/or excess energy intake is more prominent in GDM. Physically active women are less likely to develop GDM and other pregnancy-related diseases. Weight gain in pregnancy causes increased release of adipokines from adipose tissue; many adipokines increase oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Increased intramyocellular lipids also increase cellular oxidative stress with subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species. A well-planned program of exercise is an important component of a healthy lifestyle and, in spite of old myths, is also recommended during pregnancy. This paper briefly reviews the role of adipokines in gestational diabetes and attempts to shed some light on the mechanisms by which exercise can be beneficial as an adjuvant therapy in GDM. In this regard, we discuss the mechanisms by which exercise increases insulin sensitivity, changes adipokine profile levels, and boosts antioxidant mechanisms. PMID:23691290

  14. Minimally-aggressive gestational trophoblastic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Laurence A

    2012-04-01

    We have previously defined a new syndrome "Minimally-aggressive gestational trophoblastic neoplasms" in which choriocarcinoma or persistent hydatidiform mole has a minimal growth rate and becomes chemorefractory. Previously we described a new treatment protocol, waiting for hCG rise to >3000 mIU/ml and disease becomes more advanced, then using combination chemotherapy. Initially we found this treatment successful in 8 of 8 cases, here we find this protocol appropriate in a further 16 cases. Initially we used hyperglycosylated hCG, a limited availability test, to identify this syndrome. Here we propose also using hCG doubling rate to detect this syndrome. Minimally aggressive gestational trophoblastic disease can be detected by chemotherapy resistance or low hyperglycosylated hCG, disease by hyperglycosylated hCG and by hCG doubling test. All were recommended to hold off further chemotherapy until hCG >3000mIU/ml. One case died prior to the start of the study, one case withdrew because of a lung nodule and one withdrew refusing the suggested combination chemotherapy. The remaining 16 women were all successfully treated. A total of 8 plus 16 or 24 of 24 women were successfully treated using the proposed protocol, holding back on chemotherapy until hCG >3000mIU/ml. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Placental Nutrient Transport in Gestational Diabetic Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Castillo-Castrejon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity during pregnancy is rising and is associated with increased risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, defined as glucose intolerance first diagnosed in pregnancy (1. Fetal growth is determined by the maternal nutrient supply and placental nutrient transfer capacity. GDM-complicated pregnancies are more likely to be complicated by fetal overgrowth or excess adipose deposition in utero. Infants born from GDM mothers have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic disorders later in life. Diverse factors, such as ethnicity, age, fetal sex, clinical treatment for glycemic control, gestational weight gain, and body mass index among others, represent a challenge for studying underlying mechanisms in GDM subjects. Determining the individual roles of glucose intolerance, obesity, and other factors on placental function and fetal growth remains a challenge. This review provides an overview of changes in placental macronutrient transport observed in human pregnancies complicated by GDM. Improved knowledge and understanding of the alterations in placenta function that lead to pathological fetal growth will allow for development of new therapeutic interventions and treatments to improve pregnancy outcomes and lifelong health for the mother and her children.

  16. Potential Mechanisms of Exercise in Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Golbidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is defined as glucose intolerance first diagnosed during pregnancy. This condition shares same array of underlying abnormalities as occurs in diabetes outside of pregnancy, for example, genetic and environmental causes. However, the role of a sedentary lifestyle and/or excess energy intake is more prominent in GDM. Physically active women are less likely to develop GDM and other pregnancy-related diseases. Weight gain in pregnancy causes increased release of adipokines from adipose tissue; many adipokines increase oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Increased intramyocellular lipids also increase cellular oxidative stress with subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species. A well-planned program of exercise is an important component of a healthy lifestyle and, in spite of old myths, is also recommended during pregnancy. This paper briefly reviews the role of adipokines in gestational diabetes and attempts to shed some light on the mechanisms by which exercise can be beneficial as an adjuvant therapy in GDM. In this regard, we discuss the mechanisms by which exercise increases insulin sensitivity, changes adipokine profile levels, and boosts antioxidant mechanisms.

  17. Uterine Rupture Due to Invasive Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, David I.; Pritchard, Amy M.; Clarke, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    While complete molar pregnancies are rare, they are wrought with a host of potential complications to include invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease following molar pregnancy is a potentially fatal complication that must be recognized early and treated aggressively for both immediate and long-term recovery. We present the case of a 21-year-old woman with abdominal pain and presyncope 1 month after a molar pregnancy with a subsequent uterine rupture due to invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasm. We will discuss the complications of molar pregnancies including the risks and management of invasive, metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. PMID:24106538

  18. Attitudes towards gestational diabetes among a multiethnic cohort in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Mary; Steele, Cheryl; Margetts, Heather

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the attitudes and beliefs towards gestational diabetes of a multiethnic sample of pregnant women with gestational diabetes. Women from non-Caucasian background are disproportionately represented in gestational diabetes statistics. This is of particular importance in multicultural Australia, where increasing numbers of non-Caucasian women give birth. Cross-sectional survey. The Diabetes Attitude Scale, version 3 was administered to 200 women with gestational diabetes from Vietnamese, Indian, Filipino and Caucasian backgrounds. A total of 143 questionnaires were returned indicating a response rate of 71·5%. There were significant between group differences in terms of educational level (p = 0·001) and English fluency (p = 0·001). Lower educational level, though not English language fluency, was associated with poorer appreciation of gestational diabetes as a serious condition and also with a lower valuing of tight glucose control. This effect was seen irrespective of ethnic group. Indian and Vietnamese women indicated a lower valuing of patient autonomy and also reported less negative psychological effects than Caucasian and Filipino women. Women from non-Caucasian ethnicities may be at risk of poorer self-management of gestational diabetes related to lower education, lower health literacy and a lower appreciation of gestational diabetes as a serious condition. Nurses and midwives provide information and advice to women with gestational diabetes. Knowledge about factors that impact on attitude towards gestational diabetes among multiethnic populations is important for developing educational programmes to address their needs. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Value of {sup 11}C-choline PET and PET/CT in patients with suspected prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scher, Bernhard; Albinger, Wolfram; Tiling, Reinhold; Gildehaus, Franz-Josef; Dresel, Stefan [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Seitz, Michael [University of Munich, Department of Urology, Munich (Germany); Scherr, Michael; Becker, Hans-Christoph [University of Munich, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Souvatzogluou, Michael; Wester, Hans-Juergen [Technical University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    The value and limitations of {sup 11}C-choline PET and PET/CT for the detection of prostate cancer remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of {sup 11}C-choline PET and PET/CT in a large group of patients with suspected prostate cancer. Fifty-eight patients with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer underwent {sup 11}C-choline PET (25/58, Siemens ECAT Exact HR+) or PET/CT (33/58, Philips Gemini) scanning. On average, 500 MBq of {sup 11}C-choline was administered intravenously. Studies were interpreted by raters blinded to clinical information and other diagnostic procedures. Qualitative image analysis as well as semiquantitative SUV measurement was carried out. The reference standard was histopathological examination of resection specimens or biopsy. Prevalence of prostate cancer in this selected patient population was 63.8% (37/58). {sup 11}C-choline PET and PET/CT showed a sensitivity of 86.5% (32/37) and a specificity of 61.9% (13/21) in the detection of the primary malignancy. With regard to metastatic spread, PET showed a per-patient sensitivity of 81.8% (9/11) and produced no false positive findings. Based on our findings, differentiation between benign prostatic changes, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostatitis, and prostate cancer is feasible in the majority of cases when image interpretation is primarily based on qualitative characteristics. SUV{sub max} may serve as guidance. False positive findings may occur due to an overlap of {sup 11}C-choline uptake between benign and malignant processes. By providing functional information regarding both the primary malignancy and its metastases, {sup 11}C-choline PET may prove to be a useful method for staging prostate cancer. (orig.)

  20. Choline status and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years of age in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, J J; McSorley, Emeir M; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Kobrosly, Roni W; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S; McAfee, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Henderson, Juliette; Watson, Gene E; Thurston, Sally W; Wallace, Julie M W; Ueland, Per M; Myers, Gary J

    2013-07-28

    Choline is an essential nutrient that is found in many food sources and plays a critical role in the development of the central nervous system. Animal studies have shown that choline status pre- and postnatally can have long-lasting effects on attention and memory; however, effects in human subjects have not been well studied. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between plasma concentrations of free choline and its related metabolites in children and their neurodevelopment in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study, an ongoing longitudinal study assessing the development of children born to mothers with high fish consumption during pregnancy. Plasma concentrations of free choline, betaine, dimethylglycine (DMG), methionine and homocysteine and specific measures of neurodevelopment were measured in 210 children aged 5 years. The children's plasma free choline concentration (9·17 (sd 2·09) μmol/l) was moderately, but significantly, correlated with betaine (r 0·24; P= 0·0006), DMG (r 0·15; P= 0·03), methionine (r 0·24; P= 0·0005) and homocysteine (r 0·19; P= 0·006) concentrations. Adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that betaine concentrations were positively associated with Preschool Language Scale – total language scores (β = 0·066; P= 0·04), but no other associations were evident. We found no indication that free choline concentration or its metabolites, within the normal physiological range, are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children at 5 years of age. As there is considerable animal evidence suggesting that choline status during development is associated with cognitive outcome, the issue deserves further study in other cohorts.

  1. Ocular lesions and experimental choline deficiency Lesiones oculares y deficiencia experimental de colina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina P. Ossani

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown ocular haemorrhages in choline-deficient rats. The aim of this paper is to study further the relationship between ocular and renal lesions and biochemical alterations in rats fed a choline-deficient diet. Fifty one weanling male Wistar rats, were divided into two groups. Thirty one of them were fed a choline-deficient diet and the rest was fed a choline-supplemented diet ad libitum. Animals from both groups were killed between the fifth and the eighth day. Urea, creatinine and homocysteine concentrations in blood were determined. Eyes were used for light microscopy study; high resolution light microscopy and the study of the retina as "rétine a plat". Kidneys were studied by light microscopy. Choline-supplemented rats did not show ocular or renal lesion. Choline-deficient rats that showed renal lesions, tubular or cortical necrosis, did not always have ocular changes. There were no ocular changes in the only choline-deficient rat without renal lesion. The ocular changes consisted mainly in haemorrhage in both cameras and ciliary and vitreous bodies. Correlations between ocular and renal lesion (r=0.72, pEstudios previos han demostrado hemorragia ocular en ratas deficientes en colina. El objetivo de este trabajo es profundizar en la relación entre las alteraciones oculares, renales y bioquímicas en ratas deficientes en colina. Cincuenta y una ratas Wistar macho recién destetadas fueron divididas en dos grupos: treinta y una fueron alimentadas con una dieta colino deficiente y el resto con colina suplementada ad-libitum. Los animales de ambos grupos fueron sacrificados entre el quinto y el octavo día. Se midió la concentración de urea, creatinina y homocisteína en sangre. Los ojos fueron estudiados por microscopía de luz, microscopía óptica de alta resolución y para el estudio de la retina como retina plana. Los riñones fueron estudiados por microscopía de luz. Las ratas suplementadas con colina no

  2. Raising with long boreholes in Uranium Mines, Hamr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubista, A.; Svoboda, M.; Mohyla, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The technology is described of raising with long boreholes which was used in uranium mines for breaking 15 raises to the end of 1983. Also described is the method of computing the needed charge. The described technology has the following advantages as compared with usual driving methods: 1. it secures greater work safety, 2. it allows driving atypical profiles, 3. smooth breaking secures good stability and longer life of raises, 4. allows higher productivity, 5. reduces capital costs. (Ha)

  3. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows: (i improvement of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii development of an intelligent control technique, and (iii development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  4. Metabolic fingerprint of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzik, Danuta; Zorawski, Marcin; Skotnicki, Mariusz; Zarzycki, Wieslaw; Kozlowska, Gabryela; Bibik-Malinowska, Katarzyna; Vallejo, María; García, Antonia; Barbas, Coral; Ramos, M Pilar

    2014-05-30

    Gestational Diabetes (GDM) is causing severe short- and long-term complications for mother, fetus or neonate. As yet, the metabolic alterations that are specific for the development of GDM have not been fully determined, which also precludes the early diagnosis and prognosis of this pathology. In this pilot study, we determine the metabolic fingerprint, using a multiplatform LC-QTOF/MS, GC-Q/MS and CE-TOF/MS system, of plasma and urine samples of 20 women with GDM and 20 with normal glucose tolerance in the second trimester of pregnancy. Plasma fingerprints allowed for the discrimination of GDM pregnant women from controls. In particular, lysoglycerophospholipids showed a close association with the glycemic state of the women. In addition, we identified some metabolites with a strong discriminative power, such as LPE(20:1), (20:2), (22:4); LPC(18:2), (20:4), (20:5); LPI(18:2), (20:4); LPS(20:0) and LPA(18:2), as well as taurine-bile acids and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid derivatives. Finally, we provide evidence for the implication of these compounds in metabolic routes, indicative of low-grade inflammation and altered redox-balance, that may be related with the specific pathophysiological context of the genesis of GDM. This highlights their potential use as prognostic markers for the identification of women at risk to develop severe glucose intolerance during pregnancy. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide and, although diabetes usually remits after pregnancy, women with GDM have a high risk of developing postpartum type 2-diabetes, particularly when accompanied by obesity. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiology of GDM, as well as the identification of potentially modifiable risk factors and early diagnostic markers for GDM are relevant issues. In the present study, we devised a multiplatform metabolic fingerprinting approach to obtain a comprehensive picture of the early metabolic alternations that occur in GDM, and may

  5. Choline Catabolism in Burkholderia thailandensis Is Regulated by Multiple Glutamine Amidotransferase 1-Containing AraC Family Transcriptional Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Adam M; Wargo, Matthew J

    2016-09-15

    Burkholderia thailandensis is a soil-dwelling bacterium that shares many metabolic pathways with the ecologically similar, but evolutionarily distant, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Among the diverse nutrients it can utilize is choline, metabolizable to the osmoprotectant glycine betaine and subsequently catabolized as a source of carbon and nitrogen, similar to P. aeruginosa Orthologs of genes in the choline catabolic pathway in these two bacteria showed distinct differences in gene arrangement as well as an additional orthologous transcriptional regulator in B. thailandensis In this study, we showed that multiple glutamine amidotransferase 1 (GATase 1)-containing AraC family transcription regulators (GATRs) are involved in regulation of the B. thailandensis choline catabolic pathway (gbdR1, gbdR2, and souR). Using genetic analyses and sequencing the transcriptome in the presence and absence of choline, we identified the likely regulons of gbdR1 (BTH_II1869) and gbdR2 (BTH_II0968). We also identified a functional ortholog for P. aeruginosa souR, a GATR that regulates the metabolism of sarcosine to glycine. GbdR1 is absolutely required for expression of the choline catabolic locus, similar to P. aeruginosa GbdR, while GbdR2 is important to increase expression of the catabolic locus. Additionally, the B. thailandensis SouR ortholog (BTH_II0994) is required for catabolism of choline and its metabolites as carbon sources, whereas in P. aeruginosa, SouR function can by bypassed by GbdR. The strategy employed by B. thailandensis represents a distinct regulatory solution to control choline catabolism and thus provides both an evolutionary counterpoint and an experimental system to analyze the acquisition and regulation of this pathway during environmental growth and infection. Many proteobacteria that occupy similar environmental niches have horizontally acquired orthologous genes for metabolism of compounds useful in their shared environment. The arrangement and differential

  6. Recurrence of gestational diabetes in primiparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Anne R; Darling, Mette S; Hansen, Mia K L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases the risk for diabetes in the next pregnancy and later in life. Thus, estimating the risk of GDM in further pregnancies provides a time frame for possible preventive measures. We aimed to calculate the recurrence rate of GDM in primiparous...... women and evaluate the factors involved such as age, body mass index, weight gain, time between pregnancy and postpartum OGTT results. Material and methods We established a prospective cohort during a 5-year period at the Department of Obstetrics at Kolding Hospital. Women with diet-treated GDM...... in their first pregnancy and a subsequent pregnancy constituted our study population. Multiparity and insulin-treated GDM were exclusion criteria. Results Among 15 735 deliveries, 535 women were diagnosed with GDM (3.4%). Of these, 209 (39.1%) were nulliparous women, treated with diet only. Seventy...

  7. Pregnancy outcome in undiagnosed gestational diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehdashtian, M.; Aletayeb, S.M.H.; Kajbaf, T.Z.; Taheri, M.; Aminzadeh, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the outcomes of macrosomia and compare the risk factors associated with neonatal and maternal complications between mothers with gestational diabetes (GDM) and Non-GDM mothers, and determine whether it is important to screen for GDM before birth. Methodology: We sampled the venous blood of the mothers of 120 macrosomic neonates in the was based on a HbA1c>5.9%. Results: Twenty-three (19%) mothers had an HgbA1c>5.9%. Maternal and neonatal complications mother's age, parity, and BMI, other risk factors for the development of GDM didn't differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions: The frequency of neonatal and maternal complications associated with the birth macrosonic neonates are significantly different between GDM and non-GDM mothers. Hence, of the universal screening of pregnant women for GDM is not recommended. (author)

  8. Preconception counseling and contraception after gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølsted-Pedersen, L; Skouby, S O; Damm, P

    1991-01-01

    -contraceptive compounds appear to be safe for women with previous GDM when administered for limited periods. At the follow-up examination, we found no increased risk of developing diabetes in women with previous GDM who used oral contraception. We consider the intrauterine contraceptives (IUD) a safe and effective......Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosed in the period 1978-1984 were followed for on average 6 yr after the index pregnancy. Thirty percent had diabetes mellitus at the follow-up examination, and preliminary results indicate that at least another third will develop diabetes during...... a subsequent pregnancy. Therefore, family planning and contraceptive guidance should follow the lines for women with pregestational diabetes. When low-dose hormonal contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel were given to women with previous GDM, glucose tolerance and lipoprotein levels...

  9. Structural studies on choline-carboxylate bio-ionic liquids by x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzi, Luana; Ramondo, Fabio; Caminiti, Ruggero; Campetella, Marco; Di Luca, Andrea; Gontrani, Lorenzo

    2015-09-21

    We report a X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics study on three choline-based bio-ionic liquids, choline formate, [Ch] [For], choline propanoate, [Ch][Pro], and choline butanoate, [Ch][But]. For the first time, this class of ionic liquids has been investigated by X-ray diffraction. Experimental and theoretical structure factors have been compared for each term of the series. Local structural organization has been obtained from ab initio calculations through static models of isolated ion pairs and dynamic simulations of small portions of liquids through twelve, ten, and nine ion pairs for [Ch][For], [Ch][Pro], and [Ch][But], respectively. All the theoretical models indicate that cations and anions are connected by strong hydrogen bonding and form stable ion pairs in the liquid that are reminiscent of the static ab initio ion pairs. Different structural aspects may affect the radial distribution function, like the local structure of ion pairs and the conformation of choline. When small portions of liquids have been simulated by dynamic quantum chemical methods, some key structural features of the X-ray radial distribution function were well reproduced whereas the classical force fields here applied did not entirely reproduce all the observed structural features.

  10. Choline acetyltransferase expression during periods of behavioral activity and across natural sleep-wake states in the basal forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, M A; McCarley, R W; Shiromani, P J

    1999-01-01

    The present study examined whether the expression of the messenger RNA encoding the protein responsible for acetylcholine synthesis is associated with sleep-wakefulness. Choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA levels were analysed using a semi-quantitative assay in which reverse transcription was coupled to complementary DNA amplification using the polymerase chain reaction. To examine the relationship between steady-state messenger RNA and behavioral activity, rats were killed during the day (4.00 p.m.) or night (4.00 a.m.), and tissue from the vertical and horizontal limbs of the diagonal bands of Broca was analysed. Choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA levels were higher during the day than during the night. The second study examined more closely the association between choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA levels and individual bouts of wakefulness, slow-wave sleep or rapid eye movement sleep. Choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA levels were low during wakefulness, intermediate in slow-wave sleep and high during rapid eye movement sleep. In contrast, protein activity, measured at a projection site of cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain, was higher during wakefulness than during sleep. These findings suggest that choline acetyltransferase protein and messenger RNA levels exhibit an inverse relationship during sleep and wakefulness. The increased messenger RNA expression during sleep is consistent with a restorative function of sleep.

  11. Structural studies on choline-carboxylate bio-ionic liquids by x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzi, Luana; Ramondo, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.ramondo@univaq.it [Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio, L’Aquila I-67100 (Italy); Caminiti, Ruggero; Campetella, Marco; Di Luca, Andrea; Gontrani, Lorenzo, E-mail: lorenzo.gontrani@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2015-09-21

    We report a X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics study on three choline-based bio-ionic liquids, choline formate, [Ch] [For], choline propanoate, [Ch][Pro], and choline butanoate, [Ch][But]. For the first time, this class of ionic liquids has been investigated by X-ray diffraction. Experimental and theoretical structure factors have been compared for each term of the series. Local structural organization has been obtained from ab initio calculations through static models of isolated ion pairs and dynamic simulations of small portions of liquids through twelve, ten, and nine ion pairs for [Ch][For], [Ch][Pro], and [Ch][But], respectively. All the theoretical models indicate that cations and anions are connected by strong hydrogen bonding and form stable ion pairs in the liquid that are reminiscent of the static ab initio ion pairs. Different structural aspects may affect the radial distribution function, like the local structure of ion pairs and the conformation of choline. When small portions of liquids have been simulated by dynamic quantum chemical methods, some key structural features of the X-ray radial distribution function were well reproduced whereas the classical force fields here applied did not entirely reproduce all the observed structural features.

  12. Structural studies on choline-carboxylate bio-ionic liquids by x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, Luana; Ramondo, Fabio; Caminiti, Ruggero; Campetella, Marco; Di Luca, Andrea; Gontrani, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    We report a X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics study on three choline-based bio-ionic liquids, choline formate, [Ch] [For], choline propanoate, [Ch][Pro], and choline butanoate, [Ch][But]. For the first time, this class of ionic liquids has been investigated by X-ray diffraction. Experimental and theoretical structure factors have been compared for each term of the series. Local structural organization has been obtained from ab initio calculations through static models of isolated ion pairs and dynamic simulations of small portions of liquids through twelve, ten, and nine ion pairs for [Ch][For], [Ch][Pro], and [Ch][But], respectively. All the theoretical models indicate that cations and anions are connected by strong hydrogen bonding and form stable ion pairs in the liquid that are reminiscent of the static ab initio ion pairs. Different structural aspects may affect the radial distribution function, like the local structure of ion pairs and the conformation of choline. When small portions of liquids have been simulated by dynamic quantum chemical methods, some key structural features of the X-ray radial distribution function were well reproduced whereas the classical force fields here applied did not entirely reproduce all the observed structural features

  13. Children’s Brain Development Benefits from Longer Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elysia Poggi Davis

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Disruptions to brain development associated with shortened gestation place individuals at risk for the development of behavioral and psychological dysfunction throughout the lifespan. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the benefit for brain development conferred by increased gestational length exists on a continuum across the gestational age spectrum among healthy children with a stable neonatal course. Neurodevelopment was evaluated with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in 100 healthy right-handed six to ten year old children born between 28 and 41 gestational weeks with a stable neonatal course. Data indicate that a longer gestational period confers an advantage for neurodevelopment. Longer duration of gestation was associated with region-specific increases in grey matter density. Further, the benefit of longer gestation for brain development was present even when only full term infants were considered. These findings demonstrate that even modest decreases in the duration of gestation can exert profound and lasting effects on neurodevelopment for both term and preterm infants and may contribute to long-term risk for health and disease.

  14. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania : public health perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwanri, A.W.

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania – public health perspectives

    Abstract

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycaemia of variable severity with onset or

  15. Prevention of preterm delivery in twin gestations (PREDICT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, L; Klein, K; Nicolaides, K H

    2011-01-01

    -blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial performed in 17 centers in Denmark and Austria. Women with twin gestations were randomized to daily treatment with progesterone pessaries or apparently identical placebo pessaries, starting from 20-24 weeks until 34 weeks' gestation. Primary outcome was incidence...

  16. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 660: Family Building Through Gestational Surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Gestational surrogacy is an increasingly common form of family building that can allow individuals or a couple to become parents despite circumstances in which carrying a pregnancy is biologically impossible or medically contraindicated. The practice of gestational surrogacy involves a woman known as a gestational carrier who agrees to bear a genetically unrelated child with the help of assisted reproductive technologies for an individual or couple who intend(s) to be the legal and rearing parent(s), referred to as the intended parent(s). Obstetrician-gynecologists may become involved in gestational surrogacy through caring for the gestational carrier or by caring for the intended parent(s). Although gestational surrogacy increases options for family building, this treatment also involves ethical, medical, psychosocial, and legal complexities that must be taken into account to minimize risks of adverse outcomes for the gestational carrier, intended parent(s), and resulting children. The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of gestational surrogacy and to describe the ethical responsibilities for obstetrician-gynecologists who take part in the care of women who participate in these arrangements.

  17. Diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azedeh; Granström, Charlotta

    2017-01-01

    evaluated gestational diabetes mellitus status based on results from oral glucose tolerance tests, fasting blood glucose and Hb1c values, as well as diagnoses made by local obstetricians. RESULTS: The audit categorized 783 pregnancies as gestational diabetes mellitus, corresponding to 0.89% of the 87 792...

  18. Secular trends in gestational age and birthweight in twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Derom, C.A.; Vlietinck, R; Nijhuis, J.G.; Zeegers, M.P.A.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In recent decades, the overall rate of preterm births has increased. The aim of the present study was to examine whether this trend is also seen for multiple gestations. More specifically, we examined if there has been a decrease in gestational age for live born monozygotic (MZ) and

  19. The Effects of Mild Gestational Hyperglycemia on Exclusive Breastfeeding Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Verd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes increases the risk of a range of adverse perinatal outcomes, including breastfeeding failure, but the best cut-off point for gestational diabetes is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between mild gestational glucose tolerance impairment and the early cessation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF. This is an observational study of 768 women with full term pregnancies that were screened for gestational diabetes at 24–28 weeks gestation. Subjects were divided into two groups: those with a normal 1-h glucose challenge test and those with an elevated 1-h glucose challenge test but still did not qualify for gestational diabetes. We constructed multivariable logistic regression models using data from 616 women with normal gestational glucose tolerance and 152 women with an isolated positive 1-h glucose challenge test. The risk of early exclusive breastfeeding cessation was found to increase in women with mildly impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy (adjusted OR, 1.65; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.45. Risks of early EBF cessation were also independently associated with the amount of neonatal weight loss and admission to the neonatal ward. Instead, parity was associated with a decreased risk for shorter EBF duration. Insulin resistance—even in the absence of gestational diabetes mellitus—may be an impeding factor for EBF.

  20. Screening for gestational diabetes: examining a breakfast meal test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was performed to analyse the carbohydrate quantity of the non-standardised breakfast meal test consumed as part of a screening test for gestational diabetes. Design: A prospective descriptive design was utilised. Setting: Screening for gestational diabetes was performed in the High-Risk Antenatal ...

  1. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Non-insulin management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Magon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM complicates a substantial number of pregnancies. There is consensus that in patients of GDM, excellent blood glucose control, with diet and, when necessary, oral hypoglycemics and insulin results in improved perinatal outcomes, and appreciably reduces the probability of serious neonatal morbidity compared with routine prenatal care. Goals of metabolic management of a pregnancy complicated with GDM have to balance the needs of a healthy pregnancy with the requirements to control glucose level. Medical nutrition therapy is the cornerstone of therapy for women with GDM. Surveillance with daily self-monitoring of blood glucose has been found to help guide management in a much better way than blood glucose checking in labs and clinics, which tends to be less frequent. Historically, insulin has been the therapeutic agent of choice for controlling hyperglycemia in pregnant women. However, difficulty in medication administration with multiple daily injections, potential for hypoglycemia, and increase in appetite and weight make this therapeutic option cumbersome for many pregnant patients. Use of oral hypogycemic agents (OHAs in pregnancy has opened new vistas for GDM management. At present, there is a growing acceptance of glyburide (glibenclamide use as the primary therapy for GDM. Glyburide and metformin have been found to be safe, effective and economical for the treatment of gestational diabetes. Insulin, however, still has an important role to play in GDM. GDM is a window of opportunity, which needs to be seized, for prevention of diabetes in future life. Goal of our educational programs should be not only to improve pregnancy outcomes but also to promote healthy lifestyle changes for the mother that will last long after delivery. Team effort on part of obstetricians and endocrinologists is required to make " the diabetes capital of the world" into " the diabetes care capital of the world".

  2. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Multiple Gestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanc, Phyllis; Nyberg, David A; Khati, Nadia J; Deshmukh, Sandeep Prakash; Dudiak, Kika M; Henrichsen, Tara Lynn; Poder, Liina; Shipp, Thomas D; Simpson, Lynn; Weber, Therese M; Zelop, Carolyn M

    2017-11-01

    Women with twin or higher-order pregnancies will typically have more ultrasound examinations than women with a singleton pregnancy. Most women will have at minimum a first trimester scan, a nuchal translucency evaluation scan, fetal anatomy scan at 18 to 22 weeks, and one or more scans in the third trimester to evaluate growth. Multiple gestations are at higher risk for preterm delivery, congenital anomalies, fetal growth restriction, placenta previa, vasa previa, and velamentous cord insertion. Chorionicity and amnionicity should be determined as early as possible when a twin pregnancy is identified to permit triage of the monochorionic group into a closer surveillance model. Screening for congenital heart disease is warranted in monochorionic twins because they have an increased rate of congenital cardiac anomalies. In addition, monochorionic twins have a higher risk of developing cardiac abnormalities in later gestation related to right ventricular outflow obstruction, in particular the subgroups with twin-twin transfusion syndrome or selective intrauterine growth restriction. Monochorionic twins have unique complications including twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, twin embolization syndrome, and acardius, or twin-reversed arterial perfusion sequence. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or

  3. Prospective head-to-head comparison of 11C-choline-PET/MR and 11C-choline-PET/CT for restaging of biochemical recurrent prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiber, Matthias; Rauscher, Isabel; Souvatzoglou, Michael; Schwaiger, Markus; Maurer, Tobias; Holzapfel, Konstantin; Beer, Ambros J.

    2017-01-01

    Whole-body integrated 11 C-choline PET/MR might provide advantages compared to 11 C-choline PET/CT for restaging of prostate cancer (PC) due to the high soft-tissue contrast and the use of multiparametric MRI, especially for detection of local recurrence and bone metastases. Ninety-four patients with recurrent PC underwent a single-injection/dual-imaging protocol with contrast-enhanced PET/CT followed by fully diagnostic PET/MR. Imaging datasets were read separately by two reader teams (team 1 and 2) assessing the presence of local recurrence, lymph node and bone metastases in predefined regions using a five-point scale. Detection rates were calculated. The diagnostic performance of PET/CT vs. PET/MR was compared using ROC analysis. Inter-observer and inter-modality variability, radiation exposure, and mean imaging time were evaluated. Clinical follow-up, imaging, and/or histopathology served as standard of reference (SOR). Seventy-five patients qualified for the final image analysis. A total of 188 regions were regarded as positive: local recurrence in 37 patients, 87 regions with lymph node metastases, and 64 regions with bone metastases. Mean detection rate between both readers teams for PET/MR was 84.7% compared to 77.3% for PET/CT (p > 0.05). Local recurrence was identified significantly more often in PET/MR compared to PET/CT by team 1. Lymph node and bone metastases were identified significantly more often in PET/CT compared to PET/MR by both teams. However, this difference was not present in the subgroup of patients with PSA values ≤2 ng/ml. Inter-modality and inter-observer agreement (K > 0.6) was moderate to substantial for nearly all categories. Mean reduction of radiation exposure for PET/MR compared to PET/CT was 79.7% (range, 72.6-86.2%). Mean imaging time for PET/CT was substantially lower (18.4 ± 0.7 min) compared to PET/MR (50.4 ± 7.9 min). 11 C-choline PET/MR is a robust imaging modality for restaging biochemical recurrent PC and

  4. 29 CFR 780.615 - Raising of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of livestock. 780.615 Section 780.615 Labor... Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.615 Raising of livestock. Livestock auction operations are within the 13(b)(13) exemption only...

  5. Ce que fabrique la gestation pour autrui

    OpenAIRE

    Courduriès , Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Surrogacy is the subject of many ethical, moral, and political discussions. The important questions that surrogacy raises concerning the availability of the human body and the commercial aspect of this practice in certain countries obscure other issues that pique the curiosity of an anthropologist interested in kinship and definitions of being. This article discusses how surrogacy, a medical technology and at times a commercial operation, is also a practice that establ...

  6. Lean body mass in small for gestational age and appropriate for gestational age infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.; Gotfredsen, A.; Knudsen, F.U.

    1988-01-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry using 153 Gd in a whole-body scanner was used to measure lean body mass (LBM) in 51 newborn infants. LBM% decreased exponentially with increasing gestational age in both small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. In preterm SGA and AGA infants LBM was 104% and 103%, respectively, indicating that no fat was detectable. In term SGA infants LBM was 98%, which corresponded to 48 gm fat on average, and in term AGA infants LBM was 87%, which corresponded to 452 gm fat on average. The LBM%, ponderal index, and skinfold thickness were significantly different between AGA and SGA infants. Infants with clinical signs of intrauterine wastage had significantly higher LBM% than did infants without signs of weight loss. Our results on LBM% by dual photon absorptiometry agree with earlier dissection data; the clinically applicable methods of (1) height combined with weight (i.e., ponderal index), (2) skinfold thickness, and (3) scoring by clinical observations are useful for the estimation of lack of fat as an indicator of intrauterine growth retardation

  7. Morbidity and Mortality in Small for Gestational Age Infants at 22 to 29 Weeks' Gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghossian, Nansi S; Geraci, Marco; Edwards, Erika M; Horbar, Jeffrey D

    2018-02-01

    To identify the relative risks of mortality and morbidities for small for gestational age (SGA) infants in comparison with non-SGA infants born at 22 to 29 weeks' gestation. Data were collected (2006-2014) on 156 587 infants from 852 US centers participating in the Vermont Oxford Network. We defined SGA as sex-specific birth weight thin plate spline term on GA by SGA were used to calculate the adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for outcomes by GA. Compared with non-SGA infants, the risk of patent ductus arteriosus decreased for SGA infants in early GA and then increased in later GA. SGA infants were also at increased risks of mortality, respiratory distress syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, late-onset sepsis, severe retinopathy of prematurity, and chronic lung disease. These risks of adverse outcomes, however, were not homogeneous across the GA range. Early-onset sepsis was not different between the 2 groups for the majority of GAs, although severe intraventricular hemorrhage was decreased among SGA infants for only gestational week 24 through week 25. SGA was associated with additional risks to mortality and morbidities, but the risks differed across the GA range. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Surrogate mothers: aboriginal grandmothers raising grandchildren in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the experiences of Taiwanese aboriginal grandmothers when raising their grandchildren. Adopting a phenomenological approach, interviews were conducted with 15 Taiwanese aboriginal grandmothers who served as primary caregiver to a grandchild or grandchildren. Data were analyzed using Giorgi's phenomenological method. Four themes emerged from the data analysis, reflecting the parenting experience of grandmothers: using aged bodies to do energetic work: represented the physical effects of raising grandchildren; conflicting emotions: reflected the psychological effects of raising grandchildren; lifelong and privative obligation: described the cultural and societal beliefs of raising grandchildren; and coping strategies for raising grandchildren outlined methods the grandmothers used to cope with parenting their grandchildren. The results of this study offers insights into surrogate parenting within an underresearched group in Taiwan and will enable health care providers to be more aware of the physical, emotional, and social effects of the role of grandparent parenting.

  9. Value of bimodal (18)F-choline-PET/MRI and trimodal (18)F-choline-PET/MRI/TRUS for the assessment of prostate cancer recurrence after radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparo, Francesco; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Romagnoli, Andrea; Piccazzo, Riccardo; Monticone, Michela; Cevasco, Luca; Campodonico, Fabio; Conzi, Giuseppe Maria; Carmignani, Giorgio; Rollandi, Gian Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Between 27% and 53% of all patients who undergo radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiation therapy (RT) as the first-line treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) develop a biochemical recurrence. Imaging plays a pivotal role in restaging by helping to distinguish between local relapse and metastatic disease (i.e., lymph-node and skeletal metastases). At present, the most promising tools for assessing PCa patients with biochemical recurrence are multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) with radio-labeled choline derivatives. The main advantage of mpMRI is its high diagnostic accuracy in detecting local recurrence, while choline-PET/CT is able to identify lymph-node metastases when they are not suspicious on morphological imaging. The most recent advances in the field of fusion imaging have shown that multimodal co-registration, synchronized navigation, and combined interpretation are more valuable than the individual; separate assessment offered by different diagnostic techniques. The objective of the present essay was to describe the value of bimodal choline-PET/mpMRI fusion imaging and trimodal choline-PET/mpMRI/transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) in the assessment of PCa recurrence after RP and RT. Bimodal choline-PET/mpMRI fusion imaging allows morphological, functional, and metabolic information to be combined, thereby overcoming the limitations of each separate imaging modality. In addition, trimodal real-time choline-PET/mpMRI/TRUS fusion imaging may be useful for the planning and real-time guidance of biopsy procedures in order to obtain histological confirmation of the local recurrence.

  10. Gestational Weight Gain-for-Gestational Age Z-Score Charts Applied across U.S. Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Bodnar, Lisa M; Petito, Lucia C; Abrams, Barbara

    2018-03-01

    Gestational weight gain may be a modifiable contributor to infant health outcomes, but the effect of gestational duration on gestational weight gain has limited the identification of optimal weight gain ranges. Recently developed z-score and percentile charts can be used to classify gestational weight gain independent of gestational duration. However, racial/ethnic variation in gestational weight gain and the possibility that optimal weight gain differs among racial/ethnic groups could affect generalizability of the z-score charts. The objectives of this study were (1) to apply the weight gain z-score charts in two different U.S. populations as an assessment of generalisability and (2) to determine whether race/ethnicity modifies the weight gain range associated with minimal risk of preterm birth. The study sample included over 4 million live, singleton births in California (2007-2012) and Pennsylvania (2003-2013). We implemented a noninferiority margin approach in stratified subgroups to determine weight gain ranges for which the adjusted predicted marginal risk of preterm birth (gestation gain between California and Pennsylvania births, and among several racial/ethnic groups in California. The optimal ranges decreased as severity of prepregnancy obesity increased in all groups. The findings support the use of weight gain z-score charts for studying gestational age-dependent outcomes in diverse U.S. populations and do not support weight gain recommendations tailored to race/ethnicity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. 78 FR 11210 - Notice of NIH Consensus Development Conference: Diagnosing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Development Conference: Diagnosing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, HHS... ``Consensus Development Conference: Diagnosing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.'' The conference will be open to... http://prevention.nih.gov/cdp/ . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a...

  12. Studies of antimony telluride and copper telluride films electrodeposition from choline chloride containing ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catrangiu, Adriana-Simona; Sin, Ion [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania); Prioteasa, Paula [INCDIE ICPE-Advanced Research, Splaiul Unirii 313, Bucharest (Romania); Cotarta, Adina [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania); Cojocaru, Anca, E-mail: a_cojocaru@chim.upb.ro [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania); Anicai, Liana [Center of Surface Science and Nanotechnology, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, Bucharest (Romania); Visan, Teodor [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-07-29

    Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to investigate the deposition of antimony telluride or copper telluride from ionic liquid consisting in mixture of choline chloride with oxalic acid. In addition, the cathodic process during copper telluride formation was studied in the mixture of choline chloride with ethylene glycol. The results indicate that the Pt electrode is first covered with a Te layer, and then the more negative polarisation leads to the deposition of Sb{sub x}Te{sub y} or Cu{sub x}Te{sub y} semiconductor compounds. Thin films were deposited on copper and carbon steel at 60–70 °C and were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, energy X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their stoichiometry depends on the bath composition and applied potential. EDS and XRD patterns indicate the possible synthesis of stoichiometric Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} phase and Cu{sub 2}Te, Cu{sub 5}Te{sub 3}, and Cu{sub 2.8}Te{sub 2} phases, respectively, by controlling the ratio of ion concentrations in ionic liquid electrolytes and deposition potential. - Highlights: • Sb{sub x}Te{sub y} and Cu{sub x}Te{sub y} films electrodeposited from choline-chloride-based ionic liquids. • The stoichiometry of film depends on the bath composition and deposition potential. • Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2}Te, Cu{sub 5}Te{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2.8}Te{sub 2} phases were identified in X-ray diffraction patterns.

  13. Effects of betaine supplementation and choline deficiency on folate deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Yi-qun; Morita, Tatsuya; Sugiyama, Kimio

    2012-01-01

    The effect of betaine status on folate deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia was investigated to determine whether folate deficiency impairs homocysteine removal not only by the methionine synthase (MS) pathway but also by the betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) pathway. For this purpose, we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with betaine at a high level (1%) in rats fed a folate-deprived 10% casein diet (10C) and 20% casein diet (20C). We also investigated the effect of choline deprivation on folate deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in rats fed 20C. Supplementation of folate-deprived 10C and 20C with 1% betaine significantly suppressed folate deprivation-induced hyperhomocysteinemia, but the extent of suppression was partial or limited, especially in rats fed 10C, the suppression of plasma homocysteine increment being 48.5% in rats fed 10C and 69.7% in rats fed 20C. Although betaine supplementation greatly increased hepatic betaine concentration and BHMT activity, these increases did not fully explain why the effect of betaine supplementation was partial or limited. Folate deprivation markedly increased the hepatic concentration of N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), a known inhibitor of BHMT, and there was a significant positive correlation between hepatic DMG concentration and plasma homocysteine concentration, suggesting that folate deficiency increases hepatic DMG concentration and thereby depresses BHMT reaction, leading to interference with the effect of betaine supplementation. Choline deprivation did not increase plasma homocysteine concentration in rats fed 20C, but it markedly enhanced plasma homocysteine concentration when rats were fed folate-deprived 20C. This indicates that choline deprivation reinforced folate deprivation-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Increased hepatic DMG concentration was also associated with such an effect. These results support the concept that folate deficiency impairs homocysteine metabolism not only

  14. Choline and methionine differentially alter methyl carbon metabolism in bovine neonatal hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Tawny L; White, Heather M

    2017-01-01

    Intersections in hepatic methyl group metabolism pathways highlights potential competition or compensation of methyl donors. The objective of this experiment was to examine the expression of genes related to methyl group transfer and lipid metabolism in response to increasing concentrations of choline chloride (CC) and DL-methionine (DLM) in primary neonatal hepatocytes that were or were not exposed to fatty acids (FA). Primary hepatocytes isolated from 4 neonatal Holstein calves were maintained as monolayer cultures for 24 h before treatment with CC (61, 128, 2028, and 4528 μmol/L) and DLM (16, 30, 100, 300 μmol/L), with or without a 1 mmol/L FA cocktail in a factorial arrangement. After 24 h of treatment, media was collected for quantification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and cell lysates were collected for quantification of gene expression. No interactions were detected between CC, DLM, or FA. Both CC and DLM decreased the expression of methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A). Increasing CC did not alter betaine-homocysteine S-methyltranferase (BHMT) but did increase 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) expression. Increasing DLM decreased expression of BHMT and MTR, but did not affect MTHFR. Expression of both phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) were decreased by increasing CC and DLM, while carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) was unaffected by either. Treatment with FA decreased the expression of MAT1A, MTR, MTHFR and tended to decrease PEMT but did not affect BHMT and MTTP. Treatment with FA increased CPT1A expression. Increasing CC increased secretion of VLDL and decreased the accumulation of ROS in media. Within neonatal bovine hepatocytes, choline and methionine differentially regulate methyl carbon pathways and suggest that choline may play a critical role in

  15. Opioid receptor subtypes mediating the noise-induced decreases in high-affinity choline uptake in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, H; Carino, M A

    1992-07-01

    Acute (20 min) exposure to 100-dB white noise elicits a naltrexone-sensitive decrease in sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat. In the present study, the subtypes of opioid receptors involved were investigated by pretreating rats with microinjection of specific opioid-receptor antagonists into the lateral cerebroventricle before noise exposure. We found that the noise-induced decrease in high-affinity choline uptake in the hippocampus was blocked by pretreatment with either mu-, delta-, or kappa-opioid-receptor antagonists, whereas the effect of noise on frontal cortical high-affinity choline uptake was blocked by a mu- and delta- but not by a kappa-antagonist. These data further confirm the role of endogenous opioids in mediating the effects of noise on central cholinergic activity and indicate that different neural mechanisms are involved in the effects of noise on the frontal cortical and hippocampal cholinergic systems.

  16. An Incidental Renal Oncocytoma: 18F-Choline PET/MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mallia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available PET/MRI is a new hybrid imaging modality and has the potential to become a powerful imaging tool. It is currently one of the most active areas of research in diagnostic imaging. The characterisation of an incidental renal lesion can be difficult. In particular, the differentiation of an oncocytoma from other solid renal lesions such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC represents a diagnostic challenge. We describe the detection of an incidental renal oncocytoma in a 79-year gentleman who underwent a re-staging 18F-Choline PET/MRI following a rise in PSA values (4.07, nadir 1.3.

  17. Therapy assessment in prostate cancer using choline and PSMA PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceci, Francesco; Castellucci, Paolo; Fanti, Stefano [University of Bologna, Nuclear Medicine Unit, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Herrmann, Ken [University Hospital Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); University of California Los Angeles, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hadaschik, Boris [University Hospital Essen, Department of Urology, Essen (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    While PET with non-FDG tracers (mainly choline and Ga-PSMA) has commonly been used for restaging in men with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer, as well as for primary staging, it is only recently that a few preliminary studies have addressed the possible use of PET for monitoring the response to systemic therapy of metastatic disease, especially innovative treatments such as abiraterone and enzalutamide. This article aims to evaluate the role of PET imaging with different non-FDG radiotracers for assessment of therapy in advanced prostate cancer patients. (orig.)

  18. HbA1c and Gestational Weight Gain Are Factors that Influence Neonatal Outcome in Mothers with Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquiel, Beatriz; Herranz, Lucrecia; Hillman, Natalia; Burgos, Ma Ángeles; Grande, Cristina; Tukia, Keleni M; Bartha, José Luis; Pallardo, Luis Felipe

    2016-06-01

    Maternal glucose and weight gain are related to neonatal outcome in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aim of this study was to explore the influence of average third-trimester HbA1c and excess gestational weight gain on GDM neonatal complications. This observational study included 2037 Spanish singleton pregnant women with GDM followed in our Diabetes and Pregnancy Unit. The maternal HbA1c level was measured monthly from GDM diagnosis to delivery. Women were compared by average HbA1c level and weight gain categorized into ≤ or > the current Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations for body mass index. The differential effects of these factors on large-for-gestational-age birth weight and a composite of neonatal complications were assessed. Women with an average third-trimester HbA1c ≥5.0% (n = 1319) gave birth to 7.3% versus 3.8% (p = 0.005) of large-for-gestational-age neonates and 22.0% versus 16.0% (p = 0.006) of neonates with complications. Women with excess gestational weight gain (n = 299) delivered 12.5% versus 5.2% (p gestational-age neonates and 24.7% versus 19.0% (p = 0.022) of neonates with complications. In an adjusted multiple logistic regression analysis among mothers exposed to the respective risk factors, ∼47% and 52% of large-for-gestational-age neonates and 32% and 37% of neonatal complications were potentially preventable by attaining an average third-trimester HbA1c level gestational weight gain. Average third-trimester HbA1c level ≥5% and gestational weight gain above the IOM recommendation are relevant risk factors for neonatal complications in mothers with gestational diabetes.

  19. Prostate cancer: a comparative study of {sup 11}C-choline PET and MR imaging combined with proton MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Takako; Lee, Jin; Takahashi, Nobukazu; Oka, Takashi; Shizukuishi, Kazuya; Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Uemura, Hiroji; Kubota, Yoshinobu [Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Department of Urology, Kanagawa (Japan); Sasaki, Takeshi [Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Kanagawa (Japan); Endou, Hisashi [Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Prostate cancer is difficult to visualise in its early stages using current imaging technology. The present study aimed to clarify the utility of {sup 11}C-choline PET for localising and evaluating cancer lesions in patients with prostate cancer by conducting a prospective comparison with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging combined with proton MR spectroscopy. PET and MR imaging combined with proton MR spectroscopy were performed in 20 patients with prostate cancer. Correlations among the metabolite ratio of choline + creatine to citrate (Cho+Cr/Ci) on MR spectroscopy, serum PSA and maximum standardised uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of {sup 11}C-choline were assessed. The location of the primary lesion was assessed by the site of SUV{sub max} and the laterality of the highest Cho+Cr/Ci ratio and confirmed by examination of surgical pathology specimens (n=16). PET exhibited a diagnostic sensitivity of 100% (20/20) for primary lesions, while the sensitivities of MR imaging and MR spectroscopy were 60% (12/20) and 65% (13/20), respectively. Weak linear correlations were observed between SUV{sub max} and serum PSA (r=0.52, p<0.05), and between SUV{sub max} and Cho+Cr/Ci ratio (r=0.49, p<0.05). Regarding the localisation of main primary lesions, PET results agreed with pathological findings in 13 patients (81%) ({kappa}=0.59), while MR spectroscopy results were in accordance with pathological findings in eight patients (50%) ({kappa}=0.11). This preliminary study suggests that {sup 11}C-choline PET may provide more accurate information regarding the localisation of main primary prostate cancer lesions than MR imaging/MR spectroscopy. A further clinical study of {sup 11}C-choline PET in a large number of patients suspected of prostate cancer will be necessary to determine the clinical utility of {sup 11}C-choline PET in patients who clinically require biopsy. (orig.)

  20. [Design and application of medical electric leg-raising machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jintang; Chen, Jinyuan; Zhao, Zixian; Lin, Jinfeng; Li, Juanhong; Zhong, Jingliang

    2017-08-01

    Passive leg raising is widely used in clinic, but it lacks of specialized mechanical raise equipment. It requires medical staff to raise leg by hand or requires a multi-functional bed to raise leg, which takes time and effort. Therefore we have developed a new medical electric leg-raising machine. The equipment has the following characteristics: simple structure, stable performance, easy operation, fast and effective, safe and comfortable. The height range of the lifter is 50-120 cm, the range of the angle of raising leg is 10degree angle-80degree angle, the maximum supporting weight is 40 kg. Because of raising the height of the lower limbs and making precise angle, this equipment can completely replace the traditional manner of lifting leg by hand with multi-functional bed to lift patients' leg and can reduce the physical exhaustion and time consumption of medical staff. It can change the settings at any time to meet the needs of the patient; can be applied to the testing of PLR and dynamically assessing the hemodynamics; can prevent deep vein thrombosis and some related complications of staying in bed; and the machine is easy to be cleaned and disinfected, which can effectively avoid hospital acquired infection and cross infection; and can also be applied to emergency rescue of various disasters and emergencies.

  1. An efficient and green method for regio- and chemo-selective Friedel–Crafts acylations using a deep eutectic mixture ([CholineCl][ZnCl2]3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Tran Phuong; Nguyen, Hai Truong; Hansen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    [CholineCl][ZnCl2]3, a deep eutectic solvent between choline chloride and ZnCl2, has been used as a dual function catalyst and green solvent for the Friedel–Crafts acylation of aromatic compounds instead of using the moisture-sensitive Lewis acids and volatile organic solvents. The reactions...... are performed with high yields under microwave irradiation with short reaction times for the synthesis of ketones. Interestingly, indole derivatives are regioselectively acylated in the 3-position under mild conditions with high yields without NH protection. Three new ketone products are synthesized. [Choline......Cl][ZnCl2]3 is easily synthesized from choline chloride and zinc chloride at a low cost, with easy purification and environmentally benign compounds. [CholineCl][ZnCl2]3 can be reused up to five times without loss of catalytic activity, making it ideal in industrial processes....

  2. Investigation and management of a raised serum ferritin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullis, Jonathan O; Fitzsimons, Edward J; Griffiths, William Jh; Tsochatzis, Emmanouil; Thomas, D Wayne

    2018-05-01

    Serum ferritin level is one of the most commonly requested investigations in both primary and secondary care. Whilst low serum ferritin levels invariably indicate reduced iron stores, raised serum ferritin levels can be due to multiple different aetiologies, including iron overload, inflammation, liver or renal disease, malignancy, and the recently described metabolic syndrome. A key test in the further investigation of an unexpected raised serum ferritin is the serum transferrin saturation. This guideline reviews the investigation and management of a raised serum ferritin level. The investigation and management of genetic haemochromatosis is not dealt with however and is the subject of a separate guideline. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Fetal sex and maternal risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: the impact of having a boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnakaran, Ravi; Kramer, Caroline K; Ye, Chang; Kew, Simone; Hanley, Anthony J; Connelly, Philip W; Sermer, Mathew; Zinman, Bernard

    2015-05-01

    Retrospective analyses of perinatal databases have raised the intriguing possibility of an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in women carrying a male fetus, but it has been unclear if this was a spurious association. We thus sought to evaluate the relationship between fetal sex and maternal glucose metabolism in a well-characterized cohort of women reflecting the full spectrum of gestational glucose tolerance from normal to mildly abnormal to GDM. A total of 1,074 pregnant women underwent metabolic characterization, including oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), at mean 29.5 weeks' gestation. The prevalence of GDM, its pathophysiologic determinants (β-cell function and insulin sensitivity/resistance), and its clinical risk factors were compared between women carrying a female fetus (n = 534) and those carrying a male fetus (n = 540). Women carrying a male fetus had lower mean adjusted β-cell function (insulinogenic index divided by HOMA of insulin resistance: 9.4 vs. 10.5, P = 0.007) and higher mean adjusted blood glucose at 30 min (P = 0.025), 1 h (P = 0.004), and 2 h (P = 0.02) during the OGTT, as compared with those carrying a female fetus. Furthermore, women carrying a male fetus had higher odds of developing GDM (odds ratio 1.39 [95% CI 1.01-1.90]). Indeed, male fetus further increased the relative risk of GDM conferred by the classic risk factors of maternal age >35 years and nonwhite ethnicity by 47 and 51%, respectively. Male fetus is associated with poorer β-cell function, higher postprandial glycemia, and an increased risk of GDM in the mother. Thus, fetal sex potentially may influence maternal glucose metabolism in pregnancy. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  4. Serum Phthalate and Triclosan Levels Have Opposing Associations With Risk Factors for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin G. Fisher

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Certain phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA have been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in non-pregnant adults, but studies of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM have reported conflicting results for phthalates and no associations with BPA. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between maternal serum levels of phthalate metabolites and phenols at 10–17 weeks of gestation and glucose homeostasis at 28 weeks of gestation. 232 women aged ≥16 years without type 1 or 2 diabetes with singleton male pregnancies were recruited from a single UK maternity centre between 2001 and 2009 as part of a prospective observational study (Cambridge Baby Growth Study. Serum levels of 16 phthalate metabolites and 9 phenols (including BPA were measured using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed at 28 weeks. 47/232 (20.3% women had GDM. First-trimester triclosan (TCS was inversely associated with incident GDM (adjusted odds ratio per log increase in concentration 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.34–0.86, p = 0.010. Amongst women without GDM, first-trimester mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate and mono(carboxyisooctyl phthalate levels were positively associated with 120-min plasma glucose (adjusted β 0.268 and 0.183, p = 0.0002 and 0.010, respectively in mid-pregnancy. No other monotonic associations were detected between phthalate or phenol levels and fasting or stimulated plasma glucose, β-cell function, insulin resistance, or 60-min disposition index. Our results support a glycaemia-raising effect of phthalates during pregnancy, consistent with findings in non-pregnant populations and suggest a possible protective effect of exposure to TCS against GDM.

  5. The detection rate of [11C]Choline-PET/CT depends on the serum PSA-value in patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, B.J.; Souvatzoglou, M.; Tuncel, M.; Herrmann, K.; Buck, A.K.; Praus, C.; Schwaiger, M.; Schuster, T.; Geinitz, H.; Treiber, U.

    2008-01-01

    An increase of the serum PSA-level is a sensitive in vitro marker for recurrent prostate cancer. However, it remains difficult to differentiate between local, regional or distant recurrent disease. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the detection rate of [ 11 C]Choline-PET/CT and the serum PSA-level in patients with a biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer with the view towards localisation of recurrent disease. Sixty-three patients (mean age, 68.8 ± 6.9; range, 45-83 years) with biochemical recurrence after primary therapy for prostate cancer were included in the analysis. Mean PSA-levels were 5.9 ± 9.7 ng/ml (range, 0.2-39 ng/ml; median, 2.15). Of the 63 patients, 17 were under anti-androgen therapy at the time of [ 11 C]Choline PET/CT. Patients underwent a [ 11 C]Choline-PET/CT study after injection of 656 ± 119 MBq [ 11 C]Choline on a Sensation 16 Biograph PET/CT scanner. Of the 63 patients, 35 (56%) showed a pathological [ 11 C]Choline uptake. The detection rate of [ 11 C]Choline-PET/CT showed a relationship with the serum PSA-level: The detection rate was 36% for a PSA-value 11 C]Choline-PET/CT (p = 0.374). As an important result our study shows that even for PSA-values 11 C]Choline-PET/CT is 36%. Furthermore, the detection rate of [ 11 C]Choline-PET/CT shows a positive relationship with serum PSA-levels in patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after primary therapy. Therefore, in these patients, [ 11 C]Choline PET/CT allows not only to diagnose but also to localise recurrent disease with implications on disease management (localised vs systemic therapy). (orig.)

  6. Effect of choline on antioxidant defenses and gene expressions of Nrf2 signaling molecule in the spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Chen, Gang-Fu; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-06-01

    The present work evaluates the effects of various levels of dietary choline on antioxidant defenses and gene expressions of Nrf2 signaling molecule in spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Fish were fed with six different experimental diets containing graded levels of choline at 165 (choline-deficient control), 310, 607, 896, 1167 and 1820 mg kg(-1) diet for 65 days. At the end of the feeding trail, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded over 17 days. Dietary choline significantly decreased malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents in spleen and head kidney. However, anti-superoxide anion and anti-hydroxyl radical activities in spleen and head kidney also decreased. Interestingly, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in spleen, GPx activity in head kidney, and glutathione contents in spleen and head kidney were decreased with increase of dietary choline levels up to a certain point, whereas, activities of SOD, GST and GR in head kidney showed no significantly differences among groups. Similarly, expression levels of CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, GPx1a, GPx1b and GR gene in spleen and head kidney were significantly lower in group with choline level of 607 mg kg(-1) diet than those in the choline-deficient group. The relative gene expressions of Nrf2 in head kidney and Keap1a in spleen and head kidney were decreased with increasing of dietary choline up to a certain point. However, the relative gene expression of Nrf2 in spleen were not significantly affected by dietary choline. In conclusion, dietary choline decreased the oxidant damage and regulated the antioxidant system in immune organs of juvenile Jian carp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Secular trends in gestational age and birthweight in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, M; van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Derom, C; Vlietinck, R; Nijhuis, J G; Zeegers, M P A; Boomsma, D I

    2010-09-01

    In recent decades, the overall rate of preterm births has increased. The aim of the present study was to examine whether this trend is also seen for multiple gestations. More specifically, we examined if there has been a decrease in gestational age for live born monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins and if there has been a simultaneous change in birthweight. The contributions of fertility treatments and Caesarean sections were taken into consideration. All analyses were carried out in two large European twin cohorts. Cross-sectional study of 6310 live born twin pairs, born between 1964-2007, from the Belgian East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey and 14,712 twin pairs, born between 1990-2006, from the Netherlands Twin Register. Multiple regression analyses were performed with gestational age as outcome variable, and multilevel analysis with birthweight as outcome variable. All analyses were performed with and without adjustment for zygosity, parity, maternal age, mode of conception and delivery and, for the analyses of birthweight, gestational age. Gestational age decreased in a linear fashion from 1964 to 2007 with a decrease of 0.25 days per year in a similar way for MZ and DZ twins. Changes in birthweight depended on gestational age: up to 32 weeks, birthweight decreased and after 32 weeks birthweight increased. The frequency of infertility treatment and Caesarean sections, primiparity and advanced maternal age increased over the years, but none of these factors influenced the secular trends in gestational age and birthweight. The decrease in gestational age and change in birthweight in twins are sources of concern, especially for very preterm twins, for whom birthweight decreased. For twins born after 32 weeks, an increase in birthweight was observed and this is very likely the explanation for the decrease in gestational age.

  8. Serum Phthalate and Triclosan Levels Have Opposing Associations With Risk Factors for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Benjamin G; Frederiksen, Hanne; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2018-01-01

    Certain phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) have been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in non-pregnant adults, but studies of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have reported conflicting results for phthalates and no associations with BPA. Our aim was to investigate...... levels were positively associated with 120-min plasma glucose (adjusted β 0.268 and 0.183, p = 0.0002 and 0.010, respectively) in mid-pregnancy. No other monotonic associations were detected between phthalate or phenol levels and fasting or stimulated plasma glucose, β-cell function, insulin resistance......, or 60-min disposition index. Our results support a glycaemia-raising effect of phthalates during pregnancy, consistent with findings in non-pregnant populations and suggest a possible protective effect of exposure to TCS against GDM....

  9. Tsc2 Haploinsufficiency Has Limited Effects on Fetal Brain Cytokine Levels during Gestational Immune Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Ehninger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulated TSC/mTOR signaling may play a pathogenetic role in forms of syndromic autism, such as autism associated with tuberous sclerosis, a genetic disorder caused by heterozygous TSC1 or TSC2 mutations. Environmental risk factors, such as gestational viral infections, may, in some cases, also contribute to the pathogenesis of autism and related neuropsychiatric disorders. We have recently found that a heterozygous Tsc2 mutation and the poly I:C model of maternal immune activation (MIA interactively perturb fetal development and adult social behavior in mice, suggesting that these factors converge on shared pathways. TSC/mTOR signaling plays an important role in the modulation of immune responses, raising the possibility that the damage caused by MIA was greater in Tsc2+/− than in wildtype fetuses because of an exacerbated immune response in the mutants. Here, cytokine antibody arrays were employed to measure relative cytokine abundances in the fetal brain and the placenta during MIA. Cytokines were induced by gestational poly I:C but there was no obvious modulatory effect of Tsc2 haploinsufficiency. The data indicate that cytokine exposure during MIA is comparable in Tsc2 haploinsufficient and wildtype control fetuses, suggesting that downstream molecular and cellular processes may account for the interactive effects of Tsc2 haploinsufficiency and MIA.

  10. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Future Cardiovascular Risk: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Burlina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus is increasing in parallel with the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity around the world. Current evidence strongly suggests that women who have had gestational diabetes mellitus are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Given the growing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, it is important to identify appropriate reliable markers of cardiovascular disease and specific treatment strategies capable of containing obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome in order to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in the women affected.

  11. Sonographic monitoring of complications and anomalies in twin gestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, B.G.; Grumbach, K.; Arger, P.H.; Mintz, M.C.; Arenson, R.L.; Mennuti, M.T.; Gabbe, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    One hundred sixty-eight twin gestations were evaluated to assess the role of US in the diagnosis of obstetric complications and anomalies. US revealed the following complications: symptomatic polyhydramnios (eight cases), myomas (seven), placenta previa (three), and abruption (five). Fetal anomalies included twin-twin transfusion syndrome (two), acardiac anomaly (two), chromosomal abnormality (two), anencephaly (one), hydrocephaly (one), and conjoined twins (two). In 26 gestations intrauterine fetal demise or neonatal death involved one or both twins for a total of 42 deaths, constituting a mortality of 12.5%. No maternal deaths occurred. The impact of sonographic monitoring on the obstetric management of twin gestations is emphasized

  12. Early detection of diabetes after pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jane Hyldgård; Overgaard, Charlotte; Olesen, Christinna Rebecca

    Title: Early detection of diabetes after pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes Background: Women whose pregnancy was complicated by gestational diabetes have a 7-fold higher risk of developing diabetes, primarily type 2. 40% of women with a history gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM...... of health consequences for women. Aims: Examine the extent of participation in follow-up screening in the Danish Region of North Jutland, and the possible consequences of nonattendance. Methods: A register based study. In Danish national registers 2171 birthing women whose pregnancy was complicated by GDM...

  13. Serum YKL-40 and gestational diabetes - an observational cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gybel-Brask, Dorte; Johansen, Julia S; Christiansen, Ib J

    2016-01-01

    To examine serum YKL-40 in women developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In the present large observational cohort study of 1179 pregnant women, we determined serum YKL-40 four times during pregnancy (at gestational age 12, 20, 25, and 32 weeks). Pregnancy outcome was obtained from medical...... records. Sixty-eight women (5.8%) developed GDM. Serum YKL-40 increased from gestational age (GA) 12 weeks and the following weeks in the women who developed GDM and was independent of BMI, parity, and maternal age (OR = 2.69, 95% CI: 1.45-5.00, p = 0.002). No association was found between serum YKL-40...

  14. Exercise guidelines for gestational diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padayachee, Cliantha; Coombes, Jeff S

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide. This disease has many detrimental consequences for the woman, the unborn foetus and child. The management of GDM aims to mediate the effects of hyperglycaemia by controlling blood glucose levels. Along with pharmacology and dietary interventions, exercise has a powerful potential to assist with blood glucose control. Due to the uncertainty of risks and benefits of exercise during pregnancy, women tend to avoid exercise. However, under adequate supervision exercise is both safe and beneficial in the treatment of GDM. Therefore it is vital that exercise is incorporated into the continuum of care for women with GDM. Medical doctors should be able to refer to competently informed exercise professionals to aid in GDM treatment. It is important that exercise treatment is informed by research. Hence, the development of evidence-based guidelines is important to inform practice. Currently there are no guidelines for exercise in GDM. This review aims to assess the efficacy of exercise for the management of GDM in order to establish an exercise prescription guideline specific to the condition. It is recommended that women with GDM should do both aerobic and resistance exercise at a moderate intensity, a minimum of three times a week for 30-60 min each time. PMID:26240700

  15. Serum Adiponectin in Women with Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objective: Adiponectin is an adipose tissue adipokin that may contribute to obesity and insulin resistantance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin resistance in gestational diabetes (GDM.Materials & Methods: Serum adiponectin levels, fasting blood sugar (FBS, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C, insulin levels and blood lipids were measured in 66 women with GDM and 70 pregnant women without GDM. The associations between serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin resistance were evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA–IR and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI.Results: There were statistically significant between-group differences in FBS, HbA1C and HOMA–IR. Adiponectin concentrations were not significantly different in GDM women in comparison with the control group. However, GDM women above the age of 30 have significantly lower adiponectin concentrations than those without GDM. Adiponectin was positively associated with QUICKI (r = 0.268, P < 0.03 and inversely related to HOMA–IR (r = 0.238, P < 0.05.Conclusion: Adiponectin is significantly decreased in older women with GDM. Deficiency of adiponectin may correlate with insulin resistance in GDM.

  16. Metformin in gestational diabetes: An emerging contender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awadhesh Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance occurring first time during pregnancy. Its prevalence is simultaneously increasing with the global rise of diabesity. GDM commonly develops, when maternal glucose metabolism is unable to compensate for the progressive development of insulin resistance, arising primarily from the consistently rising diabetogenic placental hormones. It classically develops during the second or third trimester. Theoretically, insulin sensitizers should have been the ideal agent in its treatment, given the insulin resistance, the major culprit in its pathogenesis. Fortunately, majority of women can be treated satisfactorily with lifestyle modification, and approximately 20% requires more intensive treatment. For several decades, insulin has been the most reliable treatment strategy and the gold standard in GDM. Metformin is effective insulin sensitizing agent and an established first line drug in type 2 diabetes currently. As it crosses the placenta, a safety issue remains an obstacle and, therefore, metformin is currently not recommended in the treatment of GDM. Nevertheless, given the emerging clinically equivalent safety and efficacy data of metformin compared to insulin, it appears that it may perhaps open a rather new door in managing GDM. The aim of this review is to critically analyze, the safety and efficacy data of metformin regarding its use in GDM and pregnant mothers with polycystic ovarian disease, which has emerged in past decades.

  17. Gestational diabetes from A to Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghani Dirar, AbdelHameed; Doupis, John

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of hyperglycaemia that is recognized for the first time during pregnancy. This definition includes cases of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) identified early in pregnancy and true GDM which develops later. GDM constitutes a greater impact on diabetes epidemic as it carries a major risk of developing T2DM to the mother and foetus later in life. In addition, GDM has also been linked with cardiometabolic risk factors such as lipid abnormalities, hypertensive disorders and hyperinsulinemia. These might result in later development of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The understanding of the different risk factors, the pathophysiological mechanisms and the genetic factors of GDM, will help us to identify the women at risk, to develop effective preventive measures and to provide adequate management of the disease. Clinical trials have shown that T2DM can be prevented in women with prior GDM, by intensive lifestyle modification and by using pioglitazone and metformin. However, a matter of controversy surrounding both screening and management of GDM continues to emerge, despite several recent well-designed clinical trials tackling these issues. The aim of this manuscript is to critically review GDM in a detailed and comprehensive manner, in order to provide a scientific analysis and updated write-up of different related aspects. PMID:29290922

  18. Gestational carrier in assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugappan, Gayathree; Farland, Leslie V; Missmer, Stacey A; Correia, Katharine F; Anchan, Raymond M; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S

    2018-03-01

    To compare clinical outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles with the use of gestational carriers (GCs) with non-GC IVF cycles. Retrospective cohort study of assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles performed with (24,269) and without (1,313,452) the use of a GC. ART centers. Infertile patients seeking IVF with or without use of a GC. Autologous and donor oocyte cycles, fresh and cryopreserved embryo transfer cycles. Live birth rate (LBR), twin and high-order multiple birth rates. Approximately 2% of embryo transfers used a GC. Per embryo transfer, GCs had greater pregnancy rate and LBR across all IVF types compared with non-GC cycles in crude models and models adjusted a priori for potential confounders. For women with uterine-factor infertility, embryo transfer with the use of a GC resulted in a higher odds of live birth for autologous fresh embryos and for cryopreserved embryos compared with patients with non-uterine-factor infertility diagnoses. GC benefits LBRs for some patients seeking ART. The highest LBRs occurred when the indication for GC was uterine-factor infertility. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Blood Pressure Medications: Can They Raise My Triglycerides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medications: Can they raise my triglycerides? Can some blood pressure medications cause an increase in triglycerides? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, some blood pressure medications can affect triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Hydrochlorothiazide ...

  20. Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph (RAISE) Renewal Proposal Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The optical design of RAISE is based on a new class of UV/EUV imaging spectrometers that use  only two reflections to provide quasi-stigmatic performance...

  1. Federal Tax Issues Raised by International Study Abroad Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Bertrand M., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Identifies and describes tax issues raised by study abroad programs and suggests steps that a college or university can take to minimize or eliminate adverse U.S. and foreign tax exposure to both itself and its employees. (EV)

  2. HAPPINESS ORIENTATIONS AMONG ADOLESCENTS RAISED IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisti Anggraeny

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Researcher takes particular interest to discover the respondents’ orientation towards happiness based on where the respondent was raised. The study involves 467 senior high school students with ages ranging from 14-17 years old. The data is analyzed using an adapted society psychological approach. The results shows that adolescents raised in rural areas are consider the family to be a factor that contributes to their happiness. Second, achievement is also a factor that leads to happiness. However for the category, to love and be loved, adolescents growing in urban areas place this as a factor that leads to happiness. Similar with spirituality, friends and leisure time are factors that make adolescents raised in urban areas to become happy. Nevertheless, the results of cross tabulation with Pearson chi square test scoring demonstrates that no correlations exist between adolescent happiness raised from urban or rural areas.

  3. Evaluation of the use of snowplowable raised pavement markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and durability of snowplowable raised pavement markers (RPM) installed on the RPM system in Kentucky. The durability evaluation dealt wit the marker housing. : The data show that continued...

  4. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  5. Government grant control of development of stock-raising

    OpenAIRE

    SAMOYLIK YU.V.

    2012-01-01

    Directions of improvement of mechanism of government grant control of development of stock-raising are offered on the basis of the educed tendencies and conformities to law in the existent system of sponsorship of industry.

  6. Capital raising of aerospace companies: equities or debts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-Shan, L.; Taw-Onn, Y.; Wai-Mun, H.

    2016-10-01

    Aerospace products enhance national and economic activities, thus maintaining the sustainability of aerospace industry is crucial. One of the perspectives in ensuring sustainability of aerospace companies is expansion of firms by raising funds for research and development in order to provide a reasonable profitability to the firms. This study comprises a sample of 47 aerospace companies from 2009 to 2015 to analyze the impact of raising fund by equities or debts to the profitability of the firms. The result indicates that capital raising through equities is preferable than debts. Moreover, the study also identifies that the profit of aerospace industry is volatile and there is cyclical reduction of the net income in the first quarter of the year. The management needs to make wise decisions in raising fund to ensure a healthy growth of the aerospace company.

  7. Overexpression, purification and crystallization of a choline-binding protein CbpI from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, Neil G.; Riboldi-Tunicliffe, Alan; Mitchell, Timothy J.; Isaacs, Neil W.

    2006-01-01

    The choline-binding protein CbpI from S. pneumoniae has been purified and crystallized and diffraction data have been collected to 3.5 Å resolution. The choline-binding protein CbpI from Streptococcus pneumoniae is a 23.4 kDa protein with no known function. The protein has been successfully purified initially using Ni–NTA chromatography and to homogeneity using Q-Sepharose ion-exchange resin as an affinity column. CbpI was crystallized using PEG 3350 as a precipitant and X-ray crystallographic analysis showed that the crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 83.31, c = 80.29 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The crystal contains two molecules in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 55.7% (V M = 2.77 Å 3 Da −1 ) and shows a diffraction limit of 3.5 Å

  8. Dietary choline supplementation in adult rats improves performance on a test of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Hayarelis; Hall, Geoffrey; Gallo, Milagros; de Brugada, Isabel

    2018-04-22

    In two experiments adult rats (aged at least 6 months at the start of the procedure) received a diet enriched with added choline for a period of 10 weeks; control subjects were maintained on a standard diet during this time. All rats then underwent the spontaneous object recognition (SOR) procedure in which they were exposed to a pair of objects and then tested, after a retention interval, to a display with one object changed. Exploration of the changed object indicates retention and use of information acquired during the exposure phase. All subjects showed retention with a 24-h interval (Experiments 1 and 2) and when retested after a further 24 h (Experiment 1). But when tested for the first time after a 48-h interval (Experiment 2), control subjects showed no evidence of retention, exploring both objects equally, whereas those given the dietary supplement continued to show a preference for the changed object. This supports the conclusion that dietary choline supplementation can enhance performance on a task regarded as a test of declarative memory, and will do so even when the supplementations is given in adulthood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrochemical synthesis of nanosized TiO2 nanopowder involving choline chloride based ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anicai, Liana; Petica, Aurora; Patroi, Delia; Marinescu, Virgil; Prioteasa, Paula; Costovici, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 nanopowder electrochemically prepared using choline chloride based ionic liquids. • The new proposed method allowed high anodic synthesis efficiencies of minimum 92%. • High surface area of the electrochemically synthesized titania nanopowders. • Enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: The paper presents some experimental results regarding the electrochemical synthesis of TiO 2 nanopowders through anodic dissolution of Ti metal in choline chloride based eutectic mixtures (DES). A detailed characterization of the obtained titania has been performed, using various techniques, including XRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, SEM associated with EDX analysis, BET and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The anodic behavior of Ti electrode in DES has been also investigated. The photoreactivity of the synthesized materials was evaluated for the degradation of Orange II dye under UV (λ = 365 nm) and visible light irradiation. An anodic synthesis efficiency of minimum 92% has been determined. The as-synthesized TiO 2 showed amorphous structure and a calcination post-treatment at temperatures between 400 and 600 °C yielded anatase. The anodically obtained nanocrystalline oxides have crystallite sizes of 8–18 nm, a high surface area and enhanced photocatalytic effect

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of Sc in eriochrome cyanine R(chrome azurol S) - phosphatidyl choline system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y.; Chen, X.; Hu, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Eriochrome cyanine R(chrome azurol S) is used as a color reagent to determine Sc in the presence of phosphatidyl choline, eta = 3.7 * 10 4 (4.5 * 10 4 ). This method has been connected to extraction separation to determine Sc in the presence of rare earth elements, and good results have been obtained. Phosphatidyl choline(PC) is a biochemical reagent, which can be used as a surfactant. It has been reported that chrome azurol S(CAS) can be used to determine Be in the presence of PC but it has not been reported that eriochrome cyanine R(ECR) and CAS can been used to determine Sc in the presence of PC. This paper has put forward a method by which Sc can be determined. ECR (CAS) has been used as a color reagent and PC as a surfactant. Conditional experiments have been made and this method has been connected to extraction separation. Tributyl phosphate (TBP) extracts Sc from rare earth elements to make a determination and good results have been obtained

  11. Immunolocalization of choline acetyltransferase of common type in the central brain mass of Octopus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Casini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified in the vertebrate frog, is widely distributed among the animal kingdom. The presence of a large amount of acetylcholine in the nervous system of cephalopods is well known from several biochemical and physiological studies. However, little is known about the precise distribution of cholinergic structures due to a lack of a suitable histochemical technique for detecting acetylcholine. The most reliable method to visualize the cholinergic neurons is the immunohistochemical localization of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine. Following our previous study on the distribution patterns of cholinergic neurons in the Octopus vulgaris visual system, using a novel antibody that recognizes choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT, now we extend our investigation on the octopus central brain mass. When applied on sections of octopus central ganglia, immunoreactivity for cChAT was detected in cell bodies of all central brain mass lobes with the notable exception of the subfrontal and subvertical lobes. Positive varicosed nerves fibers where observed in the neuropil of all central brain mass lobes.

  12. Immunolocalization of choline acetyltransferase of common type in the central brain mass of Octopus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, A; Vaccaro, R; D'Este, L; Sakaue, Y; Bellier, J P; Kimura, H; Renda, T G

    2012-07-19

    Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified in the vertebrate frog, is widely distributed among the animal kingdom. The presence of a large amount of acetylcholine in the nervous system of cephalopods is well known from several biochemical and physiological studies. However, little is known about the precise distribution of cholinergic structures due to a lack of a suitable histochemical technique for detecting acetylcholine. The most reliable method to visualize the cholinergic neurons is the immunohistochemical localization of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine. Following our previous study on the distribution patterns of cholinergic neurons in the Octopus vulgaris visual system, using a novel antibody that recognizes choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT), now we extend our investigation on the octopus central brain mass. When applied on sections of octopus central ganglia, immunoreactivity for cChAT was detected in cell bodies of all central brain mass lobes with the notable exception of the subfrontal and subvertical lobes. Positive varicosed nerves fibers where observed in the neuropil of all central brain mass lobes.

  13. In vitro inhibition of choline acetyltransferase by a series of 2-benzylidene-3-quinuclidinones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capacio, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    Ten substituted 2-benzylidene-3-quinuclidinones were synthesized and evaluated for their relative potency as in vitro inhibitors of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis was followed radiometrically by the incorporation of labeled acetate originating from 14 C-acetyl-CoA. Woolf-Augustinsson-Hofstee data analysis was used to calculate Vmax, Km, and Ki values. The inhibition was found to be noncompetitive or uncompetitive with respect to choline. Quantitative structure activity relationship correlations demonstrated a primary dependence on κ-σ, as well as steric properties of the substituted benzene ring. Additional radiometric and spectrophotometric were performed with 2-(3'-methyl)-benzylidene-3-quinuclidinone, one of the more potent analogs, to further elucidate the inhibitory mechanism. ChAT-mediated cleavage of ACh was measured spectrophotometrically by following the appearance of NADH at 340 nanometers in an enzyme coupled assay. Lineweaver-Burk analysis indicated mixed or uncompetitive inhibition with respect to both substrates of the forward reaction, suggesting interference with a rate limiting step

  14. Multilayer Choline Phosphate Molecule Modified Surface with Enhanced Cell Adhesion but Resistance to Protein Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingyu; Yang, Ming; Liu, Botao; Li, Zhiqiang; Tan, Hong; Li, Jianshu

    2017-08-22

    Choline phosphate (CP), which is a new zwitterionic molecule, and has the reverse order of phosphate choline (PC) and could bind to the cell membrane though the unique CP-PC interaction. Here we modified a glass surface with multilayer CP molecules using surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) and the ring-opening method. Polymeric brushes of (dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) were synthesized by SI-ATRP from the glass surface. Then the grafted PDMAEMA brushes were used to introduce CP groups to fabricate the multilayer CP molecule modified surface. The protein adsorption experiment and cell culture test were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of the modified surfaces by using human umbilical veinendothelial cells (HUVECs). The protein adsorption results demonstrated that the multilayer CP molecule decorated surface could prevent the adsorption of fibrinogen and serum protein. The adhesion and proliferation of cells were improved significantly on the multilayer CP molecule modified surface. Therefore, the biocompatibility of the material surface could be improved by the modified multilayer CP molecule, which exhibits great potential for biomedical applications, e.g., scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  15. Electrochemical synthesis of nanosized TiO{sub 2} nanopowder involving choline chloride based ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anicai, Liana, E-mail: lanicai@itcnet.ro [POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Center of Surface Science and Nanotechnology, Splaiul Independentei 313, Bucharest, 060042 (Romania); Petica, Aurora [Leather and Footwear Research Institute (ICPI), Ion Minulescu 93, Bucharest, 031215 (Romania); Patroi, Delia; Marinescu, Virgil; Prioteasa, Paula [INCDIE ICPE-Advanced Research, Splaiul Unirii 313, Bucharest (Romania); Costovici, Stefania [POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Center of Surface Science and Nanotechnology, Splaiul Independentei 313, Bucharest, 060042 (Romania)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanopowder electrochemically prepared using choline chloride based ionic liquids. • The new proposed method allowed high anodic synthesis efficiencies of minimum 92%. • High surface area of the electrochemically synthesized titania nanopowders. • Enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: The paper presents some experimental results regarding the electrochemical synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanopowders through anodic dissolution of Ti metal in choline chloride based eutectic mixtures (DES). A detailed characterization of the obtained titania has been performed, using various techniques, including XRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, SEM associated with EDX analysis, BET and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The anodic behavior of Ti electrode in DES has been also investigated. The photoreactivity of the synthesized materials was evaluated for the degradation of Orange II dye under UV (λ = 365 nm) and visible light irradiation. An anodic synthesis efficiency of minimum 92% has been determined. The as-synthesized TiO{sub 2} showed amorphous structure and a calcination post-treatment at temperatures between 400 and 600 °C yielded anatase. The anodically obtained nanocrystalline oxides have crystallite sizes of 8–18 nm, a high surface area and enhanced photocatalytic effect.

  16. Overexpression, purification and crystallization of a choline-binding protein CbpI from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Neil G., E-mail: neison@chem.gla.ac.uk; Riboldi-Tunicliffe, Alan [Department of Chemistry and WestCHEM, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre (GBRC), University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA,Scotland (United Kingdom); Mitchell, Timothy J. [Division of Infection and Immunity (IBLS), Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre (GBRC), University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA,Scotland (United Kingdom); Isaacs, Neil W. [Department of Chemistry and WestCHEM, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre (GBRC), University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA,Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The choline-binding protein CbpI from S. pneumoniae has been purified and crystallized and diffraction data have been collected to 3.5 Å resolution. The choline-binding protein CbpI from Streptococcus pneumoniae is a 23.4 kDa protein with no known function. The protein has been successfully purified initially using Ni–NTA chromatography and to homogeneity using Q-Sepharose ion-exchange resin as an affinity column. CbpI was crystallized using PEG 3350 as a precipitant and X-ray crystallographic analysis showed that the crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 83.31, c = 80.29 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The crystal contains two molecules in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 55.7% (V{sub M} = 2.77 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}) and shows a diffraction limit of 3.5 Å.

  17. Synthesis and preclinical evaluation of the choline transport tracer deshydroxy-[18F]fluorocholine ([18F]dOC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, G.; Herz, M.; Hauser, A.; Schwaiger, M.; Wester, H.-J.

    2004-01-01

    11 C-labeled choline ([ 11 C]CHO) and 18 F-fluorinated choline analogues have been demonstrated to be valuable tracers for in vivo imaging of neoplasms by means of positron emission tomography (PET). The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether deshydroxy-[ 18 F]fluorocholine, ([ 18 F]dOC), a non-metabolizable [ 18 F]fluorinated choline analogue, can serve as a surrogate for cholines that are able to be phosphorylated and thus allow PET-imaging solely by addressing the choline transport system. The specificity of uptake of [ 18 F]dOC was compared with that of [ 11 C]choline ([ 11 C]CHO) in cultured rat pancreatic carcinoma and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells in vitro. In addition, biodistribution of [ 18 F]dOC and [ 11 C]CHO was compared in AR42J- and PC-3 tumor bearing mice. The in vitro studies revealed that membrane transport of both compounds can be inhibited in a concentration dependent manner by similar concentrations of cold choline (IC 50 [ 18 F]dOC= 11 μM; IC 50 [ 11 C]CHO=13 μM. In vitro studies with PC-3 and AR42J cells revealed that the internalized fraction of [ 18 F]dOC after 5 min incubation time is comparable to that of [ 11 C]CHO, whereas the uptake of [ 11 C]CHO was superior after 20 min incubation time. As for [ 11 C]CHO, kidney and liver were also the primary sites of uptake for [ 18 F]dOC in vivo. Biodistribution data after simultaneous injection of both tracers into AR42J tumor bearing mice revealed slightly higher tumor uptake for [ 18 F]dOC at 10 min post-injection, whereas [ 11 C]CHO uptake was higher at later time points. In conclusion, [ 18 F]dOC is taken up into AR42J rat pancreatic carcinoma and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells by a choline specific transport system. Similar transport rates of [ 18 F]dOC and [ 11 C]CHO result in comparable cellular uptake levels at early time points. In contrast to [ 18 F]dOC, which is transported but not intracellularily trapped, the choline kinase substrate [ 11 C]CHO is transported

  18. Supersensitive gastrin assay using antibodies raised against a cholecystokinin homolog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Ericsson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Peptide hormones may occur in particularly low amounts in samples from small animals. Hence, in a rat microdialysis study conventional immunoassays were not sufficiently sensitive to measure gastrin in the dialysis samples. We therefore exploited the observation that antibodies raised against...... that obtained with the most avid conventional gastrin antibodies. The results may encourage similar approaches for other peptides using homologue-raised antibodies when supersensitivity is required....

  19. Raised Plasma Aldosterone and Natriuretic Peptides in Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixen, Ulrik; Ravn, Lasse Steen; Soeby-Rasmussen, Christian

    2006-01-01

    at follow-up, total duration of AF disease, ongoing medication, and the LVEF as explanatory variables showed that only ongoing treatment with diuretics was significantly associated (likelihood ratio test, p = 0.0057) with a raised log-transformed plasma aldosterone, although present AF at follow......-transformed plasma Nt-proANP. Likewise, present AF at follow-up (p = 0.0008) as well as age (p raised levels of Nt-proANP and Nt...

  20. THE EXCEPTION OF UNCONSTITUTIONALITY RAISED BEFORE AN INTERNATIONAL ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen HURUBÃ; Luminita GABURA

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the paper work is to determine whether the Constitutional Court of Romania could be notified by international tribunals in relation to cases tried under Romanian law. On 5 March 2013 the Constitutional Court of Romania decided, for the first time, on a case concerning an exception of unconstitutionality raised before an international tribunal of commercial arbitration. The exception of unconstitutionality of a Government Emergency Ordinance was raised in an arbitration case pe...

  1. [Growth patterns of appropriate for gestational age infants of gestational diabetic mothers during the first year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y L; Ma, R M; Zhang, Y; Mo, Y X; Chen, Z; Sun, Y H; Ding, Z B

    2016-08-02

    To explore the growth pattern of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants of mother with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The objects of this study were offspring of women who delivered in our hospital from January to December 2011. The GDM group included 70 AGA infants (36 male cases and 34 female cases) of mother with GDM. The control group included 154 AGA infants (66 male cases and 88 female cases) of women with normal glucose tolerance. The data of demographic characteristics of mothers of two groups were collected. Body weight and length of infants in two groups were measured at 3, 6 and 12 months age respectively. Body mass index (BMI), weight and height gain during infancy (0-3 months, 3-6 months and 6-12 months) of infants in two groups were also calculated. Body weight, length and BMI of male AGA infants in GDM group were less than that of control group at 3 months and 6 months age, but more than that of control group at 12 months age, however, there were no significant differences between two group(P>0.05). The weight and height gain during infancy (0-3 months, 3-6 months) of male AGA infants in GDM group were lower than that of control group, but the difference was statistically significant only at 3-6 months[(1.1±0.4) vs (1.4±0.4) kg, P=0.040; (4.9±2.3) vs (6.3±1.2) cm, P=0.026]. The weight and height gain during infancy (6-12 months) of male AGA infants of gestational diabetic mothers were higher than that of control group, but the difference was not statistically significant[(2.1±0.5) vs (1.8±0.5) kg, P=0.361; (8.4±1.3) vs (7.8±1.4) cm, P=0.464]. Male infants of gestational diabetic mothers grew slowly during their infancy of 0-6 months, and then their growth became increasingly fast, which suggested that the influence of intrauterine hyperglycemia environment of GDM mothers on fetal growth might continue after birth.

  2. Decreased plasma chemerin levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare, K J; Bonde, L; Svare, J A

    2014-01-01

    circulating chemerin levels, which may act to reduce pregnancy-induced insulin resistance and prevent glucose intolerance. Women with gestational diabetes, however, have severely reduced chemerin levels that remain low after delivery, which may contribute to the insulin resistance, glucose intolerance......AIMS: To evaluate fasting and post-prandial serum chemerin levels in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes, and again following delivery when normal glucose homeostasis is re-established. METHODS: Chemerin levels were measured in serum from nine women with gestational diabetes......, and from eight age- and BMI-matched pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance during two meal tests: in the third trimester and 3-4 months post partum. All women with gestational diabetes re-established normal glucose tolerance after delivery. RESULTS: Meal intake did not affect serum chemerin levels...

  3. Fasting glycaemia to simplify screening for gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser Rüetschi, J; Jornayvaz, F R; Rivest, R; Huhn, E A; Irion, O; Boulvain, M

    2016-12-01

    Recommendations in Switzerland on screening for gestational diabetes endorse the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group consensus. As universal testing is time consuming and glucose loading is unpleasant, the recommendations include a simplification, not performing the glucose loading in women with fasting glycaemia fasting glycaemia was fasting glycaemia. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 10.9% in our population. Among 251 women with gestational diabetes, fasting glycaemia was ≥5.1 mmol/l in 119 women (47.4%), between 4.4 and fasting glycaemia between 4.4 and fasting glycaemia is an attractive alternative to universal screening with the complete 75-g glucose tolerance test. This strategy is, however, slightly less sensitive than previously reported in higher-risk populations. Fasting glycaemia can be considered as an alternative to the complete test for gestational diabetes screening. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  4. Relation of maternal vitamin D status with gestational diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency, gestational diabetes and insulin resistance are interrelated. Severe vitamin D ... and bone homeostasis but also in various organs and ... whereas those with elevated glucose levels after the 50 gr OGTT but ...

  5. Observations on placentome diameters in gestating West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2015-09-09

    /10.4314/sokjvs.v13i3.4. Observations on placentome diameters in gestating West. African dwarf does experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei. OO Leigh. Department of Veterinary Surgery and Reproduction, ...

  6. Fetal eyeball volume: relationship to gestational age and biparietal diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Marwan; Feldman, Yulia; Degani, Shimon; Grinin, Vitali; Ophir, Ella; Bornstein, Jacob

    2009-08-01

    To measure and determine normal values of the fetal eyeball volume between 14 and 40 weeks of gestation. The volume of the fetal eyeball was measured with three-dimensional ultrasound between 14 and 40 weeks of gestation using the VOCAL software.Only singleton pregnancies without fetal growth restriction, diabetes mellitus, hypertension or major fetal malformation were included. Over all, 203 women were studied. In 125 both eyeballs were measured while in 78 only one eyeball was measured. The volume of the eyeball correlated strongly with gestational age (right: R = 0.946, P eyeball volume and the BPD were: square of right eyeball = -0.180 + 0.187 BPD, square of left eyeball = -0.182 + 0.187 BPD. The volume of the eyeball has strong positive correlations with gestational age and BPD. Our data may be helpful in fetuses suspected of having eye anomalies.

  7. Caesarean section and risk of autism across gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yip, Benjamin Hon Kei; Leonard, Helen; Stock, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The positive association between caesarean section (CS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be attributed to preterm delivery. However, due to lack of statistical power, no previous study thoroughly examined this association across gestational age. Moreover, most studies did...

  8. Impact of maternal gestational diabetes on neutrophil functions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    cell-mediated immunity and lower chemotactic activity of cord blood ... neonates born to gestational diabetic mothers on insulin during pregnancy and another 15 born to healthy ... 2) Flow cytometric assay of oxidative burst using. DHR 123:.

  9. Optimizing postpartum care for the patient with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Noelle G; Niznik, Charlotte M; Yee, Lynn M

    2017-09-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus poses well-established risks to both the mother and infant. As >50% of women with gestational diabetes mellitus will develop type 2 diabetes mellitus in their lifetime, performing postpartum oral glucose tolerance testing is paramount to initiation of appropriate lifestyle interventions and pharmacologic therapy. Nonetheless, test completion among women with gestational diabetes mellitus is estimated to be diabetes mellitus. Based on existing evidence, we propose best practices for the postpartum care of women with gestational diabetes mellitus: (1) enhanced patient support for identifying long-term health care providers, (2) patient-centered medical home utilization when possible, (3) patient and provider test reminders, and (4) formalized obstetrician-primary care provider hand offs using the Situation Background Assessment Recommendation (SBAR) mnemonic. These strategies deserve future investigation to solidify a multilevel approach for identifying and preventing the continuum of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin d and preterm birth in twin gestations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bodnar, Lisa M

    2013-07-01

    To assess whether there was an independent association between maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations at 24-28 weeks of gestation and preterm birth in a multicenter U.S. cohort of twin pregnancies.

  11. A five - year review of gestational trophoblastic diseases in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A retrospective analysis of women treated for gestational ... persistent trophoblastic disease while 8(21.1%) had chemotherapy for choriocarcinoma. ... as well as proper counseling of patients treated on the benefits of follow up visits.

  12. Uterine Rupture Due to Invasive Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Bruner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available While complete molar pregnancies are rare, they are wrought with a host of potential complications to include invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease following molar pregnancy is a potentially fatal complication that must be recognized early and treated aggressively for both immediate and long-term recovery. We present the case of a 21-year-old woman with abdominal pain and presyncope 1 month after a molar pregnancy with a subsequent uterine rupture due to invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasm. We will discuss the complications of molar pregnancies including the risks and management of invasive, metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:444–447.

  13. Strategy to improve the burden of gestational diabetes in African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategy to improve the burden of gestational diabetes in African women: Rwandan perspective. Herbert T. Mapira, David K. Tumusiime, Kevin Yarasheski, Nadine Rujeni, Todd W. Cade, Eugene Mutimura ...

  14. Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Selfefficacy and Perinatal Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Gerçek; Hakan Şen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to give knowledge about effects on perinatal outcomes of self-efficacy in management of gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a significant health concern due to the potentially adverse outcomes for the mother and the fetus/infant. Close monitoring and treatment of GDM are important to the long-term health of a pregnant woman and her baby. More over, maternal metabolic control during pregnancy may positively impact women’s...

  15. A Combined Metabolomic and Proteomic Analysis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Hajduk, Joanna; Klupczynska, Agnieszka; Dereziński, Paweł; Matysiak, Jan; Kokot, Piotr; Nowak, Dorota; Gajęcka, Marzena; Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa; Kokot, Zenon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to apply a novel combined metabolomic and proteomic approach in analysis of gestational diabetes mellitus. The investigation was performed with plasma samples derived from pregnant women with diagnosed gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 18) and a matched control group (n = 13). The mass spectrometry-based analyses allowed to determine 42 free amino acids and low molecular-weight peptide profiles. Different expressions of several peptides and altered amino acid ...

  16. Amino acid profiling in the gestational diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimi, Najmeh; Razi, Farideh; Nasli-Esfahani, Ensieh; Qorbani, Mostafa; Shirzad, Nooshin; Larijani, Bagher

    2017-01-01

    Background The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing globally which is associated with various side effects for mothers and fetus. It seems that metabolomic profiling of the amino acids may be useful in early diagnosis of metabolic diseases. This study aimed to explore the association of the amino acids profiles with GDM. Methods Eighty three pregnant women with gestational age ?25?weeks were randomly selected among pregnant women referred to prenatal care clinic in ...

  17. Transvaginal ultrasound in threatened abortions with empty gestational sacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongsong, T; Wanapirak, C; Srisomboon, J; Sirichotiyakul, S; Polsrisuthikul, T; Pongsatha, S

    1994-09-01

    To determine whether transvaginal ultrasound criteria alone can distinguish viable from non-viable gestational sacs at a single examination. A prospective descriptive study was undertaken and analysis performed on 211 pregnancies complicated by threatened abortion and empty gestation sacs diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound. The main outcome measure was the final diagnosis of viable or non-viable gestation on subsequent transvaginal sonography. The study shows that a single transvaginal ultrasound examination is useful in differentiating viable from non-viable gestation sacs. The mean sac diameter (MSD) was found to be the most useful criterion for determining non-viability. An MSD of > or = 17 mm that lacked an embryo and an MSD of > or = 13 mm without visible yolk sac were reliable predictors of non-viable gestation sacs at a single examination with 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value. An MSD > or = 13 mm without visible yolk sac was the most sensitive criterion. Using MSD criteria, 73% of non-viable gestations could be reliably identified without any false-positive diagnoses. Deformed shape, low position and thin decidual reaction are strong indicators of non-viable gestations but are not 100% accurate. There is still a significant proportion of empty sacs, where no accurate distinction between viable and non-viable can be made according to one criterion at a single examination and in these cases serial examinations should be carried out before any active management is advocated. In most cases, transvaginal sonographic criteria alone can distinguish viable from non-viable empty gestational sacs at a single examination.

  18. Is Doppler ultrasound useful for evaluating gestational trophoblastic disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence H. Lin

    Full Text Available Doppler ultrasound is a non-invasive method for evaluating vascularization and is widely used in clinical practice. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia includes a group of highly vascularized malignancies derived from placental cells. This review summarizes data found in the literature regarding the applications of Doppler ultrasound in managing patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. The PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane and LILACS databases were searched for articles published in English until 2014 using the following keywords: “Gestational trophoblastic disease AND Ultrasonography, Doppler.” Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria and were separated into the 4 following groups according to the aim of the study. (1 Doppler ultrasound does not seem to be capable of differentiating partial from complete moles, but it might be useful when evaluating pregnancies in which a complete mole coexists with a normal fetus. (2 There is controversy in the role of uterine artery Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of development of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. (3 Doppler ultrasound is a useful tool in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia because abnormal myometrial vascularization and lower uterine artery Doppler indices seem to be correlated with invasive disease. (4 Lower uterine artery Doppler indices in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia are associated with methotrexate resistance and might play a role in prognosis. CONCLUSION: Several studies support the importance of Doppler ultrasound in the management of patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, particularly the role of Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of trophoblastic neoplasia and the chemoresistance of trophoblastic tumors. Doppler findings should be used as ancillary tools, along with human chorionic gonadotropin assessment, in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

  19. Is Doppler ultrasound useful for evaluating gestational trophoblastic disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lawrence H; Bernardes, Lisandra S; Hase, Eliane A; Fushida, Koji; Francisco, Rossana P V

    2015-12-01

    Doppler ultrasound is a non-invasive method for evaluating vascularization and is widely used in clinical practice. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia includes a group of highly vascularized malignancies derived from placental cells. This review summarizes data found in the literature regarding the applications of Doppler ultrasound in managing patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. The PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane and LILACS databases were searched for articles published in English until 2014 using the following keywords: "Gestational trophoblastic disease AND Ultrasonography, Doppler." Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria and were separated into the 4 following groups according to the aim of the study. (1) Doppler ultrasound does not seem to be capable of differentiating partial from complete moles, but it might be useful when evaluating pregnancies in which a complete mole coexists with a normal fetus. (2) There is controversy in the role of uterine artery Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of development of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. (3) Doppler ultrasound is a useful tool in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia because abnormal myometrial vascularization and lower uterine artery Doppler indices seem to be correlated with invasive disease. (4) Lower uterine artery Doppler indices in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia are associated with methotrexate resistance and might play a role in prognosis. Several studies support the importance of Doppler ultrasound in the management of patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, particularly the role of Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of trophoblastic neoplasia and the chemoresistance of trophoblastic tumors. Doppler findings should be used as ancillary tools, along with human chorionic gonadotropin assessment, in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

  20. Neonatal outcomes according to different therapies for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Amanda L da; Amaral, Augusto R do; Oliveira, Daniela S de; Martins, Lisiane; Silva, Mariana R E; Silva, Jean Carl

    To compare different neonatal outcomes according to the different types of treatments used in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus. This was a retrospective cohort study. The study population comprised pregnant women with gestational diabetes treated at a public maternity hospital from July 2010 to August 2014. The study included women aged at least 18 years, with a singleton pregnancy, who met the criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus. Blood glucose levels, fetal abdominal circumference, body mass index and gestational age were considered for treatment decision-making. The evaluated neonatal outcomes were: type of delivery, prematurity, weight in relation to gestational age, Apgar at 1 and 5min, and need for intensive care unit admission. The sample consisted of 705 pregnant women. The neonatal outcomes were analyzed based on the treatment received. Women treated with metformin were less likely to have children who were small for gestational age (95% CI: 0.09-0.66) and more likely to have a newborn adequate for gestational age (95% CI: 1.12-3.94). Those women treated with insulin had a lower chance of having a preterm child (95% CI: 0.02-0.78). The combined treatment with insulin and metformin resulted in higher chance for a neonate to be born large for gestational age (95% CI: 1.14-11.15) and lower chance to be born preterm (95% CI: 0.01-0.71). The type of treatment did not affect the mode of delivery, Apgar score, and intensive care unit admission. The pediatrician in the delivery room can expect different outcomes for diabetic mothers based on the treatment received. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. The Infant Born to a Woman with Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, Theresa; Lim, Caitlin; Raines, Deborah A

    2017-07-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance with onset during pregnancy. During pregnancy, women with GDM develop insulin resistance, which results in altered glucose tolerance. As a result, there are frequent episodes of hyperglycemia and high levels of circulating amino acids, increasing the transfer of nutrients to the fetus. This article discusses the role of the mother-baby nursing in the care of neonates born to women with gestational diabetes.

  2. Neonatal outcomes according to different therapies for gestational diabetes mellitus,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objectives: To compare different neonatal outcomes according to the different types of treatments used in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. The study population comprised pregnant women with gestational diabetes treated at a public maternity hospital from July 2010 to August 2014. The study included women aged at least 18 years, with a singleton pregnancy, who met the criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus. Blood glucose levels, fetal abdominal circumference, body mass index and gestational age were considered for treatment decision-making. The evaluated neonatal outcomes were: type of delivery, prematurity, weight in relation to gestational age, Apgar at 1 and 5 min, and need for intensive care unit admission. Results: The sample consisted of 705 pregnant women. The neonatal outcomes were analyzed based on the treatment received. Women treated with metformin were less likely to have children who were small for gestational age (95% CI: 0.09-0.66 and more likely to have a newborn adequate for gestational age (95% CI: 1.12-3.94. Those women treated with insulin had a lower chance of having a preterm child (95% CI: 0.02-0.78. The combined treatment with insulin and metformin resulted in higher chance for a neonate to be born large for gestational age (95% CI: 1.14-11.15 and lower chance to be born preterm (95% CI: 0.01-0.71. The type of treatment did not affect the mode of delivery, Apgar score, and intensive care unit admission. Conclusions: The pediatrician in the delivery room can expect different outcomes for diabetic mothers based on the treatment received.

  3. Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance in Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumurbaatar, Batbayar; Poole, Aaron T; Olson, Gayle; Makhlouf, Michel; Sallam, Hanaa S; Thukuntla, Shwetha; Kankanala, Sucharitha; Ekhaese, Obos; Gomez, Guillermo; Chandalia, Manisha; Abate, Nicola

    2017-03-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance (IR) and altered glucose-lipid metabolism. We propose that ectonucleotide pyrophosphate phosphodiesterase-1 (ENPP1), a protein known to induce adipocyte IR, is a determinant of GDM. Our objective was to study ENPP1 expression in adipose tissue (AT) of obese pregnant women with or without GDM, as well as glucose tolerance in pregnant transgenic (Tg) mice with AT-specific overexpression of human ENPP1. AT biopsies and blood were collected from body mass index-matched obese pregnant women non-GDM (n = 6), GDM (n = 7), and nonpregnant controls (n = 6) undergoing cesarian section or elective surgeries, respectively. We measured the following: (1) Expression of key molecules involved in insulin signaling and glucose-lipid metabolism in AT; (2) Plasma glucose and insulin levels and calculation of homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR); (3) Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test in AtENPP1 Tg pregnant mice. We found that: (1) Obese GDM patients have higher AT ENPP1 expression than obese non-GDM patients, or controls (P = 0.01-ANOVA). (2) ENPP1 expression level correlated negatively with glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and positively with insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) serine phosphorylation, and to other adipocyte functional proteins involved in glucose and lipid metabolism (P Pregnant AT ENPP1 Tg mice showed higher plasma glucose than wild type animals (P = 0.046-t test on area under curve [AUC] glucose ). Our results provide evidence of a causative link between ENPP1 and alterations in insulin signaling, glucose uptake, and lipid metabolism in subcutaneous abdominal AT of GDM, which may mediate IR and hyperglycemia in GDM.

  4. Hepatic Elimination of Drugs in Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Claudio Daniel; Alvarinas, Jorge; Bolanos, Ricardo; Di Girolamo, Guillermo

    2018-03-25

    The liver is the major metabolic clearance organ for chemical agents from the human body. Pregnancy is associated with several physiological changes that may affect one or more of these factors, and also induces changes in the hepatic clearance of certain drugs.The aim of this paper was to review some of the currently available information in the field to provide some insights about the relevance of these changes on the clearance of some drugs. A comprehensive literature search was carried out to identify eligible studies from MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE and SCIELO databases through 1970 first semester. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a frequent disease commonly associated with other entities as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, pro-thrombotic conditions, changes in intestinal microbioma. These entities, together with the glycemic fluctuations associated with GDM might affect the determinants for the hepatic clearance (hepatic blood flow, the unbound fraction of drugs, and the hepatic intrinsic clearance). GDM is frequently associated with multi-drug treatments. While many of these drugs are cleared by the liver, little is known about the clinical relevance of these GDM associated pharmacokinetic changes. Considering the frequency of the disease and the effects that these pharmacokinetic changes might have on the mother and child, the need for further research seems advisable. In the meantime, cautious clinical judgment in the management of drug administration in women affected by this disease is recommended. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. [Predisposition and phenotypes of gestational diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinwechter, H; Demandt, N; Schäfer-Graf, U

    2014-05-01

    Gestational diabetes (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance first diagnosed with a 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test based on IADPSG criteria which had been recently adopted by WHO. In industrial countries GDM is one of the most frequent pregnancy complications. In 2012, in Germany GDM had been diagnosed in 4,3 % of all births, overall 27,700 cases. GDM has to be considered as a preliminary stage of type 2 diabetes with insulin resistance and inadequate β-cell-compensation. Additionally, adverse metabolic profile, associations with inflammatory parameters, with D vitamin metabolism, and insufficient decline of renal threshold for glucose had been identified in women with GDM. Within 10 years after GDM roughly 50 % of the women convert to overt diabetes, mostly type 2. GDM and type 2 diabetes share potential candidate genes. In about 1 % of GDM in Caucasian women a mutation in glucokinase gene had been found (GCK-MODY). Predisposition to GDM is predominantly characterized by family history of diabetes, previous GDM in pregnancies, factors of metabolic syndrome, and unfavorable life style. The probability for GDM rises with increasing mother's age and preconceptional BMI. Via fetal programming GDM dispones to offspring obesity as early as school entry. Prevention of GDM focus on regular physical exercise, normalizing body weight before conception, reducing excess intake of animal protein and soft drinks, planning of pregnancy in younger ages, and avoiding pollutant exposition as well as smoking cessation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. SALT ACCLIMATION OF TRITICUM-AESTIVUM BY CHOLINE CHLORIDE - PLANT-GROWTH, MINERAL-CONTENT, AND CELL-PERMEABILITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANSOUR, MM; STADELMANN, EJ; LEESTADELMANN, OY

    1993-01-01

    Seedlings of a salt sensitive line of Triticum aestivum were grown in Hoagland solution supplemented with 100 mM NaCl following a pretreatment with choline chloride (ChCl). Changes in growth, mineral content of roots and shoots, and passive permeability of the cell membrane were measured. Relative

  7. Effect of rumen-protected choline on performance, blood metabolites, and hepatic triacylglycerols of periparturient dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.L.G.; Baal, van J.; Goselink, R.M.A.; Bakker, J.A.; Veth, M.J.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a dietary supplement of rumen-protected choline on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, blood metabolites, and hepatic triacylglycerol were evaluated in periparturient dairy cows. Thirty-eight multiparous cows were blocked into 19 pairs and then randomly allocated to either one

  8. Protein τ-mediated effects on rat hippocampal choline transporters CHT1 and τ-amyloid β interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištofíková, Z.; Řípová, D.; Hegnerová, Kateřina; Šírová, J.; Homola, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 9 (2013), s. 1949-1959 ISSN 0364-3190 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Tau protein * Amyloid β peptide * Choline transporter Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.551, year: 2013

  9. Comparison of C-11-choline and F-18-FDG PET in primary diagnosis and staging of patients with thoracic cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterman, RM; Que, TH; Elsinga, PH; Pruim, J; van Putten, JWG; Willemsen, ATM; Vaalburg, W; Groen, HJM

    PET with F-18-FDG is used for detection and staging of thoracic cancer; however, more specific PET radiopharmaceuticals would be welcome. C-11-labeled choline (CHOL) is a new radiopharmaceutical potentially useful for tumor imaging, since it is incorporated into cell membranes as

  10. Suppression Effects of Betaine-Enriched Spinach on Hyperhomocysteinemia Induced by Guanidinoacetic Acid and Choline Deficiency in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Qun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Betaine is an important natural component of rich food sources, especially spinach. Rats were fed diets with betaine or spinach powder at the same level of betaine for 10 days to investigate the dose-dependent effects of spinach powder supplementation on hyperhomocysteinemia induced by guanidinoacetic acid (GAA addition and choline deprivation. The GAA-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in rats fed 25% casein diet (25C was significantly suppressed by supplementation with betaine or spinach, and it was completely suppressed by taking 11.0% spinach supplementation. The choline deprivation-induced enhancement of plasma homocysteine concentration in rats fed 25% soybean protein diet (25S was markedly suppressed by 3.82% spinach. Supplementation with betaine or spinach partially prevented the effects of GAA on hepatic concentrations of methionine metabolites. The decrease in activity of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS in GAA-induced hyperhomocysteinemia was recovered by supplementation with betaine or spinach. Supplementation with betaine or spinach did not affect BHMT activity, whereas it partially restored CBS activity in choline-deprived 25S. The results indicated that betaine or spinach could completely suppress the hyperhomocysteinemia induced by choline deficiency resulting from stimulating the homocysteine removal by both remethylation and cystathionine formation.

  11. Effect of rumen-protected choline supplementation on liver and adipose gene expression during the transition period in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goselink, R.M.A.; Baal, van J.; Widjaja, H.C.A.; Dekker, R.A.; Zom, R.L.G.; Veth, M.J.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that supplementation of rumen-protected choline (RPC) reduces the hepatic triacylglycerol concentration in periparturient dairy cows during early lactation. Here, we investigated the effect of RPC on the transcript levels of lipid metabolism-related genes in liver and adipose

  12. No up-regulation of the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase pathway and choline production by sex hormones in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valtolina, Chiara; Vaandrager, Arie B; Favier, Robert P; Robben, Joris H; Tuohetahuntila, Maidina; Kummeling, Anne; Jeusette, Isabelle; Rothuizen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL) is a common cholestatic disease affecting cats of any breed, age and sex. Both choline deficiency and low hepatic phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) activity are associated with hepatic lipidosis (HL) in humans, mice and rats. The PEMT

  13. Crotoxin, the major toxin from the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, inhibits ³H-choline uptake in guinea pig ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Kattah

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of crotoxin, the neurotoxic complex from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, on the uptake of ³H-choline in minces of smooth muscle myenteric plexus from guinea pig ileum. In the concentration range used (0.03-1 µM and up to 10 min of treatment, crotoxin decreased ³H-choline uptake by 50-75% compared to control. This inhibition was time dependent and did not seem to be associated with the disruption of the neuronal membrane, because at least for the first 20 min of tissue exposure to the toxin (up to 1 µM the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH released into the supernatant were similar to those of controls. Higher concentrations of crotoxin or more extensive incubation times with this toxin resulted in elevation of LDH activity detected in the assay supernatant. The inhibitory effect of crotoxin on ³H-choline uptake seems to be associated with its phospholipase activity since the equimolar substitution of Sr2+ for Ca2+ in the incubation medium or the modification of the toxin with p-bromophenacyl bromide substantially decreased this effect. Our results show that crotoxin inhibits ³H-choline uptake with high affinity (EC25 = 10 ± 5 nM. We suggest that this inhibition could explain, at least in part, the blocking effect of crotoxin on neurotransmission.

  14. (18)F-choline PET/CT pitfalls in image interpretation: an update on 300 examined patients with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabria, Ferdinando; Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Schillaci, Orazio

    2014-02-01

    F-choline PET/CT is an important diagnostic tool in the management of patients with prostate cancer (PC). The aim of this study was to describe and discuss some abnormal sites of uptake that we observed, not due to PC recurrence. Three hundred patients were submitted to F-choline PET/CT for staging or restaging of PC. Whole-body PET/CT was acquired 40 minutes after the F-choline administration. We found abnormal uptake of the tracer, not related to PC, in 48/300 patients (16%). Most of these findings were due to inflammatory processes. Furthermore, some malignant conditions, such as a case of colon cancer, a case of bladder carcinoma, and a multiple myeloma, were diagnosed. Mild uptake was also detected in some benign diseases, such as thymoma, adrenal adenoma, and sarcoidosis. Six patients showed focal brain uptake in correspondence to a meningioma. It is necessary for nuclear physicians, during clinical practice, to consider the possibility of F-choline uptake in some benign or malignant conditions for the intrinsic pharmacologic property of the tracer. An accurate medical investigation, correlative imaging with CT and/or MRI with contrast agents, laboratory data, and above all, histologic examination are often necessary for correct diagnosis.

  15. Gestational Diabetes in Korea: Incidence and Risk Factors of Diabetes in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak Chul Jang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Korean women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM have a 3.5 times greater risk of developing postpartum diabetes than the general population. The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in early postpartum is reported as 10-15% in Korean women. A prospective follow-up study on Korean women with GDM showed that approximately 40% of women with previous GDM were expected to develop diabetes within 5 years postpartum. Independent risk factors for the development of diabetes in Korean women with previous GDM are pre-pregnancy body weight, gestational age at diagnosis, antepartum hyperglycemia on oral glucose tolerance test, low insulin response to oral glucose load, and family history of diabetes. Women with postpartum diabetes have greater body mass indexes, body weight, and waist circumferences than women with normal glucose tolerance. Multiple logistic regression analysis has revealed that waist circumference is the strongest obesity index along with systolic blood pressure and that triglyceride levels are a major independent risk factor for developing diabetes. These results in Korean women with previous GDM underline the importance of postpartum testing in Korean women diagnosed with GDM, and demonstrate that impaired B-cell function, obesity, and especially visceral obesity, are associated with the development of diabetes.

  16. The Estimation of Gestational Age at Birth in Database Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberg, Maria; Platt, Robert W; Filion, Kristian B

    2017-11-01

    Studies on the safety of prenatal medication use require valid estimation of the pregnancy duration. However, gestational age is often incompletely recorded in administrative and clinical databases. Our objective was to compare different approaches to estimating the pregnancy duration. Using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Hospital Episode Statistics, we examined the following four approaches to estimating missing gestational age: (1) generalized estimating equations for longitudinal data; (2) multiple imputation; (3) estimation based on fetal birth weight and sex; and (4) conventional approaches that assigned a fixed value (39 weeks for all or 39 weeks for full term and 35 weeks for preterm). The gestational age recorded in Hospital Episode Statistics was considered the gold standard. We conducted a simulation study comparing the described approaches in terms of estimated bias and mean square error. A total of 25,929 infants from 22,774 mothers were included in our "gold standard" cohort. The smallest average absolute bias was observed for the generalized estimating equation that included birth weight, while the largest absolute bias occurred when assigning 39-week gestation to all those with missing values. The smallest mean square errors were detected with generalized estimating equations while multiple imputation had the highest mean square errors. The use of generalized estimating equations resulted in the most accurate estimation of missing gestational age when birth weight information was available. In the absence of birth weight, assignment of fixed gestational age based on term/preterm status may be the optimal approach.

  17. Polycystic ovary disease. A risk factor for gestational diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzone, A; Caruso, A; Di Simone, N; De Carolis, S; Fulghesu, A M; Mancuso, S

    1995-04-01

    We investigated the impact of pregestationally elevated insulin plasma levels on glycemic control in pregnant women with polycystic ovary disease (PCOD). Twelve patients with PCOD who became pregnant within six months following evaluation of their metabolic status were the study subjects. Four were obese and six (two obese) had a hyperinsulinemic response to the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). They were tested with the OGTT at 28-30 weeks of gestation. We also tested 12 normal patients and 10 consecutive patients with gestational diabetes; all were at the same gestational age. Plasma levels of insulin and glucose were determined in the samples collected for a period of four hours after glucose load (100 g). All PCOD patients significantly increased their insulin secretion in pregnancy. The hyperinsulinemic PCOD patients developed gestational diabetes (two patients) and impaired gestational glucose tolerance (three patients). The area under the insulin curve was greater in PCOD patients than in control and gestational diabetes patients (P PCOD may develop a derangement of glycemic control, probably related to their pregestational insulinemic status.

  18. The effects of polycystic ovary syndrome on gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktun, Hale Lebriz; Yorgunlar, Betul; Acet, Mustafa; Aygun, Banu Kumbak; Karaca, Nilay

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the inter-relationship between polycystic ovary syndrome and gestational diabetes mellitus, and demonstrate maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a case-control study in 1360 pregnant women who received a diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus between 24 and 28 weeks of gestational age. Among all diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus, 150 pregnant women had received a polycystic ovary syndrome, and 160 women who did not have polycystic ovary syndrome were designated as controls. The incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension was 26.3% and 12% in the case and control groups, respectively. Preeclampsia was seen at an incidence of 12% and 6% in case and in control groups, respectively. The difference in neonatal hypoglycemia between the two groups was statistically significant, with an incidence of 17% and 5% in the case and in control groups, respectively. This study demonstrated that the presence of polycystic ovary syndrome along with gestational diabetes mellitus increases the risk of pregnancy induced hypertension by 2.4 fold, preeclampsia by 2 fold and neonatal hypoglycemia by 3.2 fold, compared to gestational diabetes mellitus alone.

  19. Irregular menses: an independent risk factor for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haver, Mary Claire; Locksmith, Gregory J; Emmet, Emily

    2003-05-01

    Our purpose was to determine whether a history of irregular menses predicts gestational diabetes mellitus independently of traditional risk factors. We analyzed demographic characteristics, body mass index, and menstrual history of 85 pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus and compared them with 85 systematically selected control subjects who were matched for age, race, and delivery year. Subjects with pregestational diabetes mellitus, previous gestational diabetes mellitus, family history of diabetes mellitus, weight >200 pounds, previous macrosomic infants, or previous stillbirth were excluded. Demographic characteristics between case and control groups were similar. Mean body mass index was higher among cases (26.5 kg/m(2)) versus control subjects (24.5 kg/m(2), P =.004). Irregular cycles were more prevalent in the cases (24% vs 7%, P =.006). With the use of body mass index as a stratification factor, menstrual irregularity maintained a strong association with gestational diabetes mellitus (P =.014). A history of irregular menstrual cycles was a significant independent predictor of gestational diabetes mellitus. If selective screening is implemented for gestational diabetes mellitus, such history should be considered in the decision of whom to test.

  20. Choline Phospholipid Metabolites of Human Vascular Endothelial Cells Altered by Cyclooxygenase Inhibition, Growth Factor Depletion, and Paracrine Factors Secreted by Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Mori

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance studies have previously shown that solid tumors and cancer cells in culture typically exhibit high phosphocholine and total choline. Treatment of cancer cells with the anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin (INDO, reverted the phenotype of choline phospholipid metabolites in cancer cells towards a less malignant phenotype. Since endothelial cells form a key component of tumor vasculature, in this study, we used MR spectroscopy to characterize the phenotype of choline phospholipid metabolites in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. We determined the effect of growth factors, the anti-inflammatory agent INDO, and conditioned media obtained from a malignant cell line, on choline phospholipid metabolites. Growth factor depletion or treatment with INDO induced similar changes in the choline phospholipid metabolites of HUVECs. Treatment with conditioned medium obtained from MDA-MB-231 cancer cells induced changes similar to the presence of growth factor supplements. These results suggest that cancer cells secrete growth factors and/or other molecules that influence the choline phospholipid metabolism of HUVECs. The ability of INDO to alter choline phospholipid metabolism in the presence of growth factor supplements suggests that the inflammatory response pathways of HUVECs may play a role in cancer cell-HUVEC interaction and in the response of HUVECs to growth factors.

  1. Role of choline deficiency in the Fatty liver phenotype of mice fed a low protein, very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schugar, Rebecca C; Huang, Xiaojing; Moll, Ashley R; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Crawford, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Though widely employed for clinical intervention in obesity, metabolic syndrome, seizure disorders and other neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms through which low carbohydrate ketogenic diets exert their ameliorative effects still remain to be elucidated. Rodent models have been used to identify the metabolic and physiologic alterations provoked by ketogenic diets. A commonly used rodent ketogenic diet (Bio-Serv F3666) that is very high in fat (~94% kcal), very low in carbohydrate (~1% kcal), low in protein (~5% kcal), and choline restricted (~300 mg/kg) provokes robust ketosis and weight loss in mice, but through unknown mechanisms, also causes significant hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and cellular injury. To understand the independent and synergistic roles of protein restriction and choline deficiency on the pleiotropic effects of rodent ketogenic diets, we studied four custom diets that differ only in protein (5% kcal vs. 10% kcal) and choline contents (300 mg/kg vs. 5 g/kg). C57BL/6J mice maintained on the two 5% kcal protein diets induced the most significant ketoses, which was only partially diminished by choline replacement. Choline restriction in the setting of 10% kcal protein also caused moderate ketosis and hepatic fat accumulation, which were again attenuated when choline was replete. Key effects of the 5% kcal protein diet - weight loss, hepatic fat accumulation, and mitochondrial ultrastructural disarray and bioenergetic dysfunction - were mitigated by choline repletion. These studies indicate that synergistic effects of protein restriction and choline deficiency influence integrated metabolism and hepatic pathology in mice when nutritional fat content is very high, and support the consideration of dietary choline content in ketogenic diet studies in rodents to limit hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation.

  2. Role of choline deficiency in the Fatty liver phenotype of mice fed a low protein, very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Schugar

    Full Text Available Though widely employed for clinical intervention in obesity, metabolic syndrome, seizure disorders and other neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms through which low carbohydrate ketogenic diets exert their ameliorative effects still remain to be elucidated. Rodent models have been used to identify the metabolic and physiologic alterations provoked by ketogenic diets. A commonly used rodent ketogenic diet (Bio-Serv F3666 that is very high in fat (~94% kcal, very low in carbohydrate (~1% kcal, low in protein (~5% kcal, and choline restricted (~300 mg/kg provokes robust ketosis and weight loss in mice, but through unknown mechanisms, also causes significant hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and cellular injury. To understand the independent and synergistic roles of protein restriction and choline deficiency on the pleiotropic effects of rodent ketogenic diets, we studied four custom diets that differ only in protein (5% kcal vs. 10% kcal and choline contents (300 mg/kg vs. 5 g/kg. C57BL/6J mice maintained on the two 5% kcal protein diets induced the most significant ketoses, which was only partially diminished by choline replacement. Choline restriction in the setting of 10% kcal protein also caused moderate ketosis and hepatic fat accumulation, which were again attenuated when choline was replete. Key effects of the 5% kcal protein diet - weight loss, hepatic fat accumulation, and mitochondrial ultrastructural disarray and bioenergetic dysfunction - were mitigated by choline repletion. These studies indicate that synergistic effects of protein restriction and choline deficiency influence integrated metabolism and hepatic pathology in mice when nutritional fat content is very high, and support the consideration of dietary choline content in ketogenic diet studies in rodents to limit hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation.

  3. Neonatal and infant outcomes in twin gestations with preterm premature rupture of membranes at 24-31 weeks of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Figueroa, Hector; Dahlke, Joshua D; Viteri, Oscar A; Chauhan, Suneet P; Rouse, Dwight J; Sibai, Baha M; Blackwell, Sean C

    2014-08-01

    To describe the perinatal and infant and early childhood morbidity associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) in a cohort of twin pregnancies evaluated prospectively with neonatal follow-up to 2 years of age. This was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of magnesium sulfate for prevention of cerebral palsy. Inclusion criteria were twin gestation with preterm PROM diagnosed between 24 0/7 and 31 6/7 weeks of gestation and planned expectant management. Latency (time from membrane rupture to delivery) and perinatal outcomes were evaluated by gestational age at membrane rupture. Long-term neonatal outcomes were also analyzed. Among 151 women who met inclusion criteria, the median gestational age at preterm PROM was 28.1 weeks (range 24.1-31.6 weeks). Approximately one-third of women achieved a latency of at least 1 week. Gestational age at preterm PROM (odds ratio [OR] 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63-0.90 for each week after 24 weeks of gestation) and cervical dilation at admission (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.49-0.90 for each centimeter of dilation) were inversely associated with a latency period of at least 1 week. There were no stillbirths (95% CI 0-1%), but the rate of neonatal mortality was 90 per 1,000 newborns (95% CI 57-112) with a 7.3% cerebral palsy rate among survivors (95% CI 4.4-10.3%). In twin pregnancies, preterm PROM from 24 to 31 weeks of gestation is associated with a neonatal mortality rate of 9.0% and an overall cerebral palsy rate of 7.3%. A longer latency period is associated with less advanced cervical dilation and later gestational age at PROM. LEVEL OF EVIEDENCE: II.

  4. A study of 11C-acetate production using 11C-choline commercial module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinming; Tian Jiahe; Yao Shulin; Chen Yan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: 11 C-acetate is a useful PET tracer in evaluating myocardial metabolism but more interest has been focused on its application in tumor detection in recent years, especially hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study was designed to evaluate the laboratory, preparation of 11 C-acetate with a modified 11 C-choline commercial module and to investigate its biodistribution in tumor (lung adenocarcinoma)-bearing mice as well as its potential as a tumor imaging agent. Methods: 11 C-acetate was synthesized with a modified 11 C choline module: Methyl magnesium bromide Grignard (0.1 ml of 1.5 mol/L) was load- ed to a Teflon loop before 11 CO 2 was recovered from the target. Cartier acetate solution (2 ml of 1 mmol/L) was pushed through the loop, SPE cartridges (mixed AG50 and IC-Ag) and then the QMA. The loop and cartridges were then rinsed with water. The product 11 C-acetate was then washed out from QMA with 0.9% NaCl solution into a collection vial containing diluted HCl. 11 C-carbonate was removed by nitrogen bubbling for 2 min. After neutralization with trisodium citrate, the injectable 11 C-acetate solution was obtained. The tumor-bearing mice were sacrificed. The percentage activity of injected dose per gram of tissue (% ID/g) for tumor and other tissues were calculated. One patient with known diagnosis of moderately differentiated HCC was injected with 11 C-acetate and imaged by PET/CT, followed by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Results: The synthesis yield of 11 C-acetate was (60.5 ± 8.7)% (decay conected, n=10); the radio-chemistry purity was > 98% and the synthesis time was 10 min from 11 CO 2 to 11 C-acetate. The radioactivity ratio for tumor/muscle was 1.76 at 30 min. A patient with known HCC showed positive 11 C-acetate accumulation in the tumor but was negative in 18 F-FDG. Conclusion: The synthesis of 11 C-acetate by modification of an 11 C-choline commercial module was feasible and it could be achieved with high yield, high radiochemical purity

  5. PET imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma with {sup 18}F-fluoroethylcholine and {sup 11}C-choline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolthammer, Jeffrey A.; Tenley, Nathan [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland, OH (United States); Corn, David J.; Wu, Chunying; Tian, Haibin; Wang, Yanming [University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lee, Zhenghong [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland, OH (United States); University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Choline-based radiotracers have been studied for PET imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using an {sup 18}F-labeled choline analog, instead of the {sup 11}C-labeled native choline, would facilitate its widespread use in the clinic. In this study, PET with {sup 18}F-fluoroethylcholine (FEC) and {sup 11}C-choline (CHOL) were compared using an animal model of HCC. The effects of fasting on the performance of choline-based tracers were also investigated. A woodchuck model of HCC was used to compare the two tracers, which were administered and imaged in sequence during the same imaging session. Dynamic PET images were generated spanning 50 min starting from tracer injection. Time-activity curves and tracer contrast were calculated in liver regions with tracer accumulation, and the contrast at a late time-point with the two tracers, and between fasted and nonfasted states, were compared. Foci of HCC with increased uptake ranged in size from 1.0 to 1.6 cm, with mean tumor-to-background contrast of 1.3 with FEC and 1.5 with CHOL at 50 min after injection. The tracers show similar patterns of uptake immediately following administration, and both activities plateaued at 10 min after injection. No significant differences in uptake dynamics or final contrast were observed between the fasted and nonfasted states. PET imaging of HCC is possible with both CHOL and FEC. Fasting was not found to affect accumulation of either tracer. These results encourage further investigation into the clinical utility of FEC for HCC imaging. (orig.)

  6. Application of 11C-choline PET/CT imaging for differentiating malignant from benign prostate lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Wang Muwen; Liu Qingwei; Zhu Renjuan; Liu Lihui; Yuan Xianshun; Yao Shuzhan; Liu Songtao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the potential of 11 C-choline PET/CT imaging for differentiating prostate cancer from benign prostate hyperplasia. Methods: A total of 45 patients with prostate lesions under- went 11 C-choline PET/CT imaging before transrectal needle biopsy. PET/CT imaging was performed 5 min after injection of 7.4 MBq/kg 11 C-choline in supine position over lower abdomen (3 min per bed with 2 beds), including the pelvis, and the whole body with 6 beds when necessary. After attenuation correction and iterative reconstruction, PET data were analyzed semi-quantitatively by measuring maximum standardized uptake values (SUV max ) in prostate lesions (P, target) and the muscles (M, non-target) and then P/M ratios were calculated. Also visual analysis was performed in different transverse, sagittal views and slices as well as three-dimensional images. Results: Eighteen prostate cancer and 27 benign prostate hyperplasia [and(or) chronic prostatitis] were all confirmed by pathology. The mean P/M ratio of prostate cancer was 4.02± 1.88, while in benign lesions was 1.87±1.21. The statistical differences of P/M ratios between them were significant (t=2.07, P 11 C-choline PET/CT imaging were 88.89%, 88.89% and 92.31% respectively. Conclusions: 11 C-choline PET/CT imaging is a valuable non-invasive technology in the diagnosis of pros- tate cancer. The P/M ratio can differentiate prostate cancer from benign lesions better than SUV. (authors)

  7. "One for Sorrow, Two for Joy?": American embryo transfer guideline recommendations, practices, and outcomes for gestational surrogate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Pamela M

    2017-04-01

    In January 2016, Melissa Cook, a California gestational surrogate experiencing a multiple-birth pregnancy following the in vitro fertilization (IVF) transfer of three embryos comprised of donor eggs and sperm provided by the intended father, went to the media when the intended father requested that she undergo a fetal reduction because twins were less expensive to raise than triplets. Much of the legal interest in this case to date has centered on the enforceability of surrogacy contracts. However, the Cook case also raises troubling issues about fertility treatment practices involving gestational surrogates, twin preference, and third-party reproduction medical decision-making. This paper focuses on multiple-embryo transfers in the context of US surrogacy arrangements. Offering an original analysis of data obtained from the US national-assisted reproduction registry, it examines single- and multiple-embryo transfer trends over a 12-year period (2003 to 2014). Findings reveal that recommended guidelines were followed in fewer than 42% of the cases in 2014. The paper argues that ensuring equitable medical treatment for all recipients of IVF requires the adoption of treatment guidelines tailored to, and offering protections for, specific patient groups, and that, once in place, guidelines must be robustly implemented.

  8. [11C]Choline PET/CT predicts survival in hormone-naive prostate cancer patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovacchini, Giampiero; Incerti, Elena; Mapelli, Paola; Gianolli, Luigi; Picchio, Maria; Kirienko, Margarita; Briganti, Alberto; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Montorsi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, PET/CT with radiolabelled choline has been shown to be useful for restaging patients with prostate cancer (PCa) who develop biochemical failure. The limitations of most clinical studies have been poor validation of [ 11 C]choline PET/CT-positive findings and lack of survival analysis. The aim of this study was to assess whether [ 11 C]choline PET/CT can predict survival in hormone-naive PCa patients with biochemical failure. This retrospective study included 302 hormone-naive PCa patients treated with radical prostatectomy who underwent [ 11 C]choline PET/CT from 1 December 2004 to 31 July 2007 because of biochemical failure (prostate-specific antigen, PSA, >0.2 ng/mL). Median PSA was 1.02 ng/mL. PCa-specific survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between clinicopathological variables and PCa-specific survival. The coefficients of the covariates included in the Cox regression analysis were used to develop a novel nomogram. Median follow-up was 7.2 years (1.4 - 18.9 years). [ 11 C]Choline PET/CT was positive in 101 of 302 patients (33 %). Median PCa-specific survival after prostatectomy was 14.9 years (95 % CI 9.7 - 20.1 years) in patients with positive [ 11 C]choline PET/CT. Median survival was not achieved in patients with negative [ 11 C]choline PET/CT. The 15-year PCa-specific survival probability was 42.4 % (95 % CI 31.7 - 53.1 %) in patients with positive [ 11 C]choline PET/CT and 95.5 % (95 % CI 93.5 - 97.5 %) in patients with negative [ 11 C]choline PET/CT. In multivariate analysis, [ 11 C]choline PET/CT (hazard ratio 6.36, 95 % CI 2.14 - 18.94, P < 0.001) and Gleason score >7 (hazard ratio 3.11, 95 % CI 1.11 - 8.66, P = 0.030) predicted PCa-specific survival. An internally validated nomogram predicted 15-year PCa-specific survival probability with an accuracy of 80 %. Positive [ 11 C]choline PET/CT after biochemical failure predicts PCa-specific survival in hormone

  9. Serum zinc levels in gestational diabetes

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    Rahimi Sharbaf F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Maternal zinc deficiency during pregnancy has been related to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Most studies in which pregnant women have been supplemented with zinc to examine its effects on the outcome of the pregnancy have been carried out in industrialized countries and the results have been inconclusive. It has been shown that women with gestational diabetes (GDM have lower serum zinc levels than healthy pregnant women, and higher rates of macrosomia. Zinc is required for normal glucose metabolism, and strengthens the insulin-induced transportation of glucose into cells by its effect on the insulin signaling pathway. The purpose of this study was to assess the serum zinc levels of GDM patients and evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation. "nMethods: In the first stage of this prospective controlled study, we enrolled 70 women who were 24-28 weeks pregnant at the Prenatal Care Center of Mirza Kochak Khan Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The serum zinc level of each subject was determined. In the second stage, among these 70 subjects, the diabetics receiving insulin were divided into two groups, only one of which received a zinc supplement and the other group was the control group. Birth weight of neonates and insulin dosages were recorded. "nResults: The mean serum zinc level in the GDM group was lower than that of the control group (94.83 vs. 103.49mg/dl, respectively and the mean birth weight of neonates from the GDM women who received the zinc supplement was lower than that of the control group (3849g vs. 4136g. The rate of macrosomia was lower in the zinc supplemented group (20% vs. 53%. The mean of increase of insulin after receiving the zinc supplement was lower (8.4u vs. 13.53. "nConclusion: Maternal insulin resistance is associated with the accumulation of maternal fat tissue during early stages of pregnancy and greater fetoplacental nutrient availability in later stages, when 70% of fetal growth occurs, resulting in macrosomia. In

  10. An Evaluation of Gestational Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to environmental pollutants can be a factor for induction of metabolic disorders. This study examined if exposure to PFOA during development could alter body composition and other physiological outcomes. Study 1: Pregnant CD-1 mice were gavaged with PFOA at 0,0.001,0.01, 0.1, or 0.3 mg/kg body weight (bw) from gestation day (GD) 1 — 17. At weaning, pups were fed a high fat (HFD) or control (CD) diet. Body composition, blood pressure (bp), and gene expression in tissues of offspring were examined. Male- BW increased, in 0 mg PFOA+HFD vs 0 m PFOA+CD and 0.01 mg PFOA+HFD vs 0.01 mg PFOA+CD. In HFD, bw decreased in 0.3 vs 0 mg PFOA. There were no effects on percent of body fat. At postnatal day (PND) 90, diastolic bp was decreased in 0.1 and 0.3 mg PFOA+HFD vs 0 mg PFOA+HFD and increased in 0.3 mg PFOA+HFD vs 0.3 mg PFOA+CD. The bp effects of 0.1 mg PFOA+HFD persisted to PND 180. Female- At 0 and 0.001 mg PFOA+HFD had increased weight gain vs CD. The %fat increased in 0.001 vs 0 mg PFOA+HFD. At PND 180, diastolic bp decreased in 0.01 and 0.3 mg PFOA+CD vs 0 mg PFOA+CD. Differential gene regulation was produced by HFD and PFOA in white fat and liver at 52 weeks of age. At 0.001 mg PFOA+HFD vs 0.001 mg PFOA+CD, 3 genes in white fat and liver were under-expressed while 14 genes in white fat and 19 in liver were over expressed. At 0.01 mg PFOA+HFD vs 0.01 mg PFOA+CD, 3 genes in white fat and 4 genes in liver were under-expressed while 14 genes in white fat an

  11. Effects of anticonvulsants in vivo on high affinity choline uptake in vitro in mouse hippocampal synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. A.; Richter, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of several anticonvulsant drugs on sodium-dependent high affinity choline uptake (HACU) in mouse hippocampal synaptosomes was investigated. HACU was measured in vitro after in vivo administration of the drug to mice. HACU was inhibited by drugs which have in common the ability to facilitate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission, pentobarbitone, phenobarbitone, barbitone, diazepam, chloridiazepoxide, and valproic acid. Dose-response relationships were determined for these drugs and the drugs' potencies at inhibiting HACU correlated well with their anticonvulsant potencies. Clonazepam, ethosuximide, carbamazepine, and barbituric acid had no effect on HACU in the doses used while phenytoin and trimethadione stimulated HACU. These results suggest that certain anticonvulsants may elicit a part of their anticonvulsant activity by modulating cholinergic neurones. This effect may be mediated through a GABA mechanism. PMID:3978310

  12. Effects of dietary amino acids, carbohydrates, and choline on neurotransmitter synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of a meal to increase or decrease brain neurotransmitter synthesis has been studied. It is concluded that brain serotonin synthesis is directly controlled by the proportions of carbohydrate to protein in meals and snacks that increase or decrease brain tryptophan levels, thereby changing the substrate saturation of tryptophan hydroxylase and the rate of serotonin synthesis. The ability of serotoninergic neurons to have their output coupled to dietary macronutrients enables them to function as sensors of peripheral metabolism, and to subserve an important role in the control of appetite. The robust and selective responses of catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurons to supplemental tyrosine and choline suggest that these compounds may become useful as a new type of drug for treating deseases or conditions in which adequate quantities of the transmitter would otherwise be unavailable.

  13. The Semi-automatic Synthesis of 18F-fluoroethyl-choline by Domestic FDG Synthesizer

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    ZHOU Ming

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As an important complementary imaging agent for 18F-FDG, 18F-fluoroethyl-choline (18F-FECH has been demonstrated to be promising in brain and prostate cancer imaging. By using domestic PET-FDG-TI-I CPCU synthesizer, 18F-FECH was synthesized by different reagents and consumable supplies. The C18 column was added before the product collection bottle to remove K2.2.2. The 18F-FECH was synthesized by PET-FDG-IT-I synthesizer efficiently about 30 minutes by radiochemical yield of 42.0% (no decay corrected, n=5, and the radiochemical purity was still more than 99.0% after 6 hours. The results showed the domestic PET-FDG-IT-I synthesizer could semi-automatically synthesize injectable 18F-FECH in high efficiency and radiochemical purity

  14. Diagnostic value of newborn foot length to predict gestational age

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    Mutia Farah Fawziah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background  Identification of gestational age, especially within 48 hours of birth, is crucial for newborns, as the earlier preterm status is detected, the earlier the child can receive optimal management. Newborn foot length is an anthropometric measurement which is easy to perform, inexpensive, and potentially efficient for predicting gestational age. Objective  To analyze the diagnostic value of newborn foot length in predicting gestational age. Methods  This diagnostic study was performed between October 2016 and February 2017 in the High Care Unit of Neonates at Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta. A total of 152 newborns were consecutively selected and underwent right foot length measurements before 96 hours of age. The correlation between newborn foot length to classify as full term and gestational age was analyzed with Spearman’s correlation test because of non-normal data distribution. The cut-off point of newborn foot length was calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and diagnostic values of newborn foot length were analyzed by 2 x 2 table with SPSS 21.0 software. Results There were no significant differences between male and female newborns in terms of gestational age, birth weight, choronological age, and newborn foot length (P>0.05. Newborn foot length and gestational age had a significant correlation (r=0.53; P=0.000. The optimal cut-off newborn foot length to predict full term status was 7.1 cm. Newborn foot length below 7.1 cm had sensitivity 75%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 94.3%, negative predictive value 90.6%, positive likelihood ratio 40.5, negative likelihood ratio 0.25, and post-test probability 94.29%, to predict preterm status in newborns. Conclusion  Newborn foot length can be used to predict gestational age, especially for the purpose of differentiating between preterm and full term newborns.

  15. Diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azedeh; Granström, Charlotta; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Damm, Peter; Bech, Bodil H; Vaag, Allan A; Zhang, Cuilin

    2017-05-01

    The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) contains comprehensive information on diet, lifestyle, constitutional and other major characteristics of women during pregnancy. It provides a unique source for studies on health consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus. Our aim was to identify and validate the gestational diabetes mellitus cases in the cohort. We extracted clinical information from hospital records for 1609 pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort with a diagnosis of diabetes during or before pregnancy registered in the Danish National Patient Register and/or from a Danish National Birth Cohort interview during pregnancy. We further validated the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in 2126 randomly selected pregnancies from the entire Danish National Birth Cohort. From the individual hospital records, an expert panel evaluated gestational diabetes mellitus status based on results from oral glucose tolerance tests, fasting blood glucose and Hb1c values, as well as diagnoses made by local obstetricians. The audit categorized 783 pregnancies as gestational diabetes mellitus, corresponding to 0.89% of the 87 792 pregnancies for which a pregnancy interview for self-reported diabetes in pregnancy was available. From the randomly selected group the combined information from register and interviews could correctly identify 96% (95% CI 80-99.9%) of all cases in the entire Danish National Birth Cohort population. Positive predictive value, however, was only 59% (56-61%). The combined use of data from register and interview provided a high sensitivity for gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosis. The low positive predictive value, however, suggests that systematic validation by hospital record review is essential not to underestimate the health consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus in future studies. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. [Chinese neonatal birth weight curve for different gestational age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Shulian; Shi, Wenjing; Yan, Weili; Wang, Xiaoli; Lyu, Qin; Liu, Ling; Zhou, Qin; Qiu, Quanfang; Li, Xiaoying; He, Haiying; Wang, Jimei; Li, Ruichun; Lu, Jiarong; Yin, Zhaoqing; Su, Ping; Lin, Xinzhu; Guo, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Li, Shujun; Xin, Hua; Han, Yanqing; Wang, Hongyun; Chen, Dongmei; Li, Zhankui; Wang, Huiqin; Qiu, Yinping; Liu, Huayan; Yang, Jie; Yang, Xiaoli; Li, Mingxia; Li, Wenjing; Han, Shuping; Cao, Bei; Yi, Bin; Zhang, Yihui; Chen, Chao

    2015-02-01

    Since 1986, the reference of birth weight for gestational age has not been updated. The aim of this study was to set up Chinese neonatal network to investigate the current situation of birth weight in China, especially preterm birth weight, to develop the new reference for birth weight for gestational age and birth weight curve. A nationwide neonatology network was established in China. This survey was carried out in 63 hospitals of 23 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. We continuously collected the information of live births in participating hospitals during the study period of 2011-2014. Data describing birth weight and gestational age were collected prospectively. Newborn's birth weight was measured by electronic scale within 2 hours after birth when baby was undressed. The evaluation of gestational age was based on the combination of mother's last menstrual period, ultrasound in first trimester and gestational age estimation by gestational age scoring system. the growth curve was drawn by using LMSP method, which was conducted in GAMLSS 1.9-4 software package in R software 2.11.1. A total of 159 334 newborn infants were enrolled in this study. There were 84 447 male and 74 907 female. The mean birth weight was (3 232 ± 555) g, the mean birth weight of male newborn was (3 271 ± 576) g, the mean weight of female newborn was (3 188 ± 528) g. The test of the variables' distribution suggested that the distribution of gestational age and birth weight did not fit the normal distribution, the optimal distribution for them was BCT distribution. The Q-Q plot test and worm plot test suggested that this curve fitted the distribution optimally. The male and female neonatal birth weight curve was developed using the same method. Using GAMLSS method to establish nationwide neonatal birth weight curve, and the first time to update the birth weight reference in recent 28 years.

  17. Gestational weight gain among minority adolescents predicts term birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekambaram, Maheswari; Irigoyen, Matilde; DeFreitas, Johelin; Rajbhandari, Sharina; Geaney, Jessica Lynn; Braitman, Leonard Edward

    2018-03-07

    In adolescents, there is limited evidence on the independent and additive effect of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on infant birth weight. Data also show that this effect may vary by race. We sought to examine the impact of maternal prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on birth weight and risk of large for gestational age (LGA) in term newborns of minority adolescent mothers. This was a retrospective cohort study of 411 singleton live term infants born to mothers ≤ 18 years. Data were abstracted from electronic medical records. Gestational weight gain was related to infant birth weight (ρ = 0.36, P gain, gestational age and Hispanic ethnicity were independent predictors of birth weight, controlling for maternal age, BMI, parity, tobacco/drug use and preeclampsia. The probability of having an LGA infant increased with weight gain [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.21] but not with BMI. Mothers who gained weight in excess of 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations had a greater risk of having an LGA infant compared to those who gained within recommendations (aOR 5.7, 95% CI 1.6-19.5). Minority adolescents with greater gestational weight gain had infants with higher birth weight and greater risk of LGA; BMI was not associated with either outcome. Further studies are needed to examine the applicability of the 2009 BMI-specific IOM gestational weight gain recommendations to adolescents in minority populations.

  18. Gestational chronodisruption impairs hippocampal expression of NMDA receptor subunits Grin1b/Grin3a and spatial memory in the adult offspring.

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    Nelson Vilches

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental evidence correlates adverse intrauterine conditions with the onset of disease later in life. For a fetus to achieve a successful transition to extrauterine life, a myriad of temporally integrated humoral/biophysical signals must be accurately provided by the mother. We and others have shown the existence of daily rhythms in the fetus, with peripheral clocks being entrained by maternal cues, such as transplacental melatonin signaling. Among developing tissues, the fetal hippocampus is a key structure for learning and memory processing that may be anticipated as a sensitive target of gestational chronodisruption. Here, we used pregnant rats exposed to constant light treated with or without melatonin as a model of gestational chronodisruption, to investigate effects on the putative fetal hippocampus clock, as well as on adult offspring's rhythms, endocrine and spatial memory outcomes. The hippocampus of fetuses gestated under light:dark photoperiod (12:12 LD displayed daily oscillatory expression of the clock genes Bmal1 and Per2, clock-controlled genes Mtnr1b, Slc2a4, Nr3c1 and NMDA receptor subunits 1B-3A-3B. In contrast, in the hippocampus of fetuses gestated under constant light (LL, these oscillations were suppressed. In the adult LL offspring (reared in LD during postpartum, we observed complete lack of day/night differences in plasma melatonin and decreased day/night differences in plasma corticosterone. In the adult LL offspring, overall hippocampal day/night difference of gene expression was decreased, which was accompanied by a significant deficit of spatial memory. Notably, maternal melatonin replacement to dams subjected to gestational chronodisruption prevented the effects observed in both, LL fetuses and adult LL offspring. Collectively, the present data point to adverse effects of gestational chronodisruption on long-term cognitive function; raising challenging questions about the consequences of

  19. Electrodeposition of copper composites from deep eutectic solvents based on choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Andrew P; El Ttaib, Khalid; Frisch, Gero; McKenzie, Katy J; Ryder, Karl S

    2009-06-07

    Here we describe for the first time the electrolytic deposition of copper and copper composites from a solution of the metal chloride salt in either urea-choline chloride, or ethylene glycol-choline chloride based eutectics. We show that the deposition kinetics and thermodynamics are quite unlike those in aqueous solution under comparable conditions and that the copper ion complexation is also different. The mechanism of copper nucleation is studied using chronoamperometry and it is shown that progressive nucleation leads to a bright nano-structured deposit. In contrast, instantaneous nucleation, at lower concentrations of copper ions, leads to a dull deposit. This work also pioneers the use of the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) to monitor both current efficiency and the inclusion of inert particulates into the copper coatings. This technique allows the first in situ quantification or particulate inclusion. It was found that the composition of composite material was strongly dependent on the amount of species suspended in solution. It was also shown that the majority of material was dragged onto the surface rather than settling on to it. The distribution of the composite material was found to be even throughout the coating. This technology is important because it facilitates deposition of bright copper coatings without co-ligands such as cyanide. The incorporation of micron-sized particulates into ionic liquids has resulted, in one case, in a decrease in viscosity. This observation is both unusual and surprising; we explain this here in terms of an increase in the free volume of the liquid and local solvent perturbation.

  20. Blockage of High-Affinity Choline Transporter Increases Visceral Hypersensitivity in Rats with Chronic Stress

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    Chen Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Visceral hypersensitivity is a common feature of irritable bowel syndrome. Cholinergic system involves in the development of visceral hypersensitivity, and high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1 is of crucial importance in choline uptake system. However, involvement of CHT1 in visceral hypersensitivity remains unknown. The research aimed to study the CHT1 expression in dorsal root ganglions (DRGs and the role of CHT1 in visceral hypersensitivity. Methods. Repetitive water avoidance stress (WAS was used to induce visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension (CRD was determined, and the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR and threshold intensity data were recorded to measure the visceral sensitivity. After intraperitoneal injection of hemicholinium-3 (HC-3, the specific inhibitor of CHT1, CRD data were also recorded. The CHT1 expression of DRGs was investigated by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative RT-PCR. Acetylcholine levels in the DRGs were detected by the assay kit. Results. Repetitive WAS increased the AWR score of CRD at high distension pressure and decreased the mean threshold of rats. The CHT1 expression and acetylcholine concentration of DRG were significantly increased in WAS rats. After the administration of HC-3, the AWR score in WAS group was significantly increased at higher distension pressure while the threshold intensity was significantly reduced compared to the normal saline group. Acetylcholine concentration was significantly lower than the normal saline rats. Conclusion. Our research firstly reports that CHT1 is overexpressed in noninflammatory visceral hypersensitivity, and blockage of CHT1 can enhance the visceral hypersensitivity. CHT1 may play an inhibitory role in visceral hypersensitivity.

  1. Blockage of High-Affinity Choline Transporter Increases Visceral Hypersensitivity in Rats with Chronic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Visceral hypersensitivity is a common feature of irritable bowel syndrome. Cholinergic system involves in the development of visceral hypersensitivity, and high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1) is of crucial importance in choline uptake system. However, involvement of CHT1 in visceral hypersensitivity remains unknown. The research aimed to study the CHT1 expression in dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) and the role of CHT1 in visceral hypersensitivity. Methods Repetitive water avoidance stress (WAS) was used to induce visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension (CRD) was determined, and the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) and threshold intensity data were recorded to measure the visceral sensitivity. After intraperitoneal injection of hemicholinium-3 (HC-3), the specific inhibitor of CHT1, CRD data were also recorded. The CHT1 expression of DRGs was investigated by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative RT-PCR. Acetylcholine levels in the DRGs were detected by the assay kit. Results Repetitive WAS increased the AWR score of CRD at high distension pressure and decreased the mean threshold of rats. The CHT1 expression and acetylcholine concentration of DRG were significantly increased in WAS rats. After the administration of HC-3, the AWR score in WAS group was significantly increased at higher distension pressure while the threshold intensity was significantly reduced compared to the normal saline group. Acetylcholine concentration was significantly lower than the normal saline rats. Conclusion Our research firstly reports that CHT1 is overexpressed in noninflammatory visceral hypersensitivity, and blockage of CHT1 can enhance the visceral hypersensitivity. CHT1 may play an inhibitory role in visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:29849603

  2. Enhanced incorporation of fatty acid into phosphatidyl choline that parallels histamine discharge in mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, J.D.; Castle, A.M.; Ma, A.K.; Stukenbrok, H.

    1984-01-01

    Purified rat peritoneal and pleural mast cells preincubated briefly with radioactively labeled fatty acid were treated with A23187, which bypasses primary receptors in stimulating exocytosis. An enhanced incorporation of fatty acid into phosphatidyl choline (PC) that occurred in parallel with histamine release at 24-25 degrees C was observed and was initially proportional to the total amount of histamine discharged. Enhanced PC labeling and histamine secretion were also proportional at temperatures ranging from 17-37 degrees C. Both radioactive linoleic and palmitic acids were incorporated selectively at the beta-position of the glycerol backbone of PC. PC labeling by [3H]choline was not detectably different in control and stimulated cells, and phosphatidic acid did not exhibit selectively enhanced beta-acylation. Thus, the stimulated labeling in A23187-treated cells may occur secondary to the action of a phospholipase A2 that favors PC as a substrate. Other peritoneal cell types exhibit a very similar A23187-stimulated selective labeling of PC. Therefore, autoradiography has been used to provide a direct demonstration that in purified preparations, mast cells are the principal cell type engaged in A23187-elicited incorporation of fatty acid into PC. The efficacy of this approach has relied on special procedures devised to obtain significantly different autoradiographic grain densities between control and stimulated preparations that can be attributed to differences in the level of [3H]palmitate-labeled PC. Preliminary tests using compound 48/80 as a secretory stimulus for mast cells have identified a similar selectively enhanced PC labeling. In either case, however, consideration of possible relationships between PC metabolism and the secretory process are premature since they have not been tested directly

  3. Leukocyte Telomere Length in the Neonatal Offspring of Mothers with Gestational and Pre-Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfillan, Christopher; Naidu, Pratyusha; Gunawan, Florence; Hassan, Fadwa; Tian, Pei; Elwood, Ngaire

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres undergo shortening with cell division, accelerated by increased oxidative stress. We aimed to demonstrate shortened telomeres in the offspring of mothers who have diabetes as a consequence of exposure to increased oxidative stress during intrauterine development. We examined the level of glycaemia (glucose, HbA1c, fructosamine), oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation) and the levels of antioxidant enzymes (Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase) and correlate these findings with mean telomere length (TL) in maternal and foetal blood in groups of pregnant women with pre-gestational diabetes (PGD), gestational diabetes (GD) and a euglycaemic control group. Foetal and maternal glucose, maternal HbA1c, and foetal insulin and C-peptide were higher in the PGD group with the GD group being intermediate. Markers of oxidative stress did not vary between groups with the exception of foetal SOD activity that was highest in the GD group. There were no detectable differences in maternal or foetal TL between study groups. An exploratory analysis looking at correlations between glycaemic and oxidative stress parameters and TL revealed a negative correlation between maternal and foetal glucose and TL across the whole study population. This relationship held for the short-term marker of glycaemic control, fructosamine. We were unable to show significant telomere shortening in the offspring of mothers with PGD or GD. Exploratory analysis revealed a relationship between foetal TL and short-term glycaemia particularly in PGD. It is possible that increased telomerase activity can compensate for long-term increased oxidative stress but not for short-term dysglycaemia.

  4. Association of Group Prenatal Care With Gestational Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Crockett, Amy; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Simon, Melissa; Grobman, William A

    2017-04-01

    To compare gestational weight gain among women in group prenatal care with that of women in individual prenatal care. In this retrospective cohort study, women who participated in group prenatal care from 2009 to 2015 and whose body mass indexes (BMIs) and gestational weight gain were recorded were matched with the next two women who had the same payer type, were within 2-kg/m prepregnancy BMI and 2-week gestational age at delivery, and had received individual prenatal care. Bivariate comparisons of demographics and antenatal complications were performed for women in group and individual prenatal care, and weight gain was categorized as "below," "met," or "exceeded" goals according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Logistic regression analysis estimated the association between excessive weight gain and model of care, with adjustment for confounders, stratified by BMI. Women in group prenatal care (n=2,117) were younger and more commonly non-Hispanic black, nulliparous, and without gestational diabetes (P≤.005 for all). Women in group prenatal care more commonly exceeded the weight gain goals (55% compared with 48%, Pprenatal care, compared with individual prenatal care, is associated with excessive gestational weight gain.

  5. Maternal hepatitis B infection and gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Terence T; Chan, Ben C P; Leung, Wing-Cheong; Ho, Lai-Fong; Tse, Ka-Yu

    2007-07-01

    This retrospective cohort study was performed to examine the relationship between maternal hepatitis B virus infection, as indicated by the surface antigen status, with the development of gestational diabetes mellitus in a normal-risk Chinese obstetric population. Maternal demographics, risk factors, and pregnancy outcome of 13,683 singleton pregnancies delivering in 1998-2001 were analysed according to maternal hepatitis B surface antigen status, which was routinely screened. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the role of hepatitis B infection in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus. The 1138 women (8.3%) with hepatitis B infection had lower mean weight and body mass index, similar prevalence of chronic medical diseases and smokers, but increased prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, which remained significant (odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.51) after adjustment for confounding variables. However, there was no difference in pregnancy outcome. Our results confirmed the independent association between hepatitis B infection with gestational diabetes mellitus. The magnitude of chronic hepatitis B infection in the developing world and certain ethnic groups could have contributed to the high prevalence of gestational and possibly type 2 diabetes in these populations. Further studies on the long-term implications of our finding are warranted.

  6. Depression during gestation in adolescent mothers interferes with neonatal neurobehavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Carvalho de Moraes Barros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the neurobehavior of neonates born to adolescent mothers with and without depression during gestation. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study included healthy term neonates born to adolescent mothers with untreated depression during gestation, without exposure to legal or illicit drugs, and compared them with infants born to adolescent mothers without psychiatric disorders. Maternal psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1 and neonatal neurobehavior by the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS at 24 to 72 hours of life. Neurobehavioral outcomes were analyzed by ANOVA adjusted for confounders. Results: 37 infants born to mothers with depression during gestation were compared to 332 infants born to mothers without psychiatric disorders. Infants of mothers with depression had smaller head circumferences. Significant interactions of maternal depression and male gender, gestational age > 40 weeks, regional anesthesia during delivery, vaginal delivery, and infant head circumference ≥ 34 cm were found. Worse performance was noted in the following neonatal neurobehavioral parameters: arousal, excitability, lethargy, hypotonicity, and signs of stress and abstinence. Conclusion: Infants born to adolescent mothers with depression exhibit some behavioral changes in the first days of life. These changes are associated with infant sex, gestational age, type of anesthesia, mode of delivery, and head circumference.

  7. Polymorphism of the renalase gene in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Syeda Sadia; Jamil, Zehra; Alam, Faiza; Malik, Hajira Zafar; Madhani, Sarosh Irfan; Ahmad, Muhammad Saad; Shabbir, Tayyab; Rehmani, Muhammed Noman; Rabbani, Amna

    2017-01-01

    Renalase is considered as a novel candidate gene for type 2 diabetes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship of serum renalase and two single nucleotide polymorphisms with gestational diabetes mellitus. One hundred and ninety-eight normotensive pregnant females (n = 99 gestational diabetes mellitus; n = 99 euglycemic pregnant controls) were classified according to the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study criteria. Fasting and 2-h post glucose load blood levels and anthropometric assessment was performed. Serum renalase was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas DNA samples were genotyped for renalase single nucleotide polymorphisms rs2576178 and rs10887800 using Polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment length polymorphism method. In an age-matched case control study, no difference was observed in the serum levels of renalase (p > 0.05). The variant rs10887800 showed an association with gestational diabetes mellitus and remained significant after multiple adjustments (p gestational diabetes. Although gestational diabetes mellitus is self-reversible, yet presence of this minor G allele might predispose to metabolic syndrome phenotypes in near the future.

  8. Duration of gestation in pregnant dogs carrying cloned fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Geon A; Park, Eun Jung; Jo, Young Kwang; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2013-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate gestation duration and the physiologic characteristics of pregnant dogs bearing cloned fetuses, especially in the prepartum period. A retrospective study was performed to compare gestation duration in females pregnant with cloned (somatic cell nuclear transfer) fetuses (cloned group) with those bearing noncloned fetuses (control group), and effects of litter size, birth weight, and breed of somatic cell donors on gestation duration in the cloned group were evaluated. Clinical delivery onset signs associated with serum progesterone concentration and rectal temperature were also compared in both groups. The gestation duration calculated from day of ovulation was significantly longer in the cloned (62.8 ± 0.3 days) versus the control group (60.9 ± 0.5 days; P dogs bearing cloned fetuses might be because of the smaller litter size in this group. Also, the weaker drop in serum progesterone levels in the prepartum period in cloned dog pregnancies indicates that the parturition signaling process might be altered resulting in longer gestation periods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The hidden magnitude of raised blood pressure and elevated blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The prevalence of undiagnosed raised blood pressure and elevated blood sugar was high in Ethiopia and only very small percentage of people had been aware of their high blood pressure and elevated blood sugar. Policy makers in the health sector including other health development partners need to ...

  10. Options for meeting the ecological Reserve for a raised Clanwilliam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A recent evaluation of the potential raising of Clanwilliam Dam included an assessment of whether the operation of the dam would meet the flow quality and quantity requirements for the protection of the downstream river and its estuary, taking Olifants/Doring River basin-level considerations into account. The implications of ...

  11. With Dwindling Resources, Colleges Recalibrate Fund-Raising Staffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    After several years of aggressive hiring, some college fund-raising operations are now cutting back as both revenue and investment income fall. The regrouping could slow growth plans on many campuses at a time when the need for private support has never been greater. Often the colleges cutting employees are laying off back-office staff members and…

  12. VOWEL RAISING IN AKAN REDUPLICATION Kwesi Adomako1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this current paper, we provide an alternative analysis to this overgeneralized claim by providing data from the Twi (Asante) dialect to argue for the presence and productivity of the raising of both the low and the mid vowels within diverse phonological contexts. In these contexts, the stem/base-final low vowel /a/ in the CVa.

  13. Consciousness-raising about grammar in the second-language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consciousness-raising about grammar in the second-language classroom: Utilising authentic samples of learner-learner interaction in a task-based oral activity. ... More recent studies argue that linguistic support must not be omitted from language teaching programmes within a task-based, communicative approach (Swain, ...

  14. 47 CFR 25.282 - Orbit raising maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Orbit raising maneuvers. 25.282 Section 25.282 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... geostationary satellite orbit under this part is also authorized to transmit in connection with short-term...

  15. Raising Cultural Awareness in the English Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jerrold

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how teachers can incorporate cultural knowledge into English language classes, exploring elements of culture, intercultural phenomena, and high-context and low-context cultures. Activities offered by the author to raise cultural awareness include web quests, role plays, cultural observations, and culture journals.

  16. Babbitt's Brothers & Sisters: Raising Ethical Issues in Business Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Jeanne W.

    A college-level course in business literature is an ideal place to raise and discuss ethical issues. To be successful, a teacher of this course must engage student interest, help the students articulate and understand their own ethical attitudes, clarify the stance and artistry of the author, and refine student responses to ethical questions. When…

  17. Operating Classroom Aesthetic Reading Environment to Raise Children's Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to explore how preschool educators understand about raising children's reading motivation through operating classroom aesthetic reading environment. With one year qualitative research, sixteen 4-6 years old young were observed and interviewed. The first stage interviews were undergone with environmental guidance. After the…

  18. Raising Quality and Achievement. A College Guide to Benchmarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jane

    This booklet introduces the principles and practices of benchmarking as a way of raising quality and achievement at further education colleges in Britain. Section 1 defines the concept of benchmarking. Section 2 explains what benchmarking is not and the steps that should be taken before benchmarking is initiated. The following aspects and…

  19. Social partners divided over government plan to raise retirement age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2009-01-01

    The social partners have given a divided response to the Dutch cabinet’s plans to raise the retirement age - first to 66 years in 2020 and then to 67 years in 2025. This also applies to the age at which company pension schemes will be paid out. The trade unions argue that poorly paid workers who

  20. Performance of dairy calves raised under two breeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Henrique Borger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concern about some animal production systems has placed considerable value on humanitarian breeding systems, aimed at ensuring animal welfare and comfort. Raising calves is one of the most important stages in a milk production system. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the performance of Holstein dairy calves raised by two farming systems: conventional individual (CI and collective with automatic calf feeder (CACF. Fourteen, 15-day-old Holstein dairy calves having an average initial body weight of 40 kg, were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with seven animals per treatment. The variables evaluated were the milk and feed intake, body weight, hip height, thoracic circumference and daily weight gain. The average milk intake was lower in the CACF (3.5 L animal-1 day-1 than CI (5.1 L animal-1 day-1 system. However, the feed intake was higher in the CACF (1.205 kg animal-1 day-1 compared to CI (0.910 kg animal-1 day-1 system. Body weight, thoracic circumference, hip height and daily weight gain were similar between the two systems. The CACF raised calves had a higher concentrate intake and lower milk intake than the calves raised under the CI system.

  1. Raising Emotionally Intelligent Teenagers: Parenting with Love, Laughter, and Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Maurice J.; Tobias, Steven E.; Friedlander, Brian S.

    Based on the formula of love, laughter, limits, and linkages, this book presents practical, parent-tested ways parents can help their adolescent children become emotionally intelligent. The book is presented in three parts. Part 1 concerns parent preparation for raising an emotionally intelligent teenager, discusses the importance of parenting by…

  2. Redesigning Schools to Raise Achievement. Item Number 39-0464

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers, 2003

    2003-01-01

    The primary goal of the American Federation of Teachers' (AFT) Redesigning Schools to Raise Achievement (RSRA) project is to build capacity at the state, district, school, and classroom levels to improve student achievement to meet the goals of the 2001 No Child Left Behind Act. This checklist highlights some of the opportunities and support…

  3. Metaphorical Perceptions of the Concepts "Teaching Profession" and "Raising Students"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezen, Sevim; Aykutlu, Isil; Secken, Nilgun; Bayrak, Celai

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Study: This study aims to reveal, via metaphors, pre-service biology teachers' perceptions of "teaching profession" and "raising students." Research Methods: In accordance with the aim of the study, phenomenology, one of the qualitative paradigm patterns, is used. The study group consists of 80 pre-service biology…

  4. Patterns of Direct Projections from the Hippocampus to the Medial Septum-Diagonal Band Complex : Anterograde Tracing with Phaseolus vulgaris Leucoagglutinin Combined with Immunohistochemistry of Choline Acetyltransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaykema, R.P.A.; Kuil, J. van der; Hersh, L.B.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1991-01-01

    The projections from the Ammon's horn to the cholinergic cell groups in the medial septal and diagonal band nuclei were investigated with anterograde tracing of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin combined with immunocytochemical detection of choline acetyltransferase, in the rat. Tracer injections

  5. Eggs early in complementary feeding increase choline pathway biomarkers and DHA: a randomized controlled trial in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L; Lutter, Chessa K; Waters, William F; Gallegos Riofrío, Carlos Andres; Malo, Carla; Reinhart, Gregory; Palacios, Ana; Karp, Celia; Chapnick, Melissa; Cox, Katherine; Aguirre, Santiago; Narvaez, Luis; López, Fernando; Sidhu, Rohini; Kell, Pamela; Jiang, Xuntian; Fujiwara, Hideji; Ory, Daniel S; Young, Rebecca; Stewart, Christine P

    2017-12-01

    Background: Choline status has been associated with stunting among young children. Findings from this study showed that an egg intervention improved linear growth by a length-for-age z score of 0.63. Objective: We aimed to test the efficacy of eggs introduced early in complementary feeding on plasma concentrations of biomarkers in choline pathways, vitamins B-12 and A, and essential fatty acids. Design: A randomized controlled trial, the Lulun ("egg" in Kichwa) Project, was conducted in a rural indigenous population of Ecuador. Infants aged 6-9 mo were randomly assigned to treatment (1 egg/d for 6 mo; n = 80) and control (no intervention; n = 83) groups. Socioeconomic data, anthropometric measures, and blood samples were collected at baseline and endline. Household visits were made weekly for morbidity surveillance. We tested vitamin B-12 plasma concentrations by using chemiluminescent competitive immunoassay and plasma concentrations of choline, betaine, dimethylglycine, retinol, essential fatty acids, methionine, dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine, and trimethylamine- N -oxide (TMAO) with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Socioeconomic factors and biomarker concentrations were comparable at baseline. Of infants, 11.4% were vitamin B-12 deficient and 31.7% marginally deficient at baseline. In adjusted generalized linear regression modeling, the egg intervention increased plasma concentrations compared with control by the following effect sizes: choline, 0.35 (95% CI: 0.12, 0.57); betaine, 0.29 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.58); methionine, 0.31 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.60); docosahexaenoic acid, 0.43 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.73); DMA, 0.37 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.69); and TMAO, 0.33 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.58). No significant group differences were found for vitamin B-12, retinol, linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), or ratios of betaine to choline and LA to ALA. Conclusion: The findings supported our hypothesis that early introduction of eggs significantly

  6. The value of 18F-choline PET/CT in patients with elevated PSA-level and negative prostate needle biopsy for localisation of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igerc, I.; Kohlfuerst, S.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Matschnig, S.; Kresnik, E.; Gomez-Segovia, I.; Lind, P.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with persistent elevated PSA and repeated negative prostate biopsy, that means having the prostate biopsied at multiple times, were investigated with 18F-choline PET/CT to delineate prostate cancer and guide renewed prostate biopsy. Twenty patients with elevated PSA and negative prostate biopsies underwent 18F-choline PET/CT. We performed an early examination of the pelvic region 3-5 min after application. After 30 minutes a whole body PET/CT examination was performed. Image analysis was performed visually and by semi-quantitative analysis calculating the maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax). 18F-choline uptake was defined as focal, multifocal or inhomogeneous. After the 18F-choline PET/CT, all patients underwent a repeated prostate biopsy, and in the cases where a focal or multifocal uptake was found, the biopsy was guided by the result of the examination. Qualitative image analysis revealed focal 18F-choline uptake in 13 out of 20 patients. In five patients, prostate cancer was revealed by repeated aspiration biopsy. None of the patients with a multifocal or inhomogeneous 18F-choline uptake had a malignant neoplasm in the prostate. Semiquantitative analysis performed with SUVmax was not helpful in the discrimination of malignancy but showed high values also in benign prostate diseases, as well as in normal prostate tissue. The dual-phase protocol delivered no clear benefit in discriminating malignancy from benign alterations. The use of 18F-choline cannot be generally recommended for localising prostate cancer; however, in highly selected patients, we found useful additional information. In 25% of patients, 18F-choline PET/CT allowed the identification of neoplastic prostatic zones. (orig.)

  7. 3D-segmentation of the 18F-choline PET signal for target volume definition in radiation therapy of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciernik, I Frank; Brown, Derek W; Schmid, Daniel; Hany, Thomas; Egli, Peter; Davis, J Bernard

    2007-02-01

    Volumetric assessment of PET signals becomes increasingly relevant for radiotherapy (RT) planning. Here, we investigate the utility of 18F-choline PET signals to serve as a structure for semi-automatic segmentation for forward treatment planning of prostate cancer. 18F-choline PET and CT scans of ten patients with histologically proven prostate cancer without extracapsular growth were acquired using a combined PET/CT scanner. Target volumes were manually delineated on CT images using standard software. Volumes were also obtained from 18F-choline PET images using an asymmetrical segmentation algorithm. PTVs were derived from CT 18F-choline PET based clinical target volumes (CTVs) by automatic expansion and comparative planning was performed. As a read-out for dose given to non-target structures, dose to the rectal wall was assessed. Planning target volumes (PTVs) derived from CT and 18F-choline PET yielded comparable results. Optimal matching of CT and 18F-choline PET derived volumes in the lateral and cranial-caudal directions was obtained using a background-subtracted signal thresholds of 23.0+/-2.6%. In antero-posterior direction, where adaptation compensating for rectal signal overflow was required, optimal matching was achieved with a threshold of 49.5+/-4.6%. 3D-conformal planning with CT or 18F-choline PET resulted in comparable doses to the rectal wall. Choline PET signals of the prostate provide adequate spatial information amendable to standardized asymmetrical region growing algorithms for PET-based target volume definition for external beam RT.

  8. Metabolic disorders in adipocytokine imbalance and gestational complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya B. Chabanova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ synthesizes a large number of biologically active substances, adipocytokines, which have both local and systemic effects influencing the vascular wall, tissue sensitivity to insulin, glucose metabolism, and systemic inflammation. The data obtained from clinical and experimental studies demonstrate the close relationship between the imbalance of adipocytokines and pregnancy complications such as insulin resistance, gestational diabetes, and preeclampsia. In this connection, close attention of obstetrician-gynecologists and endocrinologists is focused on etiopathogenic aspects of the formation of gestational complications with metabolic disorders caused by an imbalance of adipocytokines with maternal obesity and to the search for markers of these disorders. The review presents the current literature data on adipose tissue hormones and their influence on the course of a gestational process.

  9. Genetic Associations with Gestational Duration and Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, G.; Feenstra, B.; Bacelis, J.

    2017-01-01

    . METHODS: We performed a genomewide association study in a discovery set of samples obtained from 43,568 women of European ancestry using gestational duration as a continuous trait and term or preterm (... of 8643 women) to test for replication of genomic loci that had significant genomewide association (Pdiscovery set. RESULTS: In the discovery and replication data sets, four loci (EBF1, EEFSEC, AGTR2, and WNT4) were...... significantly associated with gestational duration. Functional analysis showed that an implicated variant in WNT4 alters the binding of the estrogen receptor. The association between variants in ADCY5 and RAP2C and gestational duration had suggestive significance in the discovery set and significant evidence...

  10. Use of magnesium sulfate before 32 weeks of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, H. T.; Weber, T.; Piedvache, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The use of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) in European obstetric units is unknown. We aimed to describe reported policies and actual use of MgSO4 in women delivering before 32 weeks of gestation by indication. Methods: We used data from the European Perinatal Intensive Care in Europe (EPICE......) population-based cohort study of births before 32 weeks of gestation in 19 regions in 11 European countries. Data were collected from April 2011 to September 2012 from medical records and questionnaires. The study population comprised 720 women with severe preeclampsia, eclampsia or HELLP and 3658 without...... preeclampsia delivering from 24 to 31 weeks of gestation in 119 maternity units with 20 or more very preterm deliveries per year. Results: Among women with severe pre-eclampsia, eclampsia or HELLP, 255 (35.4%) received MgSO4 before delivery. 41% of units reported use of MgSO4 whenever possible for pre...

  11. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus among women born in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jytte Lindskov; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among Greenlanders and to evaluate the quality of the current screening procedure for gestational diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Observational retrospective study of consecutive birth-log data and medical records on pregnant....... However, only 54% of those women were screened. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was calculated to be 4.3% among high-risk Greenlandic pregnant women (2/46) (95% CI 0-10.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite a suboptimal screening rate, the prevalence of GDM among Greenlanders seems to be relatively low...... women who had given birth in Nuuk during 2008. METHODS: Information about maternal weight, weight gain in pregnancy, height, blood pressure, result of oral glucose tolerance test, family history of diabetes, smoking and alcohol habits, ethnicity, delivery and birth weight and length was collected...

  12. Mild gestational diabetes as a risk factor for congenital cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Helena E; Tapanainen, Anna E; Kaleva, Marko M

    2006-01-01

    of cryptorchidism, e.g. prematurity and weight for gestational age, abnormal maternal glucose metabolism was significantly more common in the group of cryptorchid boys [diet-treated gestational diabetes, P = 0.0001; odds ratio, 3.98 (95% confidence interval, 1.97-8.05); diet-treated gestational diabetes or only......CONTEXT: Cryptorchidism is the most common malformation in newborn boys. Maternal diabetes has previously been suggested to be a risk factor for this disorder in one epidemiological study. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the prevalence of maternal glucose metabolism disorders during pregnancy in newborn...... diabetes diagnosis and abnormality of the result of a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test during pregnancy were obtained from the hospital records after delivery. RESULTS: After adjustment for possible confounding factors, i.e. maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal age at delivery, and risk factors...

  13. Transnational gestational surrogacy: does it have to be exploitative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the controversial practice of transnational gestational surrogacy and poses a provocative question: Does it have to be exploitative? Various existing models of exploitation are considered and a novel exploitation-evaluation heuristic is introduced to assist in the analysis of the potentially exploitative dimensions/elements of complex health-related practices. On the basis of application of the heuristic, I conclude that transnational gestational surrogacy, as currently practiced in low-income country settings (such as rural, western India), is exploitative of surrogate women. Arising out of consideration of the heuristic's exploitation conditions, a set of public education and enabled choice, enhanced protections, and empowerment reforms to transnational gestational surrogacy practice is proposed that, if incorporated into a national regulatory framework and actualized within a low income country, could possibly render such practice nonexploitative.

  14. Changing Survival Rate of Infants Born Before 26 Gestational Weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Asad; Abdellatif, Mohamed; Sharef, Sharef W.; Fazalullah, Muhammad; Al-Senaidi, Khalfan; Khan, Ashfaq A.; Ahmad, Masood; Kripail, Mathew; Abuanza, Mazen; Bataclan, Flordeliza

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the changing survival rate and morbidities among infants born before 26 gestational weeks at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective study assessed the mortality and morbidities of all premature infants born alive at 23–26 gestational weeks at SQUH between June 2006 and May 2013. Infants referred to SQUH within 72 hours of birth during this period were also included. Electronic records were reviewed for gestational age, gender, birth weight, maternal age, mode and place of delivery, antenatal steroid administration, morbidity and outcome. The survival rate was calculated and findings were then compared with those of a previous study conducted in the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. Rates of major morbidities were also calculated. Results: A total of 81 infants between 23–26 gestational weeks were admitted to the neonatal unit during the study period. Of these, 58.0% were male and 42.0% were female. Median gestational age was 25 weeks and mean birth weight was 770 ± 150 g. Of the 81 infants, 49 survived. The overall survival rate was 60.5% compared to 41% reported in the previous study. Respiratory distress syndrome (100.0%), retinopathy of prematurity (51.9%), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (34.6%), intraventricular haemorrhage (30.9%) and patent ductus arteriosus (28.4%) were the most common morbidities. Conclusion: The overall survival rate of infants between 23–26 gestational weeks during the study period had significantly improved in comparison to that found at the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. There is a need for the long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up of premature infants. PMID:26357555

  15. Maternal Obesity, Gestational Weight Gain, and Asthma in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinski, Kristen J; Liu, Jihong; Boghossian, Nansi S; McLain, Alexander C

    2017-11-09

    Obesity is common among women of childbearing age; intrauterine exposure to maternal obesity or gestational weight gain may influence the development of asthma in early childhood. We examined the relationships of maternal obesity and gestational weight gain with asthma in offspring. We used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, which has a nationally representative sample of children followed from birth in 2001 through age 4 (n = 6,450). Asthma was based on parental report of a medical professional's diagnosis. We used generalized estimating equation binomial models to compute adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of childhood asthma with maternal obesity and 4 measures of gestational weight gain. Compared with children of normal-weight mothers, children of obese mothers had increased risk of asthma (adjusted OR, 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-2.12) by age 4, and children born to overweight mothers had similar risk (adjusted OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.99-1.59). Extreme-low weight gain (gain (≥25 kg) were associated with increased risk of asthma; however, the following measures were not significant predictors of asthma: meeting gestational weight gain recommendations of the Institute of Medicine, total gestational weight gain, and weekly rate of weight gain in the second and third trimesters. Extreme-low or extreme-high gestational weight gain and maternal obesity are risk factors for early childhood asthma, further evidence of the long-term impact of intrauterine exposure on children and the need to target preconception care to improve child health indicators.

  16. A choline-deficient diet exacerbates fatty liver but attenuates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, Peter J; Nyirenda, Moffat J; Walker, Brian R

    2006-07-01

    Liver fat accumulation is proposed to link obesity and insulin resistance. To dissect the role of liver fat in the insulin resistance of diet-induced obesity, we altered liver fat using a choline-deficient diet. C57Bl/6 mice were fed a low-fat (10% of calories) or high-fat (45% of calories) diet for 8 weeks; during the final 4 weeks, diets were either choline deficient or choline supplemented. In choline replete animals, high-fat feeding induced weight gain, elevated liver triglycerides (171%), hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance. Choline deficiency did not affect body or adipose depot weights but amplified liver fat accumulation with high-fat diet (281%, P insulin (from 983 +/- 175 to 433 +/- 36 pmol/l, P phosphatidylcholine synthesis and of enzymes involved in free fatty acid esterification, without affecting those of de novo lipogenesis or fatty acid oxidation. We conclude that liver fat accumulation per se does not cause insulin resistance during high-fat feeding and that choline deficiency may shunt potentially toxic free fatty acids toward innocuous storage triglyceride in the liver.

  17. Oscillatory bands, neuronal synchrony and hippocampal function: implications of the effects of prenatal choline supplementation for sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ruey-Kuang; Williams, Christina L; Meck, Warren H

    2008-10-27

    Choline supplementation of the maternal diet has long-term facilitative effects on spatial and temporal memory processes in the offspring. To further delineate the impact of early nutritional status on brain and behavior, we examined effects of prenatal-choline availability on hippocampal oscillatory frequency bands in 12 month-old male and female rats. Adult offspring of time-pregnant dams that were given a deficient level of choline (DEF=0.0 g/kg), sufficient choline (CON=1.1 g/kg) or supplemental choline (SUP=3.5 g/kg) in their chow during embryonic days (ED) 12-17 were implanted with an electroencephalograph (EEG) electrode in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in combination with an electromyograph (EMG) electrode patch implanted in the nuchal muscle. Five consecutive 8-h recording sessions revealed differential patterns of EEG activity as a function of awake, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep states and prenatal choline status. The main finding was that SUP rats displayed increased power levels of gamma (30-100 Hz) band oscillations during all phases of the sleep/wake cycle. These findings are discussed within the context of a general review of neuronal oscillations (e.g., delta, theta, and gamma bands) and synchronization across multiple brain regions in relation to sleep-dependent memory consolidation in the hippocampus.

  18. Improved Diagnostic Accuracy in Characterization of Adnexal Masses by Detection of Choline Peak Using 1H MR Spectroscopy in Comparison to Internal Reference at 3 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Mahrooz; Pourashraf, Maryam; Gilani, Mitra Modares; Gity, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of the presence of a choline peak in 3 Tesla 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for differentiating benign from malignant adnexal masses. A total of 46 adnexal masses (23 malignant and 23 benign) underwent 1H MRS study prior to surgery to assess the presence of choline peak. A choline peak was detected in 16 malignant masses (69.5%) and was absent in the other 7 (30.5%). A choline peak was only detected in 6 (26%) of the benign adnexal masses. The presence of an MRS choline peak had a sensitivity of 69.5%, a specificity of 74%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 72.7%, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 71% for diagnosing malignant adnexal masses. A significant difference between the frequency of mean choline peaks in benign and malignant adnexal masses was observed (P valuepeak is seen in malignant adnexal masses more frequently than the benign masses, and may be helpful for diagnosing malignant adnexal masses.

  19. Association of Gestational Weight Gain With Maternal and Infant Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Rebecca F; Abell, Sally K; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva

    2017-01-01

    -11 kg for overweight women [BMI 25-29.9]; and 5-9 kg for obese women [BMI ≥30]) and maternal and infant outcomes. Data Sources and Study Selection: Search of EMBASE, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews, MEDLINE, and MEDLINE In-Process between January 1, 1999, and February 7, 2017, for observational studies...... gestational weight gain less than IOM recommendations. Gestational weight gain greater than or less than guideline recommendations, compared with weight gain within recommended levels, was associated with higher risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes....

  20. Neonatal Hairy Ear Pinnae and Gestational Diabetes: Just a Coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Enrico; Riello, Laura; Chirico, Michela; Semenzato, Rossella; Cutrone, Mario

    2015-01-01

    A newborn girl of 36 weeks gestation was noted to have several anomalies, including bilateral low ear attachment with ear pinnae hypertrichosis, left preauricular pit, micrognathia, short lingual frenulum, and short neck. Pregnancy history revealed poorly controlled maternal gestational diabetes (GD). Localized hypertrichosis of the ear pinnae may represent a potential marker of GD and thereby alert physicians to suspect other potentially GD-associated conditions such as macrosomia, asphyxia, respiratory distress, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hyperbilirubinemia, polycythemia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and congenital anomalies, particularly those involving the central nervous system. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Comparison of early gestational development between natural and stimulated pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, M. O.; Yoon, T. K.; Cha, G. Y.

    1990-01-01

    In order to assess the difference in growth and development between the stimulated and natural pregnancies, we compared the sonographic measurement of early embryos from the fifth to seventh gestational week, in terms of mean size of gestational sac, crown rump length, fetal heart rate and yolk sac size between 26 ovulation stimulated pregnancies and 38 natural pre gnancies. The two groups were compared by multiple regression analysis, The data suggest that there is attend that embryos smaller in stimulated pregnancies though significant statistical differences was not proved

  2. Evolution of diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshmand, Azadeh; Jensen, Dorte Møller; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of universal diagnostic guidelines for gestational diabetes mellitus has been a long time coming. The lack of consensus and uniformity in procedures for diagnosing this disease has been a problem ever since its existence was recognized. The USA, European countries, and Australia...... criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus, based for the first time on perinatal outcome....... have each developed their own guidelines through the years, all based either on the maternal risk of subsequent diabetes, on arbitrary statistics, or on studies conducted on non-pregnant women. None of these guidelines have been based on risk for perinatal complications. Recently, the Hyperglycemia...

  3. A comparison between endogenous acetylcholiner release and (3H) choline outflow from guinea-pig brain slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beani, L.; Bianchi, C.; Siniscalchi, A.; Sivilotti, L.; Tanganelli, S.; Veratti, E.

    1986-01-01

    The measure of tritium-choline efflux from preloaded brain slices is considered a valid method for studying cholinergic functiton. At variance with th say of endogenous acetylcholine this procedure gives andindex of the release process in the absence of esterase inhibition, thus excluding the dampening of the autoreceptor-mediated negative feedback. In order to establish the equivalence of these approaches the tow methods have been compared on electrically=stimulated guinea-pig brain slices, kept under the ame experimental conditions. The results show that only a partial equivalence of the two methods can be recognized. A drawback of the tritium-choline approach is the exhaustion or dilution of tritium stores, so that drug-induced increases of evoked efflux are minimized

  4. Automated synthesis of 11C-carfentanil with 11C-choline module and micro PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinming; Zhang Xiaojun; Tian Jiahe; Xu Zhihong; Xiang Xiaohui

    2011-01-01

    A simple modified home-made 11 C-choline module enabled to rapid and efficient synthesis 11 C-carfentanil ( 11 C-CFN) as CNS μ-opioid receptor imaging agent. The synthesis of 11 C-CFN was completed in a yield of 14.8 GBq within 18 min from 11 C-CO 2 on the choline module. The methylation took place from 4-piperidinecarboxylic acid, 4-[(1-oxopropyl) phenylamino]-l-(2-phenylethyl), sodium salt as precursor in DMSO solution. The radio- chemical yields were over 80% (n=55, decay-corrected and based on 11 CH 3 -triflate). The radiochemical purity was over 95% and the specific activities was over 1.4 × 10 14 Bq/g. The biologic activity of 11 C-CFN was confirmed with Micro PET/CT imaging. (authors)

  5. Maternal rhabdomyolysis and twin fetal death associated with gestational diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joan T; Schwartz, Nadav

    2013-08-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus is a rare, transient complication of pregnancy typically characterized by polyuria and polydipsia that may lead to mild electrolyte abnormalities. More severe sequelae of gestational diabetes insipidus are uncommon. We present a case of a 25-year-old woman at 23 weeks of gestation in a dichorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancy who developed severe symptomatic gestational diabetes insipidus complicated by rhabdomyolysis and death of both fetuses. Maternal rhabdomyolysis caused by gestational diabetes insipidus is extremely rare. Early recognition and treatment of gestational diabetes insipidus is necessary to prevent maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.

  6. Forebrain development in fetal MRI: evaluation of anatomical landmarks before gestational week 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmook, Maria T.; Weber, Michael; Kasprian, Gregor; Nemec, Stefan; Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Krampl-Bettelheim, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Forebrain malformations include some of the most severe developmental anomalies and require early diagnosis. The proof of normal or abnormal prosencephalic development may have an influence on further management in the event of a suspected fetal malformation. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the detectability of anatomical landmarks of forebrain development using in vivo fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before gestational week (gw) 27. MRI studies of 83 singleton fetuses (gw 16-26, average ±sd: gw 22 ± 2) performed at 1.5 Tesla were assessed. T2-weighted (w) fast spin echo, T1w gradient-echo and diffusion-weighted sequences were screened for the detectability of anatomical landmarks as listed below. The interhemispheric fissure, ocular bulbs, corpus callosum, infundibulum, chiasm, septum pellucidum (SP), profile, and palate were detectable in 95%, 95%, 89%, 87%, 82%, 81%, 78%, 78% of cases. Olfactory tracts were more easily delineated than bulbs and sulci (37% versus 18% and 8%), with significantly higher detection rates in the coronal plane. The pituitary gland could be detected on T1w images in 60% with an increasing diameter with gestational age (p=0.041). The delineation of olfactory tracts (coronal plane), chiasm, SP and pituitary gland were significantly increased after week 21 (p<0.05). Pathologies were found in 28% of cases. This study provides detection rates for anatomical landmarks of forebrain development with fetal MRI before gw 27. Several anatomical structures are readily detectable with routine fetal MRI sequences; thus, if these landmarks are not delineable, it should raise the suspicion of a pathology. Recommendations regarding favorable sequences/planes are provided. (orig.)

  7. Forebrain development in fetal MRI: evaluation of anatomical landmarks before gestational week 27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmook, Maria T.; Weber, Michael; Kasprian, Gregor; Nemec, Stefan; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology/Division of Neuro- and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Integrative Morphology Group, Center for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria); Krampl-Bettelheim, Elisabeth [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology / Division of Obstetrics and Feto-maternal Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-06-15

    Forebrain malformations include some of the most severe developmental anomalies and require early diagnosis. The proof of normal or abnormal prosencephalic development may have an influence on further management in the event of a suspected fetal malformation. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the detectability of anatomical landmarks of forebrain development using in vivo fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before gestational week (gw) 27. MRI studies of 83 singleton fetuses (gw 16-26, average {+-}sd: gw 22 {+-} 2) performed at 1.5 Tesla were assessed. T2-weighted (w) fast spin echo, T1w gradient-echo and diffusion-weighted sequences were screened for the detectability of anatomical landmarks as listed below. The interhemispheric fissure, ocular bulbs, corpus callosum, infundibulum, chiasm, septum pellucidum (SP), profile, and palate were detectable in 95%, 95%, 89%, 87%, 82%, 81%, 78%, 78% of cases. Olfactory tracts were more easily delineated than bulbs and sulci (37% versus 18% and 8%), with significantly higher detection rates in the coronal plane. The pituitary gland could be detected on T1w images in 60% with an increasing diameter with gestational age (p=0.041). The delineation of olfactory tracts (coronal plane), chiasm, SP and pituitary gland were significantly increased after week 21 (p<0.05). Pathologies were found in 28% of cases. This study provides detection rates for anatomical landmarks of forebrain development with fetal MRI before gw 27. Several anatomical structures are readily detectable with routine fetal MRI sequences; thus, if these landmarks are not delineable, it should raise the suspicion of a pathology. Recommendations regarding favorable sequences/planes are provided. (orig.)

  8. Raise driving: A new drill and fire method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, U [Bergbau A.G. Niederrhein, Oberhausen (Germany, F.R.). Werksdirektion Osterfeld; Ulrich, E [Bergbau A.G. Niederrhein, Oberhausen (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Planung

    1979-06-01

    Three-compartment raises have long been driven by conventional upraising. The system had inherent drawbacks, notably roof control, ventilation and dirt removal which held back any further development of the method as such. At Osterfeld colliery the single-compartment pilot shaft method has been used for the first time in the Ruhr to produce a staple shaft column. The idea behind the operation was to apply to coalmining a method which had until then been confined to ore mining and tunnelling. The experience gained during this venture is important from the point of view of further developments in raise drivage and offers facts and figures on the productivity, economics and safety aspects of the pilot shaft method.

  9. Different behaviors of single and multi wall carbon nanotubes for studying electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of choline oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjadi, Sharareh; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah; Rahimi, Parvaneh

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In the presence of a typical room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), Choline oxidase (ChOx) as a model enzyme was uniformly immobilized on either single or multi wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs or MWCNTs) covered on glassy carbon (GC) electrode, and the electron transfer and electroanalytical response of enzyme toward choline was evaluated. → ChOx on RTIL/MWCNTs/GC electrode showed higher electrical conductivity, better reversibility of redox reaction and higher electron transfer rate indicating more facile and rapid rate of electron transfer. → On the other hand, RTIL/SWCNTs/GC electrode showed higher amount of enzyme loading, higher enzyme-substrate affinity, lower detection limit, better sensitivity and wider linear range. → Consequently, MWCNTs are preferable for kinetic study of ChOx, while SWCNTs are more convenient for biosensing applications. - Abstract: This work presents a detailed comparison between single and multi wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs) in an effort to understand which could be a better supporting material for studying the electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of enzymes. Choline oxidase (ChOx) was chosen as a model enzyme for evaluation of the electrodes' performance. The enzyme was adsorbed on either SWCNT or MWCNT modified electrode, in the presence of a typical room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), and its electron transfer and electroanalytical response toward choline was investigated. RTIL/MWCNTs/GC electrode was uniformly covered by ChOx. Besides, higher electrical conductivity, better reversibility of the ChOx redox reaction and higher electron transfer rate of the enzyme indicated more facile and rapid rate of electron transfer. On the other hand, RTIL/SWCNTs/GC electrodes showed higher amount of enzyme loading, higher enzyme-substrate affinity, lower detection limit, better sensitivity and wider linear range. Consequently, MWCNTs are preferable for kinetic study of ChOx, while SWCNTs are more convenient

  10. The correlation between (1)H MRS choline concentrations and MR diffusion trace values in human brain tumors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagnerová, Dita; Jirů, F.; Dezortová, M.; Vargová, Lýdia; Syková, Eva; Hájek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2009), s. 19-31 ISSN 0968-5243 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Grant - others:MZd(CZ) MZ0IKEM2005; EC FP6 project Angiotargeting(XE) 504743 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : spectroscopic imaging * cholines * diffusion trace Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.859, year: 2009

  11. PET and PET/CT with radiolabeled choline in prostate cancer: a critical reappraisal of 20 years of clinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovacchini, Giampiero; Giovannini, Elisabetta; Leoncini, Rossella; Riondato, Mattia; Ciarmiello, Andrea [S. Andrea Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, La Spezia (Italy)

    2017-09-15

    We here aim to provide a comprehensive and critical review of the literature concerning the clinical applications of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with radiolabeled choline in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). We will initially briefly summarize the historical context that brought to the synthesis of [{sup 11}C]choline, which occurred exactly 20 years ago. We have arbitrarily grouped the clinical studies in three different periods, according to the year in which they were published and according to their relation with their applications in urology, radiotherapy and oncology. Studies at initial staging and, more extensively, studies in patients with biochemical failure, as well as factors predicting positive PET/CT will be reviewed. The capability of PET/CT with radiolabeled choline to provide prognostic information on PCa-specific survival will also be examined. The last sections will be devoted to the use of radiolabeled choline for monitoring the response to androgen deprivation therapy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The accuracy and the limits of the technique will be discussed according to the information available from standard validation processes, including biopsy or histology. The clinical impact of the technique will be discussed on the basis of changes induced in the management of patients and in the evaluation of the response to therapy. Current indications to PET/CT, as officially endorsed by guidelines, or as routinely performed in the clinical practice will be illustrated. Emphasis will be made on methodological factors that might have influenced the results of the studies or their interpretation. Finally, we will briefly highlight the potential role of positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance and of new radiotracers for PCa imaging. (orig.)

  12. No evidence for role of extracellular choline-acetyltransferase in generation of gamma oscillations in rat hippocampal slices in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollnagel, J O; ul Haq, R; Behrens, C J; Maslarova, A; Mody, I; Heinemann, U

    2015-01-22

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is well known to induce persistent γ-oscillations in the hippocampus when applied together with physostigmine, an inhibitor of the ACh degrading enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Here we report that physostigmine alone can also dose-dependently induce γ-oscillations in rat hippocampal slices. We hypothesized that this effect was due to the presence of choline in the extracellular space and that this choline is taken up into cholinergic fibers where it is converted to ACh by the enzyme choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT). Release of ACh from cholinergic fibers in turn may then induce γ-oscillations. We therefore tested the effects of the choline uptake inhibitor hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) on persistent γ-oscillations either induced by physostigmine alone or by co-application of ACh and physostigmine. We found that HC-3 itself did not induce γ-oscillations and also did not prevent physostigmine-induced γ-oscillation while washout of physostigmine and ACh-induced γ-oscillations was accelerated. It was recently reported that ChAT might also be present in the extracellular space (Vijayaraghavan et al., 2013). Here we show that the effect of physostigmine was prevented by the ChAT inhibitor (2-benzoylethyl)-trimethylammonium iodide (BETA) which could indicate extracellular synthesis of ACh. However, when we tested for effects of extracellularly applied acetyl-CoA, a substrate of ChAT for synthesis of ACh, physostigmine-induced γ-oscillations were attenuated. Together, these findings do not support the idea that ACh can be synthesized by an extracellularly located ChAT. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Choline Supplementation Prevents a Hallmark Disturbance of Kwashiorkor in Weanling Mice Fed a Maize Vegetable Diet: Hepatic Steatosis of Undernutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Thaddaeus May; Kevin C. Klatt; Jacob Smith; Eumenia Castro; Mark Manary; Marie A. Caudill; Farook Jahoor; Marta L. Fiorotto

    2018-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is a hallmark feature of kwashiorkor malnutrition. However, the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis in kwashiorkor is uncertain. Our objective was to develop a mouse model of childhood undernutrition in order to test the hypothesis that feeding a maize vegetable diet (MVD), like that consumed by children at risk for kwashiorkor, will cause hepatic steatosis which is prevented by supplementation with choline. A MVD was developed with locally sourced organic ingredients, and fed...

  14. Characterization of new eye drops with choline salicylate and assessment of their irritancy by in vitro short time exposure tests

    OpenAIRE

    Wroblewska, Katarzyna; Kucinska, Małgorzata; Murias, Marek; Lulek, Janina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the irritation potential of new eye drops containing 2% choline salicylate (CS) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and various polymers increasing eye drop viscosity (hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, methylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylpyrrolidone). The standard method for assessing the potential of irritating substances has been the Draize rabbit eye test. However the European Centre for Validation of Alternative Met...

  15. Problems raised by corrosion in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricot, R.; Boutonnet, G.; Perrot, M.; Blum, J.-M.

    1977-01-01

    In the uranium ore processing industry, materials which resist both mechanical abrasion and corrosion in an acid medium are required. Different typical cases are examined. For the reprocessing of irradiated fuels, two processes are possible: the conventional wet process, of the Purex type, and the fluoride volatilization process. In the latter case, the problems raised by fluoride corrosion in the presence of fission products is examined. The other parts of the fuel cycle are examined in the same manner [fr

  16. Raising and Lowering Operators for Askey-Wilson Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Sahi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe two pairs of raising/lowering operators for Askey-Wilson polynomials, which result from constructions involving very different techniques. The first technique is quite elementary, and depends only on the ''classical'' properties of these polynomials, viz. the q-difference equation and the three term recurrence. The second technique is less elementary, and involves the one-variable version of the double affine Hecke algebra.

  17. Aspects of the reproductive biology of hatchery-raised Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fecundity of four batch weights (10 samples each) of gravid Clarias gariepinus weighing 60 ± 0.17159 g 125 ± 0.15092 g 250 ±0.20683 g and 500 ± 0.15670 g raised from the hatchery was investigated The paired ovary of each fish was dissected out, weighed (g) and its length measured(mm). Each paired ovary was ...

  18. Raising Growth and Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Hernanadez-Cata

    2001-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa's long-term growth performance will need to improve significantly for the region to visibly reduce poverty and raise the standard of living to an acceptable level. Appropriate actions will also be needed to ensure that an adequate share of the growing income is devoted to reducing poverty. The key policy question for these countries and their development partners is how ...

  19. Raising Awareness of Conveyed Personality In Social Media Traces

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Bin; Gou, Liang; Xu, Anbang; Mahmud, Jalal; Cosley, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Users' persistent social media contents like posts on Facebook Timeline are presented as an "exhibition" about the person to others, and managing these exhibitional contents for impression management needs intentional and manual efforts. To raise awareness of and facilitate impression management around past contents, we developed a prototype called PersonalityInsight. The system employs computational psycho-linguistic analysis to help users visualize the way their past text posts might convey...

  20. Raising students’ awareness with respect to choice of literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Bettan; Taylor Kelly, Hélène; Hørdam, Britta

    is a pedagogical tool which raises students’ awareness with respect to the necessity of employing scientific and researched based material. The tool is not only used in the theoretical setting but also in clinical practice. Students and clinical advisors evaluate the relevance of the pedagogical tool via...... questionnaires. The data will be analyzed and form the basis for further innovative teaching developments promoting the theory-clinical connection in the learning environment. Keywords: literature, education, pedagogical tool, theory-practice connection....